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Sample records for vivo insulin sensitivity

  1. Effects of acute exercise and training on insulin binding to monocytes and insulin sensitivity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, V A; Soman, V R; Defronzo, R; Felig, P

    1980-01-01

    Insulin binding to monocytes was studied in well-trained long distance runners and in sedentary control subjects in the resting state and after 3 h cycle ergometer exercise at 40% of maximal aerobic power. In addition, in previously untrained subjects we examined the effect of 6 weeks of training on insulin binding to monocytes and insulin sensitivity in vivo. In the athletes at rest, insulin binding to monocytes was 69% higher than in controls (p less than 0.01), and correlated with maximal aerobic power (r = 9.63, p less than 0.05). The rise in insulin binding in the athletes was due to an increase in binding capacity rather than a change in binding affinity. During exercise, insulin binding fell in athletes by 31% (p less than 0.025) in contrast to a 35% rise observed in control subjects (p less than 0.01). As compared to controls, the athletes had a lower respiratory exchange ratio and a smaller decline in plasma glucose during exercise. In previously untrained subjects, physical training resulted in a 35% rise in insulin binding to monocytes (p less than 0.02). The rise in binding was due mainly to an increase in binding capacity. Insulin mediated glucose uptake (as measured by insulin clamp technique) also rose by 30% after physical training (p less than 0.01). The rise in insulin sensitivity was proportional to the improvement in physical fitness (r = 0.81, p less than 0.05). These findings indicate that (a) elevated insulin binding may contribute to the enhanced insulin sensitivity observed after physical training, (b) a fall in insulin binding in athletes during acute exercise may contribute to a greater shift from carbohydrate to fat utilization during exercise in athletes as compared to sedentary controls. These data suggest that physical training may provide a means of reversing or ameliorating abnormalities in insulin binding and sensitivity in insulin resistant states, such as obesity or maturity onset diabetes.

  2. Current approaches for assessing insulin sensitivity and resistance in vivo: advantages, limitations, and appropriate usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyappa, Ranganath; Lee, Sihoon; Chen, Hui; Quon, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Insulin resistance contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes and is a hallmark of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and many cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, quantifying insulin sensitivity/resistance in humans and animal models is of great importance for epidemiological studies, clinical and basic science investigations, and eventual use in clinical practice. Direct and indirect methods of varying complexity are currently employed for these purposes. Some methods rely on steady-state analysis of glucose and insulin, whereas others rely on dynamic testing. Each of these methods has distinct advantages and limitations. Thus, optimal choice and employment of a specific method depends on the nature of the studies being performed. Established direct methods for measuring insulin sensitivity in vivo are relatively complex. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp and the insulin suppression test directly assess insulin-mediated glucose utilization under steady-state conditions that are both labor and time intensive. A slightly less complex indirect method relies on minimal model analysis of a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Finally, simple surrogate indexes for insulin sensitivity/resistance are available (e.g., QUICKI, HOMA, 1/insulin, Matusda index) that are derived from blood insulin and glucose concentrations under fasting conditions (steady state) or after an oral glucose load (dynamic). In particular, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) has been validated extensively against the reference standard glucose clamp method. QUICKI is a simple, robust, accurate, reproducible method that appropriately predicts changes in insulin sensitivity after therapeutic interventions as well as the onset of diabetes. In this Frontiers article, we highlight merits, limitations, and appropriate use of current in vivo measures of insulin sensitivity/resistance.

  3. Suppression of PC-1/ENPP-1 expression improves insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heather H; Chin, Chen-Ni; Wu, Margaret; Ni, Weihua; Quan, Shuo; Liu, Franklin; Dallas-Yang, Qing; Ellsworth, Kenneth; Ho, Thu; Zhang, Aiwu; Natasha, Tajneen; Li, Jing; Chapman, Kevin; Strohl, William; Li, Cai; Wang, I-Ming; Berger, Joel; An, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bei B; Jiang, Guoqiang

    2009-08-15

    Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1, or ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodieterase (PC-1/ENPP1) has been shown to inhibit insulin signaling in cultured cells in vitro and in transgenic mice in vivo when overexpressed. Furthermore, both genetic polymorphism and increased expression of PC-1 have been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in humans. Thus it was proposed that PC-1 inhibition represents a potential strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, it has not been proven that suppression of PC-1 expression or inhibition of its function will actually improve insulin sensitivity. We show in the current study that transient overexpression of PC-1 inhibits insulin-stimulated insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in HEK293 cells, while knockdown of PC-1 with siRNA significantly increases insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HuH7 human hepatoma cells. Adenoviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA against mouse PC-1 (PC-1shRNA) was utilized to efficiently knockdown PC-1 expression in the livers of db/db mice. In comparison with db/db mice treated with a control virus, db/db mice treated with the PC-1shRNA adenovirus had approximately 80% lower hepatic PC-1 mRNA levels, approximately 30% lower ambient fed plasma glucose, approximately 25% lower fasting plasma glucose, and significantly improved oral glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results demonstrate that suppression of PC-1 expression improves insulin sensitivity in vitro and in an animal model of diabetes, supporting the proposition that PC-1 inhibition is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Apple polyphenol extract improves insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo in animal models of insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, Manuel; Giron, Mar?a D; Vilchez, Jos? D.; Sevillano, Natalia; El-Azem, Nuri; Rueda, Ricardo; Salto, Rafael; Lopez-Pedrosa, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Apple polyphenols could represent a novel nutritional approach in the management and control of blood glucose, especially in type 2 diabetics. The aim of this study was to test the therapeutic potential of an apple polyphenol extract (APE) in an insulin-resistant rat model and to determine the molecular basis of insulin sensitivity action in skeletal muscle cells. Methods Acute effect of APE on the postprandial hyperglycemic response was assayed in 15?week old obese Zucker rats (OZ...

  5. Insulin sensitivity and albuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Stefan; Rutters, Femke; Nijpels, Giel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests an association between insulin sensitivity and albuminuria, which, even in the normal range, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated whether insulin sensitivity is associated with albuminuria in healthy subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN...... albuminuria. This finding suggests that reduced insulin sensitivity either is simply related to or might causally contribute to the initial pathogenesis of albuminuria....

  6. The silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) regulates adipose tissue accumulation and adipocyte insulin sensitivity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, Maria M; Ferguson, Kelly K; Sakuma, Hiroya; Ye, Honggang; Brady, Matthew J; Cohen, Ronald N

    2010-06-11

    The silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) serves as a corepressor for nuclear receptors and other factors. Recent evidence suggests that SMRT is an important regulator of metabolism, but its role in adipocyte function in vivo remains unclear. We generated heterozygous SMRT knock-out (SMRT(+/-)) mice to investigate the function of SMRT in the adipocyte and the regulation of adipocyte insulin sensitivity. We show that SMRT(+/-) mice are normal weight on a regular diet, but develop increased adiposity on a high-fat diet (HFD). The mechanisms underlying this phenotype are complex, but appear to be due to a combination of an increased number of smaller subcutaneous adipocytes as well as decreased leptin expression, resulting in greater caloric intake. In addition, adipogenesis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from these mice was increased. However, adipocyte insulin sensitivity, measured by insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis, was enhanced in SMRT(+/-) adipocytes. These finding suggest that SMRT regulates leptin expression and limits the ability of fat mass to expand with increased caloric intake, but that SMRT also negatively regulates adipocyte insulin sensitivity.

  7. The Silencing Mediator of Retinoid and Thyroid Hormone Receptors (SMRT) Regulates Adipose Tissue Accumulation and Adipocyte Insulin Sensitivity in Vivo*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, Maria M.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Sakuma, Hiroya; Ye, Honggang; Brady, Matthew J.; Cohen, Ronald N.

    2010-01-01

    The silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) serves as a corepressor for nuclear receptors and other factors. Recent evidence suggests that SMRT is an important regulator of metabolism, but its role in adipocyte function in vivo remains unclear. We generated heterozygous SMRT knock-out (SMRT+/−) mice to investigate the function of SMRT in the adipocyte and the regulation of adipocyte insulin sensitivity. We show that SMRT+/− mice are normal weight on a regular diet, but develop increased adiposity on a high-fat diet (HFD). The mechanisms underlying this phenotype are complex, but appear to be due to a combination of an increased number of smaller subcutaneous adipocytes as well as decreased leptin expression, resulting in greater caloric intake. In addition, adipogenesis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from these mice was increased. However, adipocyte insulin sensitivity, measured by insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis, was enhanced in SMRT+/− adipocytes. These finding suggest that SMRT regulates leptin expression and limits the ability of fat mass to expand with increased caloric intake, but that SMRT also negatively regulates adipocyte insulin sensitivity. PMID:20371609

  8. PACAP stimulates insulin secretion but inhibits insulin sensitivity in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipsson, K; Pacini, G; Scheurink, AJW; Ahren, B

    Although pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates insulin secretion, its net influence on glucose homeostasis in vivo has not been established. We therefore examined the action of PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and glucose disposal as

  9. Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase Overexpression enhances Insulin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydow, Karsten; Mondon, Carl E.; Schrader, Joerg; Konishi, Hakuoh; Cooke, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Previous studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may modulate insulin-induced uptake of glucose in insulin-sensitive tissues. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). We hypothesized that a reduction in endogenous ADMA would increase NO synthesis and thereby enhance insulin sensitivity. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis we employed a transgenic mouse in which we overexpressed human dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH-I). The DDAH-I mice had lower plasma ADMA at all ages (22–70 weeks) by comparison to wild-type (WT) littermates. With a glucose challenge, WT mice showed a prompt increase in ADMA, whereas DDAH-I mice had a blunted response. Furthermore, DDAH-I mice had a blunted increase in plasma insulin and glucose levels after glucose challenge, with a 50% reduction in the insulin resistence index, consistent with enhanced sensitivity to insulin. In liver, we observed an increased Akt phosphorylation in the DDAH-I mice after i.p. glucose challenge. Incubation of skeletal muscle from WT mice ex vivo with ADMA (2μM) markedly suppressed insulin-induced glycogen synthesis in fast-twitch but not slow-twitch muscle. Conclusions These findings suggest that the endogenous NOS inhibitor ADMA reduces insulin sensitivity, consistent with previous observations that NO plays a role in insulin sensitivity. PMID:18239148

  10. Indanylacetic acids as PPAR-delta activator insulin sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Philip; Zhang, Chengzhi; Ma, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Amatruda, John; Bullock, William; Burns, Michael; Cantin, Louis-David; Chuang, Chih-Yuan; Claus, Thomas; Dai, Miao; Dela Cruz, Fernando; Dickson, David; Ehrgott, Frederick J; Fan, Dongping; Heald, Sarah; Hentemann, Martin; Iwuagwu, Christiana I; Johnson, Jeffrey S; Kumarasinghe, Ellalahewage; Ladner, David; Lavoie, Rico; Liang, Sidney; Livingston, James N; Lowe, Derek; Magnuson, Steve; Mannelly, Gretchen; Mugge, Ingo; Ogutu, Herbert; Pleasic-Williams, Susan; Schoenleber, Robert W; Shapiro, Jeff; Shelekhin, Tatiana; Sweet, Laurel; Town, Christopher; Tsutsumi, Manami

    2007-08-01

    A series of indane acetic acid derivatives were prepared which show a spectrum of activity as insulin sensitizers and PPAR-alpha and PPAR-delta ligands. In vivo data are presented for insulin sensitizers with selectivity for PPAR-delta over PPAR-alpha.

  11. pH-sensitive thiolated nanoparticles facilitate the oral delivery of insulin in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Lin, Xia; Du, Xuli; Geng, Sicong; Li, Hongren; Sun, Hong; Tang, Xing; Xiao, Wei

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we designed and developed a delivery system composed of enteric Eudragit L100-cysteine/reduced glutathione nanoparticles (Eul-cys/GSH NPs) for oral delivery of insulin. First, interactions between Eul-cys and mucin glycoproteins, which are believed to be the result of disulfide bonds, were confirmed using rheology experiments. Subsequently, the insulin-loaded Eul-cys/GSH NPs were prepared by the diffusion method using the rich gel network multipore structure at the surface of the Eul-cys when the pH was higher than the p Ka of Eul-cys polymer. The Eul-cys/GSH NPs obtained were characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results obtained showed that the average particle size ranged from 240 to 280 nm, and the particles were almost spherical in shape. The in vitro drug release results showed that the Eul-cys/GSH NPs retained a large amount of insulin in simulated gastric fluid, while a significant insulin release was found in simulated intestinal fluid. The in situ release study suggested that NPs released a greater amount of FITC-insulin (49.2 %) into the intestinal mucus layer compared with that of FITC-insulin solution (16.4 %), which facilitating insulin delivery through the intestinal mucosa. Eul-cys/GSH NPs exhibited promising mucoadhesive properties demonstrated using an in vitro cell model. Consequently, NPs were introduced into the ileum loop of healthy rats, thus enhancing the intestinal absorption of insulin and providing a prolonged reduction in blood glucose levels. These results suggest that Eul-cys/GSH NPs may be a promising delivery system for the treatment of diabetes.

  12. pH-sensitive thiolated nanoparticles facilitate the oral delivery of insulin in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Shenyang University, Normal College (China); Lin, Xia; Du, Xuli; Geng, Sicong [Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics (China); Li, Hongren; Sun, Hong [Shenyang University, Normal College (China); Tang, Xing, E-mail: tanglab@126.com [Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics (China); Xiao, Wei, E-mail: wzhzh-nj@tom.com [Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd (China)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we designed and developed a delivery system composed of enteric Eudragit L100-cysteine/reduced glutathione nanoparticles (Eul-cys/GSH NPs) for oral delivery of insulin. First, interactions between Eul-cys and mucin glycoproteins, which are believed to be the result of disulfide bonds, were confirmed using rheology experiments. Subsequently, the insulin-loaded Eul-cys/GSH NPs were prepared by the diffusion method using the rich gel network multipore structure at the surface of the Eul-cys when the pH was higher than the pKa of Eul-cys polymer. The Eul-cys/GSH NPs obtained were characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results obtained showed that the average particle size ranged from 240 to 280 nm, and the particles were almost spherical in shape. The in vitro drug release results showed that the Eul-cys/GSH NPs retained a large amount of insulin in simulated gastric fluid, while a significant insulin release was found in simulated intestinal fluid. The in situ release study suggested that NPs released a greater amount of FITC-insulin (49.2 %) into the intestinal mucus layer compared with that of FITC-insulin solution (16.4 %), which facilitating insulin delivery through the intestinal mucosa. Eul-cys/GSH NPs exhibited promising mucoadhesive properties demonstrated using an in vitro cell model. Consequently, NPs were introduced into the ileum loop of healthy rats, thus enhancing the intestinal absorption of insulin and providing a prolonged reduction in blood glucose levels. These results suggest that Eul-cys/GSH NPs may be a promising delivery system for the treatment of diabetes.

  13. In vivo effects of dietary quercetin and quercetin-rich red onion extract on skeletal muscle mitochondria, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henagan, T M; Cefalu, W T; Ribnicky, D M; Noland, R C; Dunville, K; Campbell, W W; Stewart, L K; Forney, L A; Gettys, T W; Chang, J S; Morrison, C D

    2015-01-01

    Red onions and low doses of the flavonoid, quercetin, increase insulin sensitivity and improve glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with red onion extract (RO) would attenuate high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance similar to quercetin supplementation by increasing energy expenditure through a mechanism involving skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice were randomized into four groups and fed either a low fat diet (LF), HFD (HF), HFD + quercetin (HF + Q), or HFD + RO (HF + RO) for 9 weeks. Food consumption and body weight and composition were measured weekly. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance tests. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured by indirect calorimetry. Skeletal muscle incomplete beta oxidation, mitochondrial number, and mtDNA-encoded gene expression were measured. Quercetin and RO supplementation decreased HFD-induced fat mass accumulation and insulin resistance (measured by insulin tolerance test) and increased energy expenditure; however, only HF + Q showed an increase in physical activity levels. Although quercetin and RO similarly increased skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and decreased incomplete beta oxidation, establishing mitochondrial function similar to that seen in LF, only HF + Q exhibited consistently lower mRNA levels of mtDNA-encoded genes necessary for complexes IV and V compared to LF. Quercetin- and RO-induced improvements in adiposity, insulin resistance, and energy expenditure occur through differential mechanisms, with quercetin-but not RO-induced energy expenditure being related to increases in physical activity. While both treatments improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function, mtDNA-encoded transcript levels suggest that the antiobesogenic, insulin-sensitizing effects of purified quercetin aglycone, and RO may occur through differential mechanisms.

  14. Periodontal disease decreases insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Natalia H; Shirakashi, Daisy J; Chiba, Fernando Y; Coutinho, Maria Sara de Lima; Ervolino, Edilson; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Sumida, Doris H

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether local inflammatory events, such as periodontal disease, are able to increase tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plasmatic concentration and decrease insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling in non-diabetic rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats (2 months old) were divided into two groups, with either ligature-induced periodontal disease (LPD) or control conditions (CN). Experiments were performed in both groups 28 days after ligature placement. Plasmatic concentration of glycemia and TNF-α (n = 10) were analyzed by the glucose oxidase and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, respectively. Insulin sensitivity (n = 7) was measured using the insulin tolerance test. Insulin signal transduction (n = 7) was measured by pp185 tyrosine phosphorylation status in insulin-sensitive tissues using the Western blotting method. The LPD group showed decreased insulin sensitivity (P 0.05). TNF-α plasmatic concentration was higher in LPD rats compared to CN rats. In addition, a decrease in the pp185 tyrosine phosphorylation status was observed after insulin stimulus in both white adipose and skeletal muscle tissues of the LPD group compared with the CN group. LPD is able to cause alterations to both insulin signaling and insulin sensitivity, probably because of the elevation of TNF-α plasmatic concentration. Thus, the present results emphasize the importance of the prevention of local inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis, to prevent diabetes mellitus.

  15. Mechanical stress regulates insulin sensitivity through integrin-dependent control of insulin receptor localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung; Bilder, David; Neufeld, Thomas P

    2018-01-15

    Insulin resistance, the failure to activate insulin signaling in the presence of ligand, leads to metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and mechanical stress have been shown to protect against insulin resistance, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we address this relationship in the Drosophila larval fat body, an insulin-sensitive organ analogous to vertebrate adipose tissue and livers. We found that insulin signaling in Drosophila fat body cells is abolished in the absence of physical activity and mechanical stress even when excess insulin is present. Physical movement is required for insulin sensitivity in both intact larvae and fat bodies cultured ex vivo. Interestingly, the insulin receptor and other downstream components are recruited to the plasma membrane in response to mechanical stress, and this membrane localization is rapidly lost upon disruption of larval or tissue movement. Sensing of mechanical stimuli is mediated in part by integrins, whose activation is necessary and sufficient for mechanical stress-dependent insulin signaling. Insulin resistance develops naturally during the transition from the active larval stage to the immotile pupal stage, suggesting that regulation of insulin sensitivity by mechanical stress may help coordinate developmental programming with metabolism. © 2018 Kim et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Insulin sensitivity : modulation by the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, Claudia Pascalle

    2012-01-01

    The studies in this thesis contribute to the understanding of the role of the brain in insulin sensitivity. We demonstrate that disturbances in circadian rhythm resulting in alterations in SCN output, can contribute to the development of insulin resistance. We also shown that insulin-stimulated

  17. Salt sensitivity correlates positively with insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Voordouw, JJ; Bakker, SJL; Gans, ROB

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between insulin sensitivity and salt sensitivity in healthy subjects who display a wide range of insulin sensitivity. As a secondary objective, we assessed the relationship between salt sensitivity and the other characteristics of the

  18. Insulin resistance, insulin sensitization and inflammation in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhindsa G

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 5-10% of women of reproductive age have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. While insulin resistance is not part of the diagnostic criteria for PCOS, its importance in the pathogenesis of PCOS cannot be denied. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance independent of total or fat-free body mass. Post-receptor defects in the action of insulin have been described in PCOS which are similar to those found in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Treatment with insulin sensitizers, metformin and thiazolidinediones, improve both metabolic and hormonal patterns and also improve ovulation in PCOS. Recent studies have shown that PCOS women have higher circulating levels of inflammatory mediators like C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor- , tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 . It is possible that the beneficial effect of insulin sensitizers in PCOS may be partly due to a decrease in inflammation.

  19. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    . Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured...... that Prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole-body...

  20. Lipid metabolism disturbances contribute to insulin resistance and decrease insulin sensitivity by malathion exposure in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasram, Mohamed Montassar; Bouzid, Kahena; Douib, Ines Bini; Annabi, Alya; El Elj, Naziha; El Fazaa, Saloua; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Gharbi, Najoua

    2015-04-01

    Several studies showed that organophosphorus pesticides disturb glucose homeostasis and can increase incidence of metabolic disorders and diabetes via insulin resistance. The current study investigates the influence of malathion on glucose metabolism regulation, in vivo, during subchronic exposure. Malathion was administered orally (200 mg/kg), once a day for 28 consecutive days. Plasma glucose, insulin and Glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly increased while hepatic glycogen content was decreased in intoxicated animals compared with the control group. Furthermore, there was a significant disturbance of lipid content in subchronic treated and post-treated rats deprived of malathion for one month. In addition, we used the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-β). Our results show that malathion increases insulin resistance biomarkers and decreases insulin sensitivity indices. Statistical analysis demonstrates that there was a positive and strong significant correlation between insulin level and insulin resistance indices, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β. Similarly, a negative and significant correlation was also found between insulin level and insulin sensitivity indices. For the first time, we demonstrate that malathion induces insulin resistance in vivo using homeostasis model assessment and these changes were detectable one month after the end of exposure. To explain insulin resistance induced by malathion we focus on lipid metabolism disturbances and their interaction with many proteins involved in insulin signaling pathways.

  1. Euglycemic clamp insulin sensitivity and longitudinal systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Malik, Muhammad Omar; Balkau, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance may be an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension, but change in blood pressure (BP) over time has not been adequately studied in healthy individuals fully characterized for insulin sensitivity. In the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity...

  2. Insulin sensitivity in post-obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubro, S; Western, P; Bülow, J

    1994-01-01

    1. Both increased and decreased sensitivity to insulin has been proposed to precede the development of obesity. Therefore, insulin sensitivity was measured during a 2 h hyperinsulinaemia (100 m-units min-1 m-2) euglycaemic (4.5 mmol/l) glucose clamp combined with indirect calorimetry in nine weig...... metabolism is unaltered in the post-obese state. The study, however, points to an increased antilipolytic insulin action in post-obese subjects, which may favour fat storage and lower lipid oxidation rate postprandially.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......1. Both increased and decreased sensitivity to insulin has been proposed to precede the development of obesity. Therefore, insulin sensitivity was measured during a 2 h hyperinsulinaemia (100 m-units min-1 m-2) euglycaemic (4.5 mmol/l) glucose clamp combined with indirect calorimetry in nine weight......-1 kg-1, not significant). Basal plasma concentrations of free fatty acids were similar, but at the end of the clamp free fatty acids were lower in the post-obese women than in the control women (139 +/- 19 and 276 +/- 48 mumol/l, P = 0.02). 3. We conclude that the insulin sensitivity of glucose...

  3. Microbial Modulation of Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Muhammad Tanweer; Nieuwdorp, Max; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota has emerged as an integral factor that impacts host metabolism and has been suggested to play a vital role in metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. In humans, cross-sectional studies have identified microbiota profiles

  4. [How to measure insulin sensitivity in clinical practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Laville, M

    2001-04-01

    Insulin resistance is common and cluster with glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and high blood pressure,. in type 2 diabetes mellitus it play a key role in the occurence of hyperglycemia. The importance of the insulin-resistant phenotype for the assessment of cardiovascular risk and response to intervention is increasingly being recognized. Therefore there is a need for accurate, reproducible and simple methods for measuring insulin resistance in vivo. The euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp is currently the best available standard technique but is not suitable for clinical practice. Thus, numerous index for insulin resistance estimation from fasting or post-load OGTT glycemia and insulinemia have been proposed. Although their simplicity is an obvious advantage, their application is subject to numerous limitations. The choice of the method to evaluate insulin sensitivity thus depend on objectives and available means. For clinical research, euglycemic clamp is the gold standard. In the case of epidemiologic studies, validated models like HOMA model are suitable. Finally in clinical practice, for type 2 diabetic patients, evaluation of insulin resistance should be made from clinical and biological context eventually associated with an estimation of respectives roles of insulinopenia and insulin resistance with a validated index like the HOMA model.

  5. Exercise, pregnancy, and insulin sensitivity--what is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Peter; Breitowicz, Bettina; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a marked physiological insulin resistance. Overweight and obesity or lack of physical activity can aggravate this reduced insulin sensitivity further. Increased insulin resistance has been associated with serious pregnancy complications, such as gestational diabetes...

  6. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 Could Improve Glucose Regulation and Insulin Sensitivity Through Its RGD Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Natalie J; Cordell, Paul A; Tang, Kar Yeun; Makova, Natallia; Yuldasheva, Nadira Y; Imrie, Helen; Viswambharan, Hema; Bruns, Alexander F; Cubbon, Richard M; Kearney, Mark T; Wheatcroft, Stephen B

    2017-02-01

    Low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) are associated with insulin resistance and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. IGFBP-1 can affect cellular functions independently of IGF binding through an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding motif. Whether causal mechanisms underlie the favorable association of high IGFBP-1 levels with insulin sensitivity and whether these could be exploited therapeutically remain unexplored. We used recombinant IGFBP-1 and a synthetic RGD-containing hexapeptide in complementary in vitro signaling assays and in vivo metabolic profiling in obese mice to investigate the effects of IGFBP-1 and its RGD domain on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and whole-body glucose regulation. The RGD integrin-binding domain of IGFBP-1, through integrin engagement, focal adhesion kinase, and integrin-linked kinase, enhanced insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in C2C12 myotubes and INS-1 832/13 pancreatic β-cells. Both acute administration and chronic infusion of an RGD synthetic peptide to obese C57BL/6 mice improved glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity. These favorable effects on metabolic homeostasis suggest that the RGD integrin-binding domain of IGFBP-1 may be a promising candidate for therapeutic development in the field of insulin resistance. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. Pioglitazone acutely reduces energy metabolism and insulin secretion in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamontagne, Julien; Jalbert-Arsenault, Elise; Pepin, Emilie; Peyot, Marie-Line; Ruderman, Neil B; Nolan, Christopher J; Joly, Erik; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Poitout, Vincent; Prentki, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if the insulin-sensitizing drug pioglitazone acutely reduces insulin secretion and causes metabolic deceleration in vivo independently of change in insulin sensitivity...

  8. The brain modulates insulin sensitivity in multiple tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, Edwin T.; Coomans, Claudia P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity is determined by direct effects of circulating insulin on metabolically active tissues in combination with indirect effects of circulating insulin, i.e. via the central nervous system. The dose-response effects of insulin differ between the various physiological effects of

  9. Glucose- and temperature-sensitive nanoparticles for insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Zi; Williams, Gareth R; Li, He-Yu; Wang, Dongxiu; Wu, Huanling; Li, Shu-De; Zhu, Li-Min

    2017-01-01

    Glucose- and temperature-sensitive polymers of a phenylboronic acid derivative and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (poly(3-acrylamidophenyl boronic acid-b-diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate); p(AAPBA-b-DEGMA)) were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Successful polymerization was evidenced by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy, and the polymers were further explored in terms of their glass transition temperatures and by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The materials were found to be temperature sensitive, with lower critical solution temperatures in the region of 12°C-47°C depending on the monomer ratio used for reaction. The polymers could be self-assembled into nanoparticles (NPs), and the zeta potential and size of these particles were determined as a function of temperature and glucose concentration. Subsequently, the optimum NP formulation was loaded with insulin, and the drug release was studied. We found that insulin was easily encapsulated into the p(AAPBA-b-DEGMA) NPs, with a loading capacity of ~15% and encapsulation efficiency of ~70%. Insulin release could be regulated by changes in temperature and glucose concentration. Furthermore, the NPs were non-toxic both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the efficacy of the formulations at managing blood glucose levels in a murine hyperglycemic diabetes model was studied. The insulin-loaded NPs could reduce blood glucose levels over an extended period of 48 h. Since they are both temperature and glucose sensitive and offer a sustained-release profile, these systems may comprise potent new formulations for insulin delivery.

  10. Insulin resistance vs. hyperinsulinemia in hypertension: insulin regulation of Ca2+ transport and Ca(2+)-regulation of insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemel, M B

    1995-06-01

    Hypertension in obesity and insulin resistance has been attributed to insulin stimulation of sympathetic neural output and renal sodium retention. However, recent data demonstrates a significant vasodilatory effect of insulin and suggests that vascular smooth muscle resistance to this action may instead be the cause of hypertension in insulin resistance. This concept is supported by the observation that pharmacological amplification of peripheral insulin sensitivity results in reduced arterial pressure. Insulin attenuates vasoconstrictor responses to pressor agonists and accelerates vascular smooth muscle relaxation, while these effects are blunted in obesity and insulin resistance. Insulin regulation of vasoconstriction and vascular relaxation appears to be secondary to regulation of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), as insulin attenuates both voltage- and receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx and stimulates both the transcription and activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase in vascular smooth muscle cells. Further, these effects are also blunted in insulin resistance. Although [Ca2+]i plays a poorly understood role in insulin signalling, increases beyond an optimal range results in impaired insulin sensitivity, possibly by Ca(2+)-inhibition of insulin-induced dephosphorylation of insulin-sensitive substrates. Consistent with this concept, ectopic overexpression of the agouti gene in the viable yellow (Avy) mouse results in increased skeletal myocyte [Ca2+]i. Accordingly, increased [Ca2+]i in primary insulin target tissues appears to result in peripheral insulin resistance which then results in aberrant regulation of vascular smooth muscle [Ca2+]i and increases in arterial pressure.

  11. Insulin sensitizer prevents and ameliorates experimental type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valitsky, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon; Unterman, Terry; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Insulin-dependent type-1 diabetes (T1D) is driven by autoimmune β-cell failure, whereas systemic resistance to insulin is considered the hallmark of insulin-independent type-2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast to this canonical dichotomy, insulin resistance appears to precede the overt diabetic stage of T1D and predict its progression, implying that insulin sensitizers may change the course of T1D. However, previous attempts to ameliorate T1D in animal models or patients by insulin sensitizers have largely failed. Sensitization to insulin by MEthyl-substituted long-chain DICArboxylic acid (MEDICA) analogs in T2D animal models surpasses that of current insulin sensitizers, thus prompting our interest in probing MEDICA in the T1D context. MEDICA efficacy in modulating the course of T1D was verified in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats and autoimmune nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. MEDICA treatment normalizes overt diabetes in STZ diabetic rats when added on to subtherapeutic insulin, and prevents/delays autoimmune T1D in NOD mice. MEDICA treatment does not improve β-cell insulin content or insulitis score, but its efficacy is accounted for by pronounced total body sensitization to insulin. In conclusion, potent insulin sensitizers may counteract genetic predisposition to autoimmune T1D and amplify subtherapeutic insulin into an effective therapeutic measure for the treatment of overt T1D. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Improved insulin sensitivity after exercise: focus on insulin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    After a single bout of exercise, the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake is markedly improved locally in the previously active muscles. This makes exercise a potent stimulus counteracting insulin resistance characterizing type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is believed that at least part...... of the mechanism relates to an improved ability of insulin to stimulate translocation of glucose transporters (GLUT4) to the muscle membrane after exercise. How this is accomplished is still unclear; however, an obvious possibility is that exercise interacts with the insulin signaling pathway to GLUT4...... translocation allowing for a more potent insulin response. Parallel to unraveling of the insulin signaling cascade, this has been investigated within the past 25 years. Reviewing existing studies clearly indicates that improved insulin action can occur independent of interactions with proximal insulin signaling...

  13. Improved insulin sensitivity and resistance to weight gain in mice null for the Ahsg gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Suresh T; Singh, Gurmant P; Ranalletta, Mollie; Cintron, Vivian J; Qiang, Xiaoling; Goustin, Anton Scott; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; Charron, Maureen J; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Grunberger, George

    2002-08-01

    Fetuin inhibits insulin-induced insulin receptor (IR) autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity in vitro, in intact cells, and in vivo. The fetuin gene (AHSG) is located on human chromosome 3q27, recently identified as a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Here, we explore insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and the effect of a high-fat diet on weight gain, body fat composition, and glucose disposal in mice carrying two null alleles for the gene encoding fetuin, Ahsg (B6, 129-Ahsg(tm1Mbl)). Fetuin knockout (KO) mice demonstrate increased basal and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IR and the downstream signaling molecules mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt in liver and skeletal muscle. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests in fetuin KO mice indicate significantly enhanced glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity. Fetuin KO mice subjected to euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp show augmented sensitivity to insulin, evidenced by increased glucose infusion rate (P = 0.077) and significantly increased skeletal muscle glycogen content (P < 0.05). When fed a high-fat diet, fetuin KO mice are resistant to weight gain, demonstrate significantly decreased body fat, and remain insulin sensitive. These data suggest that fetuin may play a significant role in regulating postprandial glucose disposal, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, and fat accumulation and may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other insulin-resistant conditions.

  14. Brain GLP-1 and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Darleen; Sisley, Stephanie R

    2015-12-15

    Type 2 diabetes is often treated with a class of drugs referred to as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs. GLP-1 is a peptide secreted by the gut that acts through only one known receptor, the GLP-1 receptor. The primary function of GLP-1 is thought to be lowering of postprandial glucose levels. Indeed, medications utilizing this system, including the long-acting GLP-1 analogs liraglutide and exenatide, are beneficial in reducing both blood sugars and body weight. GLP-1 analogs were long presumed to affect glucose control through their ability to increase insulin levels through peripheral action on beta cells. However, multiple lines of data point to the ability of GLP-1 to act within the brain to alter glucose regulation. In this review we will discuss the evidence for a central GLP-1 system and the effects of GLP-1 in the brain on regulating multiple facets of glucose homeostasis including glucose tolerance, insulin production, insulin sensitivity, hepatic glucose production, muscle glucose uptake, and connections of the central GLP-1 system to the gut. Although the evidence indicates that GLP-1 receptors in the brain are not necessary for physiologic control of glucose regulation, we discuss the research showing a strong effect of acute manipulation of the central GLP-1 system on glucose control and how it is relevant to type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; de Jonge, P.; Nolan, J.J.; Mari, A.; Højlund, K.; Golay, A.; Balkau, B.; Dekker, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Methods The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity

  16. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; De Jonge, P.; Nolan, J. J.; Mari, A.; Hojlund, K.; Golay, A.; Balkau, B.; Dekker, J. M.

    Aim. This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Methods. The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity

  17. Larix laricina, an Antidiabetic Alternative Treatment from the Cree of Northern Quebec Pharmacopoeia, Decreases Glycemia and Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Harbilas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Larix laricina K. Koch is a medicinal plant belonging to traditional pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (Eastern James Bay area of Canada. In vitro screening studies revealed that, like metformin and rosiglitazone, it increases glucose uptake and adipogenesis, activates AMPK, and uncouples mitochondrial function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antiobesity potential of L. laricina in diet-induced obese (DIO C57BL/6 mice. Mice were subjected for eight or sixteen weeks to a high fat diet (HFD or HFD to which L. laricina was incorporated at 125 and 250 mg/kg either at onset (prevention study or in the last 8 of the 16 weeks of administration of the HFD (treatment study. L. laricina effectively decreased glycemia levels, improved insulin resistance, and slightly decreased abdominal fat pad and body weights. This occurred in conjunction with increased energy expenditure as demonstrated by elevated skin temperature in the prevention study and improved mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis in the treatment protocol. L. laricina is thus a promising alternative and complementary therapeutic approach for the treatment and care of obesity and diabetes among the Cree.

  18. Murine High Specificity/Sensitivity Competitive Europium Insulin Autoantibody Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaya, Naru; Liu, Edwin; Miao, DongMei; Li, Marcella; Yu, Liping

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Most insulin autoantibody assays for both human and animal models are in a radioassay format utilizing 125I-insulin, but despite the radioassay format international workshops have documented difficulty in standardization between laboratories. There is thus a need for simpler assay formats that do not utilize radioactivity, yet retain the high specificity and sensitivity of radioassays. Methods To establish an easier enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for insulin autoantibodies of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we used an ELISA format, competition with unlabeled insulin, europium-avidin, and time-resolved fluorescence detection (competitive europium insulin autoantibody assay). Results The competitive europium assay of insulin autoantibodies when applied to sera from NOD mice had high sensitivity and specificity (92% sensitivity, 100% specificity) compared to our standard insulin autoantibody radioassay (72% sensitivity, 100% specificity) in analyzing blind workshop sera. It is noteworthy that though the assay has extremely high sensitivity for murine insulin autoantibodies and utilizes human insulin as target autoantigen, human sera with high levels of insulin autoantibodies are not detected. Conclusions Our results clearly indicate that low levels of insulin autoantibodies can be detected in an ELISA-like format. Combining a europium-based ELISA with competition with fluid-phase autoantigen can be applicable to many autoantigens to achieve high specificity and sensitivity in an ELISA format. PMID:19344197

  19. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Benso, Maria P; Rivero-Gutierrez, Belen; Lopez-Minguez, Jesus; Anzola, Andrea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Madrid, Juan A; Lujan, Juan A; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Scheer, Frank A J L; Garaulet, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In humans, insulin sensitivity varies according to time of day, with decreased values in the evening and at night. Mechanisms responsible for the diurnal variation in insulin sensitivity are unclear. We investigated whether human adipose tissue (AT) expresses intrinsic circadian rhythms in insulin sensitivity that could contribute to this phenomenon. Subcutaneous and visceral AT biopsies were obtained from extremely obese participants (body mass index, 41.8 ± 6.3 kg/m(2); 46 ± 11 y) during gastric-bypass surgery. To assess the rhythm in insulin signaling, AKT phosphorylation was determined every 4 h over 24 h in vitro in response to different insulin concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 nM). Data revealed that subcutaneous AT exhibited robust circadian rhythms in insulin signaling (P circadian rhythms were detected in visceral AT (P = 0.643). Here, we demonstrate the relevance of the time of the day for how sensitive AT is to the effects of insulin. Subcutaneous AT shows an endogenous circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity that could provide an underlying mechanism for the daily rhythm in systemic insulin sensitivity.-Carrasco-Benso, M. P., Rivero-Gutierrez, B., Lopez-Minguez, J., Anzola, A., Diez-Noguera, A., Madrid, J. A., Lujan, J. A., Martínez-Augustin, O., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Garaulet, M. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity. © FASEB.

  20. Partial rescue of in vivo insulin signalling in skeletal muscle by impaired insulin clearance in heterozygous carriers of a mutation in the insulin receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F.P.; Birk, J.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recently we reported the coexistence of postprandial hypoglycaemia and moderate insulin resistance in heterozygous carriers of the Arg1174Gln mutation in the insulin receptor gene (INSR). Controlled studies of in vivo insulin signalling in humans with mutant INSR are unavailable...... in vivo insulin signalling in muscle in these carriers of a mutant INSR, probably by increasing insulin action on the non-mutated insulin receptors......., and therefore the cellular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in Arg1174Gln carriers remain to be clarified. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle from six Arg1174Gln carriers and matched control subjects during a euglycaemic...

  1. In vivo differential effects of fasting, re-feeding, insulin and insulin stimulation time course on insulin signaling pathway components in peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agouni, Abdelali; Owen, Carl; Czopek, Alicja; Mody, Nimesh; Delibegovic, Mirela

    2010-10-08

    Components of the insulin receptor signaling pathway are probably some of the best studied ones. Even though methods for studying these components are well established, the in vivo effects of different fasting regimens, and the time course of insulin receptor phosphorylation and that of its downstream components in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues have not been analyzed in detail. When assessing insulin signaling, it may be beneficial to drive insulin levels as low as possible by performing an overnight fast before injecting a supra-physiological dose of insulin. Recent studies have shown however that 5 or 6 h fast in mice is sufficient to assess physiological responses to insulin and/or glucose in glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Moreover, mice are nocturnal feeders, with ∼70% of their daily caloric intake occurring during the dark cycle, and their metabolic rate is much higher than humans. Therefore, an overnight fast in mice is closer to starvation than just food withdrawal. Thus our aim was to assess insulin signaling components from the insulin receptor to downstream targets IRS1, Akt/PKB, GSK3, Erk1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 in muscle, liver and adipose tissue in 5 h versus 16 h (overnight) fasted mice, and the time course (0-30 min) of these phosphorylation events. We also assessed whether re-feeding under 5 h and 16 h fasting conditions was a more robust stimulus than insulin alone. Our study determines that a short food withdrawal from mice, for a period of 5 h, results in a similar insulin-stimulated response in phosphorylation events as the long overnight fast, presenting a more physiological experimental set up. We also demonstrate that in vivo, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of its signaling components is different between different peripheral tissues, and depending on the tissue(s) and protein(s) of interest, an appropriate time course should be chosen. Copyright © 2010

  2. Reduced Circulating Insulin Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Old Mice and Extends Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Templeman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The causal relationships between insulin levels, insulin resistance, and longevity are not fully elucidated. Genetic downregulation of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1 signaling components can extend invertebrate and mammalian lifespan, but insulin resistance, a natural form of decreased insulin signaling, is associated with greater risk of age-related disease in mammals. We compared Ins2+/− mice to Ins2+/+ littermate controls, on a genetically stable Ins1 null background. Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of livers from 25-week-old mice suggested potential for healthier aging and altered insulin sensitivity in Ins2+/− mice. Halving Ins2 lowered circulating insulin by 25%–34% in aged female mice, without altering Igf1 or circulating Igf1. Remarkably, decreased insulin led to lower fasting glucose and improved insulin sensitivity in aged mice. Moreover, lowered insulin caused significant lifespan extension, observed across two diverse diets. Our study indicates that elevated insulin contributes to age-dependent insulin resistance and that limiting basal insulin levels can extend lifespan.

  3. Cerebral blood flow links insulin resistance and baroreflex sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Ryan

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance confers risk for diabetes mellitus and associates with a reduced capacity of the arterial baroreflex to regulate blood pressure. Importantly, several brain regions that comprise the central autonomic network, which controls the baroreflex, are also sensitive to the neuromodulatory effects of insulin. However, it is unknown whether peripheral insulin resistance relates to activity within central autonomic network regions, which may in turn relate to reduced baroreflex regulation. Accordingly, we tested whether resting cerebral blood flow within central autonomic regions statistically mediated the relationship between insulin resistance and an indirect indicator of baroreflex regulation; namely, baroreflex sensitivity. Subjects were 92 community-dwelling adults free of confounding medical illnesses (48 men, 30-50 years old who completed protocols to assess fasting insulin and glucose levels, resting baroreflex sensitivity, and resting cerebral blood flow. Baroreflex sensitivity was quantified by measuring the magnitude of spontaneous and sequential associations between beat-by-beat systolic blood pressure and heart rate changes. Individuals with greater insulin resistance, as measured by the homeostatic model assessment, exhibited reduced baroreflex sensitivity (b = -0.16, p < .05. Moreover, the relationship between insulin resistance and baroreflex sensitivity was statistically mediated by cerebral blood flow in central autonomic regions, including the insula and cingulate cortex (mediation coefficients < -0.06, p-values < .01. Activity within the central autonomic network may link insulin resistance to reduced baroreflex sensitivity. Our observations may help to characterize the neural pathways by which insulin resistance, and possibly diabetes mellitus, relates to adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  4. Insulin sensitivity and secretory status of a healthy malay population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Rashid, Faridah Abdul; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohamad

    2006-07-01

    Insulin insensitivity is a common finding in several metabolic disorders including glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and hypertension. Most of the previous studies on insulin sensitivity were performed on diabetic or obese population. So our knowledge about insulin sensitivity of healthy population remains limited. Rising prevalence of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is a serious issue in Malaysia and some other rapidly developing countries. So it is important to look at the insulin sensitivity status of healthy Malaysian subjects and to compare it in future with those of diabetic, obese or metabolic syndrome patients. In this study we sampled subjects who were independent of confounding factors such as obesity (including abdominal obesity), hypertension and glucose intolerance (diabetes, IGT or IFG) which may influence insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin and lipid profile were determined. Insulin sensitivity and secretory status were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) software (HOMA%S, HOMA%B and HOMA-IR). The insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) of healthy Malay subjects aged between 30-60 years was 155.17%, HOMA-IR was 1.05 and HOMA%B was 116.65% (values adjusted for age, sex, BMI and waist circumference). It was seen that non-obese Malaysians can prevent age related lowering of insulin sensitivity if they can retain their BMI within limit.

  5. The relationship between bone turnover and insulin sensitivity and secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Balkau, Beverley; Hatunic, Mensud

    2018-01-01

    Bone metabolism appears to influence insulin secretion and sensitivity, and insulin promotes bone formation in animals, but similar evidence in humans is limited. The objectives of this study are to explore if bone turnover markers were associated with insulin secretion and sensitivity...... and to determine if bone turnover markers predict changes in insulin secretion and sensitivity. The study population encompassed 576 non-diabetic adult men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=503) or impaired glucose regulation (IGR; n=73). Baseline markers of bone resorption (CTX) and formation (P1NP) were......, baseline bone turnover markers were neither associated with insulin sensitivity (assessed using hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp and OGTT) nor with insulin secretion capacity (based on IVGTT and OGTT) at baseline or at follow-up. Although inverse associations between fasting glucose and markers of bone...

  6. Partial sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; van Dijk, J. Gert; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Lammers, Gert-Jan; van Kralingen, Klaas; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep restriction results in decreased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that sleep duration is also a determinant of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. We studied seven patients (three men, four women) with type 1 diabetes: mean age 44

  7. Role of PKCδ in Insulin Sensitivity and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mengyao; Vienberg, Sara G; Bezy, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    metabolism by generating mice in which PKCδ was deleted specifically in muscle using Cre-lox recombination. Deletion of PKCδ in muscle improved insulin signaling in young mice, especially at low insulin doses; however, this did not change glucose tolerance or insulin tolerance tests done with pharmacological......-body insulin sensitivity and muscle insulin resistance and by 15 months of age improved the age-related decline in whole-body glucose tolerance. At 15 months of age, M-PKCδKO mice also exhibited decreased metabolic rate and lower levels of some proteins of the OXPHOS complex suggesting a role for PKCδ......Protein kinase C (PKC)δ has been shown to be increased in liver in obesity and plays an important role in the development of hepatic insulin resistance in both mice and humans. In the current study, we explored the role of PKCδ in skeletal muscle in the control of insulin sensitivity and glucose...

  8. Higher intramuscular triacylglycerol in women does not impair insulin sensitivity and proximal insulin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Louise; Roepstorff, Carsten; Thiele, Maja

    2009-01-01

    whole body (pinsulin stimulated leg glucose uptake (p=0.05) during an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic ( approximately 70 uU/ml) clamp compared to matched male subjects. The higher insulin sensitivity in women could not be explained by higher expression of muscle GLUT4, insulin receptor (IR......Women have been shown to have higher muscle tricylglycerol (IMTG) levels than men and could therefore be expected to have lower insulin sensitivity than men, since previous studies have linked high IMTG to decreased insulin sensitivity. Thus, insulin sensitivity of whole body and leg glucose uptake......) or Akt expression or the ability of insulin to stimulate Akt (thr308) or Akt (ser473) phosphorylation. However, a 30% higher (p

  9. Intralipid decreases apolipoprotein M levels and insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein M (ApoM is a constituent of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. It plays a crucial role in HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Insulin resistance is associated with decreased ApoM levels. AIMS: To assess the effects of increased free fatty acids (FFAs levels after short-term Intralipid infusion on insulin sensitivity and hepatic ApoM gene expression. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats infused with 20% Intralipid solution for 6 h. Glucose infusion rates (GIR were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp during Intralipid infusion and plasma FFA levels were measured by colorimetry. Rats were sacrificed after Intralipid treatment and livers were sampled. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with a lentivirus mediated human apoM overexpression system. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats were injected with the lentiviral vector and insulin tolerance was assessed. Gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and PCR array. RESULTS: Intralipid increased FFAs by 17.6 folds and GIR was decreased by 27.1% compared to the control group. ApoM gene expression was decreased by 40.4% after Intralipid infusion. PPARβ/δ expression was not changed by Intralipid. Whereas the mRNA levels of Acaca, Acox1, Akt1, V-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog, G6pc, Irs2, Ldlr, Map2k1, pyruvate kinase and RBC were significantly increased in rat liver after Intralipid infusion. The Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8 was significantly down-regulated in 293T cells overexpressing ApoM. Overexpression of human ApoM in GK rats could enhance the glucose-lowering effect of exogenous insulin. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Intralipid could decrease hepatic ApoM levels. ApoM overexpression may have a potential role in improving insulin resistance in vivo and modulating apoM expression might be a future therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  10. Dual Effect of Rosuvastatin on Glucose Homeostasis Through Improved Insulin Sensitivity and Reduced Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal A. Salunkhe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statins are beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD, but these lipid-lowering drugs are associated with increased incidence of new on-set diabetes. The cellular mechanisms behind the development of diabetes by statins are elusive. Here we have treated mice on normal diet (ND and high fat diet (HFD with rosuvastatin. Under ND rosuvastatin lowered blood glucose through improved insulin sensitivity and increased glucose uptake in adipose tissue. In vitro rosuvastatin reduced insulin secretion and insulin content in islets. In the beta cell Ca2+ signaling was impaired and the density of granules at the plasma membrane was increased by rosuvastatin treatment. HFD mice developed insulin resistance and increased insulin secretion prior to administration of rosuvastatin. Treatment with rosuvastatin decreased the compensatory insulin secretion and increased glucose uptake. In conclusion, our data shows dual effects on glucose homeostasis by rosuvastatin where insulin sensitivity is improved, but beta cell function is impaired.

  11. Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Furuya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05. In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05, despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved.

  12. Role of AMPK in Regulating Muscle Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus

    in response to exercise and contraction. It is considered an important sensor of cellular energy-fuel status and fulfills the purpose of regulating energy-fuel homeostasis. Based on this, the aim of the present PhD was to investigate the involvement of AMPK in regulating insulin sensitivity following acute...... signaling in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients in response to exercise. Interestingly, we observe that AMPK activity and phosphorylation of TBC1D4 Ser318, Ser341 and Ser704 are increased 3 hours into exercise recovery - a time point when post-exercise improvements in muscle insulin sensitivity...... that induces a half-maximal biological response (e.g., glucose uptake). Accordingly, the concentration of insulin that induces half-maximal glucose uptake is reduced with increased insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle from both healthy and type 2 diabetic individuals display enhanced muscle insulin sensitivity...

  13. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F; De Jonge, P

    2013-01-01

    significant depressive symptoms was not related to either OGIS [standardized beta (β) -0.033; P=0.24] or beta-cell glucose sensitivity (β -0.007; P=0.82). Significant depressive symptoms were related to decreased beta-cell rate sensitivity (odds ratio for significant depressive symptoms of the lowest vs...... Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk (RISC) study. Presence of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥ 16. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the oral glucose insulin...... sensitivity (OGIS) index. Insulin secretion was estimated using three model-based parameters of insulin secretion (beta-cell glucose sensitivity, the potentiation factor ratio, and beta-cell rate sensitivity). RESULTS: A total of 162 out of 1027 participants (16%) had significant depressive symptoms. Having...

  14. Genetic variants associated with glycine metabolism and their role in insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Weijia; Wood, Andrew R; Lyssenko, Valeriya

    2013-01-01

    Circulating metabolites associated with insulin sensitivity may represent useful biomarkers, but their causal role in insulin sensitivity and diabetes is less certain. We previously identified novel metabolites correlated with insulin sensitivity measured by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp....

  15. Exercise, pregnancy, and insulin sensitivity--what is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Peter; Breitowicz, Bettina; Hegaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a marked physiological insulin resistance. Overweight and obesity or lack of physical activity can aggravate this reduced insulin sensitivity further. Increased insulin resistance has been associated with serious pregnancy complications, such as gestational diabetes...... mellitus (GDM) and pre-eclampsia. Recent studies clearly indicate that physical activity before and during pregnancy can reduce the risk of GDM and pre-eclampsia....

  16. Insulin sensitivity in clinically healthy individuals with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G

    1996-01-01

    glucose, tobacco and alcohol consumption, physical activity, and age and sex, fasting serum insulin concentration was the only variable independently associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.55; P = 0.0001). It is concluded that microalbuminuria is not associated with impaired insulin sensitivity...... excretion rate (UAER) of 6.6 to 150 micrograms/min) and 24 age- and sex-matched controls with normoalbuminuria (UAER rate on 2 mU/(kg body weight x min). Insulin sensitivity...... (whole body glucose disposal) was similar in the two groups ((mean (95% C.I.)) 351 (321-381) vs. 364 (339-388) mg/(m2 x min); P = 0.51). Among urinary albumin excretion rate, blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, body mass index waist-hip ratio, fasting concentrations of serum insulin and blood...

  17. Insulin sensitivity in clinically healthy individuals with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G

    1996-01-01

    excretion rate (UAER) of 6.6 to 150 micrograms/min) and 24 age- and sex-matched controls with normoalbuminuria (UAER body weight x min). Insulin sensitivity...... (whole body glucose disposal) was similar in the two groups ((mean (95% C.I.)) 351 (321-381) vs. 364 (339-388) mg/(m2 x min); P = 0.51). Among urinary albumin excretion rate, blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, body mass index waist-hip ratio, fasting concentrations of serum insulin and blood...... glucose, tobacco and alcohol consumption, physical activity, and age and sex, fasting serum insulin concentration was the only variable independently associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.55; P = 0.0001). It is concluded that microalbuminuria is not associated with impaired insulin sensitivity...

  18. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin resistant phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after exercise training. Metabolic inflexibility has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance, however, the efficacy of exercise on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity or substrate utilization......) and were instructed to maintain a eucaloric diet. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU/m(2)/min) with [6,6-(2)H]-glucose was used to determine peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Non-oxidative glucose disposal and metabolic flexibility (insulin-stimulated respiratory quotient [RQ] minus...... fasting RQ) were also assessed. Glucose incremental area under the curve was calculated from the OGTT (iAUCOGTT). Exercise increased clamp-derived peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity more in adults with IFG or IGT alone than IFG+IGT (P...

  19. Effect of training intensity on insulin sensitivity evaluated by insulin tolerance test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Keizer; K. Backx; M.F. Mensink; dr. Lars B. Borghouts

    1999-01-01

    This research article shows that a high intensity exercise program compared to a low intensity exercise program of the same session duration and frequency, increases insulin sensitivity to a larger extend in healthy subjects. It also shows that the short insulin tolerance test can be used to detect

  20. Fish oil supplementation for two generations increases insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabara, Sandro M; Folador, Alessandra; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Lambertucci, Rafael H; Rodrigues, Carlos F; Rocha, Marlene S; Aikawa, Julia; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Martins, Amanda R; Rodrigues, Alice C; Carpinelli, Angelo R; Pithon-Curi, Tania C; Fernandes, Luiz C; Gorjão, Renata; Curi, Rui

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effect of fish oil supplementation for two consecutive generations on insulin sensitivity in rats. After the nursing period (21 days), female rats from the same prole were divided into two groups: (a) control group and (b) fish oil group. Female rats were supplemented with water (control) or fish oil at 1 g/kg body weight as a single bolus for 3 months. After this period, female rats were mated with male Wistar rats fed on a balanced chow diet (not supplemented). Female rats continued to receive supplementation throughout gestation and lactation periods. The same treatment was performed for the next two generations (G1 and G2). At 75 days of age, male offspring from G1 and G2 generations from both groups were used in the experiments. G1 rats did not present any difference with control rats. However, G2 rats presented reduction in glycemia and lipidemia and improvement in in vivo insulin sensitivity (model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin tolerance test) as well as in vitro insulin sensitivity in soleus muscle (glucose uptake and metabolism). This effect was associated with increased insulin-stimulated p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and lower n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, but not with activation of proteins from insulin signaling (IR, IRS-1 and Akt). Global DNA methylation was decreased in liver but not in soleus muscle. These results suggest that long-term fish oil supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in association with increased insulin-stimulated p38 activation and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio in skeletal muscle and decreased global DNA methylation in liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Insulin Sensitivity Determines Effects of Insulin and Meal Ingestion on Systemic Vascular Resistance in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; Meijer, Rick I; Eringa, Etto C; Hoekstra, Trynke; Smulders, Yvo M; Serné, Erik H

    2016-01-01

    In addition to insulin's metabolic actions, insulin can dilate arterioles which increase blood flow to metabolically active tissues. This effect is blunted in insulin-resistant subjects. Insulin's effect on SVR, determined by resistance arterioles, has, however, rarely been examined directly. We determined the effects of both hyperinsulinemia and a mixed meal on SVR and its relationship with insulin sensitivity. Thirty-seven lean and obese women underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and 24 obese volunteers underwent a mixed-meal test. SVR was assessed using CPP before and during hyperinsulinemia as well as before and 60 and 120 minutes after a meal. SVR decreased significantly during hyperinsulinemia (-13%; p Insulin decreased SVR more strongly in insulin-sensitive individuals (standardized β: -0.44; p = 0.01). In addition, SVR at 60 minutes after meal ingestion was inversely related to the Matsuda index (β: -0.39; p = 0.04) and the change in postprandial SVR was directly related to postprandial glycemia (β: 0.53; p insulin resistance. This suggests that resistance to insulin-induced vasodilatation contributes to regulation of vascular resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bioactives in Blueberries Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese, Insulin-Resistant Men and Women1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J.; Cash, Katherine C.; Johnson, William D.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Cefalu, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used. After screening to resolve study eligibility, baseline (wk 0) insulin sensitivity was measured on 32 obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant subjects using a high-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU(861 pmol)⋅m−2⋅min−1). Serum inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity were measured at baseline. At the end of the study, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposity were reassessed. Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants’ body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 ± 0.5 mg⋅kg FFM−1⋅min−1) than in the placebo group (0.4 ± 0.4 mg⋅kg FFM−1⋅min−1) (P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants. PMID:20724487

  3. The adipose transcriptional response to insulin is determined by obesity, not insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydén, Mikael; Hrydziuszko, Olga; Mileti, Enrichetta

    2016-01-01

    Metabolically healthy obese subjects display preserved insulin sensitivity and a beneficial white adipose tissue gene expression pattern. However, this observation stems from fasting studies when insulin levels are low. We investigated adipose gene expression by 5'Cap-mRNA sequencing in 17 healthy...... non-obese (NO), 21 insulin-sensitive severely obese (ISO), and 30 insulin-resistant severely obese (IRO) subjects, before and 2 hr into a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. ISO and IRO subjects displayed a clear but globally similar transcriptional response to insulin, which differed from the small...... effects observed in NO subjects. In the obese, 231 genes were altered; 71 were enriched in ISO subjects (e.g., phosphorylation processes), and 52 were enriched in IRO subjects (e.g., cellular stimuli). Common cardio-metabolic risk factors and gender do not influence these findings. This study demonstrates...

  4. Lipid-anthropometric index optimization for insulin sensitivity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, J.; Wong, S.; Encalada, L.; Herrera, H.; Severeyn, E.

    2015-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) is the ability of cells to react due to insulińs presence; when this ability is diminished, low insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance (IR) is considered. IR had been related to other metabolic disorders as metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes. IS can be determined using direct or indirect methods. The indirect methods are less accurate and invasive than direct and they use glucose and insulin values from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The accuracy is established by comparison using spearman rank correlation coefficient between direct and indirect method. This paper aims to propose a lipid-anthropometric index which offers acceptable correlation to insulin sensitivity index for different populations (DB1=MS subjects, DB2=sedentary without MS subjects and DB3=marathoners subjects) without to use OGTT glucose and insulin values. The proposed method is parametrically optimized through a random cross-validation, using the spearman rank correlation as comparator with CAUMO method. CAUMO is an indirect method designed from a simplification of the minimal model intravenous glucose tolerance test direct method (MINMOD-IGTT) and with acceptable correlation (0.89). The results show that the proposed optimized method got a better correlation with CAUMO in all populations compared to non-optimized. On the other hand, it was observed that the optimized method has better correlation with CAUMO in DB2 and DB3 groups than HOMA-IR method, which is the most widely used for diagnosing insulin resistance. The optimized propose method could detect incipient insulin resistance, when classify as insulin resistant subjects that present impaired postprandial insulin and glucose values.

  5. Insulin sensitivity predicts brain network connectivity following a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John P; Karim, Helmet T; Aizenstein, Howard J; Helbling, Nicole L; Toledo, Frederico G S

    2018-01-12

    There is converging evidence that insulin plays a role in food-reward signaling in the brain and has effects on enhancing cognition. Little is known about how these effects are altered in individuals with insulin resistance. The present study was designed to identify the relationships between insulin resistance and functional brain connectivity following a meal. Eighteen healthy adults (7 male, 11 female, age: 41-57 years-old) completed a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to quantify insulin resistance. On separate days at least one week apart, a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed: once after a mixed-meal and once after a 12-h fast. Seed-based resting state connectivity of the caudate nucleus and eigenvector centrality were used to identify relationships between insulin resistance and functional brain connectivity. Individuals with greater insulin resistance displayed stronger connectivity within reward networks following a meal suggesting insulin was less able to suppress reward. Insulin resistance was negatively associated with eigenvector centrality in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex following a meal. These data suggest that individuals with less sensitivity to insulin may fail to shift brain networks away from reward and toward cognitive control following a meal. This altered feedback loop could promote overeating and obesity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Hormone-sensitive lipase null mice exhibit signs of impaired insulin sensitivity whereas insulin secretion is intact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulder, Hindrik; Sörhede-Winzell, Maria; Contreras, Juan Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Lipid metabolism plays an important role in glucose homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. In adipocytes, skeletal muscle, and pancreatic beta-cells, lipids are mobilized from acylglycerides by the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Here, the consequences of a targeted disruption of t....... Insulin secretion in vitro, examined by perifusion of isolated islets, was not impacted by HSL deficiency. Thus, HSL deficiency results in a moderate impairment of insulin sensitivity in multiple target tissues of the hormone but is compensated by hyperinsulinemia.......Lipid metabolism plays an important role in glucose homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. In adipocytes, skeletal muscle, and pancreatic beta-cells, lipids are mobilized from acylglycerides by the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Here, the consequences of a targeted disruption...... of increased amounts of insulin. Impaired insulin sensitivity was further indicated by retarded glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test. A euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp revealed that hepatic glucose production was insufficiently blocked by insulin in HSL null mice. In vitro, insulin...

  7. Decreased acylcarnitine content improves insulin sensitivity in experimental mice models of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepinsh, Edgars; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Makarova, Elina; Volska, Kristine; Svalbe, Baiba; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Grinberga, Solveiga; Kuka, Janis; Dambrova, Maija

    2016-11-01

    The important pathological consequences of insulin resistance arise from the detrimental effects of accumulated long-chain fatty acids and their respective acylcarnitines. The aim of this study was to test whether exercise combined with decreasing the content of long-chain acylcarnitines represents an effective strategy to improve insulin sensitivity in diabetes. We used a novel compound, 4-[ethyl(dimethyl)ammonio]butanoate (methyl-GBB), treatment and exercise to decrease acylcarnitine contents in the plasma and muscles in the insulin resistance models of high fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6 mice and db/db mice. The methyl-GBB treatment induced a substantial decrease in all acylcarnitine concentrations in both fed and fasted states as well as when it was combined with exercise. In the HFD fed mice methyl-GBB treatment improved both glucose and insulin tolerance. Methyl-GBB administration, exercise and the combination of both improved insulin sensitivity and reduced blood glucose levels in db/db mice. Methyl-GBB administration and the combination of the drug and exercise activated the PPARα/PGC1α signaling pathway and stimulated the corresponding target gene expression. Insulin insensitivity in db/db mice was not induced by significantly increased fatty acid metabolism, while increased insulin sensitivity by both treatments was not related to decreased fatty acid metabolism in muscles. The pharmacologically reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content represents an effective strategy to improve insulin sensitivity. The methyl-GBB treatment and lifestyle changes via increased physical activity for one hour a day have additive insulin sensitizing effects in db/db mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of tequila on homocysteine, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic profile in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortiz, Manuel; Pascoe-González, Sara; Kam-Ramos, Angélica M; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of a low dose of tequila on homocysteine, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic profile in healthy young men. An open clinical trial was carried out in eight healthy nonobese, young male volunteers. The study was divided in two phases. The first one evaluated metabolic changes, including insulin secretion and sensitivity due to acute administration of 30 ml of straight tequila. The second phase of the study evaluated metabolic effects due to the daily administration of 30 ml of tequila during 30 days. There were no significant metabolic changes after the single oral administration of 30 ml of straight tequila. After the administration of tequila during 30 days, a significant increase in homocysteine levels and a tendency to increase the glucose concentration and to decrease the insulin sensitivity were found. Detrimental metabolic changes were observed with the daily administration of 30 ml of tequila during 30 days.

  9. Calcineurin inhibitors acutely improve insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion in healthy human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzbay, Aygen; Møller, Niels; Juhl, Claus

    2012-01-01

    of ciclosporin and tacrolimus. We document that both drugs acutely increase insulin sensitivity, while first phase and pulsatile insulin secretion remain unaffected. This study demonstrates that ciclosporin and tacrolimus have similar acute effects on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. AIM The introduction...... and tacrolimus has been attributed to both beta cell dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This is the first trial to investigate beta cell function and insulin sensitivity using gold standard methodology in healthy human volunteers treated with clinically relevant doses...... of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) ciclosporin (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) has improved the outcome of organ transplants, but complications such as new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) cause impairment of survival rates. The relative contribution of each CNI to the pathogenesis and development...

  10. Insulin and Insulin-Sensitizing Drugs in Neurodegeneration: Mitochondria as Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula I. Moreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin, besides its glucose lowering effects, is involved in the modulation of lifespan, aging and memory and learning processes. As the population ages, neurodegenerative disorders become epidemic and a connection between insulin signaling dysregulation, cognitive decline and dementia has been established. Mitochondria are intracellular organelles that despite playing a critical role in cellular metabolism are also one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, hallmarks of neurodegeneration, can result from impaired insulin signaling. Insulin-sensitizing drugs such as the thiazolidinediones are a new class of synthetic compounds that potentiate insulin action in the target tissues and act as specific agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ. Recently, several PPAR agonists have been proposed as novel and possible therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders. Indeed, the literature shows that these agents are able to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammation and apoptosis. This review discusses the role of mitochondria and insulin signaling in normal brain function and in neurodegeneration. Furthermore, the potential protective role of insulin and insulin sensitizers in Alzheimer´s, Parkinson´s and Huntington´s diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will be also discussed.

  11. Maternal periodontal disease in rats decreases insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Daisy J; Leal, Rosana P; Colombo, Natalia H; Chiba, Fernando Y; Garbin, Cléa A S; Jardim, Elerson G; Antoniali, Cristina; Sumida, Doris H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal disease during pregnancy has been recognized as one of the causes of preterm and low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies. Several studies have demonstrated that PLBW babies are prone to developing insulin resistance as adults. Although there is controversy over the association between periodontal disease and PLBW, the phenomenon known as programming can translate any stimulus or aggression experienced during intrauterine growth into physiologic and metabolic alterations in adulthood. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the offspring of rats with periodontal disease develop insulin resistance in adulthood. Ten female Wistar rats were divided into periodontal disease (PED) and control (CN) groups. All rats were mated at 7 days after induction of periodontal disease. Male offspring were divided into two groups: 1) periodontal disease offspring (PEDO; n = 24); and 2) control offspring (CNO; n = 24). Offspring body weight was measured from birth until 75 days. When the offspring reached 75 days old, the following parameters were measured: 1) plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fructosamine, lipase, amylase, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); 2) insulin sensitivity (IS); and 3) insulin signal transduction (IST) in insulin-sensitive tissues. Low birth weight was not detected in the PEDO group. However, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fructosamine, lipase, amylase, and TNF-α were increased and IS and IST were reduced (P periodontal disease may induce insulin resistance and reduce IST in adult offspring, but such alterations are not attributable to low birth weight.

  12. Morning Circadian Misalignment during Short Sleep Duration Impacts Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Robert H; Depner, Christopher M; Perreault, Leigh; Markwald, Rachel R; Smith, Mark R; McHill, Andrew W; Higgins, Janine; Melanson, Edward L; Wright, Kenneth P

    2015-11-16

    Short sleep duration and circadian misalignment are hypothesized to causally contribute to health problems including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, and accidents. Here, we investigated the influence of morning circadian misalignment induced by an imposed short nighttime sleep schedule on impaired insulin sensitivity, a precursor to diabetes. Imposed short sleep duration resulted in morning wakefulness occurring during the biological night (i.e., circadian misalignment)-a time when endogenous melatonin levels were still high indicating the internal circadian clock was still promoting sleep and related functions. We show the longer melatonin levels remained high after wake time, insulin sensitivity worsened. Overall, we find a simulated 5-day work week of 5-hr-per-night sleep opportunities and ad libitum food intake resulted in ∼20% reduced oral and intravenous insulin sensitivity in otherwise healthy men and women. Reduced insulin sensitivity was compensated by an increased insulin response to glucose, which may reflect an initial physiological adaptation to maintain normal blood sugar levels during sleep loss. Furthermore, we find that transitioning from the imposed short sleep schedule to 9-hr sleep opportunities for 3 days restored oral insulin sensitivity to baseline, but 5 days with 9-hr sleep opportunities was insufficient to restore intravenous insulin sensitivity to baseline. These findings indicate morning wakefulness and eating during the biological night is a novel mechanism by which short sleep duration contributes to metabolic dysregulation and suggests food intake during the biological night may contribute to other health problems associated with short sleep duration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Circulating docosahexaenoic acid levels are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid (AA; C20∶4 n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22∶6 n-3 are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in maintaining pancreatic beta-cell structure and function. Newborns of gestational diabetic mothers are more susceptible to the development of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is not known whether low circulating AA or DHA is involved in perinatally "programming" this susceptibility. This study aimed to assess whether circulating concentrations of AA, DHA and other fatty acids are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity or beta-cell function, and whether low circulating concentrations of AA or DHA are involved in compromised fetal insulin sensitivity in gestational diabetic pregnancies.In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort, maternal (32-35 weeks gestation and cord plasma fatty acids were assessed in relation to surrogate indicators of fetal insulin sensitivity (cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio, proinsulin concentration and beta-cell function (proinsulin-to-insulin ratio in 108 mother-newborn pairs. Cord plasma DHA levels (in percentage of total fatty acids were lower comparing newborns of gestational diabetic (n = 24 vs. non-diabetic pregnancies (2.9% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.01. Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, lower cord plasma DHA levels were associated with lower fetal insulin sensitivity (lower glucose-to-insulin ratio, r = 0.20, P = 0.036; higher proinsulin concentration, r = -0.37, P <0.0001. The associations remained after adjustment for maternal and newborn characteristics. Cord plasma saturated fatty acids C18∶0 and C20∶0 were negatively correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity, but their levels were not different between gestational diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies. Cord plasma AA levels were not correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity.Low circulating DHA levels are associated with compromised fetal insulin sensitivity, and may be involved in

  14. Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alquier, Thierry; Peyot, Marie-Line; Latour, M. G.; Kebede, Melkam; Sorensen, Christina M.; Gesta, Stephane; Kahn, C. R.; Smith, Richard D.; Jetton, Thomas L.; Metz, Thomas O.; Prentki, Marc; Poitout, Vincent J.

    2009-11-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty-acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. We observed that glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, assessed by hyperglycemic clamps, was decreased by approximately 60% in GPR40 knock-out (KO) fasted and fed mice, without changes in insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Glucose and palmitate metabolism were not affected by GPR40 deletion. Lipid profiling revealed a similar increase in triglyceride and decrease in lysophosphatidylethanolamine species in WT and KO islets in response to palmitate. These results demonstrate that GPR40 regulates insulin secretion in vivo not only in response to fatty acids but also to glucose and arginine, without altering intracellular fuel metabolism.

  15. Dual Effect of Rosuvastatin on Glucose Homeostasis Through Improved Insulin Sensitivity and Reduced Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Vishal A; Mollet, Inês G; Ofori, Jones K; Malm, Helena A; Esguerra, Jonathan L S; Reinbothe, Thomas M; Stenkula, Karin G; Wendt, Anna; Eliasson, Lena; Vikman, Jenny

    2016-08-01

    Statins are beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but these lipid-lowering drugs are associated with increased incidence of new on-set diabetes. The cellular mechanisms behind the development of diabetes by statins are elusive. Here we have treated mice on normal diet (ND) and high fat diet (HFD) with rosuvastatin. Under ND rosuvastatin lowered blood glucose through improved insulin sensitivity and increased glucose uptake in adipose tissue. In vitro rosuvastatin reduced insulin secretion and insulin content in islets. In the beta cell Ca(2+) signaling was impaired and the density of granules at the plasma membrane was increased by rosuvastatin treatment. HFD mice developed insulin resistance and increased insulin secretion prior to administration of rosuvastatin. Treatment with rosuvastatin decreased the compensatory insulin secretion and increased glucose uptake. In conclusion, our data shows dual effects on glucose homeostasis by rosuvastatin where insulin sensitivity is improved, but beta cell function is impaired. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucose-Responsive Insulin Delivery by Microneedle-Array Patches Loaded with Hypoxia-Sensitive Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Gu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the preparation of glucose-responsive vesicles (GRVs) and the fabrication of GRV-loaded microneedle-array patches for insulin delivery. The GRVs were formed of hypoxia-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HS-HA), the synthesis of which is presented in detail. We also describe the procedure to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of this smart patch in a mouse model of chemically induced type 1 diabetes through transcutaneous administration.

  17. Insulin and IGF-I inhibit GH synthesis and release in vitro and in vivo by separate mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahete, Manuel D; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Lin, Qing; Brüning, Jens C; Kahn, C Ronald; Castaño, Justo P; Christian, Helen; Luque, Raúl M; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2013-07-01

    IGF-I is considered a primary inhibitor of GH secretion. Insulin may also play an important role in regulating GH levels because insulin, like IGF-I, can suppress GH synthesis and release in primary pituitary cell cultures and insulin is negatively correlated with GH levels in vivo. However, understanding the relative contribution insulin and IGF-I exert on controlling GH secretion has been hampered by the fact that circulating insulin and IGF-I are regulated in parallel and insulin (INSR) and IGF-I (IGFIR) receptors are structurally/functionally related and ubiquitously expressed. To evaluate the separate roles of insulin and IGF-I in directly regulating GH secretion, we used the Cre/loxP system to knock down the INSR and IGFIR in primary mouse pituitary cell cultures and found insulin-mediated suppression of GH is independent of the IGFIR. In addition, pharmacological blockade of intracellular signals in both mouse and baboon cultures revealed insulin requires different pathways from IGF-I to exert a maximal inhibitory effect on GH expression/release. In vivo, somatotrope-specific knockout of INSR (SIRKO) or IGFIR (SIGFRKO) increased GH levels. However, comparison of the pattern of GH release, GH expression, somatotrope morphometry, and pituitary explant sensitivity to acute GHRH challenge in lean SIRKO and SIGFRKO mice strongly suggests the primary role of insulin in vivo is to suppress GH release, whereas IGF-I serves to regulate GH synthesis. Finally, SIRKO and/or SIGFRKO could not prevent high-fat, diet-induced suppression of pituitary GH expression, indicating other factors/tissues are involved in the decline of GH observed with weight gain.

  18. Insulin sensitivity in Chinese ovo-lactovegetarians compared with omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C-S; Lai, N-S; Ho, L-T; Lin, C-L

    2004-02-01

    To compare the insulin sensitivity indices between Chinese vegetarians and omnivores. The study included 36 healthy volunteers (vegetarian, n=19; omnivore, n=17) who had normal fasting plasma glucose levels. Each participant completed an insulin suppression test. We compared steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG), fasting insulin, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR and HOMA %S) and beta-cell function (HOMA %beta) between the groups. We also tested the correlation of SSPG with years on a vegetarian diet. The omnivore subjects were younger than the vegetarians (55.7+/-3.7 vs 58.6+/-3.6 year of age, P=0.022). There was no difference between the two groups in sex, blood pressure, renal function tests and lipid profiles. The omnivores had higher serum uric acid levels than vegetarians (5.25+/-0.84 vs 4.54+/-0.75 mg/dl, P=0.011). The results of the indices were different between omnivores and vegetarians (SSPG (mean+/-s.d.) 105.4+/-10.2 vs 80.3+/-11.3 mg/dl, Pvs 3.02+/-1.19 microU/ml, P=0.004; HOMA-IR, 6.75+/-1.31 vs 4.78+/-2.07, P=0.002; HOMA %S, 159.2+/-31.7 vs 264.3+/-171.7%, P=0.018) except insulin secretion index, HOMA %beta (65.6+/-18.0 vs 58.6+/-14.8%, P=0.208). We found a clear linear relation between years on a vegetarian diet and SSPG (r=-0.541, P=0.017). The vegetarians were more insulin sensitive than the omnivore counterparts. The degree of insulin sensitivity appeared to be correlated with years on a vegetarian diet.

  19. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of insulin and its aptamer – sensitive optical detection of insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdian-Doghaei, A.; Housaindokht, M.R., E-mail: housain@um.ac.ir

    2015-03-15

    The binding of insulin to the insulin binding aptamer (IBA) was investigated with different spectroscopy techniques (UV/vis absorption, fluorescence, resonance light-scattering spectra (RLS), synchronous fluorescence, and three-dimensional fluorescence). The thermodynamic parameters (K{sub b}, ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS) of the insulin–IBA complex were further investigated by temperature-dependent fluorescence measurement over the range of 25–37 °C. The results of synchronous fluorescence, resonance light scattering (RLS) and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that IBA would alter the structure of insulin. Folding of the dual-labeled insulin binding aptamer, FL-IBA, carrying 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) labels at termini of the insulin binding aptamer (IBA), into G-quadruplex leading to the contact quenching occurs as a result of the formation of a nonfluorescent complex between donor and acceptor. Significant fluorescent signal change when FL-IBA was bound to insulin is attributed to a conformational change in FL-IBA from a loose random coil to a compact G-quadruplex. Based on fluorescence quenching of IBA folding, a simple and sensitive insulin aptamer-based biosensor in the range of 2–70 nM was proposed. - Highlights: • The binding parameters were gotten from contact quenching data. • The binding of IBA induced some microenvironment and conformational changes in insulin. • The van der Waals interactions or hydrogen bonds play a major role on this binding. • A simple and sensitive insulin aptamer-based biosensor was proposed.

  20. Lipid in Skeletal Muscle Myotubes is associated to the Donors’ Insulin Sensitivity and Physical Activity Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpeyi, Sudip; Myrland, Cassandra K.; Covington, Jeffrey D.; Obanda, Diana; Cefalu, William T.; Smith, Steven R.; Rustan, Arild C.; Ravussin, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the relationship between in-vitro lipid content in myotubes and in-vivo whole body phenotypes of the donors such as insulin sensitivity, intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), physical activity and oxidative capacity. Design and Methods Six physically active donors were compared to 6 sedentary lean and 6 T2DM. Lipid content was measured in tissues and myotubes by immunohistochemistry. Ceramides, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and diacylglycerols (DAGs) were measured by LC-MS-MS and GC-FID. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (80mU/min/m2), maximal mitochondrial capacity (ATPmax) by 31P-MRS, physical fitness by VO2max and physical activity level (PAL) by accelerometers. Results Myotubes cultured from physically active donors had higher lipid content (0.047±0.003 vs. 0.032±0.001 and 0.033±0.001AU; p<0.001) than myotubes from lean and T2DM donors. Lipid content in myotubes was not associated with IMCL in muscle tissue but importantly, correlated with in-vivo measures of ATPmax (r=0.74; p<0.001), insulin sensitivity (r=0.54; p<0.05), type-I fibers (r=0.50; p<0.05) and PAL (r=0.92; p<0.0001). DAGs and ceramides in myotubes were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r=−0.55, r=−0.73; p<0.05) and ATPmax (r=−0.74, r=−0.85; p<0.01). Conclusions These results indicate that cultured human myotubes can be used in mechanistic studies to study the in vitro impact of interventions on phenotypes such as mitochondrial capacity, insulin sensitivity, and physical activity. PMID:23818429

  1. Dietary Fat – Insulin Sensitivity and Molecular Substrate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Annemarie

    metabolism in skeletal muscle. The high-fat diet was primarily comprised of unsaturated FA. We demonstrated in lean, healthy and moderately trained men that three days’ intake of 78 E% dietary fat coupled with 75% energy excess was sufficient to reduce whole-body insulin sensitivity by 17% and insulin...... in both study I and II. Several indices of improved hepatic metabolism and function were observed after the highfat interventions. In contrast, the three-day hypercaloric carbohydrate-rich diet (study I) increased basal and insulin-stimulated glucose production, increased post-absorptive plasma TG...... metabolism in skeletal muscle and in the liver. A period of high fat (and low carbohydrate) intake may furthermore change hepatic glucoregulation and metabolism in a non-diabetic direction. Insulin´s action on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle seems, however, to be impaired when a high fat intake was coupled...

  2. Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sartorius

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. METHODS: Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. RESULTS: Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. CONCLUSIONS: Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis.

  3. Cinnamon Extract Improves Insulin Sensitivity in the Brain and Lowers Liver Fat in Mouse Models of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tina; Peter, Andreas; Schulz, Nadja; Drescher, Andrea; Bergheim, Ina; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Siegel-Axel, Dorothea; Schürmann, Annette; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. Methods Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde) were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. Results Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. Conclusions Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis. PMID:24643026

  4. Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tina; Peter, Andreas; Schulz, Nadja; Drescher, Andrea; Bergheim, Ina; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Siegel-Axel, Dorothea; Schürmann, Annette; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde) were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis.

  5. Improvements in insulin sensitivity are blunted by subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2009-02-01

    Exercise- and weight loss-induced improvements in insulin resistance (IR) are variable; some individuals experience robust enhancements in insulin sensitivity, whereas others do not. Thyroid hormone status is related to IR, but it is not clear whether subclinical hypothyroidism may help to explain the variability in improvements in IR with diet and exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine whether thyroid hormone status is related to the improvement in insulin sensitivity and physical fitness after weight loss and exercise training. By retrospective nested case-control analysis, eight subclinical hypothyroid (sHT) subjects and eight matched euthyroid controls underwent a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and peak oxygen uptake test, before and after a 16-wk program of moderate aerobic exercise combined with diet-induced weight loss. All subjects were middle-aged (57.3 +/- 3.3 yr), were overweight to obese (body mass index = 33.1 +/- 0.8 kg m(-2)), and had impaired glucose tolerance. The improvement in insulin sensitivity was significantly lower (P hypothyroidism may interfere with beneficial adaptations on muscle metabolism and physical fitness that typically occur with weight loss and increased physical activity. These results may have significant clinical implications because of the high prevalence of both hypothyroidism and insulin resistance in the aging population.

  6. Chronic hyperinsulinemia reduces insulin sensitivity and metabolic functions of brown adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sujith; Shankar, Kripa; Beg, Muheeb; Varshney, Salil; Gupta, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ankita; Kumar, Durgesh; Mishra, Raj K; Hussain, Zakir; Gayen, Jiaur R; Gaikwad, Anil N

    2016-09-01

    The growing pandemics of diabetes have become a real threat to world economy. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are closely associated with the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In pretext of brown adipocytes being considered as the therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance, we have tried to understand the effect of hyperinsulinemia on brown adipocyte function. We here with for the first time report that hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance in brown adipocyte is also accompanied with reduced insulin sensitivity and brown adipocyte characteristics. CI treatment decreased expression of brown adipocyte-specific markers (such as PRDM16, PGC1α, and UCP1) and mitochondrial content as well as activity. CI-treated brown adipocytes showed drastic decrease in oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and spare respiratory capacity. Morphological study indicates increased accumulation of lipid droplets in CI-treated brown adipocytes. We have further validated these findings in vivo in C57BL/6 mice implanted with mini-osmotic insulin pump for 8weeks. CI treatment in mice leads to increased body weight gain, fat mass and impaired glucose intolerance with reduced energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity. CI-treated mice showed decreased BAT characteristics and function. We also observed increased inflammation and ER stress markers in BAT of CI-treated animals. The above results conclude that hyperinsulinemia has deleterious effect on brown adipocyte function, making it susceptible to insulin resistance. Thus, the above findings have greater implication in designing approaches for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes via recruitment of brown adipocytes. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Zataria multiflora increases insulin sensitivity and PPARγ gene expression in high fructose fed insulin resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s:In insulin resistance, the insulin action in liver, muscles and adipocytes decreases and result in hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. In this study we evaluate the effect of Zataria multiflora extract on insulin sensitivity in high fructose fed insulin resistant rats, since this extract was shown antihyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.   Materials and Methods:Experimental rats were fed with high fructose diet for 6 weeks and then were treated with Z. multiflora extractor a pioglitazone solution for 2 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected for analysis at the end of two weeks. Blood glucose, serum level of triglyceride and cholesterol were measured by auto analyzer. Insulin and adiponectin levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Plasma free fatty acids profile was studied by gas chromatography.  Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR.γ and Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT.4 gene expressions were assessed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and western blotting. Results: Animals were treated by Z. multiflora extractshowed insulin (43±11pmol/l, adiponectin (5.3±0.5 μg/ml, glucose (144±9.8 mg/dl, and triglyceride (120±10 mg/dl levels significantly improved as compare with the control group [insulin (137±34 pmol/l, adiponectin (3.9±0.15 μg/ml, glucose (187±15mg/dl, and triglycerides (217±18 mg/dl]. PPARγ protein level, also significantly increased in Zataria multiflora treated group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of Zataria multiflora extract on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fructose diet through at least three mechanisms including direct insulin like effect, increasing in adiponectin and of PPARγ protein expression.   

  8. Insulin Sensitivity and Mortality Risk Estimation in Patients with Type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... Akinlade et al.: Insulin sensitivity and mortality risk estimation in diabetics. 772. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ¦ Volume 20 ¦ Issue 6 ¦ June 2017 albuminuria.[16] It is, however, known that albuminuria is an important biomarker to predict micro and macrovascular complications and mortality in patients.

  9. Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Anna Maria Charlotte K

    to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The results of this PhD project show that treatment with an α1-adrenergic antagonist increases capillarization and whole-body insulin sensitivity in both rodents and humans. In addition, the combination of VEGF-A electrotransfer and training result...

  10. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lauretta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold. Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis.

  11. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, Rosa; Lanzolla, Giulia; Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Moretti, Costanzo

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold). Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis. PMID:27725832

  12. The impact of kidney transplantation on insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Buhl; Hornum, Mads; van Hall, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of kidney transplantation (KTx) on insulin sensitivity affecting glucose metabolism. 9 nondiabetic patients awaiting living donor KTx were examined prior to transplantation with an oral glucose tolerance test and a 3-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. The clamp...

  13. Connexin-36 gap junctions regulate in vivo first- and second-phase insulin secretion dynamics and glucose tolerance in the conscious mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, W Steven; Orseth, Meredith L; Nunemaker, Craig S; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W; Benninger, Richard K P

    2012-07-01

    Insulin is secreted from the islets of Langerhans in coordinated pulses. These pulses are thought to lead to plasma insulin oscillations, which are putatively more effective in lowering blood glucose than continuous levels of insulin. Gap-junction coupling of β-cells by connexin-36 coordinates intracellular free calcium oscillations and pulsatile insulin release in isolated islets, however a role in vivo has not been shown. We test whether loss of gap-junction coupling disrupts plasma insulin oscillations and whether this impacts glucose tolerance. We characterized the connexin-36 knockout (Cx36(-/-)) mouse phenotype and performed hyperglycemic clamps with rapid sampling of insulin in Cx36(-/-) and control mice. Our results show that Cx36(-/-) mice are glucose intolerant, despite normal plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. However, Cx36(-/-) mice exhibit reduced insulin pulse amplitudes and a reduction in first-phase insulin secretion. These changes are similarly found in isolated Cx36(-/-) islets. We conclude that Cx36 gap junctions regulate the in vivo dynamics of insulin secretion, which in turn is important for glucose homeostasis. Coordinated pulsatility of individual islets enhances the first-phase elevation and second-phase pulses of insulin. Because these dynamics are disrupted in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, dysregulation of gap-junction coupling could be an important factor in the development of this disease.

  14. Chromium and polyphenols from cinnamon improve insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Naturally-occurring compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenols found in cinnamon (Cinnamomon cassia). These compounds also have similar effects on insulin signalling and glucose control. The signs of Cr deficiency are similar to those for the metabolic syndrome and supplemental Cr has been shown to improve all these signs in human subjects. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study it has been demonstrated that glucose, insulin, cholesterol and HbA1c are all improved in patients with type 2 diabetes following Cr supplementation. It has also been shown that cinnamon polyphenols improve insulin sensitivity in in vitro, animal and human studies. Cinnamon reduces mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), TAG (23-30%), total cholesterol (12-26%) and LDL-cholesterol (7-27%) in subjects with type 2 diabetes after 40 d of daily consumption of 1-6 g cinnamon. Subjects with the metabolic syndrome who consume an aqueous extract of cinnamon have been shown to have improved fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, percentage body fat and increased lean body mass compared with the placebo group. Studies utilizing an aqueous extract of cinnamon, high in type A polyphenols, have also demonstrated improvements in fasting glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in women with insulin resistance associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome. For both supplemental Cr and cinnamon not all studies have reported beneficial effects and the responses are related to the duration of the study, form of Cr or cinnamon used and the extent of obesity and glucose intolerance of the subjects.

  15. Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Administration on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga, Laura Y; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2017-08-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is a medicinal plant whose consumption has demonstrated benefits on lipid and glucose levels, blood pressure, and body weight (BWt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of G. sylvestre administration on metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients (without pharmacological treatment), 30-60 years old, with diagnosis of MetS in accordance with the modified International Diabetes Federation criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to receive G. sylvestre or placebo twice daily before breakfast and dinner in 300 mg capsules for a total of 600 mg per day for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, the components of MetS were evaluated as well as BWt, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Area under the curve of glucose and insulin, phases of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests; P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. After G. sylvestre administration, significant decreases in BWt (81.3 ± 10.6 kg vs. 77.9 ± 8.4 kg, P = .02), BMI (31.2 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 vs. 30.4 ± 2.2 kg/m 2 , P = .02), and VLDL levels (0.45 ± 0.15 mmol/dL vs. 0.35 ± 0.15 mmol/dL, P = .05) were observed, without modifying the components of MetS, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, G. sylvestre administration decreased BWt, BMI, and VLDL levels in subjects with MetS, without changes in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.

  16. In vivo absorption studies of insulin from an oral delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry, N; Anitha, Y; Sharma, C P; Sony, P

    2001-01-01

    Alginate microspheres prepared by an emulsion-based process were loaded with insulin by a remote loading process. We observed that the time of exposure, pH of the remote loading medium, and beta-cyclodextrin complexation of insulin influenced drug loading. In vivo absorption studies of insulin from optimized microspheres were carried out in diabetic albino rats. Serum sugar levels on administration of multiple oral doses of the microspheres and a radioimmunoassay for serum insulin indicated absorption of insulin from the gastrointestinal region. This process could be utilized for the development of an oral insulin delivery system.

  17. Chitosan-alginate capsules as oral delivery system for insulin: studies in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, C.A.; R. M. LUCINDA-SILVA; P. CLASEN; S. MAFFEZZOLLI; Bürger, C

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess chitosan:alginate capsules as gastric resistant systems for oral administration of insulin. Chitosan:alginate capsules of insulin were tested in simulated gastric and intestinal media and in vivo. The capsules released only about 20% of the insulin after 60 minutes of incubation in simulated gastric medium. On the other hand, almost all the encapsulated insulin was released after being incubated for 90 min in simulated intestinal medium. When capsules conta...

  18. Effect of metformin on peripheral insulin sensitivity in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, R; Schernthaner, G; Graf, H

    1986-12-01

    To test whether metformin treatment might improve peripheral insulin sensitivity in non insulin dependent diabetes, we measured peripheral glucose uptake in 12 non insulin dependent diabetics before (A) and after 4 weeks (B) of metformin therapy (2 X 850 mg/day) by the hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (80 mU/m2/min). In addition, insulin binding to monocytes was compared between A and B. Diabetic control, evaluated by measurement of fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, was significantly improved by metformin treatment (P less than 0.01). Insulin binding to monocytes was not significantly influenced by metformin (A-4.53% vs. B-5.12%, n.s. at insulin tracer concentration). Peripheral glucose utilisation improved slightly, but significantly after 4 weeks of metformin therapy (A: 4.4 +/- 0.6 mg/kg/min, B: 5.4 +/- 0.8 mg/kg/min, p less than 0.01). Improvement in peripheral glucose utilisation correlated significantly with improved metabolic control, estimated by fasting blood glucose measurements (p less than 0.01).

  19. Associations of Physical Activity Intensities with Markers of Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelleyman, Charlotte; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Henson, Joseph; Gray, Laura J; Rowlands, Alex V; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J; Yates, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectively measured physical activity (PA) intensity has traditionally been categorized as light, moderate, and vigorous using laboratory calibrated cut points. The relative contribution of time spent across a spectrum of accelerometer-determined intensities on health outcomes is less clear. This study aimed to assess the relationship between objectively measured PA intensity on a continuous scale and markers of insulin sensitivity (IS). Participants at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from primary care (Leicestershire, UK). PA was measured using an ActiGraph accelerometer. Fasting and postchallenge glucose and insulin levels were assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test. IS was calculated using the Matsuda-IS and the HOMA-IS indices. Log-linear regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between PA intensity, in increments of 500 counts per minute, with markers of IS. Models were controlled for known confounders. Complete data were available for 569 participants. PA intensity was favorably associated with fasting and 2 h of insulin and IS, with the association increasing in magnitude with each increment of 500 counts per minute. Differences in HOMA-IS per 10 min of PA ranged from 12.4% (95% confidence interval = 3.7%-21.8%) to 26.8% (11.0%-44.7%) within the moderate-intensity PA category (from 2000-2499 to 3500-3999 counts per minute). For Matsuda-IS, these differences were 22.0% (10.3%-34.9%) and 34.7% (13.9%-59.3%), respectively. Significant associations for fasting insulin were no longer observed after controlling for body mass index, whereas differences associated with 2-h insulin and IS were attenuated but still significant. PA of any intensity may positively influence glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity in individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a dose-response manner. Further research is required to identify the intensity thresholds at which clinically relevant benefits occur in this population.

  20. Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPARγ activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPARγ LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPARγ target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor α on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial

  1. pH-sensitive chitosan/alginate core-shell nanoparticles for efficient and safe oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Chakraborty, Souma; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Mishra, Roshnara; Kundu, P P

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-alginate (CS/ALG) nanoparticles were prepared by formation of an ionotropic pre-gelation of an alginate (ALG) core entrapping insulin, followed by chitosan (CS) polyelectrolyte complexation, for successful oral insulin administration. Mild preparation process without harsh chemicals is aimed at improving insulin bio-efficiency in in vivo model. The nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 100-200 nm in dynamic light scattering (DLS), with almost spherical or sub-spherical shape and ∼ 85% of insulin encapsulation. Again, retention of almost entire amount of encapsulated insulin in simulated gastric buffer followed by its sustained release in simulated intestinal condition proved its pH sensitivity in in vitro release studies. Significant hypoglycemic effects with improved insulin-relative bioavailability (∼ 8.11%) in in vivo model revealed the efficacy of these core-shell nanoparticles of CS/ALG as an oral insulin carrier. No systemic toxicity was found after its peroral treatment, suggesting these core-shell nanoparticles as a promising device for potential oral insulin delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current...

  3. Fasting insulin sensitivity indices are not better than routine clinical variables at predicting insulin sensitivity among Black Africans: a clamp study in sub-Saharan Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the predictive utility of common fasting insulin sensitivity indices, and non-laboratory surrogates [BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] in sub-Saharan Africans without diabetes. Methods We measured fasting glucose and insulin, and glucose uptake during 80/mU/m2/min euglycemic clamp in 87 Cameroonians (51 men) aged (SD) 34.6 (11.4) years. We derived insulin sensitivity indices including HOMA-IR, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and glucose-to-insulin ratio (GIR). Indices and clinical predictors were compared to clamp using correlation tests, robust linear regressions and agreement of classification by sex-specific thirds. Results The mean insulin sensitivity was M = 10.5 ± 3.2 mg/kg/min. Classification across thirds of insulin sensitivity by clamp matched with non-laboratory surrogates in 30-48% of participants, and with fasting indices in 27-51%, with kappa statistics ranging from −0.10 to 0.26. Fasting indices correlated significantly with clamp (/r/=0.23-0.30), with GIR performing less well than fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (both p insulin sensitivity indices are modest predictors of insulin sensitivity measured by euglycemic clamp, and do not perform better than clinical surrogates in this population. PMID:25106496

  4. Dietary patterns, insulin sensitivity and inflammation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A L; Harris, T B; Tylavsky, F A; Perry, S E; Houston, D K; Lee, J S; Kanaya, A M; Sahyoun, N R

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have linked dietary patterns to insulin sensitivity and systemic inflammation, which affect risk of multiple chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary patterns of a cohort of older adults, and to examine relationships of dietary patterns with markers of insulin sensitivity and systemic inflammation. The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study is a prospective cohort study of 3075 older adults. In Health ABC, multiple indicators of glucose metabolism and systemic inflammation were assessed. Food intake was estimated with a modified Block food frequency questionnaire. In this study, dietary patterns of 1751 participants with complete data were derived by cluster analysis. Six clusters were identified, including a 'healthy foods' cluster, characterized by higher intake of low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish and vegetables. In the main analysis, the 'healthy foods' cluster had significantly lower fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance values than the 'breakfast cereal' and 'high-fat dairy products' clusters, and lower fasting glucose than the 'high-fat dairy products' cluster (P≤0.05). No differences were found in 2-h glucose. With respect to inflammation, the 'healthy foods' cluster had lower interleukin-6 than the 'sweets and desserts' and 'high-fat dairy products' clusters, and no differences were seen in C-reactive protein or tumor necrosis factor-α. A dietary pattern high in low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish and vegetables may be associated with greater insulin sensitivity and lower systemic inflammation in older adults.

  5. Insulin sensitivity and carotid intima-media thickness: relationship between insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozakova, M.; Natali, A.; Dekker, J.M.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Laakso, M.; Nilsson, P.; Balkau, B.; Ferrannini, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective-Despite a wealth of experimental data in animal models, the independent association of insulin resistance with early carotid atherosclerosis in man has not been demonstrated. Approach and Results-We studied a European cohort of 525 men and 655 women (mean age, 44±8 years) free of

  6. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Bogaert, H; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Shamsuddin, M; Opsomer, G

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), length of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with gender and season of birth when data of all calves were analyzed. In addition, the insulin traits in calves born to cows were significantly associated with MGEST, DP and LL. The Insb was estimated to be higher in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The

  7. Ethnic Differences in Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, and Hepatic Extraction Between Japanese and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B; Dalla Man, Chiara; Overgaard, Rune V

    2014-01-01

    : This was a cross-sectional study with oral glucose tolerance tests to assess β-cell function, hepatic insulin extraction, and insulin sensitivity. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS included 120 Japanese and 150 Caucasian subjects. MAIN OUTCOMES: Measures of β-cell function, hepatic extraction, and insulin sensitivity...... were assessed using C-peptide, glucose, and insulin minimal models. RESULTS: Basal β-cell function (Φ(b)) was lower in Japanese compared with Caucasians (P ... compared with Caucasians (P insulin action showed higher sensitivity in the Japanese IGT subjects. Hepatic extraction was similar in NGT and IGT groups but higher in Japanese type 2 diabetic subjects (P insulin sensitivity, β-cell function...

  8. Prediction of the insulin sensitivity index using Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard; Dethlefsen, Claus

    The insulin sensitivity index () can be used in assessing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. An intravenous study is used to determine using Bergmans minimal model. However, an intravenous study is time consuming and expensive and therefore not suitable for large scale epidemiological studie...... test instead of an intravenous study. The methodology is applied to a dataset with 187 patients. We find that the values from this study are highly correlated to the values determined from the intravenous study. S_I S_I S_I S_I S_I......The insulin sensitivity index () can be used in assessing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. An intravenous study is used to determine using Bergmans minimal model. However, an intravenous study is time consuming and expensive and therefore not suitable for large scale epidemiological studies...

  9. Effect of arotinolol on insulin sensitivity in obese hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, S; Yamamoto, J; Mimura, A; Sakurai, T; Ishibashi, K; Isogai, Y

    1994-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity in terms of glucose disposal rate was determined by using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique in seven obese hypertensive patients and nine normotensive control subjects. The technique was used on all study subjects at baseline and on the hypertensive patients after 12 weeks of arotinolol treatment. Mean supine systolic blood pressure decreased from 155 +/- 3 mm Hg before treatment to 133 +/- 6 mm Hg after treatment (P arotinolol was 10 mg/d, except for one patient who received 20 mg/d. The glucose disposal rate during the last 30 minutes of the glucose clamp procedure was not significantly affected by treatment with arotinolol. Compared with the hypertensive patients, the glucose disposal rate in the normotensive subjects was significantly increased, both before and after treatment (P arotinolol did not significantly affect insulin sensitivity.

  10. Fish consumption, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Liese, A; Wagenknecht, L; Lorenzo, C; Haffner, S; Hanley, A

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the association between fish consumption and incident type 2 diabetes has been inconclusive. In addition, few studies have investigated how fish consumption may be related to the metabolic abnormalities underlying diabetes. Therefore, we examined the association of fish consumption with measures of insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in a multi-ethnic population. We examined the cross-sectional association between fish consumption and measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion in 951 non-diabetic participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Fish consumption, categorized as consumption was independently associated with lower S(I)-adjusted AIR (β = -0.13 [-0.25, -0.016], p = 0.03, comparing ≥2 vs. consumption was positively associated with intact and split proinsulin/C-peptide ratios, however, these associations were confounded by ethnicity (multivariable-adjusted β = 0.073 [-0.014, 0.16] for intact proinsulin/C-peptide ratio, β = 0.031 [-0.065, 0.13] for split proinsulin/C-peptide ratio). We also observed a significant positive association between fish consumption and fasting blood glucose (multivariable-adjusted β = 2.27 [0.68, 3.86], p = 0.005). We found no association between fish consumption and S(I) (multivariable-adjusted β = -0.015 [-0.083, 0.053]) or fasting insulin (multivariable-adjusted β = 0.016 [-0.066, 0.10]). Fish consumption was not associated with measures of insulin sensitivity in the multi-ethnic IRAS cohort. However, higher fish consumption may be associated with pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Grizzly bears exhibit augmented insulin sensitivity while obese prior to a reversible insulin resistance during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; Jansen, Heiko T; Galbreath, Elizabeth; Morgenstern, Kurt; Gehring, Jamie Lauren; Rigano, Kimberly Scott; Lee, Jae; Gong, Jianhua; Shaywitz, Adam J; Vella, Chantal A; Robbins, Charles T; Corbit, Kevin C

    2014-08-05

    The confluence of obesity and diabetes as a worldwide epidemic necessitates the discovery of new therapies. Success in this endeavor requires translatable preclinical studies, which traditionally employ rodent models. As an alternative approach, we explored hibernation where obesity is a natural adaptation to survive months of fasting. Here we report that grizzly bears exhibit seasonal tripartite insulin responsiveness such that obese animals augment insulin sensitivity but only weeks later enter hibernation-specific insulin resistance (IR) and subsequently reinitiate responsiveness upon awakening. Preparation for hibernation is characterized by adiposity coupled to increased insulin sensitivity via modified PTEN/AKT signaling specifically in adipose tissue, suggesting a state of "healthy" obesity analogous to humans with PTEN haploinsufficiency. Collectively, we show that bears reversibly cope with homeostatic perturbations considered detrimental to humans and describe a mechanism whereby IR functions not as a late-stage metabolic adaptation to obesity, but rather a gatekeeper of the fed-fasting transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effects of Telmisartan and Losartan on Insulin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Bakıner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Telmisartan has been reported to increase insulin sensitivity by acting as a partial PPAR-gamma agonist, regardless of its renin-angiotensin system inhibition, but losartan has no such activity. In this study, we compared the effects of telmisartan and losartan on insulin sensitivity among type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Method: Age-, sex- and weight-matched patients, who had been on telmisartan or losartan treatment for at least 3 months, were included. Their anthropometric measurements were performed, blood pressures were recorded. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained for analyzing the levels of glucose, HbA1C, insulin and adiponectin. HOMA-IR was calculated. An euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure was performed in each subject and M index was calculated. Thereafter, telmisartan and losartan were withdrawn in both groups. A cross-over design was planned; following a wash-out period of 15 days, losartan group (Group 1 was given telmisartan 80 mg/day, telmisartan group (Group 2 was administered losartan 50 mg/day. After 12 weeks of therapy, all measurements, calculations and the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test were re-performed. Results: General characteristics of the patients at inclusion were similar. Nine cases in group 1 and 8 cases in Group 2 concluded the follow-up. In Group 1, among all follow-up parameters, only weight exhibited a significant decrease at final evaluation (p=0,034. In Group 2, only M value was found to increase (p=0,028. Discussion: Our findings indicated that losartan improved insulin sensitivity in patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes, and telmisartan use resulted in more weight loss. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 92-7

  13. New measure of insulin sensitivity predicts cardiovascular disease better than HOMA estimated insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Venkataraman

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Accurate assessment of insulin sensitivity may better identify individuals at increased risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a combination of anthropometric, biochemical and imaging measures can better estimate insulin sensitivity index (ISI and provide improved prediction of cardio-metabolic risk, in comparison to HOMA-IR. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Healthy male volunteers (96 Chinese, 80 Malay, 77 Indian, 21 to 40 years, body mass index 18-30 kg/m(2. Predicted ISI (ISI-cal was generated using 45 randomly selected Chinese through stepwise multiple linear regression, and validated in the rest using non-parametric correlation (Kendall's tau τ. In an independent longitudinal cohort, ISI-cal and HOMA-IR were compared for prediction of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD, using ROC curves. SETTING: The study was conducted in a university academic medical centre. OUTCOME MEASURES: ISI measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp, along with anthropometric measurements, biochemical assessment and imaging; incident diabetes and CVD. RESULTS: A combination of fasting insulin, serum triglycerides and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR provided the best estimate of clamp-derived ISI (adjusted R(2 0.58 versus 0.32 HOMA-IR. In an independent cohort, ROC areas under the curve were 0.77±0.02 ISI-cal versus 0.76±0.02 HOMA-IR (p>0.05 for incident diabetes, and 0.74±0.03 ISI-cal versus 0.61±0.03 HOMA-IR (p<0.001 for incident CVD. ISI-cal also had greater sensitivity than defined metabolic syndrome in predicting CVD, with a four-fold increase in the risk of CVD independent of metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Triglycerides and WHR, combined with fasting insulin levels, provide a better estimate of current insulin resistance state and improved identification of individuals with future risk of CVD, compared to HOMA-IR. This may be useful for estimating insulin sensitivity and cardio-metabolic risk in clinical and

  14. Heart Rate Variability, Insulin Resistance, and Insulin Sensitivity in Japanese Adults: The Toon Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Saito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although impaired cardiac autonomic function is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, evidence in Asian populations with a lower body mass index is limited. Methods: Between 2009–2012, the Toon Health Study recruited 1899 individuals aged 30–79 years who were not taking medication for diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was used to diagnose type 2 diabetes, and fasting and 2-h-postload glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. We assessed the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and Gutt’s insulin sensitivity index (ISI. Pulse was recorded for 5 min, and time-domain heart rate variability (HRV indices were calculated: the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN and the root mean square of successive difference (RMSSD. Power spectral analysis provided frequency domain measures of HRV: high frequency (HF power, low frequency (LF power, and the LF:HF ratio. Results: Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models showed decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HF, and increased LF:HF ratio were associated significantly with increased HOMA-IR and decreased ISI. When stratified by overweight status, the association of RMSSD, HF, and LF:HF ratio with decreased ISI was also apparent in non-overweight individuals. The interaction between LF:HF ratio and decreased ISI in overweight individuals was significant, with the odds ratio for decreased ISI in the highest quartile of LF:HF ratio in non-overweight individuals being 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.41–3.10. Conclusions: Reduced HRV was associated with insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity. Decreased ISI was linked with parasympathetic dysfunction, primarily in non-overweight individuals.

  15. Common genetic variation in the human FNDC5 locus, encoding the novel muscle-derived 'browning' factor irisin, determines insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Staiger

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recently, the novel myokine irisin was described to drive adipose tissue 'browning', to increase energy expenditure, and to improve obesity and insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice. Here, we assessed whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FNDC5 locus, encoding the irisin precursor, contribute to human prediabetic phenotypes (overweight, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, impaired insulin release. METHODS: A population of 1,976 individuals was characterized by oral glucose tolerance tests and genotyped for FNDC5 tagging SNPs. Subgroups underwent hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps, magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. From 37 young and 14 elderly participants recruited in two different centres, muscle biopsies were obtained for the preparation of human myotube cultures. RESULTS: After appropriate adjustment and Bonferroni correction for the number of tested variants, SNPs rs16835198 and rs726344 were associated with in vivo measures of insulin sensitivity. Via interrogation of publicly available data from the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium, rs726344's effect on insulin sensitivity was replicated. Moreover, novel data from human myotubes revealed a negative association between FNDC5 expression and appropriately adjusted in vivo measures of insulin sensitivity in young donors. This finding was replicated in myotubes from elderly men. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence that the FNDC5 gene, encoding the novel myokine irisin, determines insulin sensitivity in humans. Our gene expression data point to an unexpected insulin-desensitizing effect of irisin.

  16. The assembly of lipid droplets and its relation to cellular insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Pontus; Andersson, Linda; Li, Lu

    2009-01-01

    to be transported on microtubules. Lipid droplets grow in size by fusion, which is dependent on dynein and the transfer on microtubules, and is catalysed by the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptor) proteins SNAP-23 (23 kDa synaptosome-associated protein), syntaxin-5...... and VAMP-4 (vesicle-associated protein 4). SNAP-23 is also involved in the insulin-dependent translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. Fatty acids induce a missorting of SNAP-23, from the plasma membrane to the interior of the cell, resulting in cellular insulin resistance...... that can be overcome by increasing the levels of SNAP-23. The same missorting of SNAP-23 occurs in vivo in skeletal-muscle biopsies from patients with T2D (Type 2 diabetes). Moreover, there was a linear relation between the amount of SNAP-23 in the plasma membrane from human skeletal-muscles biopsies...

  17. Insulin requirement in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: relation to simple tests of islet B-cell function and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjessing, H J; Matzen, L E; Pedersen, P C

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of simple tests of islet B-cell function and insulin sensitivity as predictors of metabolic control was performed during 3 months of insulin withdrawal in 25 insulin-treated diabetic subjects. All patients had a glucagon stimulated plasma C-peptide concentration above 0.33 nmol....../l and a fasting plasma C-peptide concentration above 0.20 nmol/l a few days before insulin withdrawal. Insulin sensitivity was measured as the glucose disappearance rate (k) during an intravenous insulin tolerance test. Two patients were considered insulin-requiring due to high fasting blood glucose levels......-peptide levels the predictive value of a positive test was 100% while the predictive value of a negative test was as low as 33% or 27% depending on whether fasting or stimulated C-peptide concentration was used. Including the k value in the prediction only increased the predictive values of negative tests to 40...

  18. Measuring beta-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity in youth: Does the hyperglycemic clamp suffice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare beta-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity, disposition index (DI), calculated from two clamps (2cDI, insulin sensitivity from the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and first-phase insulin from the hyperglycemic clamp) with the DI calculated from the hyperglycemic clamp alone (hcD...

  19. Sustained Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Initial Hunger Improves Insulin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciampolini

    2010-01-01

    Results. In trained subjects, significant decreases were found in insulin sensitivity index, insulin and BG peaks, glycated haemoglobin, mean pre-meal BG, standard deviation of diary BG (BG as recorded by subjects' 7-day diary, energy intake, BMI, and body weight when compared to control subjects. Conclusion. The IHMP improved insulin sensitivity and other cardiovascular risk factors over a 5-month period.

  20. Hepatic insulin signalling is dispensable for suppression of glucose output by insulin in vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Titchenell, Paul M; Chu, Qingwei; Monks, Bobby R; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    .... Liver-specific deletion of Foxo1 (L-IRFoxo1DKO) rescues glucose tolerance and allows for normal suppression of HGP and gluconeogenic gene expression in response to insulin, despite lack of autonomous liver insulin signalling...

  1. Artemisia extracts activate PPARγ, promote adipogenesis, and enhance insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue of obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Allison J; Burris, Thomas P; Sanchez-Infantes, David; Wang, Yongjun; Ribnicky, David M; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that the inability of adipose tissue to properly expand during the obese state or respond to insulin can lead to metabolic dysfunction. Artemisia is a diverse group of plants that has a history of medicinal use. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia scoparia (SCO) and Artemisia santolinifolia (SAN) to modulate adipocyte development in cultured adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Adipogenesis was assessed using Oil Red O staining and immunoblotting. A nuclear receptor specificity assay was used to examine the specificity of SCO- and SAN-induced PPARγ activation. C57BL/6J mice, fed a high-fat diet, were gavaged with saline, SCO, or SAN for 2 wk. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was examined using insulin tolerance tests. WAT depots were assessed via immunoblotting for markers of insulin action and adipokine production. We established that SCO and SAN were highly specific activators of PPARγ and did not activate other nuclear receptors. After a 1-wk daily gavage, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had lower insulin-induced glucose disposal rates than control mice. At the end of the 2-wk treatment period, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had enhanced insulin-responsive Akt serine-473 phosphorylation and significantly decreased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in visceral WAT compared with control mice; these differences were depot specific. Moreover, plasma adiponectin levels were increased following SCO treatment. Overall, these studies demonstrate that extracts from two Artemisia species can have metabolically favorable effects on adipocytes and WAT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Insulin-mediated FFA suppression is associated with triglyceridemia and insulin sensitivity independent of adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nikki C; Basu, Rita; Rizza, Robert A; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Khosla, Sundeep; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-11-01

    A central/visceral fat distribution and excess free fatty acid (FFA) availability are associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. However, these two characteristics often coexist, making it difficult to detect the independent contributions of each. Whether FFA suppression is more closely linked to metabolic abnormalities is not clear. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between FFA suppression, body fat distribution, and fitness as contributors toward insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. We measured systemic palmitate turnover using an iv infusion of [9,10-(3)H]palmitate; upper body sc adipose tissue (UBSQ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and a single-slice abdominal computed tomography scan; fitness with a graded exercise treadmill test; and insulin sensitivity with both the iv glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) (SI(IVGTT)) and mixed meal tolerance test (SI(Meal)). The study was conducted at a General Clinical Research Center. Baseline data were obtained from 140 elderly adults (age, 60-88 yr; 83 males) and 60 young adults (age, 18-31 yr; 31 males) who participated in a previously published trial assessing the effects of 2-yr supplementation of dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone on body composition, glucose metabolism, and bone density. There were no interventions. We measured fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations, SI(IVGTT), and SI(Meal). Using multivariate regression analysis, the strongest combined predictors of TG concentrations were VAT, postmeal nadir FFA concentrations, sex, and age. The best predictors of SI(IVGTT) were IVGTT nadir palmitate concentration, VAT, UBSQ fat, fitness, and age, whereas the best predictors of SI(Meal) were meal nadir palmitate concentration, UBSQ fat, fitness, and sex. FFA suppression is associated with both fasting TG concentrations and insulin sensitivity, independent of measures of adiposity.

  3. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...... used to determine oral glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and DIOGTT was calculated as the product of SI OGTT and GSISOGTT. Our novel SI OGTT showed high agreement with clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (typical error = +3.6%; r = 0.69, P ... (DIOGTT) that is a measure of pancreatic β-cell insulin secretory compensation for changing insulin sensitivity. We conducted an observational study of n = 187 subjects, representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity...

  4. PPARγ-mediated insulin sensitization: the importance of fat versus muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulrich Kintscher; Ronald E. Law

    2005-01-01

    ...., through binding of the synthetic glitazones or thiazolidinediones (TZD), results in a marked improvement in type 2 diabetic patients of insulin and glucose parameters resulting from an improvement of whole body insulin sensitivity...

  5. L-Citrulline increases hepatic sensitivity to insulin by reducing the phosphorylation of serine 1101 in insulin receptor substrate-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Hisae; Momoo, Maki; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Yewei; Suguro, Shiori; Yamagishi, Yoshie; Gao, Ming

    2015-06-18

    Insulin resistance is characterized by deficient responses to insulin in its target tissues. In the present study, we examined the effects of L-Citrulline (L-Cit) on insulin sensitivity and signaling cascades in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats. H4IIE cells were pretreated in the presence or absence of 250 μM L-Cit in serum-free medium and then incubated in the presence or absence of 0.1 nM insulin. Rats were allocated into 2 groups; a control group (not treated) and L-Cit group (2 g/kg/day, L-Cit) and treated for 8 weeks. L-Cit enhanced the insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt in H4IIE cells. Moreover, the inhibited expression of Dex/cAMP-induced PEPCK mRNA by insulin was enhanced by the L-Cit treatment. The phosphorylation of tyrosine, which is upstream of Akt, in insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was increased by the L-Cit treatment. The L-Cit-induced enhancement in insulin signaling was not related to the binding affinity of insulin to the insulin receptor or to the expression of the insulin receptor, but to a decrease in the phosphorylation of serine 1101 in IRS-1. These results were also confirmed in animal experiments. In the livers of L-Cit-treated rats, PI3K/Akt signaling was improved by decreases in the phosphorylation of serine 1101. We herein demonstrated for the first time the beneficial effects of L-Cit on improved insulin resistance associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity. These results may have clinical applications for insulin resistance and the treatment of type-2 diabetes.

  6. Knock-Down of IL-1Ra in Obese Mice Decreases Liver Inflammation and Improves Insulin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Niclas; Maris, Michael; Nalbandian, Sarah; Talukdar, Saswata; Schenk, Simon; Hofmann, Hans-Peter; Bullough, David; Osborn, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 1 Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is highly elevated in obesity and is widely recognized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. While the anti-inflammatory role of IL-1Ra in the pancreas is well established, the role of IL-1Ra in other insulin target tissues and the contribution of systemic IL-1Ra levels to the development of insulin resistance remains to be defined. Using antisense knock down of IL-1Ra in vivo, we show that normalization of IL-1Ra improved insulin sensitivity due to decreased inflammation in the liver and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and these effects were independent of changes in body weight. A similar effect was observed in IL1-R1 KO mice, suggesting that at high concentrations of IL-1Ra typically observed in obesity, IL-1Ra can contribute to the development of insulin resistance in a mechanism independent of IL-1Ra binding to IL-1R1. These results demonstrate that normalization of plasma IL-1Ra concentration improves insulin sensitivity in diet- induced obese mice. PMID:25244011

  7. Knock-down of IL-1Ra in obese mice decreases liver inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Franck

    Full Text Available Interleukin 1 Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra is highly elevated in obesity and is widely recognized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. While the anti-inflammatory role of IL-1Ra in the pancreas is well established, the role of IL-1Ra in other insulin target tissues and the contribution of systemic IL-1Ra levels to the development of insulin resistance remains to be defined. Using antisense knock down of IL-1Ra in vivo, we show that normalization of IL-1Ra improved insulin sensitivity due to decreased inflammation in the liver and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and these effects were independent of changes in body weight. A similar effect was observed in IL1-R1 KO mice, suggesting that at high concentrations of IL-1Ra typically observed in obesity, IL-1Ra can contribute to the development of insulin resistance in a mechanism independent of IL-1Ra binding to IL-1R1. These results demonstrate that normalization of plasma IL-1Ra concentration improves insulin sensitivity in diet- induced obese mice.

  8. Global transcriptome profiling identifies KLF15 and SLC25A10 as modifiers of adipocytes insulin sensitivity in obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agné Kulyté

    Full Text Available Although the mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance (IR and type 2 diabetes (T2D are not entirely understood, it is likely that alterations of adipose tissue function are involved. The aim of this study was to identify new genes controlling insulin sensitivity in adipocytes from obese women with either insulin resistant (OIR or sensitive (OIS adipocytes. Insulin sensitivity was first determined by measuring lipogenesis in isolated adipocytes from abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT in a large observational study. Lipogenesis was measured under conditions where glucose transport was the rate limiting step and reflects in vivo insulin sensitivity. We then performed microarray-based transcriptome profiling on subcutaneous WAT specimen from a subgroup of 9 lean, 21 OIS and 18 obese OIR women. We could identify 432 genes that were differentially expressed between the OIR and OIS group (FDR ≤5%. These genes are enriched in pathways related to glucose and amino acid metabolism, cellular respiration, and insulin signaling, and include genes such as SLC2A4, AKT2, as well as genes coding for enzymes in the mitochondria respiratory chain. Two IR-associated genes, KLF15 encoding a transcription factor and SLC25A10 encoding a dicarboxylate carrier, were selected for functional evaluation in adipocytes differentiated in vitro. Knockdown of KLF15 and SLC25A10 using siRNA inhibited insulin-stimulated lipogenesis in adipocytes. Transcriptome profiling of siRNA-treated cells suggested that KLF15 might control insulin sensitivity by influencing expression of PPARG, PXMP2, AQP7, LPL and genes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Knockdown of SLC25A10 had only modest impact on the transcriptome, suggesting that it might directly influence insulin sensitivity in adipocytes independently of transcription due to its important role in fatty acid synthesis. In summary, this study identifies novel genes associated with insulin sensitivity in

  9. Enhanced skeletal muscle lipid oxidative efficiency in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive nondiabetic, nonobese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Jose E; Vasquez, Karla; Watkins, Guillermo; Dupuy, Aude; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Levade, Thierry; Moro, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is proposed to result from impaired skeletal muscle lipid oxidative capacity. However, there is no evidence indicating that muscle lipid oxidative capacity is impaired in healthy otherwise insulin-resistant individuals. The objective of the study was to assess muscle lipid oxidative capacity in young, nonobese, glucose-tolerant, insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive individuals. In 13 insulin-sensitive [by Matsuda index (MI) (22.6 ± 0.6 [SE] kg/m(2)); 23 ± 1 years; MI 5.9 ± 0.1] and 13 insulin-resistant (23.2 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); 23 ± 3 years; MI 2.2 ± 0.1) volunteers, skeletal muscle biopsy, blood extraction before and after an oral glucose load, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were performed. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio, oxidative phosphorylation protein content, and citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities were assessed. Muscle lipids and palmitate oxidation ((14)CO2 and (14)C-acid soluble metabolites production) at 4 [1-(14)C]palmitate concentrations (45-520 μM) were also measured. None of the muscle mitochondrial measures showed differences between groups, except for a higher complex V protein content in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive volunteers (3.5 ± 0.4 vs 2.2 ± 0.4; P = .05). Muscle ceramide content was significantly increased in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive individuals (P = .04). Total palmitate oxidation showed a similar concentration-dependent response in both groups (P = .69). However, lipid oxidative efficiency (CO2 to (14)C-acid soluble metabolites ratio) was enhanced in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive individuals, particularly at the highest palmitate concentration (0.24 ± 0.04 vs 0.12 ± 0.02; P = .02). We found no evidence of impaired muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity in young, nonobese, glucose-tolerant, otherwise insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive individuals. Enhanced muscle lipid oxidative efficiency in insulin

  10. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in South Asian and white individuals before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca K; Brunner, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: South Asian individuals have reduced insulin sensitivity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared with white individuals. Temporal changes in glycaemic traits during middle age suggest that impaired insulin secretion is a particular feature of diabetes development among Sou...

  11. Decreased insulin sensitivity during dietary sodium restriction is not mediated by effects of angiotensin II on insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Colin G; Palmer, Tim; Cleland, Steven J; Morton, Ian J; Salt, Ian P; Petrie, John R; Gould, Gwyn W; Connell, John M C

    2003-08-01

    We have previously reported that modest dietary sodium restriction, as advocated in management guidelines for diabetes, may reduce insulin sensitivity. It has since been suggested that this effect may be mediated via cross-talk between insulin and angiotensin II (AII)-stimulated intracellular second messengers. In order to assess the effect of 5 days of modest sodium restriction (to sodium intake) on insulin sensitivity, 15 healthy males underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp study. One phase was supplemented with sodium tablets and the other with matched placebo. Insulin sensitivity (M) was reduced during dietary sodium restriction [median M value, 10.2 mg/kg per min (interquartile range 9.50-13.85) versus 12.8 mg/kg per min (interquartile range 9.60-14.30), P potential mechanisms that may explain this observation, we investigated the effect of AII on insulin action in isolated adipocytes obtained from healthy females. No effect of AII on insulin-mediated glucose transport or suppression of lipolysis was observed. In conclusion, despite the observation that dietary sodium restriction was associated with a median 15% reduction in insulin sensitivity, we found no evidence of a direct effect of AII on insulin action in human adipocytes.

  12. In vivo effect of insulin to decrease matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity after arterial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, June; Dhaliwall, Jiwanjeet K; Chan, Kalam K; Ghanim, Husam; Al Koudsi, Nael; Lam, Loretta; Madadi, Golnaz; Dandona, Paresh; Giacca, Adria; Bendeck, Michelle P

    2013-01-01

    In vitro, insulin has both growth-promoting and vasculoprotective effects. In vivo, the effect of insulin is mainly protective. Insulin treatment (3 U/day) decreases smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and neointimal growth after carotid angioplasty in normal rats maintained at normoglycemia by oral glucose. SMC migration requires limited proteolysis of the extracellular matrix, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, we investigated the effects of normoglycemic hyperinsulinemia on MMP activity after balloon angioplasty. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) control implants and tap water; (2) control implants and oral glucose, and (3) insulin implants (3 U/day) and oral glucose. Gelatin zymography revealed that insulin reduced the gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-2 by 46% (p < 0.05), MMP-2 by 44% (p < 0.05) and MMP-9 by 51% (p < 0.05) compared to controls after arterial injury. Insulin also reduced mRNA levels of MMP-2 (p < 0.05) and MMP-9 (p < 0.05) and protein levels of MMP-2 (p < 0.05). In contrast, there were no significant changes in membrane-type 1 MMP protein and tissue inhibitors of MMP activity after insulin treatment. Thus, these results suggest a mechanism by which insulin inhibits SMC migration and supports a vasculoprotective role for insulin in vivo. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Different impacts of acylated and non-acylated long-acting insulin analogs on neural functions in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hitomi; Endo, Kosuke; Mori, Norihiko; Hosoh, Shuji; Tsuda, Masaaki; Wada, Tsutomu; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2017-07-01

    Centrally administered insulin improves cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer's disease; however, it remains unknown whether long-acting insulin analogs exert more pronounced effects than insulin. In the present study, we directly compared the effects of insulin and its analogs on neural functions in vitro and in vivo. Cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons were treated with insulin, insulin glargine U100 (Gla), insulin detemir (Det), or insulin degludec (Deg). Moreover, these drugs were intracerebroventricularly administered to mice. Their efficacies were evaluated by biochemical and behavioral analyses. In cultured neurons, insulin, Gla, and Det increased phosphorylation of Akt and enhanced gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to a similar extent, although Deg was less effective. The effects of Det and Deg, but not insulin and Gla were suppressed by addition of albumin. When the drug was centrally administered, the increasing effects of insulin on the Akt phosphorylation were comparable to those of Gla but greater than those of Det in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of diabetic db/db and non-diabetic db/m+ mice. Moreover, insulin and Gla enhanced memory functions in Y-maze test and suppressed depression-like behavior in forced swim test in normal mice to a similar extent, and these effects were more potent than those of Det. Insulin and Gla have greater impacts on central nervous system than insulin analogs with high albumin sensitivity, such as Det and Deg. These pharmacological profiles should be taken into account for developing an insulin-based therapy to treat Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fasting insulin sensitivity indices are not better than routine clinical variables at predicting insulin sensitivity among Black Africans: a clamp study in sub-Saharan Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobngwi, Eugene; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Choukem, Simeon; Sobngwi-Tambekou, Joelle; Balti, Eric V; Pearce, Mark S; Siaha, Valentin; Mamdjokam, Aissa S; Effoe, Valery; Lontchi-Yimagou, Eric; Donfack, Oliver T; Atogho-Tiedeu, Barbara; Boudou, Philippe; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Mbanya, Jean-Claude

    2014-08-09

    We aimed to evaluate the predictive utility of common fasting insulin sensitivity indices, and non-laboratory surrogates [BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] in sub-Saharan Africans without diabetes. We measured fasting glucose and insulin, and glucose uptake during 80/mU/m2/min euglycemic clamp in 87 Cameroonians (51 men) aged (SD) 34.6 (11.4) years. We derived insulin sensitivity indices including HOMA-IR, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and glucose-to-insulin ratio (GIR). Indices and clinical predictors were compared to clamp using correlation tests, robust linear regressions and agreement of classification by sex-specific thirds. The mean insulin sensitivity was M = 10.5 ± 3.2 mg/kg/min. Classification across thirds of insulin sensitivity by clamp matched with non-laboratory surrogates in 30-48% of participants, and with fasting indices in 27-51%, with kappa statistics ranging from -0.10 to 0.26. Fasting indices correlated significantly with clamp (/r/=0.23-0.30), with GIR performing less well than fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (both p fasting indices (/r/=0.38-0.43). Combinations of fasting indices and clinical predictors explained 25-27% of variation in clamp values. Fasting insulin sensitivity indices are modest predictors of insulin sensitivity measured by euglycemic clamp, and do not perform better than clinical surrogates in this population.

  15. Chitosan-alginate capsules as oral delivery system for insulin: studies in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. RODRIGUES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess chitosan:alginate capsules as gastric resistant systems for oral administration of insulin. Chitosan:alginate capsules of insulin were tested in simulated gastric and intestinal media and in vivo. The capsules released only about 20% of the insulin after 60 minutes of incubation in simulated gastric medium. On the other hand, almost all the encapsulated insulin was released after being incubated for 90 min in simulated intestinal medium. When capsules containing 20 IU and 40 IU insulin were given to rats by gavage, signifi cantly reduced plasma glucose levels were observed (33.7 % and 51.7%, respectively two hours after the treatment, which returned to normal after six hours. These results indicate that chitosan:alginate capsules are potential carriers for oral protein delivery. Keywords: chitosan:alginate capsules; insulin; oral administration.

  16. Insulin sensitizers prevent fine particulate matter-induced vascular insulin resistance and changes in endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Petra; McCracken, James P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Because blood vessels are sensitive targets of air pollutant exposure, we examined the effects of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) on vascular insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which reflect cardiovascular health. We found that CAP exposure for 9 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta of mice maintained on control diet. This change was accompanied by the induction of IL-1β and increases in the abundance of cleaved IL-18 and p10 subunit of Casp-1, consistent with the activation of the inflammasome pathway. CAP exposure also suppressed circulating levels of EPCs (Flk-1(+)/Sca-1(+) cells), while enhancing the bone marrow abundance of these cells. Although similar changes in vascular insulin signaling and EPC levels were observed in mice fed high-fat diet, CAP exposure did not exacerbate diet-induced changes in vascular insulin resistance or EPC homeostasis. Treatment with an insulin sensitizer, metformin or rosiglitazone, prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and NF-κB and inflammasome activation and restored peripheral blood and bone marrow EPC levels. These findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure induces diet-independent vascular insulin resistance and inflammation and prevents EPC mobilization, and that this EPC mobilization defect could be mediated by vascular insulin resistance. Impaired vascular insulin sensitivity may be an important mechanism underlying PM2.5-induced vascular injury, and pharmacological sensitization to insulin action could potentially prevent deficits in vascular repair and mitigate vascular inflammation due to exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Longitudinal relationship of physical activity with insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Poppel, Mireille N M; Oostdam, Nicolette; Eekhoff, Marelise E W; Wouters, Maurice G A J; van Mechelen, Willem; Catalano, Patrick M

    2013-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) initiated in the second half of pregnancy does not affect (or modify) insulin sensitivity in normal weight women. However, this might be different in obese women with lower insulin sensitivity. To test the hypothesis that in overweight and obese women at risk for gestational diabetes, PA is related to improved maternal glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnancy. A longitudinal study, with measurements at 15, 24, and 32 weeks of gestation, was conducted. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured objectively. In regression models, the relationship between time spent in MVPA at week 15 and changes in MVPA from 15 weeks to 24 or 32 weeks with fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin response at week 24 or 32 was assessed. In a group of 24 women, MVPA in early pregnancy was significantly associated with a reduced first- and second-phase insulin response at week 32. Women with larger decreases in MVPA throughout pregnancy had significantly higher fasting insulin levels, worse insulin sensitivity, increased first- and second-phase insulin response, and higher triglyceride levels in late pregnancy compared to women with smaller decreases in MVPA. Time spent in MVPA was not related to glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin levels. In our group of overweight and obese pregnant women, MVPA was associated with improved insulin sensitivity, insulin response, and decreased triglycerides at 32 weeks of pregnancy. This supports efforts for counseling obese women at risk for gestational diabetes in pregnancy to maintain their MVPA levels.

  18. PTP1B deficiency improves hypothalamic insulin sensitivity resulting in the attenuation of AgRP mRNA expression under high-fat diet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mariko; Banno, Ryoichi; Mizoguchi, Akira; Tominaga, Takashi; Tsunekawa, Taku; Onoue, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Ito, Yoshihiro; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Iwama, Shintaro; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-06-17

    Hypothalamic insulin receptor signaling regulates energy balance and glucose homeostasis via agouti-related protein (AgRP). While protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is classically known to be a negative regulator of peripheral insulin signaling by dephosphorylating both insulin receptor β (IRβ) and insulin receptor substrate, the role of PTP1B in hypothalamic insulin signaling remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of PTP1B in hypothalamic insulin signaling using PTP1B deficient (KO) mice in vivo and ex vivo. For the in vivo study, hypothalamic insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) improved in KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Hypothalamic AgRP mRNA expression levels were also significantly decreased in KO mice independent of body weight changes. In an ex vivo study using hypothalamic organotypic cultures, insulin treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of both IRβ and Akt in the hypothalamus of KO mice compared to WT mice, and also significantly decreased AgRP mRNA expression levels in KO mice. While incubation with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) had no effect on basal levels of Akt phosphorylation, these suppressed insulin induction of Akt phosphorylation to almost basal levels in WT and KO mice. The inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway blocked the downregulation of AgRP mRNA expression in KO mice treated with insulin. These data suggest that PTP1B acts on the hypothalamic insulin signaling via the PI3K-Akt pathway. Together, our results suggest a deficiency of PTP1B improves hypothalamic insulin sensitivity resulting in the attenuation of AgRP mRNA expression under HFD conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced muscle insulin sensitivity after contraction/exercise is mediated by AMPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Munk-Hansen, Nanna; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that muscle insulin sensitivity to stimulate glucose uptake is enhanced several hours after an acute bout of exercise. Using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (AICAR), we recently demonstrated that prior activation of AMPK is sufficient to increase...... insulin sensitivity in mouse skeletal muscle. Here we aimed to determine whether activation of AMPK is also a prerequisite for the ability of muscle contraction to increase insulin sensitivity. We found that prior in situ contraction of m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and treadmill exercise increased...... muscle and whole body insulin sensitivity in wild type (WT) mice, respectively. These effects were not found in AMPKα1α2 muscle-specific knockout mice. Prior in situ contraction did not increase insulin sensitivity in m. soleus from either genotype. Improvement in muscle insulin sensitivity...

  20. The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD, that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42 or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy, relatively high fibre (>30 g/day diet (HPHFib (n = 47 for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method—the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST. Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; p = 0.013 in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.

  1. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  2. Enhanced insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Leticia E; Chen, Xiaochuan; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2017-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with persistent metabolic complications, but information is limited for IUGR infants. We determined glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Lambs with hyperthermia-induced IUGR ( n = 7) were compared with control lambs ( n = 8). GSIS was measured at 8 ± 1 days of age, and at 15 ± 1 days, body weight-specific glucose utilization rates were measured with radiolabeled d-glucose during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). IUGR lambs weighed 23% less ( P insulin concentrations were not different between IUGR and controls for either study. First-phase insulin secretion was enhanced 2.3-fold in IUGR lambs compared with controls. However, second-phase insulin concentrations, glucose-potentiated arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, and β-cell mass were not different, indicating that IUGR β-cells have an intrinsic enhancement in acute GSIS. Compared with controls, IUGR lambs had higher body weight-specific glucose utilization rates and greater insulin sensitivity at fasting (1.6-fold) and hyperinsulinemic periods (2.4-fold). Improved insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization was not due to differences in skeletal muscle insulin receptor and glucose transporters 1 and 4 concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations during HEC were elevated in IUGR lambs compared with controls, but no differences were found for glycogen content or citrate synthase activity in liver and muscle. Greater insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization and enhanced acute GSIS in young lambs are predicted from fetal studies but may promote conditions that exaggerate glucose disposal and lead to episodes of hypoglycemia in IUGR infants. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Influence of apolipoproteins on the association between lipids and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Simona; Bonnet, Fabrice; Laville, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated whether the association of insulin sensitivity with HDL cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides is influenced by major plasma apolipoproteins, as suggested by recent experimental evidence....

  4. Genome-wide association study of the modified Stumvoll Insulin Sensitivity Index identifies BCL2 and FAM19A2 as novel insulin sensitivity loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Geoffrey A; Gustafsson, Stefan; Rybin, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found few common variants that influence fasting measures of insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a GWAS of an integrated assessment of fasting and dynamic measures of insulin sensitivity would detect novel common variants. We performed GWAS of the...... novel loci and replicated known variants associated with insulin sensitivity. Further studies are needed to clarify the causal variant and function at the BCL2 and FAM19A2 loci.......Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found few common variants that influence fasting measures of insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a GWAS of an integrated assessment of fasting and dynamic measures of insulin sensitivity would detect novel common variants. We performed GWAS...... of the modified Stumvoll Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI) within the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium. Discovery was performed in 16,753 individuals, and replication was attempted for the 23 most significant novel loci in 13,354 independent individuals. Association with ISI was tested...

  5. Increased insulin secretory capacity but decreased insulin sensitivity after correction of iron overload by phlebotomy in hereditary haemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D; Rogers, J; Gault, P; Kushner, J P; McClain, D A

    2006-11-01

    We recently demonstrated that humans with hereditary haemochromatosis have decreased insulin secretory capacity with a compensatory increase in insulin sensitivity. We therefore determined how these measures change after correction of tissue iron overload. Five non-diabetic subjects who had been studied previously at the time of initial diagnosis by means of the OGTT and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIVGTT) underwent phlebotomy to normalise their serum ferritin. After normalisation of ferritin they were studied again (33+/-4 months after the initial studies) by OGTT and FSIVGTT. Normalisation of tissue iron stores resulted in an average 1.8-fold increase in the integrated area under the insulin curve during OGTT (pdisposition index (AIRgxSi) was unchanged (5% increase, p=0.90). BMI and fasting glucose were unchanged. At the time of diagnosis of haemochromatosis, four of the subjects had IGT. After normalisation of ferritin, two achieved NGT and two remained with IGT, despite 2.5- and 3.7-fold increases in insulin secretory capacity. Insulin secretory capacity improves after normalisation of iron stores in subjects with hereditary haemochromatosis. Glucose tolerance status improves incompletely because of decreased insulin sensitivity after phlebotomy. We conclude that tissue iron levels are an important determinant of insulin secretion and insulin action.

  6. Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a forerunner state of ischaemic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we show how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non-diabetic Danish individuals. The serum metabolome of insulin-resistant...... are identified as the main species driving the association between biosynthesis of BCAAs and insulin resistance, and in mice we demonstrate that P. copri can induce insulin resistance, aggravate glucose intolerance and augment circulating levels of BCAAs. Our findings suggest that microbial targets may have...... the potential to diminish insulin resistance and reduce the incidence of common metabolic and cardiovascular disorders....

  7. pH sensitive insulin-loaded nanohydrogel increases the effect of oral insulin in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnoosh-Yamchi, Jalil; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh; Ostad Rahimi, Ali Reza; Garnoosh, Khalil; Bahmani, Zahra; Ashoori, Mohammad; Mobasseri, Majid

    2017-09-01

    There are different methods for insulin administration in diabetic patient. Nano-hydrogel is one of the most talented drug carrier for its sensitivity to environmental stimulus. NIPAAm-MAA-HEM copolymers were synthesized by radical chain reaction. The copolymers were characterized with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transient electron microscopy (TEM). Copolymers were loaded with regular insulin by modified double emulsion method. Diabetic rats are used for feeding insulin-loaded nanohydrogel. Analysis of the results from the measurement of the amount of blood insulin from the rats blood that received insulin in nanohydrogel loaded form compared with rats that received pure insulin is significantly high, which confirm that insulin has been able to pass from the stomach acid barrier by nanohydrogel and is absorbed from the intestine. Blood sugar levels from tested rats indicate that with increasing amount of insulin, blood sugar levels fall down. Our study confirms that insulin has been able to pass from the stomach acid barrier by nanohydrogel and be absorbed from the intestine.

  8. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children with constitutional delay of growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dyanne A; Hofman, Paul L; Miles, Harriet L; Sato, Tim A; Billett, Nathalie E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prepubertal children with presumed constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) have enhanced insulin sensitivity and, therefore, insulin sensitivity is associated with later onset of puberty. Twenty-one prepubertal children with presumed CDGD and 23 prepubertal control children, underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and other markers of insulin, glucose, and growth regulation. Children in the CDGD group were shorter and leaner than control subjects. Children with presumed CDGD were 40% more insulin sensitive (17.0 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L] versus 12.1 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L]; P = .0006) and had reduced acute insulin response, thus maintaining euglycemia (216 mU/L versus 330 mU/L; P = .02) compared with control subjects. In addition, the CDGD group had lower serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels (3333 ng/mL versus 3775 ng/mL; P = .0004) and a trend toward lower serum insulin-like growth factor-II levels (794 ng/mL versus 911 ng/mL; P = .06). Prepubertal children with presumed CDGD have enhanced insulin sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity is associated with timing of puberty. It may signify long-term biological advantages with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Insulin increases phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xiaolu; Bak, Steffen; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that multiple proteins involved in key regulatory processes in mitochondria are phosphorylated in mammalian tissues. Insulin regulates glucose metabolism by phosphorylation-dependent signaling and has been shown to stimulate ATP synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Here......, we investigated the effect of insulin on the phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle in vivo. Using a combination of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC−MS/MS, we compared the phosphoproteomes of isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle samples...... obtained from healthy individuals before and after 4 h of insulin infusion. In total, we identified 207 phosphorylation sites in 95 mitochondrial proteins. Of these phosphorylation sites, 45% were identified in both basal and insulin-stimulated samples. Insulin caused a 2-fold increase in the number...

  10. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Brito, Gleisson A P; Coelho, Isabela; Pequitto, Danielle C T; Yamaguchi, Adriana A; Borghetti, Gina; Schiessel, Dalton Luiz; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Machado, Juliano; Rocha, Ricelli E R; Aikawa, Julia; Iagher, Fabiola; Naliwaiko, Katya; Tanhoffer, Ricardo A; Nunes, Everson A; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2011-04-28

    Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO), obese control group (Ob), coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO) and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO). Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Obese animals (Ob) presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt) showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO) similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30%) and triacylglycerol (TG; 33%) compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day) was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.

  11. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iagher Fabiola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG (4 mg/g body weight was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C, coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO, fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO, obese control group (Ob, coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO. Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Results Obese animals (Ob presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30% and triacylglycerol (TG; 33% compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Conclusions Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.

  12. Partial inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity without alteration of fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Girousse

    Full Text Available When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT provides fatty acids (FAs for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL participates in the breakdown of WAT triacylglycerol into FAs. HSL haploinsufficiency and treatment with a HSL inhibitor resulted in improvement of insulin tolerance without impact on body weight, fat mass, and WAT inflammation in high-fat-diet-fed mice. In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. The reduction in FA turnover was accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism with a shift in respiratory quotient, increase of glucose uptake in WAT and skeletal muscle, and enhancement of de novo lipogenesis and insulin signalling in liver. In human adipocytes, HSL gene silencing led to improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, resulting in increased de novo lipogenesis and activation of cognate gene expression. In clinical studies, WAT lipolytic rate was positively and negatively correlated with indexes of insulin resistance and WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression, respectively. In obese individuals, chronic inhibition of lipolysis resulted in induction of WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression. Thus, reduction in WAT lipolysis reshapes FA fluxes without increase of fat mass and improves glucose metabolism through cell-autonomous induction of fat cell de novo lipogenesis, which contributes to improved insulin sensitivity.

  13. AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK): Does This Master Regulator of Cellular Energy State Distinguish Insulin Sensitive from Insulin Resistant Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X Julia; Valentine, Rudy J; Ruderman, Neil B

    2014-06-01

    Although a correlation exists between obesity and insulin resistance, roughly 25 % of obese individuals are insulin sensitive. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor that among its many actions, integrates diverse physiological signals to restore energy balance. In addition, in many situations it also increases insulin sensitivity. In this context, AMPK activity is decreased in very obese individuals undergoing bariatric surgery who are insulin resistant compared to equally obese patients who are insulin sensitive. In this review, we will both explore what distinguishes these individuals, and evaluate the evidence that diminished AMPK is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome-associated disorders in other circumstances.

  14. Egg white hydrolysate shows insulin mimetic and sensitizing effects in 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Jahandideh

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and inflammation in adipose tissue is a key mechanism underlying metabolic syndrome, a growing health problem characterized by diabetes, obesity and hypertension. Previous work from our research group has demonstrated the potential of egg white ovotransferrin derived bioactive peptides against hypertension, oxidative stress and inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Egg white hydrolysate (EWH has also shown anti-hypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Given the interplay among hypertension, inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome, the objective of the study was to test the EWH on differentiation, insulin signaling and inflammatory responses in 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes. Our study suggested that EWH could promote adipocyte differentiation as shown by increased lipid accumulation, increased release of adiponectin and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator associated receptor gamma (PPARγ and CCAAT/ enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP-α. In addition to enhanced insulin effects on the upregulation of protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation, EWH treatment increased extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation to a level similar to that of insulin, indicating insulin sensitizing and mimetic properties of the EWH. EWH further attenuated cytokine induced inflammatory marker; cyclooxygenase -2 (COX-2 by 48.78%, possibly through the AP-1 pathway by down regulating c-Jun phosphorylation in adipocytes. Given the critical role of adipose in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, EWH may have potential applications in the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  15. Lack of effect of long-term amlodipine on insulin sensitivity and plasma insulin in obese patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Maximilian; Ferrari, P; Schneider, M

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of long-term treatment antihypertensive with the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine on insulin sensitivity, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein metabolism in obese hypertensive patients. We measured the insulin sensitivity index (SI), determined by the Minimal Model...... Method of Bergman, fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, serum total triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions, and blood pressure in 20 obese, non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension before and after 6 weeks of placebo and again after 6 months of amlodipine. Ten patients...... [mean body mass index (BMI) 30.2 kg.m-2] had been on prior treatment with a thiazide diuretic in low dosage and/or a beta-adrenoceptor blocker (group A), and 10 matched patients [BMI 31.8 kg.m-2] had been previously untreated (group B). Amlodipine was started in a dose of 5 mg and was increased to 10 mg...

  16. Longitudinal Relationship of Physical Activity With Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, M.N.M.; Oostdam, E.W.M.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; van Mechelen, W.; Catalano, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) initiated in the second half of pregnancy does not affect (or modify) insulin sensitivity in normal weight women. However, this might be different in obese women with lower insulin sensitivity. Objective: To test the hypothesis that in overweight and obese women at

  17. Effect of training on insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and lipolysis in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, Bente; Larsen, J J; Mikines, K J

    2000-01-01

    Training increases insulin sensitivity of both whole body and muscle in humans. To investigate whether training also increases insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, we performed a three-step hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in eight endurance-trained (T) and eight sedentary (S) young men [insu...

  18. Acute activation of GLP-1-expressing neurons promotes glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Shi

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that acute activation of PPG neurons in the brainstem reduces basal glucose production, enhances intraperitoneal glucose tolerance, and augments hepatic insulin sensitivity, suggesting an important physiological role of PPG neurons-mediated circuitry in promoting glycemic control and insulin sensitivity.

  19. Omentin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing properties, is negatively associated with insulin resistance in normal gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Benny; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Hemi, Rina; Yinon, Yoav; Schiff, Eyal; Mashiach, Roy; Kanety, Hannah; Sivan, Eyal

    2015-05-01

    Omentin, a newly identified adipokine, enhances insulin mediated glucose uptake in human adipocytes, thus, inducing systemic insulin-sensitizing effect. The aims of this study were to determine whether circulating maternal omentin levels are associated with insulin resistance indices and to assess which compartment, maternal, fetal, or placental, is the source of omentin in maternal circulation. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and omentin were determined in 25 healthy pregnant women at the third trimester, before and 3 days after elective cesarean section. Cord blood omentin was measured in the 25 term neonates. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to evaluate insulin sensitivity before and after delivery. Antepartum maternal omentin levels were negatively correlated with insulin levels (r=-0.41, P=0.04) and positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S; r=0.4, P=0.04). Postpartum omentin levels were negatively correlated with maternal body mass index (r=-0.44, P=0.02). Median maternal omentin levels was comparable before and after delivery (57.2, inter-quartile range: 38.2-76.2 ng/mL vs. 53.4, 39.8-69.4 ng/mL, respectively, P=0.25) and highly correlated (r=0.83, P<0.001). Antepartum maternal and neonatal omentin levels did not differ significantly (fetal: 62.2, 44.3-74.2 ng/mL, P=0.77) and did not correlate (P=0.6). Circulating maternal omentin levels are correlated with insulin resistance indices, suggesting that this adipokine may play a role in metabolic adaptations of normal gestation. The strong correlation between anteparum and postpartum maternal omentin levels, as well as the lack of association between maternal and neonatal omentin levels, suggest that placental or fetal compartments are unlikely as the main source of circulating maternal omentin.

  20. Rapamycin has a biphasic effect on insulin sensitivity in C2C12 myotubes due to sequential disruption of mTORC1 and mTORC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan eYe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1, improves insulin sensitivity in acute studies in vitro and in vivo by disrupting a negative feedback loop mediated by S6 kinase. We find that rapamycin has a clear biphasic effect on insulin sensitivity in C2C12 myotubes, with enhanced responsiveness during the first hour that declines to almost complete insulin resistance by 24-48 hours. We and others have recently observed that chronic rapamycin treatment induces insulin resistance in rodents, at least in part due to disruption of mTORC2, an mTOR-containing complex that is not acutely sensitive to the drug. Chronic rapamycin treatment may also impair insulin action via the inhibition of mTORC1-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis and activity, which could result in a buildup of lipid intermediates that are known to trigger insulin resistance. We confirmed that rapamycin inhibits expression of PGC-1α, a key mitochondrial transcription factor, and acutely reduces respiration rate in myotubes. However, rapamycin did not stimulate phosphorylation of PKCθ, a central mediator of lipid-induced insulin resistance. Instead, we found dramatic disruption of mTORC2, which coincided with the onset of insulin resistance. Selective inhibition of mTORC1 or mTORC2 by shRNA-mediated knockdown of specific components (Raptor and Rictor, respectively confirmed that mitochondrial effects of rapamycin are mTORC1-dependent, whereas insulin resistance was recapitulated only by knockdown of mTORC2. Thus, mTORC2 disruption, rather than inhibition of mitochondria, causes insulin resistance in rapamycin-treated myotubes, and this system may serve as a useful model to understand the effects of rapamycin on mTOR signaling in vivo.

  1. Subcutaneous adipose tissue zinc-α2-glycoprotein is associated with adipose tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Janakova, Zuzana; Kurdiova, Timea; Surova, Martina; Imrich, Richard; Majercikova, Zuzana; Penesova, Adela; Vlcek, Miroslav; Kiss, Alexander; Belan, Vitazoslav; Klimes, Iwar; Olejnik, Juraj; Gasperikova, Daniela; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    To examine the regulatory aspects of zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) association with obesity-related insulin resistance. ZAG mRNA and protein were analyzed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and circulation of lean, obese, prediabetic, and type 2 diabetic men; both subcutaneous and visceral AT were explored in lean and extremely obese. Clinical and ex vivo findings were corroborated by results of in vitro ZAG silencing experiment. Subcutaneous AT ZAG was reduced in obesity, with a trend to further decrease with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. ZAG was 3.3-fold higher in subcutaneous than in visceral AT of lean individuals. All differences were lost in extreme obesity. Obesity-associated changes in AT were not paralleled by alterations of circulating ZAG. Subcutaneous AT ZAG correlated with adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, whole-body and AT insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial content, expression of GLUT4, PGC1α, and adiponectin. Subcutaneous AT ZAG and adipocyte size were the only predictors of insulin sensitivity, independent on age and BMI. Silencing ZAG resulted in reduced adiponectin, IRS1, GLUT4, and PGC1α gene expression in primary human adipocytes. ZAG in subcutaneous, but not in visceral AT, was markedly reduced in obesity. Clinical, cellular, and molecular evidence indicate that ZAG plays an important role in modulating whole-body and AT insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. The Relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels, Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion in Women 3 Years after Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tänczer, Tímea; Magenheim, Rita; Fürst, Ágnes; Domján, Beatrix; Janicsek, Zsófia; Szabó, Eszter; Ferencz, Viktória; Tabák, Ádám G

    2017-12-01

    There is a direct correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, women with gestational diabetes (GDM) may have lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to controls. The present study intended to investigate 25(OH)D levels and their association with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with prior GDM and in controls 3.2 years after delivery. A total of 87 patients with prior GDM and 45 randomly selected controls (age range, 22 to 44 years) with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy nested within a cohort of all deliveries at Saint Margit Hospital, Budapest, between January 1 2005, and December 31 2006, were examined. Their 25(OH) D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin secretion were estimated using the homeostasis model asssessment (HOMA) calculator and early insulin secretion by the insulinogenic index based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D levels between cases and controls (27.2±13.1 [±SD] vs. 26.9±9.8 ng/L). There was a positive association between HOMA insulin sensitivity and 25(OH)D levels (beta = 0.017; 95% CI 0.001 to 0.034/1 ng/mL) that was robust to adjustment for age and body mass index. There was a nonsignificant association between HOMA insulin secretion and 25(OH)D (p=0.099), while no association was found with the insulinogenic index. Prior GDM status was not associated with 25(OH)D levels; however, 25(OH) D levels were associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity. It is hypothesized that the association between HOMA insulin secretion and 25(OH)D levels is related to the autoregulation of fasting glucose levels because no association between 25(OH)D and insulinogenic index was found. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of obesity and insulin resistance with asthma and aeroallergen sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Glümer, C; Lau, C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that obesity and insulin resistance may play a role in the development of asthma and allergy. The aim of the study was to examine the association of obesity and insulin resistance with asthma and aeroallergen sensitization. METHODS: Cross-sectional population...... and aeroallergen sensitization. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was used to estimate the degree of insulin resistance. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference were used as measures of obesity. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Obesity...

  4. Statin Intake Is Associated With Decreased Insulin Sensitivity During Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Carvalho, George; Sato, Tamaki; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Lattermann, Ralph; Codere-Maruyama, Takumi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Schricker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgical trauma impairs intraoperative insulin sensitivity and is associated with postoperative adverse events. Recently, preprocedural statin therapy is recommended for patients with coronary artery disease. However, statin therapy is reported to increase insulin resistance and the risk of new-onset diabetes. Thus, we investigated the association between preoperative statin therapy and intraoperative insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic, dyslipidemic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this prospective, nonrandomized trial, patients taking lipophilic statins were assigned to the statin group and hypercholesterolemic patients not receiving any statins were allocated to the control group. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp technique during surgery. The mean, SD of blood glucose, and the coefficient of variation (CV) after surgery were calculated for each patient. The association between statin use and intraoperative insulin sensitivity was tested by multiple regression analysis. RESULTS We studied 120 patients. In both groups, insulin sensitivity gradually decreased during surgery with values being on average ∼20% lower in the statin than in the control group. In the statin group, the mean blood glucose in the intensive care unit was higher than in the control group (153 ± 20 vs. 140 ± 20 mg/dL; P statin group (SD, P statin use was independently associated with intraoperative insulin sensitivity (β = −0.16; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Preoperative use of lipophilic statins is associated with increased insulin resistance during cardiac surgery in nondiabetic, dyslipidemic patients. PMID:22829524

  5. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. MG53-IRS-1 (Mitsugumin 53-Insulin Receptor Substrate-1) Interaction Disruptor Sensitizes Insulin Signaling in Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun; Park, Jung-Jin; Nguyen, Nga; Park, Jun Sub; Hong, Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyeob; Song, Woon Young; Kim, Hak Joong; Choi, Kwangman; Cho, Sungchan; Lee, Jae-Seon; Kim, Bong-Woo; Ko, Young-Gyu

    2016-12-23

    Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) is an E3 ligase that interacts with and ubiquitinates insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in skeletal muscle; thus, an MG53-IRS-1 interaction disruptor (MID), which potentially sensitizes insulin signaling with an elevated level of IRS-1 in skeletal muscle, is an excellent candidate for treating insulin resistance. To screen for an MID, we developed a bimolecular luminescence complementation system using an N-terminal luciferase fragment fused with IRS-1 and a C-terminal luciferase fragment fused with an MG53 C14A mutant that binds to IRS-1 but does not have E3 ligase activity. An MID, which was discovered using the bimolecular luminescence complementation system, disrupted the molecular association of MG53 with IRS-1, thus abolishing MG53-mediated IRS-1 ubiquitination and degradation. Thus, the MID sensitized insulin signaling and increased insulin-elicited glucose uptake with an elevated level of IRS-1 in C2C12 myotubes. These data indicate that this MID holds promise as a drug candidate for treating insulin resistance. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. An Amperometric Glucose Sensor Integrated into an Insulin Delivery Cannula: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, W Kenneth; Heinrich, Gabriel; Breen, Matthew; Benware, Sheila; Vollum, Nicole; Morris, Kristin; Knutsen, Chad; Kowalski, Joseph D; Campbell, Scott; Biehler, Jerry; Vreeke, Mark S; Vanderwerf, Scott M; Castle, Jessica R; Cargill, Robert S

    2017-04-01

    Labeling prohibits delivery of insulin at the site of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Integration of the sensing and insulin delivery functions into a single device would likely increase the usage of CGM in persons with type 1 diabetes. To understand the nature of such interference, we measured glucose at the site of bolus insulin delivery in swine using a flexible electrode strip that was laminated to the outer wall of an insulin delivery cannula. In terms of sensing design, we compared H2O2-measuring sensors biased at 600 mV with redox mediator-type sensors biased at 175 mV. In H2O2-measuring sensors, but not in sensors with redox-mediated chemistry, a spurious rise in current was seen after insulin lis-pro boluses. This prolonged artifact was accompanied by electrode poisoning. In redox-mediated sensors, the patterns of sensor signals acquired during delivery of saline and without any liquid delivery were similar to those acquired during insulin delivery. Considering in vitro and in vivo findings together, it became clear that the mechanism of interference is the oxidation, at high bias potentials, of phenolic preservatives present in insulin formulations. This effect can be avoided by the use of redox mediator chemistry using a low bias potential.

  8. Transcriptional Regulation by Nuclear Corepressors and PGC-1α: Implications for Mitochondrial Quality Control and Insulin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtang Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and estrogen-related receptor (ERRα are ligand-activated nuclear receptors that coordinately regulate gene expression. Recent evidence suggests that nuclear corepressors, NCoR, RIP140, and SMRT, repress nuclear receptors-mediated transcriptional activity on specific promoters, and thus regulate insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis, mitochondrial number, and activity in vivo. Moreover, the coactivator PGC-1α that increases mitochondrial biogenesis during exercise and calorie restriction directly regulates autophagy in skeletal muscle and mitophagy in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In this paper, we discuss the PGC-1α’s novel role in mitochondrial quality control and the role of nuclear corepressors in regulating insulin sensitivity and interacting with PGC-1α.

  9. Adenoviral gene transfer of PLD1-D4 enhances insulin sensitivity in mice by disrupting phospholipase D1 interaction with PED/PEA-15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cassese

    Full Text Available Over-expression of phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PED/PEA-15 causes insulin resistance by interacting with the D4 domain of phospholipase D1 (PLD1. Indeed, the disruption of this association restores insulin sensitivity in cultured cells over-expressing PED/PEA-15. Whether the displacement of PLD1 from PED/PEA-15 improves insulin sensitivity in vivo has not been explored yet. In this work we show that treatment with a recombinant adenoviral vector containing the human D4 cDNA (Ad-D4 restores normal glucose homeostasis in transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (Tg ped/pea-15 by improving both insulin sensitivity and secretion. In skeletal muscle of these mice, D4 over-expression inhibited PED/PEA-15-PLD1 interaction, decreased Protein Kinase C alpha activation and restored insulin induced Protein Kinase C zeta activation, leading to amelioration of insulin-dependent glucose uptake. Interestingly, Ad-D4 administration improved insulin sensitivity also in high-fat diet treated obese C57Bl/6 mice. We conclude that PED/PEA-15-PLD1 interaction may represent a novel target for interventions aiming at improving glucose tolerance.

  10. Resistance training improves skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in elderly offspring of overweight and obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Marco; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Koskinen, Suvi; Raiko, Juho R; Lipponen, Heta; Ahsan, Shaila; Badeau, Robert M; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Koffert, Jukka; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Andersson, Jonathan; Kullberg, Joel; Sandboge, Samuel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to adulthood morbidities, including type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance have been associated with shortened telomere length. First, we aimed to investigate whether or not maternal obesity influences insulin sensitivity and its relationship with leucocyte telomere length (LTL) in elderly women. Second, we tested whether or not resistance exercise training improves insulin sensitivity in elderly frail women. Forty-six elderly women, of whom 20 were frail offspring of lean/normal weight mothers (OLM, BMI ≤26.3 kg/m2) and 17 were frail offspring of overweight/obese mothers (OOM,BMI ≥28.1 kg/m2), were studied before and after a 4 month resistance training (RT) intervention. Muscle insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake was measured using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography with computed tomography during a hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp. Muscle mass and lipid content were measured using magnetic resonance and LTL was measured using real-time PCR. The OOM group had lower thigh muscle insulin sensitivity compared with the OLM group (p=0.048) but similar whole body insulin sensitivity. RT improved whole body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in the OOM group only (p=0.004 and p=0.013, respectively), and increased muscle mass in both groups (p insulin sensitivity (ρ ≥ 0.53; p ≤ 0.05). Individuals with shorter LTL showed a higher increase in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity after training (ρ ≥ −0.61; p ≤ 0.05). Maternal obesity and having telomere shortening were associated with insulin resistance in adult offspring. A resistance exercise training programme may reverse this disadvantage among offspring of obese mothers. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01931540.

  11. Insulin Sensitivity and Mortality Risk Estimation in Patients with Type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... contribution of insulin resistance to scores obtained from mortality risk estimation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aim: This study determined the mortality risk scores in patients with T2DM and its relationship with insulin resistance. Methods: Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high‑ ...

  12. Ghrelin differentially affects hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, A. C.; van den Hoek, A. M.; Parlevliet, E. T.; Havekes, L. M.; Romijn, J. A.; Pijl, H.; Corssmit, E. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ghrelin on insulin's capacity to suppress endogenous glucose production and promote glucose disposal in mice. To establish whether the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor can mediate the putative effect of ghrelin on the action of insulin,

  13. Hypoxia and H2O2 Dual-Sensitive Vesicles for Enhanced Glucose-Responsive Insulin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jicheng; Qian, Chenggen; Zhang, Yuqi; Cui, Zheng; Zhu, Yong; Shen, Qundong; Ligler, Frances S; Buse, John B; Gu, Zhen

    2017-02-08

    A glucose-responsive closed-loop insulin delivery system mimicking pancreas activity without long-term side effect has the potential to improve diabetic patients' health and quality of life. Here, we developed a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch containing insulin-loaded vesicles. Formed by self-assembly of hypoxia and H2O2 dual-sensitive diblock copolymer, the glucose-responsive polymersome-based vesicles (d-GRPs) can disassociate and subsequently release insulin triggered by H2O2 and hypoxia generated during glucose oxidation catalyzed by glucose specific enzyme. Moreover, the d-GRPs were able to eliminate the excess H2O2, which may lead to free radical-induced damage to skin tissue during the long-term usage and reduce the activity of GOx. In vivo experiments indicated that this smart insulin patch could efficiently regulate the blood glucose in the chemically induced type 1 diabetic mice for 10 h.

  14. Correction of hyperglycemia with phlorizin normalizes tissue sensitivity to insulin in diabetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetti, L; Smith, D; Shulman, G I; Papachristou, D; DeFronzo, R A

    1987-01-01

    Insulin resistance is characteristic of the diabetic state. To define the role of hyperglycemia in generation of the insulin resistance, we examined the effect of phlorizin treatment on tissue sensitivity to insulin in partially pancreatectomized rats. Five groups were studied: group I, sham-operated controls; group II, partially pancreatectomized diabetic rats with moderate glucose intolerance; group III, diabetic rats treated with phlorizin to normalize glucose tolerance; group IV, phlorizi...

  15. Similar weight-adjusted insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in short-duration late autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA) and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, C B; Bradley, U; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To explore insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in people with latent autoimmune diabetes in adulthood (LADA) compared with that in people with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 12 people with LADA, defined as glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody positivity and > 1 year......) and could be explained by BMI alone in a multivariate analysis. Neither insulin pulsatility, incretin secretion nor insulin sensitivity differed among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that LADA and Type 2 diabetes were distinct disease entities beyond the differences explained by BMI....... of insulin independency (group A) were age-matched pairwise to people with Type 2 diabetes (group B) and to six people with Type 2 diabetes of similar age and BMI (group C). β-cell function (first-phase insulin secretion and assessment of insulin pulsatility), insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic...

  16. Discovery of p1736, a novel antidiabetic compound that improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in mice models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Anthony

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Currently used thiazolidinedione (TZD insulin sensitizers although effective, have adverse side effects of weight gain, fluid retention and heart failure. Using fat cell-based phenotypic drug discovery approach we identified P1736, a novel antidiabetic molecule that has completed Phase II clinical trials. The present study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of P1736. P1736 is a non-TZD and it did not activate human PPAR(Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma receptors. P1736 caused dose dependent increase in glucose uptake (EC50-400 nM in the insulin resistant 3T3 adipocytes. The compound (10 µM induced translocation of GLUT-4 (Glucose Transporter type 4 transporters in these adipocytes while metformin (1.0mM was inactive. In diabetic db/db mice, P1736 (150 mg/kg was more efficacious than metformin in lowering plasma glucose (35% vs 25% and triglyceride levels (38% vs 31%. P1736 tested at 5mg/kg, twice daily doses, reduced glucose by 41% and triglycerides by 32%, in db/db mice. These effects were not associated with adverse effects on body weight or liver function. Rosiglitazone (5mg/kg, twice daily caused 60% and 40 % decreases in glucose and triglyceride levels, respectively. However, rosiglitazone induced 13% weight gain (p<0.05 in db/db mice. P1736 was also efficacious in ob/ob mice wherein 30-35% decrease in glucose and significant improvement in hyperinsulinemia were observed. Administration of P1736 to ob/ob mice resulted in 70% increase in glucose uptake in soleus muscles while metformin caused 38% increase. P1736 exhibited excellent safety profile and was weight neutral in all preclinical models of diabetes. Thus, P1736 with its unique pharmacology coupled with PPAR- independent mode of action could represent an alternative option in the

  17. Insulin Sensitivity and Inflammation Mediate the Impact of Fitness on Cerebrovascular Health in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Po Lai; Ross, Naima; Tirsi, Andrew; Arif, Arslan; Ozinci, Zeynep; Convit, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate in adolescents the relationships between retinal vessel diameter, physical fitness, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation. We evaluated 157 adolescents, 112 with excessive weight and 45 lean, all without type 2 diabetes mellitus. All received detailed evaluations, including measurements of retinal vessel diameter, insulin sensitivity, levels of inflammation, and physical fitness. Overweight/obese adolescents had significantly narrower retinal arteriolar and wider venular diameters, significantly lower insulin sensitivity, and physical fitness. They also had decreased levels of anti-inflammatory and increased levels of proinflammatory markers as well as an overall higher inflammation balance score. Fitness was associated with larger retinal arteriolar and narrower venular diameters and these relationships were mediated by insulin sensitivity. We demonstrate that inflammation also mediates the relationship between fitness and retinal venular, but not arterial diameter; insulin sensitivity and inflammation balance score jointly mediate this relationship with little overlap in their effects. Increasing fitness and insulin sensitivity and reducing inflammation among adolescents carrying excess weight may improve microvascular integrity. Interventions to improve physical fitness and insulin function and reduce inflammation in adolescents, a group likely to benefit from such interventions, may reduce not only cardiovascular disease in middle age, but also improve cerebrovascular function later in life.

  18. Insulin sensitivity derived from oral glucose tolerance testing in athletes: disagreement between available indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakaris, Konstantinos; Magkos, Faidon; Geladas, Nikos; Sidossis, Labros S

    2005-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether available "fasting" and oral glucose tolerance test-derived insulin sensitivity indices could effectively discriminate between individuals with higher than normal insulin sensitivity, and whether they would all provide similar information in clinical practice. Sprint runners (n = 8), endurance runners (n = 8) and sedentary controls (n = 7) received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. All participants were healthy lean males, aged 21-29 years. Besides glucose and insulin responses, a total of nine such indices were computed. Fasting as well as post-load glucose concentrations were similar in the three groups, while basal plasma insulin and the insulinaemic response to glucose were both higher in untrained individuals (at P runners. The results for insulin sensitivity, however, were quite variable: three indices showed that both groups of athletes were more insulin-sensitive than controls; three indicated that this was the case for endurance runners only; one indicated that this was the case for sprint runners only; and two showed that sprint runners were more insulin-sensitive than either sedentary individuals or endurance runners (all differences were significant at P < 0.05). Controlling for total body weight or lean mass did not effectively resolve this disagreement. Apparently, the various insulin sensitivity indices examined provided different quantitative and qualitative information, despite insulin action being greater in both groups of athletes relative to controls, as reflected by their similar glucose tolerance with lower insulin concentrations. We suggest, therefore, that the use and interpretation of such indices among physically active individuals be made with caution.

  19. Exercise increases human skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity via coordinated increases in microvascular perfusion and molecular signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Frøsig, Christian; Kjøbsted, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major health risk and although exercise clearly improves skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, the mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that initiation of a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp four hours after single-legged exercise in humans increased microvascular perfusion...

  20. Correlations between insulin sensitivity and bone mineral density in non-diabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Rohold, A.; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2000-01-01

    sensitivity (Si) was estimated as the rate of glucose disappearance divided by the area under the insulin curve during an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Insulin and C-peptide levels were not correlated with BMD, but Si was a significant predictor of femur (log, r = 0.35) and WB BMD (log r = 0...

  1. Prior AICAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in mouse skeletal muscle in an AMPK-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Fentz, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by an insulin-independent mechanism. In the period after exercise insulin sensitivity to increase glucose uptake is enhanced. The molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are poorly understood, but appear to involve an increased ...

  2. Associations of objective physical activity with insulin sensitivity and circulating adipokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spartano, N L; Stevenson, M D; Xanthakis, V

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) to insulin sensitivity and adipokines. We assessed PA and SED using Actical accelerometers and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 2109 participants (free of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus) from...

  3. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Adiponectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Patel, H.; Ouchi, N.; Kihara, S.; Funahashi, T.; Heine, R.J.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumers have enhanced insulin sensitivity and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, has been found to be negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with insulin

  4. Effect of exercise on insulin sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women : The SHAPE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gemert, Willemijn A.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; May, Anne M.; Peeters, Petra H.; Schuit, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: An inactive lifestyle is a risk factor for several types of cancer. A proposed pathway through which exercise influences cancer risk is via insulin. We aim to investigate the effect of a oneyear exercise intervention on insulin sensitivity, and the role of body fat in this association,

  5. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of silicated hydroxyapatite and impact of insulin adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasgorceix, M; Costa, A M; Mavropoulos, E; Sader, M; Calasans, M; Tanaka, M N; Rossi, A; Damia, C; Chotard-Ghodsnia, R; Champion, E

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluates the biological behaviour, in vitro and in vivo, of silicated hydroxyapatite with and without insulin adsorbed on the material surface. Insulin was successfully adsorbed on hydroxyapatite and silicated hydroxyapatite bioceramics. The modification of the protein secondary structure after the adsorption was investigated by means of infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. Both results were in agreement and indicated that the adsorption process was likely to change the secondary structure of the insulin from a majority of α-helix to a β-sheet form. The biocompatibility of both materials, with and without adsorbed insulin on their surface, was demonstrated in vitro by indirect and direct assays. A good viability of the cells was found and no proliferation effect was observed regardless of the material composition and of the presence or absence of insulin. Dense granules of each material were implanted subcutaneously in mice for 1, 3 and 9 weeks. At 9 weeks of implantation, a higher inflammatory response was observed for silicated hydroxyapatite than for pure hydroxyapatite but no significant effect of adsorbed insulin was detected. Though the presence of silicon in hydroxyapatite did not improve the biological behaviour, the silicon substituted hydroxyapatite remained highly viable.

  6. Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Insulin Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... medicines. You can do it. Back to Top Insulin Safety Tips Never drink insulin. Do not share ...

  7. Weight loss reduces liver fat and improves hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitola, Bernadette E; Deivanayagam, Sheela; Stein, Richard I; Mohammed, Balsamanirina S; Magkos, Faidon; Kirk, Erik P; Klein, Samuel

    2009-09-01

    Obesity in adolescents is associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly insulin resistance and excessive accumulation of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of moderate weight loss on IHTG content and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents who had normal oral glucose tolerance. Insulin sensitivity, assessed by using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique in conjunction with stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion, and IHTG content, assessed by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were evaluated in eight obese adolescents (BMI >or=95th percentile for age and sex; age 15.3 +/- 0.6 years) before and after moderate diet-induced weight loss (8.2 +/- 2.0% of initial body weight). Weight loss caused a 61.6 +/- 8.5% decrease in IHTG content (P = 0.01), and improved both hepatic (56 +/- 18% increase in hepatic insulin sensitivity index, P = 0.01) and skeletal muscle (97 +/- 45% increase in insulin-mediated glucose disposal, P = 0.01) insulin sensitivity. Moderate diet-induced weight loss decreases IHTG content and improves insulin sensitivity in the liver and skeletal muscle in obese adolescents who have normal glucose tolerance. These results support the benefits of weight loss therapy in obese adolescents who do not have evidence of obesity-related metabolic complications during a standard medical evaluation.

  8. Endocrine determinants of changes in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion during a weight cycle in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Karschin

    Full Text Available Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear.In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2 followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF, 3wks of caloric restriction (CR containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO and 2wks of refeeding (RF with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI, insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion were assessed.IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05. Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05 whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05 and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only. After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant.Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin seem to be the major

  9. Thyroid function tests in obese prepubertal children: correlations with insulin sensitivity and body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brufani, Claudia; Manco, Melania; Nobili, Valerio; Fintini, Danilo; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Cappa, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in association with normal/slightly elevated free triiodothyronine (fT(3)) and/or free thyroxine (fT(4)) have been consistently found in obese children. To examine relationships between adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and TSH, fT(3) and fT(4). 240 overweight/obese prepubertal children were studied. Fasting TSH, fT(3), fT(4), glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, leptin and adiponectin were evaluated. Insulin sensitivity and resistance were estimated [quantitative insulin check index (QUICKI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and hepatic insulin resistance index]. Body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The central obesity index was calculated as the ratio of fat tissue in the trunk region to fat tissue in the leg region. The multiple regression analysis with age, gender and measures of fatness as covariates showed that QUICKI was the only significant negative predictor of TSH and central obesity index the strongest positive predictor of fT(3), in association with either age or hepatic insulin resistance index, and that the only positive determinant of fT(4) was hepatic insulin resistance index. Reduced insulin sensitivity is associated with augmented TSH and fT(4), while progressive central fat accumulation is strictly related to a parallel increase in fT(3) levels, independently from total body fat. Further studies are needed to understand mechanisms linking thyroid function to insulin sensitivity and body composition in obese children. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Association Of Sleep Deprivation With Reduction In Insulin Sensitivity As Assessed By The Hyperglycemic Clamp Technique In Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues; AMD; da Silva; CD; Vasques; ACJ; Camilo; DF; Barreiro; Cassani, F; RSL; Zambon; MP; Antonio; MARDM; Geloneze; B.,

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The association between short sleep duration and decreased insulin sensitivity in adolescents has been described. However, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated this association measuring insulin sensitivity by the hyperglycemic clamp technique. OBJECTIVES To compare the distributions of parameters of insulin resistance in adolescents with sleep deprivation vs adequate sleep, and to investigate the association between sleep deprivation and insulin sensitivity. DESIGN, SETT...

  11. Dietary fat and carbohydrates differentially alter insulin sensitivity during caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Erik; Reeds, Dominic N; Finck, Brian N; Mayurranjan, S Mitra; Mayurranjan, Mitra S; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2009-05-01

    We determined the effects of acute and chronic calorie restriction with either a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) diet or a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Twenty-two obese subjects (body mass index, 36.5 +/- 0.8 kg/m2) were randomized to an HC (>180 g/day) or LC (insulin action, cellular insulin signaling, and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content before, after 48 hours, and after approximately 11 weeks (7% weight loss) of diet therapy. At 48 hours, IHTG content decreased more in the LC than the HC diet group (29.6% +/- 4.8% vs 8.9% +/- 1.4%; P Insulin-mediated glucose uptake did not change at 48 hours but increased similarly in both groups after 7% weight loss (48.4% +/- 14.3%; P insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase decreased by 29% +/- 13% and phosphorylation of Akt and insulin receptor substrate 1 increased by 35% +/- 9% and 36% +/- 9%, respectively, after 7% weight loss (all P insulin sensitivity, and glucose production), whereas moderate weight loss affects muscle (insulin-mediated glucose uptake and insulin signaling).

  12. Aerobic Exercise Increases Peripheral and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Sedentary Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Toffolo, Gianna; Manesso, Erica; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. Objective: To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and

  13. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Marcinko

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC.

  14. Stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake by muscle involves the central nervous system in insulin-sensitive mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, C.P.; Biermasz, N.R.; Geerling, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production (EGP) and stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. We examined the contribution of central insulin signaling on circulating insulin-stimulated

  15. High levels of dietary stearate promote adiposity and deteriorate hepatic insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havekes Louis M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the role of specific saturated fatty acids in the development of high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have studied the effect of stearate in high fat diets (45% energy as fat on whole body energy metabolism and tissue specific insulin sensitivity. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low stearate diet based on palm oil or one of two stearate rich diets, one diet based on lard and one diet based on palm oil supplemented with tristearin (to the stearate level of the lard based diet, for a period of 5 weeks. Ad libitum fed Oxidative metabolism was assessed by indirect calorimetry at week 5. Changes in body mass and composition was assessed by DEXA scan analysis. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis and Western blot at the end of week 5. Results Indirect calorimetry analysis revealed that high levels of dietary stearate resulted in lower caloric energy expenditure characterized by lower oxidation of fatty acids. In agreement with this metabolic phenotype, mice on the stearate rich diets gained more adipose tissue mass. Whole body and tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and analysis of insulin induced PKBser473 phosphorylation. Whole body insulin sensitivity was decreased by all high fat diets. However, while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by peripheral tissues was impaired by all high fat diets, hepatic insulin sensitivity was affected only by the stearate rich diets. This tissue-specific pattern of reduced insulin sensitivity was confirmed by similar impairment in insulin-induced phosphorylation of PKBser473 in both liver and skeletal muscle. Conclusion In C57Bl/6 mice, 5 weeks of a high fat diet rich in stearate induces a metabolic state favoring low oxidative metabolism, increased adiposity and whole body insulin resistance characterized by severe hepatic insulin

  16. Characterization of the insulin sensitivity of ghrelin receptor KO mice using glycemic clamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We and others have demonstrated previously that ghrelin receptor (GhrR knock out (KO mice fed a high fat diet (HFD have increased insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility relative to WT littermates. A striking feature of the HFD-fed GhrR KO mouse is the dramatic decrease in hepatic steatosis. To characterize further the underlying mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in GhrR KO mice, we conducted both hyperglycemic (HG and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (HI-E clamps. Additionally, we investigated tissue glucose uptake and specifically examined liver insulin sensitivity. Results Consistent with glucose tolerance-test data, in HG clamp experiments, GhrR KO mice showed a reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin release relative to WT littermates. Nevertheless, a robust 1st phase insulin secretion was still achieved, indicating that a healthy β-cell response is maintained. Additionally, GhrR KO mice demonstrated both a significantly increased glucose infusion rate and significantly reduced insulin requirement for maintenance of the HG clamp, consistent with their relative insulin sensitivity. In HI-E clamps, both LFD-fed and HFD-fed GhrR KO mice showed higher peripheral insulin sensitivity relative to WT littermates as indicated by a significant increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd, and decreased hepatic glucose production (HGP. HFD-fed GhrR KO mice showed a marked increase in peripheral tissue glucose uptake in a variety of tissues, including skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. GhrR KO mice fed a HFD also showed a modest, but significant decrease in conversion of pyruvate to glucose, as would be anticipated if these mice displayed increased liver insulin sensitivity. Additionally, the levels of UCP2 and UCP1 were reduced in the liver and BAT, respectively, in GhrR KO mice relative to WT mice. Conclusions These results indicate that improved glucose homeostasis of GhrR KO mice is

  17. A low-fat diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, T; Viggers, L

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes.......To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes....

  18. Deletion of interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (Irak1) improves glucose tolerance primarily by increasing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Jian; Kim, Soohyun Park; Zhang, Dongming; Sun, Helen; Cao, Qi; Lu, Xin; Ying, Zhekang; Li, Liwu; Henry, Robert R; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Taylor, Simeon I; Quon, Michael J

    2017-07-21

    Chronic inflammation may contribute to insulin resistance via molecular cross-talk between pathways for pro-inflammatory and insulin signaling. Interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) mediates pro-inflammatory signaling via IL-1 receptor/Toll-like receptors, which may contribute to insulin resistance, but this hypothesis is untested. Here, we used male Irak1 null (k/o) mice to investigate the metabolic role of IRAK-1. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and k/o mice had comparable body weights on low-fat and high-fat diets (LFD and HFD, respectively). After 12 weeks on LFD (but not HFD), k/o mice (versus WT) had substantially improved glucose tolerance (assessed by the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT)). As assessed with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp technique, insulin sensitivity was 30% higher in the Irak1 k/o mice on chow diet, but the Irak1 deletion did not affect IPGTT outcomes in mice on HFD, suggesting that the deletion did not overcome the impact of obesity on glucose tolerance. Moreover, insulin-stimulated glucose-disposal rates were higher in the k/o mice, but we detected no significant difference in hepatic glucose production rates (± insulin infusion). Positron emission/computed tomography scans indicated higher insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle, but not liver, in Irak1 k/o mice in vivo Moreover, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was higher in muscle, but not in liver, from Irak1 k/o mice ex vivo In conclusion, Irak1 deletion improved muscle insulin sensitivity, with the effect being most apparent in LFD mice. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Adding to the spectrum of insulin sensitive populations for mixed meal tolerance test glucose reliability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialunga, Sabina; Guerrero, Angelica; Roessig, Julie M; Rubin, Paul; Dehn, Clayton A

    2016-01-01

    As a measure of insulin sensitivity, the mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) is a simple technique that can provide robust results. The assay consists of examining plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide prior to and following the consumption of a test meal. While this procedure has been used in clinical research for several years, there is no set standard protocol, and only until recently has the reliability of this assay been thoroughly evaluated in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes subjects. Interestingly, the results from this recent study demonstrated stronger MMTT reliability for the prediabetes and diabetes cohorts compared to obese controls. This finding suggests that the obese control group may have more inherent variability in glucose response during a meal challenge likely due to compensatory influences typically observed in non-diabetic insulin-resistant subjects. Furthermore, this study raises the question whether the MMTT assay is reliable in a non-obese cohort. Therefore, to promote the standardization of this technique and contribute to the band of insulin sensitive populations, we employed the same methodology and test meal as the reference study to evaluate the MMTT reliability in healthy and overweight men. Indeed, the interclass coefficient revealed high glucose response repeatability during the MMTT in insulin-sensitive men. Overall, the MMTT is a reliable test across a range of insulin sensitivity including healthy men. However, we propose further investigation may be required to fully define the utility of this methodology in obese non-diabetic insulin-resistant populations.

  20. c-Abl inhibition mitigates diet-induced obesity through improving insulin sensitivity of subcutaneous fat in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Sun, Jian-Guang; Wang, Ji-Qiu; Li, Binhua; Liu, Qingsong; Ning, Guang; Jin, Wanzhu; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2017-05-01

    High-energy diets are among the main causes of the global epidemic of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms of high-energy-diet-induced metabolic disorders are complex and largely unknown. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl plays an important role in adipogenesis in vitro but its role in vivo in the regulation of metabolism is still elusive. Hence, we sought to address the role of c-Abl in diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance. The expression of c-Abl in different fat tissues from obese humans or mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were first analysed by western blotting and quantitative PCR. We employed conditional deletion of the c-Abl gene (also known as Abl1) in adipose tissue using Fabp4-Cre and 6-week-old mice were fed with either a chow diet (CD) or an HFD. Age-matched wild-type mice were treated with the c-Abl inhibitor nilotinib or with vehicle and exposed to either CD or HFD, followed by analysis of body mass, fat mass, glucose and insulin tolerance. Histological staining, ELISA and biochemical analysis were used to clarify details of changes in physiology and molecular signalling. c-Abl was highly expressed in subcutaneous fat from obese humans and HFD-induced obese mice. Conditional knockout of c-Abl in adipose tissue improved insulin sensitivity and mitigated HFD-induced body mass gain, hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. Consistently, treatment with nilotinib significantly reduced fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice. Further biochemical analyses suggested that c-Abl inhibition improved whole-body insulin sensitivity by reducing HFD-triggered insulin resistance and increasing adiponectin in subcutaneous fat. Our findings define a new biological role for c-Abl in the regulation of diet-induced obesity through improving insulin sensitivity of subcutaneous fat. This suggests it may become a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  1. Resistance training, insulin sensitivity and muscle function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a loss in both muscle mass and in the metabolic quality of skeletal muscle. This leads to sarcopenia and reduced daily function, as well as to an increased risk for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A major part, but not all, of these changes...... are associated with an age-related decrease in the physical activity level and can be counteracted by increased physical activity of a resistive nature. Strength training has been shown to improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both healthy elderly individuals and patients with manifest diabetes...

  2. High glycemic index starch promotes hypersecretion of insulin and higher body fat in rats without affecting insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, D B; Bryson, J M; Denyer, G S; Brand-Miller, J C

    2001-01-01

    In rats, prolonged feeding of high glycemic index (GI) starch results in basal hyperinsulinemia and an elevated insulin response to an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). The aim of this study was to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance (IR) using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps. Insulin sensitivity, epididymal fat deposition and fasting leptin concentrations were compared in rats fed isocalorically a low or high GI diet for 7 wk (45% carbohydrate, 35% fat and 20% protein as energy) or a high fat diet (20% carbohydrate, 59% fat and 21% protein as energy) for 4 wk so that final body weights were similar. At the end of the study, high GI rats had higher basal leptin concentration and epididymal fat mass than the low GI group, despite comparable body weights. High GI and high fat feeding both resulted in the higher insulin response during IVGTT, but impaired glucose tolerance was seen only in rats fed high fat. The GI of the diet did not affect basal and clamp glucose uptake or hepatic glucose output, but high fat feeding induced both peripheral and hepatic IR. The findings suggest that hypersecretion of insulin without IR may be one mechanism for increased fat deposition in rats fed high GI diets.

  3. Dextran-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) polymersome for oral delivery of insulin: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibolandi, Mona; Alabdollah, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2016-04-10

    Insulin is the first line therapy in type 1 diabetes and usually patients suffer from three or more daily insulin injections. It is obvious that patient compliance can be improved greatly if insulin could be formulated in an oral dosage form. In the current study, polymersomes based on amphiphilic copolymers of dextran (DEX)5000-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)13,000 and DEX25000-PLGA48000 were synthesized and used for the encapsulation of insulin. The polymersomes were prepared using a modified direct hydration method by blending an aqueous solution of insulin with DEX-PLGA copolymers at room temperature. The in vitro insulin release through the nanopolymersomal system was studied in HCl 0.1N (pH1.2) and phosphate buffered saline (pH7.4). The results demonstrated that the average insulin encapsulation efficiency was >90%. The in vitro release experiment demonstrated that while insulin release in the simulated gastric condition was negligible, a significant amount of insulin was released in the simulated intestinal condition. According to the results of a circular dichroism test, secondary and tertiary structures of the released insulin were identical to that of standard insulin. Permeability studies across MDCK cells showed that permeability levels after 240 min were 16.89 ± 0.39% with DEX5000-PLGA13000 and 9.34 ± 0.79% with DEX25000-PLGA48000, indicating a noticeable increase compared with free insulin. Significant hypoglycemic effects in the in vivo diabetic rat model revealed the efficacy of the DEX-PLGA-based polymersomes as oral insulin carriers. Thus, insulin-loaded, self-assembled DEX-PLGA polymersomes showed promising in vitro and in vivo efficiency and can be considered as a potential oral insulin carrier system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion Are Associated With Spontaneous Postnatal Growth and Response to Growth Hormone Treatment in Short SGA Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; Day, Felix

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The wide heterogeneity in the early growth and metabolism of children born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during GH therapy, may reflect common genetic variations related to insulin secretion or sensitivity. METHOD: Combined multiallele single nucleotide polymorphism...... scores with known associations with insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion were analyzed for their relationships with spontaneous postnatal growth and first-year responses to GH therapy in 96 short SGA children. RESULTS: The insulin sensitivity allele score (GS-InSens) was positively associated...... scores indicative of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were associated with spontaneous postnatal growth and responses to GH therapy in short SGA children. Further pharmacogenetic studies may support the rationale for adjuvant therapies by informing the mechanisms of treatment response....

  5. Insulin-sensitive adiposity is associated with a relatively lower risk of diabetes than insulin-resistant adiposity: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Huijie; Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are both closely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is, however, not clear whether the role of obesity in the development of T2DM is dependent on insulin resistance. This study aims to assess the hypothesis that insulin-sensitive adiposity is associated with a relatively lower risk of T2DM than insulin-resistant adiposity, and the adiposity-T2DM association is modified by insulin resistance in middle-aged black and white adults. The longitudinal study cohort consisted of 1588 middle-aged normoglycemic black and white adults aged 18-44 years at baseline who were followed for 16 years on average. Overweight/obesity at baseline was defined as BMI ≥25, and insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA). The prevalence of incident pre-diabetes and T2DM was compared between the insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant adiposity groups. The prevalence of both incident pre-diabetes and T2DM was higher in the insulin-resistant adiposity than in the insulin-sensitive adiposity group (11.5 vs. 7.5 %, p = 0.023 for pre-diabetes; 16.7 vs. 2.7 %, p BMI with pre-diabetes and T2DM significantly increased across increasing quartiles of baseline HOMA (p for trend = 0.032 for pre-diabetes and BMI, measured as regression coefficients (β), were significantly greater in insulin-resistant than in insulin-sensitive individuals (β = 0.86 vs. 0.38, p = 0.009 for difference in slopes). These findings suggest that insulin resistance amplifies the obesity-diabetes association and underscore the importance of preventing both adiposity and insulin resistance in young adults.

  6. Influence of vitamin D treatment on transcriptional regulation of insulin-sensitive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Yakout, Sobhy M; Hussain, Tajamul; Mohammed, Abdul Khader; Krishnaswamy, Soundararajan

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which are characterized by insulin resistance. Inflammation is a co-morbid condition associated with obesity. Vitamin D, besides being a transcriptional regulator, is an inflammation suppressor. However, the role of vitamin D in alleviating obesity-induced insulin resistance is still not well understood. The influence of vitamin D treatment on the transcriptional level of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1), glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in insulin target tissues of liver, adipose, and muscle of mice fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) was studied by quantitative RT-PCR. A gradual weight reduction was observed in HFD-fed mice treated with vitamin D compared to a steady weight increase in control animals (Pinfluence tissue expression of IR in either LFD- or HFD-fed mice. Muscle IRS-1 transcription level was upregulated to 2.4-fold (P=0.005) in HFD mice, whereas it was reduced to 0.15-fold in liver tissue (Pinfluenced the expression of insulin-sensitive genes in a tissue-specific fashion. On the basis of the present findings, vitamin D does not aid glucose transport across cells of liver and adipose tissues, the major insulin-sensitive tissues, in HFD-fed mice; however, it appears to enhance the intracellular mechanisms of insulin action mediated by IRS-1 and VDR in muscle tissue.

  7. Fitness, insulin sensitivity, and frontal lobe integrity in adults with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mary Grace; Venutolo, Christopher; Yau, Po Lai; Convit, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    To formally test whether insulin sensitivity mediates the relationship between fitness and brain integrity. Eighty-four middle-aged participants without diabetes received a 6-min walk test from which maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was derived, a structural magnetic resonance scan, and a medical evaluation including fasting glucose and insulin levels. This study showed significant associations between fitness, abdominal obesity, and insulin sensitivity and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume as well as between ACC thickness and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The relationship between ACC volume and VO2 max was completely mediated through QUICKI. Further, this strong association was confirmed by a single and very significant cluster on the ACC linking gray matter volume and QUICKI in a voxel-based morphometry analysis. As expected, increased abdominal obesity was associated with reductions in fitness, ACC volumes, and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, this study demonstrated a significant mediation of the relationship between VO2 max and ACC volume by QUICKI. This suggests that the links between impaired insulin sensitivity and brain abnormalities in adults carrying excess weight could be alleviated through increased physical activity and fitness. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  8. Fitness, Insulin Sensitivity and Frontal Lobe Integrity in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mary Grace; Venutolo, Christopher; Yau, Po Lai; Convit, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To formally test whether insulin sensitivity mediates the relationship between fitness and brain integrity. Methods Eighty-four non-diabetic, middle-aged participants received a 6-minute walk test from which maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was derived, a structural MR scan, and a medical evaluation including fasting glucose and insulin levels. Results We showed significant associations between fitness, abdominal obesity, and insulin sensitivity and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume as well as between ACC thickness and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI). We showed that the relationship between ACC volume and VO2 max was completely mediated through QUICKI, see Figure 3. Further, this strong association was confirmed by a single and very significant cluster on the ACC linking gray matter volume and QUICKI in a voxel-based morphometry analysis. Conclusions As expected, increased abdominal obesity was associated with reductions in fitness, ACC volumes, and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, we demonstrate a significant mediation of the relationship between VO2 max and ACC volume by QUICKI. This suggests that the links between impaired insulin sensitivity and brain abnormalities in adults carrying excess weight could be alleviated through increased physical activity and fitness. PMID:27123868

  9. Insulin sensitivity : modulation by the gut-brain axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Annemieke Corine

    2006-01-01

    Er zijn steeds meer aanwijzingen dat neuropeptiden in de hypothalamus en maagdarmhormonen die hun werking hebben op de hypothalamus en betrokken zijn bij de regulatie van voedselinname, ook betrokken zouden kunnen zijn bij de regulatie van insuline gevoeligheid. Daarom hebben we eerst de effecten

  10. Insulin sensitivity and carotid intima-media thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, Michaela; Natali, Andrea; Dekker, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Despite a wealth of experimental data in animal models, the independent association of insulin resistance with early carotid atherosclerosis in man has not been demonstrated. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We studied a European cohort of 525 men and 655 women (mean age, 44±8 years) free of conditions know...

  11. Ghrelin differentially affects hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, A.C.; Hoek, A.M. van den; Parlevliet, E.T.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Pijl, H.; Corssmit, E.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ghrelin on insulin's capacity to suppress endogenous glucose production and promote glucose disposal in mice. To establish whether the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor can mediate the putative effect of ghrelin on the

  12. Preserved insulin sensitivity predicts metabolically healthy obese phenotype in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rade; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Mitrovic, Katarina; Todorovic, Sladjana; Plavsic, Ljiljana; Vukovic, Ana; Zdravkovic, Dragan

    2015-12-01

    Available data on metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype in children suggest that gender, puberty, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, and other laboratory predictors have a role in distinguishing these children from metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) youth. The goal of this study was to identify predictors of MHO phenotype and to analyze glucose and insulin metabolism during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in MHO children. OGTT was performed in 244 obese children and adolescents aged 4.6-18.9 years. Subjects were classified as MHO in case of no fulfilled criterion of metabolic syndrome except anthropometry or as MUO (≥2 fulfilled criteria). Among the subjects, 21.7 % had MHO phenotype, and they were more likely to be female, younger, and in earlier stages of pubertal development, with lower degree of abdominal obesity. Insulin resistance was the only independent laboratory predictor of MUO phenotype (OR 1.59, CI 1.13-2.25), with 82 % sensitivity and 60 % specificity for diagnosing MUO using HOMA-IR cutoff point of ≥2.85. Although no significant differences were observed in glucose regulation, MUO children had higher insulin demand throughout OGTT, with 1.53 times higher total insulin secretion. Further research is needed to investigate the possibility of targeted treatment of insulin resistance to minimize pubertal cross-over to MUO in obese children. • Substantial proportion of the obese youth (21-68 %) displays a metabolically healthy (MHO) phenotype. • Gender, puberty, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, and lower levels of uric acid and transaminases have a possible role in distinguishing MHO from metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. • Insulin resistance was found to be the only significant laboratory predictor of MUO when adjusted for gender, puberty, and the degree of abdominal obesity. • Besides basal insulin resistance, MUO children were found to have a significantly higher insulin secretion throughout OGTT in

  13. Normocaloric Diet Restores Weight Gain and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Enrico Lombardo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased incidence of obesity is registered worldwide, and its association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is closely related with increased morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases. A major clinical problem in the management of obesity is the non-adherence or low adherence of patients to a hypo-caloric dietetic restriction. In this study we evaluated in obese mice the effects on insulin sensitivity of shifting from high-calorie foods to normal diet. Male C57BL/6JolaHsd mice (n=20 were fed with high fat diet for a 24 weeks period. Afterwards, body weight, energy and food intake were measured in all animals, together with parameters of insulin sensitivity by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and plasma glucose levels in response to insulin administration. Moreover, in half of these mice, Glut4 mRNA levels were measured in muscle at the end of the high fat treatment, whereas the rest of the animals (n=10 were shifted to normocaloric diet for 10 weeks, after which the same analyses were carried out. A significant reduction of body weight was found after the transition from high to normal fat diet, and this decrease correlated well with an improvement in insulin sensitivity. In fact, we found a reduction in serum insulin levels and the recovery of insulin responsiveness in terms of glucose disposal measured by insulin tolerance test and Glut4 mRNA and protein expression. These results indicate that obesity related insulin resistance may be rescued by shifting from high fat diet to normocaloric diet.

  14. Increase of insulin sensitivity by stevioside in fructose-rich chow-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J-C; Wu, M C; Liu, I-M; Cheng, J-T

    2005-10-01

    The intake of dietary fructose has undergone a marked increase around the world, especially the developed countries, in recent times. Stevioside, a glycoside contained in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Compositae), was used to screen the effect induced by a diet containing 60% fructose on insulin resistance in rats. Single oral administration of stevioside for 90 min decreased plasma glucose concentrations in a dose-dependent manner in rats receiving fructose-rich chow for four weeks. In addition, insulin action on glucose disposal rate was measured using the glucose-insulin index, the product of the areas under the curve of glucose, and insulin during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Oral administration of stevioside (5.0 mg/kg) in rats given four weeks of fructose-rich chow for 90 min reversed the value of glucose-insulin index, indicating that stevioside has the ability to improve insulin sensitivity in this insulin-resistant animal model. Time for the loss of plasma glucose lowering response to tolbutamide (10.0 mg/kg, i. p.) in fructose-rich chow fed rats was also markedly delayed by repeated stevioside treatment three times daily compared to the vehicle-treated group. The plasma glucose-lowering activity of tolbutamide was introduced to account for varying levels of endogenous insulin secretion, and is widely used as the indicator of insulin resistance development. Thus, it provided the supportive data that repeated oral administration of stevioside delayed the development of insulin resistance in rats on a high-fructose diet. Increased insulin sensitivity by stevioside administration was further identified using the plasma glucose-lowering action of exogenous insulin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). Oral administration of stevioside at 0.2 mg/kg three times daily into STZ-diabetic rats for ten days increased the response to exogenous insulin. Taken together, this demonstrated that oral administration of

  15. mTORC2 Regulation of Muscle Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian

    by defects in the insulin signaling chain necessary for glucose uptake. To better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of how mTORC2 regulates metabolism in skeletal muscle, we performed unbiased, global quantitative phospho- and total proteomic analyses of mouse Ric mKO muscles. This revealed......Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a pandemic that continues to grow at alarming rates. In healthy individuals, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled. After eating a meal blood glucose levels rise. This triggers insulin release from the pancreas, which in turn signals organs like the liver, fat...... and skeletal muscle to take up blood glucose, ultimately lowering blood glucose levels. A hallmark of T2D is decreased organ sensitivity to the effects of the insulin. Therefore, an early event in the pathogenesis of T2D is an increase in insulin secretion in response to eating a meal, as more insulin...

  16. Exercise training reverses the negative effects of chronic L-arginine supplementation on insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Rafael Barrera; Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2017-12-15

    L-Arginine has emerged as an important supplement for athletes and non-athletes in order to improve performance. Arginine has been extensively used as substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, leading to increased vasodilatation and hormonal secretion. However, the chronic consumption of arginine has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether chronic arginine supplementation associated with exercise training would have a beneficial impact on insulin sensitivity. We, therefore, treated Wistar rats for 4weeks with arginine, associated or not with exercise training (treadmill). We assessed the somatotropic activation, by evaluating growth hormone (GH) gene expression and protein content in the pituitary, as well is GH concentration in the serum. Additionally, we evaluate whole-body insulin sensitivity, by performing an insulin tolerance test. Skeletal muscle morpho-physiological parameters were also assessed. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in the arginine-treated rats. However, exercise training reversed the negative effects of arginine. Arginine and exercise training increased somatotropic axis function, muscle mass and body weight gain. The combination arginine and exercise training further decreased total fat mass. Our results confirm that chronic arginine supplementation leads to insulin resistance, which can be reversed in the association with exercise training. We provide further evidence that exercise training is an important tool to improve whole-body metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antidiabetic property of Symplocos cochinchinensis is mediated by inhibition of alpha glucosidase and enhanced insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalathookunnel Antony Antu

    Full Text Available The study is designed to find out the biochemical basis of antidiabetic property of Symplocos cochinchinensis (SC, the main ingredient of 'Nisakathakadi' an Ayurvedic decoction for diabetes. Since diabetes is a multifactorial disease, ethanolic extract of the bark (SCE and its fractions (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and 90% ethanol were evaluated by in vitro methods against multiple targets relevant to diabetes such as the alpha glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, adipogenic potential, oxidative stress, pancreatic beta cell proliferation, inhibition of protein glycation, protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV. Among the extracts, SCE exhibited comparatively better activity like alpha glucosidase inhibition (IC50 value-82.07 ± 2.10 µg/mL, insulin dependent glucose uptake (3 fold increase in L6 myotubes, pancreatic beta cell regeneration in RIN-m5F (3.5 fold increase and reduced triglyceride accumulation (22% decrease in 3T3L1 cells, protection from hyperglycemia induced generation of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells (59.57% decrease with moderate antiglycation and PTP-1B inhibition. Chemical characterization by HPLC revealed the superiority of SCE over other extracts due to presence and quantity of bioactives (beta-sitosterol, phloretin 2'glucoside, oleanolic acid in addition to minerals like magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc and manganese. So SCE has been subjected to oral sucrose tolerance test to evaluate its antihyperglycemic property in mild diabetic and diabetic animal models. SCE showed significant antihyperglycemic activity in in vivo diabetic models. We conclude that SC mediates the antidiabetic activity mainly via alpha glucosidase inhibition, improved insulin sensitivity, with moderate antiglycation and antioxidant activity.

  18. Temporal changes in sphingolipids and systemic insulin sensitivity during the transition from gestation to lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Eduardo Rico

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin action develops naturally during the peripartum to ensure maternal nutrient delivery to the fetus and neonate. However, increased insulin resistance can facilitate excessive lipolysis which in turn promotes metabolic disease in overweight dairy cattle. Increased fatty acid availability favors the accumulation of the sphingolipid ceramide and is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, however, the relationship between sphingolipid metabolism and insulin resistance during the peripartum remains largely unknown. Our objectives were to characterize temporal responses in plasma and tissue sphingolipids in lean and overweight peripartal cows and to establish the relationships between sphingolipid supply and lipolysis, hepatic lipid deposition, and systemic insulin action. Twenty-one multiparous lean and overweight Holstein cows were enrolled in a longitudinal study spanning the transition from gestation to lactation (d -21 to 21, relative to parturition. Plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle samples were obtained, and sphingolipids were profiled using LC/MS/MS. Insulin sensitivity was assessed utilizing intravenous insulin and glucose challenges. Our results demonstrated the following: first, insulin resistance develops postpartum concurrently with increased lipolysis and hepatic lipid accumulation; second, ceramides and glycosylated ceramides accumulate during the transition from gestation to lactation and are further elevated in overweight cows; third, ceramide accrual is associated with lipolysis and liver lipid accumulation, and C16:0- and C24:0-ceramide are inversely associated with systemic insulin sensitivity postpartum; fourth, plasma sphingomyelin, a potential source of ceramides reaches a nadir at parturition and is closely associated with feed intake; fifth, select sphingomyelins are lower in the plasma of overweight cows during the peripartal period. Our results demonstrate that dynamic changes occur in

  19. Mifepristone promotes adiponectin production and improves insulin sensitivity in a mouse model of diet-induced-obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hashimoto

    Full Text Available The steroid receptor antagonist mifepristone is used as an anti-cancer agent, eliciting both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on malignant cells. However, the metabolic effects of long-term treatment with mifepristone have remained unclear. The effects of mifepristone on insulin sensitivity and adiponectin secretion were evaluated both in in vivo and in vitro. First, we explored the effects of mifepristone, on metabolic functions in obese mice receiving a high-fat diet. When these mice were fed mifepristone, they exhibited a marked improvement in insulin sensitivity, attenuated hepatic injury, and decreased adipocyte size, compared with mice that received only the high-fat diet. Intriguingly, mifepristone-treated mice showed significantly elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Second, we tested the effects of mifepristone on differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. When differentiated adipocytes were treated with mifepristone for 48 h, adiponectin was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels. Collectively, these results reveal novel actions of mifepristone on metabolic functions, in vivo and in vitro, in which the drug exerts antidiabetic effects associated with an upregulation in adiponectin-secretion.

  20. Strength exercise improves muscle mass and hepatic insulin sensitivity in obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J; Chu, Zili; Toffolo, Gianna; Manesso, Erica; Sauer, Pieter J J; Sunehag, Agneta L

    2010-11-01

    Data on the metabolic effects of resistance exercise (strength training) in adolescents are limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether a controlled resistance exercise program without dietary intervention or weight loss reduces body fat accumulation, increases lean body mass, and improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in sedentary obese Hispanic adolescents. Twelve obese adolescents (age = 15.5 ± 0.5 yr, body mass index = 35.3 ± 0.8 kg·m; 40.8% ± 1.5% body fat) completed a 12-wk resistance exercise program (two times 1 h·wk, exercising all major muscle groups). At baseline and on completion of the program, body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat distribution was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic and intramyocellular fat was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, peripheral insulin sensitivity was measured by the stable-label intravenous glucose tolerance test, and hepatic insulin sensitivity was measured by the hepatic insulin sensitivity index = 1000/(GPR × fasting insulin). Glucose production rate (GPR), gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis were quantified using stable isotope gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. All participants were normoglycemic. The exercise program resulted in significant strength gain in both upper and lower body muscle groups. Body weight increased from 97.0 ± 3.8 to 99.6 ± 4.2 kg (P mass (55.7 ± 2.8 to 57.9 ± 3.0 kg, P ≤ 0.01). Total, visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat contents remained unchanged. Hepatic insulin sensitivity increased by 24% ± 9% (P mass, improves hepatic insulin sensitivity, and decreases GPR without affecting total fat mass or visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat contents.

  1. Ecscr regulates insulin sensitivity and predisposition to obesity by modulating endothelial cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakabe, Yoshiki; Koide, Masahiro; Kitamura, Youhei; Matsuo, Kiyonari; Ueyama, Tomomi; Matoba, Satoaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Keishi; Oike, Yuichi; Ikeda, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance is closely associated with obesity and is one of the earliest symptoms of type-2 diabetes. Endothelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance through their role in insulin delivery and adipose tissue angiogenesis. Here we show that Ecscr (endothelial cell surface expressed chemotaxis and apoptosis regulator; also known as ARIA), the transmembrane protein that regulates endothelial cell signalling, is highly expressed in white and brown adipose tissues, and regulates energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis by modulating endothelial cell functions. Ecscr-deficient mice fed a normal chow show improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin sensitivity. We demonstrate that Ecscr deletion enhances the insulin-mediated Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in endothelial cells, which increases insulin delivery into the skeletal muscle. Ecscr deletion also protects mice on a high-fat diet from obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders by enhancing adipose tissue angiogenesis. Conversely, targeted activation of Ecscr in endothelial cells impairs glucose tolerance and predisposes mice to diet-induced obesity. Our results suggest that the inactivation of Ecscr enhances insulin sensitivity and may represent a new therapeutic strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.

  2. Effects of 7 days of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John P; Solomon, Thomas; Wojta, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1) the improvement in insulin action induced by short-term exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes is due to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, an improvement in insulin responsiveness, or a combination of improved insulin...... sensitivity and responsiveness and 2) short-term exercise training results in improved suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. Fourteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes, age 64 +/- 2 yr, underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure, first stage 40 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin...... of vigorous exercise training can induce significant improvements in insulin action in type 2 diabetes. These improvements include increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and responsiveness as well as enhanced suppression of hepatic glucose production....

  3. Estimated insulin sensitivity predicts regression of albuminuria in Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstad, P; Maahs, D M; Johnson, R J; Rewers, M; Snell-Bergeon, J K

    2015-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that greater baseline insulin sensitivity would predict regression of albuminuria over 6 years in adults with Type 1 diabetes. We enrolled 81 people aged 30-48 years with albuminuria at baseline in the present study and re-examined them 6 years later. Urinary albumin excretion rate was measured and albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin excretion rate ≥ 20 μg/min. Regression of albuminuria was defined as normoalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate albuminuria were examined in stepwise logistic regression. The variables age, diabetes duration, sex, serum uric acid, HbA1c , systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, BMI, baseline albumin excretion rate, estimated insulin sensitivity at baseline, change in estimated insulin sensitivity from baseline to follow-up and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use were considered for inclusion in the model. Estimated insulin sensitivity was significantly higher at both baseline (4.6 ± 1.2 vs 3.4 ± 1.7; P = 0.002) and follow-up (5.2 ± 1.9 vs. 3.5 ± 1.7; P albuminuria vs those who did not. HbA1c (odds ratio 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8; P = 0.006), estimated insulin sensitivity (odds ratio 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9; P = 0.006) at baseline and change in estimated insulin sensitivity from baseline to follow-up (odds ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.3; P = 0.003) were independently associated with regression of albuminuria in a multivariable stepwise model. In conclusion, over 6 years, higher baseline estimated insulin sensitivity and change in estimated insulin sensitivity independently predicted regression of albuminuria. Improving insulin sensitivity in people with Type 1 diabetes is a potential therapeutic target to increase rates of regression of albuminuria. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  4. Increased insulin and leptin sensitivity in mice lacking acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hubert C.; Smith, Steven J.; Ladha, Zuleika; Jensen, Dalan R.; Ferreira, Luis D.; Pulawa, Leslie K.; McGuire, James G.; Pitas, Robert E.; Robert H Eckel; Farese, Robert V.

    2002-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is one of two known DGAT enzymes that catalyze the final step in mammalian triglyceride synthesis. DGAT1-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity through a mechanism involving increased energy expenditure. Here we show that these mice have decreased levels of tissue triglycerides, as well as increased sensitivity to insulin and to leptin. Importantly, DGAT1 deficiency protects against insulin resistance and obesity in agouti...

  5. Circulating free testosterone in obese men after bariatric surgery increases in parallel with insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Carretero, J I; Balsa, J A; Gómez-Martin, J M; Peromingo, R; Huerta, L; Carrasco, M; Arrieta, F; Zamarron, I; Martin-Hidalgo, A; Vazquez, C

    2013-04-01

    Male hypogonadism has been linked to obesity and diabetes. We aimed to study the association of changes in insulin sensitivity and testosterone levels in severe obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Prospective intervention study with twenty consecutive patients who underwent bariatric surgery studied before and after significant weight loss. Serum testosterone, SHBG, fasting glucose, and insulin were measured among others. Free testosterone was calculated with the Vermeulen formula and insulin sensitivity with the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). At baseline, thirteen patients had low total testosterone levels, whereas eight of these patients also had free testosterone levels below the reference range obtained from the control group. After bariatric surgery total testosterone, SHBG, and free testosterone significantly increased and achieved normal values in all evaluated patients. Insulin sensitivity improved in all of them. Multivariate linear regression showed that changes in fasting glucose (β=-1.868, p=0.001), insulin (β=-3.782, p=0.001), weight (β=-0.622, p=0.002), and SHBG (β=-0.635, p=0.022) were associated with changes in free testosterone (adjusted R2=0.936, F=26.613, p=0.001). When insulin resistance calculated by HOMA was in the model instead of insulin and glucose, it also was associated (β=-3.488, p=0.008) with free testosterone (adjusted R2=0.821, F=11.111, p=0.005). Circulating tes tos terone in obese men increases after bariatric surgery in parallel with an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

  6. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, carbohydrate and fiber intake, and measures of insulin sensitivity, secretion, and adiposity in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Schulz, Mandy; Fang, Fang; Wolever, Thomas M S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Sparks, Karen C; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2005-12-01

    We studied the association of digestible carbohydrates, fiber intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load with insulin sensitivity (S(I)), fasting insulin, acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index, BMI, and waist circumference. Data on 979 adults with normal (67%) and impaired (33%) glucose tolerance from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (1992-1994) were analyzed. Usual dietary intake was assessed via a 114-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire from which nutrient intakes were estimated. Published glycemic index values were assigned to food items and average dietary glycemic index and glycemic load calculated per subject. S(I) and AIR were determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Disposition index was calculated by multiplying S(I) with AIR. Multiple linear regression modeling was employed. No association was observed between glycemic index and S(I), fasting insulin, AIR, disposition index, BMI, or waist circumference after adjustment for demographic characteristics or family history of diabetes, energy expenditure, and smoking. Associations observed for digestible carbohydrates and glycemic load, respectively, with S(I), insulin secretion, and adiposity (adjusted for demographics and main confounders) were entirely explained by energy intake. In contrast, fiber was associated positively with S(I) and disposition index and inversely with fasting insulin, BMI, and waist circumference but not with AIR. Carbohydrates as reflected in glycemic index and glycemic load may not be related to measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and adiposity. Fiber intake may not only have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and adiposity, but also on pancreatic functionality.

  7. Measurement of hepatic insulin sensitivity early after the bypass of the proximal small bowel in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras, A D; Herring, R; Vusirikala, A; Shojaee-Moradi, F; Jackson, N C; Chandaria, S; Jackson, S N; Goldstone, A P; Hakim, N; Patel, A G; Umpleby, A M; Le Roux, C W

    2017-03-01

    Unlike gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy procedures, intestinal bypass procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in particular, lead to rapid improvements in glycaemia early after surgery. The bypass of the proximal small bowel may have weight loss and even caloric restriction-independent glucose-lowering properties on hepatic insulin sensitivity. In this first human mechanistic study, we examined this hypothesis by investigating the early effects of the duodeno-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL; GI Dynamics, USA) on the hepatic insulin sensitivity by using the gold standard euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp methodology. Seven patients with obesity underwent measurement of hepatic insulin sensitivity at baseline, 1 week after a low-calorie liquid diet and after a further 1 week following insertion of the DJBL whilst on the same diet. Duodeno-jejunal bypass liner did not improve the insulin sensitivity of hepatic glucose production beyond the improvements achieved with caloric restriction. Caloric restriction may be the predominant driver of early increases in hepatic insulin sensitivity after the endoscopic bypass of the proximal small bowel. The same mechanism may be at play after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and explain, at least in part, the rapid improvements in glycaemia.

  8. Prolactin Promotes Adipose Tissue Fitness and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Herrera, Xarubet; de Los Ríos, Ericka A; Díaz, Juan M; Lerma-Alvarado, Ricardo M; Martínez de la Escalera, Lucía; López-Barrera, Fernando; Lemini, María; Arnold, Edith; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen; Macotela, Yazmín

    2017-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of body fat triggers insulin resistance and features of the metabolic syndrome. Recently, evidence has accumulated that obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are associated with reduced levels of serum prolactin (PRL) in humans and rodents, raising the question of whether low PRL levels contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we have addressed this question by investigating the role of PRL in insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue fitness in obese rodents and humans. In diet-induced obese rats, treatment with PRL delivered via osmotic mini-pumps, improved insulin sensitivity, prevented adipocyte hypertrophy, and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in visceral fat. PRL also induced increased expression of Pparg and Xbp1s in visceral adipose tissue and elevated circulating adiponectin levels. Conversely, PRL receptor null mice challenged with a high-fat diet developed greater insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and increased adipocyte hypertrophy compared with wild-type mice. In humans, serum PRL values correlated positively with systemic adiponectin levels and were reduced in insulin-resistant patients. Furthermore, PRL circulating levels and PRL produced by adipose tissue correlated directly with the expression of PPARG, ADIPOQ, and GLUT4 in human visceral and sc adipose tissue. Thus, PRL, acting through its cognate receptors, promotes healthy adipose tissue function and systemic insulin sensitivity. Increasing the levels of PRL in the circulation may have therapeutic potential against obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  9. Triggered release of insulin from glucose-sensitive enzyme multilayer shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Yan, Xuehai; Fei, Jinbo; Wang, Anhe; Cui, Yue; Li, Junbai

    2009-05-01

    A glucose-sensitive multilayer shell, which was fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method, can be used as a carrier for the encapsulation and controlled release of insulin. In the present report, glucose oxidase (GOD) and catalase (CAT) were assembled on insulin particles alternately via glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking. The resulting core-shell system has been proven to be glucose-sensitive. When the external glucose was introduced, the release ratio of insulin from the protein multilayer can be increased observably. This is likely attributed to the catalysis interaction of CAT/GOD shells to glucose, which leads to the production of H(+) and thus drops the pH of the microenvironment. Under the acidic conditions, on the one hand, a part of C=N bond formed from Schiff base reaction can be broken and thus increasing the permeability of the capsule wall. On the other hand, the solubility of insulin can also be increased. The above factors may be the key control to increase the release of insulin from the multilayer. Therefore, such CAT/GOD multilayer may have a great potential as a glucose-sensitive release carrier for insulin, and may open the way for the further application of LbL capsules in the drug delivery and controlled release, etc.

  10. The Proton-Activated Receptor GPR4 Modulates Glucose Homeostasis by Increasing Insulin Sensitivity

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    Luca Giudici

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proton-activated G protein-coupled receptor GPR4 is expressed in many tissues including white adipose tissue. GPR4 is activated by extracellular protons in the physiological pH range (i.e. pH 7.7 - 6.8 and is coupled to the production of cAMP. Methods: We examined mice lacking GPR4 and examined glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in young and aged mice as well as in mice fed with a high fat diet. Expression profiles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle was assessed. Results: Here we show that mice lacking GPR4 have an improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and increased insulin sensitivity. Insulin levels were comparable but leptin levels were increased in GPR4 KO mice. Gpr4-/- showed altered expression of PPARα, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, and TGF-1β in skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. High fat diet abolished the differences in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity between Gpr4+/+ and Gpr4-/- mice. In contrast, in aged mice (12 months old, the positive effect of GPR4 deficiency on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity was maintained. Liver and adipose tissue showed no major differences in the mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors between aged mice of both genotypes. Conclusion: Thus, GPR4 deficiency improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The effect may involve an altered balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in insulin target tissues.

  11. A Small Insulinomimetic Molecule Also Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetic Mice.

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    Sandip Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Dramatic increase of diabetes over the globe is in tandem with the increase in insulin requirement. This is because destruction and dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells are of common occurrence in both Type1 diabetes and Type2 diabetes, and insulin injection becomes a compulsion. Because of several problems associated with insulin injection, orally active insulin mimetic compounds would be ideal substitute. Here we report a small molecule, a peroxyvanadate compound i.e. DmpzH[VO(O22(dmpz], henceforth referred as dmp, which specifically binds to insulin receptor with considerable affinity (KD-1.17μM thus activating insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and its downstream signaling molecules resulting increased uptake of [14C] 2 Deoxy-glucose. Oral administration of dmp to streptozotocin treated BALB/c mice lowers blood glucose level and markedly stimulates glucose and fatty acid uptake by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue respectively. In db/db mice, it greatly improves insulin sensitivity through excess expression of PPARγ and its target genes i.e. adiponectin, CD36 and aP2. Study on the underlying mechanism demonstrated that excess expression of Wnt3a decreased PPARγ whereas dmp suppression of Wnt3a gene increased PPARγ expression which subsequently augmented adiponectin. Increased production of adiponectin in db/db mice due to dmp effected lowering of circulatory TG and FFA levels, activates AMPK in skeletal muscle and this stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics. Decrease of lipid load along with increased mitochondrial activity greatly improves energy homeostasis which has been found to be correlated with the increased insulin sensitivity. The results obtained with dmp, therefore, strongly indicate that dmp could be a potential candidate for insulin replacement therapy.

  12. Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Lange, Aksel; Holland-Fischer, P

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis....

  13. Analysis of In Vitro Insulin-Resistance Models and Their Physiological Relevance to In Vivo Diet-Induced Adipose Insulin Resistance

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    Kinyui Alice Lo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity (DIO predisposes individuals to insulin resistance, and adipose tissue has a major role in the disease. Insulin resistance can be induced in cultured adipocytes by a variety of treatments, but what aspects of the in vivo responses are captured by these models remains unknown. We use global RNA sequencing to investigate changes induced by TNF-α, hypoxia, dexamethasone, high insulin, and a combination of TNF-α and hypoxia, comparing the results to the changes in white adipose tissue from DIO mice. We found that different in vitro models capture distinct features of DIO adipose insulin resistance, and a combined treatment of TNF-α and hypoxia is most able to mimic the in vivo changes. Using genome-wide DNase I hypersensitivity followed by sequencing, we further examined the transcriptional regulation of TNF-α-induced insulin resistance, and we found that C/EPBβ is a potential key regulator of adipose insulin resistance.

  14. Disclosing caffeine action on insulin sensitivity: effects on rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, Joana F; Ribeiro, Maria J; Yubero, Sara; Melo, Bernardete F; Obeso, Ana; Guarino, Maria P; Gonzalez, Constancio; Conde, Silvia V

    2015-04-05

    Caffeine, a non-selective adenosine antagonist, has distinct effects on insulin sensitivity when applied acutely or chronically. Herein, we investigated the involvement of adenosine receptors on insulin resistance induced by single-dose caffeine administration. Additionally, the mechanism behind adenosine receptor-mediated caffeine effects in skeletal muscle was assessed. The effect of the administration of caffeine, 8-cycle-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, A1 antagonist), 2-(2-Furanyl)-7-(2-phenylethyl)-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine (SCH58261, A2A antagonist) and 8-(4-{[(4-cyanophenyl)carbamoylmethyl]-oxy}phenyl)-1,3-di(n-propyl)xanthine (MRS1754, A2B antagonist) on whole-body insulin sensitivity was tested. Skeletal muscle Glut4,5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and adenosine receptor protein expression were also assessed. The effect of A1 and A2B adenosine agonists on skeletal muscle glucose uptake was evaluated in vitro. Sodium nitroprussiate (SNP, 10nM), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, was used to evaluate the effect of NO on insulin resistance induced by adenosine antagonists. Acute caffeine decreased insulin sensitivity in a concentration dependent manner (Emax=55.54±5.37%, IC50=11.61nM), an effect that was mediated by A1 and A2B adenosine receptors. Additionally, acute caffeine administration significantly decreased Glut4, but not AMPK expression, in skeletal muscle. We found that A1, but not A2B agonists increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. SNP partially reversed DPCPX and MRS1754 induced-insulin resistance. Our results suggest that insulin resistance induced by acute caffeine administration is mediated by A1 and A2B adenosine receptors. Both Glut4 and NO seem to be downstream effectors involved in insulin resistance induced by acute caffeine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on insulin sensitivity and the systemic inflammatory response in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anne Sofie; Larsen, Nadja; Pedersen-Skovsgaard, Theis

    2010-01-01

    According to animal studies, intake of probiotic bacteria may improve glucose homeostasis. We hypothesised that probiotic bacteria improve insulin sensitivity by attenuating systemic inflammation. Therefore, the effects of oral supplementation with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus...... course with either L. acidophilus NCFM or placebo. L. acidophilus was detected in stool samples by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR. Separated by the 4-week intervention period, two hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed to estimate insulin sensitivity. Furthermore......, the systemic inflammatory response was evaluated by subjecting the participants to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide injection (0·3 ng/kg) before and after the treatment course. L. acidophilus NCFM was detected in 75 % of the faecal samples after treatment with the probiotic bacterium. Insulin sensitivity...

  16. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

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    Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah R.; Samaan, M. Constantine; Kemp, Bruce E.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver. AMPK and ACC are key enzymes regulating fatty acid metabolism, liver fat content, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity but the importance of this pathway in regulating insulin sensitivity with HIIT is unknown. Methods In the current study, the effects of 6 weeks of HIIT were examined using obese mice with serine–alanine knock-in mutations on the AMPK phosphorylation sites of ACC1 and ACC2 (AccDKI) or wild-type (WT) controls. Results HIIT lowered blood glucose and increased exercise capacity, food intake, basal activity levels, carbohydrate oxidation and liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed WT and AccDKI mice. These changes occurred independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, inflammation and liver lipid content. Conclusions These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC. PMID:26909307

  17. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats.

  18. Effect of cabergoline on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and carotid intima media thickness in patients with prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inancli, Serap Soytac; Usluogullari, Alper; Ustu, Yusuf; Caner, Sedat; Tam, Abbas Ali; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cabergoline on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory markers, and carotid intima media thickness in prolactinoma patients. Twenty-one female, newly diagnosed patients with prolactinoma were included in the study. None of the patients were treated previously. Cabergoline was given as treatment, starting with 0.5 mg/day and tapered necessarily. Blood samples were taken for prolactin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, homocysteine, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) score was calculated, prior to and 6 months after starting treatment. The body mass index (BMI) was measured and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) was evaluated for each patient prior to and 6 months after the treatment. The prolactin levels and LDL decreased significantly after cabergoline treatment. Insulin sensitivity improved independently from the decrease in prolactin levels and BMI. The significant decrease in homocysteine and hs-CRP was not related with the decrease in prolactin levels. The significant decrease in CIMT was independent from the decrease in prolactin levels, HOMA score, and BMI. Our data suggest that cabergoline treatment causes an improvement in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory markers and causes a decrease in CIMT independent from the decrease in prolactin, LDL cholesterol, and BMI. We conclude that short term cabergoline treatment can improve endothelial function independently from the changes in metabolic disturbances and inflammatory markers.

  19. Consumption of a diet low in advanced glycation end products for 4 weeks improves insulin sensitivity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Alicja Budek; Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Andersen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    of either fructose or glucose drinks. Glucose and insulin concentrations-after fasting and 2 h after an oral glucose tolerance test-were measured before and after the intervention. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index were calculated. Dietary and urinary...

  20. Long-term treatment with losartan versus atenolol improves insulin sensitivity in hypertension: ICARUS, a LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael H; Fossum, Eigil; Høieggen, Aud

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension and insulin resistance might be associated through peripheral vascular hypertrophy/rarefaction which compromises skeletal muscle blood flow and decreases glucose uptake, inducing insulin resistance. We hypothesized that treatment with losartan as compared to atenolol would improve...... insulin sensitivity through regression of peripheral vascular hypertrophy/rarefaction....

  1. The relationship between heat shock protein 72 expression in skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity is dependent on adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henstridge, Darren C; Forbes, Josephine M; Penfold, Sally A

    2010-01-01

    Decreased gene expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) in skeletal muscle is associated with insulin resistance in humans. We aimed to determine whether HSP72 protein expression in insulin-sensitive tissues is related to criterion standard measures of adiposity and insulin resistance in a young...

  2. Acute mTOR inhibition induces insulin resistance and alters substrate utilization in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Sylow, Lykke; Fazakerley, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    , but not rapamycin reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into incubated muscles, despite normal GLUT4 translocation in muscle cells. AZD8055 inhibited glycolysis in MEF cells. Abrogation of mTORC2 activity by SIN1 deletion impaired glycolysis and AZD8055 had no effect in SIN1 KO MEFs. Re-expression of wildtype...... SIN1 rescued glycolysis. Glucose intolerance following AZD8055 administration was absent in mice lacking the mTORC2 subunit Rictor in muscle, and in vivo glucose uptake into Rictor-deficient muscle was reduced despite normal Akt activity. Taken together, acute mTOR inhibition is detrimental to glucose...

  3. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity.

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    Aprilianto E Wiria

    Full Text Available Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects.We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections.From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L, insulin (pmol/L, high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance.424 (66% participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03 and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05. In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01. This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07.STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone.

  4. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiria, Aprilianto E; Hamid, Firdaus; Wammes, Linda J; Prasetyani, Margaretta A; Dekkers, Olaf M; May, Linda; Kaisar, Maria M M; Verweij, Jaco J; Guigas, Bruno; Partono, Felix; Sartono, Erliyani; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smit, Johannes W A

    2015-01-01

    Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH)-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects. We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections. From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L), insulin (pmol/L), high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml) and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml). The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance. 424 (66%) participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03) and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05). In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01). This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07). STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone.

  5. PDE 5 inhibitor improves insulin sensitivity by enhancing mitochondrial function in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hea Min; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Kim, Koon Soon; Lee, Jae Min; Hong, Jun Hwa; Park, Kang Seo

    2017-11-04

    Adipocytes are involved in many metabolic disorders. It was recently reported that phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) is expressed in human adipose tissue. In addition, PDE5 inhibitors have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in humans. However, the mechanism underlying the role of PDE5 inhibitors as an insulin sensitizer remains largely unknown. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of the PDE5 inhibitor udenafil in insulin signaling in adipocytes and whether this is mediated through the regulation of mitochondrial function. To study the mechanism underlying the insulin sensitizing action of PDE5 inhibitors, we evaluated quantitative changes in protein or mRNA levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), and fatty acid oxidation with varying udenafil concentrations in 3T3-L1 cells. Our cell study suggested that udenafil enhanced the insulin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 cells. Following udenafil treatment, basal mitochondrial OCR, maximal OxPhos capacity, and OxPhos gene expression significantly increased. Finally, we examined whether udenafil can affect the fatty acid oxidation process. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with udenafil (10 and 20 μM) significantly increased fatty acid oxidation rate in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) significantly increased. We demonstrated that the PDE5 inhibitor udenafil enhances insulin sensitivity by improving mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 cells. This might be the mechanism underlying the PDE5 inhibitor-enhanced insulin signaling in adipocytes. This also suggests that udenafil may provide benefit in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other related cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-Term Moderate Sleep Restriction Decreases Insulin Sensitivity in Young Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Greer, Julian; Porter, Ryan R.; Kaur, Kamaljeet; Youngstedt, Shawn D.

    2017-01-01

    Context and Purpose The literature suggests that severe sleep loss of more than a few hours a night decreases glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine whether moderate sleep restriction had similar effects. Methods Fifteen healthy non-obese (BMI=24.5±3.4 kg/m2) young adults (20.6±1.3 years) completed two 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT): one was after 3 days of time-in-bed restriction by 1–3 hours each night, and the other was after 3 days of ad libitum sleep. Glucose and insulin concentrations during OGTT, and fasting glucagon and cortisol concentrations were determined. The homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Matsuda index, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Results The total time-in-bed during the sleep restriction and the ad libitum phase was 5.98±0.76 and 7.98±0.54 hours/day, and total sleep time was 5.16±0.49 and 6.65±0.64 hours/day, respectively. Glucose concentrations before and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes following consumption of glucose and area under the curve were not different for the two OGTT (p > 0.10 for all). Insulin concentration at fasting and area under the curve during the OGTT were significantly higher (p = 0.034 and 0.038, respectively) following restricted sleep than following ad libitum sleep. Fasting glucagon concentration was also higher (p = 0.003). The HOMA-IR, Matsuda index, and QUICKI all suggested decreased insulin sensitivity following restricted sleep. Conclusion Short-term moderate sleep restriction reduced insulin sensitivity compared to ad libitum sleep in this group of healthy young adults. PMID:28819636

  7. Metabolic profiling of the human response to a glucose challenge reveals distinct axes of insulin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaham, Oded; Wei, Ru; Wang, Thomas J; Ricciardi, Catherine; Lewis, Gregory D; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Carr, Steven A; Thadhani, Ravi; Gerszten, Robert E; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2008-01-01

    Glucose ingestion after an overnight fast triggers an insulin-dependent, homeostatic program that is altered in diabetes. The full spectrum of biochemical changes associated with this transition is currently unknown. We have developed a mass spectrometry-based strategy to simultaneously measure 191 metabolites following glucose ingestion. In two groups of healthy individuals (n=22 and 25), 18 plasma metabolites changed reproducibly, including bile acids, urea cycle intermediates, and purine degradation products, none of which were previously linked to glucose homeostasis. The metabolite dynamics also revealed insulin's known actions along four key axes—proteolysis, lipolysis, ketogenesis, and glycolysis—reflecting a switch from catabolism to anabolism. In pre-diabetics (n=25), we observed a blunted response in all four axes that correlated with insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis revealed that declines in glycerol and leucine/isoleucine (markers of lipolysis and proteolysis, respectively) jointly provide the strongest predictor of insulin sensitivity. This observation indicates that some humans are selectively resistant to insulin's suppression of proteolysis, whereas others, to insulin's suppression of lipolysis. Our findings lay the groundwork for using metabolic profiling to define an individual's 'insulin response profile', which could have value in predicting diabetes, its complications, and in guiding therapy. PMID:18682704

  8. Substrate Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity During Fasting in Obese Human Subjects: Impact of GH Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgild; Svart, Mads Vandsted; Lebeck, Janne; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Møller, Niels; Jessen, Niels; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic inflexibility are features of obesity and are amplified by fasting. Growth hormone (GH) secretion increases during fasting and GH causes insulin resistance. To study the metabolic effects of GH blockade during fasting in obese subjects. Nine obese males were studied thrice in a randomized design: (1) after an overnight fast (control), (2) after 72 hour fasting (fasting), and (3) after 72 hour fasting with GH blockade (pegvisomant) [fasting plus GH antagonist (GHA)]. Each study day consisted of a 4-hour basal period followed by a 2-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp combined with indirect calorimetry, assessment of glucose and palmitate turnover, and muscle and fat biopsies. GH levels increased with fasting (P fasting-induced reduction of serum insulin-like growth factor I was enhanced by GHA (P Fasting increased lipolysis and lipid oxidation independent of GHA, but fasting plus GHA caused a more pronounced suppression of lipid intermediates in response to hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Fasting-induced insulin resistance was abrogated by GHA (P Fasting plus GHA also caused elevated glycerol levels and reduced levels of counterregulatory hormones. Fasting significantly reduced the expression of antilipolytic signals in adipose tissue independent of GHA. Suppression of GH activity during fasting in obese subjects reverses insulin resistance and amplifies insulin-stimulated suppression of lipid intermediates, indicating that GH is an important regulator of substrate metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility also in obese subjects.

  9. Modulation of Insulin Sensitivity of Hepatocytes by the Pharmacological Downregulation of Phospholipase D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya A. Babenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of phospholipase D (PLD as a positive modulator of glucose uptake activation by insulin in muscle and adipose cells has been demonstrated. The role of PLD in the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin in the primary hepatocytes has been determined in this study. Methods. For this purpose, we studied effects of inhibitors of PLD on glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis stimulation by insulin. To determine the PLD activity, the method based on determination of products of transphosphatidylation reaction, phosphatidylethanol or phosphatidylbutanol, was used. Results. Inhibition of PLD by a general antagonist (1-butanol or specific inhibitor, halopemide, or N-hexanoylsphingosine, or by cellular ceramides accumulated in doxorubicin-treated hepatocytes decreased insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism. Doxorubicin-induced hepatocytes resistance to insulin action could be abolished by inhibition of ceramide production. Halopemide could nullify this effect. Addition of propranolol, as well as inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase (wortmannin, LY294002 or suppressors of Akt phosphorylation/activity, luteolin-7-O-glucoside or apigenin-7-O-glucoside, to the culture media could block cell response to insulin action. Conclusion. PLD plays an important role in the insulin signaling in the hepatocytes. PLD is activated downstream of PI3-kinase and Akt and is highly sensitive to ceramide content in the liver cells.

  10. Artemisia Extract Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Up-Regulating Adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Ji, Xianghong

    2016-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has affected a great number of pregnant women worldwide. Artemisia extracts have been found to exhibit a potent antidiabetic effect in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine the effects of Artemisia extract on insulin resistance and lipid profiles in pregnant GDM patients. Patients in their second trimester were randomly assigned to the Artemisia extract group (AE) or to a placebo group (PO). They were instructed to consume either AE or PO daily for a period of 10 weeks. Glucose and insulin profiles and adiponectin level were assessed at baseline (week 0) and after the treatment (week 10). Compared to the PO group, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and β-cell function (HOMA-B) were significantly reduced in the AE group participants. Moreover, levels of circulating adiponectin were also significantly up-regulated in the AE group, which also positively contributed to improved insulin sensitivity. Daily administration of Artemisia extract improves insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adiponectin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the Whitehall II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabák, A.G.; Jokela, M.; Akbaraly, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    assessed retrospective trajectories of fasting and 2-h postload glucose, homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin sensitivity, and HOMA beta-cell function from up to 13 years before diabetes diagnosis (diabetic group) or at the end of follow-up (non-diabetics). FINDINGS: Multilevel models adjusted...... (to 86.7%). HOMA beta-cell function increased between years 4 and 3 before diagnosis (from 85.0% to 92.6%) and then decreased until diagnosis (to 62.4%). INTERPRETATION: In this study, we show changes in glucose concentrations, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion as much as 3-6 years before......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the timing of changes in glucose metabolism before occurrence of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterise trajectories of fasting and postload glucose, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We analysed data...

  12. Regularization of parallel MRI reconstruction using in vivo coil sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Otazo, Ricardo; Xu, Jian; Sodickson, Daniel K.

    2009-02-01

    Parallel MRI can achieve increased spatiotemporal resolution in MRI by simultaneously sampling reduced k-space data with multiple receiver coils. One requirement that different parallel MRI techniques have in common is the need to determine spatial sensitivity information for the coil array. This is often done by smoothing the raw sensitivities obtained from low-resolution calibration images, for example via polynomial fitting. However, this sensitivity post-processing can be both time-consuming and error-prone. Another important factor in Parallel MRI is noise amplification in the reconstruction, which is due to non-unity transformations in the image reconstruction associated with spatially correlated coil sensitivity profiles. Generally, regularization approaches, such as Tikhonov and SVD-based methods, are applied to reduce SNR loss, at the price of introducing residual aliasing. In this work, we present a regularization approach using in vivo coil sensitivities in parallel MRI to overcome these potential errors into the reconstruction. The mathematical background of the proposed method is explained, and the technique is demonstrated with phantom images. The effectiveness of the proposed method is then illustrated clinically in a whole-heart 3D cardiac MR acquisition within a single breath-hold. The proposed method can not only overcome the sensitivity calibration problem, but also suppress a substantial portion of reconstruction-related noise without noticeable introduction of residual aliasing artifacts.

  13. Glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity measurements derived from the non-insulin-assisted minimal model and the clamp techniques are concordant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jan Erik; Alford, Frank; Ward, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the concordance between glucose effectiveness (SG) and insulin sensitivity (SI), derived from the unmodified dynamic non-insulin-assisted intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) implemented by SG(MM) and SI(MM); simulation analysis and modelling/conversational interaction (SAAM....../CONSAM) versus the eu/hyperglycaemic basal insulinaemic and the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (SG(CLAMP) and SI(CLAMP))....

  14. One week treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra leads to a sustained improvement in insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van E.J.P.; Poppel, van P.C.M.; Ballak, D.B.; Stienstra, Rinke; Netea, M.G.; Tack, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation associated with obesity is involved in the development of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that anti-inflammatory treatment with the Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra would improve insulin sensitivity.In an open label proof-of-concept study, we included overweight

  15. Disruption of TBP-2 ameliorates insulin sensitivity and secretion without affecting obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Eiji; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Inagaki, Nobuya; Okawa, Katsuya; Masaki, So; Yodoi, Junji; Masutani, Hiroshi

    2010-11-23

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by defects in both insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and is often accompanied by obesity. In this study, we show that disruption of thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2, also called Txnip) in obese mice (ob/ob) dramatically improves hyperglycaemia and glucose intolerance, without affecting obesity or adipocytokine concentrations. TBP-2-deficient ob/ob mice exhibited enhanced insulin sensitivity with activated insulin receptor substrate-1/Akt signalling in skeletal muscle and GSIS in islets compared with ob/ob mice. The elevation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) expression in ob/ob islets was downregulated by TBP-2 deficiency. TBP-2 overexpression suppressed glucose-induced adenosine triphosphate production, Ca(2+) influx and GSIS. In β-cells, TBP-2 enhanced the expression level and transcriptional activity of UCP-2 by recruitment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α to the UCP-2 promoter. Thus, TBP-2 is a key regulatory molecule of both insulin sensitivity and GSIS in diabetes, raising the possibility that inhibition of TBP-2 may be a novel therapeutic approach for T2DM.

  16. Muscle Arnt/Hif1β Is Dispensable in Myofiber Type Determination, Vascularization and Insulin Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marie Badin

    Full Text Available Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator/ hypoxia-inducible factor 1 beta (ARNT/ HIF1β, a member of bHLH-PAS family of transcriptional factors, plays a critical role in metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. The contributions of ARNT in pancreas, liver and adipose tissue to energy balance through gene regulation have been described. Surprisingly, the impact of ARNT signaling in the skeletal muscles, one of the major organs involved in glucose disposal, has not been investigated, especially in type II diabetes. Here we report that ARNT is expressed in the skeletal muscles, particularly in the energy-efficient oxidative slow-twitch myofibers, which are characterized by increased oxidative capacity, mitochondrial content, vascular supply and insulin sensitivity. However, muscle-specific deletion of ARNT did not change myofiber type distribution, oxidative capacity, mitochondrial content, capillarity, or the expression of genes associated with these features. Consequently, the lack of ARNT in the skeletal muscle did not affect weight gain, lean/fat mass, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in lean mice, nor did it impact insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in high fat diet-induced obesity. Therefore, skeletal muscle ARNT is dispensable for controlling muscle fiber type and metabolic regulation, as well as diet-induced weight control, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.

  17. Muscle Arnt/Hif1β Is Dispensable in Myofiber Type Determination, Vascularization and Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Pierre-Marie; Sopariwala, Danesh H; Lorca, Sabina; Narkar, Vihang A

    2016-01-01

    Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator/ hypoxia-inducible factor 1 beta (ARNT/ HIF1β), a member of bHLH-PAS family of transcriptional factors, plays a critical role in metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. The contributions of ARNT in pancreas, liver and adipose tissue to energy balance through gene regulation have been described. Surprisingly, the impact of ARNT signaling in the skeletal muscles, one of the major organs involved in glucose disposal, has not been investigated, especially in type II diabetes. Here we report that ARNT is expressed in the skeletal muscles, particularly in the energy-efficient oxidative slow-twitch myofibers, which are characterized by increased oxidative capacity, mitochondrial content, vascular supply and insulin sensitivity. However, muscle-specific deletion of ARNT did not change myofiber type distribution, oxidative capacity, mitochondrial content, capillarity, or the expression of genes associated with these features. Consequently, the lack of ARNT in the skeletal muscle did not affect weight gain, lean/fat mass, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in lean mice, nor did it impact insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in high fat diet-induced obesity. Therefore, skeletal muscle ARNT is dispensable for controlling muscle fiber type and metabolic regulation, as well as diet-induced weight control, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.

  18. Increased serum resistin in elite endurance athletes with high insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseghin, G; Burska, A; Lattuada, G; Alberti, G; Costantino, F; Ragogna, F; Oggionni, S; Scollo, A; Terruzzi, I; Luzi, L

    2006-08-01

    Resistin is an adipokine associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in animal models, but in humans its role remains uncertain. This study was undertaken to test whether serum resistin is related to insulin resistance and markers of low-grade inflammation in elite athletes taken as a model of extreme insulin sensitivity. SUBJECTS MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 23 elite athletes (sprinters, middle-distance and marathon runners) and in 72 sedentary men including lean and obese individuals with NGT, and obese individuals with IGT or new-onset type 2 diabetes, we assessed insulin sensitivity using a whole-body insulin-sensitivity index (WBISI) derived from a 3-h OGTT; energy homeostasis was also assessed by means of indirect calorimetry, along with circulating adipokines and low-grade pro-inflammatory cyto-chemokines. Professional athletes had increased WBISIs (prunners, but not in the sprinters when compared with the lean, young, sedentary individuals. Serum resistin concentration is increased in elite athletes, providing evidence against the notion that resistin levels reflect insulin resistance in humans, as seen in animal studies. Increased resistin was observed in aerobic-endurance, but not sustained-power athletes and this feature appeared to be independently associated with parameters of fatty acid metabolism.

  19. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  20. In vitro and in vivo insulin amyloid degradation mediated by Serratiopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metkar, Sanjay Kisan; Girigoswami, Agnishwar; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Girigoswami, Koyeli

    2017-01-01

    A transition of amyloidogenic protein by alternative folding pathway under certain conditions leads to the formation of protease resistant amyloid fibrils, having predominantly cross β structure. These amyloids are related to various neurodegenerative diseases and clearance of such amyloids may be a therapeutic approach for amyloid-related diseases. Insulin, that can form amyloids, is widely used as a model amyloidogenic protein for the study of various amyloid related diseases. In this study, insulin amyloids were formed in vitro and the potential of Serratiopeptidase (SP), a fibrinolytic-like serine protease, towards the dissociation of insulin amyloids was explored. The dissociation of the amyloids was demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo using zebrafish model. The amyloid dissociation property was compared with a standard amyloid dissociating enzyme nattokinase (NK). SP shows better amyloid dissociation ability than NK and therefore, SP can be considered as amyloid dissociating agent with potential as a drug candidate for different amyloid related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The retardation of vasculopathy induced by attenuation of insulin resistance in the corpulent JCR:LA-cp rat is reflected by decreased vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absher, P M; Schneider, D J; Baldor, L C; Russell, J C; Sobel, B E

    1999-04-01

    Proliferation in vivo of vascular smooth muscle cells occurs early in the course of atherosclerosis. Cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) explanted from aortas of JCR:LA-cp corpulent rats known to exhibit metabolic derangements and insulin resistance typical of type II diabetes early in life and to develop atherosclerosis later in life exhibit increased proliferation compared with SMCs from lean, normal rats. Vascular smooth muscle proliferation in vitro was found to be positively and significantly correlated with plasma insulin levels in vivo. Proliferation of aortic SMCs from JCR:LA-cp cp/cp corpulent rats cultured in vitro exhibited increased proliferation in the presence of exogenous insulin. Exercise and diet, selected as interventions designed to ameliorate the insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in the JCR:LA-cp cp/cp rat, effectively lowered blood insulin levels and decreased subsequent proliferation in vitro of aortic SMCs explanted from these animals. The results indicate that assessment of proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells ex vivo may provide insight into the presence and severity of atherogenicity in association with insulin resistance in diverse species under diverse circumstances. Accordingly, with appropriate controls, it may be possible to use SMC proliferation ex vivo as a marker of the extent to which an intervention such as administration of insulin sensitizers to experimental animals and human subjects results in a change in behavior of vessel wall elements potentially indicative of amelioration of atherogenicity and detectable as judged from reduced proliferative rates of the cells ex vivo when they have been harvested from vessels exposed to a milieu in which insulin resistance has been attenuated.

  2. A low-fat Diet improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, AM; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Viggers, Lone

    2006-01-01

    diet (P = 0.039). The daily protein and carbohydrate intake increased (+4.4% of total energy intake, P = 0.0049 and +2.5%, P = 0.34, respectively), while alcohol intake decreased (-3.2% of total energy intake, P = 0.02). There was a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity on the isocaloric, low......AIMS: To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Thirteen Type 1 patients were...... by the insulin clamp technique at baseline and after each of the diet intervention periods. RESULTS: On an isocaloric low-fat diet, Type 1 diabetic patients significantly reduced the proportion of fat in the total daily energy intake by 12.1% (or -3.6% of total energy) as compared with a conventional diabetes...

  3. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Kiens, Bente

    2014-01-01

    higher insulin sensitivity of female skeletal muscle can be related to gender-specific regulation of molecular metabolism will be topic for discussion. Gender differences in muscle fiber type distribution and substrate availability to and in skeletal muscle are highly relevant for substrate metabolism......It has become increasingly apparent that substrate metabolism is subject to gender-specific regulation, and the aim of this review is to outline the available evidence of molecular gender differences in glucose and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle. Female sex has been suggested to have...... a favorable effect on glucose homeostasis, and the available evidence from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies is summarized to delineate whether there is a gender difference in whole-body insulin sensitivity and in particular insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of skeletal muscle. Whether an eventual...

  4. Lipid droplet size and location in human skeletal muscle fibers are associated with insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Christensen, Anders E; Nellemann, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, an accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in the subsarcolemmal space is associated with insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. We aimed to investigate how the size, number and location of LDs are associated with insulin sensitivity and muscle fiber types...... that only the diameter (and not the number) of individual subsarcolemmal LDs was negatively associated with insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.03, n = 29). Despite 34% (P = 0.004) fewer LDs, the diameter of individual subsarcolemmal LDs was 20% (P = 0.0004) larger in type 2 fibers than in type 1 fibers....... Furthermore, aerobic training decreased the size of subsarcolemmal LDs in the type 2fibers, and ESA treatment lowered the number of both intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal LDs in the type 1fibers. In conclusion, the size of individual subsarcolemmal LDs may be involved in the mechanism by which LDs...

  5. Strawberry and cranberry polyphenols improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant, non-diabetic adults: a parallel, double-blind, controlled and randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Martine; Medina Larqué, Ana S; Weisnagel, S J; Desjardins, Yves; Marois, Julie; Pilon, Geneviève; Dudonné, Stéphanie; Marette, André; Jacques, Hélène

    2017-02-01

    Plant-derived foods rich in polyphenols are associated with several cardiometabolic health benefits, such as reduced postprandial hyperglycaemia. However, their impact on whole-body insulin sensitivity using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique remains under-studied. We aimed to determine the effects of strawberry and cranberry polyphenols (SCP) on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, lipid profile, inflammation and oxidative stress markers in free-living insulin-resistant overweight or obese human subjects (n 41) in a parallel, double-blind, controlled and randomised clinical trial. The experimental group consumed an SCP beverage (333 mg SCP) daily for 6 weeks, whereas the Control group received a flavour-matched Control beverage that contained 0 mg SCP. At the beginning and at the end of the experimental period, insulin sensitivity was assessed by a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, and glucose tolerance and insulin secretion by a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity increased in the SCP group as compared with the Control group (+0·9 (sem 0·5)×10-3 v. -0·5 (sem 0·5)×10-3 mg/kg per min per pmol, respectively, P=0·03). Compared with the Control group, the SCP group had a lower first-phase insulin secretion response as measured by C-peptide levels during the first 30 min of the OGTT (P=0·002). No differences were detected between the two groups for lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. A 6-week dietary intervention with 333 mg of polyphenols from strawberries and cranberries improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese non-diabetic, insulin-resistant human subjects but was not effective in improving other cardiometabolic risk factors.

  6. Arsenic exposure is associated with diminished insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic Amish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Kyun; Peng, Qing; Bielak, Lawrence F; Silver, Kristi D; Peyser, Patricia A; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2016-09-01

    Substantial evidence supports an association between diabetes and arsenic at high exposure levels, but results are mixed at low exposure levels. The aetiology of diabetes involves insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. However, only a few epidemiologic studies have examined measures of insulin resistance and β-cell function in relation to arsenic exposure, and no studies have tested for associations with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We examined the association between urinary total arsenic and OGTT-based markers of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. We studied 221 non-diabetic adults (mean age = 52.5 years) from the Amish Family Diabetes Study. We computed OGTT-based validated measures of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. Generalized estimating equations accounting for sibship were used to estimate associations. After adjusting for age, sex, waist-to-hip ratio and urinary creatinine, an interquartile range increase in urinary total arsenic (6.24 µg/L) was significantly, inversely associated with two insulin sensitivity measures (Stumvoll metabolic clearance rate = -0.23 mg/(kg min), (95% CI: -0.38, -0.089), p = 0.0015; Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index = -0.0029 µmol/(kg min pM), (95% CI: -0.0047, -0.0011), p = 0.0015). Urinary total arsenic was also significantly associated with higher fasting glucose levels (0.57 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.06, 1.09) per interquartile range increase, p = 0.029). No significant associations were found between urinary total arsenic and β-cell function measures. This preliminary study found that urinary total arsenic was associated with insulin sensitivity but not β-cell function measures, suggesting that low-level arsenic exposure may influence diabetes risk through impairing insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reducing glycosphingolipid content in adipose tissue of obese mice restores insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis and reduces inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco van Eijk

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on adipose tissue function and inflammation in detail to provide an explanation for the observed improved glucose homeostasis. Leptin-deficient obese (Lep(Ob mice were fed AMP-DNM and its effects on insulin signalling, adipogenesis and inflammation were monitored in fat tissue. We show that reduction of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in adipose tissue of Lep(Ob mice restores insulin signalling in isolated ex vivo insulin-stimulated adipocytes. We observed improved adipogenesis as the number of larger adipocytes was reduced and expression of genes like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR gamma, insulin responsive glucose transporter (GLUT-4 and adipsin increased. In addition, we found that adiponectin gene expression and protein were increased by AMP-DNM. As a consequence of this improved function of fat tissue we observed less inflammation, which was characterized by reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages (crown-like structures and reduced levels of the macrophage chemo attractants monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1/Ccl2 and osteopontin (OPN. In conclusion, pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids by inhibition of glucosylceramide biosynthesis improves adipocyte function and as a consequence reduces inflammation in adipose tissue of obese animals.

  8. PUFAs acutely affect triacylglycerol-derived skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake and increase postprandial insulin sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, A.; Konings, E.; Goossens, G.H.; Bouwman, F.G.; Moors, C.C.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Afman, L.A.; Muller, M.R.; Mariman, E.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat quality may influence skeletal muscle lipid processing and fat accumulation, thereby modulating insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective was to examine the acute effects of meals with various fatty acid (FA) compositions on skeletal muscle FA processing and postprandial

  9. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Dekkers, O.M.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth

  10. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian; Johansen, Marie Louise; Gustafsson, Finn; Frystyk, Jan; Dela, Flemming; Faber, Jens; Kistorp, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current and former AAS abusers compared with controls. Cross-sectional study among men involved in recreational strength training. Current and former AAS abusers (n=37 and n=33) and controls (n=30) volunteered from the community. We assessed insulin sensitivity by Matsuda index (oral glucose tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls (%-difference (95%CI) from controls, -26% (-45; -1) and -39% (-55; -18)). Testosterone was markedly higher among current AAS abusers and subnormal among former AAS abusers compared with controls. Current AAS abusers displayed higher mean VAT than controls (388 (17) vs 293 (12) cm3 , Pfat %, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were lower. In contrast, former AAS abusers showed highest leptin concentrations and body fat %. Multivariate linear regressions identified VAT as independent predictor of lower Matsuda index among current AAS abusers compared with controls; while body fat % independently predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Acute caffeine ingestion reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiuqin; Xue, Wenhua; Liang, Shuhong; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2016-12-28

    According to previous meta-analyses, coffee consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Whether caffeine, the key ingredient in coffee, has a beneficial effect on the glycemic homeostasis and the anti-diabetic effect is particularly controversial. The aim of this study was to summarize the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on insulin sensitivity in healthy men. A comprehensive literature search for papers published before April 2016 was conducted in EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effect of caffeine on insulin sensitivity in healthy humans without diabetes were included. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3. The search yielded 7 RCTs in which caffeine intake was the single variant. Compared with placebo, caffeine intake significantly decreased the insulin sensitivity index, with a standardized mean difference of -2.06 (95% confidence interval -2.67 to -1.44, I2 = 49%, P for heterogeneity = 0.06). Acute caffeine ingestion reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Thus, in the short term, caffeine might shift glycemic homeostasis toward hyperglycemia. Long-term trials investigating the role of caffeine in the anti-diabetic effect of coffee are needed.

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption increases insulin sensitivity and ADIPOQ expression in postmenopausal women: A randomised, crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Kersten, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: To determine whether 6 weeks of daily, moderate alcohol consumption increases expression of the gene encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and plasma levels of the protein, and improves insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, crossover trial

  13. Strength Exercise Improves Muscle Mass and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Chu, Zili; Toffolo, Gianna; Manesso, Erica; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2010-01-01

    VAN DER HEIJDEN, G.-J., Z. J. WANG, Z. CHU, G. TOFFOLO, E. MANESSO, P. J. J. SAUER, and A. L. SUNEHAG. Strength Exercise Improves Muscle Mass and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 1973-1980, 2010. Introduction: Data on the metabolic effects of

  14. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and liver by physiological overexpression of SIRT6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G. Anderson

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Our data indicate that moderate, physiological overexpression of SIRT6 enhances insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and liver, engendering protective actions against diet-induced T2DM. Hence, the present study provides support for the anti-T2DM effect of SIRT6 and suggests SIRT6 as a putative molecular target for anti-T2DM treatment.

  15. Human skeletal muscle perilipin 2 and 3 expression varies with insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Ploug, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    low insulin sensitivity. Methods: 25 middle aged male participants were matched for lean body mass and recruited into three groups; type 2 diabetes patients (T2D), impaired glu- cose tolerance (IGT), and healthy sedentary controls (CON) according to their glucose tolerance and VO2peak. A muscle biopsy...

  16. Exercise Improves Insulin Sensitivity in the Absence of Changes in Cytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheggen, R.J.; Poelkens, F.; Roerink, S.H.; Ramakers, R.E.; Catoire, M.; Hermus, A.R.; Thijssen, D.H.; Hopman, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The benefits of aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are, at least in part, associated with changes in cytokines. Recent studies identified novel cytokines (e.g., fractalkine, omentin, and osteopontin) that are strongly involved in

  17. Short-term cold acclimation improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, M.J.W.; Hoeks, J.; Brans, B.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Kersten, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Cold exposure may be a potential therapy for diabetes by increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and activity. Here we report that 10 d of cold acclimation (14–15 °C) increased peripheral insulin sensitivity by ~43% in eight type 2 diabetes subjects. Basal skeletal muscle GLUT4 translocation

  18. Effects of different degrees of insulin sensitivity on endothelial function in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Roberto; Plavnik, Frida Liane; Ribeiro, Fernando Flexa; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron; Christofalo, Dejaldo M de J; Kohlmann, Osvaldo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity derived from intra-abdominal fat deposition tends to increase hormonal and cytokine production, thus worsening insulin sensitivity and leading to endothelial dysfunction. Hyperinsulinemia is considered an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease and cause of endothelial dysfunction in healthy individuals. To assess the impact of different degrees of insulin resistance, measured by HOMA-IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), on endothelial function in obese, non-diabetic patients without prior history of cardiovascular events and different metabolic syndrome components. Forty obese individuals were submitted to anthropometric measurements, BP measurements at office and ABPM and laboratory tests, in addition to non-invasive ultrasound assessment of endothelial function. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the level of insulin resistance: patients with HOMA-IR values from 0.590 to 1.082 were assigned to Group 1 (n=13), from 1.083 to 1.410 to Group 2 (n=14) and from 1.610 to 2.510 to Group 3 (n=13). We found a significant difference in flow-mediated dilation in group 3 compared to group 1 (9.2 ± 7.0 vs 18.0 ± 7.5 %, p=0.006). There was a negative correlation between endothelial function and insulin, HOMA-IR and triglycerides. Our data suggest that mild changes in insulin resistance levels assessed by HOMA-IR may have an impact on vasodilatatory endothelial function in uncomplicated obese individuals with different cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. [Mechanism of action of insulin sensitizer agents in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo García, Carlos G; Vega Arias, Maria de Jesús; Hernández Marín, Imelda; Ayala, Aquiles R

    2007-03-01

    Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is the most important endocrine abnormality that affects women in reproductive age. It is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenemia probably secondary to insulin resistance. Hence insulin sensitizers agents had been used in PCOD. Metformin is a biguanide used in the treatment of PCOD via decrease of hepatic gluconeogenesis and insulinemia; improvement peripheral glucose utilization, oxidative glucose metabolism, nonoxidative glucose metabolism and intracellular glucose transport. Such effects, when this drug is administered alone during 3 to 6 months, increase sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), reduce free androgens index and hirsutism, decrease insulin resistance, and regulate menses in 60 to 70% of cases. Thiazolidinodiones are drugs that decrease insulin resistance in the liver with hepatic glucose production. Their mechanism of action is through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR-gamma), that help to decrease plasmatic concentrations of free fatty acids, pre and postprandial glucose, insulin, triglycerides, increased HDL cholesterol and decreased LDL, menses return to normality, with improvement of ovulation and decreased hirsutism. It seems that by modulation and attenuation of insulin resistance, hypoglucemic agents such as metfomin and thiazolidinodiones can be used effectively to treat anovulation, infertility and hyperandrogenemia.

  20. The Link Between Nutritional Status and Insulin Sensitivity Is Dependent on the Adipocyte-Specific Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-γ2 Isoform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gomez, Gema; Virtue, Sam; Lelliott, Christopher; Boiani, Romina; Campbell, Mark; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Perrin, Christophe; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Blount, Margaret; Dixon, John; Zahn, Dirk; Thresher, Rosemary R.; Aparicio, Sam; Carlton, Mark; Colledge, William H.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Brindle, Kevin; Cinti, Saverio; Orešič, Matej; Burcelin, Remy; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is critically required for adipogenesis. PPARγ exists as two isoforms, γ1 and γ2. PPARγ2 is the more potent adipogenic isoform in vitro and is normally restricted to adipose tissues, where it is regulated more by nutritional state than PPARγ1. To elucidate the relevance of the PPARγ2 in vivo, we generated a mouse model in which the PPARγ2 isoform was specifically disrupted. Despite similar weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, and adipose tissue morphology, male mice lacking the γ2 isoform were more insulin resistant than wild-type animals when fed a regular diet. These results indicate that insulin resistance associated with ablation of PPARγ2 is not the result of lipodystrophy and suggests a specific role for PPARγ2 in maintaining insulin sensitivity independently of its effects on adipogenesis. Furthermore, PPARγ2 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet did not become more insulin resistant than those on a normal diet, despite a marked increase in their mean adipocyte cell size. These findings suggest that PPARγ2 is required for the maintenance of normal insulin sensitivity in mice but also raises the intriguing notion that PPARγ2 may be necessary for the adverse effects of a high-fat diet on carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:15919792

  1. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changkeun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Seyedian, Ramin; Jo, MiNa; Kim, Jehein; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2012-12-15

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) has been an important subject of research in the past two decades because of its various biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities. On the other hand, the molecular bases of its actions have been scarcely understood. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of the hypoglycemic actions of saffron through investigating its signaling pathways associated with glucose metabolism in C(2)C(12) skeletal muscle cells. Saffron strongly enhanced glucose uptake and the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)/ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), but not PI 3-kinase (Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt. Interestingly, the co-treatment of saffron and insulin further improved the insulin sensitivity via both insulin-independent (AMPK/ACC and MAPKs) and insulin-dependent (PI 3-kinase/Akt and mTOR) pathways. It also suggested that there is a crosstalk between the two signaling pathways of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. These results could be confirmed from the findings of GLUT4 translocation. Taken together, AMPK plays a major role in the effects of saffron on glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. Our study provides important insights for the possible mechanism of action of saffron and its potential as a therapeutic agent in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ELOVL6 Genetic Variation Is Related to Insulin Sensitivity: A New Candidate Gene in Energy Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Sonsoles; Martín-Núñez, Gracia María; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Almaraz, María Cruz; García-Escobar, Eva; Mansego, María Luisa; de Marco, Griselda; Chaves, Felipe J.; Soriguer, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Background The elongase of long chain fatty acids family 6 (ELOVL6) is an enzyme that specifically catalyzes the elongation of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids with 12, 14 and 16 carbons. ELOVL6 is expressed in lipogenic tissues and it is regulated by sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1). Objective We investigated whether ELOVL6 genetic variation is associated with insulin sensitivity in a population from southern Spain. Design We undertook a prospective, population-based study collecting phenotypic, metabolic, nutritional and genetic information. Measurements were made of weight and height and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment. The type of dietary fat was assessed from samples of cooking oil taken from the participants' kitchens and analyzed by gas chromatography. Five SNPs of the ELOVL6 gene were analyzed by SNPlex. Results Carriers of the minor alleles of the SNPs rs9997926 and rs6824447 had a lower risk of having high HOMA_IR, whereas carriers of the minor allele rs17041272 had a higher risk of being insulin resistant. An interaction was detected between the rs6824447 polymorphism and the intake of oil in relation with insulin resistance, such that carriers of this minor allele who consumed sunflower oil had lower HOMA_IR than those who did not have this allele (P = 0.001). Conclusions Genetic variations in the ELOVL6 gene were associated with insulin sensitivity in this population-based study. PMID:21701577

  3. MicroRNA-26a regulates insulin sensitivity and metabolism of glucose and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xianghui; Dong, Bingning; Tian, Yan; Lefebvre, Philippe; Meng, Zhipeng; Wang, Xichun; Pattou, François; Han, Weidong; Wang, Xiaoqiong; Lou, Fang; Jove, Richard; Staels, Bart; Moore, David D; Huang, Wendong

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs that have been implicated in the regulation of human diseases, including T2D. miR-26a is known to play a critical role in tumorigenesis; however, its function in cellular metabolism remains unknown. Here, we determined that miR-26a regulates insulin signaling and metabolism of glucose and lipids. Compared with lean individuals, overweight humans had decreased expression of miR-26a in the liver. Moreover, miR-26 was downregulated in 2 obese mouse models compared with control animals. Global or liver-specific overexpression of miR-26a in mice fed a high-fat diet improved insulin sensitivity, decreased hepatic glucose production, and decreased fatty acid synthesis, thereby preventing obesity-induced metabolic complications. Conversely, silencing of endogenous miR-26a in conventional diet-fed mice impaired insulin sensitivity, enhanced glucose production, and increased fatty acid synthesis. miR-26a targeted several key regulators of hepatic metabolism and insulin signaling. These findings reveal miR-26a as a regulator of liver metabolism and suggest miR-26a should be further explored as a potential target for the treatment of T2D.

  4. Early enhancements of hepatic and later of peripheral insulin sensitivity combined with increased postprandial insulin secretion contribute to improved glycemic control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun

    2014-01-01

    after RYGB. Participants were included after a preoperative diet induced total weight loss of -9.2±1.2%. Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity were assessed using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp combined with glucose tracer technique and beta-cell function evaluated in response...... to an intravenous glucose-glucagon challenge as well as an oral glucose load. Already within 1 week, RYGB reduced basal glucose production, improved basal hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased insulin clearance highlighting the liver as an important organ responsible for the early effects on glucose metabolism...... in response to oral glucose, underscoring the importance of the changed gut anatomy....

  5. Natural history of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the progression from normal glucose tolerance to impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, Kristine; Vaag, Allan; Holst, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    follow-up data from the Inter99 study were used. Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at baseline and i-IFG, i-IGT, combined IFG/IGT, or NGT at the 5-year follow-up were examined with an oral glucose tolerance test (n = 3,145). Insulin sensitivity index (ISI), homeostasis model assessment......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the development of isolated impaired fasting glycemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), and combined IFG/IGT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Baseline and 5-year...

  6. Insulin sensitivity from preschool to school age in patients with severe obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Manco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin sensitivity decreases at puberty transition, but little information has been provided on its earlier time-course. Aim of the present study was to describe the time-course of insulin sensitivity in severely obese children at the transition from preschool to school age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of 47 severely obese [Body Mass Index (BMI ≥99° percentile] preschoolers evaluated twice, once between 2 and 6 years of age, and once before age 8. Glucose tolerance, Whole Body Insulin Sensitivity Index (WBISI, Insulinogenic Index (IGI; β-cell demand index (BCDI and Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index 2 (ISSI-2 were longitudinally estimated during the oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 2.23 (1-4.52 y, obese patients showed significant decrease in WBISI (p<0.0001, and increase in fasting (p = 0.005 and 2 h glucose (2HG, p = 0.001. One child in preschool age and 4 school age children presented with 2HG between 7.8-11.1 mmol/l. Best predictors of WBISI, 2HG and BCDI in the school age were changes in BMI z-score (R(2 = 0.309; p = 0.002; β = -0.556, ISSI-2 (R(2 = 0.465; p<0.0001; β = -0.682, and BMI z-score (R(2 = 0.246; p = 0.008; 0.496, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In morbidly obese children, insulin sensitivity seems to decline even before pubertal transition, but changes in total adiposity can only partially explain this variation.

  7. Ectopic Fat Deposition on Insulin Sensitivity: Correlation of Hepatocellular Lipid Content and M Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly S. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to explore the relationship among insulin sensitivity and ectopic fat depots in participants with different glucose status. Methods. Fifty-nine men and women were enrolled in this study: 29 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, 17 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and 13 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. All participants underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to assess the insulin sensitivity index (M value and magnetic resonance imaging to measure the hepatocellular lipid content (HCL, skeletal muscle fat content including intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL of tibialis anterior (ta, and soleus muscle (sol. Results. The M value of NGT group was higher than those of IGT and T2DM groups (P=0.001. Participants with T2DM had the highest HCL and IMCL (ta compared with those in NGT and IGT groups (P=0.001. The M value had an inverse relationship with HCL (r=-0.789, P=0.001, IMCL (sol (r=-0.427, P=0.002, and IMCL (ta (r=-0.419, P=0.002. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that HCL (standardized β=-0.416; P=0.001 had an independent relationship with M value. Conclusions. Hepatocellular lipid content deposition happens earlier than skeletal muscle fat deposition. HCL is an independent risk factor for insulin resistance and may be used to evaluate the risk of developing T2DM as a noninvasive marker of insulin sensitivity index.

  8. The Association between Alcohol Consumption and β-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Min-Gyu; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Lee, Hye-Ja; Park, Sang Ick

    2016-11-14

    This cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and insulin secretion and sensitivity using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Alcohol consumption levels were categorized into four groups: (i) abstainers, (ii) low (consumption. β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were estimated using the insulinogenic index (IGI60), and Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI), respectively. IGI60 and ISI were dichotomized into high and low groups using median cut-off values and four groups were defined (G-I: high IGI60/high ISI; G-II: high IGI60/low ISI; G-III: low IGI60/high ISI; and G-IV: low IGI60/low ISI). Men consumed 26.5 g alcohol per day on average, whereas women only consumed 5.7 g/day, so women were excluded from subsequent analyses due to their low drinking levels. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and triglycerides (TG) in men, but was negatively associated with IGI60 (p function (G-III) with high alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption increased HDL cholesterol in the four groups (p consumption increased the risk of high cholesterol and TG. In individuals with decreased β-cell function (G-III), alcohol consumption increased the risk of high TG and high AST levels. High alcohol consumption was significantly associated with reduced insulin secretion. In addition, alcohol consumption was related to some metabolic risk factors depending on insulin secretion or sensitivity.

  9. Complement C3 Is the Strongest Predictor of Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Psoriatic Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ursini

    Full Text Available To evaluate the correlation between inflammatory measures and whole-body insulin sensitivity in psoriatic arthritis (PsA patients.For the present study, 40 nondiabetic PsA patients were recruited. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI, insulinogenic index (IGI and oral disposition index (ODI were calculated from dynamic values of glucose and insulin obtained during OGTT.In our study population, mean ISI was 3.5 ± 2.5, median IGI was 1.2 (0.7-1.8, mean ODI 4.5 ± 4.5. In univariate correlation analysis, ISI correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure (sBP (R = -0.52, p = 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (dBP (R = -0.45, p = 0.004 and complement C3 (R = -0.43, p = 0.006 and ODI correlated inversely with sBP (R = -0.38, p = 0.02, dBP (R = -0.35, p = 0.03 and complement C3 (R = -0.37, p = 0.02. No significant correlations were found between analyzed variables and IGI. In a stepwise multiple regression, only complement C3 entered in the regression equation and accounted for approximately 50% of the variance of ISI. Using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve we identified the best cut-off for complement C3 of 1.32 g/L that yielded a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 96% for classification of insulin resistant patients.In conclusion, our data suggest that serum complement C3 could represent a useful marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity in PsA patients.

  10. Increased insulin and leptin sensitivity in mice lacking acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hubert C; Smith, Steven J; Ladha, Zuleika; Jensen, Dalan R; Ferreira, Luis D; Pulawa, Leslie K; McGuire, James G; Pitas, Robert E; Eckel, Robert H; Farese, Robert V

    2002-04-01

    Acyl coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is one of two known DGAT enzymes that catalyze the final step in mammalian triglyceride synthesis. DGAT1-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity through a mechanism involving increased energy expenditure. Here we show that these mice have decreased levels of tissue triglycerides, as well as increased sensitivity to insulin and to leptin. Importantly, DGAT1 deficiency protects against insulin resistance and obesity in agouti yellow mice, a model of severe leptin resistance. In contrast, DGAT1 deficiency did not affect energy and glucose metabolism in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, possibly due in part to a compensatory upregulation of DGAT2 expression in the absence of leptin. Our results suggest that inhibition of DGAT1 may be useful in treating insulin resistance and leptin resistance in human obesity.

  11. Early Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A Concentrations Are Associated With Third Trimester Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Frystyk, Jan; Dunger, David B

    2017-06-01

    First or early second trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) concentrations have previously been shown to be lower in women who subsequently develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational hypertension. We therefore sought to investigate why circulating PAPP-A concentrations are related to the subsequent risk of GDM and gestational hypertension. We measured serum PAPP-A concentrations around week 15 of pregnancy and related these to indices derived from week 28 oral glucose tolerance tests and blood pressures across pregnancy in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study cohort. Increased PAPP-A concentrations were associated with reduced GDM risk [odds ratio 0.623 (0.453, 0.856), P = 3.5 × 10-3, n = 777] and reduced mean arterial blood pressures (β = -0.202 to -0.177, P = 1.7 to 6.9 × 10-3, n = 347 to 355). They were also negatively associated with week 28 fasting (β = -0.149, P = 6.6 × 10-4, n = 777) and 60-minute (β = -0.188, P = 1.5 × 10-5, n = 777) oral glucose tolerance test glucose concentrations. These associations were underpinned by the strong associations between increased week 15 PAPP-A concentrations and decreased week 28 insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: β = -0.319, P = 1.7 × 10-13, n = 768), as well as increased insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity (insulin disposition index: β = 0.202, P = 6.5 × 10-6, n = 731). These results suggest that links between PAPP-A concentrations in early pregnancy and subsequent glucose concentrations and blood pressures may be mediated by changes in insulin sensitivity (and secretion).

  12. Improved insulin sensitivity and islet function after PPARdelta activation in diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Wulff, Erik Max; Olsen, Grith Skytte; Sauerberg, Per; Gotfredsen, Carsten F; Ahrén, Bo

    2010-01-25

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Several reports have shown that PPARdelta is involved in lipid metabolism, increasing fat oxidation and depleting lipid accumulation. Whether PPARdelta is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism is not completely understood. In this study, we examined effects of long-term PPARdelta activation on glycemic control, islet function and insulin sensitivity in diabetic db/db mice. Male db/db mice were administered orally once daily with a selective and partial PPARdelta agonist (NNC 61-5920, 30 mg/kg) for eight weeks; control mice received vehicle. Fasting and non-fasting plasma glucose were reduced, reflected in reduced hemoglobinA(1c) (3.6+/-1.6% vs. 5.4+/-1.8 in db/db controls, P<0.05) and furthermore, the AUC(glucose) after oral glucose (3g/kg) was reduced by 67% (P<0.05) after long-term PPARdelta activation. Following intravenous glucose (1g/kg), glucose tolerance was improved after PPARdelta activation (K(G) 1.3+/-0.6 vs. -0.05+/-0.7 %/min, P=0.048). Insulin sensitivity, measured as the glucose clearance after intravenous injection of glucose (1g/kg) and insulin (0.75 or 1.0 U/kg), during inhibition of endogenous insulin secretion by diazoxide (25mg/kg), was improved (K(G) 2.9+/-0.6 vs. 1.3+/-0.3 %/min in controls, P<0.05) despite lower insulin levels. Furthermore, islets isolated from PPARdelta agonist treated mice demonstrated improved glucose responsiveness as well as improved cellular topography. In conclusion, PPARdelta agonism alleviates insulin resistance and improves islet function and topography, resulting in improved glycemia in diabetic db/db mice. This suggests that activation of PPARdelta improves glucose metabolism and may therefore potentially be target for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Changes of insulin sensitivity and secretion after bariatric/metabolic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingrone, Geltrude; Cummings, David E

    2016-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is classically characterized by failure of pancreatic β-cell function and insulin secretion to compensate for a prevailing level of insulin resistance, typically associated with visceral obesity. Although this is usually a chronic, progressive disease in which delay of end-organ complications is the primary therapeutic goal for medical and behavioral approaches, several types of bariatric surgery, especially those that include intestinal bypass components, exert powerful antidiabetes effects to yield remission of T2D in most cases. It has become increasingly clear that in addition to the known benefits of acute caloric restriction and chronic weight loss to ameliorate T2D, bariatric/metabolic operations also engage a variety of weight-independent mechanisms to improve glucose homeostasis, enhancing insulin sensitivity and secretion to varying degrees depending on the specific operation. In this paper, we review the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, biliopancreatic diversion, and vertical sleeve gastrectomy on the primary determinants of glucose homeostasis: insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and, to the lesser extent that it is known, insulin-independent glucose disposal. A full understanding of these effects should help optimize surgical and device-based designs to provide maximal antidiabetes impact, and it holds the promise to identify targets for possible novel diabetes pharmacotherapeutics. These insights also contribute to the conceptual rationale for use of bariatric operations as "metabolic surgery," employed primarily to treat T2D, including among patients not obese enough to qualify for surgery based on traditional criteria related to high body mass index. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fasting serum levels of ferritin are associated with impaired pancreatic beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Linéa; Ellervik, Christina; Friedrich, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the nature of this association remains elusive. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an elevated fasting serum ferritin level is associated with an increased risk of type...... ferritin levels are associated with surrogate measures of both impaired beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity. Menopause seems to modify the association with insulin sensitivity....... diabetes due to its association with impaired beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity. Methods: We investigated 6,392 individuals from the Danish general population. Surrogate measures of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity were calculated for approximately 6,100 individuals based...... glucose levels at 0, 30 and 120 min (p beta cell function estimated as the insulinogenic index and corrected insulin response (p 

  15. Hippocampal insulin microinjection and in vivo microdialysis during spatial memory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ewan C; Sandusky, Leslie A; Pearson-Leary, Jiah

    2013-01-11

    Glucose metabolism is a useful marker for local neural activity, forming the basis of methods such as 2-deoxyglucose and functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, use of such methods in animal models requires anesthesia and hence both alters the brain state and prevents behavioral measures. An alternative method is the use of in vivo microdialysis to take continuous measurement of brain extracellular fluid concentrations of glucose, lactate, and related metabolites in awake, unrestrained animals. This technique is especially useful when combined with tasks designed to rely on specific brain regions and/or acute pharmacological manipulation; for example, hippocampal measurements during a spatial working memory task (spontaneous alternation) show a dip in extracellular glucose and rise in lactate that are suggestive of enhanced glycolysis, and intrahippocampal insulin administration both improves memory and increases hippocampal glycolysis. Substances such as insulin can be delivered to the hippocampus via the same microdialysis probe used to measure metabolites. The use of spontaneous alternation as a measure of hippocampal function is designed to avoid any confound from stressful motivators (e.g. footshock), restraint, or rewards (e.g. food), all of which can alter both task performance and metabolism; this task also provides a measure of motor activity that permits control for nonspecific effects of treatment. Combined, these methods permit direct measurement of the neurochemical and metabolic variables regulating behavior.

  16. Leptin-induced basal Akt phosphorylation and its implication in exercise-mediated improvement of insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xianjie; Niu, Sen

    2018-01-29

    Physical exercise is an efficient therapeutical tool in the management of insulin resistance (IR) and related metabolic diseases. Leptin, the well-known obesity hormone and the absence of which leads to IR, showed controversial effects on IR as research continues. Thus, in this study, a detailed investigation of the effect of leptin on exercise-mediated improvement of insulin sensitivity and its underlying mechanism was carried out. Using a rat model of chronic or acute swimming exercise training, we found that serum leptin increased 1 h after either acute exercise or the last session of chronic exercise, when impaired insulin action was observed in previous reports. However, chronic exercise reducd basal serum leptin levels and promoted insulin sensitivity compared with sedentary controls or rats subjected to one bout of aerobic exercise. Our animal results indicated the potential linkage between leptin and insulin sensitivity, which is further investigated in the skeletal muscle L6 cells. Leptin treatment in L6 cells promoted the basal levels of insulin signaling as well as glucose uptake, while blocking JAK2 signaling with either pharmacological intervention (JAK2 inhibitor AG490) or genetic manipulation (siRNA knockdown) decreased the basal levels of insulin signaling. Furthermore, leptin treatment inhibited insulin-stimulated insulin signaling and glucose uptake, while blocking JAK2 signaling restored leptin-attenuated insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our results demonstrated that reduced serum leptin, at least in part, contributes to exercise-mediated improvement of insulin sensitivity, indicating JAK2 as a potent therapeutical target of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Meal-induced insulin sensitization is preserved after acute olanzapine administration in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Diána; Hegedűs, Csaba; Kiss, Rita; Sári, Réka; Németh, József; Szilvássy, Zoltán; Peitl, Barna

    2015-05-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, can acutely induce fasting insulin resistance, but we do not know whether it is able to modulate the meal-induced insulin sensitization (MIS). Two main experimental groups (control and olanzapine-treated) were created with two subgroups (fasted and re-fed) within each. After oral vehicle/olanzapine administration, the first meal size and duration and the total amount of consumed food was recorded in conscious rats. Then, under anaesthesia, the carotid artery and jugular vein was prepared and cannulated to obtain samples for blood glucose and hormone determination as well as for insulin/glucose infusion, respectively. Basal insulin sensitivity and MIS was determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) calculation and by rapid insulin sensitivity test, respectively. In fasted animals, olanzapine increased blood glucose and plasma insulin and reduced basal insulin sensitivity, but it failed to modify other hormone levels. Postprandial leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels increased, and ghrelin level decreased significantly (p rats. Furthermore, the MIS was preserved after acute olanzapine treatment. The blunted postprandial ghrelin and insulin response could contribute to the effect of olanzapine on feeding behaviour. Pharmacological induction of MIS may improve the olanzapine-induced insulin resistance.

  18. Insulin sensitivity is normalized in the third generation (F3 offspring of developmentally programmed insulin resistant (F2 rats fed an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin John F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy, and then maintained on energy-restricted diets post weaning over three generations. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats (F0 were mated with control males and protein malnourished during pregnancy/lactation. F1 offspring were then weaned to adequate but energy-restricted diets into adulthood. F1 dams were fed energy-restricted diets throughout pregnancy/lactation. F2 offspring were also fed energy-restricted diets post weaning. F2 pregnant dams were maintained as described above. Their F3 offspring were split into two groups; one was maintained on the energy-restricted diet, the other was maintained on an adequate diet consumed ad libitum post weaning. Results F2 animals fed energy-restricted diets were insulin resistant (p ad libitum postweaning diets (p Conclusion Maternal energy-restriction did not consistently program reduced insulin sensitivity in offspring over three consecutive generations. The reasons for this remain unclear. It is possible that the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed insulin resistance is determined in part by the relative insulin sensitivity of the mother during pregnancy/lactation.

  19. The effect of menopause on carotid artery remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and plasma adiponectin in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscelli, Elza; Kozàkovà, Michaela; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina; Astiarraga, Brenno D; Glintborg, Dorte; Konrad, Thomas; Favuzzi, Angela; Petrie, Jhon

    2009-04-01

    The mechanisms by which menopause may influence the systemic subclinical atherosclerosis are unexplained. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between early menopause, established cardiovascular (c-v) risk factors, metabolic parameters (insulin secretion and sensitivity, plasma adiponectin), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy women. In 74 menopausal women (mean age = 51 +/- 3 years, mean duration of menopause = 2.9 +/- 1.2 years) and in 74 nonmenopausal women comparable for age and body mass index (BMI), common carotid artery (CCA) luminal diameter, and IMT in different carotid segments were measured in digitized ultrasound images. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were assessed using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin secretion was reconstructed by mathematical modeling. CCA diameter (5.55 +/- 0.46 vs. 5.21+/- 0.51 mm, P women, whereas CCA IMT/diameter ratio and IMT in other carotid segments did not differ between the groups. By multivariate models, independent predictors of CCA diameter were menopause and body weight (cumulative R2 = 0.37) and independent correlates of CCA IMT were luminal diameter, systolic BP and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (cumulative R2 = 0.48). Fasting insulin, insulin secretion, and sensitivity and plasma adiponectin were similar in the two groups and were not related to carotid IMT. Early menopause is associated with CCA remodeling, characterized by a proportional increase in luminal diameter and wall thickness, independent of atherosclerotic risk factors and metabolic variables.

  20. Actions of PPARgamma agonism on adipose tissue remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and lipemia in absence of glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Magalie; Sell, Henrike; Lalonde, Josée; Gélinas, Yves; Tchernof, André; Richard, Denis; Deshaies, Yves

    2004-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists improve insulin sensitivity and lipemia partly through enhancing adipose tissue proliferation and capacity for lipid retention. The agonists also reduce local adipose glucocorticoid production, which may in turn contribute to their metabolic actions. This study assessed the effects of a PPARgamma agonist in the absence of glucocorticoids (adrenalectomy, ADX). Intact, ADX, and intact pair-fed (PF) rats were treated with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) for 2 wk. RSG increased inguinal (subcutaneous) white (50%) and brown adipose tissue (6-fold) weight but not that of retroperitoneal (visceral) white adipose tissue. ADX but not PF reduced fat accretion in both inguinal and retroperitoneal adipose depots but did not affect brown adipose mass. RSG no longer increased inguinal weight in ADX and PF rats but increased brown adipose mass, albeit less so than in intact rats. RSG increased cell proliferation in white (3-fold) and brown adipose tissue (6-fold), as assessed microscopically and by total DNA, an effect that was attenuated but not abrogated by ADX. RSG reduced the expression of the glucocorticoid-activating enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1) in all adipose depots. RSG improved insulin sensitivity (reduction in fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, both -50%) and triacylglycerolemia (-75%) regardless of the glucocorticoid status, these effects being fully additive to those of ADX and PF. In conclusion, RSG partially retained its ability to induce white and brown adipose cell proliferation and brown adipose fat accretion and further improved insulin sensitivity and lipemia in ADX rats, such effects being therefore independent from the PPARgamma-mediated modulation of glucocorticoids. Copyright 2004 American Physiological Society

  1. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

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    Tingqing Guo

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/- mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/- mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/- mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/- mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/- mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/- mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  2. The transcription factor Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis by targeting nuclear localization of FOXO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulebyakin, Konstantin; Penkov, Dmitry; Blasi, Francesco; Akopyan, Zhanna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod

    2016-12-02

    Liver plays a key role in controlling body carbohydrate homeostasis by switching between accumulation and production of glucose and this way maintaining constant level of glucose in blood. Increased blood glucose level triggers release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Insulin represses hepatic glucose production and increases glucose accumulation. Insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. Currently thiazolidinediones (TZDs) targeting transcriptional factor PPARγ are used as insulin sensitizers for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. However, TZDs are reported to be associated with cardiovascular and liver problems and stimulate obesity. Thus, it is necessary to search new approaches to improve insulin sensitivity. A promising candidate is transcriptional factor Prep1, as it was shown earlier it could affect insulin sensitivity in variety of insulin-sensitive tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible involvement of transcriptional factor Prep1 in control of hepatic glucose accumulation and production. We created mice with liver-specific Prep1 knockout and discovered that hepatocytes derived from these mice are much more sensitive to insulin, comparing to their WT littermates. Incubation of these cells with 100 nM insulin results in almost complete inhibition of gluconeogenesis, while in WT cells this repression is only partial. However, Prep1 doesn't affect gluconeogenesis in the absence of insulin. Also, we observed that nuclear content of gluconeogenic transcription factor FOXO1 was greatly reduced in Prep1 knockout hepatocytes. These findings suggest that Prep1 may control hepatic insulin sensitivity by targeting FOXO1 nuclear stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A simple intravenous glucose tolerance test for assessment of insulin sensitivity

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    Ljunggren Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to find a simple intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT that can be used to estimate insulin sensitivity. Methods In 20 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 51 years (mean, 28 comparisons were made between kinetic parameters derived from a 12-sample, 75-min IVGTT and the Mbw (glucose uptake obtained during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp. Plasma glucose was used to calculate the volume of distribution (Vd and the clearance (CL of the injected glucose bolus. The plasma insulin response was quantified by the area under the curve (AUCins. Uptake of glucose during the clamp was corrected for body weight (Mbw. Results There was a 7-fold variation in Mbw. Algorithms based on the slope of the glucose-elimination curve (CL/Vd in combination with AUCins obtained during the IVGTT showed statistically significant correlations with Mbw, the linearity being r2 = 0.63-0.83. The best algorithms were associated with a 25-75th prediction error ranging from -10% to +10%. Sampling could be shortened to 30-40 min without loss of linearity or precision. Conclusion Simple measures of glucose and insulin kinetics during an IVGTT can predict between 2/3 and 4/5 of the insulin sensitivity.

  4. Beneficial impact of sleep extension on fasting insulin sensitivity in adults with habitual sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproult, Rachel; Deliens, Gaétane; Gilson, Médhi; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    A link between sleep loss and increased risk for the development of diabetes is now well recognized. The current study investigates whether sleep extension under real-life conditions is a feasible intervention with a beneficial impact on glucose metabolism in healthy adults who are chronically sleep restricted. Intervention study. Sixteen healthy non-obese volunteers (25 [23, 27.8] years old, 3 men). Two weeks of habitual time in bed followed by 6 weeks during which participants were instructed to increase their time in bed by one hour per day. Continuous actigraphy monitoring and daily sleep logs during the entire study. Glucose and insulin were assayed on a single morning blood sample at the end of habitual time in bed and at the end of sleep extension. Home polysomnography was performed during one weekday of habitual time in bed and after 40 days of sleep extension. Sleep time during weekdays increased (mean actigraphic data: +44 ± 34 minutes, P sleep time correlated with changes in glucose (r = +0.53, P = 0.041) and insulin levels (r = -0.60, P = 0.025), as well as with indices of insulin sensitivity (r = +0.76, P = 0.002). In healthy adults who are chronically sleep restricted, a simple low cost intervention such as sleep extension is feasible and is associated with improvements in fasting insulin sensitivity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Increases Insulin Sensitivity in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

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    Nabilatul Hani Mohd-Radzman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana has been reported to exert antihyperglycemic effects in both rat and human subjects. There have been few studies on these effects in vitro. In this paper, radioactive glucose uptake assay was implemented in order to assess improvements in insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells by elevation of glucose uptake following treatment with stevioside. Oil Red-O staining and MTT assay were utilized to confirm adipocyte differentiation and cell viability, respectively. Findings from this research showed a significant increase in absorbance values in mature adipocytes following Oil Red-O staining, confirming the differentiation process. Stevioside was noncytotoxic to 3T3-L1 cells as cell viability was reduced by a maximum of 17%, making it impossible to determine its IC50. Stevioside increased glucose uptake activities by 2.1 times (p<0.001 in normal conditions and up to 4.4 times (p<0.001 in insulin-resistant states. At times, this increase was higher than that seen in positive control group treated with rosiglitazone maleate, an antidiabetic agent. Expressions of pY20 and p-IRS1 which were measured via Western blot were improved by stevioside treatment. In conclusion, stevioside has direct effects on 3T3-L1 insulin sensitivity via increase in glucose uptake and enhanced expression of proteins involved in insulin-signalling pathway.

  6. Adipose Cell Size and Regional Fat Deposition as Predictors of Metabolic Response to Overfeeding in Insulin-Resistant and Insulin-Sensitive Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Tracey; Craig, Colleen; Liu, Li-Fen; Perelman, Dalia; Allister, Candice; Spielman, Daniel; Cushman, Samuel W

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, but significant variability exists between similarly obese individuals, pointing to qualitative characteristics of body fat as potential mediators. To test the hypothesis that obese, insulin-sensitive (IS) individuals possess adaptive adipose cell/tissue responses, we measured subcutaneous adipose cell size, insulin suppression of lipolysis, and regional fat responses to short-term overfeeding in BMI-matched overweight/obese individuals classified as IS or insulin resistant (IR). At baseline, IR subjects exhibited significantly greater visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid (IHL), plasma free fatty acids, adipose cell diameter, and percentage of small adipose cells. With weight gain (3.1 ± 1.4 kg), IR subjects demonstrated no significant change in adipose cell size, VAT, or insulin suppression of lipolysis and only 8% worsening of insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). Alternatively, IS subjects demonstrated significant adipose cell enlargement; decrease in the percentage of small adipose cells; increase in VAT, IHL, and lipolysis; 45% worsening of IMGU; and decreased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Smaller baseline adipose cell size and greater enlargement with weight gain predicted decline in IMGU, as did increase in IHL and VAT and decrease in insulin suppression of lipolysis. Weight gain in IS humans causes maladaptive changes in adipose cells, regional fat distribution, and insulin resistance. The correlation between development of insulin resistance and changes in adipose cell size, VAT, IHL, and insulin suppression of lipolysis highlight these factors as potential mediators between obesity and insulin resistance. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Synergizes with Insulin in Human Adipose Stem Cell-Derived (hASC) Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darwin V.; Li, Dongmei; Yan, Qingyun; Zhu, Yimin; Goodwin, Bryan; Calle, Roberto; Brenner, Martin B.; Talukdar, Saswata

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has evolved as a major metabolic regulator, the pharmacological administration of which causes weight loss, insulin sensitivity and glucose control in rodents and humans. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which FGF21 exerts its metabolic effects, we developed a human in vitro model of adipocytes to examine crosstalk between FGF21 and insulin signaling. Human adipose stem cell-derived (hASC) adipocytes were acutely treated with FGF21 alone, insulin alone, or in combination. Insulin signaling under these conditions was assessed by measuring tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (InsR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and serine 473 phosphorylation of Akt, followed by a functional assay using 14C-2-deoxyglucose [14C]-2DG to measure glucose uptake in these cells. FGF21 alone caused a modest increase of glucose uptake, but treatment with FGF21 in combination with insulin had a synergistic effect on glucose uptake in these cells. The presence of FGF21 also effectively lowered the insulin concentration required to achieve the same level of glucose uptake compared to the absence of FGF21 by 10-fold. This acute effect of FGF21 on insulin signaling was not due to IR, IGF-1R, or IRS-1 activation. Moreover, we observed a substantial increase in basal S473-Akt phosphorylation by FGF21 alone, in contrast to the minimal shift in basal glucose uptake. Taken together, our data demonstrate that acute co-treatment of hASC-adipocytes with FGF21 and insulin can result in a synergistic improvement in glucose uptake. These effects were shown to occur at or downstream of Akt, or separate from the canonical insulin signaling pathway. PMID:25365322

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 21 improves insulin sensitivity and synergizes with insulin in human adipose stem cell-derived (hASC adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin V Lee

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 has evolved as a major metabolic regulator, the pharmacological administration of which causes weight loss, insulin sensitivity and glucose control in rodents and humans. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which FGF21 exerts its metabolic effects, we developed a human in vitro model of adipocytes to examine crosstalk between FGF21 and insulin signaling. Human adipose stem cell-derived (hASC adipocytes were acutely treated with FGF21 alone, insulin alone, or in combination. Insulin signaling under these conditions was assessed by measuring tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (InsR, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1, and serine 473 phosphorylation of Akt, followed by a functional assay using 14C-2-deoxyglucose [14C]-2DG to measure glucose uptake in these cells. FGF21 alone caused a modest increase of glucose uptake, but treatment with FGF21 in combination with insulin had a synergistic effect on glucose uptake in these cells. The presence of FGF21 also effectively lowered the insulin concentration required to achieve the same level of glucose uptake compared to the absence of FGF21 by 10-fold. This acute effect of FGF21 on insulin signaling was not due to IR, IGF-1R, or IRS-1 activation. Moreover, we observed a substantial increase in basal S473-Akt phosphorylation by FGF21 alone, in contrast to the minimal shift in basal glucose uptake. Taken together, our data demonstrate that acute co-treatment of hASC-adipocytes with FGF21 and insulin can result in a synergistic improvement in glucose uptake. These effects were shown to occur at or downstream of Akt, or separate from the canonical insulin signaling pathway.

  9. Researching Effective Strategies to Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Children and Teenagers - RESIST. A randomised control trial investigating the effects of two different diets on insulin sensitivity in young people with insulin resistance and/or pre-diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sukanya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant with the rise in childhood obesity there has been a significant increase in the number of adolescents with clinical features of insulin resistance and prediabetes. Clinical insulin resistance and prediabetes are likely to progress to type 2 diabetes and early atherosclerosis if not targeted for early intervention. There are no efficacy trials of lifestyle intervention in this group to inform clinical practice. The primary aim of this randomised control trial (RCT is to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of two different structured lifestyle interventions differing in diet composition on insulin sensitivity, in adolescents with clinical insulin resistance and/or prediabetes treated with metformin. Methods/design This study protocol describes the design of an ongoing RCT. We are recruiting 108 (54 each treatment arm 10 to 17 year olds with clinical features of insulin resistance and/or prediabetes, through physician referral, into a multi-centred RCT. All participants are prescribed metformin and participate in a diet and exercise program. The lifestyle program is the same for all participants except for diet composition. The diets are a high carbohydrate, low fat diet and a moderate carbohydrate, increased protein diet. The program commences with an intensive 3 month dietary intervention, implemented by trained dietitians, followed by a 3 month intensive gym and home based exercise program, supervised by certified physical trainers. To measure the longer term effectiveness, after the intensive intervention trial participants are managed by either their usual physician or study physician and followed up by the study dietitians for an additional 6 months. The primary outcome measure, change in insulin sensitivity, is measured at 3, 6 and 12 months. Discussion Clinical insulin resistance and prediabetes in the paediatric population are rapidly emerging clinical problems with serious health outcomes. With

  10. The influence of reduced insulin sensitivity via short-term reductions in physical activity on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during acute hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, S W; Reynolds, L J; Restaino, R M; Credeur, D P; Leidy, H J; Thyfault, J P; Fadel, P J

    2015-12-15

    Reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired glycemic control are among the consequences of physical inactivity and have been associated with reduced cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). However, the effect of reduced insulin sensitivity and acute hyperglycemia following glucose consumption on cardiac BRS in young, healthy subjects has not been well characterized. We hypothesized that a reduction in insulin sensitivity via reductions in physical activity would reduce cardiac BRS at rest and following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Nine recreationally active men (23 ± 1 yr; >10,000 steps/day) underwent 5 days of reduced daily physical activity (RA5) by refraining from planned exercise and reducing daily steps (insulin alone on cardiac BRS using a 120-min hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) was significantly reduced following RA5 (BL 9.2 ± 1.3 vs. RA5 6.4 ± 1.1, P insulin can impair spontaneous cardiac BRS in young, healthy subjects, and that reductions in cardiac BRS following acute hyperglycemia are unaffected by reduced insulin sensitivity via short-term reductions in physical activity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. In vivo assessment of cardiac insulin resistance by nuclear probes using an iodinated tracer of glucose transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briat, Arnaud; Slimani, Lotfi; Perret, Pascale; Villemain, Daniele; Fagret, Daniel; Ghezzi, Catherine [INSERM, E0340, Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques, Grenoble (France); Univ Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Halimi, Serge [Univ Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Hopital Michallon, Service de Diabetologie, CHRU Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Demongeot, Jacques [Univ Grenoble, Grenoble (France); CNRS, UMR 5525, Grenoble (France)

    2007-11-15

    Insulin resistance, implying depressed cellular sensitivity to insulin, is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study is the first step towards the development of a technique of insulin resistance measurement in humans with a new tracer of glucose transport, [{sup 123}I]6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG). We investigated 6DIG kinetics in anaesthetised control rats and in three models of insulin-resistant rats: fructose fed, Zucker and ZDF. The study of myocardial 6DIG activity was performed under two conditions: first, 6DIG was injected under the baseline condition and then it was injected after a bolus injection of insulin. After each injection, radioactivity was measured over 45 min by external detection via NaI probes, in the heart and blood. A tri-compartment model was developed to obtain fractional transfer coefficients of 6DIG from the blood to the heart. These coefficients were significantly increased with insulin in control rats and did not change significantly in insulin-resistant rats. The ratio of the coefficient obtained under insulin to that obtained under basal conditions gave an index of cardiac insulin resistance for each animal. The mean values of these ratios were significantly lower in insulin-resistant than in control rats: 1.16 {+-} 0.06 vs 2.28 {+-} 0.18 (p < 0.001) for the fructose-fed group, 0.92 {+-} 0.05 vs 1.62 {+-} 0.25 (p < 0.01) for the Zucker group and 1.34 {+-} 0.06 vs 2.01 {+-} 0.26 (p < 0.05) for the ZDF group. These results show that 6DIG could be a useful tracer to image cardiac insulin resistance. (orig.)

  12. Interaction between leucine and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition in modulating insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism

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    Fu L

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lizhi Fu,1 Fenfen Li,1 Antje Bruckbauer,2 Qiang Cao,1 Xin Cui,1 Rui Wu,1 Hang Shi,1 Bingzhong Xue,1 Michael B Zemel21Department of Biology, Center for Obesity Reversal, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 2NuSirt Biopharma Inc., Nashville, TN, USA Purpose: Leucine activates SIRT1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling and markedly potentiates the effects of other sirtuin and AMPK activators on insulin signaling and lipid metabolism. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition increases nitric oxide–cGMP signaling, which in turn exhibits a positive feedback loop with both SIRT1 and AMPK, thus amplifying peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator α (PGC1α-mediated effects. Methods: We evaluated potential synergy between leucine and PDE5i on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in vitro and in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. Results: Leucine (0.5 mM exhibited significant synergy with subtherapeutic doses (0.1–10 nM of PDE5-inhibitors (sildenafil and icariin on fat oxidation, nitric oxide production, and mitochondrial biogenesis in hepatocytes, adipocytes, and myotubes. Effects on insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and lipid metabolism were then assessed in DIO-mice. DIO-mice exhibited fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, which were not affected by the addition of leucine (24 g/kg diet. However, the combination of leucine and a subtherapeutic dose of icariin (25 mg/kg diet for 6 weeks reduced fasting glucose (38%, P<0.002, insulin (37%, P<0.05, area under the glucose tolerance curve (20%, P<0.01, and fully restored glucose response to exogenous insulin challenge. The combination also inhibited hepatic lipogenesis, stimulated hepatic and muscle fatty acid oxidation, suppressed hepatic inflammation, and reversed high-fat diet-induced steatosis. Conclusion: These robust improvements in insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and lipid metabolism indicate therapeutic potential for

  13. The effect of menopause on carotid artery remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and plasma adiponectin in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Kozàkovà, Michaela; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2009-01-01

    secretion and sensitivity, plasma adiponectin), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy women. METHODS: In 74 menopausal women (mean age = 51 +/- 3 years, mean duration of menopause = 2.9 +/- 1.2 years) and in 74 nonmenopausal women comparable for age and body mass index (BMI), common carotid...... artery (CCA) luminal diameter, and IMT in different carotid segments were measured in digitized ultrasound images. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were assessed using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin secretion was reconstructed...... by mathematical modeling. RESULTS: CCA diameter (5.55 +/- 0.46 vs. 5.21+/- 0.51 mm, P IMT (608 +/- 78 vs. 576 +/- 74 microm, P IMT/diameter ratio and IMT in other carotid...

  14. Loss-of-function myostatin mutation increases insulin sensitivity and browning of white fat in Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunbo; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Sun, Youde; Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Dezun; Xiao, Gaojun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shanshan; Gao, Ting; Chen, Yaoxing; Liu, Jie; An, Xiaorong; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2017-05-23

    Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, the serum insulin level decreased and the insulin sensitivity increased significantly in Mstn -/- pigs. Moreover, we found a significant increase in levels of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate proteins in skeletal muscle of Mstn -/- pigs, which then activating the insulin signaling pathway. Irisin-mediated regulation is not the only pathway for the activation of insulin signal in Mstn -/- skeletal muscle. This study provides valuable insight for the treatment of human obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  15. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Serum Vaspin Level and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Elderly Men

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    Jabbar Bashiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaspin is a new discovered adipocytokine which is a member of serine protease inhibitor family secreted from adipose tissue and might play a role in insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise on serum vaspin levels and its relation to insulin sensitivity in overweight elderly men. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 12 healthy elderly men volunteers randomly selected and performed one session aerobic exercise including 30 minutes of cycling at 70-75% of HRmax, which was followed by 30 minutes of recovery. Three blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 minutes of recovery. Data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni test and Pearson’s correlations were performed to identify possible relationship among the assessed variables. Statistical significance was set at p≤0.05. Results: There were no significant differences for vaspin across time. Insulin and glucose concentration and insulin resistance decreased immediately after exercise. However insulin concentration and insulin resistance returned to pre-exercise level at the end of recovery. Furthermore, no significant correlations were observed among the variables assessed except for the expected between insulin level and insulin resistance. Conclusion: These results indicate that a sub-maximal aerobic workout does not result in significant changes in vaspin levels in elderly men. Furthermore, we observed that vaspin is not associated with insulin sensitivity in this study.

  16. Effect of Ursolic Acid on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Alejandra M; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Acuña Ortega, Natalhie

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of ursolic acid on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients (30-60 years) with a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome without treatment. They were randomly assigned to two groups of 12 patients, each to receive orally 150 mg of ursolic acid or homologated placebo once a day for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, the components of metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), and inflammation profile (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) were evaluated. After ursolic acid administration, the remission of metabolic syndrome occurred in 50% of patients (P = .005) with significant differences in body weight (75.7 ± 11.5 vs. 71 ± 11 kg, P = .002), body mass index (BMI) (29.9 + 3.6 vs. 24.9 ± 1.2 kg/m 2 , P = .049), waist circumference (93 ± 8.9 vs. 83 + 8.6 cm, P = .008), fasting glucose (6.0 ± 0.5 vs. 4.7 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .002), and insulin sensitivity (3.1 ± 1.1 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, P = .003). Ursolic acid administration leads to transient remission of metabolic syndrome, reducing body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting glucose, as well as increasing insulin sensitivity.

  17. Identification of adipokine clusters related to parameters of fat mass, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

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    Gesine Flehmig

    Full Text Available In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67 and women (n = 74 with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1 body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin. In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D. Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91% and specificity (76% versus 94%. Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.

  18. Myostatin Inhibition in Muscle, but Not Adipose Tissue, Decreases Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Tingqing; Jou, William; Chanturiya, Tatyana; Portas, Jennifer; Gavrilova, Oksana; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/-) mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/-) mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal m...

  19. The AMPK activator R419 improves exercise capacity and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in obese mice

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    Katarina Marcinko

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Treatment of obese mice with R419 improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through a mechanism that is independent of skeletal muscle AMPK. R419 also increases exercise capacity and improves mitochondrial function in obese WT mice; effects that are diminished in the absence of skeletal muscle AMPK. These findings suggest that R419 may be a promising therapy for improving whole-body glucose homeostasis and exercise capacity.

  20. Short-Term Exercise Training Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Does Not Inhibit Inflammatory Pathways in Immune Cells from Insulin-Resistant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  1. Swertiamarin: An Active Lead from Enicostemma littorale Regulates Hepatic and Adipose Tissue Gene Expression by Targeting PPAR-γ and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Experimental NIDDM Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar P. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale (EL Blume is one of the herbs widely used for treating and alleviating the effects of both type I and type II diabetes. However, lack of understanding of mechanism precludes the use of the herb and its molecules. In this study, we attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism of action of swertiamarin, a compound isolated form EL, by comparing its molecular effects with those of aqueous EL extract in alleviating the insulin resistance in type II diabetes. We further investigated hypolipidemic and insulin sensitizing effect of swertiamarin in experimentally induced noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in rats. Swertiamarin (50 mg/kg and aqueous extract (15 grams dried plant equivalent extract/kg were administered to rats orally for 40 days and tight regulation of serum glucose, insulin, and lipid profile was found in both groups. Their mode of action was by restoring G6Pase and HMG-CoA reductase activities to normal levels and restoring normal transcriptional levels of PEPCK, GK, Glut 2, PPAR-γ, leptin, adiponectin, LPL, SREBP-1c, and Glut 4 genes. This suggests that both treatments increased insulin sensitivity and regulated carbohydrate and fat metabolism. This is the first report on the role of SM in regulating the PPARγ-mediated regulation of candidate genes involved in metabolism in peripheral tissues in vivo.

  2. Obesity status influences the relationship among serum osteocalcin, iron stores and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xifra, Gemma; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Moreno, María; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2017-10-06

    Increased iron stores significantly influence the clinical course of several chronic metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that iron overload decreases osteocalcin. We aimed to explore the relationship among osteocalcin, iron stores and insulin sensitivity. Extensive clinical and laboratory measurements, including serum ferritin, cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin (OC) concentrations, were analyzed in 250 adult consecutive Caucasian men. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated through frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests with minimal model analysis. Circulating serum ferritin were negatively associated with serum OC and CTX (p = 0.004 and p = 0.045 respectively). In all subjects as a whole, BMI and ferritin contributed to explain 5.2% of OC variance after controlling for age and smoking status. However, the association between OC and insulin sensitivity remained significant only in lean subjects (BMI stores were dependent on obesity status. Increased iron stores could contribute to the detrimental metabolic effects of overweight and obesity on bone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Fibrinolysis and insulin sensitivity in imidapril and candesartan (FISIC study) recipients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogari, Roberto; Zoppi, Annalisa; Salvadeo, Sibilla A T; Mugellini, Amedeo; Lazzari, Pierangelo; Santoro, Tara; Derosa, Giuseppe

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of imidapril and candesartan on fibrinolysis and insulin sensitivity in normoweight hypertensive patients. After a 2-week wash-out period, 61 patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomized to imidapril or candesartan for 12 weeks. Blood pressure (BP), plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen activities were evaluated at baseline and during treatment. The patients underwent a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (insulin sensitivity was evaluated as glucose infusion rate during the last 30 min) and a desmopressin test (with desmopressin infusion in the brachial artery) to evaluate endothelial ability to release t-PA. Imidapril and candesartan induced similar systolic/diastolic BP reductions (-16/12.6 and -16.1/12.2 mm Hg, respectively, Pcandesartan did not change it. Both drugs decreased PAI-1 antigen activity after 4 weeks of treatment; subsequently, only the decreasing effect of imidapril was sustained throughout the 12 weeks, whereas candesartan increased PAI-1 activity at week 12 (Pcandesartan (from 0.48±0.16 to 0.43±0.14 IU ml(-1), Pcandesartan (+2.73 IU ml(-1), Pcandesartan improved the fibrinolytic balance, suggesting that mechanisms other than Ang II inhibition, possibly including bradykinin-mediated effects on insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, may be responsible for these different effects.

  4. No effect of bicarbonate treatment on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in non-diabetic older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic mild metabolic acidosis is common among older adults, and limited evidence suggests that it may contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This analysis was conducted to determine whether bicarbonate supplementation, an alkalinizing treatment, improves insulin sensitivity or gluco...

  5. The relationship between thyrotropin and low density lipoprotein cholesterol is modified by insulin sensitivity in healthy euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Popp-Snijders, C; Slaets, JPJ; Heine, RJ; Gans, ROB

    High levels of TSH are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Many cardiovascular risk factors cluster within the insulin resistance syndrome. It is not known whether levels of TSH cluster as well. We conducted this research to test the hypothesis that TSH, insulin sensitivity, and levels

  6. Insulin sensitivity across the lifespan from obese adolescents to obese adults with impaired glucose tolerance: Who is worse off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youth type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) occurs decades earlier than adult T2DM and is characterized by high therapeutic failure rates and decreased response to insulin sensitizers suggesting a more severe disease process than in adults. To explain these observations, we hypothesized that insulin resis...

  7. A genome-wide siRNA screen to identify modulators of insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruojing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatic insulin resistance impairs insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Although the interests to discover novel genes that modulate insulin sensitivity and HGP are high, it remains challenging to have a human cell based system to identify novel genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify genes that modulate hepatic insulin signaling and HGP, we generated a human cell line stably expressing beta-lactamase under the control of the human glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC promoter (AH-G6PC cells. Both beta-lactamase activity and endogenous G6PC mRNA were increased in AH-G6PC cells by a combination of dexamethasone and pCPT-cAMP, and reduced by insulin. A 4-gene High-Throughput-Genomics assay was developed to concomitantly measure G6PC and pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4 (PDK4 mRNA levels. Using this assay, we screened an siRNA library containing pooled siRNA targeting 6650 druggable genes and identified 614 hits that lowered G6PC expression without increasing PDK4 mRNA levels. Pathway analysis indicated that siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD of genes known to positively or negatively affect insulin signaling increased or decreased G6PC mRNA expression, respectively, thus validating our screening platform. A subset of 270 primary screen hits was selected and 149 hits were confirmed by target gene KD by pooled siRNA and 7 single siRNA for each gene to reduce G6PC expression in 4-gene HTG assay. Subsequently, pooled siRNA KD of 113 genes decreased PEPCK and/or PGC1alpha mRNA expression thereby demonstrating their role in regulating key gluconeogenic genes in addition to G6PC. Last, KD of 61 of the above 113 genes potentiated insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that they suppress gluconeogenic gene by enhancing insulin signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the proposition that the proteins encoded by the genes identified in

  8. The impact of pegvisomant treatment on substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity in patients with acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Rune; Møller, Niels; Schmitz, Ole

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pegvisomant is a specific GH receptor antagonist that is able to normalize serum IGF-I concentrations in most patients with acromegaly. The impact of pegvisomant on insulin sensitivity and substrate metabolism is less well described. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed basal and insulin......-stimulated (euglycemic clamp) substrate metabolism in seven patients with active acromegaly before and after 4-wk pegvisomant treatment (15 mg/d) in an open design. RESULTS: After pegvisomant, IGF-I decreased, whereas GH increased (IGF-I, 621 +/- 82 vs. 247 +/- 33 microg/liter, P = 0.02; GH, 5.3 +/- 1.5 vs. 10.8 +/- 3.......3 microg/liter, P = 0.02). Basal serum insulin and plasma glucose levels decreased after treatment (insulin, 54 +/- 5.9 vs. 42 +/- 5.3 pmol/liter, P = 0.001; glucose, 5.7 +/- 0.1 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.0 mmol/liter, not significant), whereas palmitate kinetics were unaltered. During the clamp, the glucose infusion...

  9. Evaluation of insulin sensitivity in hyperprolactinemic subjects by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Alpaslan; Yalaki, Serkan; Arikan, Senay; Gokalp, Deniz; Bahcec, Mithat; Tuzcu, Sadiye

    2009-01-01

    The background and aim of the study is to evaluate insulin sensitivity in hyperprolactinemic subjects via euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Sixteen hyperprolactinemic subjects and 12 healthy subjects were included in the study. HOMA-B and HOMA-IR values of groups were calculated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was performed in both groups, and the M value of the groups was defined. Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests were used in statistical analysis. Basal insulin level of hyperprolactinemic patients were higher than the control group (6.85 +/- 4.68; 3.66 +/- 0.88 microU/ml respectively; P < 0.05). Mean HOMA-IR and HOMA-B values of patients were higher than control group (1.49 +/- 1.30; 0.78 +/- 0.27 respectively; P = 0.02 and 136.28 +/- 72.53; 64.77 +/- 23.31, respectively, P < 0.001). M values of the patients were statistically lower than the control group (5.64 +/- 2.36; 7.05 +/- 1.62 kg/mg/min respectively; P < 0.05). (1) Hyperprolactinemic patients were more insulin resistant than control subjects. (2) Insulin resistance in hyperprolactinemic patients is not associated with obesity or anthropometric parameters such as fat content, waist circumference and BMI.

  10. Exercise Improves Insulin Sensitivity in the Absence of Changes in Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Rebecca J H M; Poelkens, Fleur; Roerink, Sean H P P; Ramakers, Rob E F S; Catoire, Milène; Hermus, Ad R M M; Thijssen, Dick H J; Hopman, Maria T E

    2016-12-01

    The benefits of aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are, at least in part, associated with changes in cytokines. Recent studies identified novel cytokines (e.g., fractalkine, omentin, and osteopontin) that are strongly involved in glucose homeostasis and therefore potentially contribute in the exercise-induced changes in insulin sensitivity. Therefore, we aim to examine changes in skeletal muscle RNA expression and plasma levels of novel cytokines after exercise training and correlate these changes to the exercise-induced changes in insulin sensitivity. Women with metabolic syndrome (MetS, n = 11) and healthy women (n = 10) participated in a 6-month aerobic exercise training intervention (three times a week, 45 min per session at 65%-85% of individual heart rate reserve). Before and after training, we examined insulin sensitivity (M value during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) and circulating blood levels of cytokines (venous blood sample; leptin, adiponectin, omentin, fraktalkin, and osteopontin). The skeletal muscle RNA expression of these cytokines (muscle biopsy) was examined in two subgroups (MetS, n = 6; healthy women, n = 6). At baseline, plasma levels of omentin (85.8 ± 26.2 ng·mL) and adiponectin (5.0 ± 1.7 μg·mL) levels were significantly higher in controls compared with MetS (51.1 ± 27.1; 3.6 ± 1.1 respectively), and leptin levels were lower in controls (18.7 ± 11.5 vs 53.0 ± 23.5 ng·mL). M value was significantly higher in controls (8.1 ± 1.9 mg·kg·min) than in MetS (4.0 ± 1.7). Exercise training significantly improved M values in both groups (P cytokines, but no correlation was observed between changes in cytokine level/RNA expression and M values (P > 0.05). Although exercise training successfully improves insulin sensitivity in MetS and healthy women, we found no change in plasma and mRNA expression levels of novel cytokines.

  11. An isocaloric low glycemic index diet improves insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Suzanne; Reeves, Sue; Sharp, Kay; Jeanes, Yvonne M

    2013-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting 5% to 10% of women worldwide. Approximately half of women with PCOS are lean, yet may still present with central obesity and metabolic disturbances. Low-glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention studies have demonstrated improvements in insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant populations; however, there is little evidence of this effect in women with PCOS. This research aimed to determine the efficacy of an isocaloric low-GI dietary intervention on insulin sensitivity, independent of weight change, in women with PCOS. A nonrandomized 12-week low-GI dietary intervention, preceded by a 12-week habitual diet control phase and proceeded by a 12-week follow-up phase was conducted. Dietary intake, body composition, and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline, after completion of the habitual diet control phase, and after the low-GI dietary intervention. Twenty-six participants were recruited at baseline, 22 commenced and 21 participants completed the low-GI dietary intervention phase. The primary outcome was change in insulin sensitivity. Secondary outcomes included assessment of changes to lipids, body composition, and estimated macronutrient intake. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction were used to detect changes to outcomes across study timepoints. Twenty-one women with PCOS with mean (± standard deviation) age of 32.1±6.7 years completed the 12-week low-GI dietary intervention. As expected, no significant changes occurred during the 12-week habitual diet control phase. However, during the dietary intervention phase, dietary GI decreased from 54.5±3.5 to 48.6±5.1 (Pdiet in women with PCOS and findings may contribute to the limited research in this area. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adipocyte-specific blockade of gamma-secretase, but not inhibition of Notch activity, reduces adipose insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Sparling

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Notch signaling is dispensable for normal adipocyte function, but adipocyte-specific γ-secretase blockade reduces adipose insulin sensitivity, suggesting that specific Notch inhibitors would be preferable to GSIs for application in T2D.

  13. The neuronal insulin sensitizer dicholine succinate reduces stress-induced depressive traits and memory deficit: possible role of insulin-like growth factor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline Brandon H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of epidemiological studies have established a link between insulin resistance and the prevalence of depression. The occurrence of depression was found to precede the onset of diabetes and was hypothesized to be associated with inherited inter-related insufficiency of the peripheral and central insulin receptors. Recently, dicholine succinate, a sensitizer of the neuronal insulin receptor, was shown to stimulate insulin-dependent H2O2 production of the mitochondrial respiratory chain leading to an enhancement of insulin receptor autophosphorylation in neurons. As such, this mechanism can be a novel target for the elevation of insulin signaling. Results Administration of DS (25 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal in CD1 mice for 7 days prior to the onset of stress procedure, diminished manifestations of anhedonia defined in a sucrose test and behavioral despair in the forced swim test. Treatment with dicholine succinate reduced the anxiety scores of stressed mice in the dark/light box paradigm, precluded stress-induced decreases of long-term contextual memory in the step-down avoidance test and hippocampal gene expression of IGF2. Conclusions Our data suggest that dicholine succinate has an antidepressant-like effect, which might be mediated via the up-regulation of hippocampal expression of IGF2, and implicate the neuronal insulin receptor in the pathogenesis of stress-induced depressive syndrome.

  14. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) inhibits insulin sensitivity by decreasing copper levels in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang-Bo; Guo, Liang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Shui-Rong; Liu, Yuan; Dou, Xin; Du, Shao-Yue; Ding, Meng; Peng, Wan-Qiu; Qian, Shu-Wen; Huang, Hai-Yan; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2017-09-23

    Dysregulation of insulin signaling leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other metabolic disorders. Obesity is an important contributor to insulin resistance, and although the understanding of this relationship has improved in recent years, the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance is not completely understood. Disorders of copper metabolism tend to accompany the development of obesity, which increases the risk of insulin resistance. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) functions in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and cellular copper homeostasis. However, the role of SCO1 in the regulation of metabolism remains unknown. Here, we found that obese mice had higher expression of SCO1 and lower levels of copper in white adipose tissue (WAT) than did the control mice. Overexpression of SCO1 in adipocytes was associated with copper deficiency. Copper increased insulin sensitivity by decreasing the level of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein. Ectopic expression of SCO1 led to insulin resistance and was accompanied by a decrease in intracellular copper level, and addition of copper abolished the inhibitory effect of SCO1 on insulin sensitivity. Our results demonstrated a novel role of SCO1 in modulating insulin sensitivity via the regulation of copper concentration in WAT and suggested a potential therapeutic target for T2DM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laville Martine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest a novel role for bile acids (BAs in modulating metabolic homeostasis. BA treatment has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and to increase energy expenditure in mice. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting plasma BAs concentrations and metabolic parameters in humans. Findings Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in 14 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and 22 non-diabetic abdominally obese subjects. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the determination of the glucose infusion rate (GIR during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a subgroup of patients (9 healthy and 16 T2D subjects. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Plasma cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA concentrations were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. In univariable analysis, a positive association was found between HOMA-IR and plasma CDCA (β = 0.09, p = 0.001, CA (β = 0.03, p = 0.09 and DCA concentrations (β = 0.07, p Conclusions Both plasma CDCA, CA and DCA concentrations were negatively associated with insulin sensitivity in a wide range of subjects.

  16. Macrophages and Adipocytes in Human Obesity Adipose Tissue Gene Expression and Insulin Sensitivity During Calorie Restriction and Weight Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capel, F.; Klimcakova, E.; Viguerie, N.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-We investigated the regulation of adipose tissue gene expression during different phases of a dietary weight loss program and its relation with insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Twenty-two obese women followed a dietary intervention program composed of an energy restriction...... macrophages and adipocytes show distinct patterns of gene regulation and association with insulin sensitivity during the various phases of a dietary weight loss program. Diabetes 58:1558-1567, 2009...

  17. Exercise and Weight Loss Improve Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration, Lipid Partitioning, and Insulin Sensitivity After Gastric Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Coen, Paul M.; Menshikova, Elizabeth V.; Distefano, Giovanna; Zheng, Donghai; Tanner, Charles J.; Standley, Robert A.; Helbling, Nicole L.; Dubis, Gabriel S.; Ritov, Vladimir B.; Xie, Hui; Desimone, Marisa E.; Smith, Steven R.; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G.S.; Houmard, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Both Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and exercise can improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with severe obesity. However, the impact of RYGB with or without exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondria, intramyocellular lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (SI) is unknown. We conducted a randomized exercise trial in patients (n = 101) who underwent RYGB surgery and completed either a 6-month moderate exercise (EX) or a health education control (CON) intervention. SI was determined b...

  18. Pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity, reduces visceral fat and stimulates lipolysis in non diabetic dialyzed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Zanchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is common in dialyzed patients and is associated with increased mortality and protein-energy wasting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone (PIO, a powerful insulin sensitizer, on insulin sensitivity, body composition and adipose tissue metabolism, in dialyzed patients. A double blind randomized cross-over study was performed in non diabetic dialysis patients. Each patient followed 2 treatment phases of 16 weeks, starting either with oral PIO 45 mg/d or placebo (PL, and then switched to the other phase. At the end of each phase, patients underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, an abdominal CT, and extensive plasma biochemical analysis. Twelve patients including 8 HD (59.6±4.4 y and 4 PD patients (43.5±3.6 y were recruited. Nine patients completed both phases and 3 patients dropped out (renal transplantation/2 HD and peritonitis/1 PD. PIO was safe and well tolerated. Under PIO, insulin sensitivity improved, as assessed by increased total glucose disposal rate (1.98±0.24 for PIO versus 1.58±0.12 umol/kg/min for PL, p<0.05, and reduced glucose endogenous hepatic production. PIO did not affect post-dialysis body weight, total fat and lean body mass, but significantly reduced visceral adipose tissue (VAT area and the VAT/SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased. PIO decreased CRP (3.96±1.44 mg/l vs 7.88±2.56, p<0.05, plasma leptin, and dramatically reduced leptin/adiponectin ratio. Glycerol turnover, circulating glycerol and non esterified fatty acids were paradoxically increased. In conclusion, the improvement in insulin sensitivity by PIO, in non diabetic dialyzed patients, was associated with favorable metabolic effects, reduction in inflammation and body fat redistribution. The stimulation of systemic lipolysis was a surprising finding which may reflect adipose tissue remodeling and/or a paradoxical lypolitic

  19. Association between thyrotropin levels and insulin sensitivity in euthyroid obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Asma; Balagopal, P Babu; Vella, Adrian; Fischer, Philip R; Piccinini, Francesca; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Giesler, Paula D; Laugen, Jeanette M; Kumar, Seema

    2015-05-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) levels display a positive association with body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of isolated hyperthyrotropinemia is higher in obese adolescents compared to their normal weight controls. However, the metabolic significance of the higher TSH in obese adolescents is less clear. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between TSH concentrations and insulin sensitivity, lipids, and adipokines in euthyroid, non-diabetic, obese adolescents. Thirty-six euthyroid, non-diabetic, obese adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin sensitivity (Si) and pancreatic β-cell function as assessed by disposition index (DI) were measured using the oral glucose minimal model approach. Cholesterol (total, low-density lipoprotein [LDL-C], and high-density lipoprotein [HDL-C]), triglycerides (TG), interleukin-6 (IL-6), total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were also determined. Associations between measures of thyroid function and Si, DI, lipids, and adipokines were computed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. The mean age of the subjects was 14.3±1.88 years, and the mean BMI was 32.5±4.65 kg/m2; 97% were non-Hispanic white and 47% were male. The mean TSH was 2.7±1.2 mIU/L. Increasing serum TSH was correlated with decreasing Si (log Si) in the entire cohort (p=0.03), but this relationship persisted only in males (p=0.02). The correlation between TSH and Si in males remained significant after adjusting for BMI (p=0.02). There was no correlation between TSH and pancreatic β-cell function as assessed by DI (p=0.48). TSH correlated positively with LDL-C (p=0.04) and IL-6 (p=0.03), but these associations vanished or weakened after adjusting for BMI (LDL-C p-value=0.44; IL-6 p-value=0.07). This study suggests a sex-specific association between TSH and insulin sensitivity in euthyroid, non

  20. Increased fetal myocardial sensitivity to insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism during ovine fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, James S; Rozance, Paul J; Brown, Laura D; Anthony, Russell V; Thornburg, Kent L; Hay, William W

    2016-04-01

    Unlike other visceral organs, myocardial weight is maintained in relation to fetal body weight in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetal sheep despite hypoinsulinemia and global nutrient restriction. We designed experiments in fetal sheep with placental insufficiency and restricted growth to determine basal and insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose and oxygen metabolism and test the hypothesis that myocardial insulin sensitivity would be increased in the IUGR heart. IUGR was induced by maternal hyperthermia during gestation. Control (C) and IUGR fetal myocardial metabolism were measured at baseline and under acute hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp conditions at 128-132 days gestation using fluorescent microspheres to determine myocardial blood flow. Fetal body and heart weights were reduced by 33% (P = 0.008) and 30% (P = 0.027), respectively. Heart weight to body weight ratios were not different. Basal left ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flow per gram of LV tissue was maintained in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Insulin increased LV myocardial blood flow by ∼38% (P IUGR fetuses was 73% greater than controls. Similar to previous reports testing acute hypoxia, LV blood flow was inversely related to arterial oxygen concentration (r(2 )= 0.71) in both control and IUGR animals. Basal LV myocardial glucose delivery and uptake rates were not different between IUGR and control fetuses. Insulin increased LV myocardial glucose delivery (by 40%) and uptake (by 78%) (P IUGR fetuses compared to controls. During basal and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions LV myocardial oxygen delivery, oxygen uptake, and oxygen extraction efficiency were not different between groups. These novel results demonstrate that the fetal heart exposed to nutrient and oxygen deprivation from placental insufficiency appears to maintain myocardial energy supply in the IUGR condition via increased glucose uptake and metabolic response to insulin, which support

  1. Opposite Regulation of Insulin Sensitivity by Dietary Lipid Versus Carbohydrate Excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie; Sjøberg, Kim A; Høeg, Louise D; Jeppesen, Jacob; Jordy, Andreas B; Serup, Annette K; Fritzen, Andreas M; Pilegaard, Henriette; Myrmel, Lene S; Madsen, Lise; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Kiens, Bente

    2017-10-01

    To understand the mechanisms in lipid-induced insulin resistance, a more physiological approach is to enhance fatty acid (FA) availability through the diet. Nine healthy men ingested two hypercaloric diets (in 75% excess of habitual caloric intake) for 3 days, enriched in unsaturated FA (78 energy % [E%] fat) (UNSAT) or carbohydrates (80 E% carbohydrate) (CHO) as well as a eucaloric control diet (CON). Compared with CON, the UNSAT diet reduced whole-body and leg glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, while decreasing hepatic glucose production. In muscle, diacylglycerol (DAG) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol were increased. The accumulated DAG was sn-1,3 DAG, which is known not to activate PKC, and insulin signaling was intact. UNSAT decreased PDH-E1α protein content and increased inhibitory PDH-E1α Ser(300) phosphorylation and FA oxidation. CHO increased whole-body and leg insulin sensitivity, while increasing hepatic glucose production. After CHO, muscle PDH-E1α Ser(300) phosphorylation was decreased, and glucose oxidation increased. After UNSAT, but not CHO, muscle glucose-6-phosphate content was 103% higher compared with CON during the clamp. Thus, PDH-E1α expression and covalent regulation, and hence the tricarboxylic acid cycle influx of pyruvate-derived acetyl-CoA relative to β-oxidation-derived acetyl-CoA, are suggested to impact on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Taken together, the oxidative metabolic fluxes of glucose and FA are powerful and opposite regulators of insulin action in muscle. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. UP780, a chromone-enriched aloe composition improves insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Zhao, Jifu; Corneliusen, Brandon; Pantier, Mandee; Brownell, Lidia Alfaro; Jia, Qi

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic individuals experience elevated fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and plasma insulin and impaired glucose tolerance. Adiponectin is a hormone inversely correlated with insulin resistance. Here we describe the activity of aloesin, an aloe chromone that increases adiponectin production and, when formulated with an aloe polysaccharide composition, improves the insulin sensitivity in db/db and diet-induced obese-diabetic mice. Two aloe chromones, aloesin and aloesinol, were tested in vitro for adiponectin production. Following confirmation of glucose-lowering activity in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model, aloesin was formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf gel powder polysaccharide preparation to yield a composition designated UP780. Efficacy of UP780 was evaluated in HDF-induced and db/db mouse models. GW1929, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist, was used as a positive control. After 3 weeks of treatment of HDF-induced mice, plasma insulin levels were decreased 37.9% and 46.7% by aloesin and aloesinol, respectively. In db/db mice, the chromone- (2% chromone:98% aloe polysaccharide) enriched UP780 aloe composition showed a 33.7% and 46.0% decrease in fasting triglyceride and plasma glucose levels after 10 weeks of oral treatment, respectively. Diabetic mice gavaged with 200 mg/kg of UP780 for 10 weeks showed a 30.3% decrease in fasting blood glucose levels and a 32.2% reduction in plasma insulin. In both animal models, UP780 showed a statistically significant improvement in blood glucose clearance. These findings indicate that UP780, a chromone-standardized, aloe-based composition, could potentially be used as a natural product option to facilitate the maintenance of healthy blood glucose levels.

  3. [Correlation between ectopic fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity in obese individuals with different glucose tolerance levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shui-Qing; Hong, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, Hong-Mei; Lin, Jin-Xin; Kuang, Jian; Li, Yan-Bing

    2017-11-20

    To investigate the correlation between liver and skeletal muscle fat contents and insulin resistance in obese individuals with different levels of glucose tolerance. RESULTS: Ten non-obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 9 obese individuals with NGT, and 7 obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were enrolled in this study. All the participants were examined for insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and for liver and skeletal muscle fat accumulation quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). The data were collected from the subjects including somatometric measurements, fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), fasting insulin, and blood biochemistry. Linear correlation analysis and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. The glucose infusion rates (GIR, presented as the M value) differed significantly among IGT-obese (3.95∓1.66 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 ), NGT-obese (6.14∓1.90 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 ) and NGT-non-obese (8.78∓2.46 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 ) groups (PLinear analysis revealed that liver fat content, but not skeletal muscle fat content, was significantly correlated with the M value. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis using M value as the dependent variable (Y) revealed that liver fat content (X) was an independent factor inversely correlated with the M value (regression equation: Y=-30.562X+9.007, R 2 =0.717, P<0.01). Liver fat accumulation, but not skeletal muscle fat accumulation, is correlated with insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism.

  4. Serum sphingolipids: relationships to insulin sensitivity and changes with exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Bryan C; Brozinick, Joseph T; Strauss, Allison; Bacon, Samantha; Kerege, Anna; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Kuo, Ming Shang; Perreault, Leigh

    2015-08-15

    Ceramides and sphingolipids are a family of lipid molecules that circulate in serum and accumulate in skeletal muscle, promoting insulin resistance. Plasma ceramide and dihydroceramide are related to insulin resistance, yet less is known regarding other ceramide and sphingolipid species. Despite its association with insulin sensitivity, chronic endurance exercise training does not change plasma ceramide and sphingolipid content, with little known regarding a single bout of exercise. We measured basal relationships and the effect of acute exercise (1.5 h at 50% V̇o2 max) and recovery on serum ceramide and sphingolipid content in sedentary obese individuals, endurance-trained athletes, and individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Basal serum C18:0, C20:0, and C24:1 ceramide and C18:0 and total dihydroceramide were significantly higher in T2D and, along with C16:0 ceramide and C18:0 sphingomyelin, correlated positively with insulin resistance. Acute exercise significantly increased serum ceramide, glucosylceramide, and GM3 gangliosides, which largely decreased to basal values in recovery. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and sphingomyelin did not change during exercise but decreased below basal values in recovery. Serum C16:0 and C18:0 ceramide and C18:0 sphingomyelin, but not the total concentrations of either of them, were positively correlated with markers of muscle NF-κB activation, suggesting that specific species activate intracellular inflammation. Interestingly, a subset of sphingomyelin species, notably C14:0, C22:3, and C24:4 species, was positively associated with insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Together, these data show that unique ceramide and sphingolipid species associate with either protective or deleterious features for diabetes and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the future. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Training Does Not Alter Muscle Ceramide and Diacylglycerol in Offsprings of Type 2 Diabetic Patients Despite Improved Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogaard, Ditte; Ostergard, Torben; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U.

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG) may be involved in the early phase of insulin resistance but data are inconsistent in man. We evaluated if an increase in insulin sensitivity after endurance training was accompanied by changes in these lipids in skeletal muscle. Nineteen first-degree type 2...... performed and muscle biopsies obtained. Insulin sensitivity was significantly lower in Offsprings compared to control subjects () but improved in both groups after 10 weeks of endurance training (Off: %; Con: %, ). The content of muscle ceramide, DAG, and their subspecies were similar between groups and did...

  6. Thyroid-stimulating hormone improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells via cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway-dependent upregulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Min Kyong; Kang, Geun Hyung; Kim, Hwan Hee; Han, Sun Kyoung; Koo, Young Do; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Ye An; Oh, Byung-Chul; Park, Do Joon; Chung, Sung Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Park, Young Joo

    2016-11-15

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor is expressed in extrathyroidal tissues such as hepatocytes, adipocytes, and skeletal muscle, which suggests a possible novel role of TSH in various metabolic processes in extrathyroidal tissues independent of thyroid hormones. We investigated whether TSH has any effects on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscle using diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse models and rodent skeletal muscle cells. TSH improved glucose tolerance in DIO mice and this was associated with an improvement of skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity resulting from the increased expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 protein and mRNA therein. TSH significantly increased both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in rat L6 myotubes and increased the expression of IRS-1 protein and mRNA in these cells as well. TSH also stimulated Irs1 promoter activation; this stimulation was abolished by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition using H89 or by mutation of the cAMP-response element site located at -1155 to -875 bp of the Irs1 promoter region, supporting a novel role of TSH activated-cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling in the regulation of Irs1 expression. In conclusion, TSH improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle by increasing Irs1 gene expression. This regulatory effect is mediated by a PKA-CREB-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative stress contributes to abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in two hyperlipidemia models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jiefei; Zheng, Shuang; Jiang, Dongdong; Han, Tingting; Li, Yangxue; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yunshan; Hu, Yaomin

    2015-01-01

    Lipid metabolism disturbance can result in insulin resistance and glucose intolerance; however, the features of glucose metabolism are still elusive in different dyslipidemia. Our study intended to explore the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of glucose metabolism abnormal in hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia models. Two mouse models were used in this study, one was lipoprotein lipase gene-deleted (LPL(+/-)) mice, and the other was high fat dietary (HFD) mice. Levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterin (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterin (LDL-c) in serum were measured by full-automatic biochemical analyzer. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) levels in serum were measured by colorimetric determination. mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2a) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) in liver, skeletal muscle, visceral fat and subcutaneous fat were measured by Real-Time PCR. Compared with HFD mice, the levels of serum TG were significantly higher in LPL(+/-) mice, whereas the levels of TC, HDL-c, LDL-c were significantly lower. The plasma glucose levels were increased at each time point of intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) in both groups. Furthermore, the level of serum fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) increased with a decreased ISI in both groups. In addition, the plasma MDA of HFD group was higher than that of lipoprotein lipase-deficiency (LPL(+/-)) group, while the activity of T-SOD in HFD group was lower than that in LPL(+/-) group. Real-Time PCR revealed that the expressions of SOD1, CAT and Gpx1 in liver and subcutaneous fat were

  8. Markers of Adipogenesis, but Not Inflammation, in Adipose Tissue Are Independently Related to Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulewicz, Natalia; Stefanowicz, Magdalena; Nikolajuk, Agnieszka; Karczewska-Kupczewska, Monika

    2017-08-01

    In obesity, adipose tissue (AT) undergoes dynamic remodeling, including an alternation in adipogenesis, AT-resident cell content, angiogenesis, and turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Studies of AT in humans have been carried out mostly in people with severe metabolic abnormalities, like type 2 diabetes or morbid obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate subcutaneous AT gene expression of markers of adipogenesis, ECM remodeling, and inflammation in young, healthy, overweight or obese subjects. The study group comprised 83 normal-weight, 48 overweight, and 19 obese subjects. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, biopsy of subcutaneous AT, and isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were performed. Gene expression was measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overweight/obese subjects had lower AT expression of markers of adipogenesis, insulin signaling, and angiogenesis; higher expression of markers of ECM remodeling; altered expression of genes of the nuclear factor-κ-B (NFκB), but not c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, pathway; and higher expression of macrophage markers but not markers of other immune cells. In multiple regression analysis, the expression of CEBPA, ADIPOQ, IRS1, IRS2, SLC2A4, and MMP9 was associated with insulin sensitivity independently of body mass index. No differences were found in inflammatory-gene PBMC expression. Overweight/obesity is associated with altered expression of genes of adipogenesis, insulin signaling, ECM remodeling, and inflammation. NFκB seems to be the earliest inflammatory pathway altered at the transcriptional level in AT. Macrophages seem to be the first immune cells to infiltrate AT. Adipogenesis and ECM remodeling are the initial processes in AT that are independently associated with insulin sensitivity.

  9. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  10. Effect of exercise intensity and volume on persistence of insulin sensitivity during training cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpeyi, Sudip; Tanner, Charles J; Slentz, Cris A; Duscha, Brian D; McCartney, Jennifer S; Hickner, Robert C; Kraus, William E; Houmard, Joseph A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise prescriptions differing in volume or intensity also differ in their ability to retain insulin sensitivity during an ensuing period of training cessation. Sedentary, overweight/obese subjects were assigned to one of three 8-mo exercise programs: 1) low volume/moderate intensity [equivalent of approximately 12 miles/wk, 1,200 kcal/wk at 40-55% peak O(2) consumption (Vo(2peak)), 200 min exercise/wk], 2) low volume/vigorous intensity ( approximately 12 miles/wk, 1,200 kcal/wk at 65-80% Vo(2peak), 125 min/wk), and 3) high volume/vigorous intensity ( approximately 20 miles/wk, 2,000 kcal/wk at 65-80% Vo(2peak), 200 min/wk). Insulin sensitivity (intravenous glucose tolerance test, S(I)) was measured when subjects were sedentary and at 16-24 h and 15 days after the final training bout. S(I) increased with training compared with the sedentary condition (P training cessation in the low-volume/vigorous-intensity group. In contrast, at 15 days S(I) was significantly elevated compared with sedentary (P volume/moderate intensity, high volume/vigorous intensity). In the high-volume/vigorous-intensity group, indexes of muscle mitochondrial density followed a pattern paralleling insulin action by being elevated at 15 days compared with pretraining; this trend was not evident in the low-volume/moderate-intensity group. These findings suggest that in overweight/obese subjects a relatively chronic persistence of enhanced insulin action may be obtained with endurance-oriented exercise training; this persistence, however, is dependent on the characteristics of the exercise training performed.

  11. Shorter sleep duration is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in healthy white men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patricia M; Manuck, Stephen B; DiNardo, Monica M; Korytkowski, Mary; Muldoon, Matthew F

    2015-02-01

    Short sleep has been linked to increased risk for type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular disease and acute sleep restriction impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Here, we examined whether indices of glucose metabolism vary with naturally occurring differences in sleep duration. Subjects were midlife, nondiabetic community volunteers (N = 224; mean age 44.5 ± 6.6 y [range: 30-54]; 52% female; 89% white). Laboratory measures of insulin sensitivity (Si) and acute secretion (AIRg), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and disposition index (Di) were obtained from a 180-min, intravenous glucose tolerance test. Shorter self-reported sleep duration (in hours) was associated with lower Si (P = 0.043), although an interaction of sleep duration with participant race (β = -0.81, P = 0.002) showed this association significant only in whites. Moreover, sex-stratified analyses revealed that shorter sleep duration predicted lower Si in white men (β = 0.29, P = 0.003) but not in white women (P = 0.22). Findings were similar for AIRg. The relationship between sleep duration and AIRg was moderated by race as well as sex, such that shorter sleep duration associated with greater insulin release only in white men (β = -0.28, P = 0.004). Sleep duration was unrelated to Sg and Di (P's > 0.05). Our findings suggest that shorter sleep duration may impair insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in nondiabetic white men, possibly contributing to later type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Chen, Li; Yu, Cong; Piao, Dongxu; Wang, Yong; Han, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery for the treatment of obesity leads to long-term diabetes remission in approximately 80% of cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RYGB on hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic rats and their possible mechanisms. We also tested the hypothesis that RYGB reduces lipid content and improves insulin sensitivity in hepatocytes and skeletal muscle cells. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: diabetic RYGB group (n = 18), diabetic RYGB sham group (n = 6), diabetic group (n = 6), and nondiabetic control group (n = 6). The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with tracer infusion was completed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively to assess insulin sensitivity. The lipid content in liver and muscle tissue was examined. Postoperatively, the diabetic RYGB group had significant decreases in weight, fat mass, and food intake. Two weeks after surgery, RYGB had significantly improved the hepatic insulin sensitivity index and decreased the hepatic triglyceride, total cholesterol, and fatty acyl-CoA content. The significantly increased insulin sensitivity and decreased lipid content in muscle were not detected until 4 weeks after RYGB surgery. The basal insulin and C-peptide concentrations were significantly lower than those in diabetic group by 2 weeks after RYGB. The increased insulin sensitivity after RYGB occurs earlier in the liver than in the muscle and both may contribute to long-term remission of type 2 diabetes. Reduced lipid content of hepatocytes and skeletal muscle cells after RYGB may contribute to the improved insulin sensitivity in these cells. © 2013 Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery on behalf of American Society for Bariatric Surgery.

  13. Glucose metabolism, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in juvenile hemochromatosis. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, N; Papanikolaou, G; Noutsou, M; Rombopoulos, G; Goula, A; Tolis, G

    2007-03-01

    Among specific diabetes subtypes secondary to pancreatopathies, hereditary hemochromatosis is an inherited disorder of iron metabolism resulting in excessive iron overload and tissue damage in various organs. We here report the case of a man with the young-onset form of the disease and describe his glycaemic status before and during venesection therapy. A 25-year old man visited our clinic in Athens, Greece, with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to hereditary hemochromatosis. Genetic analysis revealed that he was suffering from the juvenile aggressive form and treatment was initiated with frequent phlebotomies in conjunction with androgen substitution. Within 18 months of therapy ferritin level was normalized and hypogonadism was fully restored. Despite severe iron overload, glucose tolerance remained normal during the various stages of the disease, although alterations in both insulin secretion and sensitivity were detected. Present data indicate that in juvenile hemochromatosis, the efficacy of the chelation therapy and probably the chronic interval required to restore normal iron concentration both play important roles in the formation of glucose metabolism characteristics.

  14. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Tong, Jenny; Montgomery, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor vildagliptin on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 22 subjects with IFG (11 female and 11 male, mean +/- SD...... (FSIGT), followed by a 2-h meal tolerance test (MTT), was performed at 2, 8, and 10 weeks. From the FSIGT, the acute insulin response to glucose (AIR(g)) and insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) were determined and used to compute the disposition index (AIR(g) x S(I)) as a measure of beta-cell function...... was not sustained after washout. CONCLUSIONS: The DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, leading to improved postprandial glycemia in subjects with IFG, who are known to have beta-cell dysfunction. Thus, vildagliptin may prevent progression to diabetes in high...

  15. Effect of exercise training on in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric) and in subcuta......Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric......) and in subcutaneous AT and also studied the effect of training. Rats were either swim trained (15 wk, n = 9) or sedentary (n = 16). While the rats were under anesthesia, a hyperinsulinemic ( approximately 900 pM), euglycemic clamp was carried out and local glucose uptake was measured by both the 2-deoxy-D-[(3)H...... hyperinsulinemia, in part, reflecting an effect in muscle. During hyperinsulinemia, interstitial glucose concentrations were lower, glucose uptake per 100 g of tissue was higher in AT in trained compared with sedentary rats, and training influenced glucose uptake identically in all ATs. In conclusion, differences...

  16. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization after aerobic exercise training and weight loss improves insulin sensitivity in adults with IGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Steven J; Blumenthal, Jacob B; Katzel, Leslie I; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ryan, Alice S

    2014-05-01

    Transcapillary transport of insulin is one determinant of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle; thus, a reduction in capillary density (CD) may worsen insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle CD is lower in older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with those with normal glucose tolerance and may be modifiable through aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL). We tested the hypothesis that 6-month AEX+WL would increase CD to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in older adults with IGT. Sixteen sedentary, overweight-obese (BMI 27-35 kg/m2), older (63 ± 2 years) men and women with IGT underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps to measure insulin sensitivity, oral glucose tolerance tests, exercise and body composition testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies to determine CD before and after 6-month AEX+WL. Insulin sensitivity (M) and 120-min postprandial glucose (G120) correlated with CD at baseline (r = 0.58 and r = -0.60, respectively, P weight and fat mass 8% (P muscle CD in older adults with IGT. This represents one mechanism by which AEX+WL improves insulin sensitivity in older adults with IGT.

  17. Cytokines inducing bone marrow SCA+ cells migration into pancreatic islet and conversion into insulin-positive cells in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuGuang Luo

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that specific bone marrow lineages and cytokine treatment may facilitate bone marrow migration into islets, leading to a conversion into insulin producing cells in vivo. In this study we focused on identifying which bone marrow subpopulations and cytokine treatments play a role in bone marrow supporting islet function in vivo by evaluating whether bone marrow is capable of migrating into islets as well as converting into insulin positive cells. We approached this aim by utilizing several bone marrow lineages and cytokine-treated bone marrow from green fluorescent protein (GFP positive bone marrow donors. Sorted lineages of Mac-1(+, Mac-1(-, Sca(+, Sca(-, Sca(-/Mac-1(+ and Sca(+/Mac-1(- from GFP positive mice were transplanted to irradiated C57BL6 GFP negative mice. Bone marrow from transgenic human ubiquitin C promoter GFP (uGFP, with strong signal C57BL6 mice was transplanted into GFP negative C57BL6 recipients. After eight weeks, migration of GFP positive donor' bone marrow to the recipient's pancreatic islets was evaluated as the percentage of positive GFP islets/total islets. The results show that the most effective migration comes from the Sca(+/Mac(- lineage and these cells, treated with cytokines for 48 hours, were found to have converted into insulin positive cells in pancreatic islets in vivo. This study suggests that bone marrow lineage positive cells and cytokine treatments are critical factors in determining whether bone marrow is able to migrate and form insulin producing cells in vivo. The mechanisms causing this facilitation as well as bone marrow converting to pancreatic beta cells still need to be investigated.

  18. Tub Has a Key Role in Insulin and Leptin Signaling and Action In Vivo in Hypothalamic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Prada, Patrícia O.; Quaresma, Paula G.F.; Caricilli, Andrea M.; Andressa C. Santos; Guadagnini, Dioze; Morari, Joseane; Weissmann, Laís; Eduardo R. Ropelle; Carvalheira, José Barreto C; Lício A Velloso; Saad, Mario J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Mutation of tub gene in mice induces obesity, suggesting that tub could be an important regulator of energy balance. In the current study, we investigated whether insulin, leptin, and obesity can modulate Tub in vivo in hypothalamic nuclei, and we investigated possible consequences on energy balance, neuropeptide expression, and hepatic glucose metabolism. Food intake, metabolic characteristics, signaling proteins, and neuropeptide expression were measured in response to fasting and refeeding...

  19. Cannabinoid 2 Receptor Agonist Improves Systemic Sensitivity to Insulin in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The endocannabinoid signalling (ECS system has been known to regulate glucose homeostasis. Previous studies have suggested that the cannabinoid 2 (CB2 receptor may play a regulatory role on insulin secretion, immune modulation and insulin resistance. Given that diabetes and insulin resistance are attributable to elevated inflammatory tone, we investigated the role of CB2 receptor on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet (HFD/streptozotocin (STZ-induced mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in male ICR mice by HFD/STZ and exposed to a CB2 receptor agonist, SER601, for 2- or 4-weeks via subcutaneous implantation of osmotic minipumps. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed at the end of treatment. Islets were isolated for assessment of β-cell function. Pancreases and skeletal muscles were also obtained for histological analyses. Results: Despite a lack of impact on glucose tolerance, substantial improvement on insulin sensitivity was observed in SER601-treated mice, which could partly be attributed to improved islet β-cell function, shown as increased glucose-induced insulin secretion and insulin content. No changes on islet macrophage infiltration or skeletal muscle fat deposition were detectable from SER601-treated mice. However, a major decrease in body weight was recorded at the end of 4-week SER601 exposure, accompanied by a lack of epididymal adipose mass in SER601-treated mice. Conclusion: Our data suggest a lipolytic role of SER601 in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice, which results in significant improvement of systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, the CB2 receptor may be considered a promising target for therapeutic development against insulin resistance and obesity-related diabetes.

  20. Cannabinoid 2 Receptor Agonist Improves Systemic Sensitivity to Insulin in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyuan; Gao, Shan; Niu, Jinfeng; Li, Pan; Deng, Juan; Xu, Shixin; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Weiwei; Kong, Deling; Li, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid signalling (ECS) system has been known to regulate glucose homeostasis. Previous studies have suggested that the cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor may play a regulatory role on insulin secretion, immune modulation and insulin resistance. Given that diabetes and insulin resistance are attributable to elevated inflammatory tone, we investigated the role of CB2 receptor on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mice. Diabetes was induced in male ICR mice by HFD/STZ and exposed to a CB2 receptor agonist, SER601, for 2- or 4-weeks via subcutaneous implantation of osmotic minipumps. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed at the end of treatment. Islets were isolated for assessment of β-cell function. Pancreases and skeletal muscles were also obtained for histological analyses. Despite a lack of impact on glucose tolerance, substantial improvement on insulin sensitivity was observed in SER601-treated mice, which could partly be attributed to improved islet β-cell function, shown as increased glucose-induced insulin secretion and insulin content. No changes on islet macrophage infiltration or skeletal muscle fat deposition were detectable from SER601-treated mice. However, a major decrease in body weight was recorded at the end of 4-week SER601 exposure, accompanied by a lack of epididymal adipose mass in SER601-treated mice. Our data suggest a lipolytic role of SER601 in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice, which results in significant improvement of systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, the CB2 receptor may be considered a promising target for therapeutic development against insulin resistance and obesity-related diabetes. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Adiponectin in mice with altered GH action: links to insulin sensitivity and longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Jara, Adam; Sackman-Sala, Lucila; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Gahete, Manuel D; Kineman, Rhonda D; Boparai, Ravneet; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2013-03-01

    Adiponectin is positively correlated with longevity and negatively correlated with many obesity-related diseases. While there are several circulating forms of adiponectin, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) version has been suggested to have the predominant bioactivity. Adiponectin gene expression and cognate serum protein levels are of particular interest in mice with altered GH signaling as these mice exhibit extremes in obesity that are positively associated with insulin sensitivity and lifespan as opposed to the typical negative association of these factors. While a few studies have reported total adiponectin levels in young adult mice with altered GH signaling, much remains unresolved, including changes in adiponectin levels with advancing age, proportion of total adiponectin in the HMW form, adipose depot of origin, and differential effects of GH vs IGF1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address these issues using assorted mouse lines with altered GH signaling. Our results show that adiponectin is generally negatively associated with GH activity, regardless of age. Further, the amount of HMW adiponectin is consistently linked with the level of total adiponectin and not necessarily with previously reported lifespan or insulin sensitivity of these mice. Interestingly, circulating adiponectin levels correlated strongly with inguinal fat mass, implying that the effects of GH on adiponectin are depot specific. Interestingly, rbGH, but not IGF1, decreased circulating total and HMW adiponectin levels. Taken together, these results fill important gaps in the literature related to GH and adiponectin and question the frequently reported associations of total and HMW adiponectin with insulin sensitivity and longevity.

  2. Adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein regulated by growth hormone and linked to insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Gajdosechova, Lucia; Vlcek, Miroslav; Janakova, Zuzana; Fedeles, Jozef; Pura, Mikulas; Gasperikova, Daniela; Smith, Steven R; Tkacova, Ruzena; Klimes, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic obesity is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and lipid-mobilizing activity of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Adipose tissue (AT) of growth hormone (GH) -deficient patients is characterized by extreme adipocyte hypertrophy due to defects in AT lipid metabolism. It was hypothesized that zinc-α2-glycoprotein is regulated by GH and mediates some of its beneficial effects in AT. AT from patients with GH deficiency and individuals with obesity-related GH deficit was obtained before and after 5-year and 24-month GH supplementation therapy. GH action was tested in primary human adipocytes. Relationships of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein with adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in nondiabetic patients with noncancerous cachexia and hypertrophic obesity. AT in GH-deficient adults displayed a substantial reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. GH therapy normalized AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Obesity-related relative GH deficit was associated with almost 80% reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in AT. GH increased zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in both AT of obese men and primary human adipocytes. Interdependence of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in regulating AT morphology and metabolic phenotype was evident from their relationship with adipocyte size and AT-specific and whole-body insulin sensitivity. The results demonstrate that GH is involved in regulation of AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein; however, the molecular mechanism linking GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in AT is yet unknown. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  3. Short-Term Curcumin Gavage Sensitizes Insulin Signaling in Dexamethasone-Treated C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Zeng, Kejing; Shao, Weijuan; Yang, Burton B; Fantus, I George; Weng, Jianping; Jin, Tianru

    2015-10-01

    Long-term dietary curcumin (>12 wk) improves metabolic homeostasis in obese mice by sensitizing insulin signaling and reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis. Whether these occur only secondary to its chronic anti-inflammatory and antioxidative functions is unknown. In this study, we assessed the insulin sensitization effect of short-term curcumin gavage in a rapid dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance mouse model, in which the chronic anti-inflammatory function is eliminated. Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice received an intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone (100 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline every day for 5 d, with or without simultaneous curcumin gavage (500 mg/kg body weight). On day 7, insulin tolerance tests were performed. After a booster dexamethasone injection and curcumin gavage on day 8, blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. Liver tissues were collected on day 10 for quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to assess gluconeogenic gene expression, insulin signaling, and the expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Primary hepatocytes from separate, untreated C57BL/6 mice were used for testing the in vitro effect of curcumin treatment. Dexamethasone injection impaired insulin tolerance (P < 0.05) and elevated ambient plasma insulin concentrations by ~2.7-fold (P < 0.01). Concomitant curcumin administration improved insulin sensitivity and reduced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression. The insulin sensitization effect of curcumin was demonstrated by increased stimulation of S473 phosphorylation of protein kinase B (P < 0.01) in the dexamethasone-treated mouse liver, as well as the repression of glucose production in primary hepatocytes (P < 0.001). Finally, curcumin gavage increased FGF21 expression by 2.1-fold in the mouse liver (P < 0.05) and curcumin treatment increased FGF21 expression in primary hepatocytes. These observations suggest that the early beneficial effect of curcumin

  4. Effects of insulin sensitizers on plaque vulnerability associated with elevated lipid content in atheroma in ApoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, W T; Wang, Z Q; Schneider, D J; Absher, P M; Baldor, L C; Taatjes, D J; Sobel, B E

    2004-03-01

    Acute coronary syndromes are generally precipitated by rupture of lipid-laden, relatively acellular, vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with thin fibrous caps. We investigated whether a high-fat diet alters insulin sensitivity and whether insulin sensitizers (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) alter the composition of otherwise lipidladen atherosclerotic plaques in mice deficient in apolipoprotein E (ApoE). ApoE-knockout mice were fed a high-fat (n=30) or standard chow (n=10) diet for two weeks. Thereafter, those fed the high-fat diet were treated with troglitazone (n=10), rosiglitazone (n=10) or no drug (n=10) for 16 weeks beginning at 8 weeks of age. Carbohydrate metabolism was assessed with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests. Plaque composition was characterised with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The high-fat diet induced insulin resistance in the absence of weight gain. Compared with control animals on the high-fat diet, animals given troglitazone (400 mg/kg/day) or rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg/day) had significantly less area under the curve (AUC) for insulin ( p<0.05) and glucose disposal ( p<0.05). Despite significant increases in insulin sensitivity with drug treatment, no change in HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, nor reduction in atheroma size or lipid content was noted. Thus, improvement in insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet in this animal model of vasculopathy did not alter plaque composition.

  5. The effect of noise exposure on insulin sensitivity in mice may be mediated by the JNK/IRS1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijie; Fang, Cong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Hongyu; Huang, Yi; Xuan, Chuanying; Wang, Yongfang; Li, Shengwei; Sha, Jun; Zha, Mingming; Guo, Min

    2018-02-12

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that noise exposure may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and experimental studies have demonstrated that noise exposure can induce insulin resistance in rodents. The aim of the present study was to explore noise-induced processes underlying impaired insulin sensitivity in mice. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group without noise exposure and three noise groups exposed to white noise at a 95-dB sound pressure level for 4 h/day for 1, 10, or 20 days (N1D, N10D, and N20D, respectively). Systemic insulin sensitivity was evaluated at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month post-noise exposure (1DPN, 1WPN, and 1MPN) via insulin tolerance tests (ITTs). Several insulin-related processes, including the phosphorylation of Akt, IRS1, and JNK in the animals' skeletal muscles, were examined using standard immunoblots. Biomarkers of inflammation (circulating levels of TNF-α and IL-6) and oxidative stress (SOD and CAT activities and MDA levels in skeletal muscles) were measured via chemical analyses. The data obtained in this study showed the following: (1) The impairment of systemic insulin sensitivity was transient in the N1D group but prolonged in the N10D and N20D groups. (2) Noise exposure led to enhanced JNK phosphorylation and IRS1 serine phosphorylation as well as reduced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscles in response to exogenous insulin stimulation. (3) Plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6, CAT activity, and MDA concentrations in skeletal muscles were elevated after 20 days of noise exposure. Impaired insulin sensitivity in noise-exposed mice might be mediated by an enhancement of the JNK/IRS1 pathway. Inflammation and oxidative stress might contribute to insulin resistance after chronic noise exposure.

  6. Sleep efficiency as a determinant of insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenbos, E; Rijks, J M; Adam, T C; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Vreugdenhil, A C E

    2015-09-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) occurs in a transient manner during puberty. Obese adolescents may be at risk for persistent IR during puberty. The objective of the study is to review the literature on the association of the anthropometry and lifestyle characteristics with insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adolescents, and include data from a new study. Relevant papers were selected and reviewed. In addition, 137 overweight and obese adolescents (42 male/95 female, age 14.4 ± 2.3 years, BMI z-score +3.3 ± 0.7, HOMA-IR 3.4 ± 1.8) from the Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare (MUMC+) were included in this study. Anthropometrics, Tanner stages, sleep characteristics, food intake behaviour and physical activity were determined, and possible associations with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were tested. Overweight and obese adolescents with unfavourable fat partitioning and family history of NIDDM are at risk for persistent IR. Overweight and obese adolescents from the new cohort showed a higher HOMA-IR postpubertally. BMI z-score, age, pubertal stage and prepubertally total sleeping time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE) were identified as significant contributors. Overweight and obese adolescents showed a persistently higher instead of transiently higher HOMA-IR during puberty, associated with BMI z-score, age, pubertal stage and prepubertally less TST and SE. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Splanchnic infusions of short chain fatty acids do not change insulin sensitivity of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, M I; Apps, K V; Finegood, D T

    1995-10-01

    Long-term ingestion of high fiber diets is associated with reduced glucose concentrations during fasting and improved glucose tolerance (KG) in humans. Our objective was to determine if the beneficial effects of fiber were attributable to increased production of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the large intestine. Effects of SCFA on insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness (SG), KG and baseline concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon and free fatty acids were examined in unfed 20-50 kg pigs (n = 6). Animals randomly received separate portal infusions (0.32 mL.min-1) of saline, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid solutions (0.01 mmol SCFA kg body weight-1.min-1) for 7-d periods. On d 7, somatostatin and tolbutamide modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed. SI and SG were calculated using Bergman's Minimal-Model. KG was determined by regression of log glucose curve versus time. SI, SG and KG values did not differ among the treatments (P > 0.05). Baseline concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon and free fatty acids were unaffected by infusion treatment (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that SCFA delivery is not directly responsible for improvements in glucose metabolism observed with long-term ingestion of high fiber diets.

  8. Moderate Alcoholic Beer Consumption: The Effects on the Lipid Profile and Insulin Sensitivity of Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Luciana C; do Rio, Rafaela F; Lollo, Pablo C B; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-07-01

    Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. The purpose was to compare the effects of consuming alcoholic beer (AB) and nonalcoholic beer (NAB) on the biochemical blood parameters. Two beers were produced under known and controlled conditions from the same raw material, NAB (0.6%, v/v) and AB with the addition of 6% grain alcohol. Fifteen healthy adult men (aged 20 to 57 y) underwent 3 treatments (30 d per treatment). In Treatment 1 (Baseline), they followed their usual diet without drinking any alcoholic beverage; in Treatment 2, they added the daily consumption of 330 mL NAB; and in Treatment 3, they added the daily consumption of 330 mL AB. It was found that the use of AB for 30 d (16 g alcohol/d) reduced the blood insulin and fasting glucose, reducing insulin resistance. These data suggest that the daily intake of 330 mL AB could statistically change the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of adult men. The volunteers were healthy before and remained so after the intervention, with no change in their clinical status. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Hepatic Cholesterol-25-Hydroxylase Overexpression Improves Systemic Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Noebauer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for several diseases including diabetes, heart disease, and some forms of cancer and due to its rapidly increasing prevalence it has become one of the biggest problems medicine is facing today. All the more surprising, a substantial percentage of obese patients are metabolically healthy when classified based on insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Oxysterols are naturally occurring molecules that play important role in various metabolic and inflammatory processes and their levels are elevated in patients suffering from obesity and diabetes. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC is produced in cells from cholesterol by the enzyme cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (Ch25h and is involved in lipid metabolism, inflammatory processes, and cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the role of hepatic Ch25h in the transition from metabolically healthy obesity to insulin resistance and diabetes. Using several different experimental approaches, we demonstrated the significance of Ch25h on the border of “healthy” and “diseased” states of obesity. Adenovirus-mediated Ch25h overexpression in mice improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and lowered HOMA-IR. Our data suggest that low hepatic Ch25h levels could be considered a risk marker for unhealthy obesity.

  10. Characterization of lipid metabolism in insulin-sensitive adipocytes differentiated from immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prawitt, Janne; Niemeier, Andreas; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    sensitivity as measured by insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein was also independent of rosiglitazone. In addition to commonly used adipogenic markers, we investigated further PPARgamma-stimulated proteins with a role in lipid metabolism. We observed an increase of lipoprotein...... receptor (VLDLR, LRP1) and apolipoprotein E expression during differentiation. Despite this increased expression, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoproteins was decreased in differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that these proteins may have an additional function in adipose tissue beyond lipoprotein...

  11. A study of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving high doses of insulin plus insulin sensitizers: applicability of a novel insulin-independent treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilding, John P H; Norwood, Paul; T'joen, Caroline; Bastien, Arnaud; List, James F; Fiedorek, Fred T

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether dapagliflozin, which selectively inhibits renal glucose reabsorption, lowers hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes that is poorly controlled with high insulin doses plus...

  12. Minor long-term changes in weight have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Rasmussen, M H

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function.......To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function....

  13. Bone marrow fat contributes to insulin sensitivity and adiponectin secretion in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermetici, Federica; Briganti, Silvia; Delnevo, Alessandra; Cannaò, Paola; Leo, Giovanni Di; Benedini, Stefano; Terruzzi, Ileana; Sardanelli, Francesco; Luzi, Livio

    2018-02-01

    Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, lipids, adiponectin were measured; the insulin resistance index HOMA (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index were similar in obese and non-obese women (38.5 ± 0.1 vs. 38.6 ± 0.1%, p = 0.994; 0.162 ± 0.065 vs. 0.175 ± 0.048, p = 0.473, respectively). Bone marrow fat content negatively correlated with insulin and HOMA-IR (r = -0.342, r = -0.352, respectively, p = 0.01) and positively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.270, p = 0.043). From a multivariate regression model including lnHOMA-IR as a dependent variable and visceral, subcutaneous, epicardial fat, and bone marrow fat as independent variables, lnHOMA-IR was significantly associated with bone marrow fat (β = -0.008 ± 0.004, p = 0.04) and subcutaneous fat (β = 0.003 ± 0.001, p = 0.04). Bone marrow fat, among the other adipose depots, was a significant predictor of circulating adiponectin (β = 0.147 ± 0.060, p = 0.021). Bone marrow fat unsaturation index negatively correlated with visceral fat (r = -0.316, p = 0.026). There is a relationship between bone marrow fat content and insulin sensitivity in obese and non-obese premenopausal women, possibly mediated by adiponectin secretion

  14. Reformulating cereal bars: high resistant starch reduces in vitro digestibility but not in vivo glucose or insulin response; whey protein reduces glucose but disproportionately increases insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas Ms; van Klinken, B Jan-Willem; Bordenave, Nicolas; Kaczmarczyk, Melissa; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Chu, YiFang; Harkness, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Resistant starch (RS) and whey protein are thought to be effective nutrients for reducing glycemic responses. We aimed to determine the effect of varying the sucrose, RS, and whey protein content of cereal bars on glucose and insulin responses. Twelve healthy subjects [mean ± SD age: 36 ± 12 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 24.9 ± 2.7] consumed 40 g available-carbohydrate (avCHO) portions of 5 whole-grain cereal bars that contained varying amounts of RS and whey protein concentrate [WPC; 70% protein; RS:WPC, %wt:wt: 15:0 (Bar15/0); 15:0, low in sucrose (Bar15/0LS); 15:5 (Bar15/5); 10:5 (Bar10/5); and 10:10 (Bar10/10)] and 2 portion sizes of a control bar low in whole grains, protein, and RS [control 1 contained 40 g avCHO (Control1); control 2 contained total carbohydrate equal to Bar15/0LS (Control2)] on separate days by using a randomized crossover design. Glucose and insulin responses in vivo and carbohydrate digestibility in vitro were measured over 3 h. Incremental area under the curve (iAUC) over 0-3 h for glucose (min × mmol/L) differed significantly between treatments (P digested in vitro ∼30% more slowly than the control bars (P digestibility in vitro. Glucose and insulin responses elicited by high-RS, whey protein-free bars were similar to those elicited from control bars. The inclusion of RS in cereal bar formulations did not reduce glycemic responses despite slower starch digestion in vitro. Thus, caution is required when extrapolating in vitro starch digestibility to in vivo glycemic response. The inclusion of whey protein in cereal bar formulations to reduce glycemic response requires caution because this may be associated with a disproportionate increase in insulin as judged by an increased insulin-to-glucose iAUC ratio. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02537587. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Associations of objective physical activity with insulin sensitivity and circulating adipokine profile: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartano, N L; Stevenson, M D; Xanthakis, V; Larson, M G; Andersson, C; Murabito, J M; Vasan, R S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) to insulin sensitivity and adipokines. We assessed PA and SED using Actical accelerometers and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 2109 participants (free of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus) from Framingham Generation 3 and Omni 2 cohorts (mean age 46 years, 54% women). Systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) and circulating adipokines were measured 6 years earlier. Steps per day, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED per wear time (%SED) were predictor variables in multivariable regression analyses, with HOMA-IR, CRP and circulating adipokines as outcome measures. We reported that higher MVPA and more steps per day were associated with lower HOMA-IR, adjusting for %SED (β = -0.036, P = 0.002; β = -0.041, P = 0.005). Steps were inversely associated with CRP, but were directly associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (β = -0.111, P = 0.002; β = 3.293, P = 0.007). %SED was positively associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.033, P < 0.0001), but non-significant after adjusting for MVPA (P = 0.13). %SED was associated with higher ratio of leptin/leptin receptor (sOB-R) and higher adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)4 (β = 0.096, P < 0.0001; β = 0.593, P = 0.002). Our findings suggest differential influences of PA vs. SED on metabolic pathways, with PA modulating insulin resistance and inflammation, whereas SED influences FABPs. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Trans fatty acid intake is associated with insulin sensitivity but independently of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Angelieri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High saturated and trans fatty acid intake, the typical dietary pattern of Western populations, favors a proinflammatory status that contributes to generating insulin resistance (IR. We examined whether the consumption of these fatty acids was associated with IR and inflammatory markers. In this cross-sectional study, 127 non-diabetic individuals were allocated to a group without IR and 56 to another with IR, defined as homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR >2.71. Diet was assessed using 24-h food recalls. Multiple linear regression was employed to test independent associations with HOMA-IR. The IR group presented worse anthropometric, biochemical and inflammatory profiles. Energy intake was correlated with abdominal circumference and inversely with adiponectin concentrations (r = -0.227, P = 0.002, while saturated fat intake correlated with inflammatory markers and trans fat with HOMA-IR (r = 0.160, P = 0.030. Abdominal circumference was associated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.430, P < 0.001. In multiple analysis, HOMA-IR remained associated with trans fat intake (β = 1.416, P = 0.039 and body mass index (β = 0.390, P < 0.001, and was also inversely associated with adiponectin (β = -1.637, P = 0.004. Inclusion of other nutrients (saturated fat and added sugar or other inflammatory markers (IL-6 and CRP into the models did not modify these associations. Our study supports that trans fat intake impairs insulin sensitivity. The hypothesis that its effect could depend on transcription factors, resulting in expression of proinflammatory genes, was not corroborated. We speculate that trans fat interferes predominantly with insulin signaling via intracellular kinases, which alter insulin receptor substrates.

  17. Insulin sensitivity affects propensity to obesity in an ethnic-specific manner: results from two controlled weight loss intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gower Barbara A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk for obesity differs with ethnicity/race and is associated with insulin sensitivity (SI, insulin responsiveness, and dietary glycemic load (GL. The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that, 1 obesity-prone, normal weight, African-American (AA women would be more insulin sensitive than BMI-matched, never overweight AA women; 2 increased adiposity over time would be associated with greater baseline SI and higher dietary GL in AA but not European-American (EA women; and 3 increased adiposity over time would be predicted by SI in women with high but not low acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg. Methods Two controlled weight loss interventions were conducted involving overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 premenopausal AA and EA women. The first included matching with normal-weight (BMI 2 controls following weight loss, and then comparing SI. The second included a 1-year follow-up of weight-reduced participants to identify predictors of change in %body fat. Main outcome measure in the first study was insulin sensitivity (SI as assessed with intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, and in the second study was change in %fat, as assessed with DXA, over one year. AIRg was assessed during IVGTT, and free-living diet was determined by food record. Results In the first study, formerly overweight AA women were 43% more insulin sensitive than BMI-matched never overweight AA (P I was positively associated with change in %fat over 1 year only in AA women (P P P = 0.086 for diet x SI interaction. In both studies, AA women had higher AIRg (P  Conclusions Formerly overweight (obesity-prone AA women were more insulin sensitive than never overweight AA women, a quality that may predispose to adiposity, particularly when combined with a high GL diet. This ethnicity/race-specific effect may be due to high insulin responsiveness among AA.

  18. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  19. Proof of Concept: Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor decreases inflammation and improves muscle insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankwich Karen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of subclinical inflammation resulting in loss of function of insulin receptors and decreased insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of the inflammatory enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, for 6 months in rodent models restores insulin receptor function and insulin sensitivity. Methods This 12-week double-blind, randomized, placebo (PL-controlled proof-of-concept study was performed to determine if the MMP inhibitor (MMPI, doxycycline, decreased global markers of inflammation and enhanced muscle insulin sensitivity in obese people with type 2 diabetes (DM2. The study included non-DM2 controls (n = 15, and DM2 subjects randomized to PL (n = 13 or doxycycline 100 mg twice daily (MMPI; n = 11. All participants were evaluated on Day 1; MMPI and PL groups were also evaluated after 84 days of treatment. Results There was a significant decrease in inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (P  Conclusions This study demonstrated short term treatment of people with diabetes with an MMPI resulted in decreased inflammation and improved insulin sensitivity. Larger, longer studies are warranted to determine if doxycycline can improve glucose control in people with diabetes. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01375491

  20. Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. ameliorates insulin resistance in dexamethasone-treated mice by enhancing peripheral insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jyotsana; Maurya, Ranjani; Raykhera, Rahul; Srivastava, Mahendra N; Yadav, Prem P; Tamrakar, Akhilesh K

    2014-08-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. is an important medicinal plant used traditionally as an antiemetic, antidiarrhoeal agent and blood purifier and as a medicine for a variety of ailments. This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of M. koenigii (MK) on diabetes-associated insulin resistance induced in mice by chronic low-dose injection of dexamethasone. Mice treated with dexamethasone exhibited hyperglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. Treatment with MK reduced the extent of dexamethasone-induced hyperglycaemia and decreased insulin resistance as indicated by improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation in skeletal muscle tissue. Further evaluation in clonal skeletal muscle cell lines suggested that MK increased glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells by increasing cell surface GLUT4 density via an AKT-mediated pathway. MK can ameliorate dexamethasone-induced hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance in part by increasing glucose disposal into skeletal muscle. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eLundsgaard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly apparent that substrate metabolism is subject to gender specific regulation, and the aim of this review is to outline the available evidence of molecular gender differences in glucose and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle. Female sex has been suggested to have a favorable effect on glucose homeostasis, and the available evidence from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies is summarized to delineate whether there is a gender difference in whole body insulin sensitivity and in particular insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of skeletal muscle. Whether an eventual higher insulin sensitivity of female skeletal muscle can be related to gender specific regulation of molecular metabolism will be topic for discussion. Gender differences in muscle fiber type distribution and substrate availability to and in skeletal muscle are highly relevant for substrate metabolism in men and women. In particular, the molecular machinery for glucose and fatty acid oxidative and storage capacities in skeletal muscle and its implications for substrate utilization during metabolic situations of daily living are discussed, emphasizing their relevance for substrate choice in the fed and fasted state, and during periods of physical activity and recovery. Together, handling of carbohydrate and lipids and regulation of their utilization in skeletal muscle have implications for whole body glucose homeostasis in men and women. 17-β estradiol is the most important female sex hormone, and the identification of estradiol receptors in skeletal muscle has opened for a role in regulation of substrate metabolism. Also, higher levels of circulating adipokines as adiponectin and leptin in women and their implications for muscle metabolism will be considered.

  2. Chromium supplementation in non-obese non-diabetic subjects is associated with a decline in insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masharani Umesh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of chromium supplements is widespread for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus but there are conflicting reports on efficacy, possibly reflecting discrepant effects across different populations. In the present studies, we test the hypothesis that chromium supplementation raises serum chromium levels and correspondingly improves insulin sensitivity. Methods A double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was conducted on 31 non-obese, normoglycemic subjects. After baseline studies, the subjects were randomized to placebo or chromium picolinate 500 μg twice a day. The primary endpoint was change in insulin sensitivity as measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Pre-specified secondary endpoints included fasting lipids, blood pressure, weight, body composition measured by DXA scan. Results After 16 weeks of chromium picolinate therapy there was no significant change in insulin sensitivity between groups (p=0.83. There was, however, a strong association between serum chromium and change in insulin resistance (β = -0.83, p=0.01, where subjects with the highest serum chromium had a worsening of insulin sensitivity. This effect could not be explained by changes in physiological parameters such as body weight, truncal fat and serum lipids with chromium therapy. Conclusions Chromium therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity in non-obese normoglycemic individuals. Further, subjects who have high serum chromium levels paradoxically had a decline in insulin sensitivity. Caution therefore should be exercised in recommending the use of this supplement. Trial registration The study was registered on the NIH registry (clinicaltrials.gov and the identifier is NCT00846248

  3. Aerobic exercise + weight loss decreases skeletal muscle myostatin expression and improves insulin sensitivity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A S; Li, G; Blumenthal, J B; Ortmeyer, H K

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) would affect the expression of myostatin and its relationship with insulin sensitivity in a longitudinal, clinical intervention study. Thirty-three obese sedentary postmenopausal women and men (n = 17 and 16, age: 61 ± 1 years, body mass index: 31 ± 1 kg/m(2) , VO2 max: 21.9 ± 1.0 mL/kg/min, X ± Standard error of the mean (SEM)) completed 6 months of 3 days/week AEX + WL. During an 80 mU m(-2) min(-1) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, we measured glucose utilization (M), myostatin, myogenin, and MyoD gene expression by real-time RT-PCR in vastus lateralis muscle at baseline and 2 h. Body weight (-8%) and fat mass (-17%) decreased after AEX + WL (P Fat-free mass (FFM) and mid-thigh muscle area by computed tomography did not change but muscle attenuation increased (P weight loss results in a downregulation of myostatin mRNA and an improvement in insulin sensitivity in obese older men and women. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  4. NASH Therapy: omega 3 supplementation, vitamin E, insulin sensitizers and statin drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Caldwell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is the more aggressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. NASH can progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, portal hypertension and primary liver cancer. Therapy is evolving with a substantial number of trials of promising new agents now in progress. In this article however, we will examine data for several older forms of therapy which have been fairly extensively studied over the years: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA supplements, vitamin E, insulin sensitizing agents with a focus on pioglitazone and statin agents. Early interest in PUFA derived from their potential benefit in cardio-metabolic disease and the close association of NAFLD/NASH with Metabolic Syndrome. Results have been variable although most studies show reduction of liver fat without other major effects and their effects are influenced by concomitant weight loss and underlying genetic factors. Vitamin E has had some efficacy in pediatric NASH but questionable efficacy in even mild NASH among adults. Pioglitazone has shown significant histological benefit in a number of trials but concern over side-effects (especially weight gain have dampened enthusiasm. A newer insulin sensitizer, liraglutide, has also shown promise in a small randomized, controlled trial. Very limited data exists regarding the histological effects of the statins in NASH and these agents appear to be fairly neutral with neither clear cut benefit nor detriment. Their use is best guided by cardiovascular risks rather than liver histology.

  5. Do antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training has numerous health benefits, and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it can improve insulin sensitivity and glucose control. A recent publication suggests that antioxidant vitamins (C and E) block these effects on blood glucose. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training (CRET) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed CHD risk factors, including clinical indices of glucose metabolism, and evaluated the effects of exercise training in 315 patients with CHD with diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome before and after a 3-month program of CRET. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on self-reported antioxidant vitamin (vitamins C and E) consumption. Both groups, 113 patients (36%) consuming vitamins (Vits group) and 202 patients (64%) who reported no vitamin use (no-Vits group) were statistically similar at baseline. Following CRET, patients improved exercise capacity (10%, P vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C) do not ameliorate the health benefits of exercise training, including fasting blood glucose, in CHD patients

  6. Low-versus high-glycemic index diets in women: effects on caloric requirement, substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, James F; Lopez, Beth

    2007-09-01

    Lowering dietary glycemic index appears to have positive health effects in obese and/or insulin resistant individuals. However, detailed studies in lean young men show no effect. This study was designed to test the null hypothesis that a diet rich in low-glycemic carbohydrate has no effect on lipid profile, caloric requirements, fat oxidation, or insulin sensitivity in adult women when compared to one rich in high-glycemic carbohydrate. The metabolic feeding protocol used was conducted in both a free-living and in-patient setting using a randomized crossover design. Seven women were studied on each of 2 diets in which 60% of the calories were from either high- or low-glycemic carbohydrate sources. Each diet lasted 20 days with measurements of caloric requirement, resting metabolic rate, glucose and insulin responses to diet and activity, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile over the last 7 days. Caloric requirement was determined by bomb calorimetry. Other techniques included indirect calorimetry, hydrodensitometry, stable isotope tracers, and the euglycemic clamp. On the low-glycemic index diet the women's caloric requirements were 11% +/- 1% higher, fat oxidation at fasted rest supplied an average of 45% +/- 4% versus 28% +/- 5% of oxidative requirements, average glucose and insulin levels were approximately 40% lower, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and leptin concentrations were lower, and various indices of insulin sensitivity were > 20% higher. In this group of adult women, a diet that lowered glycemic index well below that typically found in western diets increased both daily caloric requirement and fat oxidation, decreased insulin and glucose concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity.

  7. Effects of glucocorticoid excess on the sensitivity of glucose transport and metabolism to insulin in rat skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadis, G; Leighton, B; Parry-Billings, M.; Sasson, S; Young, M; Krause, U.; Bevan, S.; Piva, T; Wegener, G.; Newsholme, E A

    1997-01-01

    GENBANK/dy examines the mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in rat soleus muscle. Glucocorticoid excess was induced by administration of dexamethasone to rats for 5 days. Dexamethasone decreased the sensitivity of 3-O-methylglucose transport, 2-deoxyglucose phosphorylation, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation to insulin. The total content of GLUT4 glucose transporters was not decreased by dexamethasone; however, the increase in these transporters in the plasma membran...

  8. The Prostaglandin E2 Receptor EP4 Regulates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Insulin Sensitivity.

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    Mika Yasui

    Full Text Available With increasing body weight, macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue. There, activated macrophages secrete numerous proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, giving rise to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses macrophage activation via EP4; however, the role of EP4 signaling in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unknown. In this study, we treated db/db mice with an EP4-selective agonist, ONO-AE1-329, for 4 weeks to explore the role of EP4 signaling in obesity-related inflammation in vivo. Administration of the EP4 agonist did not affect body weight gain or food intake; however, in the EP4 agonist-treated group, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were significantly improved over that of the vehicle-treated group. Additionally, administration of the EP4 agonist inhibited the accumulation of F4/80-positive macrophages and the formation of crown-like structures in white adipose tissue, and the adipocytes were significantly smaller. The treatment of the EP4 agonist increased the number of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, and in the stromal vascular fraction of white adipose tissue, which includes macrophages, it markedly decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Further, EP4 activation increased the expression of adiponectin and peroxidase proliferator-activated receptors in white adipose tissue. Next, we examined in vitro M1/M2 polarization assay to investigate the impact of EP4 signaling on determining the functional phenotypes of macrophages. Treatment with EP4 agonist enhanced M2 polarization in wild-type peritoneal macrophages, whereas EP4-deficient macrophages were less susceptible to M2 polarization. Notably, antagonizing peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor δ activity suppressed EP4 signaling-mediated shift toward M2 macrophage polarization. Thus, our results demonstrate that EP4 signaling plays a critical role in obesity-related adipose tissue

  9. Altered glucose disposition and insulin sensitivity in peri-pubertal first-degree relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissouni, Nouhad; Kolesnikov, Andrey; Purushothaman, Radhika; Sinha, Sunil; Bhandari, Sonal; Bhangoo, Amrit; Malik, Shahid; Mathew, Revi; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Hernandez, Maria Isabel; Rosenbaum, Michael; Ten, Svetlana; Geller, David

    2012-05-29

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of women with PCOS are at increased risk for impaired insulin sensitivity and diabetes mellitus. Glucose tolerant FDR have evidence of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia prior to emergence of frank PCOS. To study insulin dynamics parameters in the early adolescent FDR of women with PCOS. This is a cross-sectional study involving 18 adolescents whose mothers or sisters had been diagnosed with PCOS and 21 healthy, age-matched control adolescents without FDR. Subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, steroid profiling and frequently sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT), Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, Glucose Disposal Index (GDI), Acute Insulin Response (AIR) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were derived from IVGTT results. FDRs showed significantly higher mean HOMA and lower GDI. There were no differences in mean age or BMI Z-score between the cohorts. No differences in sex steroids or AIR were identified between groups. Female adolescent FDR of women with PCOS have higher HOMA index and lower QUICKI, reflecting altered insulin sensitivity and lower GDI reflecting poorer beta-cell function. The presence of multiple risk factors for type 2 diabetes suggests that aggressive screening of the early adolescent FDR of women with PCOS is indicated.

  10. Altered glucose disposition and insulin sensitivity in peri-pubertal first-degree relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Raissouni Nouhad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First-degree relatives (FDRs of women with PCOS are at increased risk for impaired insulin sensitivity and diabetes mellitus. Glucose tolerant FDR have evidence of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia prior to emergence of frank PCOS. Aim To study insulin dynamics parameters in the early adolescent FDR of women with PCOS. Methods This is a cross-sectional study involving 18 adolescents whose mothers or sisters had been diagnosed with PCOS and 21 healthy, age-matched control adolescents without FDR. Subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, steroid profiling and frequently sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA index, Glucose Disposal Index (GDI, Acute Insulin Response (AIR and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI were derived from IVGTT results. Results FDRs showed significantly higher mean HOMA and lower GDI. There were no differences in mean age or BMI Z-score between the cohorts. No differences in sex steroids or AIR were identified between groups. Conclusion Female adolescent FDR of women with PCOS have higher HOMA index and lower QUICKI, reflecting altered insulin sensitivity and lower GDI reflecting poorer beta-cell function. The presence of multiple risk factors for type 2 diabetes suggests that aggressive screening of the early adolescent FDR of women with PCOS is indicated.

  11. Overfeeding reduces insulin sensitivity and increases oxidative stress, without altering markers of mitochondrial content and function in humans.

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    Dorit Samocha-Bonet

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. High fat feeding induces insulin resistance and increases skeletal muscle oxidative stress in rodents, but there is controversy as to whether skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and function is altered.Forty (37 ± 2 y non-obese (25.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 sedentary men (n = 20 and women (n = 20 were overfed (+1040 ± 100 kcal/day, 46 ± 1% of energy from fat for 28 days. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed at baseline and day 28 of overfeeding and skeletal muscle biopsies taken at baseline, day 3 and day 28 of overfeeding in a sub cohort of 26 individuals (13 men and 13 women that consented to having all 3 biopsies performed. Weight increased on average in the whole cohort by 0.6 ± 0.1 and 2.7 ± 0.3 kg at days 3 and 28, respectively (P<0.0001, without a significant difference in the response between men and women (P = 0.4. Glucose infusion rate during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp decreased from 54.8 ± 2.8 at baseline to 50.3 ± 2.5 µmol/min/kg FFM at day 28 of overfeeding (P = 0.03 without a significant difference between men and women (P = 0.4. Skeletal muscle protein carbonyls and urinary F2-isoprostanes increased with overfeeding (P<0.05. Protein levels of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α and subunits from complex I, II and V of the electron transport chain were increased at day 3 (all P<0.05 and returned to basal levels at day 28. No changes were detected in muscle citrate synthase activity or ex vivo CO(2 production at either time point.Peripheral insulin resistance was induced by overfeeding, without reducing any of the markers of mitochondrial content that were examined. Oxidative stress was however increased, and may have contributed to the reduction in insulin sensitivity observed.

  12. Of the milk sugars, galactose, but not prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide, improves insulin sensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Priska Stahel

    Full Text Available Consumption of dairy products reduces risk of type 2 diabetes. Milk proteins and fats exhibit anti-diabetic properties but milk sugars have been studied little in this context. Galactose from milk lactose is readily converted to glycogen in the liver but its effects on insulin sensitivity have not been assessed. Prebiotic oligosaccharides from milk alter gut microbiota and can thereby influence host metabolism. Our objective was to assess the effect on insulin sensitivity of dietary galactose compared to glucose and fructose, and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharides compared to non-fermentable methylcellulose.Diets containing 15% of dry matter from glucose, fructose, galactose, galacto-oligosaccharides, or methylcellulose were fed to 36 rats per diet for 9 weeks. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with [3-3H]glucose infusion and a steady-state 2-[1-14C]deoxyglucose bolus injection were used to assess insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake indices. Tissue was collected in fed, fasted and fasted, insulin-stimulated states.Galactose increased glucose infusion rate during the clamp by 53% and decreased endogenous glucose production by 57% compared to glucose and fructose. Fed-state hepatic glycogen content was greater with galactose compared to glucose and fructose, consistent with a potentiation of the insulin effect on glycogen synthase by dephosphorylation. Galactose decreased the fecal Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio while galacto-oligosaccharides increased abundance of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. 481-fold compared to methylcellulose, and also increased abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroidetes. Galacto-oligosaccharides did not affect glucose infusion rate or endogenous glucose production during basal or clamp periods compared to methylcellulose.Galactose at 15% of daily intake improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in rats compared to glucose and fructose. Galactose caused an increase in fed-state hepatic glycogen content and a favourable

  13. Polyphenol-rich extract of Syzygium cumini leaf dually improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and pancreatic islet function in monosodium L-glutamate-induced obese rats

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    Jonas Rodrigues Sanches

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed and pulp-fruit, however there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a 2-fold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10 – 1000 ug/mL increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E beta cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating beta cell insulin release

  14. Dietary trans-fatty acids alter adipocyte plasma membrane fatty acid composition and insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahamed; Natrajan, Saravanan; Ghafoorunissa, Reddy

    2005-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary trans-fatty acids (TFA) present in Indian vanaspati (partially hydrogenated vegetable oils) in comparison with saturated fatty acids (SFA) on adipocyte plasma membrane fatty acid composition, fluidity, and insulin action. The effects of 3% energy (% en) TFA was studied at 2% and 4% en of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6). WNIN male weanling rats were divided into 4 groups and fed casein-based diet containing 10% groundnut oil control (CON), palmolein (SFA), blend of vanaspati and safflower oil (3% en TFA and 2% en 18:2 n-6, TFA-1), or blend of vanaspati and safflower oil (3% en TFA and 4% en 18:2 n-6, TFA-2) for 12 weeks. Compared with CON, rats fed TFA and SFA diets had high levels of fasting plasma insulin and triglycerides. Both TFA- and SFA-fed groups had low levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) in adipocyte plasma membrane phospholipids. However, adipocyte plasma membrane fluidity decreased only in TFA-fed rats. Norepinephrine-stimulated lipolysis was high, whereas the antilipolytic effect of insulin and insulin-stimulated glucose transport were low in the adipocytes of SFA- and TFA-fed rats. However, the extent of decrease in the antilipolytic effect of insulin and insulin-stimulated glucose transport was greater in TFA-fed rats. These findings suggest that diet providing approximately 10% en SFA (PUFA/SFA [P/S] ratio 0.2) decreased adipocyte insulin sensitivity in rats. In these diets, replacement of approximately 2% en SFA (16:0) and approximately 1% en monounsaturated fatty acid (18:1 cis) with TFA decreased adipocyte insulin sensitivity to a greater extent. However, increasing dietary 18:2 n-6 did not prevent or reduce the TFA-induced adipocyte insulin resistance.

  15. DHEA-induced modulation of renal gluconeogenesis, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile in the control- and dexamethasone-treated rabbits. Metabolic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersztan, Anna; Nagalski, Andrzej; Nalepa, Paweł; Tempes, Aleksandra; Trojan, Nina; Usarek, Michał; Jagielski, Adam K

    2016-02-01

    In view of antidiabetic and antiglucocorticoid effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) both in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken: (i) to elucidate the mechanism of action of both dexamethasone phosphate (dexP) and DHEA on glucose synthesis in primary cultured rabbit kidney-cortex tubules and (ii) to investigate the influence of DHEA on glucose synthesis, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile in the control- and dexP-treated rabbits. Data show, that in cultured kidney-cortex tubules dexP significantly stimulated gluconeogenesis by increasing flux through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). DexP-induced effects were dependent only upon glucocorticoid receptor. DHEA decreased glucose synthesis via inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and suppressed the dexP-induced stimulation of renal gluconeogenesis. Studies with the use of inhibitors of DHEA metabolism in cultured renal tubules showed for the first time that DHEA directly affects renal gluconeogenesis. However, in view of analysis of glucocorticoids and DHEA metabolites levels in urine, it seems likely, that testosterone may also contribute to DHEA-evoked effects. In dexP-treated rabbits, plasma glucose level was not altered despite increased renal and hepatic FBPase and G6Pase activities, while a significant elevation of both plasma insulin and HOMA-IR was accompanied by a decline of ISI index. It thus appears that increased insulin levels were required to maintain normoglycaemia and to compensate the insulin resistance. DHEA alone affected neither plasma glucose nor lipid levels, while it increased insulin sensitivity and diminished both renal and hepatic G6Pase activities. Surprisingly, DHEA co-administrated with dexP did not alter insulin sensitivity, while it partially suppressed the dexP-induced elevation of renal G6Pase activity and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride contents. As (i) gluconeogenic pathway in rabbit is similar to that in human, and (ii) DHEA counteracts several

  16. Insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression in cardiomyocytes diminishes ex vivo heart functional recovery after acute ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prêle, Cecilia M; Reichelt, Melissa E; Mutsaers, Steven E; Davies, Marilyn; Delbridge, Lea M; Headrick, John P; Rosenthal, Nadia; Bogoyevitch, Marie A; Grounds, Miranda D

    2012-01-01

    Acute insulin-like growth factor-1 administration has been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiac pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to assess the structural and ex vivo functional impacts of long-term cardiomyocyte-specific insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression in hearts of transgenic αMHC-IGF-1 Ea mice. Performance of isolated transgenic αMHC-IGF-1 Ea and littermate wild-type control hearts was compared under baseline conditions and in response to 20-min ischemic insult. Cardiac desmin and laminin expression patterns were determined histologically, and myocardial hydroxyproline was measured to assess collagen content. Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 did not modify expression patterns of desmin or laminin but was associated with a pronounced increase (∼30%) in cardiac collagen content (from ∼3.7 to 4.8 μg/mg). Baseline myocardial contractile function and coronary flow were unaltered by insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression. In contrast to prior evidence of acute cardiac protection, insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression was associated with significant impairment of acute functional response to ischemia-reperfusion. Insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression did not modify ischemic contracture development, but postischemic diastolic dysfunction was aggravated (51±5 vs. 22±6 mmHg in nontransgenic littermates). Compared with wild-type control, recovery of pressure development and relaxation indices relative to baseline performance were significantly reduced in transgenic αMHC-IGF-1 Ea after 60-min reperfusion (34±7% vs. 62±7% recovery of +dP/dt; 35±11% vs. 57±8% recovery of -dP/dt). Chronic insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression is associated with reduced functional recovery after acute ischemic insult. Collagen deposition is elevated in transgenic αMHC-IGF-1 Ea hearts, but there is no change in expression of the myocardial structural proteins desmin and laminin. These findings suggest

  17. Validation of different measures of insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in dairy cows using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test as the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Hermans, K; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to compare different measures of insulin sensitivity in dairy cows at the end of the dry period. To do so, 10 clinically healthy dairy cows with a varying body condition score were selected. By performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) tests, we previously demonstrated a negative association between the insulin sensitivity and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism and the body condition score of these animals. In the same animals, other measures of insulin sensitivity were determined and the correlation with the HEC test, which is considered as the gold standard, was calculated. Measures derived from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) are based on the disappearance of glucose after an intravenous glucose bolus. Glucose concentrations during the IVGTT were used to calculate the area under the curve of glucose and the clearance rate of glucose. In addition, glucose and insulin data from the IVGTT were fitted in the minimal model to derive the insulin sensitivity parameter, Si. Based on blood samples taken before the start of the IVGTT, basal concentrations of glucose, insulin, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate were determined and used to calculate surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity, such as the homeostasis model of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index including β-hydroxybutyrate. Correlation analysis revealed no association between the results obtained by the HEC test and any of the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity. For the measures derived from the IVGTT, the area under the curve for the first 60 min of the test and the Si derived from the minimal model demonstrated good correlation with the gold standard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumption of red and processed meat and refined grains for 4weeks decreases insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant adults: A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoona; Keogh, Jennifer B; Clifton, Peter M

    2017-03-01

    Red and processed meat and refined grains are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Interventions are limited. We hypothesized that a diet high in red and processed meat and refined grains (HMD) would decrease insulin sensitivity compared to a diet high in whole grains, nuts, dairy and legumes with no red meat (HWD). Forty-nine subjects without diabetes [15 men and 34 women, age, 35.6±15.7 years, body mass index (BMI), 27±5.9kg/m(2)] underwent two 4-week weight-stable dietary interventions in a randomized crossover design. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated from the last 30min of a continuous low-dose insulin (25mU/kg·h) and glucose (4mg/kg·min) infusion test (LDIGIT 120-150min) at the end of each diet. The population fell into two very discrete groups: those with a very low insulin response in the LDIGIT 120-150min on HMD (Group 156pmol/L, n=25). Group 2 had significantly higher insulin concentrations [(median and interquartile range) 153, 180 for HMD vs. 123, 149pmol/L for HWD; P=0.019] and glucose concentrations [(mean±standard deviation) 7.4±1.3 for HMD vs.6.7±1.2mmol/L for HWD; P=0.05], resulting in a significantly decreased ISI [(median and interquartile range) 21.1, 34.2 for HMD vs. 31.6, 39.4 for HWD; P=0.014] compared to HWD. Log ISI after HMD was significantly correlated with BMI (r=-0.5; P=0.009), fat mass (r=-0.55; P=0.004) and self-reported activity levels (r=-0.45; P=0.024). A dietary pattern high in red and processed meat and refined grains decreased insulin sensitivity compared to a dietary pattern high in whole grains, nuts, dairy products and legumes only in relatively insulin-resistant adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of chronic calorie restriction or dietary resveratrol supplementation on insulin sensitivity markers in a primate, Microcebus murinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Marchal

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes and hyperinsulinemia increases with age, inducing metabolic failure and limiting lifespan. Calorie restriction (CR without malnutrition delays the aging process, but its long-term application to humans seems difficult. Resveratrol (RSV, a dietary polyphenol, appears to be a promising CR mimetic that can be easily administered in humans. In this work, we hypothesized that both CR and RSV impact insulin sensitivity in a non-human primate compared to standard-fed control (CTL animals. Four- to five-year-old male grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were assigned to three dietary groups: a CTL group, a CR group receiving 30% fewer calories than the CTL and a RSV group receiving the CTL diet supplemented with RSV (200 mg·day(-1·kg(-1. Insulin sensitivity and glycemia were assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index evaluation after 21 or 33 months of chronic treatment. Resting metabolic rate was also measured to assess the potential relationships between this energy expenditure parameter and insulin sensitivity markers. No differences were found after a 21-month period of treatment, except for lower glucose levels 30 min after glucose loading in CR animals. After 33 months, CR and RSV decreased glycemia after the oral glucose loading without decreasing fasting blood insulin. A general effect of treatment was observed on the HOMA-IR index, with an 81% reduction in CR animals and 53% in RSV animals after 33 months of treatment compared to CTL. Chronic CR and dietary supplementation with RSV affected insulin sensitivity by improving the glucose tolerance of animals without disturbing their baseline insulin secretion. These results suggest that both CR and RSV have beneficial effects on metabolic alterations, although these effects are different in amplitude between the two anti-aging treatments and potentially rely on different metabolic

  20. Physical activity and weight loss are independent predictors of improved insulin sensitivity following energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2016-02-01

    The role of physical activity and the joint effect with sleep duration on insulin sensitivity (IS) during energy restriction followed by weight maintenance were determined. One hundred and two subjects (28 males) (mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 years; BMI: 31.9 ± 3.0 kg/m(2) ) followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 weeks, followed by a 44-week period of weight maintenance. Body composition (three-compartment model based on body weight, total body water, and body volume), physical activity (accelerometry), sleep (questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), and fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were assessed before the diet and at 8, 20, and 52 weeks after the start. Compared to baseline, IS was improved significantly after 8 weeks (P weight loss percentage and change in physical activity counts. Maintaining daily physical activity during energy restriction is as important as weight loss itself in the improvement of IS; there was no additional effect of change in sleep duration. During weight maintenance, improved IS is maintained better if physical activity returns to baseline or higher. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. Increased chemerin concentrations in fetuses of obese mothers and correlation with maternal insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gillian; Lim, Ratana; Rice, Gregory E; Lappas, Martha

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on (i) the circulating concentrations of chemerin in cord and maternal plasma, and (ii) gene expression and release of chemerin from human placenta and adipose tissue. Chemerin concentrations were measured in maternal and cord plasma from 62 normal glucose tolerant women (NGT) and 69 women with GDM at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Placenta and adipose tissue expression and release of chemerin was measured from 22 NGT and 22 GDM women. There was no effect of maternal obesity or GDM on maternal chemerin concentrations. Chemerin concentrations were significantly higher in cord plasma from women with maternal obesity. Cord chemerin concentrations in NGT women negatively correlated with the concentrations of maternal insulin sensitivity. There was no effect of GDM on maternal and cord chemerin concentrations, and on the release of chemerin from placenta and adipose tissue. At the time of term Caesarean section, preexisting maternal obesity, and its associated insulin resistance, is associated with higher cord plasma chemerin concentrations.

  2. Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Ye, Yanqi; DiSanto, Rocco; Sun, Wujin; Ranson, Davis; Ligler, Frances S; Buse, John B; Gu, Zhen

    2015-07-07

    A glucose-responsive "closed-loop" insulin delivery system mimicking the function of pancreatic cells has tremendous potential to improve quality of life and health in diabetics. Here, we report a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch ("smart insulin patch") containing glucose-responsive vesicles (GRVs; with an average diameter of 118 nm), which are loaded with insulin and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme. The GRVs are self-assembled from hypoxia-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HS-HA) conjugated with 2-nitroimidazole (NI), a hydrophobic component that can be converted to hydrophilic 2-aminoimidazoles through bioreduction under hypoxic conditions. The local hypoxic microenvironment caused by the enzymatic oxidation of glucose in the hyperglycemic state promotes the reduction of HS-HA, which rapidly triggers the dissociation of vesicles and subsequent release of insulin. The smart insulin patch effectively regulated the blood glucose in a mouse model of chemically induced type 1 diabetes. The described work is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a synthetic glucose-responsive device using a hypoxia trigger for regulation of insulin release. The faster responsiveness of this approach holds promise in avoiding hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia if translated for human therapy.

  3. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats, potentially by modulating the expression of PEPCK and GLUT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtuwene, Joshua; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Amitani, Marie; Morinaga, Akinori; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Kairupan, Bernabas Harold Ralph; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural substance that may be useful for treating diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the effects of RA on glucose homeostasis and insulin regulation in rats with streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes or high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Glucose homeostasis was determined using oral glucose tolerance tests and postprandial glucose tests, and insulin activity was evaluated using insulin tolerance tests and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. Additionally, the protein expression levels of PEPCK and GLUT4 were determined using Western blot analysis. RA administration exerted a marked hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats and enhanced glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed diabetic rats. These effects of RA were dose-dependent. Meanwhile, RA administration reversed the STZ- and HFD-induced increase in PEPCK expression in the liver and the STZ- and HFD-induced decrease in GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle. RA reduces hyperglycemia and ameliorates insulin sensitivity by decreasing PEPCK expression and increasing GLUT4 expression.

  4. Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity after Lean Donor Feces in Metabolic Syndrome Is Driven by Baseline Intestinal Microbiota Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kootte, Ruud S.; Levin, Evgeni; Salojärvi, Jarkko

    2017-01-01

    . Whereas we did not observe metabolic changes at 18 weeks after FMT, insulin sensitivity at 6 weeks after allogenic FMT was significantly improved, accompanied by altered microbiota composition. We also observed changes in plasma metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid and show that metabolic response upon...... be predicted based on baseline fecal microbiota composition. Kootte et al. show that fecal microbiota transplantation from lean donors to obese patients with metabolic syndrome improves insulin sensitivity, a transient effect associated with changes in microbiota composition and fasting plasma metabolites....... Baseline fecal microbiota composition in recipients predicts the response to lean donor fecal microbiota transplantation....

  5. Routine OGTT: a robust model including incretin effect for precise identification of insulin sensitivity and secretion in a single individual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Gaetano

    Full Text Available In order to provide a method for precise identification of insulin sensitivity from clinical Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT observations, a relatively simple mathematical model (Simple Interdependent glucose/insulin MOdel SIMO for the OGTT, which coherently incorporates commonly accepted physiological assumptions (incretin effect and saturating glucose-driven insulin secretion has been developed. OGTT data from 78 patients in five different glucose tolerance groups were analyzed: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, IFG+IGT, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. A comparison with the 2011 Salinari (COntinuos GI tract MOdel, COMO and the 2002 Dalla Man (Dalla Man MOdel, DMMO models was made with particular attention to insulin sensitivity indices ISCOMO, ISDMMO and kxgi (the insulin sensitivity index for SIMO. ANOVA on kxgi values across groups resulted significant overall (P<0.001, and post-hoc comparisons highlighted the presence of three different groups: NGT (8.62×10(-5±9.36×10(-5 min(-1pM(-1, IFG (5.30×10(-5±5.18×10(-5 and combined IGT, IFG+IGT and T2DM (2.09×10(-5±1.95×10(-5, 2.38×10(-5±2.28×10(-5 and 2.38×10(-5±2.09×10(-5 respectively. No significance was obtained when comparing ISCOMO or ISDMMO across groups. Moreover, kxgi presented the lowest sample average coefficient of variation over the five groups (25.43%, with average CVs for ISCOMO and ISDMMO of 70.32% and 57.75% respectively; kxgi also presented the strongest correlations with all considered empirical measures of insulin sensitivity. While COMO and DMMO appear over-parameterized for fitting single-subject clinical OGTT data, SIMO provides a robust, precise, physiologically plausible estimate of insulin sensitivity, with which habitual empirical insulin sensitivity indices correlate well. The kxgi index, reflecting insulin secretion dependency on glycemia, also significantly differentiates clinically

  6. Adipose Tissue Free Fatty Acid Storage In Vivo: Effects of Insulin Versus Niacin as a Control for Suppression of Lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asem H; Mundi, Manpreet; Koutsari, Christina; Bernlohr, David A; Jensen, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    Insulin stimulates the translocation fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) to plasma membrane, and thus greater free fatty acid (FFA) uptake, in adipocyte cell models. Whether insulin stimulates greater FFA clearance into adipose tissue in vivo is unknown. We tested this hypothesis by comparing direct FFA storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue during insulin versus niacin-medicated suppression of lipolysis. We measured direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral subcutaneous fat in 10 and 11 adults, respectively, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia or after oral niacin to suppress FFA compared with 11 saline control experiments. Direct palmitate storage was assessed using a [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion to measure palmitate kinetics and an intravenous palmitate radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Plasma palmitate concentrations and flux were suppressed to 23 ± 3 and 26 ± 5 µmol ⋅ L(-1) (P = 0.91) and 44 ± 4 and 39 ± 5 µmol ⋅ min(-1) (P = 0.41) in the insulin and niacin groups, respectively, much less (P niacin, and saline groups, abdominal palmitate storage rates were 0.25 ± 0.05 vs. 0.25 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid(-1) ⋅ min(-1), respectively (P = NS), and femoral adipose storage rates were 0.19 ± 0.06 vs. 0.20 ± 0.05 vs. 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid(-1) ⋅ min(-1), respectively (P = NS). In conclusion, insulin does not increase FFA storage in adipose tissue compared with niacin, which suppresses lipolysis via a different pathway. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. Validation of methods for measurement of insulin secretion in humans in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, L L; Christiansen, E; Vølund, A

    2000-01-01

    To detect and understand the changes in beta-cell function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, an accurate and precise estimation of prehepatic insulin secretion rate (ISR) is essential. There are two common methods to assess ISR, the deconvolution method (by Eaton and Polonsky...... of these mathematical techniques for quantification of insulin secretion have been tested in dogs, but not in humans. In the present studies, we examined the validity of both methods to recover the known infusion rates of insulin and C-peptide mimicking ISR during an oral glucose tolerance test. ISR from both...... infusion of somatostatin results in nearly identical secretion rates for insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test....

  8. Remarks on models for estimating the carbohydrate to insulin ratio and insulin sensitivity in T1DM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tárnik, Marían; Bátora, Vladimír; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate linear models for prediction of the interstitial glucose concentration in response to meals and bolus insulin. Parameters of these models can be directly used in simple bolus calculation rules. In contrast to models proposed in the literature, we present a model without...

  9. Dynamics of insulin signalling in liver during hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamp conditions in vivo and the effects of high-fat feeding in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsheninnikova, E; Voshol, P J; Baan, B; van der Zon, G C M; Havekes, L M; Romijn, J A; Maassen, J A; Ouwens, D M

    2007-01-01

    Insulin is an important regulator of hepatic carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism, and the regulation of these processes by insulin is disturbed under conditions of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Despite these alterations, the impact of insulin resistance on insulin signalling in the liver is not well defined. Variations in time and dose of insulin stimulation as well as plasma glucose levels may underlie this. The present study aimed at determining the dynamics of activation of hepatic insulin signalling in vivo at insulin concentrations resembling those achieved after a meal, and addressing the effects of high-fat feeding. An unexpected finding of this study was the biphasic activation pattern of the IRS-PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway. Our findings indicate that the first burst of activation contributes to regulation of glucose metabolism. The physiological function of the second peak is still unknown, but may involve regulation of protein synthesis. Finally, high-fat feeding caused hepatic insulin resistance, as illustrated by a reduced suppression of hepatic glucose production. A sustained increased phosphorylation of the serine/threonine kinases p70S6kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase in the absence of insulin may underlie the abrogated phosphorylation of the IRS proteins and their downstream targets.

  10. Impact of oral vancomycin on gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieze, Anne; Out, Carolien; Fuentes, Susana

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity has been associated with changes in the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota. Modulation of the microbiota by antibiotics also alters bile acid and glucose metabolism in mice. Hence, we hypothesized that short term administration of oral antibiotics...... in humans would affect fecal microbiota composition and subsequently bile acid and glucose metabolism. METHODS: In this single blinded randomized controlled trial, 20 male obese subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 7 days of amoxicillin 500 mg t.i.d. or 7 days of vancomycin 500 mg t.......i.d. At baseline and after 1 week of therapy, fecal microbiota composition (Human Intestinal Tract Chip phylogenetic microarray), fecal and plasma bile acid concentrations as well as insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp using [6,6-(2)H2]-glucose tracer) were measured. RESULTS: Vancomycin reduced...

  11. Effects of menopause and high-intensity training on insulin sensitivity and muscle metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Camilla M; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    To investigate peripheral insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and evaluate whether exercise training benefits are maintained after menopause. Sedentary, healthy, normal-weight, late premenopausal (n = 21), and early postmenopausal (n...... = 20) women were included in a 3-month high-intensity exercise training intervention. Body composition was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, whole body glucose disposal rate (GDR) by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (40 mU/m/min), and femoral muscle glucose....... Training increased lean body mass (estimate [95% confidence interval] 0.5 [0.2-0.9] kg, P ...

  12. Acute mTOR inhibition induces insulin resistance and alters substrate utilization in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Sylow, Lykke; Fazakerley, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    , but not rapamycin reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into incubated muscles, despite normal GLUT4 translocation in muscle cells. AZD8055 inhibited glycolysis in MEF cells. Abrogation of mTORC2 activity by SIN1 deletion impaired glycolysis and AZD8055 had no effect in SIN1 KO MEFs. Re-expression of wildtype...... SIN1 rescued glycolysis. Glucose intolerance following AZD8055 administration was absent in mice lacking the mTORC2 subunit Rictor in muscle, and in vivo glucose uptake into Rictor-deficient muscle was reduced despite normal Akt activity. Taken together, acute mTOR inhibition is detrimental to glucose...

  13. [Effects of total glucosides of paeony on enhancing insulin sensitivity and antagonizing nonalcoholic fatty liver in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin-Ying; Pan, Jing-Qiang; Lv, Jun-Hua

    2008-10-01

    To study the pathological changes of blood glucose, serum lipid, insulin resistance, liver function, liver cell denaturalization of total glucosides of paeony on nonalcoholic fatty liver rats caused by insulin resistance and discuss the acting mechanism. Adult SD rats were maintained on high-fat-sugar-salt diet for 56 days. In the 57th day, their fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2-hours blood glucose after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-2 hBG) were mensurated, according to which and the weight the rats were divided randomly into nonalcoholic fatty liver model group, metformin group (0.2 g x kg(-1)) and total glucosides of paeony group (high dosage 0.15 g x kg(-1), low dosage 0.05 g x kg(-1)). All the rats were still administered the same diet and given different drugs by intragastric administration for 28 days. In the 29th day, all of them were killed and the blood was sampled to measure the levels of blood glucose [FBG, OGTT-2 hBG, fasting insulin (Fins)] and serum lipid [free fatty acids (FFA), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], then the HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IRI, fasting glucosexinsulin) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were counted. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (ChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured also. Livers were weighed and collected to be observed the pathological changes. Compared with normal group, in nonalcoholic fatty liver model group the levels of Fins and IRI were increased obviously (P insulin resistence were resisted (P insulin resistance, and its action mechanism may be concerned with enhancing insulin sensitivity and antioxidative ability, decreasing serum lipid.

  14. Does oral glutamine improve insulin sensitivity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santiago, Lournaris; Mauras, Nelly; Hossain, Jobayer; Weltman, Arthur L; Darmaun, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    The decline in insulin sensitivity (SI) associated with puberty increases the difficulty of achieving glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to determine whether glutamine supplementation affects blood glucose by enhancing SI in adolescents with T1D. Thirteen adolescents with T1D (HbA1C 8.2 ± 0.1%) were admitted to perform afternoon exercise (four 15-min treadmill/5-min rest cycles of exercise) on two occasions within a 4-wk period. They were randomized to receive a drink containing either glutamine (0.25 g/kg) or placebo before exercise, at bedtime, and early morning in a double-blind, crossover design. Blood glucose was monitored overnight, and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed the following morning. Blood glucose concentration dropped comparably during exercise on both days. However, the total number of nocturnal hypoglycemic events (17 versus 7, P = 0.045) and the cumulative probability of overnight hypoglycemia (50% versus 33%, P = 0.02) were higher on the glutamine day than on the placebo day. During clamp, glucose infusion rate was not affected by glutamine supplementation (7.7 ± 1 mg • kg-1 • min-1 versus 7.0 ± 1; glutamine versus placebo; P = 0.4). Oral glutamine supplementation decreases blood glucose in adolescents with T1D after exercise. Insulin sensitivity, however, was unaltered during the euglycemic clamp. Although the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated, studies to explore the potential use of glutamine to improve blood glucose control are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The antidiabetic plants Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (Bignoniaceae) and Teucrium cubense Jacq (Lamiaceae) induce the incorporation of glucose in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Romo-Yañez, José; Camarillo-Ledesma, Paul; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A

    2010-01-08

    Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (Bignoniaceae) and Teucrium cubense Jacq (Lamiaceae) are plants extensively used for the empirical treatment of diabetes mellitus, but their antidiabetic mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, the effect of aqueous extracts of Tecoma stans (TSE) and Teucrium cubense (TCE) on the glucose uptake in adipose cells was evaluated. Non-toxic concentrations of TSE and TCE were assayed on the adipogenesis and 2-NBDglucose uptake in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine 3T3-F442A and human subcutaneous adipocytes. Both extracts stimulated 2-NBDG uptake by insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. In insulin-sensitive cells, TSE 70 microg/ml stimulated 2-NBDG uptake by 193% (murine) and by 115% (human), whereas the same concentration of TCE induced the 2-NBDG uptake by 112% (murine) and 54% (human). In insulin-resistant adipocytes, TSE induced the 2-NBDG uptake by 94% (murine) and 70% (human), compared with the incorporation shown by insulin-sensitive adipocytes stimulated by the hormone, whereas TCE induced the incorporation of 2-NBDG by 69% (murine) and 31% (human). On the other hand, TSE and TCE exerted only minimal or null proadipogenic effects on murine and human preadipocytes. Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense exert their antidiabetic effects stimulating glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes without significant proadipogenic or antiadipogenic side effects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Resistance training associated with the administration of anabolic-androgenic steroids improves insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urtado CB

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Christiano Bertoldo Urtado1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira3, Marilia Bertoldo Urtado4, Érica Blascovi de Carvalho2, Gerson dos Santos Leite1, Felipe Fedrizzi Donatto1, Claudio de Oliveira Assumpção1, Richard Diego Leite3, Carlos Alberto da Silva1, Marcelo Magalhães de Sales5, Ramires Alsamir Tibana5, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Jonato Prestes51Health Sciences, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Piracicaba, SP, 2Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 3Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, 4Laboratory of Orofacial Pain, Division of Oral Physiology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 5Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids and resistance training (RT on insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into ten experimental groups (n = 5 animals per group: (1 sedentary (Sed-Intact; (2 sedentary ovariectomized (Sed-Ovx; (3 sedentary nandrolone (Sed-Intact-ND; (4 sedentary ovariectomized plus nandrolone (Sed-Ovx-ND; (5 trained (TR-Intact; (6 trained nandrolone (TR-Intact-ND; (7 trained ovariectomized (TR-Ovx; (8 trained ovariectomized plus nandrolone; (9 trained sham; and (10 trained ovariectomized plus sham. Four sessions of RT were used, during which the animals climbed a 1.1 m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. The sessions were performed once every 3 days, with between four and nine climbs and with eight to twelve dynamic movements per climb. To test the sensitivity of insulin in the pancreas, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. For insulin sensitivity, there was a statistically significant interaction for the TR-Ovx group, which presented higher sensitivity

  17. Overexpression of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle promotes oxidative gene expression and intramyocellular lipid content without compromising insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, M; Sparks, L M; Hooiveld, G J; Jorgensen, J A; Houten, S M; Schrauwen, P; Kersten, S; Hesselink, M K C

    2013-04-01

    While lipid deposition in the skeletal muscle is considered to be involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance, neutral intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation per se does not necessarily induce insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of the lipid droplet coat protein perilipin 2 augments intramyocellular lipid content while improving insulin sensitivity. Another member of the perilipin family, perilipin 5 (PLIN5), is predominantly expressed in oxidative tissues like the skeletal muscle. Here we investigated the effects of PLIN5 overexpression - in comparison with the effects of PLIN2 - on skeletal muscle lipid levels, gene expression profiles and insulin sensitivity. Gene electroporation was used to overexpress PLIN5 in tibialis anterior muscle of rats fed a high fat diet. Eight days after electroporation, insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle was measured by means of a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and lipid extractions were performed to investigate IMCL accumulation. Gene expression profiles were obtained using microarrays. TAG storage and lipid droplet size increased upon PLIN5 overexpression. Despite the higher IMCL content, insulin sensitivity was not impaired and DAG and acylcarnitine levels were unaffected. In contrast to the effects of PLIN2 overexpression, microarray data analysis revealed a gene expression profile favoring FA oxidation and improved mitochondrial function. Both PLIN2 and PLIN5 increase neutral IMCL content without impeding insulin-mediated glucose uptake. As opposed to the effects of PLIN2 overexpression, overexpression of PLIN5 in the skeletal muscle promoted expression of a cluster of genes under control of PPARα and PGC1α involved in FA catabolism and mitochondrial oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo sensitivity of Phakopsora pachyrhizi to DMI and QoI fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In in vivo experiments the sensitivity of 18 isolates of Phakopsora pachyrhizi from several regions of Brazil to IDM fungicides (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole and an IQE (pyraclostrobin were evaluated. The assessments were based on leaflet uredia density. Inhibitory concentration (IC50 and sensitivity reduction factor were determined for all fungicide x strain interactions. Tebuconazole sensitivity reduction was detected for most fungus isolates. In contrast, there was no fungicide shift in sensitivity of the fungus to pyraclostrobin. We conclude that the control failure of soybean rust found in some farms is due to the reduced sensitivity of the fungus to the IDM fungicide and that it remains sensitive to pyraclostrobin.

  19. Effect of a 10-week weight loss camp on fatty liver disease and insulin sensitivity in obese Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Lange, Aksel; Birkebæk, Niels H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Childhood nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with insulin resistance and obesity is a growing problem and increases the risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular complications. We examined the effects of a 10-week "weight loss camp......" residency in obese children on the prevalence and degree of NAFLD and insulin sensitivity with 12-month follow-up. METHODS: At the camp, 117 obese white children (body mass index 28.0 ± 3.6  kg/m, age 12.1 ± 1.3 years) exercised moderately for 1 hour/day and restricted their energy intake to induce weight...... loss. NAFLD was diagnosed and graded using ultrasound and transaminasemia. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed using homeostasis model assessment and oral glucose tolerance test. We performed anthropometric measurements and determined body composition using bioimpedance. Data were...

  20. Modification and Validation of the Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio as a Surrogate of Insulin Sensitivity in White Juveniles and Adults without Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulmichl, Katharina; Hatunic, Mensud; Højlund, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was introduced as a tool to estimate insulin resistance, because circulating lipid measurements are available in routine settings. Insulin, C-peptide, and free fatty acids are components of other insulin-sensitivity indices but thei......-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) when calculated with M-values. CONCLUSIONS: The SPISE seems well suited to surrogate whole-body insulin sensitivity from inexpensive fasting single-point blood draw and BMI in white adolescents and adults....... but their measurement is expensive. Easier and more affordable tools are of interest for both pediatric and adult patients. METHODS: Study participants from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease [43.9 (8.3) years, n = 1260] as well as the Beta-Cell Function in Juvenile Diabetes......), fasting TG, and HDL cholesterol and compared to the clamp-derived M-value as an estimate of insulin sensitivity. Each modeling result was scored by identifying insulin resistance and correlation coefficient. The Single Point Insulin Sensitivity Estimator (SPISE) was compared to traditional insulin...

  1. Effects of Amanita phalloides toxins on insulin release: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Eugenio; Milanesi, Anna; Martini, Chiara; Maffei, Pietro; Tamagno, Gianluca; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo; Scandellari, Cesare; Sicolo, Nicola

    2003-08-01

    The clinical picture of Amanita phalloides poisoning includes hypoglycaemia, usually related to hepatic damage. In fact, Amanita toxins induce hepatic glycogen depletion in humans and animals. However, in animals morphological changes of pancreatic beta cells are reported, suggesting that an alteration of insulin secretion might be involved in the pathogenesis of hypoglycaemia. Therefore, we determined fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels in ten patients intoxicated by Amanita phalloides and in ten control subjects. Fasting blood samples were drawn on 3 consecutive days, beginning 48-72 h after mushroom ingestion, and glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were determined by routine methods. Serum glucose concentrations did not differ between poisoned subjects and controls, whereas insulin and C-peptide concentrations were significantly higher in poisoned subjects ( PAmanita toxins might play a role in the clinical context of Amanita poisoning. We demonstrate, for the first time, that alpha-amanitin induces insulin release and may exert a cytotoxic effect on beta cells.

  2. A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuda C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Cuda1, Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Mohamed Karmali1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy1, Alaa Badawi21Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 2Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406 modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity.Methods: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20–29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement.Results: The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction. Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (ß = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03, but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (β= –0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047.Conclusion: These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.Keywords: interleukin-6, insulin sensitivity, nutrigenomics, dietary fat

  3. [Strength training improves insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid levels without altering body composition in overweight and obese subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán Jiménez, Oscar; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2011-04-01

    To assess the effect of long-term strength training on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and body composition in overweight and obese subjects. A prospective, randomized, interventional study in 16 overweight or obese subjects aged 18-35years who were investigated before and at the end of 8weeks of strength training. The experimental group (n=8) followed a strength training program consisting of 4 sessions per week at 50% to 80% of repetition maximum (RM), estimated through the 1RM test. The control group (n=8) did not perform the training program. Glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and LDL-C levels and arterial index were determined. Insulin sensitivity was measured by calculating HOMA-IR (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance). Indicators of body composition included weight, height, waist circumference, body fat, fat weight, muscle mass, somatotype chart and distance. At the end of intervention, the experimental group showed a decrease of insulin sensitivity (3.5±0.9 vs. 2.9±1.2; p=0.04), LDL-C (106.9±20.8 vs. 95.5±14.2; p=0.03), and arterial index (4.0±0.6 vs. 3.5±0.5; p=0.01), as well as an increase in HDL-C levels (43.7±8.8 vs. 46.9±5.6; p=0.04), while the control group remained stable. There were no significant differences between groups in body composition, somatotype chart and distance after training. In overweight and obese subjects, strength training for eight weeks improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profile without altering body composition. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between expression of FABPpm in skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity in intramyocellular lipid-accumulated nonobese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Minako; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Kakehi, Saori; Takeno, Kageumi; Sakurai, Yuko; Watanabe, Takahiro; Funayama, Takashi; Sato, Fumihiko; Ikeda, Shinichi; Ogura, Yuji; Saga, Norio; Naito, Hisashi; Fujitani, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Watada, Hirotaka

    2014-09-01

    Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation is observed in both insulin-resistant subjects and insulin-sensitive endurance athletes (athlete's paradox). We hypothesized that the expression pattern of fatty acid transporters may influence oxidative capacity and determine the association between IMCL and insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the muscle expression of fatty acid transporters and their function related to insulin sensitivity in IMCL-accumulated subjects. The study subjects were 36 nonobese healthy men. Their IMCL levels were measured by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their insulin sensitivity was evaluated by steady-state glucose infusion rate (GIR) during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Gene expression levels in the vastus lateralis were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. We compared the clinical phenotypes and the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle between IMCL-accumulated high-GIR (H-GIR) subjects (n = 8) and low-GIR subjects (n = 9). The functions of candidate fatty acid transporters were determined by in vitro analyses. Compared with the low-GIR group, body fat was lower and maximum oxygen uptake was higher in the H-GIR group. Several lipid oxidation genes in muscle were up-regulated in the H-GIR group, and this was associated with increased expression of higher plasma membrane-associated fatty acid-binding protein (FABPpm) and decreased expression of fatty acid transport protein (FATP)-1. Overexpression of FABPpm in C2C12 myotubes increased fatty acid oxidation coupled with the elevated expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation. These changes were not observed in FATP1-overexpressed myotubes. Differences in the gene expression of fatty acid transporters may, at least in part, affect insulin sensitivity in IMCL-accumulated nonobese men.

  5. Uterine microvascular sensitivity to nanomaterial inhalation: An in vivo assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, P A; McBride, C R; Yi, J; Nurkiewicz, T R

    2015-11-01

    With the tremendous number and diverse applications of engineered nanomaterials incorporated in daily human activity, exposure can no longer be solely confined to occupational exposures of healthy male models. Cardiovascular and endothelial cell dysfunction have been established using in vitro and in situ preparations, but the translation to intact in vivo models is limited. Intravital microscopy has been used extensively to understand microvascular physiology while maintaining in vivo neurogenic, humoral, and myogenic control. However, a tissue specific model to assess the influences of nanomaterial exposure on female reproductive health has not been fully elucidated. Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to nano-TiO2 aerosols (171 ± 6 nm, 10.1 ± 0.39 mg/m(3), 5h) 24-hours prior to experimentation, leading to a calculated deposition of 42.0 ± 1.65 μg. After verifying estrus status, vital signs were monitored and the right horn of the uterus was exteriorized, gently secured over an optical pedestal, and enclosed in a warmed tissue bath using intravital microscopy techniques. After equilibration, significantly higher leukocyte-endothelium interactions were recorded in the exposed group. Arteriolar responsiveness was assessed using ionophoretically applied agents: muscarinic agonist acetylcholine (0.025 M; ACh; 20, 40, 100, and 200 nA), and nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (0.05 M; SNP; 20, 40, and 100 nA), or adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (0.05 M; PE; 20, 40, and 100 nA) using glass micropipettes. Passive diameter was established by tissue superfusion with 10(-4)M adenosine. Similar to male counterparts, female SD rats present systemic microvascular dysfunction; however the ramifications associated with female health and reproduction have yet to be elucidated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone on menstrual irregularity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Gaspare; Borrielli, Irene; Artenisio, Alfredo Carducci; Bruno, Lucia Maria; Benvenga, Salvatore; Giunta, Loretta; La Marca, Antonio; Volpe, Annibale; Pizzo, Alfonsa

    2014-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine cause of menstrual irregularities, hirsutism and acne. Women with PCOS present elevated plasma insulin levels, both fasting and after a glucose load, as an indirect evidence of insulin resistance. PCOS women may also present hypertension, low levels of HDL cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, visceral obesity and a higher level of CRP and fibrinogen that can predict an atherosclerotic risk. This study was carried out on 15 young women with PCOS selected according to the 2003 diagnostic criteria of The Rotterdam Consensus Statement and 15 Control women. PCOS women were treated with pioglitazone 30 mg/day and at the beginning and after 6 months of treatment were evaluated: menstrual cycle trend, hirsutism and acne, total cholesterolemia and HDL, triglyceridemia, fibrinogenemia, C-reactive protein, oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin, FSH, LH, 17OH-progesterone, 17β-estradiol, free and total testosterone, SHBG, DHEA-S, Δ4-androstenedione and adiponectin. Treatment with pioglitazone improves the irregularities of menses and hirsutism. Six months of treatment modify other parameters linked with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases: adiponectin increased with reduction of insulin resistance while fibrinogen and CRP levels decreased. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-dependent nongenetic influences of birth weight and adult body fat on insulin sensitivity in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rikke Nygaard; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Rasmussen, Eva Lind

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized a nongenetic influence of birth weight (BW) and twin and zygosity status on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry determined adult total and regional body composition and a quantitative equal, although independent, importance of adult body composition and BW for insulin sensitivity....

  8. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity in lean and overweight men: a diet intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Zoete, de E.C.; Kok, F.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type II diabetes. This study investigates the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity. Subjects: Twenty healthy, lean (body mass index (BMI) 18.5¿25 kg/m2; n=11) or overweight

  9. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity in lean and overweight men: A diet intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Zoete, E.C.de; Kok, F.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type II diabetes. This study investigates the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity. Subjects: Twenty healthy, lean (body mass index (BMI) 18.5-25 kg/m2; n=11) or overweight (BMI>27

  10. GQ-16, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) Ligand, Promotes Insulin Sensitization without Weight Gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amato, Angelica A.; Rajagopalan, Senapathy; Lin, Jean Z.; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Figueira, Ana C. M.; Lu, Jenny; Ayers, Stephen D.; Mottin, Melina; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Telles de Souza, Paulo; Mourao, Rosa H. V.; Saad, Mario J. A.; Togashi, Marie; Simeoni, Luiz A.; Abdalla, Dulcineia S. P.; Skaf, Munir S.; Polikparpov, Igor; Lima, Maria C. A.; Galdino, Suely L.; Brennan, Richard G.; Baxter, John D.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Webb, Paul; Phillips, Kevin J.; Neves, Francisco A. R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) targeted anti-diabetic drugs function by inhibiting Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor has provided a new viewpoint to evaluate and perhaps develop improved insulin-sensitizing agents. Herein we report

  11. Changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity following 2 weeks of daily cinnamon ingestion in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    Cinnamon can improve fasting glucose in humans yet data on insulin sensitivity are limited and controversial. Eight male volunteers (aged 25 +/- 1 years, body mass 76.5 +/- 3.0 kg, BMI 24.0 +/- 0.7 kg m(-2); mean +/- SEM) underwent two 14-day interventions involving cinnamon or placebo supplement...

  12. High-fat diet feeding induces sex-dependent changes in inflammatory and insulin sensitivity profiles of rat adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrany, Maria E; Proenza, Ana M; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine, in rats of both sexes, the effect of HF diet feeding on the expression of adipokines involved in inflammatory status and insulin sensitivity and on the levels of proteins involved in lipid handling of retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (2.9% w/w fat) or an HF diet (30% w/w fat) for 14 weeks. Adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and inflammatory marker mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of insulin receptor, glucose transporter 4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, fatty acid synthase, hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase were determined by Western blot. HF diet feeding did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain but did promote an increase in adiposity although only in male rats. HF diet impaired glucose tolerance and the expression of inflammatory and insulin sensitivity markers in adipose tissue of male rats, but not in female rats. Male rats seem to be more prone to disorders associated with an unbalanced composition of the diet, even in the absence of hyperphagia. In contrast, female rats counteract excessive fat intake by improving their ability to use lipid fuels, which limits adiposity and maintains insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, A. J.; Gilbert, M. S.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.; Gerrits, W. J. J.; Roelofsen, H.; Priebe, M. G.; Vonk, R. J.

    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body weight

  14. Deletion of hepatic carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP impairs glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Jois

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: Overall, hepatic ChREBP is protective in regards to hepatic insulin sensitivity and whole body glucose homeostasis. Hepatic ChREBP action can influence other peripheral tissues and is likely essential in coordinating the body's response to different feeding states.

  15. Bezafibrate ameliorates diabetes via reduced steatosis and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in diabetic TallyHo mice

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    Andras Franko

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our data showed that BEZ ameliorates diabetes probably via reduced steatosis, enhanced hepatic mitochondrial mass, improved metabolic flexibility and elevated hepatic insulin sensitivity in TallyHo mice, suggesting that BEZ treatment could be beneficial for patients with NAFLD and impaired glucose metabolism.

  16. Life in the fat lane: seasonal regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake, and adipose biology in brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, K S; Gehring, J L; Evans Hutzenbiler, B D; Chen, A V; Nelson, O L; Vella, C A; Robbins, C T; Jansen, H T

    2017-05-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have evolved remarkable metabolic adaptations including enormous fat accumulation during the active season followed by fasting during hibernation. However, these fluctuations in body mass do not cause the same harmful effects associated with obesity in humans. To better understand these seasonal transitions, we performed insulin and glucose tolerance tests in captive grizzly bears, characterized the annual profiles of circulating adipokines, and tested the anorectic effects of centrally administered leptin at different times of the year. We also used bear gluteal adipocyte cultures to test insulin and beta-adrenergic sensitivity in vitro. Bears were insulin resistant during hibernation but were sensitive during the spring and fall active periods. Hibernating bears remained euglycemic, possibly due to hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia. Adipokine concentrations were relatively low throughout the active season but peaked in mid-October prior to hibernation when fat content was greatest. Serum glycerol was highest during hibernation, indicating ongoing lipolysis. Centrally administered leptin reduced food intake in October, but not in August, revealing seasonal variation in the brain's sensitivity to its anorectic effects. This was supported by strong phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 labeling within the hypothalamus of hibernating bears; labeling virtually disappeared in active bears. Adipocytes collected during hibernation were insulin resistant when cultured with hibernation serum but became sensitive when cultured with active season serum. Heat treatment of active serum blocked much of this action. Clarifying the cellular mechanisms responsible for the physiology of hibernating bears may inform new treatments for metabolic disorders.

  17. Decreased insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are associated with liver function in subjects with fasting glucose between 100 and 109 mg/dL in Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Jeng-Yueh; Wang, Chiao-Ling; Hsia, Pi-Jung; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Hsin, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Kun-Der; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the American Diabetes Association recommended that the lower limit for the diagnosis of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) should be reduced from 110 to 100 mg/dL in the analysis of the associated risk factors of IFG. It has been proposed that liver dysfunction may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. A primary aim was to investigate the relationship between liver enzyme and insulin resistance (IR) in IFG group. The secondary aim was to investigate IR and beta-cell function assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B, respectively) in subjects with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between 100 and 109 mg/dL. We enrolled 284 subjects whose medical history and physical examination required tests to screen for metabolic abnormalities. In addition, we also excluded all factors affecting glucose or insulin metabolism. According to the FPG level, they were divided into the following groups: group A, FPG population, the fasting insulin level, the fasting glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase, and the diastolic blood pressure all increased significantly as the glycemic status progressed, whereas HOMA-%B levels decreased significantly as the glycemic status progressed. The lipid profile, alkaline phosphatase, and systolic blood pressure did not differ significantly among 3 different glycemic classifications. Study results indicate that, first, there was a significant decrease of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in subjects with fasting glucose from 100 to 109 mg/dL compared with subjects with normal fasting glucose. Second, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase were associated with IR as the glycemic status progressed in the IFG group.

  18. Pterocarpan-Enriched Soy Leaf Extract Ameliorates Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic β-Cell Proliferation in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un-Hee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, soy (Glycine max (L. Merr. leaves are eaten as a seasonal vegetable or pickled in soy sauce. Ethyl acetate extracts of soy leaves (EASL are enriched in pterocarpans and have potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effect of EASL in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD-induced type 2 diabetes. Mice were randomly divided into normal diet (ND, HFD (60 kcal% fat diet, EASL (HFD with 0.56% (wt/wt EASL, and Pinitol (HFD with 0.15% (wt/wt pinitol groups. Weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation were significantly suppressed by EASL. Levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c, and insulin in the EASL group were significantly lower than those of the HFD group, and the pancreatic islet of the EASL group had greater size than those of the HFD group. EASL group up-regulated neurogenin 3 (Ngn3, paired box 4 (Pax4, and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA, which are markers of pancreatic cell development, as well as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1, IRS2, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, which are related to insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, EASL suppressed genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and steatosis. These results suggest that EASL improves plasma glucose and insulin levels in mice with HDF-induced type 2 diabetes by regulating β-cell proliferation and insulin sensitivity.

  19. Synergistic effects of leucine and resveratrol on insulin sensitivity and fat metabolism in adipocytes and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruckbauer Antje

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirtuins are important regulators of glucose and fat metabolism, and sirtuin activation has been proposed as a therapeutic target for insulin resistance and diabetes. We have shown leucine to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation via Sirt1 dependent pathways. Resveratrol is a widely recognized activator of Sirt; however, the biologically-effective high concentrations used in cell and animal studies are generally impractical or difficult to achieve in humans. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether leucine would exhibit synergy with low levels of resveratrol on sirtuin-dependent outcomes in adipocytes and in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. Methods 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes were treated with Leucine (0.5 mM, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB (5 μM or Resveratrol (200 nM alone or in combination. In addition, diet-induced obese mice were treated for 6-weeks with low (2 g/kg diet or high (10 g/kg diet dose HMB, Leucine (24 g/kg diet; 200% of normal level or low (12.5 mg/kg diet or high (225 mg/kg diet dose resveratrol, alone or as combination with leucine-resveratrol or HMB-resveratrol. Results Fatty acid oxidation, AMPK, Sirt1 and Sirt3 activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in muscle cells, were significantly increased by the combinations compared to the individual treatments. Similarly, 6-week feeding of low-dose resveratrol combined with either leucine or its metabolite HMB to DIO mice increased adipose Sirt1 activity, muscle glucose and palmitate uptake (measured via PET/CT, insulin sensitivity (HOMAIR, improved inflammatory stress biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, MCP-1, adiponectin and reduced adiposity comparable to the effects of high dose resveratrol, while low-dose resveratrol exerted no independent effect. Conclusion These data demonstrate that either leucine or its metabolite HMB may be combined with a low concentration of resveratrol to exert synergistic effects on Sirt1-dependent outcomes; this may result in more

  20. Thrombospondin1 deficiency reduces obesity-associated inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity in a diet-induced obese mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhang Li

    Full Text Available Obesity is prevalent worldwide and is associated with insulin resistance. Advanced studies suggest that obesity-associated low-grade chronic inflammation contributes to the development of insulin resistance and other metabolic complications. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein that is up-regulated in inflamed adipose tissue. A recent study suggests a positive correlation of TSP1 with obesity, adipose inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, the direct effect of TSP1 on obesity and insulin resistance is not known. Therefore, we investigated the role of TSP1 in mediating obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance by using TSP1 knockout mice.Male TSP1-/- mice and wild type littermate controls were fed a low-fat (LF or a high-fat (HF diet for 16 weeks. Throughout the study, body weight and fat mass increased similarly between the TSP1-/- mice and WT mice under HF feeding conditions, suggesting that TSP1 deficiency does not affect the development of obesity. However, obese TSP1-/- mice had improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin sensitivity compared to the obese wild type mice. Macrophage accumulation and inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissue were reduced in obese TSP1-/- mice. Consistent with the local decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, systemic inflammation was also decreased in the obese TSP1-/- mice. Furthermore, in vitro data demonstrated that TSP1 deficient macrophages had decreased mobility and a reduced inflammatory phenotype.TSP1 deficiency did not affect the development of high-fat diet induced obesity. However, TSP1 deficiency reduced macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue and protected against obesity related inflammation and insulin resistance. Our data demonstrate that TSP1 may play an important role in regulating macrophage function and mediating obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. These data suggest that TSP1 may serve as a

  1. Diabetes Alters the Expression and Translocation of the Insulin-Sensitive Glucose Transporters 4 and 8 in the Atria.

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    Zahra Maria

    Full Text Available Although diabetes has been identified as a major risk factor for atrial fibrillation, little is known about glucose metabolism in the healthy and diabetic atria. Glucose transport into the cell, the rate-limiting step of glucose utilization, is regulated by the Glucose Transporters (GLUTs. Although GLUT4 is the major isoform in the heart, GLUT8 has recently emerged as a novel cardiac isoform. We hypothesized that GLUT-4 and -8 translocation to the atrial cell surface will be regulated by insulin and impaired during insulin-dependent diabetes. GLUT protein content was measured by Western blotting in healthy cardiac myocytes and type 1 (streptozotocin-induced, T1Dx diabetic rodents. Active cell surface GLUT content was measured using a biotinylated photolabeled assay in the perfused heart. In the healthy atria, insulin stimulation increased both GLUT-4 and -8 translocation to the cell surface (by 100% and 240%, respectively, P<0.05. Upon insulin stimulation, we reported an increase in Akt (Th308 and s473 sites and AS160 phosphorylation, which was positively (P<0.05 correlated with GLUT4 protein content in the healthy atria. During diabetes, active cell surface GLUT-4 and -8 content was downregulated in the atria (by 70% and 90%, respectively, P<0.05. Akt and AS160 phosphorylation was not impaired in the diabetic atria, suggesting the presence of an intact insulin signaling pathway. This was confirmed by the rescued translocation of GLUT-4 and -8 to the atrial cell surface upon insulin stimulation in the atria of type 1 diabetic subjects. In conclusion, our data suggest that: 1 both GLUT-4 and -8 are insulin-sensitive in the healthy atria through an Akt/AS160 dependent pathway; 2 GLUT-4 and -8 trafficking is impaired in the diabetic atria and rescued by insulin treatment. Alterations in atrial glucose transport may induce perturbations in energy production, which may provide a metabolic substrate for atrial fibrillation during diabetes.

  2. Update on the effects of physical activity on insulin sensitivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen R; Hawley, John A

    2016-01-01

    This review presents established knowledge on the effects of physical activity (PA) on whole-body insulin sensitivity (SI) and summarises the findings of recent (2013-2016) studies. Recent studies provide further evidence to support the notion that regular PA reduces the risk of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and SI improves when individuals comply with exercise and/or PA guidelines. Many studies indicate a dose response, with higher energy expenditures and higher exercise intensities, including high intensity interval training (HIIT), producing greater benefits on whole-body SI, although these findings are not unanimous. Aerobic exercise interventions can improve SI without an associated increase in cardiorespiratory fitness as measured by maximal or peak oxygen consumption. Both aerobic and resistance exercise can induce improvements in glycaemic regulation, with some suggestions that exercise regimens including both may be more efficacious than either exercise mode alone. Some studies report exercise-induced benefits to SI that are independent of habitual diet and weight loss, while others indicate an association with fat reduction, hence the debate over the relative importance of PA and weight loss continues. During exercise, muscle contraction stimulated improvements in SI are associated with increases in AMPK activity, which deactivates TCB1D1, promoting GLUT4 translocation to the cell membrane and thereby increasing glucose uptake. Postexercise, increases in Akt deactivate TCB1D4 and thereby increase GLUT4 translocation to the cell membrane. The reduction in intramuscular saturated fatty acids and concomitant reductions in ceramides, but not diacylglycerols, provide a potential link between intramuscular lipid content and SI. Increased skeletal muscle capillarisation provides another independent adaptation through which SI is improved, as does enhanced β cell activity. Recent studies are combining exercise interventions with

  3. ANP system activity predicts variability of fat mass reduction and insulin sensitivity during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachs, Maria; Wiegand, Susanna; Leupelt, Verena; Ernert, Andrea; Kintscher, Ulrich; Jumpertz von Schwarzenberg, Reiner; Decker, Anne-Marie; Bobbert, Thomas; Hübner, Norbert; Chen, Wei; Krude, Heiko; Spranger, Joachim; Mai, Knut

    2016-06-01

    In weight loss trials, a considerable inter-individual variability in reduction of fat mass and changes of insulin resistance is observed, even under standardized study conditions. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Given the metabolic properties of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system, we hypothesized that ANP signaling might be involved in this phenomenon by changes of ANP secretion or receptor balance. Therefore, we investigated the impact of systemic, adipose and myocellular ANP system on metabolic and anthropometric improvements during weight loss. We comprehensively investigated 143 subjects (31 male, 112 female) before and after a 3 month-standardized weight loss program. The time course of BMI, fat mass, insulin sensitivity, circulating mid-regional proANP (MR-proANP) levels as well as adipose and myocellular natriuretic receptor A (NPR-A) and C (NPR-C) mRNA expression were investigated. BMI decreased by -12.6±3.7%. This was accompanied by a remarkable decrease of adipose NPR-C expression (1005.0±488.4 vs. 556.7±465.6; pANP receptor expression predicted the degree of weight loss induced fat mass reduction. Our comprehensive human data support that peripheral ANP signalling is involved in control of adipose tissue plasticity and function during weight loss. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (KFO281/2), the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK/BMBF); ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00850629). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender dimorphism in aspartame-induced impairment of spatial cognition and insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S Collison

    Full Text Available Previous studies have linked aspartame consumption to impaired retention of learned behavior in rodents. Prenatal exposure to aspartame has also been shown to impair odor-associative learning in guinea pigs; and recently, aspartame-fed hyperlipidemic zebrafish exhibited weight gain, hyperglycemia and acute swimming defects. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, on changes in blood glucose parameters, spatial learning and memory in C57BL/6J mice. Morris Water Maze (MWM testing was used to assess learning and memory, and a random-fed insulin tolerance test was performed to assess glucose homeostasis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and MWM performance outcome variables. At 17 weeks of age, male aspartame-fed mice exhibited weight gain, elevated fasting glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to controls (P<0.05. Females were less affected, but had significantly raised fasting glucose levels. During spatial learning trials in the MWM (acquisition training, the escape latencies of male aspartame-fed mice were consistently higher than controls, indicative of learning impairment. Thigmotactic behavior and time spent floating directionless was increased in aspartame mice, who also spent less time searching in the target quadrant of the maze (P<0.05. Spatial learning of female aspartame-fed mice was not significantly different from controls. Reference memory during a probe test was affected in both genders, with the aspartame-fed mice spending significantly less time searching for the former location of the platform. Interestingly, the extent of visceral fat deposition correlated positively with non-spatial search strategies such as floating and thigmotaxis, and negatively with time spent in the target quadrant and swimming across the location of the escape platform. These data suggest that lifetime

  5. Update on the effects of physical activity on insulin sensitivity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen R; Hawley, John A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose and methods This review presents established knowledge on the effects of physical activity (PA) on whole-body insulin sensitivity (SI) and summarises the findings of recent (2013–2016) studies. Discussion and conclusions Recent studies provide further evidence to support the notion that regular PA reduces the risk of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and SI improves when individuals comply with exercise and/or PA guidelines. Many studies indicate a dose response, with higher energy expenditures and higher exercise intensities, including high intensity interval training (HIIT), producing greater benefits on whole-body SI, although these findings are not unanimous. Aerobic exercise interventions can improve SI without an associated increase in cardiorespiratory fitness as measured by maximal or peak oxygen consumption. Both aerobic and resistance exercise can induce improvements in glycaemic regulation, with some suggestions that exercise regimens including both may be more efficacious than either exercise mode alone. Some studies report exercise-induced benefits to SI that are independent of habitual diet and weight loss, while others indicate an association with fat reduction, hence the debate over the relative importance of PA and weight loss continues. During exercise, muscle contraction stimulated improvements in SI are associated with increases in AMPK activity, which deactivates TCB1D1, promoting GLUT4 translocation to the cell membrane and thereby increasing glucose uptake. Postexercise, increases in Akt deactivate TCB1D4 and thereby increase GLUT4 translocation to the cell membrane. The reduction in intramuscular saturated fatty acids and concomitant reductions in ceramides, but not diacylglycerols, provide a potential link between intramuscular lipid content and SI. Increased skeletal muscle capillarisation provides another independent adaptation through which SI is improved, as does enhanced β cell activity. Recent

  6. Effects of Chronic Consumption of Sugar-Enriched Diets on Brain Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Adult Yucatan Minipigs.

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    Melissa Ochoa

    Full Text Available Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36.3% of metabolisable energy was provided by starch, glucose or fructose (n = 8 per diet. Animals were then subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine peripheral insulin sensitivity. After a 7-month diet treatment, all groups had substantial increases in body weight (from 36.02±0.85 to 63.33±0.81 kg; P<0.0001, regardless of the diet. All groups presented similar insulin sensitivity index (ISI = 1.39±0.10 mL·min-1·μUI·kg. Compared to starch, chronic exposure to fructose and glucose induced bilateral brain activations, i.e. increased basal cerebral glucose metabolism, in several reward-related brain regions including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the caudate and putamen. The lack of differences in insulin sensitivity index and body weight suggests that the observed differences in basal brain glucose metabolism are not related to differences in peripheral insulin sensitivity and weight gain. The differences in basal brain metabolism in reward-related brain areas suggest the onset of cerebral functional alterations induced by chronic consumption of dietary sugars. Further studies should explore the underlying mechanisms, such as the availability of intestinal and brain sugar transporter, or the appearance of addictive-like behavioral

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF THYROID FUNCTION AND BONE TURNOVER ON LIPOPROTEIN PROFILE IN YOUNG PHYSICALLY ACTIVE MEN WITH DIFFERENT INSULIN SENSITIVITY

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    A. Kęska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity induces changes in the endocrine system. Previous data indicated that changes in insulin secretion and the tissue response to this hormone are very important for energy metabolism. It is believed that they are accompanied by changes in lipid metabolism, but factors contributing to this process are still disputed. The aim of this study was to assess interactions among insulin sensitivity, thyroid function, a bone turnover marker and serum lipid profile in young physically active men. Eighty-seven physical education students, aged 18-23 years, participated in the study. We measured serum levels of glucose, lipids, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, osteocalcin and anthropometric parameters. Insulin sensitivity was determined using homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344 was used to divide the study population into Group A (above the median and Group B (below the median. Men from both groups did not differ in anthropometric parameters or in daily physical activity. Triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels were higher in Group A (P<0.05. TSH and osteocalcin levels were similar in males with different HOMA-IR. Multiple regression analysis for TSH and osteocalcin showed that in Group A these hormones had no effect on plasma lipoproteins. However, in Group B they significantly determined the variation of plasma TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels (in about 28% and 29%, respectively. We concluded that TSH and osteocalcin are involved in determination of a more healthy lipid profile at a certain level of insulin sensitivity.

  8. Mediterranean diet and insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and blood pressure levels, in overweight and obese people; The Attica study

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    Zampelas Antonis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate if overweight and obese adults "close" to Mediterranean diet present better insulin, lipids profile and better pressure levels, compared to individuals close to a more Westernized diet. Methods The ATTICA study is a population-based cohort that has randomly enrolled 3042 adult men and women, stratified by age – gender, from the greater area of Athens, during 2001–2002. Of them, in this work were have studied 1762 participants with excess body weight, meaning overweight (BMI: 25–29.9 kg/m2 and obese (BMI>30 kg/m2. 1064 were men and 698 women (20–89 years old. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was assessed through a diet-score that was based on a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured and also fasting glucose, insulin and blood lipids. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA approach (glucose × insulin/22.5. Results Individuals with excess bodyweight in the highest tertile of diet score, were more insulin sensitive than those in the lowest tertile (11.4% lower HOMA, p = 0.06, had 13% lower levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.001 and 3 mmHg decrease of systolic blood pressure levels (p Conclusion Adherence to Mediterranean diet is modeslty associated with a better insulin sensitivity, lower levels of total cholesterol and lower levels of systolic blood pressure in overweight and obese subjects. This may suggest that compared to general population, the beneficial effect of this diet in cardiovascular system of excess body weight people is limited.

  9. Starvation increases insulin sensitivity and reduces juvenile hormone synthesis in mosquitoes.

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    Meritxell Perez-Hedo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interactions between the insulin signaling pathway (ISP and juvenile hormone (JH controlling reproductive trade-offs are well documented in insects. JH and insulin regulate reproductive output in mosquitoes; both hormones are involved in a complex regulatory network, in which they influence each other and in which the mosquito's nutritional status is a crucial determinant of the network's output. Previous studies reported that the insulin-TOR (target of rapamacyn signaling pathway is involved in the nutritional regulation of JH synthesis in female mosquitoes. The present studies further investigate the regulatory circuitry that controls both JH synthesis and reproductive output in response to nutrient availability. METHODS: We used a combination of diet restriction, RNA interference (RNAi and insulin treatments to modify insulin signaling and study the cross-talk between insulin and JH in response to starvation. JH synthesis was analyzed using a newly developed assay utilizing fluorescent tags. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that starvation decreased JH synthesis via a decrease in insulin signaling in the corpora allata (CA. Paradoxically, starvation-induced up regulation of insulin receptor transcripts and therefore "primed" the gland to respond rapidly to increases in insulin levels. During this response to starvation the synthetic potential of the CA remained unaffected, and the gland rapidly and efficiently responded to insulin stimulation by increasing JH synthesis to rates similar to those of CA from non-starved females.

  10. Short-term weight loss attenuates local tissue inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity without affecting adipose inflammation in obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Lichtman, Eben I.; Lee, Eunjung; Lawton, Elizabeth; Ong, Helena; Yu, Kristine; Azuma, Yoshihiro; Friedline, Randall H; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jason K.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance, and weight loss is shown to improve glucose homeostasis. But the underlying mechanism and the role of inflammation remain unclear. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 wk. After HFD, weight loss was induced by changing to a low-fat diet (LFD) or exercise with continuous HFD. The weight loss effects on energy balance and insulin sensitivity were determined using metabolic cages and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps in awake mi...

  11. Effects of Native Banana Starch Supplementation on Body Weight and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Type 2 Diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Díaz-Zagoya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness. The effects of native banana starch (NBS and soy milk (control on body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetics were compared using a blind within-subject crossover design. Subjects undertook two phases of 4-week supplementation either with NBS or soy milk. Patients on NBS lost more body weight than when they were on control treatment. Plasma insulin and HOMA-I were reduced after NBS consumption, compared with baseline levels, but not significantly when compared to the control treatment. Results support the use of NBS as part of dietary fiber supplementation.