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Sample records for vivo initial studies

  1. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M [Department of Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: R.Lopata@cukz.umcn.nl

    2010-02-21

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve ({delta}p: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy ({delta}p = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  2. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L; Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M; Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B; Kapusta, L

    2010-01-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  3. The correlation of in vivo and ex vivo tissue dielectric properties to validate electromagnetic breast imaging: initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, Ryan J; Zhou, Tian; Meaney, Paul M; Hartov, Alex; Barth, Richard J Jr; Rosenkranz, Kari M; Wells, Wendy A; Kogel, Christine A; Borsic, Andrea; Rizzo, Elizabeth J; Paulsen, Keith D

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) breast imaging provides low-cost, safe and potentially a more specific modality for cancer detection than conventional imaging systems. A primary difficulty in validating these EM imaging modalities is that the true dielectric property values of the particular breast being imaged are not readily available on an individual subject basis. Here, we describe our initial experience in seeking to correlate tomographic EM imaging studies with discrete point spectroscopy measurements of the dielectric properties of breast tissue. The protocol we have developed involves measurement of in vivo tissue properties during partial and full mastectomy procedures in the operating room (OR) followed by ex vivo tissue property recordings in the same locations in the excised tissue specimens in the pathology laboratory immediately after resection. We have successfully applied all of the elements of this validation protocol in a series of six women with cancer diagnoses. Conductivity and permittivity gauged from ex vivo samples over the frequency range 100 Hz–8.5 GHz are found to be similar to those reported in the literature. A decrease in both conductivity and permittivity is observed when these properties are gauged from ex vivo samples instead of in vivo. We present these results in addition to a case study demonstrating how discrete point spectroscopy measurements of the tissue can be correlated and used to validate EM imaging studies

  4. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, R. G. P.; Nillesen, M. M.; Verrijp, C. N.; Singh, S. K.; Lammens, M. M. Y.; van der Laak, J. A. W. M.; van Wetten, H. B.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2010-02-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  5. Root canals decontamination by coherent photons initiated photoacustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants: an ex-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, E.; Genovese, C.; Scolaro, C.; Cutroneo, M.; Tempera, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of coherent photon initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants using an Er:YAG laser equipped with a newly designed, stripped and tapered, tip in extracted teeth with infected root canals. One hundred-forty-eight single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared using a rotary abrasive instrument providing a root channel with a suitable size. The samples were sterilized and all teeth except ten (negative control group) were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated in a CO2 chamber at 37°C for 15 days in Eppendorff tubes filled with trypticase soy broth medium changed every 2 days. Infected teeth were then randomly divided into 4 test groups (n=32 for each): pulsed erbium:YAG laser at non-ablative settings for 30 seconds with sterile bi-distilled water (Group A) or 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group B); without laser activated sterile bi-distilled water irrigation for 30 seconds (Group C) or 5% NaOCl irrigation for 30 seconds (Group D); the positive control group received no treatment in infected teeth (n=10). Colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted from bacteriologic samples taken before (S1) and after treatment (S2). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison tests. CFU counts were significantly lower in groups B and D than in group C (P0.05). None of the four groups predictably generated negative samples. Under the conditions of this ex vivo study, statistically significant difference wasn't found in planktonic bacteria reduction between the laser and NaOCl or NaOCl alone groups.

  6. In vitro and in vivo study of commercial calcium phosphate cement HydroSet™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Niall W; Blunn, Gordon; Karpukhina, Natalia; Davis, Graham; de Godoy, Roberta Ferro; Wilson, Rory M; Coathup, Melanie; Onwordi, Lyris; Quak, Wen Yu; Hill, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The commercial calcium phosphate cement, HydroSet™, was investigated in vitro, studying phase formation, compressive strength and setting time, followed by an ovine in vivo study to measure osseointegration, bone apposition and bone-to-graft contact. The X-ray diffraction and 31 P Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) results showed the initial formation of octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite at one hour. Over 7 days the octacalcium phosphate transformed to apatite, which was the only crystalline phase of the cement at 28 days. This apatite phase is thought to be a calcium deficient apatite. In the scanning electron microscopy, histological images of 12-week ovine in vivo results showed a high degree of osseointegration, 92.5%. Compressive strength comparisons between in vitro and in vivo measurements showed a dramatic difference between the in vitro measurements (highest 25.4 MPa) and in vivo (95 MPa), attributed to bone ingrowth into the cement in vivo. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time phase evolution of HydroSet™ and the properties studied in vitro complement the in vivo evaluation of the cement in a publication. The significance of the new finding of initial formation of octacalcium phosphate in this cement is discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 21-30, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Microvascular changes during acne lesion initiation and scarring is revealed in vivo using optical microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Li, Yuandong; Choi, Woo J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-02-01

    Acne is a common skin disease in society and often leads to scarring. In this paper, we demonstrate the capabilities of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in detecting specific features of acne lesion initiation and scarring on human facial skin in vivo over 30 days. Optical microangiography (OMAG) technique made it possible to image 3D tissue microvasculature changes up to 1 mm depth in vivo without the need of exogenous contrast agents in ~10 seconds. The presented results show promise to facilitate clinical trials of treatment and prognosis of acne vulgaris by detecting cutaneous microvasculature and structural changes within human skin in vivo.

  8. Initial study on in vivo conductivity mapping of breast cancer using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaewook; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Joonsung; Nam, Yoonho; Kim, Min-Oh; Choi, Narae; Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    To develop and apply a method to measure in vivo electrical conductivity values using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in subjects with breast cancer. A recently developed technique named MREPT (MR electrical properties tomography) together with a novel coil combination process was used to quantify the conductivity values. The overall technique was validated using a phantom study. In addition, 90 subjects were imaged (50 subjects with previously biopsy-confirmed breast tumor and 40 normal subjects), which was approved by our institutional review board (IRB). A routine clinical protocol, specifically a T2 -weighted FSE (fast spin echo) imaging data, was used for reconstruction of conductivity. By employing the coil combination, the relative error in the conductivity map was reduced from ~70% to 10%. The average conductivity values in breast cancers regions (0.89 ± 0.33S/m) was higher compared to parenchymal tissue (0.43 S/m, P conductivity compared to benign cases (0.56 S/m, n = 5) (P conductivity compared to in situ cancers (0.57 S/m) (P conductivity mapping of breast cancers is feasible using a noninvasive in vivo MREPT technique combined with a coil combination process. The method may provide a tool in the MR diagnosis of breast cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Root canals decontamination by coherent photons initiated photoacustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants: an ex-vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedullà, E; Rapisarda, E; Genovese, C; Tempera, G; Scolaro, C; Cutroneo, M; Torrisi, L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of coherent photon initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants using an Er:YAG laser equipped with a newly designed, stripped and tapered, tip in extracted teeth with infected root canals. One hundred-forty-eight single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared using a rotary abrasive instrument providing a root channel with a suitable size. The samples were sterilized and all teeth except ten (negative control group) were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated in a CO 2 chamber at 37°C for 15 days in Eppendorff tubes filled with trypticase soy broth medium changed every 2 days. Infected teeth were then randomly divided into 4 test groups (n=32 for each): pulsed erbium:YAG laser at non-ablative settings for 30 seconds with sterile bi-distilled water (Group A) or 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group B); without laser activated sterile bi-distilled water irrigation for 30 seconds (Group C) or 5% NaOCl irrigation for 30 seconds (Group D); the positive control group received no treatment in infected teeth (n=10). Colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted from bacteriologic samples taken before (S1) and after treatment (S2). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison tests. CFU counts were significantly lower in groups B and D than in group C (P<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference between Group A and C (P<0.001). Group B showed the highest CFU reduction, which was significantly greater than that evident in groups A or C (P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between group B and D (P>0.05). None of the four groups predictably generated negative samples. Under the conditions of this ex vivo study, statistically significant difference wasn't found in planktonic bacteria reduction between the laser and NaOCl or NaOCl alone groups.

  10. Disruption of in vivo chronic lymphocytic leukemia tumor-microenvironment interactions by ibrutinib - findings from an investigator initiated phase 2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Carsten U; Herman, Sarah E M; Maric, Irina

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells depend on microenvironmental interactions for proliferation and survival that are at least partially mediated through B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, disrupts BCR signaling and leads to the egress...... of tumor cells from the microenvironment. While the on-target effects on CLL cells are well defined, the impact on the microenvironment is less well studied. We therefore sought to characterize the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on the tumor microenvironment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients received single...... agent ibrutinib on an investigator-initiated phase 2 trial. Serial blood and tissue samples were collected pre-treatment and during treatment. Changes in cytokine levels, cellular subsets and microenvironmental interactions were assessed. RESULTS: Serum levels of key chemokines and inflammatory...

  11. Flat panel computed tomography of human ex vivo heart and bone specimens: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaou, Konstantin; Becker, Christoph R.; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Flohr, Thomas; Stierstorfer, Karl [CT Division, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this technical investigation was the detailed description of a prototype flat panel detector computed tomography system (FPCT) and its initial evaluation in an ex vivo setting. The prototype FPCT scanner consists of a conventional radiographic flat panel detector, mounted on a multi-slice CT scanner gantry. Explanted human ex vivo heart and foot specimens were examined. Images were reformatted with various reconstruction algorithms and were evaluated for high-resolution anatomic information. For comparison purposes, the ex vivo specimens were also scanned with a conventional 16-detector-row CT scanner (Sensation 16, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany). With the FPCT prototype used, a 1,024 x 768 resolution matrix can be obtained, resulting in an isotropic voxel size of 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.25 mm at the iso-center. Due to the high spatial resolution, very small structures such as trabecular bone or third-degree, distal branches of coronary arteries could be visualized. This first evaluation showed that flat panel detector systems can be used in a cone-beam computed tomography scanner and that very high spatial resolutions can be achieved. However, there are limitations for in vivo use due to constraints in low contrast resolution and slow scan speed. (orig.)

  12. Initial studies on the variations of load-displacement curves of in vivo human healthy heel pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Virga, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify on the measurement variation of in vivo load-displacement curves by using a group of human healthy heel pads. The recordings were done with a compression device measuring force and displacement. Twenty three heel pads, one from each of 23 subjects aged 20...

  13. The effect of radiofrequency ablation on different organs: Ex vivo and in vivo comparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Na [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyunchul, E-mail: rhimhc@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil; Kim, Young-sun; Lee, Min Woo; Chang, Ilsoo; Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Hyo K. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purposes of this study are to evaluate the ex vivo and in vivo efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on different porcine tissues by the ablation of three different sites simultaneously. Materials and methods: A multichannel RFA system, enables three separate tumors to be ablated simultaneously, was used. RFA procedures were applied to normal porcine liver, kidney, and muscle together ex vivo (n = 12) and in vivo (n = 17). Pre-impedances, defined as baseline systemic impedances of tissues before beginning RFA, and the areas of ablation zones were measured and compared. Results: The areas of ablation zones among three organs had a significant difference in decreasing order as follows: liver, muscle, and kidney in the ex vivo study (p = 0.001); muscle, liver, and kidney in the in vivo study (p < 0.0001). The areas of ablation zones between ex vivo and in vivo had a significant difference in the liver and muscle (each p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the areas of ablation zones and pre-impedances in both studies. Conclusions: Renal RFA produced the smallest ablation zone in both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Muscular RFA demonstrated the largest ablation zone in the in vivo study, and hepatic RFA showed the largest ablation zone in the ex vivo study. This variability in the tissues should be considered for performing an optimized RFA for each organ site.

  14. In Vivo Loss of Function Screening Reveals Carbonic Anhydrase IX as a Key Modulator of Tumor Initiating Potential in Primary Pancreatic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabendu Pore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of energy metabolism is one of the emerging hallmarks of cancer. Up-regulation of energy metabolism pathways fuels cell growth and division, a key characteristic of neoplastic disease, and can lead to dependency on specific metabolic pathways. Thus, targeting energy metabolism pathways might offer the opportunity for novel therapeutics. Here, we describe the application of a novel in vivo screening approach for the identification of genes involved in cancer metabolism using a patient-derived pancreatic xenograft model. Lentiviruses expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs targeting 12 different cell surface protein transporters were separately transduced into the primary pancreatic tumor cells. Transduced cells were pooled and implanted into mice. Tumors were harvested at different times, and the frequency of each shRNA was determined as a measure of which ones prevented tumor growth. Several targets including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX, monocarboxylate transporter 4, and anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system (xCT were identified in these studies and shown to be required for tumor initiation and growth. Interestingly, CAIX was overexpressed in the tumor initiating cell population. CAIX expression alone correlated with a highly tumorigenic subpopulation of cells. Furthermore, CAIX expression was essential for tumor initiation because shRNA knockdown eliminated the ability of cells to grow in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first parallel in vivo assessment of multiple novel oncology target genes using a patient-derived pancreatic tumor model.

  15. Correlation between Initial BIC and the Insertion Torque/Depth Integral Recorded with an Instantaneous Torque-Measuring Implant Motor: An in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capparé, Paolo; Vinci, Raffaele; Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Traini, Tonino; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Gastaldi, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative intraoperative evaluation of bone quality at implant placement site and postinsertion implant primary stability assessment are two key parameters to perform implant-supported rehabilitation properly. A novel micromotor has been recently introduced allowing to measure bone density at implant placement site and to record implant insertion-related parameters, such as the instantaneous, average and peak insertion torque values, and the insertion torque/depth integral. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo if any correlation existed between initial bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone density and integral values recorded with the instrument. Twenty-five patients seeking for implant-supported rehabilitation of edentulous areas were consecutively treated. Before implant placement, bone density at the insertion site was measured. For each patient, an undersized 3.3 × 8-mm implant was placed, recording the insertion torque/depth integral values. After 15 minutes, the undersized implant was retrieved with a 0.5 mm-thick layer of bone surrounding it. Standard implants were consequently placed. Retrieved implants were analyzed for initial BIC quantification after fixation, dehydration, acrylic resin embedment, sections cutting and grinding, and toluidine-blue and acid fuchsine staining. Correlation between initial BIC values, bone density at the insertion site, and the torque/depth integral values was investigated by linear regression analysis. A significant linear correlation was found to exist between initial BIC and (a) bone density at the insertion site (R = 0.96, explained variance R(2)  = 0.92) and (b) torque/depth integral at placement (R = 0.81, explained variance R(2)  = 0.66). The system provided quantitative, reliable data correlating significantly with immediate postinsertion initial BIC, and could therefore represent a valuable tool both for clinical research and for the oral implantologist in his/her daily clinical

  16. Algorithm optimization for multitined radiofrequency ablation: comparative study in ex vivo and in vivo bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Liat; Sosna, Jacob; Pearson, Robert; Perez, Sarah; Nissenbaum, Yizhak; Mertyna, Pawel; Libson, Eugene; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2010-02-01

    To prospectively optimize multistep algorithms for largest available multitined radiofrequency (RF) electrode system in ex vivo and in vivo tissues, to determine best energy parameters to achieve large predictable target sizes of coagulation, and to compare these algorithms with manufacturer's recommended algorithms. Institutional animal care and use committee approval was obtained for the in vivo portion of this study. Ablation (n = 473) was performed in ex vivo bovine liver; final tine extension was 5-7 cm. Variables in stepped-deployment RF algorithm were interrogated and included initial current ramping to 105 degrees C (1 degrees C/0.5-5.0 sec), the number of sequential tine extensions (2-7 cm), and duration of application (4-12 minutes) for final two to three tine extensions. Optimal parameters to achieve 5-7 cm of coagulation were compared with recommended algorithms. Optimal settings for 5- and 6-cm final tine extensions were confirmed in in vivo perfused bovine liver (n = 14). Multivariate analysis of variance and/or paired t tests were used. Mean RF ablation zones of 5.1 cm +/- 0.2 (standard deviation), 6.3 cm +/- 0.4, and 7 cm +/- 0.3 were achieved with 5-, 6-, and 7-cm final tine extensions in a mean of 19.5 min +/- 0.5, 27.9 min +/- 6, and 37.1 min +/- 2.3, respectively, at optimal settings. With these algorithms, size of ablation at 6- and 7-cm tine extension significantly increased from mean of 5.4 cm +/- 0.4 and 6.1 cm +/- 0.6 (manufacturer's algorithms) (P mean diameter in specified time: 5.5 cm +/- 0.4 in 18.5 min +/- 0.5 (5-cm extensions) and 5.7 cm +/- 0.2 in 21.2 min +/- 0.6 (6-cm extensions). Large zones of coagulation of 5-7 cm can be created with optimized RF algorithms that help reduce number of tine extensions compared with manufacturer's recommendations. Such algorithms are likely to facilitate the utility of these devices for RF ablation of focal tumors in clinical practice. (c) RSNA, 2010.

  17. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented

  18. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented.

  19. Effects of single injection of local anesthetic agents on intervertebral disc degeneration: ex vivo and long-term in vivo experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Analgesic discography (discoblock can be used to diagnose or treat discogenic low back pain by injecting a small amount of local anesthetics. However, recent in vitro studies have revealed cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on intervertebral disc (IVD cells. Here we aimed to investigate the deteriorative effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on rabbit IVDs using an organotypic culture model and an in vivo long-term follow-up model.For the organotypic culture model, rabbit IVDs were harvested and cultured for 3 or 7 days after intradiscal injection of local anesthetics (1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Nucleus pulposus (NP cell death was measured using confocal microscopy. Histological and TUNEL assays were performed. For in vivo study, each local anesthetic was injected into rabbit lumbar IVDs under a fluoroscope. Six or 12 months after the injection, each IVD was prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analysis.In the organotypic culture model, both anesthetic agents induced time-dependent NP cell death; when compared with injected saline solution, significant effects were detected within 7 days. Compared with the saline group, TUNEL-positive NP cells were significantly increased in the bupivacaine group. In the in vivo study, MRI analysis did not show any significant difference. Histological analysis revealed that IVD degeneration occurred to a significantly level in the saline- and local anesthetics-injected groups compared with the untreated control or puncture-only groups. However, there was no significant difference between the saline and anesthetic agents groups.In the in vivo model using healthy IVDs, there was no strong evidence to suggest that discoblock with local anesthetics has the potential of inducing IVD degeneration other than the initial mechanical damage of the pressurized injection. Further studies should be performed to investigate the deteriorative effects of the local injection of analgesic agents

  20. MRI-controlled interstitial ultrasound brain therapy: An initial in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Djin, W. Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Lipsman, Nir; Bronskill, Michael; Schwartz, Michael; Kucharczyk, Walter; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-11-01

    The recent emergence at the clinical level of minimally-invasive focal therapy such as laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) has demonstrated promise in the management of brain metastasis [1], although control over the spatial pattern of heating is limited. Delivery of HIFU from minimally-invasive applicators enables high spatial control of the heat deposition in biological tissues, large treatment volumes and high treatment rate in well chosen conditions [2,3]. In this study, the feasibility of MRI-guided interstitial ultrasound therapy in brain was studies in-vivo in a porcine model. A prototype system originally developed for transurethral ultrasound therapy [4,5,6] was used in this study. Two burr holes of 12 mm in diameter were created in the animal's skull to allow the insertion of the therapeutic ultrasound applicator (probe) into the brain at two locations (right and left frontal lobe). A 4-element linear ultrasound transducer (f = 8 MHz) was mounted at the tip of a 25-cm linear probe (6 mm in diameter). The target boundary was traced to cover in 2D a surface compatible with the treatment of a 2 cm brain tumor. Acoustic power of each element and rotation rate of the device were adjusted in real-time based on MR-thermometry feedback control to optimize heat deposition at the target boundary [2,4,5]. Two MRT-controlled ultrasound brain treatments per animal have been performed using a maximal surface acoustic power of 10W.cm-2. In all cases, it was possible to increase accurately the temperature of the brain tissues in the targeted region over the 55°C threshold necessary for the creation of irreversible thermal lesion. Tissue changes were visible on T1w contrast-enhanced images immediately after treatment. These changes were also evident on T2w FSE images taken 2 hours after the 1st treatment and correlated well with the temperature image. On average, the targeted volume was 4.7 ± 2.3 cm3 and the 55°C treated volume was 6.7 ± 4.4 cm3. The volumetric

  1. Study of the mineralization of coral implanted in vivo by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irigaray, J.L.; Sauvage, T.; Oudadesse, H.; El Fadl, H.

    1993-01-01

    Coral may be used as a substitution biomaterial to the bone graft, due to its physico-chemical and architectural properties. The coral, after its implantation 'in vivo' reaches a mineral composition and crystalline structure comparable to those of a bone. The calcification mechanism of this implant is studied using 45 Ca as radioactive tracer. The atomic elements contained in the initial coral were analysed in function of the time spent in the body, by marking the calcium and the strontium contained in its structure. (K.A.) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Preparation, Characterization and in Vivo Antimycobacterial Studies of Panchovillin-Chitosan Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rwegasila

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CS, molecular weight 20.2 kDa, degree of deacylation (DD 73.31% was successfully obtained by deacetylation of chitin extracted from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei shell wastes. The encapsulation of the bioactive natural product, panchovillin (PANV, isolated from Erythrina schliebenii, on a chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP nano-framework was achieved by ionotropic gelation. Characterization of pure CS, CS/TPP and PANV-CS/TPP nanocomposites was performed by FTIR, SEM and XRD. The molecular weight of chitosan and the thermal stability of the materials were determined by MALDI-TOF-MS and simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA/DTG, respectively. The respective encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the PANV were found to be 70% and 0.36%. The in vitro release studies showed an initial burst of 42% of PANV in the first six hours. This was followed by a slow and sustained release up to 72 h. The in vivo antimycobacterial activities of both PANV and PANV-CS/TPP nanocomposite against Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP using Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo infection model are reported in this paper.

  3. High-powered microwave ablation with a small-gauge, gas-cooled antenna: initial ex vivo and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubner, Meghan G; Hinshaw, J Louis; Andreano, Anita; Sampson, Lisa; Lee, Fred T; Brace, Christopher L

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of a gas-cooled, high-powered microwave system. Investigators performed 54 ablations in ex vivo bovine livers using three devices-a single 17-gauge cooled radiofrequency(RF) electrode; a cluster RF electrode; and a single 17-gauge, gas-cooled microwave (MW) antenna-at three time points (n = 6 at 4 minutes, 12 minutes, and 16 minutes). RF power was applied using impedance-based pulsing with maximum 200 W generator output. MW power of 135 W at 2.45 GHz was delivered continuously. An approved in vivo study was performed using 13 domestic pigs. Hepatic ablations were performed using single applicators and the above-mentioned MW and RF generator systems at treatment times of 2 minutes (n = 7 MW, n = 6 RF), 5 minutes (n = 23 MW, n = 8 RF), 7 minutes (n = 11 MW, n = 6 RF), and 10 minutes (n = 7 MW, n = 9 RF). Mean transverse diameter and length of the ablation zones were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc t tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Single ex vivo MW ablations were larger than single RF ablations at all time points (MW mean diameter range 3.5-4.8 cm 4-16 minutes; RF mean diameter range 2.6-3.1 cm 4-16 minutes) (P generation of large ablation zones in short times. Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, exerts in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity against hepatocellular carcinoma by initiating a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Lu, M.L.; Dai, H.L.; Zhang, S.P.; Wang, H.X.; Wei, N.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity of esculetin against hepatocellular carcinoma, and clarified its potential molecular mechanisms. Cell viability was determined by the MTT (tetrazolium) colorimetric assay. In vivo antitumor activity of esculetin was evaluated in a hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model. Seventy-five C57BL/6J mice were implanted with Hepa1-6 cells and randomized into five groups (n=15 each) given daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (physiological saline), esculetin (200, 400, or 700 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ), or 5-Fu (200 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 15 days. Esculetin significantly decreased tumor growth in mice bearing Hepa1-6 cells. Tumor weight was decreased by 20.33, 40.37, and 55.42% with increasing doses of esculetin. Esculetin significantly inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and with an IC 50 value of 2.24 mM. It blocked the cell cycle at S phase and induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells with significant elevation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, but did not affect caspase-8 activity. Moreover, esculetin treatment resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro and in vivo accompanied by increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Thus, esculetin exerted in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity in hepatocellular carcinoma, and its mechanisms involved initiation of a mitochondrial-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway

  5. Correlation of In Vivo Versus In Vitro Benchmark Doses (BMDs) Derived From Micronucleus Test Data: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; Fellows, Mick D; Johnson, George E; Slob, Wout

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we explored the applicability of using in vitro micronucleus (MN) data from human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to derive in vivo genotoxicity potency information. Nineteen chemicals covering a broad spectrum of genotoxic modes of action were tested in an in vitro MN test using TK6 cells using the same study protocol. Several of these chemicals were considered to need metabolic activation, and these were administered in the presence of S9. The Benchmark dose (BMD) approach was applied using the dose-response modeling program PROAST to estimate the genotoxic potency from the in vitro data. The resulting in vitro BMDs were compared with previously derived BMDs from in vivo MN and carcinogenicity studies. A proportional correlation was observed between the BMDs from the in vitro MN and the BMDs from the in vivo MN assays. Further, a clear correlation was found between the BMDs from in vitro MN and the associated BMDs for malignant tumors. Although these results are based on only 19 compounds, they show that genotoxicity potencies estimated from in vitro tests may result in useful information regarding in vivo genotoxic potency, as well as expected cancer potency. Extension of the number of compounds and further investigation of metabolic activation (S9) and of other toxicokinetic factors would be needed to validate our initial conclusions. However, this initial work suggests that this approach could be used for in vitro to in vivo extrapolations which would support the reduction of animals used in research (3Rs: replacement, reduction, and refinement). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  6. Integrity and stability of oral liposomes containing bile salts studied in simulated and ex vivo gastrointestinal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shunwen; Niu, Mengmeng; Hu, Fuqiang; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Yin, Zongning; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-30

    The objective of this study was to investigate the integrtity and stability of oral liposomes containing glycocholate (SGC-Lip) in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media and ex vivo GI media from rats in comparison with conventional liposomes (CH-Lip) composed of soybean phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Membrane integrity of liposomes was evaluated by monitoring calcein release, particle size and distribution in different simulated GI media. The stability of liposomes encapsulating insulin was investigated in simulated GI fluids containing pepsin or pancreatin and ex vivo GI enzyme fluids. Simulated GI media with low pH or physiological bile salts resulted in significant increase in calcein release, but dynamic laser scattering data showed that the size and distribution were generally stable. SGC-Lip retained the major amount of the initially encapsulated insulin as compared with CH-Lip in simulated GI fluids (SGF, FaSSGF, SIF and FeSSIF-V2). SGC-Lip retained respectively 17.1% and 20.5% of the initially encapsulated insulin in ex vivo GI fluid, which were also significantly more than CH-Lip. These results suggested that SGC-Lip could protect insulin from degradation to some degree during their transit through the gastrointestinal tract and contributed to enhanced oral absorption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 915 MHz microwave ablation with implanted internal cooled-shaft antenna: Initial experimental study in in vivo porcine livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zhigang; Xiao Qiujin; Wang Yang; Sun Yuanyuan; Lu Tong; Liang Ping

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore a preferred power output for further clinical application based on the ablated lesions induced by the four power outputs of 915 MHz microwave in experimental study of in vivo porcine livers. Materials and methods: A KY2000-915 microwave ablation system with an implanted 915 MHz internal cooled-shaft antenna was used in this study. A total of 24 ablations were performed in eight in vivo porcine livers. The energy was applied for 10 min at microwave output powers of 50 W, 60 W, 70 W, and 80 W. Long-axis and short-axis diameters of the coagulation zone were measured on all gross specimens. Results: The shapes of the 915 MHz microwave ablation lesions were elliptical commonly. As the power increased, the long-axis and short-axis diameters of the coagulation zone had a tendency to rise. But the long-axis diameter of the ablated lesion at 50 W was not significantly smaller than that of the ablated lesion at 60 W (P > 0.05) and there were no statistical differences in short-axis diameters of the ablated lesion among the three power outputs of 60 W, 70 W and 80 W (P > 0.05). After 10 min irradiation of 60 W, the long-axis and short-axis diameters of the coagulation zone were 5.02 ± 0.60 cm and 3.65 ± 0.46 cm, respectively. Conclusions: For decreasing the undesired damages of liver tissues along the shaft and the number of antenna in further clinically percutaneous microwave ablation treatment, the power of 60 W may be a preferred setting among the four power outputs used in present study.

  8. Dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fabián; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms of action potential generation is critical to establish the way neural circuits generate and coordinate activity. Accordingly, we investigated the dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) using in vivo intracellular recordings in cats in order to preserve anatomically-intact axo-dendritic distributions and naturally-occurring spatiotemporal patterns of synaptic activity in this structure that regulates the thalamic relay to neocortex. We found a wide operational range of voltage thresholds for action potentials, mostly due to intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and not synaptic activity driven by network oscillations. Varying levels of synchronous synaptic inputs produced fast rates of membrane potential depolarization preceding the action potential onset that were associated with lower thresholds and increased excitability, consistent with TRN neurons performing as coincidence detectors. On the other hand the presence of action potentials preceding any given spike was associated with more depolarized thresholds. The phase-plane trajectory of the action potential showed somato-dendritic propagation, but no obvious axon initial segment component, prominent in other neuronal classes and allegedly responsible for the high onset speed. Overall, our results suggest that TRN neurons could flexibly integrate synaptic inputs to discharge action potentials over wide voltage ranges, and perform as coincidence detectors and temporal integrators, supported by a dynamic action potential threshold.

  9. Digital Radiography for Determination of Primary Tooth Length: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Basso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Methods for determining the root canal length of the primary tooth should yield accurate and reproducible results. In vitro studies show some limitations, which do not allow their findings to be directly transferred to a clinical situation. Aim. To compare the accuracy of radiographic tooth length obtained from in vivo digital radiograph with that obtained from ex vivo digital radiograph. Method. Direct digital radiographs of 20 upper primary incisors were performed in teeth (2/3 radicular resorption that were radiographed by an intraoral sensor, according to the long-cone technique. Teeth were extracted, measured, and mounted in a resin block, and then radiographic template was used to standardise the sensor-target distance (30 cm. The apparent tooth length (APTL was obtained from the computer screen by means of an electronic ruler accompanying the digital radiography software (CDR 2.0, whereas the actual tooth length (ACTL was obtained by means of a digital calliper following extraction. Data were compared to the ACTL by variance analysis and Pearson’s correlation test. Results. The values for APTL obtained from in vivo radiography were slightly underestimated, whereas those values obtained from ex vivo were slightly overestimated. No significance was observed (P≤0.48 between APTL and ACTL. Conclusion. The length of primary teeth estimated by in vivo and ex vivo comparisons using digital radiography was found to be similar to the actual tooth length.

  10. Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, exerts in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity against hepatocellular carcinoma by initiating a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity of esculetin against hepatocellular carcinoma, and clarified its potential molecular mechanisms. Cell viability was determined by the MTT (tetrazolium colorimetric assay. In vivo antitumor activity of esculetin was evaluated in a hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model. Seventy-five C57BL/6J mice were implanted with Hepa1-6 cells and randomized into five groups (n=15 each given daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (physiological saline, esculetin (200, 400, or 700 mg·kg-1·day-1, or 5-Fu (200 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 15 days. Esculetin significantly decreased tumor growth in mice bearing Hepa1-6 cells. Tumor weight was decreased by 20.33, 40.37, and 55.42% with increasing doses of esculetin. Esculetin significantly inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and with an IC50 value of 2.24 mM. It blocked the cell cycle at S phase and induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells with significant elevation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, but did not affect caspase-8 activity. Moreover, esculetin treatment resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro and in vivo accompanied by increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Thus, esculetin exerted in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity in hepatocellular carcinoma, and its mechanisms involved initiation of a mitochondrial-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway.

  11. The relevance of cell transformation to carcinogenesis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Despite the caveats concerning rodent as opposed to human cell transformation systems, the author concludes there are several areas in which cell transformation studies with rodent cells have shown clear relevance to carcinogenesis in vivo, especially studies of carcinogenic effects of high LET radiation, particularly dependence on dose rate. In vitro studies firmly established the generality of promotion by phorbol esters tumour promotors. Initial studies on suppression of transformation, notably by protease inhibitors, has led to the confirmation of this phenomenon in in vivo carcinogenesis; development of inhibitor preparations from natural sources suitable for long-term supplementation in human diet, is under investigation. The potential importance of these modifiers is further emphasized by mechanistic studies suggesting that radiation may initiate a large fraction of exposed cell population, and expression of transformation may be controlled to a large extent by environmental conditions including the presence of promoting or suppressing agents. Finally, cell transformation systems offer the opportunity for mechanistic studies of the initial stages of carcinogenesis. Provocative results have arisen in several areas consistent with findings in experimental animals. (author)

  12. Critical considerations when planning experimental in vivo studies in dental traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Jens O; Andersson, Lars

    2011-08-01

    In vivo studies are sometimes needed to understand healing processes after trauma. For several reasons, not the least ethical, such studies have to be carefully planned and important considerations have to be taken into account about suitability of the experimental model, sample size and optimizing the accuracy of the analysis. Several manuscripts of in vivo studies are submitted for publication to Dental Traumatology and rejected because of inadequate design, methodology or insufficient documentation of the results. The authors have substantial experience in experimental in vivo studies of tissue healing in dental traumatology and share their knowledge regarding critical considerations when planning experimental in vivo studies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Study of the mineralization of coral implanted in vivo by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irigaray, J.L.; Sauvage, T.; Oudadesse, H.; El Fadl, H.; Lefaivre, J.; Barlet, J.P.; Trevers, S.; Tixer, H.

    1993-01-01

    Coral has been used for the last ten years as bone substitution in the body because of its mechanical and osteoconductor properties. Primary studies have shown, for the first time, the quantitative behaviour of the atomic components. A biocoral implanted 'in vivo' was studied by some physical method of analysis. The natural biocorals used are the calcium carbonated exoskeletons built by Madrepian coral polyps. Neutron activation analysis showed that initial coral, essentially CaCO 3 , becomes a new material which has a mineral composition close to that of bone. The calcification mechanism of this implant was studied by using radioactive tracers. The tracer kinetics of calcium biomaterial have been established in the blood circuit and its use was shown by the organism for skeleton mineralization. (author) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Rapid In Vivo Validation of Tumor Suppressor Gene Function in Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    identification of the best sgRNA sequences and accelerated our ability to move to the in vivo studies proposed in Aim2. Our goal was to use CRISPR / Cas ...and to initiate prostate cancer in the mouse after injection of lentiviral particles expressing CRISPR / Cas components and Cre recombinase. Our initial...in vivo Our goal was to use CRISPR / Cas lentiviral transduction of the adult prostate to inactivate p53 or Rb. We aimed to recapitulate the effects of

  15. EPID-based in vivo dosimetry for stereotactic body radiotherapy of non-small cell lung tumors: Initial clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consorti, R; Fidanzio, A; Brainovich, V; Mangiacotti, F; De Spirito, M; Mirri, M A; Petrucci, A

    2017-10-01

    EPID-based in vivo dosimetry (IVD) has been implemented for stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments of non-small cell lung cancer to check both isocenter dose and the treatment reproducibility comparing EPID portal images. 15 patients with lung tumors of small dimensions and treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy were enrolled for this initial experience. IVD tests supplied ratios R between in vivo reconstructed and planned isocenter doses. Moreover a γ-like analysis between daily EPID portal images and a reference one, in terms of percentage of points with γ-value smaller than 1, P γlevels of 5% for R ratio, P γlevel, and an average P γ90%. Paradigmatic discrepancies were observed in three patients: a set-up error and a patient morphological change were identified thanks to CBCT image analysis whereas the third discrepancy was not fully justified. This procedure can provide improved patient safety as well as a first step to integrate IVD and CBCT dose recalculation. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Can in vitro assays substitute for in vivo studies in assessing the pulmonary hazards of fine and nanoscale materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayes, Christie M.; Reed, Kenneth L. [DuPont Haskell Global Centers for Health and Environmental Sciences (United States); Subramoney, Shekhar; Abrams, Lloyd [DuPont Corporate Center for Analytical Services (United States); Warheit, David B., E-mail: David.B.Warheit@USA.dupont.co [DuPont Haskell Global Centers for Health and Environmental Sciences (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Risk evaluations for nanomaterials require the generation of hazard data as well as exposure assessments. Most of the validated nanotoxicity studies have been conducted using in vivo experimental designs. It would be highly desirable to develop in vitro pulmonary hazard tests to assess the toxicity of fine and nanoscale particle-types. However, in vitro evaluations for pulmonary hazards are known to have limited predictive value for identifying in vivo lung toxicity effects. Accordingly, this study investigated the capacity of in vitro screening studies to predict in vivo pulmonary toxicity of several fine or nanoparticle-types following exposures in rats. Initially, complete physicochemical characterization of particulates was conducted, both in the dry and wet states. Second, rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to 1 or 5 mg/kg of the following particle-types: carbonyl iron, crystalline silica, amorphous silica, nanoscale zinc oxide, or fine zinc oxide. Inflammation and cytotoxicity endpoints were measured at 24 h, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-instillation exposure. In addition, histopathological analyses of lung tissues were conducted at 3 months post-exposure. Pulmonary cell in vitro studies consisted of three different culture conditions at 4 different time periods. These included (1) rat L2 lung epithelial cells, (2) primary rat alveolar macrophages, and (3) alveolar macrophage-L2 lung epithelial cell co-cultures which were incubated with the same particles as tested in the in vivo study for 1, 4, 24, or 48 h. Cell culture fluids were evaluated for cytotoxicity endpoints and inflammatory cytokines at the different time periods in an attempt to match the biomarkers assessed in the in vivo study. Results of in vivo pulmonary toxicity studies demonstrated that instilled carbonyl iron particles produced little toxicity. Crystalline silica and amorphous silica particle exposures produced substantial inflammatory and cytotoxic effects initially, but

  17. Can in vitro assays substitute for in vivo studies in assessing the pulmonary hazards of fine and nanoscale materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayes, Christie M.; Reed, Kenneth L.; Subramoney, Shekhar; Abrams, Lloyd; Warheit, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Risk evaluations for nanomaterials require the generation of hazard data as well as exposure assessments. Most of the validated nanotoxicity studies have been conducted using in vivo experimental designs. It would be highly desirable to develop in vitro pulmonary hazard tests to assess the toxicity of fine and nanoscale particle-types. However, in vitro evaluations for pulmonary hazards are known to have limited predictive value for identifying in vivo lung toxicity effects. Accordingly, this study investigated the capacity of in vitro screening studies to predict in vivo pulmonary toxicity of several fine or nanoparticle-types following exposures in rats. Initially, complete physicochemical characterization of particulates was conducted, both in the dry and wet states. Second, rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to 1 or 5 mg/kg of the following particle-types: carbonyl iron, crystalline silica, amorphous silica, nanoscale zinc oxide, or fine zinc oxide. Inflammation and cytotoxicity endpoints were measured at 24 h, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-instillation exposure. In addition, histopathological analyses of lung tissues were conducted at 3 months post-exposure. Pulmonary cell in vitro studies consisted of three different culture conditions at 4 different time periods. These included (1) rat L2 lung epithelial cells, (2) primary rat alveolar macrophages, and (3) alveolar macrophage-L2 lung epithelial cell co-cultures which were incubated with the same particles as tested in the in vivo study for 1, 4, 24, or 48 h. Cell culture fluids were evaluated for cytotoxicity endpoints and inflammatory cytokines at the different time periods in an attempt to match the biomarkers assessed in the in vivo study. Results of in vivo pulmonary toxicity studies demonstrated that instilled carbonyl iron particles produced little toxicity. Crystalline silica and amorphous silica particle exposures produced substantial inflammatory and cytotoxic effects initially, but

  18. Lutein bioavailability from lutein ester-fortified fermented milk: in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Herrero-Barbudo, Carmer; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada; Pérez-Sacristán, Belén

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of lutein from lutein-fortified fermented milk using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Twenty-four volunteers were randomized to take lutein-fortified fermented milk at two levels of fortification. Single-dose bioavailability study (2x100 ml, ca. 8 or 16 mg of lutein) was performed using a three-point approach (baseline, 3.5 and 6.5 h). Multiple-dose study consisted of consuming one serving/day (ca. 4 or 8 mg/100 ml) for 14 days. Blood samples for biochemical, hematological and lutein analysis were drawn at baseline, Day 7 and Day 14. In vitro bioaccessibility was assessed by a static gastrointestinal digestion model. Lutein content, in vitro ester hydrolysis and micellarization, and lutein concentrations achieved in serum were analyzed by HPLC. In vivo, post-prandial response was higher using the high content fermented milk, but the percentage of absorption was not different according to the dose consumed. Net increments at Day 7 and Day 14 were significantly higher on consuming the high-dose milk as well. In vitro, lutein ester hydrolysis was incomplete regardless of the amount initially present. Free lutein released was higher using the high-dose fermented milk, but the percentage of hydrolysis was similar at both levels of fortification. In the micellar phase, the percentage of free and total lutein was not different according to the dose. Our results support the suitability of the fermented milk as a carrier of lutein esters and an in vivo dose-dependent effect upon regular consumption and suggest the usefulness of in vitro models to provide relevant information to predict in vivo responses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A feasibility study of in vivo applications of single beam acoustic tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 μm, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.

  20. A feasibility study of in vivo applications of single beam acoustic tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying, E-mail: yli582@usc.edu; Lee, Changyang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk [NIH Transducer Resource Center and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1111 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 μm, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.

  1. Disruption of in vivo Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Tumor-Microenvironment Interactions by Ibrutinib--Findings from an Investigator-Initiated Phase II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Carsten U; Herman, Sarah E M; Maric, Irina; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Biancotto, Angelique; Chang, Betty Y; Martyr, Sabrina; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Yuan, Constance M; Calvo, Katherine R; Braylan, Raul C; Valdez, Janet; Lee, Yuh Shan; Wong, Deanna H; Jones, Jade; Sun, Clare; Marti, Gerald E; Farooqui, Mohammed Z H; Wiestner, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells depend on microenvironmental interactions for proliferation and survival that are at least partially mediated through B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, disrupts BCR signaling and leads to the egress of tumor cells from the microenvironment. Although the on-target effects on CLL cells are well defined, the impact on the microenvironment is less well studied. We therefore sought to characterize the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on the tumor microenvironment. Patients received single-agent ibrutinib on an investigator-initiated phase II trial. Serial blood and tissue samples were collected pretreatment and during treatment. Changes in cytokine levels, cellular subsets, and microenvironmental interactions were assessed. Serum levels of key chemokines and inflammatory cytokines decreased significantly in patients on ibrutinib. Furthermore, ibrutinib treatment decreased circulating tumor cells and overall T-cell numbers. Most notably, a reduced frequency of the Th17 subset of CD4(+)T cells was observed concurrent with reduced expression of activation markers and PD-1 on T cells. Consistent with direct inhibition of T cells, ibrutinib inhibited Th17 differentiation of murine CD4(+)T cells in vitro Finally, in the bone marrow microenvironment, we found that ibrutinib disaggregated the interactions of macrophages and CLL cells, inhibited secretion of CXCL13, and decreased the chemoattraction of CLL cells. In conjunction with inhibition of BCR signaling, these changes in the tumor microenvironment likely contribute to the antitumor activity of ibrutinib and may impact the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies in patients with CLL. See related commentary by Bachireddy and Wu, p. 1547. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Nanotoxicity: the growing need for in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hans C; Chan, Warren C W

    2007-12-01

    Nanotoxicology is emerging as an important subdiscipline of nanotechnology. Nanotoxicology refers to the study of the interactions of nanostructures with biological systems with an emphasis on elucidating the relationship between the physical and chemical properties (e.g. size, shape, surface chemistry, composition, and aggregation) of nanostructures with induction of toxic biological responses. In the past five years, a majority of nanotoxicity research has focused on cell culture systems; however, the data from these studies could be misleading and will require verification from animal experiments. In vivo systems are extremely complicated and the interactions of the nanostructures with biological components, such as proteins and cells, could lead to unique biodistribution, clearance, immune response, and metabolism. An understanding of the relationship between the physical and chemical properties of the nanostructure and their in vivo behavior would provide a basis for assessing toxic response and more importantly could lead to predictive models for assessing toxicity. In this review article, we describe the assumptions and challenges in the nanotoxicity field and provide a rationale for in vivo animal studies to assess nanotoxicity.

  3. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  4. Disruption of in vivo chronic lymphocytic leukemia tumor-microenvironment interactions by ibrutinib – findings from an investigator initiated phase 2 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Carsten U.; Herman, Sarah E. M.; Maric, Irina; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Biancotto, Angelique; Chang, Betty Y.; Martyr, Sabrina; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Yuan, Constance; Calvo, Katherine R.; Braylan, Raul C.; Valdez, Janet; Lee, Yuh Shan; Wong, Deanna H.; Jones, Jade; Sun, Clare C. L.; Marti, Gerald E.; Farooqui, Mohammed Z.; Wiestner, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells depend on microenvironmental interactions for proliferation and survival that are at least partially mediated through B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Ibrutinib, a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, disrupts BCR signaling and leads to the egress of tumor cells from the microenvironment. While the on-target effects on CLL cells are well defined, the impact on the microenvironment is less well studied. We therefore sought to characterize the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on the tumor microenvironment. Experimental Design Patients received single agent ibrutinib on an investigator-initiated phase 2 trial. Serial blood and tissue samples were collected pre-treatment and during treatment. Changes in cytokine levels, cellular subsets and microenvironmental interactions were assessed. Results Serum levels of key chemokines and inflammatory cytokines decreased significantly in patients on ibrutinib. Further, ibrutinib treatment decreased circulating tumor cells and overall T cell numbers. Most notably, a reduced frequency of the Th17 subset of CD4+ T cells was observed concurrent with reduced activation markers and expression of PD-1 on T cells. Consistent with direct inhibition of T cells, ibrutinib inhibited Th17 differentiation of murine CD4+ T cells in vitro. Lastly, in the bone marrow microenvironment, we found that ibrutinib disaggregated the interactions of macrophages and CLL cells, inhibited secretion of CXCL13 and decreased the chemoattraction of CLL cells. Conclusions In conjunction with inhibition of BCR signaling, these changes in the tumor microenvironment likely contribute to the anti-tumor activity of ibrutinib and may impact the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies in patients with CLL. PMID:26660519

  5. Corneal Reinnervation and Sensation Recovery in Patients With Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: An In Vivo and Ex Vivo Study of Corneal Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat, Andrea; Hamrah, Pedram; Cavalcanti, Bernardo M; Zheng, Lixin; Colby, Kathryn; Pavan-Langston, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    To study corneal reinnervation and sensation recovery in Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). Two patients with HZO were studied over time with serial corneal esthesiometry and laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). A Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 was implanted, and the explanted corneal tissues were examined by immunofluorescence histochemistry for βIII-tubulin to stain for corneal nerves. The initial central corneal IVCM performed in each patient showed a complete lack of the subbasal nerve plexus, which was in accordance with severe loss of sensation (0 of 6 cm) measured by esthesiometry. When IVCM was repeated 2 years later before undergoing surgery, case 1 showed a persistent lack of central subbasal nerves and sensation (0 of 6). In contrast, case 2 showed regeneration of the central subbasal nerves (4786 μm/mm) with partial recovery of corneal sensation (2.5 of 6 cm). Immunostaining of the explanted corneal button in case 1 showed no corneal nerves, whereas case 2 showed central and peripheral corneal nerves. Eight months after surgery, IVCM was again repeated in the donor tissue around the Boston keratoprosthesis in both patients to study innervation of the corneal transplant. Case 1 showed no nerves, whereas case 2 showed new nerves growing from the periphery into the corneal graft. We demonstrate that regaining corneal innervation and corneal function are possible in patients with HZO as shown by corneal sensation, IVCM, and ex vivo immunostaining, indicating zoster neural damage is not always permanent and it may recover over an extended period of time.

  6. In vivo expansion of co-transplanted T cells impacts on tumor re-initiating activity of human acute myeloid leukemia in NSG mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte von Bonin

    Full Text Available Human cells from acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients are frequently transplanted into immune-compromised mouse strains to provide an in vivo environment for studies on the biology of the disease. Since frequencies of leukemia re-initiating cells are low and a unique cell surface phenotype that includes all tumor re-initiating activity remains unknown, the underlying mechanisms leading to limitations in the xenotransplantation assay need to be understood and overcome to obtain robust engraftment of AML-containing samples. We report here that in the NSG xenotransplantation assay, the large majority of mononucleated cells from patients with AML fail to establish a reproducible myeloid engraftment despite high donor chimerism. Instead, donor-derived cells mainly consist of polyclonal disease-unrelated expanded co-transplanted human T lymphocytes that induce xenogeneic graft versus host disease and mask the engraftment of human AML in mice. Engraftment of mainly myeloid cell types can be enforced by the prevention of T cell expansion through the depletion of lymphocytes from the graft prior transplantation.

  7. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gravitational physiology of human immune cells: a review of in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, A.

    1996-01-01

    The study of the function of immune cells in microgravity has been studied for more than 20 years in several laboratories. It is clear today that the immune system is depressed in more than 50% of the astronauts during and after space flight and that the activation of T lymphocytes by mitogens in vitro changes dramatically. This article gives an overview of the gravitational studies conducted by our laboratory in Spacelab, in MIR station, in sounding rockets and on the ground in the clinostat and the centrifuge. Three experimental approaches are followed in our work: (i) Ex vivo studies are performed with blood samples drawn from astronauts; (ii) in vivo studies are based on the application of seven antigens to the skin of the astronauts; (iii) in vitro studies are carried out with immune cells purified from the blood of healthy donors (not astronauts). The data from our in vivo and ex vivo studies are in agreement with those of other laboratories and show that the immunological function is depressed in the majority of astronauts as a consequence of the stress of space flight rather than by a direct influence of gravity on the cell. Immune depression may become a critical hazard on long duration flights on space stations or to other planets. In vitro experiments show that cultures of free-floating lymphocytes and monocytes undergo a dramatic depression of activation by the mitogen concanavalin A, while activation is more than doubled when the cells are attached to microcarrier beads. Such effects may be attributed to both direct and indirect effects of gravitational unloading on basic biological mechanisms of the cell. While the in vitro data are very important to clarify certain aspects of the biological mechanism of T cells activation, they are not descriptive of the changes of the immunological function of the astronauts.

  9. Two anti-angiogenic TKI-PET tracers, [11C]axitinib and [11C]nintedanib: Radiosynthesis, in vivo metabolism and initial biodistribution studies in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobbe, Paul; Poot, Alex J.; Haumann, Rianne; Schuit, Robert C.; Windhorst, Albert D.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are very attractive targeted drugs, although a large portion of patients remains unresponsive. PET imaging with EGFR targeting TKIs ([ 11 C]erlotinib and [ 18 F]afatinib) showed promise in identifying treatment sensitive tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize two anti-angiogenic TKI tracers, [ 11 C]axitinib and [ 11 C]nintedanib, and to evaluate their potential for PET. Methods: Following successful tracer synthesis, biodistribution studies in VU-SCC-OE and FaDu xenograft bearing mice were performed. Furthermore, tracer stability studies in mice were performed employing (radio-)HPLC and LC–MS/MS techniques. For [ 11 C]nintedanib an LC–MS/MS method was developed to detect the primary carboxylic acid metabolite, resulting from methylester cleavage, in plasma and tumors, because this metabolite is postulated to be important for nintedanib efficacy. LC–MS/MS was also explored to assess the metabolic fate of [ 11 C]axitinib in vivo, since axitinib has an isomerizable double bond. Results: [ 11 C]axitinib and [ 11 C]nintedanib were successfully synthesized with 10.5 ± 2.6% and 25.6 ± 3.3% radiochemical yield (corrected for decay), respectively. Biodistribution studies only demonstrated tumor uptake of [ 11 C]nintedanib in FaDu xenografts of 1.66 ± 0.02% ID/g at 60 min p.i. In vivo stability analysis of [ 11 C]axitinib at 45 min p.i. revealed the formation of predominantly non-polar metabolites (36.6 ± 6.8% vs 47.1 ± 8.4% of parent tracer and 16.3 ± 2.1% of polar metabolites), while for [ 11 C]nintedanib mostly polar metabolites were found (70.9 ± 4.1 vs 26.7 ± 3.9% of parent tracer and only 2.4 ± 1.6 of a non-polar metabolites). No isomerization of [ 11 C]axtinib was observed in vivo; however, a sulfoxide metabolite could be detected using LC–MS/MS. For [ 11 C]nintedanib, LC–MS/MS revealed formation of the reported primary carboxylic acid metabolite when in vitro plasma incubations were performed

  10. In vivo H MR spectroscopy of human brain in six normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Bo Young; Suh, Tae Suk; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1993-01-01

    In vivo H MR spectroscopic studies were performed on the human brain in six normal volunteers. Some distinct proton metabolites, such as N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr), choline/phosphocholine (Cho), myo-inositol (Ins) and lipid (fat) were clearly identified in normal brain tissue. The signal intensity of NAA resonance is strongest. The standard ratios of metabolites from the normal brain tissue in specific regions were obtained for the references of further in vivo H MR spectroscopic studies. Our initial resulting suggest the in vivo H MR spectroscopy may provide more precise diagnosis on the basis of the metabolic information on brain tissues. The unique ability of In vivo H MR spectroscopy to offer noninvasive information about tissue biochemistry in patients will stimulate its impact on clinical research and disease diagnosis

  11. Numerical study and ex vivo assessment of HIFU treatment time reduction through optimization of focal point trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, A.; Yon, S.; Pechoux, T.; Letort, V.; Lafitte, P.

    2017-03-01

    Treatment time reduction is a key issue to expand the use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery, especially for benign pathologies. This study aims at quantitatively assessing the potential reduction of the treatment time arising from moving the focal point during long pulses. In this context, the optimization of the focal point trajectory is crucial to achieve a uniform thermal dose repartition and avoid boiling. At first, a numerical optimization algorithm was used to generate efficient trajectories. Thermal conduction was simulated in 3D with a finite difference code and damages to the tissue were modeled using the thermal dose formula. Given an initial trajectory, the thermal dose field was first computed, then, making use of Pontryagin's maximum principle, the trajectory was iteratively refined. Several initial trajectories were tested. Then, an ex vivo study was conducted in order to validate the efficicency of the resulting optimized strategies. Single pulses were performed at 3MHz on fresh veal liver samples with an Echopulse and the size of each unitary lesion was assessed by cutting each sample along three orthogonal planes and measuring the dimension of the whitened area based on photographs. We propose a promising approach to significantly shorten HIFU treatment time: the numerical optimization algorithm was shown to provide a reliable insight on trajectories that can improve treatment strategies. The model must now be improved in order to take in vivo conditions into account and extensively validated.

  12. Nigrosome-1 on Susceptibility Weighted Imaging to Differentiate Parkinson’s Disease From Atypical Parkinsonism: An In Vivo and Ex Vivo Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, Frederick J.A.; Steens, Stefan C.; Rumund, Anouke van; Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie van; Küsters, Benno; Esselink, Rianne A.J.; Verbeek, Marcel M.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Goraj, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Previous case-control studies have suggested that the absence of a swallow-tail appearance in the substantia nigra on high-resolution SWI, representing nigrosome-1, has high accuracy to identify Parkinson’s disease (PD). The first goal of our study was to evaluate nigrosome-1 ex vivo using optimized high-resolution susceptibility sensitive MRI. Our second goal was to evaluate its diagnostic value in vivo using a clinical 3T SWI sequence to differentiate between PD and atypical parkinsonism (AP) in a cohort of patients with early-stage parkinsonism. Case-control pilot study to evaluate nigrosome-1 ex vivo (2 PD, 2 controls), using high-resolution susceptibility sensitive sequences at 11.7 T MRI. Next, evaluation of nigrosome-1 in vivo using a clinical 3 T SWI sequence in a prospective cohort of 60 patients with early-stage parkinsonism (39 PD, 21 AP). Moreover, 12 control subjects were scanned. The bilateral substantia nigra was evaluated by two neuroradiologists for the presence, absence or indecisive presence of nigrosome-1. The discriminative power was evaluated by Receiver-Operating Characteristic. We identified nigrosome-1 in ex vivo control subjects. Nigrosome-1 was not identified in the ex vivo PD cases. In our prospective clinical cohort study, the AUC for the swallow-tail sign to discriminate between PD and AP was 0.56 (0.41–0.71) for reader 1 and 0.68 (0.55–0.82) for reader 2. The diagnostic accuracy of the swallow-tail sign was marginal to discriminate between PD and AP using our clinical 3 T SWI sequence

  13. Qualichem in vivo: a tool for assessing the quality of in vivo studies and its application for bisphenol A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maxim

    Full Text Available In regulatory toxicology, quality assessment of in vivo studies is a critical step for assessing chemical risks. It is crucial for preserving public health studies that are considered suitable for regulating chemicals are robust. Current procedures for conducting quality assessments in safety agencies are not structured, clear or consistent. This leaves room for criticism about lack of transparency, subjective influence and the potential for insufficient protection provided by resulting safety standards. We propose a tool called "Qualichem in vivo" that is designed to systematically and transparently assess the quality of in vivo studies used in chemical health risk assessment. We demonstrate its use here with 12 experts, using two controversial studies on Bisphenol A (BPA that played an important role in BPA regulation in Europe. The results obtained with Qualichem contradict the quality assessments conducted by expert committees in safety agencies for both of these studies. Furthermore, they show that reliance on standardized guidelines to ensure scientific quality is only partially justified. Qualichem allows experts with different disciplinary backgrounds and professional experiences to express their individual and sometimes divergent views-an improvement over the current way of dealing with minority opinions. It provides a transparent framework for expressing an aggregated, multi-expert level of confidence in a study, and allows a simple graphical representation of how well the study integrates the best available scientific knowledge. Qualichem can be used to compare assessments of the same study by different health agencies, increasing transparency and trust in the work of expert committees. In addition, it may be used in systematic evaluation of in vivo studies submitted by industry in the dossiers that are required for compliance with the REACH Regulation. Qualichem provides a balanced, common framework for assessing the quality of

  14. In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickwell, E [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cole, B E [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, A J [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Pepper, M [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wallace, V P [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-07

    Studies in terahertz (THz) imaging have revealed a significant difference between skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) and healthy tissue. Since water has strong absorptions at THz frequencies and tumours tend to have different water content from normal tissue, a likely contrast mechanism is variation in water content. Thus, we have previously devised a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) model which is able to closely simulate the interaction of THz radiation with water. In this work we investigate the interaction of THz radiation with normal human skin on the forearm and palm of the hand in vivo. We conduct the first ever systematic in vivo study of the response of THz radiation to normal skin. We take in vivo reflection measurements of normal skin on the forearm and palm of the hand of 20 volunteers. We compare individual examples of THz responses with the mean response for the areas of skin under investigation. Using the in vivo data, we demonstrate that the FDTD model can be applied to biological tissue. In particular, we successfully simulate the interaction of THz radiation with the volar forearm. Understanding the interaction of THz radiation with normal skin will form a step towards developing improved imaging algorithms for diagnostic detection of skin cancer and other tissue disorders using THz radiation.

  15. In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickwell, E; Cole, B E; Fitzgerald, A J; Pepper, M; Wallace, V P

    2004-01-01

    Studies in terahertz (THz) imaging have revealed a significant difference between skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) and healthy tissue. Since water has strong absorptions at THz frequencies and tumours tend to have different water content from normal tissue, a likely contrast mechanism is variation in water content. Thus, we have previously devised a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) model which is able to closely simulate the interaction of THz radiation with water. In this work we investigate the interaction of THz radiation with normal human skin on the forearm and palm of the hand in vivo. We conduct the first ever systematic in vivo study of the response of THz radiation to normal skin. We take in vivo reflection measurements of normal skin on the forearm and palm of the hand of 20 volunteers. We compare individual examples of THz responses with the mean response for the areas of skin under investigation. Using the in vivo data, we demonstrate that the FDTD model can be applied to biological tissue. In particular, we successfully simulate the interaction of THz radiation with the volar forearm. Understanding the interaction of THz radiation with normal skin will form a step towards developing improved imaging algorithms for diagnostic detection of skin cancer and other tissue disorders using THz radiation

  16. Scandium complexes: physico-chemical study and evaluation of stability in vitro and in vivo for nuclear medicine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdjoudj, Rabha

    2014-01-01

    Among the different isotopes of Scandium that can be used in nuclear medicine may be mentioned the 47 Sc and 44 Sc. The first decays by emitting an electron associated with a 159 keV gamma can thus be used either for radiotherapy or TEMP imaging. The 44 Sc (3.97 h) decays in 94.27% in case by emitting a positron, with a γ photon energy equal to 1.157 MeV. This isotope is then an ideal candidate for applications in PET imaging. Currently, the Cyclotron of high energy and high intensity ARRONAX produce 44 Sc and co-produces the isomeric state the 44m Sc (2.44 d). The 44m Sc has properties (E(γ) = 270 keV, 98.8%), which allows to consider its use as a potential in vivo generator. Previous work had demonstrated that the DOTA ligand is most suitable and stable for Sc. This thesis aims; make in evidence the feasibility of the in vivo 44m / 44 Sc generator. Initially a procedure was optimized and validated for the production of 44m / 44 Sc with a high specific activity and chemical purity. Radiolabeling of DOTA conjugated peptides was then developed and optimized. Theoretical and experimental studies have been performed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of 44m / 44 Sc as a potential in vivo generator. Finally, in vitro stability studies on radiolabeled 44m / 44 Sc complexes were performed, followed by biodistribution studies and PET imaging. (author)

  17. The feasibility of in vivo quantification of bone-fluorine in humans by delayed neutron activation analysis: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M; Gräfe, J L; Aslam; Byun, S H; Chettle, D R; Egden, L M; Orchard, G M; Webber, C E; McNeill, F E

    2012-01-01

    Fluorine (F) plays an important role in dental health and bone formation. Many studies have shown that excess fluoride (F − ) can result in dental or skeletal fluorosis, while other studies have indicated that a proper dosage of fluoride may have a protective effect on bone fracture incidence. Fluorine is stored almost completely in the skeleton making bone an ideal site for measurement to assess long-term exposure. This paper outlines a feasibility study of a technique to measure bone-fluorine non-invasively in the human hand using in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) via the 19 F(n,γ) 20 F reaction. Irradiations were performed using the Tandetron accelerator at McMaster University. Eight NaI(Tl) detectors arranged in a 4π geometry were employed for delayed counting of the emitted 1.63 MeV gamma ray. The short 11 s half-life of 20 F presents a difficult and unique practical challenge in terms of patient irradiation and subsequent detection. We have employed two simultaneous timing methods to determine the fluorine sensitivity by eliminating the interference of the 1.64 MeV gamma ray from the 37 Cl(n,γ) 38 Cl reaction. The timing method consisted of three counting periods: an initial 30 s (sum of three 10 s periods) count period for F, followed by a 120 s decay period, and a subsequent 300 s count period to obtain information pertaining to Ca and Cl. The phantom minimum detectable limit (M DL ) determined by this method was 0.96 mg F/g Ca. The M DL was improved by dividing the initial timing period into three equal segments (10 s each) and combining the results using inverse variance weighting. This resulted in a phantom M DL of 0.66 mg F/g Ca. These detection limits are comparable to ex vivo results for various bones in the adult skeleton reported in the literature. Dosimetry was performed for these irradiation conditions. The equivalent dose for each phantom measurement was determined to be 30 mSv. The effective dose was however low, 35 µSv, which is

  18. In vivo and in vitro studies of cartilage differentiation in altered gravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montufar-Solis, D.; Duke, P. J.; D'Aunno, D.

    The in vivo model our laboratory uses for studies of cartilage differentiation in space is the rat growth plate. Differences between missions, and in rat age and recovery times, provided differing results from each mission. However, in all missions, proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate of spaceflown rats was altered as was matrix organization. In vitro systems, necessary complements to in vivo work, provide some advantages over the in vivo situation. In vitro, centrifugation of embryonic limb buds suppressed morphogenesis due to precocious differentiation, and changes in the developmental pattern suggest the involvement of Hox genes. In space, embryonic mouse limb mesenchyme cells differentiating in vitro on IML-1 had smoother membranes and lacked matrix seen in controls. Unusual formations, possibly highly ruffled membranes, were found in flight cultures. These results, coupled with in vivo centrifugation studies, show that in vivo or in vitro, the response of chondrocytes to gravitational changes follows Hert's curve as modified by Simon, i.e. decreased loading decreases differentiation, and increased loading speeds it up, but only to a point. After that, additional increases again slow down chondrogenesis.

  19. An ex vivo spinal cord injury model to study ependymal cells in adult mouse tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Zafra, Teresa; Codeluppi, Simone; Uhlén, Per

    2017-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is characterized by an initial cell loss that is followed by a concerted cellular response in an attempt to restore the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, little is known about the signaling mechanisms governing the cellular response to injury. Here, we have established an adult ex vivo system that exhibits multiple hallmarks of spinal cord injury and allows the study of complex processes that are difficult to address using animal models. We have characterized the ependymal cell response to injury in this model system and found that ependymal cells can become activated, proliferate, migrate out of the central canal lining and differentiate in a manner resembling the in vivo situation. Moreover, we show that these cells respond to external adenosine triphosphate and exhibit spontaneous Ca 2+ activity, processes that may play a significant role in the regulation of their response to spinal cord injury. This model provides an attractive tool to deepen our understanding of the ependymal cell response after spinal cord injury, which may contribute to the development of new treatment options for spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistence of DNA studied in different ex vivo and in vivo rat models simulating the human gut situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; van Hoek, A.H.A.M.; Joosten, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of DNA sequences from genetically modified plants to persist in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. PCR analysis and transformation assays were used to study DNA persistence and integrity in various ex vivo and in vivo systems using gnotobiotic rats. DNA......, plasmid DNA could be recovered throughout the GI tract when intestinal samples were taken up to 5 h after feeding rats with plasmid. Furthermore, DNA isolated from these intestinal samples was able to transform electro-competent Escherichia coli, showing that the plasmid was still biologically active....... The results indicate that ingested DNA may persist in the GI tract and consequently may be present for uptake by intestinal bacteria....

  1. In vitro and in vivo approaches to study osteocyte biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalajzic, Ivo; Matthews, Brya G; Torreggiani, Elena; Harris, Marie A; Divieti Pajevic, Paola; Harris, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    Osteocytes, the most abundant cell population of the bone lineage, have been a major focus in the bone research field in recent years. This population of cells that resides within mineralized matrix is now thought to be the mechanosensory cell in bone and plays major roles in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. Studies of osteocytes had been impaired by their location, resulting in numerous attempts to isolate primary osteocytes and to generate cell lines representative of the osteocytic phenotype. Progress has been achieved in recent years by utilizing in vivo genetic technology and generation of osteocyte directed transgenic and gene deficiency mouse models. We will provide an overview of the current in vitro and in vivo models utilized to study osteocyte biology. We discuss generation of osteocyte-like cell lines and isolation of primary osteocytes and summarize studies that have utilized these cellular models to understand the functional role of osteocytes. Approaches that attempt to selectively identify and isolate osteocytes using fluorescent protein reporters driven by regulatory elements of genes that are highly expressed in osteocytes will be discussed. In addition, recent in vivo studies utilizing overexpression or conditional deletion of various genes using dentin matrix protein (Dmp1) directed Cre recombinase are outlined. In conclusion, evaluation of the benefits and deficiencies of currently used cell lines/genetic models in understanding osteocyte biology underlines the current progress in this field. The future efforts will be directed towards developing novel in vitro and in vivo models that would additionally facilitate in understanding the multiple roles of osteocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A radiotracer for In vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase: p-[{sup 18}F]fluorodonepezil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Choi, Y.; Kim, S. E.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, B. T. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. W. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of senile dementia caused by lack of acetylcholine in central nervous system, and in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) have been carried out using many radiolabeled AChE inhibitors (donepezil, tacrine, physostigmine, CP-126,998, etc). Donepezil, a FDA approved drug for AD is now in clinical use. Therefore, we synthesized and evaluated p-[{sup 18}F]fluorodonepezil in mice. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that p-[{sup 18}F]fluorodonepezil binds non-specifically in vivo and does not suffer from metabolism in mouse brain. This study suggests that radioligands with higher binding affinity may be required to visualize AChE in vivo and further studies are needed to develop better radiotracers.

  3. In vivo oxidation in remelted highly cross-linked retrievals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, B H; Van Citters, D W; Currier, J H; Collier, J P

    2010-10-20

    Elimination of free radicals to prevent oxidation has played a major role in the development and product differentiation of the latest generation of highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene bearing materials. In the current study, we (1) examined oxidation in a series of retrieved remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene bearings from a number of device manufacturers and (2) compared the retrieval results with findings for shelf-stored control specimens. The hypothesis was that radiation-cross-linked remelted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene would maintain oxidative stability in vivo comparable with the stability during shelf storage and in published laboratory aging tests. Fifty remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liners and nineteen remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tibial inserts were received after retrieval from twenty-one surgeons from across the U.S. Thirty-two of the retrievals had been in vivo for two years or more. Each was measured for oxidation with use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A control series of remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liners from three manufacturers was analyzed with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure free radical content and with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to measure oxidation initially and after eight to nine years of shelf storage in air. The never-implanted, shelf-aged controls had no measurable free-radical content initially or after eight to nine years of shelf storage. The never-implanted controls showed no increase in oxidation during shelf storage. Oxidation measurements showed measurable oxidation in 22% of the retrieved remelted highly cross-linked liners and inserts after an average of two years in vivo. Because never-implanted remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight

  4. In vitro and in vivo motility studies of radiolabelled sperm cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, L.; Szasz, F.; Janoki, Gy.A.; Toth, L.; Zoldag, L.; Huszenicza, Gy.

    1994-01-01

    A new method for radiolabelling of sperm cells with 99m Tc HM-PAO (hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxide) - LEUCO-SCINT kit, is investigated. The labelling technique for fresh rabbit, bull, sheep and horse as well as frozen-thawed bull sperm was optimized. The optimum conditions for sperm cell labelling (incubation volume, incubation time, initial activity of 99m Tc HM-PAO, cell number) yielded a high labelling efficiency (70-80%) and survival rate (50-60%). The labelled sperm cells were used to study their motility in vitro. The migrating at 37 o C cells incubated capillary tubes containing bovine cervical mucus. The tubes were cut and the activity of the parts measured and valued. We compared the results of living and killed sperm cells and the label alone by the change of species and running time. Ten minutes after the labelling procedures the total activity of microtubes was 2-3 times higher and the activity distribution was different from the results obtained 3 hours after the labelling. The sperm migration in vivo in the living female animals using a non invasive technique was also visualized. The sperm flow was clearly demonstrated in 3 different animal model (rabbit, ewe, hen) under gamma camera. The comparison of the in vivo migration of rabbit and bull sperm cells showed that the homologous sperm migrated faster and farther. On study of bull sperm migration in the ewe genital tract the cornu uteri was clearly visualized. In the hen model the whole genital tract was demonstrated with considerable free activity in the cavum abdominal 24 hours after the artificial insemination. The new method is developed and manufactured by NRIRR, Budapest, originally designed for radiolabelling leucocytes. The 99m Tc HM-PAO Labelled sperm cells with their retained migration properties are suitable for in vitro motility assays and in vitro migration studies in both human and veterinary medicine. (author)

  5. DMS-MaPseq for genome-wide or targeted RNA structure probing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubradt, Meghan; Gupta, Paromita; Persad, Sitara; Lambowitz, Alan M; Weissman, Jonathan S; Rouskin, Silvi

    2017-01-01

    Coupling of structure-specific in vivo chemical modification to next-generation sequencing is transforming RNA secondary structure studies in living cells. The dominant strategy for detecting in vivo chemical modifications uses reverse transcriptase truncation products, which introduce biases and necessitate population-average assessments of RNA structure. Here we present dimethyl sulfate (DMS) mutational profiling with sequencing (DMS-MaPseq), which encodes DMS modifications as mismatches using a thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptase. DMS-MaPseq yields a high signal-to-noise ratio, can report multiple structural features per molecule, and allows both genome-wide studies and focused in vivo investigations of even low-abundance RNAs. We apply DMS-MaPseq for the first analysis of RNA structure within an animal tissue and to identify a functional structure involved in noncanonical translation initiation. Additionally, we use DMS-MaPseq to compare the in vivo structure of pre-mRNAs with their mature isoforms. These applications illustrate DMS-MaPseq's capacity to dramatically expand in vivo analysis of RNA structure.

  6. The 4-vessel Sampling Approach to Integrative Studies of Human Placental Physiology In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Ane M; Holm, Maia B; Roland, Marie C P; Horne, Hildegunn; Michelsen, Trond M; Haugen, Guttorm; Henriksen, Tore

    2017-08-02

    The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain. We aimed to study human placenta physiology in vivo at term, and present a detailed protocol of the method. Exploiting the intraabdominal access to the uterine vein just before the uterine incision during planned cesarean section, we collect blood samples from the incoming and outgoing vessels on the maternal and fetal sides of the placenta. When combining concentration measurements from blood samples with volume blood flow measurements, we are able to quantify placental and fetal uptake and release of any compound. Furthermore, placental tissue samples from the same mother-fetus pairs can provide measurements of transporter density and activity and other aspects of placental functions in vivo. Through this integrative use of the 4-vessel sampling method we are able to test some of the current concepts of placental nutrient transfer and metabolism in vivo, both in normal and pathological pregnancies. Furthermore, this method enables the identification of substances secreted by the placenta to the maternal circulation, which could be an important contribution to the search for biomarkers of placenta dysfunction.

  7. In vivo studies of transdermal nanoparticle delivery with microneedles using photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothanchery, Mohesh; Seeni, Razina Z.; Xu, Chenjie; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-01-01

    Microneedle technology allows micron-sized conduits to be formed within the outermost skin layers for both localized and systemic delivery of therapeutics including nanoparticles. Histological methods are often employed for characterization, and unfortunately do not allow for the in vivo visualization of the delivery process. This study presents the utilization of optical resolution-photoacoustic microscopy to characterize the transdermal delivery of nanoparticles using microneedles. Specifically, we observe the in vivo transdermal delivery of gold nanoparticles using microneedles in mice ear and study the penetration, diffusion, and spatial distribution of the nanoparticles in the tissue. The promising results reveal that photoacoustic microscopy can be used as a potential imaging modality for the in vivo characterization of microneedles based drug delivery. PMID:29296482

  8. Reliability of in vivo measurements of the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue: a simulative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Xuyang; Shi Xuetao; You Fusheng; Fu Feng; Liu Ruigang; Tang Chi; Dong Xiuzhen; Lu Qiang

    2013-01-01

    A simulative study was performed to measure the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue using several in vivo and in vitro probes. COMSOL Multiphysics was selected to carry out the simulation. Five traditional probes and a newly designed probe were used in this study. One of these probes was an in vitro measurement probe and the other five were in vivo. The simulations were performed in terms of the minimal tissue volume for in vivo measurements, the calibration of a probe constant, the measurement performed on isotropic tissue and the measurement performed on anisotropic tissue. Results showed that the in vitro probe can be used to measure the in-cell dielectric properties of isotropic and anisotropic tissues. When measured with the five in vivo probes, the dielectric properties of isotropic tissue were all measured accurately. For the measurements performed on anisotropic tissue, large errors were observed when the four traditional in vivo probes were used, but only a small error was observed when the new in vivo probe was used. This newly designed five-electrode in vivo probe may indicate the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue more accurately than these four traditional in vivo probes. (paper)

  9. Lessons learned from vivo-morpholinos: How to avoid vivo-morpholino toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David P.; Dangott, Lawrence J.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Vivo-morpholinos are a promising tool for gene silencing. These oligonucleotide analogs transiently silence genes by blocking either translation or pre-mRNA splicing. Little to no toxicity has been reported for vivo-morpholino treatment. However, in a recent study conducted in our lab, treatment of mice with vivo-morpholinos resulted in high mortality rates. We hypothesized that the deaths were the result of oligonucleotide hybridization, causing an increased cationic charge associated with the dendrimer delivery moiety of the vivo-morpholino. The cationic charge increased blood clot formation in whole blood treated with vivo-morpholinos, suggesting that clotting could have caused cardiac arrest in the deceased mice. Therefore, we investigate the mechanism by which some vivo-morpholinos increase mortality rates and propose techniques to alleviate vivo-morpholino toxicity. PMID:24806225

  10. N-[11C]methylpiperidine esters as acetylcholinesterase substrates: an in vivo structure-reactivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, Michael R.; Nguyen, Thinh B.; Snyder, Scott E.; Sherman, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    A series of simple esters incorporating the N-[ 11 C]methylpiperidine structure were examined as in vivo substrates for acetylcholinesterase in mouse brain. 4-N-[ 11 C]Methylpiperidinyl esters, including the acetate, propionate and isobutyrate esters, are good in vivo substrates for mammalian cholinesterases. Introduction of a methyl group at the 4-position of the 4-piperidinol esters, to form the ester of a teritary alcohol, effectively blocks enzymatic action. Methylation of 4- N-[ 11 C]methylpiperidinyl propionate at the 3-position gives a derivative with increased in vivo reactivity toward acetylcholinesterase. Esters of piperidinecarboxylic acids (nipecotic, isonipecotic and pipecolinic acid ethyl esters) are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase in vivo, nor do they act as in vivo inhibitors of the enzyme. This study has identified simple methods to both increase and decrease the in vivo reactivity of piperidinyl esters toward acetylcholinesterase

  11. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa peregrina leaves, ex vivo and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Oran, Sawsan Atallah; Hassuneh, Mona Rushdie; Al-Qaralleh, Haitham Naief; Rayyan, Walid Abu; Al-Thunibat, Osama Yosef; Mallah, Eyad; Abu-Rayyan, Ahmed; Salem, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vivo and ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of the ethanol leaves extract of Moringa peregrina in Balb/c mice. For this study, five groups of 5 Balb/c mice were given a single acute subtoxic oral dose of the ethanolic extract at 1.13, 11.30, 23.40 and 113.4 mg/kg and the immunomodulatory effect was assessed on the 6th day following the ingestion. In the (non-functional) assessment, the effect of the extract on the body weight, relative lymphoid organ weight, splenic cellularity and peripheral blood hematologic parameters were evaluated. While in the immunomodulation assessment (functional), we investigated the effect of the extract on the proliferative capacity of splenic lymphocytes and peripheral T and B lymphocytes using mitogen blastogenesis, mixed allogeneic MLR and IgM-Plaque forming cells assays. The ingestion of M. peregrina extract caused a significant increase in the body weight, weight and number of cells of spleen and lymph nodes of the treated mice. Furthermore, the count of RBCs, WBCs, platelets, hemoglobin concentration and PCV % were increased by the extract treatment in a dose-dependent manner. M. peregrina enhanced the proliferative responses of splenic lymphocytes for both T cell and B-cell mitogens. Likewise, the mixed lymphocyte reaction MLR assay has revealed a T-cell dependent proliferation enhancement in the extract treated mice. Moreover, the oral administration of M. peregrina leaves extracts significantly increased PFCs/106 splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, subtoxic acute doses of M. peregrina extract demonstrated significant potential as an immunomodulatory agent even at the lowest dose of 1.13 mg/kg. PMID:29204086

  12. Nonclinical cardiovascular safety of pitolisant: comparing International Conference on Harmonization S7B and Comprehensive in vitro Pro-arrhythmia Assay initiative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligneau, Xavier; Shah, Rashmi R; Berrebi-Bertrand, Isabelle; Mirams, Gary R; Robert, Philippe; Landais, Laurent; Maison-Blanche, Pierre; Faivre, Jean-François; Lecomte, Jeanne-Marie; Schwartz, Jean-Charles

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the concordance of results from two sets of nonclinical cardiovascular safety studies on pitolisant. Nonclinical studies envisaged both in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) S7B guideline and Comprehensive in vitro Pro-arrhythmia Assay (CiPA) initiative were undertaken. The CiPA initiative included in vitro ion channels, stem cell-derived human ventricular myocytes, and in silico modelling to simulate human ventricular electrophysiology. ICH S7B-recommended assays included in vitro hERG (K V 11.1) channels, in vivo dog studies with follow-up investigations in rabbit Purkinje fibres and the in vivo Carlsson rabbit pro-arrhythmia model. Both sets of nonclinical data consistently excluded pitolisant from having clinically relevant QT-liability or pro-arrhythmic potential. CiPA studies revealed pitolisant to have modest calcium channel blocking and late I Na reducing activities at high concentrations, which resulted in pitolisant reducing dofetilide-induced early after-depolarizations (EADs) in the ICH S7B studies. Studies in stem cell-derived human cardiomyocytes with dofetilide or E-4031 given alone and in combination with pitolisant confirmed these properties. In silico modelling confirmed that the ion channel effects measured are consistent with results from both the stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and rabbit Purkinje fibres and categorized pitolisant as a drug with low torsadogenic potential. Results from the two sets of nonclinical studies correlated well with those from two clinical QT studies. Our findings support the CiPA initiative but suggest that sponsors should consider investigating drug effects on EADs and the use of pro-arrhythmia models when the results from CiPA studies are ambiguous. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  13. In-vivo study and histological examination of laser reshaping of cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shekhter, Anatoliy B.; Svistushkin, Valeriy M.; Shinaev, Andrei A.; Nikiforova, G.; Jones, Nicholas

    1999-06-01

    The results of recent study of cartilage reshaping in vivo are reported. The ear cartilage of piglets of 8-12 weeks old have been reshaped in vivo using the radiation of a holmium laser. The stability of the shape and possible side effects have been examined during four months. Histological investigation shown that the healing of irradiated are could accompany by the regeneration of ear cartilage. Finally, elastic type cartilage has been transformed into fibrous cartilage or cartilage of hyaline type.

  14. Comparative study of nanosecond electric fields in vitro and in vivo on hepatocellular carcinoma indicate macrophage infiltration contribute to tumor ablation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recurrence and metastasis are associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma even in the patients who have undergone radical resection. Therefore, effective treatment is urgently needed for improvement of patients' survival. Previously, we reported that nanosecond pulse electric fields (nsPEFs can ablate melanoma by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. This study aims to investigate the in vivo ablation strategy by comparing the dose effect of nanosecond electric fields in vitro and in vivo on hepatocellular carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2, SMMC7721, Hep1-6, and HCCLM3 were pulsed to test the anti-proliferation and anti-migration ability of 100 ns nsPEFs in vitro. The animal model of human subdermal xenograft HCCLM3 cells into BALB/c nude mouse was used to test the anti-tumor growth and macrophage infiltration in vivo. RESULTS: In vitro assays showed anti-tumor effect of nsPEFs is dose-dependant. But the in vivo study showed the strategy of low dose and multiple treatments is superior to high dose single treatment. The macrophages infiltration significantly increased in the tumors which were treated by multiple low dose nsPEFs. CONCLUSION: The low dose multiple nsPEFs application is more efficient than high dose single treatment in inhibiting the tumor volume in vivo, which is quite different from the dose-effect relationship in vitro. Beside the electric field strength, the macrophage involvement must be considered to account for effect variability and toxicology in vivo.

  15. Varenicline increases in vivo striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding: an ultra-high-resolution pinhole [123I]IBZM SPECT study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; Wit, Tim C. de; Bruin, Kora de; Ramakers, Ruud M.; Have, Frans van der; Beekman, Freek J.; Brink, Wim van den; Booij, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Ex vivo storage phosphor imaging rat studies reported increased brain dopamine D 2/3 receptor (DRD 2/3 ) availability following treatment with varenicline, a nicotinergic drug. However, ex vivo studies can only be performed using cross-sectional designs. Small-animal imaging offers the opportunity to perform serial assessments. We evaluated whether high-resolution pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in rats was able to reproduce previous ex vivo findings. Methods: Rats were imaged for baseline striatal DRD 2/3 availability using ultra-high-resolution pinhole SPECT (U-SPECT-II) and [ 123 I]IBZM as a radiotracer, and randomized to varenicline (n=7; 2 mg/kg) or saline (n=7). Following 2 weeks of treatment, a second scan was acquired. Results: Significantly increased striatal DRD 2/3 availability was found following varenicline treatment compared to saline (time⁎treatment effect): posttreatment difference in binding potential between groups corrected for initial baseline differences was 2.039 (P=.022), indicating a large effect size (d=1.48). Conclusions: Ultra-high-resolution pinhole SPECT can be used to assess varenicline-induced changes in DRD 2/3 availability in small laboratory animals over time. Future small-animal studies should include imaging techniques to enable repeated within-subjects measurements and reduce the amount of animals.

  16. Descemet Membrane Thickening as a Sign for the Diagnosis of Corneal Graft Rejection: An Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, Ryan; Diakonis, Vasilios F; Bozung, Alison; Gameiro, Gustavo Rosa; Fischer, Oliver; El Dakkak, Ahmed; Ulloa-Padilla, Jan Paul; Anagnostopoulos, Apostolos; Dubovy, Sander; Abou Shousha, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    To disclose, using an ex vivo study, the histopathological mechanism behind in vivo thickening of the endothelium/Descemet membrane complex (En/DM) observed in rejected corneal grafts (RCGs). Descemet membrane (DM), endothelium, and retrocorneal membranes make up the total En/DM thickness. These layers are not differentiable by high-definition optical coherence tomography; therefore, the source of thickening is unclear from an in vivo perspective. A retrospective ex vivo study (from September 2015 to December 2015) was conducted to measure the thicknesses of DM, endothelium, and retrocorneal membrane in 54 corneal specimens (31 RCGs and 23 controls) using light microscopy. Controls were globes with posterior melanoma without corneal involvement. There were 54 corneas examined ex vivo with mean age 58.1 ± 12.2 in controls and 51.7 ± 27.9 years in RCGs. The ex vivo study uncovered the histopathological mechanism of En/DM thickening to be secondary to significant thickening (P < 0.001) of DM (6.5 ± 2.4 μm) in RCGs compared with controls (3.9 ± 1.5 μm). Our ex vivo study shows that DM is responsible for thickening of the En/DM in RCGs observed in vivo by high-definition optical coherence tomography and not the endothelium or retrocorneal membrane.

  17. Imaging of prostate cancer: a platform for 3D co-registration of in-vivo MRI ex-vivo MRI and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczyk, Clément; Mikheev, Artem; Rosenkrantz, Andrew; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Rusinek, Henry

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: Multi-parametric MRI is emerging as a promising method for prostate cancer diagnosis. prognosis and treatment planning. However, the localization of in-vivo detected lesions and pathologic sites of cancer remains a significant challenge. To overcome this limitation we have developed and tested a system for co-registration of in-vivo MRI, ex-vivo MRI and histology. Materials and Methods: Three men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (ages 54-72, PSA levels 5.1-7.7 ng/ml) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients underwent 3T multi-parametric MRI that included T2W, DCEMRI, and DWI prior to robotic-assisted prostatectomy. Ex-vivo multi-parametric MRI was performed on fresh prostate specimen. Excised prostates were then sliced at regular intervals and photographed both before and after fixation. Slices were perpendicular to the main axis of the posterior capsule, i.e., along the direction of the rectal wall. Guided by the location of the urethra, 2D digital images were assembled into 3D models. Cancer foci, extra-capsular extensions and zonal margins were delineated by the pathologist and included in 3D histology data. A locally-developed software was applied to register in-vivo, ex-vivo and histology using an over-determined set of anatomical landmarks placed in anterior fibro-muscular stroma, central. transition and peripheral zones. The mean root square distance across corresponding control points was used to assess co-registration error. Results: Two specimens were pT3a and one pT2b (negative margin) at pathology. The software successfully fused invivo MRI. ex-vivo MRI fresh specimen and histology using appropriate (rigid and affine) transformation models with mean square error of 1.59 mm. Coregistration accuracy was confirmed by multi-modality viewing using operator-guided variable transparency. Conclusion: The method enables successful co-registration of pre-operative MRI, ex-vivo MRI and pathology and it provides initial evidence

  18. Ficolins Promote Fungal Clearance in vivo and Modulate the Inflammatory Cytokine Response in Host Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, N; Cramer, E Præstekjær; Rosbjerg, A

    2016-01-01

    the lectin pathway of complement. Previous in vitro studies reported that ficolins bind to A. fumigatus, but their part in host defense against fungal infections in vivo is unknown. In this study, we used ficolin-deficient mice to investigate the role of ficolins during lung infection with A. fumigatus......-mediated complement activation in ficolin knockout mice and wild-type mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ficolins are important in initial innate host defense against A. fumigatus infections in vivo....

  19. Laser-enhanced cavitation during high intensity focused ultrasound: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Huizhong; Zhang, Ti; Yang, Xinmai

    2013-01-01

    Laser-enhanced cavitation during high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was studied in vivo using a small animal model. Laser light was employed to illuminate the sample concurrently with HIFU radiation. The resulting cavitation was detected with a passive cavitation detector. The in vivo measurements were made under different combinations of HIFU treatment depths, laser wavelengths, and HIFU durations. The results demonstrated that concurrent light illumination during HIFU has the potentia...

  20. STUDY OF INTRA TESTICULAR REGULATIONS OF SPERMATOGENESIS DIFFERENTIATION BY EX-VIVO APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adaika

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the regulation of intratesticular during spermatogenesis ex vivo. To highlight the progress of spermatogenesis ex vivo, we developed two cell culture systems of seminiferous tubules to study the role of local factors that control the proliferation and differentiation of male germ cells. Our studies are based on two main techniques: RT-PCR and RNA extraction to examine changes in the expression of some growth factors in the culture of seminiferous tubules as the SCF, c- Kit and TGFß. The results show, using RT-PCR, that expression of SCF, c-Kit and TGFb is probably not involved in the alterations of spermatogenesis ex vivo. Indeed, their expressions are not modified during three weeks of culture, and their expressions depend on the proportion of cells where they are expressed. Our results also show that clusterin is a marker of Sertoli cells in the culture of seminiferous tubules and its expression is not altered by the presence of germ cells.

  1. Fucoxanthin bioavailability from fucoxanthin-fortified milk: In vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Il-Kyoon; Lee, Jae Kwon; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Sang Min

    2018-08-30

    Our previous study reported the improved stability of fucoxanthin (FX) fortified in whole milk (WM) and skimmed milk (SM). In this study, in vivo and in vitro FX bioavailability were investigated using FX-fortified milk (FX-SM and FX-WM) and microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum biomass (Pt-powder). Organ tissue accumulation of FX and its metabolites (FXOH: fucoxanthinol, AXA: amarouciaxanthin A) after repeated oral administration was in the following order: FX-SM > FX-WM > Pt-powder. In vivo pharmacokinetic study with a single oral administration also demonstrated that the absorption of FXOH and AXA was the highest for FX-SM. To reinforce the in vivo results, in vitro-simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake assays were performed, which revealed that FX-SM showed the highest FX bioaccessibility (release from food matrices) and cellular uptake efficiency of FX and FXOH. In conclusion, skimmed milk was validated as an excellent food matrix for FX application in terms of stability and bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinase, Sakae [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and measurements. Consequently, the calculations are in good agreement with the measurements. The method for the determination of counting efficiency curves as a function of energy was developed using the present technique and a physiques correction equation was derived from the relationship between parameters of correction factor and counting efficiencies of the JAERI whole-body counter. The uncertainties in body burdens of {sup 137}Cs estimated with the JAERI whole-body counter were also investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation and measurements. It was found that the uncertainties of body burdens estimated with the whole-body counter are strongly dependent on various sources of uncertainty such as radioactivity distribution within the body and counting statistics. Furthermore, the evaluation method of the peak efficiencies of a Ge semi-conductor detector was developed by Monte Carlo simulation for optimum arrangement of Ge semi-conductor detectors for

  3. High-resolution ex vivo imaging of coronary artery stents using 64-slice computed tomography - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rist, Carsten; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Christoph R.; Flohr, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of new-generation multi-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner technology for the delineation of coronary artery stents in an ex vivo setting. Nine stents of various diameters (seven stents 3 mm, two stents 2.5 mm) were implanted into the coronary arteries of ex vivo porcine hearts and filled with a mixture of an iodine-containing contrast agent. Specimens were scanned with a 16-slice CT (16SCT) machine; (Somatom Sensation 16, Siemens Medical Solutions), slice thickness 0.75 mm, and a 64-slice CT (64SCT, Somatom Sensation 64), slice-thickness 0.6 mm. Stent diameters as well as contrast densities were measured, on both the 16SCT and 64SCT images. No significant differences of CT densities were observed between the 16SCT and 64SCT images outside the stent lumen: 265±25HU and 254±16HU (P=0.33), respectively. CT densities derived from the 64SCT images and 16SCT images within the stent lumen were 367±36HU versus 402±28HU, P<0.05, respectively. Inner and outer stent diameters as measured from 16SCT and 64SCT images were 2.68±0.08 mm versus 2.81±0.07 mm and 3.29±0.06 mm versus 3.18±0.07 mm (P<0.05), respectively. The new 64SCT scanner proved to be superior in the ex vivo assessment of coronary artery stents to the conventional 16SCT machine. Increased spatial resolution allows for improved assessment of the coronary artery stent lumen. (orig.)

  4. Applying the ARRIVE Guidelines to an In Vivo Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Karp

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE guidelines were developed to address the lack of reproducibility in biomedical animal studies and improve the communication of research findings. While intended to guide the preparation of peer-reviewed manuscripts, the principles of transparent reporting are also fundamental for in vivo databases. Here, we describe the benefits and challenges of applying the guidelines for the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC, whose goal is to produce and phenotype 20,000 knockout mouse strains in a reproducible manner across ten research centres. In addition to ensuring the transparency and reproducibility of the IMPC, the solutions to the challenges of applying the ARRIVE guidelines in the context of IMPC will provide a resource to help guide similar initiatives in the future.

  5. 21 CFR 320.25 - Guidelines for the conduct of an in vivo bioavailability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conduct of an in vivo bioavailability study. (a) Guiding principles. (1) The basic principle in an in vivo... not been approved for marketing can be used to measure the following pharmacokinetic data: (i) The bioavailability of the formulation proposed for marketing; and (ii) The essential pharmacokinetic characteristics...

  6. In vivo field dependence of proton relaxation times in human brain, liver and skeletal muscle: a multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; de Certaines, J D; Spisni, A

    1993-01-01

    and MRS, the in vivo field dispersion of T1 and T2 has been measured in order to evaluate whether ex vivo data are representative for the in vivo situation. Brain, skeletal muscle, and liver of healthy human volunteers were studied. Fifteen MR units with a field strength ranging from 0.08 T to 1.5 T took......T1 and T2 relaxation times are fundamental parameters for signal contrast behaviour in MRI. A number of ex vivo relaxometry studies have dealt with the magnetic field dispersion of T1. By means of multicenter study within the frame of the COMAC BME Concerted Action on Tissue Characterization by MRI......, whereas no significant variations were seen for T2. Our in vivo data were generally in reasonable agreement with proposed models based on ex vivo measurements....

  7. Chick embryo partial ischemia model: a new approach to study ischemia ex vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamantak Majumder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ischemia is a pathophysiological condition due to blockade in blood supply to a specific tissue thus damaging the physiological activity of the tissue. Different in vivo models are presently available to study ischemia in heart and other tissues. However, no ex vivo ischemia model has been available to date for routine ischemia research and for faster screening of anti-ischemia drugs. In the present study, we took the opportunity to develop an ex vivo model of partial ischemia using the vascular bed of 4(th day incubated chick embryo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ischemia was created in chick embryo by ligating the right vitelline artery using sterile surgical suture. Hypoxia inducible factor- 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha, creatine phospho kinase-MB and reactive oxygen species in animal tissues and cells were measured to confirm ischemia in chick embryo. Additionally, ranolazine, N-acetyl cysteine and trimetazidine were administered as an anti-ischemic drug to validate the present model. Results from the present study depicted that blocking blood flow elevates HIF-1alpha, lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite level in ischemic vessels while ranolazine administration partially attenuates ischemia driven HIF-1alpha expression. Endothelial cell incubated on ischemic blood vessels elucidated a higher level of HIF-1alpha expression with time while ranolazine treatment reduced HIF-1alpha in ischemic cells. Incubation of caprine heart strip on chick embryo ischemia model depicted an elevated creatine phospho kinase-MB activity under ischemic condition while histology of the treated heart sections evoked edema and disruption of myofibril structures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study concluded that chick embryo partial ischemia model can be used as a novel ex vivo model of ischemia. Therefore, the present model can be used parallel with the known in vivo ischemia models in understanding the mechanistic insight of ischemia development and in

  8. Critical considerations when planning experimental in vivo studies in dental traumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O; Andersson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In vivo studies are sometimes needed to understand healing processes after trauma. For several reasons, not the least ethical, such studies have to be carefully planned and important considerations have to be taken into account about suitability of the experimental model, sample size and optimizing...

  9. Early changes in experimental osteoarthritis using the Pond-Nuki dog model: technical procedure and initial results of in vivo MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libicher, Martin; Ivancic, Mate; Hoffmann, Volker; Wenz, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the feasibility of combining in vivo MR imaging with the Pond-Nuki animal model for the evaluation of osteoarthritis. In an experimental study, 24 beagle dogs underwent transection of the anterior cruciate ligament of the left leg (modified Pond-Nuki model). The dogs were randomly assigned into four groups and examined by MRI after 6, 12, 24 and 48 weeks. MR imaging of both knees was performed under general anesthesia with the contralateral joint serving as control. In group 1 (6 weeks postoperatively), the first sign detected on MRI was subchondral bone marrow edema in the posteromedial tibia. After 12 weeks, erosion of the posteromedial tibial cartilage could be observed, followed by meniscus degeneration and osteophytosis after 24 and 48 weeks. The contralateral knee joint showed transient joint effusion, but no significant signs of internal derangement (P<0.001). By combining in vivo MR imaging with the Pond-Nuki model, it is possible to detect early signs of osteoarthritis. The first sign was posteromedial subchondral bone marrow edema in the tibia followed by progressive cartilage degeneration and joint derangement. The in vivo model therefore seems to be suitable for longitudinal studies or monitoring the therapeutic effects of osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  10. Hydrophilic and lipophilic radiopharmaceuticals as tracers in pharmaceutical development: In vitro – In vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terán, Mariella; Savio, Eduardo; Paolino, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphic studies have been performed to assess the release, both in vitro and in vivo, of radiotracers from tablet formulations. Four different tracers with differing physicochemical characteristics have been evaluated to assess their suitability as models for drug delivery. In-vitro disintegration and dissolution studies have been performed at pH 1, 4 and 7. In-vivo studies have been performed by scintigraphic imaging in healthy volunteers. Two hydrophilic tracers, ( 99m Tc-DTPA) and ( 99m Tc-MDP), and two lipophilic tracers, ( 99m Tc-ECD) and ( 99m Tc-MIBI), were used as drug models. Dissolution and disintegration profiles, differed depending on the drug model chosen. In vitro dissolution velocity constants indicated a probable retention of the radiotracer in the formulation. In vivo disintegration velocity constants showed important variability for each radiopharmaceutical. Pearson statistical test showed no correlation between in vitro drug release, and in vivo behaviour, for 99m Tc-DTPA, 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-MIBI. High correlation coefficients were found for 99m Tc-MDP not only for in vitro dissolution and disintegration studies but also for in vivo scintigraphic studies. Scintigraphic studies have made a significant contribution to the development of drug delivery systems. It is essential, however, to choose the appropriate radiotracers as models of drug behaviour. This study has demonstrated significant differences in release patterns, depending on the model chosen. It is likely that each formulation would require the development of a specific model, rather than being able to use a generic drug model on the basis of its physicochemical characteristics

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells cancel azoxymethane-induced tumor initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuno, Masanao; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Nagaishi, Kanna; Isshiki, Hiroyuki; Onodera, Kei; Nakagaki, Suguru; Watanabe, Shuhei; Idogawa, Masashi; Yamashita, Kentaro; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Adachi, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Fujimiya, Mineko; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2014-04-01

    The role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Therefore, our goal was to determine whether exogenous MSCs possess intrinsic antineoplastic or proneoplastic properties in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced carcinogenesis. Three in vivo models were studied: an AOM/dextran sulfate sodium colitis-associated carcinoma model, an aberrant crypt foci model, and a model to assess the acute apoptotic response of a genotoxic carcinogen (AARGC). We also performed in vitro coculture experiments. As a result, we found that MSCs partially canceled AOM-induced tumor initiation but not tumor promotion. Moreover, MSCs inhibited the AARGC in colonic epithelial cells because of the removal of O(6)-methylguanine (O(6) MeG) adducts through O(6) MeG-DNA methyltransferase activation. Furthermore, MSCs broadly affected the cell-cycle machinery, potentially leading to G1 arrest in vivo. Coculture of IEC-6 rat intestinal cells with MSCs not only arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase, but also induced apoptosis. The anti-carcinogenetic properties of MSCs in vitro required transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling because such properties were completely abrogated by absorption of TGF-β under indirect coculture conditions. MSCs inhibited AOM-induced tumor initiation by preventing the initiating cells from sustaining DNA insults and subsequently inducing G1 arrest in the initiated cells that escaped from the AARGC. Furthermore, tumor initiation perturbed by MSCs might potentially dysregulate WNT and TGF-β-Smad signaling pathways in subsequent tumorigenesis. Obtaining a better understanding of MSC functions in colon carcinogenesis is essential before commencing the broader clinical application of promising MSC-based therapies for cancer-prone patients with inflammatory bowel disease. © AlphaMed Press.

  12. Minibeam radiotherapy with small animal irradiators; in vitro and in vivo feasibility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Soha; Inscoe, Christina R.; O'Brian, E. Timothy; Zhou, Otto; Lee, Yueh Z.

    2017-12-01

    Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) delivers an ultrahigh dose of x-ray (⩾100 Gy) in 200-1000 µm beams (peaks), separated by wider non-irradiated regions (valleys) usually as a single temporal fraction. Preclinical studies performed at synchrotron facilities revealed that MBRT is able to ablate tumors while maintaining normal tissue integrity. The main purpose of the present study was to develop an efficient and accessible method to perform MBRT using a conventional x-ray irradiator. We then tested this new method both in vitro and in vivo. Using commercially available lead ribbon and polyethylene sheets, we constructed a collimator that converted the cone beam of an industrial irradiator to 44 identical beams (collimator size  ≈  4  ×  10 cm). The dosimetry characteristics of the generated beams were evaluated using two different radiochromic films (beam FWHM  =  246  ±  32 µm center-to-center  =  926  ±  23 µm peak-to-valley dose ratio  =  24.35  ±  2.10 collimator relative output factor  =  0.84  ±  0.04). Clonogenic assays demonstrated the ability of our method to induce radiobiological cell death in two radioresistant murine tumor cell lines (TRP  =  glioblastoma B16-F10  =  melanoma). A radiobiological equivalent dose (RBE) was calculated by evaluating the acute skin response to graded doses of MBRT and conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Normal mouse skin demonstrated resistance to doses up to 150 Gy on peak. MBRT significantly extended the survival of mice with flank melanoma tumors compared to CRT when RBE were applied (overall p  film. In conclusion, the initial dosimetric, in vitro and in vivo evaluations confirmed the utility of this affordable and easy-to-replicate minibeam collimator for future preclinical studies.

  13. Buccal delivery of thiocolchicoside: in vitro and in vivo permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artusi, M; Santi, P; Colombo, P; Junginger, H E

    2003-01-02

    Thiocolchicoside, a muscle-relaxant agent, is administered by the oral, intra-muscular and topical route. After oral administration the extent of bioavailability compared with intra-muscular administration is low, due to a first pass effect. In this paper, the delivery of thiocolchicoside through oral mucosa is studied to improve the bioavailability. Thiocolchicoside in vitro permeation through porcine oral mucosa and in vivo buccal transport in humans were investigated. Two dosage forms, a bioadhesive disc and a fast dissolving disc for buccal and sublingual administration of thiocolchicoside, respectively, were designed. The in vitro permeation of thiocolchicoside through porcine buccal mucosa from these dosage forms was evaluated and compared with in vivo absorption. Results from in vitro studies demonstrated that thiocolchicoside is quite permeable across porcine buccal mucosa and that permeation enhancers, such as sodium taurocholate and sodium taurodeoxycholate, were not able to increase its flux. The in vivo thiocolchicoside absorption experiments, in which the drug loss from oral cavity was measured, indicated that both formulations could be useful for therapeutic application. The fast dissolving (sublingual) form resulted in a quick uptake of 0.5 mg of thiocolchicoside within 15 min whereas with the adhesive buccal form the same dose can be absorbed over an extended period of time.

  14. Studies on the red absorption band of chlorophyll a in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Kleinen Hammans, J.W.; Arnolds, W.J.

    1965-01-01

    It was studied whether certain earlier observed weak shoulders on the red absorption band of chlorophyll a in vivo might represent anomalies due to overlap of absorption bands. The results are suggested of the fact that no such anomalies occur. It is therefore concluded that the present study

  15. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  16. Vesicle interactions with polyamino acids and antibody: in vitro and in vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnick, J.K.; McDougall, I.R.; Aragon, S.; Goris, M.L.; Kriss, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Artificial spherules or vesicles of 900 A in diameter formed from phosphatidylcholine and gangliosides and enclosing /sup 99m/TcO 4 - (standard preparation) survive intact in the circulation of the mouse. Polyamino acids and protein have been incorporated into and onto the vesicles; such vesicles remain intact as determined by diffusion dialysis studies and by electron paramagnetic resonance studies of vesicles enclosing spin label. In studying the distribution of polyamino acid-vesicles and protein vesicles in vivo, it was found that the latter distribute differently from standard vesicles or free protein alone whereas aromatic polyamino acid-vesicles concentrate in the liver and spleen to a greater extent than standard vesicles. The permeability and stability characteristics of vesicles may be preserved when they are modified by the addition of protein or polyamino acids and that such modification of vesicles may be associated with an alteration of their fate in vivo. The potential exists to use vesicles as carriers of radiopharmaceuticals and other drugs and to direct the vesicles preferentially to tissue targets in vivo. (U.S.)

  17. Stratum corneum damage and ex vivo porcine skin water absorption - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch Lynggaard, C; Bang Knudsen, D; Jemec, G B E

    2009-01-01

    A simple ex vivo screening technique would be of interest for mass screening of substances for potential barrier disruptive qualities. Ex vivo water absorption as a marker of skin barrier integrity was studied on pig ear skin. Skin water absorption was quantified by weighing and weight changes were...... found to reflect prehydration barrier damage. It is suggested that this simple model may be elaborated to provide a rapid, economical screening tool for potential skin irritants....

  18. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. International symposium on in vivo body composition studies: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the program and individual abstracts for papers presented at the International symposium on in vivo body composition studies. The presentations were divided into five sessions. Individual abstracts were indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  20. Initial in vitro and in vivo assessment of Au@DTDTPA-RGD nanoparticles for Gd-MRI and 68Ga-PET dual modality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, Charalmpos; Laurent, Gautier; Jiménez Sánchez, Gloria; Tsotakos, Theodoros; Bazzi, Rana; Stellas, Dimitris; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Moulopoulos, Lia; Koutoulidis, Vasilis; Paravatou-Petsotas, Maria; Xanthopoulos, Stavros; Roux, Stephane; Bouziotis, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium chelate coated gold nanoparticles (Au@DTDTPA) can be applied as contrast agents for both in vivo X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. In this work, our aim was to radiolabel and evaluate this gold nanoparticle with Ga-68, in order to produce a dual modality PET/MRI imaging probe. For a typical preparation of 68Ga-labeled nanoparticles, the Au@DTDTPA nanoparticles (Au@DTDTPA/Au@DTDTPA-RGD) were mixed with ammonium acetate buffer, pH 5 and 40 MBq of 68Ga eluate. The mixture was then incubated for 45 min at 65 ÅãC. Radiochemical purity was determined by ITLC. In vitro stability of both radiolabeled species was assessed in saline and serum. In vitro cell binding experiments were performed on integrin ανβ3 receptor-positive U87MG cancer cells. Non-specific Au@DTDTPA was used for comparison. Ex vivo biodistribution studies and in vivo PET and MRI imaging studies in U87MG tumor-bearing SCID mice followed. The Au@DTDTPA nanoparticles were labeled with Gallium-68 at high radiochemical yield (>95%) and were stable at RT, and in the presence of serum, for up to 3 h. The cell binding assay on U87MG glioma cells proved that 68Ga-cRGD-Au@DTDTPA had specific recognition for these cells. Biodistribution studies in U87MG tumor-bearing SCID mice showed that the tumor to muscle ratio increased from 1 to 2 h p.i. (3,71 ± 0.22 and 4,69 ± 0.09 respectively), showing a clear differentiation between the affected and the non-affected tissue. The acquired PET and MRI images were in accordance to the ex vivo biodistribution results. The preliminary results of this study warrant the need for further development of Au@DTDTPA nanoparticles radiolabeled with Ga-68, as possible dual-modality PET/MRI imaging agents.

  1. Initial in vitro and in vivo assessment of Au@DTDTPA-RGD nanoparticles for Gd-MRI and 68Ga-PET dual modality imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoukalas, Charalmpos [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece); Laurent, Gautier; Jiménez Sánchez, Gloria [Université de Franche-Comté, Institut UTINAM (France); Tsotakos, Theodoros [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece); Bazzi, Rana [Université de Franche-Comté, Institut UTINAM (France); Stellas, Dimitris; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens (Greece); Moulopoulos, Lia; Koutoulidis, Vasilis [Department of Radiology, Areteion Hospital, University of Athens Medical School (Greece); Paravatou-Petsotas, Maria; Xanthopoulos, Stavros [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece); Roux, Stephane [Université de Franche-Comté, Institut UTINAM (France); Bouziotis, Penelope [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece)

    2015-05-18

    Gadolinium chelate coated gold nanoparticles (Au@DTDTPA) can be applied as contrast agents for both in vivo X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. In this work, our aim was to radiolabel and evaluate this gold nanoparticle with Ga-68, in order to produce a dual modality PET/MRI imaging probe. For a typical preparation of 68Ga-labeled nanoparticles, the Au@DTDTPA nanoparticles (Au@DTDTPA/Au@DTDTPA-RGD) were mixed with ammonium acetate buffer, pH 5 and 40 MBq of 68Ga eluate. The mixture was then incubated for 45 min at 65 ÅãC. Radiochemical purity was determined by ITLC. In vitro stability of both radiolabeled species was assessed in saline and serum. In vitro cell binding experiments were performed on integrin ανβ3 receptor-positive U87MG cancer cells. Non-specific Au@DTDTPA was used for comparison. Ex vivo biodistribution studies and in vivo PET and MRI imaging studies in U87MG tumor-bearing SCID mice followed. The Au@DTDTPA nanoparticles were labeled with Gallium-68 at high radiochemical yield (>95%) and were stable at RT, and in the presence of serum, for up to 3 h. The cell binding assay on U87MG glioma cells proved that 68Ga-cRGD-Au@DTDTPA had specific recognition for these cells. Biodistribution studies in U87MG tumor-bearing SCID mice showed that the tumor to muscle ratio increased from 1 to 2 h p.i. (3,71 ± 0.22 and 4,69 ± 0.09 respectively), showing a clear differentiation between the affected and the non-affected tissue. The acquired PET and MRI images were in accordance to the ex vivo biodistribution results. The preliminary results of this study warrant the need for further development of Au@DTDTPA nanoparticles radiolabeled with Ga-68, as possible dual-modality PET/MRI imaging agents.

  2. Comparative In vivo, Ex vivo, and In vitro Toxicity Studies of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to reduce the number of animals in engineered nanomaterials (ENM) toxicity testing have resulted in the development of numerous alternative toxicity testing methods, but in vivo and in vitro results are still evolving and variable. This inconsistency could be due to the f...

  3. In vivo 7Li and 19F NMR studies of drugs in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoroski, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    For various reasons, it is advantageous to measure the concentration of a psychoactive drug in the brain in vivo. Many drugs contain the element fluorine. Using 19 F NMR spectroscopy, we have studied the psychoactive drugs trifluoperazine and fluoxetine in the brain in vivo. Using 7 Li NMR, it is possible to detect lithium ion, used to treat manic depressive illness. We have measured the concentration and distribution of lithium in both human and rat brain in vivo. Measurement of drug levels in the human brain may provide a measure of therapeutic or toxic effects, as well as insight into drug metabolism and mechanism of action. (author)

  4. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo imaging of the microvasculature with 2-photon fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Joe; Koletar, Margaret; Stefanovic, Bojana; Sled, John G.

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluates 2-Photon fluorescence microscopy of in vivo and ex vivo cleared samples for visualizing cortical vasculature. Four mice brains were imaged with in vivo 2PFM. Mice were then perfused with a FITC gel and cleared in fructose. The same regions imaged in vivo were imaged ex vivo. Vessels were segmented automatically in both images using an in-house developed algorithm that accounts for the anisotropic and spatially varying PSF ex vivo. Through non-linear warping, the ex vivo image and tracing were aligned to the in vivo image. The corresponding vessels were identified through a local search algorithm. This enabled comparison of identical vessels in vivo/ex vivo. A similar process was conducted on the in vivo tracing to determine the percentage of vessels perfused. Of all the vessels identified over the four brains in vivo, 98% were present ex vivo. There was a trend towards reduced vessel diameter ex vivo by 12.7%, and the shrinkage varied between specimens (0% to 26%). Large diameter surface vessels, through a process termed 'shadowing', attenuated in vivo signal from deeper cortical vessels by 40% at 300 μm below the cortical surface, which does not occur ex vivo. In summary, though there is a mean diameter shrinkage ex vivo, ex vivo imaging has a reduced shadowing artifact. Additionally, since imaging depths are only limited by the working distance of the microscope objective, ex vivo imaging is more suitable for imaging large portions of the brain.

  5. In vivo toxicologic study of larger silica nanoparticles in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan WT

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wai-Tao Chan,1–3 Cheng-Che Liu,4 Jen-Shiu Chiang Chiau,5 Shang-Ting Tsai,6 Chih-Kai Liang,6 Mei-Lien Cheng,5 Hung-Chang Lee,7,8 Chun-Yun Yeung,1,3,9 Shao-Yi Hou2,6 1Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, MacKay Children’s Hospital, 2Graduate Institute of Engineering Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 3Mackay Medicine, Nursing, and Management College, 4Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 5Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu, 6Graduate Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, 7Department of Pediatrics, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu, 8Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 9Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs are being studied and used for medical purposes. As nanotechnology grows rapidly, its biosafety and toxicity have frequently raised concerns. However, diverse results have been reported about the safety of SiNPs; several studies reported that smaller particles might exhibit toxic effects to some cell lines, and larger particles of 100 nm were reported to be genotoxic to the cocultured cells. Here, we investigated the in vivo toxicity of SiNPs of 150 nm in various dosages via intravenous administration in mice. The mice were observed for 14 days before blood examination and histopathological assay. All the mice survived and behaved normally after the administration of nanoparticles. No significant weight change was noted. Blood examinations showed no definite systemic dysfunction of organ systems. Histopathological studies of vital organs confirmed no SiNP-related adverse effects. We concluded that 150 nm SiNPs were biocompatible and safe for in vivo use in mice. Keywords: in vivo, mice, silica nanoparticle, nanotoxicity

  6. Antiaging effects of a novel facial serum containing L-ascorbic acid, proteoglycans, and proteoglycan-stimulating tripeptide: ex vivo skin explant studies and in vivo clinical studies in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garre A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aurora Garre,1 Mridvika Narda,1 Palmira Valderas-Martinez,1 Jaime Piquero,2 Corinne Granger1 1Innovation and Development, ISDIN SA, Barcelona, Spain; 2Dermik Clinic, Barcelona, Spain Background: With age, decreasing dermal levels of proteoglycans, collagen, and elastin lead to the appearance of aged skin. Oxidation, largely driven by environmental factors, plays a central role.Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the antiaging efficacy of a topical serum containing l-ascorbic acid, soluble proteoglycans, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid, and a tripeptide in ex vivo and in vivo clinical studies.Methods: Photoaging and photo-oxidative damage were induced in human skin explants by artificial solar radiation. Markers of oxidative stress – reactive oxygen species (ROS, total glutathione (GSH, and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs – were measured in serum-treated explants and untreated controls. Chronological aging was simulated using hydrocortisone. In both ex vivo studies, collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans were determined as measures of dermal matrix degradation. In women aged 21–67 years, hydration was measured up to 24 hours after a single application of serum, using Corneometer and hygrometer. Subjects’ perceptions of efficacy and acceptability were assessed via questionnaire after once-daily serum application for 4 weeks. Studies were performed under the supervision of a dermatologist.Results: In the photoaging study, irradiation induced changes in ROS, CPD, GSH, collagen, and elastin levels; these changes were reversed by topical serum application. The serum also protected against hydrocortisone-induced reduction in collagen, elastin, and proteoglycan levels, which were significantly higher in the serum-treated group vs untreated hydrocortisone-control explants. In clinical studies, serum application significantly increased skin moisture for 6 hours. Healthy volunteers perceived the product as efficient in making the

  7. Real-Time Amperometric Recording of Extracellular H2O2 in the Brain of Immunocompromised Mice: An In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Characterisation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Caroline H.; Finnerty, Niall J.

    2017-01-01

    We detail an extensive characterisation study on a previously described dual amperometric H2O2 biosensor consisting of H2O2 detection (blank) and degradation (catalase) electrodes. In vitro investigations demonstrated excellent H2O2 sensitivity and selectivity against the interferent, ascorbic acid. Ex vivo studies were performed to mimic physiological conditions prior to in vivo deployment. Exposure to brain tissue homogenate identified reliable sensitivity and selectivity recordings up to seven days for both blank and catalase electrodes. Furthermore, there was no compromise in pre- and post-implanted catalase electrode sensitivity in ex vivo mouse brain. In vivo investigations performed in anaesthetised mice confirmed the ability of the H2O2 biosensor to detect increases in amperometric current following locally perfused/infused H2O2 and antioxidant inhibitors mercaptosuccinic acid and sodium azide. Subsequent recordings in freely moving mice identified negligible effects of control saline and sodium ascorbate interference injections on amperometric H2O2 current. Furthermore, the stability of the amperometric current was confirmed over a five-day period and analysis of 24-h signal recordings identified the absence of diurnal variations in amperometric current. Collectively, these findings confirm the biosensor current responds in vivo to increasing exogenous and endogenous H2O2 and tentatively supports measurement of H2O2 dynamics in freely moving NOD SCID mice. PMID:28698470

  8. Lentiviral Modulation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Affects In Vivo LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Olga Ya; Dobryakova, Yulia V; Salozhin, Sergey V; Aniol, Viktor A; Onufriev, Mikhail V; Gulyaeva, Natalia V; Markevich, Vladimir A

    2017-10-01

    Wnt signaling is involved in hippocampal development and synaptogenesis. Numerous recent studies have been focused on the role of Wnt ligands in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Inhibitors and activators of canonical Wnt signaling were demonstrated to decrease or increase, respectively, in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance in hippocampal slices (Chen et al. in J Biol Chem 281:11910-11916, 2006; Vargas et al. in J Neurosci 34:2191-2202, 2014, Vargas et al. in Exp Neurol 264:14-25, 2015). Using lentiviral approach to down- and up-regulate the canonical Wnt signaling, we explored whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for the in vivo LTP. Chronic suppression of Wnt signaling induced an impairment of in vivo LTP expression 14 days after lentiviral suspension injection, while overexpression of Wnt3 was associated with a transient enhancement of in vivo LTP magnitude. Both effects were related to the early phase LTP and did not affect LTP maintenance. A loss-of-function study demonstrated decreased initial paired pulse facilitation ratio, β-catenin, and phGSK-3β levels. A gain-of-function study revealed not only an increase in PSD-95, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 protein levels, but also a reduced phGSK-3β level and enhanced GSK-3β kinase activity. These results suggest a presynaptic dysfunction predominantly underlying LTP impairment while postsynaptic modifications are primarily involved in transient LTP amplification. This study is the first demonstration of the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in synaptic plasticity regulation in an in vivo LTP model.

  9. Simulating clinical studies of the glucoregulatory system: in vivo meets in silico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    metabolism at varying ambient insulin levels. The report compares in vivo and in silico results head-to-head, and discusses similarities and differences. We design and simulate simple studies to emphasize the implications of some glucoregulatory dynamics which are ignored in most previous clinical studies...

  10. Human Uterine Leiomyoma Stem/Progenitor Cells Expressing CD34 and CD49b Initiate Tumors In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masanori; Moravek, Molly B.; Coon, John S.; Navarro, Antonia; Monsivais, Diana; Dyson, Matthew T.; Druschitz, Stacy A.; Malpani, Saurabh S.; Serna, Vanida A.; Qiang, Wenan; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Kim, J. Julie; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor in reproductive-age women. Using a dye-exclusion technique, we previously identified a side population of leiomyoma cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics. However, unless mixed with mature myometrial cells, these leiomyoma side population cells did not survive or grow well in vitro or in vivo. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify cell surface markers to isolate leiomyoma stem/progenitor cells. Design: Real-time PCR screening was used to identify cell surface markers preferentially expressed in leiomyoma side population cells. In vitro colony-formation assay and in vivo tumor-regeneration assay were used to demonstrate functions of leiomyoma stem/progenitor cells. Results: We found significantly elevated CD49b and CD34 gene expression in side population cells compared with main population cells. Leiomyoma cells were sorted into three populations based on the expression of CD34 and CD49b: CD34+/CD49b+, CD34+/CD49b−, and CD34−/CD49b− cells, with the majority of the side population cells residing in the CD34+/CD49b+ fraction. Of these populations, CD34+/CD49b+ cells expressed the lowest levels of estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor, and α-smooth muscle actin, but the highest levels of KLF4, NANOG, SOX2, and OCT4, confirming their more undifferentiated status. The stemness of CD34+/CD49b+ cells was also demonstrated by their strongest in vitro colony-formation capacity and in vivo tumor-regeneration ability. Conclusions: CD34 and CD49b are cell surface markers that can be used to enrich a subpopulation of leiomyoma cells possessing stem/progenitor cell properties; this technique will accelerate efforts to develop new therapies for uterine leiomyoma. PMID:25658015

  11. A functional genomics approach using radiation-induced changes in gene expression to study low dose radiation effects in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornace, Jr, A J

    2007-03-03

    Abstract for final report for project entitled A functional genomics approach using radiation-induced changes in gene expression to study low dose radiation effects in vitro and in vivo which has been supported by the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program for approximately 7 years. This project has encompassed two sequential awards, ER62683 and then ER63308, in the Gene Response Section in the Center for Cancer Research at the National Cancer Institute. The project was temporarily suspended during the relocation of the Principal Investigators laboratory to the Dept. of Genetics and Complex Diseases at Harvard School of Public Health at the end of 2004. Remaining support for the final year was transferred to this new site later in 2005 and was assigned the DOE Award Number ER64065. The major aims of this project have been 1) to characterize changes in gene expression in response to low-dose radiation responses; this includes responses in human cells lines, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and in vivo after human or murine exposures, as well as the effect of dose-rate on gene responses; 2) to characterize changes in gene expression that may be involved in bystander effects, such as may be mediated by cytokines and other intercellular signaling proteins; and 3) to characterize responses in transgenic mouse models with relevance to genomic stability. A variety of approaches have been used to study transcriptional events including microarray hybridization, quantitative single-probe hybridization which was developed in this laboratory, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter microarray analysis using genomic regulatory motifs. Considering the frequent responsiveness of genes encoding cytokines and related signaling proteins that can affect cellular metabolism, initial efforts were initiated to study radiation responses at the metabolomic level and to correlate with radiation-responsive gene expression. Productivity includes twenty-four published and in press manuscripts

  12. Augmentation of bone defect healing using a new biocomposite scaffold: an in vivo study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, U; Mathieu, L; Zeiter, S; Bourban, P-E; Zambelli, P-Y; Pearce, S G; Bouré, L P; Pioletti, D P

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies support resorbable biocomposites made of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) produced by supercritical gas foaming as a suitable scaffold for tissue engineering. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties of such a scaffold in a large animal cancellous bone model. The biocomposite (PLA/TCP) was compared with a currently used beta-TCP bone substitute (ChronOS, Dr. Robert Mathys Foundation), representing a positive control, and empty defects, representing a negative control. Ten defects were created in sheep cancellous bone, three in the distal femur and two in the proximal tibia of each hind limb, with diameters of 5 mm and depths of 15 mm. New bone in-growth (osteoconductivity) and biocompatibility were evaluated using microcomputed tomography and histology at 2, 4 and 12 months after surgery. The in vivo study was validated by the positive control (good bone formation with ChronOS) and the negative control (no healing with the empty defect). A major finding of this study was incorporation of the biocomposite in bone after 12 months. Bone in-growth was observed in the biocomposite scaffold, including its central part. Despite initial fibrous tissue formation observed at 2 and 4 months, but not at 12 months, this initial fibrous tissue does not preclude long-term application of the biocomposite, as demonstrated by its osteointegration after 12 months, as well as the absence of chronic or long-term inflammation at this time point. 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo study of immunogenicity and kinetic characteristics of a quantum dot-labelled baculovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Zhenhua; Meng, Jin; Wang, Han; He, Man; Zhang, Fuxian; Liu, Yan; Hu, Bin; He, Zike; Hu, Qinxue; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-09-01

    Nanomaterials conjugated with biomacromolecules, including viruses, have great potential for in vivo applications. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the safety of nanoparticle-conjugated macromolecule biomaterials (Nano-mbio). Although a number of studies have assessed the risks of nanoparticles and macromolecule biomaterials in living bodies, only a few of them investigated Nano-mbios. Here we evaluated the in vivo safety profile of a quantum dot-conjugated baculovirus (Bq), a promising new Nano-mbio, in mice. Each animal was injected twice intraperitoneally with 50 μg virus protein labelled with around 3*10(-5)nmol conjugated qds. Control animals were injected with PBS, quantum dots, baculovirus, or a mixture of quantum dots and baculovirus. Blood, tissues and body weight were analysed at a series of time points following both the first and the second injections. It turned out that the appearance and behaviour of the mice injected with Bq were similar to those injected with baculovirus alone. However, combination of baculovirus and quantum dot (conjugated or simply mixed) significantly induced stronger adaptive immune responses, and lead to a faster accumulation and longer existence of Cd in the kidneys. Thus, despite the fact that both quantum dot and baculovirus have been claimed to be safe in vivo, applications of Bq in vivo should be cautious. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the interaction between a nanoparticle-conjugated virus and a living body from a safety perspective, providing a basis for in vivo application of other Nano-mbios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation, initiation, and termination of the cenA and cex transcripts of Cellulomonas fimi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, N.M.; Warren, R.A.J.; Kilburn, D.G.; Miller, R.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The authors characterized the in vivo transcripts of two Cellulomonas fimi genes, which encodes an extracellular endo-β-1,4-glucanase. By Northern blot analysis, cenA mRNA was detected in C. fimi RNA preparations from glycerol- and carboxymethyl cellulose-grown cells but not from glucose-grown cells. In contrast, cex mRNA was detected only in the preparations from carboxymethyl cellulose-grown cells. Therefore, the transcription of these genes is subject to regulation by the carbon source provided to C. fimi. By nuclease SI protection studies with unique 5'-labeled DNA probes and C. fimi RNA isolated in vivo, 5' termini were found 51 and 62 bases before the cenA translational initiation codon and 28 bases before the cex translational initiation codon. S1 mapping with unlabeled DNA probes and C. fimi RNA which had been isolated in vivo but which had been 5' labeled in vitro with guanylyltransferase and [α- 32 P]GTP confirmed that true transcription initiation sites for cenA and cex mRNA had been identified. Comparative analysis of the DNA sequences immediately upstream of the initiation sites of the cenA and cex mRNAs revealed a 30-base-pair region where these two sequences display at least 66% homology. S1 mapping was also used to locate the 3' termini of the cenA and cex transcripts. Three 3' termini were found for cenA messages, whereas only one 3' terminus was identified for cex mRNA. The transcripts of both genes terminate in regions where their corresponding DNA sequences contain inverted repeats

  15. Phasic spike patterning in rat supraoptic neurones in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Nancy; Brown, Colin H; Ludwig, Mike; Leng, Gareth

    2004-01-01

    In vivo, most vasopressin cells of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus fire action potentials in a ‘phasic’ pattern when the systemic osmotic pressure is elevated, while most oxytocin cells fire continuously. The phasic firing pattern is believed to arise as a consequence of intrinsic activity-dependent changes in membrane potential, and these have been extensively studied in vitro. Here we analysed the discharge patterning of supraoptic nucleus neurones in vivo, to infer the characteristics of the post-spike sequence of hyperpolarization and depolarization from the observed spike patterning. We then compared patterning in phasic cells in vivo and in vitro, and we found systematic differences in the interspike interval distributions, and in other statistical parameters that characterized activity patterns within bursts. Analysis of hazard functions (probability of spike initiation as a function of time since the preceding spike) revealed that phasic firing in vitro appears consistent with a regenerative process arising from a relatively slow, late depolarizing afterpotential that approaches or exceeds spike threshold. By contrast, in vivo activity appears to be dominated by stochastic rather than deterministic mechanisms, and appears consistent with a relatively early and fast depolarizing afterpotential that modulates the probability that random synaptic input exceeds spike threshold. Despite superficial similarities in the phasic firing patterns observed in vivo and in vitro, there are thus fundamental differences in the underlying mechanisms. PMID:15146047

  16. Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derek K.; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P.; Walker, Tina D.; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E.; Barra, Nicole G.; Bassett, Jennifer D.; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D.; Bowdish, Dawn M.; Erjefält, Jonas S.; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A.; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4+/+ or il4−/− eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103+ dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

  17. In vivo thermoluminescent dosimetry in studies of helicoid computed tomography and excretory urogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz C, D.; Azorin N, J.; Saucedo A, V.M.; Barajas O, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The dosimetry is the field of measurement of the ionizing radiations. It final objective is to determine the 'absorbed dose' for people. The dosimetry is vital in the radiotherapy, the radiological protection and the treatment technologies by irradiation. Presently work, we develop 'In vivo' dosimetry, in exposed patients to studies of helical computed tomography and excretory urogram. The dosimetry 'in vivo' was carried out in 20 patients selected aleatorily, for each medical study. The absorbed dose was measured in points of interest located in crystalline, thyroid, chest and abdomen of each patient, by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) LiF: Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national fabrication. Also it was quantified the dose in the working area. (Author)

  18. CD200-expressing human basal cell carcinoma cells initiate tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmont, Chantal S; Benketah, Antisar; Reed, Simon H; Hawk, Nga V; Telford, William G; Ohyama, Manabu; Udey, Mark C; Yee, Carole L; Vogel, Jonathan C; Patel, Girish K

    2013-01-22

    Smoothened antagonists directly target the genetic basis of human basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common of all cancers. These drugs inhibit BCC growth, but they are not curative. Although BCC cells are monomorphic, immunofluorescence microscopy reveals a complex hierarchical pattern of growth with inward differentiation along hair follicle lineages. Most BCC cells express the transcription factor KLF4 and are committed to terminal differentiation. A small CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation that represents 1.63 ± 1.11% of all BCC cells resides in small clusters at the tumor periphery. By using reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assays, we determined that tumor initiating cell frequencies approximate one per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200(+) CD45(-) cells, representing ~1,500-fold enrichment. CD200(-) CD45(-) BCC cells were unable to form tumors. These findings establish a platform to study the effects of Smoothened antagonists on BCC tumor initiating cell and also suggest that currently available anti-CD200 therapy be considered, either as monotherapy or an adjunct to Smoothened antagonists, in the treatment of inoperable BCC.

  19. An ex vivo human skin model for studying skin barrier repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, Mogbekeloluwa O; Berkers, Tineke; Mieremet, Arnout; Hausil, Farzia; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2015-01-01

    In the studies described in this study, we introduce a novel ex vivo human skin barrier repair model. To develop this, we removed the upper layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC) by a reproducible cyanoacrylate stripping technique. After stripping the explants, they were cultured in vitro to allow the regeneration of the SC. We selected two culture temperatures 32 °C and 37 °C and a period of either 4 or 8 days. After 8 days of culture, the explant generated SC at a similar thickness compared to native human SC. At 37 °C, the early and late epidermal differentiation programmes were executed comparably to native human skin with the exception of the barrier protein involucrin. At 32 °C, early differentiation was delayed, but the terminal differentiation proteins were expressed as in stripped explants cultured at 37 °C. Regarding the barrier properties, the SC lateral lipid organization was mainly hexagonal in the regenerated SC, whereas the lipids in native human SC adopt a more dense orthorhombic organization. In addition, the ceramide levels were higher in the cultured explants at 32 °C and 37 °C than in native human SC. In conclusion, we selected the stripped ex vivo skin model cultured at 37 °C as a candidate model to study skin barrier repair because epidermal and SC characteristics mimic more closely the native human skin than the ex vivo skin model cultured at 32 °C. Potentially, this model can be used for testing formulations for skin barrier repair. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwen; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Munoz, Juliana; Gurley, Bill J; Markowitz, John S

    2015-04-02

    Botanical medicines are frequently used in combination with therapeutic drugs, imposing a risk for harmful botanical-drug interactions (BDIs). Among the existing BDI evaluation methods, clinical studies are the most desirable, but due to their expense and protracted time-line for completion, conventional in vitro methodologies remain the most frequently used BDI assessment tools. However, many predictions generated from in vitro studies are inconsistent with clinical findings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to develop a novel ex vivo approach for BDI assessment and expand the safety evaluation methodology in applied ethnopharmacological research. This approach differs from conventional in vitro methods in that rather than botanical extracts or individual phytochemicals being prepared in artificial buffers, human plasma/serum collected from a limited number of subjects administered botanical supplements was utilized to assess BDIs. To validate the methodology, human plasma/serum samples collected from healthy subjects administered either milk thistle or goldenseal extracts were utilized in incubation studies to determine their potential inhibitory effects on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4/5, respectively. Silybin A and B, two principal milk thistle phytochemicals, and hydrastine and berberine, the purported active constituents in goldenseal, were evaluated in both phosphate buffer and human plasma based in vitro incubation systems. Ex vivo study results were consistent with formal clinical study findings for the effect of milk thistle on the disposition of tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate, and for goldenseal׳s influence on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a widely accepted CYP3A4/5 substrate. Compared to conventional in vitro BDI methodologies of assessment, the introduction of human plasma into the in vitro study model changed the observed inhibitory effect of silybin A, silybin B and hydrastine and berberine on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4/5, respectively, results which more

  1. Electromagnetic tracking for CT-guided spine interventions: phantom, ex-vivo and in-vivo results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruners, Philipp; Penzkofer, Tobias; Nagel, Markus; Elfring, Robert; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Gronloh, Nina; Guenther, Rolf W.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2009-01-01

    An electromagnetic-based tracking and navigation system was evaluated for interventional radiology. The electromagnetic tracking system (CAPPA IRAD EMT, CASinnovations, Erlangen, Germany) was used for real-time monitoring of punctures of the lumbar facet joints and intervertebral disks in a spine phantom, three pig cadavers and three anaesthesized pigs. Therefore, pre-interventional computed tomography (CT) datasets were transferred to the navigation system and puncture trajectories were planned. A coaxial needle was advanced along the trajectories while the position of the needle tip was monitored in real time. After puncture tracts were marked with pieces of wire another CT examination was performed and distances between wires and anatomical targets were measured. Performing punctures of the facet joints mean needle positioning errors were 0.4 ± 0.8 mm in the spine phantom, 2.8 ± 2.1 mm ex vivo and 3.0 ± 2.0 mm in vivo with mean length of the puncture tract of 54.0 ± 10.4 mm (phantom), 51.6 ± 12.6 mm (ex vivo) and 50.9 ± 17.6 mm (in vivo). At first attempt, intervertebral discs were successfully punctured in 15/15 in the phantom study, in 12/15 in the ex-vivo study and 14/15 in the in-vivo study, respectively. Immobilization of the patient and optimal positioning of the field generator are essential to achieve a high accuracy of needle placement in a clinical CT setting. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of the in vivo and ex vivo optical properties in a mouse ear model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomatina, E; Yaroslavsky, A N [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, 40 Blossom Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)], E-mail: Yaroslav@helix.mgh.harvard.edu

    2008-06-07

    Determination of in vivo optical properties is a challenging problem. Absorption and scattering measured ex vivo are often used for in vivo applications. To investigate the validity of this approach, we have obtained and compared the optical properties of mouse ears in vivo and ex vivo in the spectral range from 370 to 1650 nm. Integrating sphere spectrophotometry in combination with the inverse Monte Carlo technique was employed to determine absorption coefficients, {mu}{sub a}, scattering coefficients, {mu}{sub s}, and anisotropy factors, g. Two groups of mice were used for the study. The first group was measured in vivo and ex vivo within 5-10 min post mortem. The second group was measured in vivo and ex vivo every 24 h for up to 72 h after sacrifice. Between the measurements the tissues were kept at 4 deg. C wrapped in a gauze moistened with saline solution. Then the specimens were frozen at -25 deg. C for 40 min, thawed and measured again. The results indicate that the absorption coefficients determined in vivo and ex vivo within 5-10 min post mortem differed considerably only in the spectral range dominated by hemoglobin. These changes can be attributed to rapid deoxygenation of tissue and blood post mortem. Absorption coefficients determined ex vivo up to 72 h post mortem decreased gradually with time in the spectral regions dominated by hemoglobin and water, which can be explained by the continuing loss of blood. Absorption properties of the frozen-thawed ex vivo tissues showed increase in oxygenation, which is likely caused by the release of hemoglobin from hemolyzed erythrocytes. Scattering of the ex vivo tissues decreased gradually with time in the entire spectral range due to the continuing loss of blood and partial cell damage. Anisotropy factors did not change considerably.

  3. 'A novel in vivo model for the study of human breast cancer metastasis using primary breast tumor-initiating cells from patient biopsies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, Carolyn G; Wright, Mary Jo; Carrier, Latonya; Moroz, Krzysztof; Pochampally, Radhika; Rowan, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    The study of breast cancer metastasis depends on the use of established breast cancer cell lines that do not accurately represent the heterogeneity and complexity of human breast tumors. A tumor model was developed using primary breast tumor-initiating cells isolated from patient core biopsies that would more accurately reflect human breast cancer metastasis. Tumorspheres were isolated under serum-free culture conditions from core biopsies collected from five patients with clinical diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Isolated tumorspheres were transplanted into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice to establish tumorigenicity in vivo. Tumors and metastatic lesions were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H+E) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tumorspheres were successfully isolated from all patient core biopsies, independent of the estrogen receptor α (ERα)/progesterone receptor (PR)/Her2/neu status or tumor grade. Each tumorsphere was estimated to contain 50-100 cells. Transplantation of 50 tumorspheres (1-5 × 10 3 cells) in combination with Matrigel into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice resulted in small, palpable tumors that were sustained up to 12 months post-injection. Tumors were serially transplanted three times by re-isolation of tumorspheres from the tumors and injection into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. At 3 months post-injection, micrometastases to the lung, liver, kidneys, brain and femur were detected by measuring content of human chromosome 17. Visible macrometastases were detected in the lung, liver and kidneys by 6 months post-injection. Primary tumors variably expressed cytokeratins, Her2/neu, cytoplasmic E-cadherin, nuclear β catenin and fibronectin but were negative for ERα and vimentin. In lung and liver metastases, variable redistribution of E-cadherin and β catenin to the membrane of tumor cells was observed. ERα was re-expressed in lung metastatic cells in two of five samples. Tumorspheres isolated under defined culture

  4. A multiplexable TALE-based binary expression system for in vivo cellular interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegel, Markus; Azzam, Ghows; Lee, Eunice Y; Knapp, David J H F; Tan, Ying; Fa, Ming; Fulga, Tudor A

    2017-11-21

    Binary expression systems have revolutionised genetic research by enabling delivery of loss-of-function and gain-of-function transgenes with precise spatial-temporal resolution in vivo. However, at present, each existing platform relies on a defined exogenous transcription activator capable of binding a unique recognition sequence. Consequently, none of these technologies alone can be used to simultaneously target different tissues or cell types in the same organism. Here, we report a modular system based on programmable transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins, which enables parallel expression of multiple transgenes in spatially distinct tissues in vivo. Using endogenous enhancers coupled to TALE drivers, we demonstrate multiplexed orthogonal activation of several transgenes carrying cognate variable activating sequences (VAS) in distinct neighbouring cell types of the Drosophila central nervous system. Since the number of combinatorial TALE-VAS pairs is virtually unlimited, this platform provides an experimental framework for highly complex genetic manipulation studies in vivo.

  5. NMR studies of cerebral metabolism in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The nature and extent of the potential synergism between PET and NMR methods is not yet well appreciated in the biomedical community. The long-range interest of medical neurobiology will be well served by efforts of PET and NMR scientists to follow each others' work so that opportunities for productive interchange can be efficiently exploited. Appreciation of the synergism by the rest of the biomedical community will follow naturally. PET is said by the people doing it to be still in its infancy, for they are more concerned with advancing their discipline than with admiring its already impressive achievements. On the scale of the same developmental metaphor, many NMR methods for studying the living human brain are still in utero. The best way to provide the reader a sense of the current status and future course of NMR research in medical neurobiology is by discussion of published in vivo studies. Such a discussion, adapted from another article is what follows

  6. Ethosomal nanocarriers: the impact of constituents and formulation techniques on ethosomal properties, in vivo studies, and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulbaqi, Ibrahim M; Darwis, Yusrida; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Assi, Reem Abou; Khan, Arshad A

    2016-01-01

    Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone extensive research since they were invented in 1996; new compounds were added to their initial formula, which led to the production of new types of ethosomal systems. Different preparation techniques are used in the preparation of these novel carriers. For ease of application and stability, ethosomal dispersions are incorporated into gels, patches, and creams. Highly diverse in vivo models are used to evaluate their efficacy in dermal/transdermal delivery, in addition to clinical trials. This article provides a detailed review of the ethosomal systems and categorizes them on the basis of their constituents to classical ethosomes, binary ethosomes, and transethosomes. The differences among these systems are discussed from several perspectives, including the formulation, size, ζ-potential (zeta potential), entrapment efficiency, skin-permeation properties, and stability. This paper gives a detailed review on the effects of ethosomal system constituents, preparation methods, and their significant roles in determining the final properties of these nanocarriers. Furthermore, the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms of ethosomal gels, patches, and creams are highlighted. The article also provides detailed information regarding the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for the evaluation of these vesicular systems.

  7. Mechanical properties of porcine brain tissue in vivo and ex vivo estimated by MR elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Charlotte A; Okamoto, Ruth J; Schmidt, John L; Badachhape, Andrew A; Johnson, Curtis L; Bayly, Philip V

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical properties of brain tissue in vivo determine the response of the brain to rapid skull acceleration. These properties are thus of great interest to the developers of mathematical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) or neurosurgical simulations. Animal models provide valuable insight that can improve TBI modeling. In this study we compare estimates of mechanical properties of the Yucatan mini-pig brain in vivo and ex vivo using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at multiple frequencies. MRE allows estimations of properties in soft tissue, either in vivo or ex vivo, by imaging harmonic shear wave propagation. Most direct measurements of brain mechanical properties have been performed using samples of brain tissue ex vivo. It has been observed that direct estimates of brain mechanical properties depend on the frequency and amplitude of loading, as well as the time post-mortem and condition of the sample. Using MRE in the same animals at overlapping frequencies, we observe that porcine brain tissue in vivo appears stiffer than porcine brain tissue samples ex vivo at frequencies of 100 Hz and 125 Hz, but measurements show closer agreement at lower frequencies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo body composition studies in malnourished patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Blagojevic, N.

    1987-01-01

    The establishment of an in vivo TBN facility at Lucas Heights, together with measurement techniques for whole body and extracellular water, is leading to an expanded interest in the relationships between clinical status, body composition and dietary regimes. The ANSTO program provides the opportunity for the first quantitative assessments of these factors in Australia. Body composition studies provide a common link with other-wise unrelated physiological or psychological diseases, and a pool of normal data is being established. Substantial improvements in patient care and quality of life should result from this project, together with a deeper understanding of the importance of body composition in disease-induced malnutrition

  9. In vivo body composition studies in malnourished patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J; Blagojevic, N

    1987-09-01

    The establishment of an in vivo TBN facility at Lucas Heights, together with measurement techniques for whole body and extracellular water, is leading to an expanded interest in the relationships between clinical status, body composition and dietary regimes. The ANSTO program provides the opportunity for the first quantitative assessments of these factors in Australia. Body composition studies provide a common link with other-wise unrelated physiological or psychological diseases, and a pool of normal data is being established. Substantial improvements in patient care and quality of life should result from this project, together with a deeper understanding of the importance of body composition in disease-induced malnutrition.

  10. Laser-assisted cartilage reshaping: in vitro and in vivo animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Pankratov, Michail M.; Perrault, Donald F., Jr.; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1995-05-01

    Correction of cartilaginous defects in the head and neck area remains a challenge for the surgeon. This study investigated a new technique for laser-assisted cartilage reshaping. The pulsed 1.44 micrometers Nd:YAG laser was used in vitro and in vivo experiments to irradiate cartilage to change it's shape without carbonization or vaporization of tissue. Two watts of average power in non contact manner was used to irradiate and reshape the cartilage. The extracted reshaped cartilage specimens underwent testing of elastic force with a computer assisted measurement system that recorded the changes in elastic force in the specimens from 1 hr to 11 days post-irradiation. An animal model of defective tracheal cartilage (collapsed tracheal wall) was created, allowed to heal for 6 weeks and then corrected endoscopically with the laser-assisted technique. The results of the in vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrated that it was possible to alter the cartilage and that cartilage would retain its new shape. The clinical significance of the technique is evident and warrants further animal studies and clinical trials.

  11. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth.

  12. Desmosomes In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garrod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, function, and regulation of desmosomal adhesion in vivo are discussed. Most desmosomes in tissues exhibit calcium-independent adhesion, which is strongly adhesive or “hyperadhesive”. This is fundamental to tissue strength. Almost all studies in culture are done on weakly adhesive, calcium-dependent desmosomes, although hyperadhesion can be readily obtained in confluent cell culture. Calcium dependence is a default condition in vivo, found in wounds and embryonic development. Hyperadhesion appears to be associated with an ordered arrangement of the extracellular domains of the desmosomal cadherins, which gives rise to the intercellular midline identified in ultrastructural studies. This in turn probably depends on molecular order in the desmosomal plaque. Protein kinase C downregulates hyperadhesion and there is preliminary evidence that it may also be regulated by tyrosine kinases. Downregulation of desmosomes in vivo may occur by internalisation of whole desmosomes rather than disassembly. Hyperadhesion has implications for diseases such as pemphigus.

  13. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    OpenAIRE

    AlSuhaibani, Entissar S.

    2010-01-01

    Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester) is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol) was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight)....

  14. In vivo longitudinal micro-CT study of bent long limb bones in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Delille, Peter; Geys, Helena; Boehringer-Shahidi, Christian; Vanhove, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) has been reported as a reliable method to assess ex vivo rat and rabbit fetal skeletons in embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies. Since micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality it has the potential for longitudinal, in vivo investigation of postnatal skeletal development. This is the first paper using micro-CT to assess the reversibility of drug-induced bent long bones in a longitudinal study from birth to early adulthood in rat offspring. Analysis of the scans obtained on postnatal Day 0, 7, 21 and 80 showed complete recovery or repair of the bent long limb bones (including the scapula) within the first 3 weeks. When assessing risk the ability to demonstrate recovery is highly advantageous when interpreting such transient skeletal change. In summary, in vivo micro-CT of small laboratory animals can aid in non-clinical safety assessment, particularly for specific mechanistic purposes or to address a particular concern in developmental biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  16. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  17. In vivo induction of apoptosis in human lymphocytes by therapeutic fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delic, J.; Magdelenat, H.; Barbaroux, C.; Chaillet, M.-P.; Dubray, B.; Fourquet, A.; Cosset, J.-M.; Gluckman, E.; Girinsky, T.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiations have been reported as an in vitro apoptosis initiating stimulus in human lymphocytes. As the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiations and chemotherapeutic agents appears to be dependent on the efficacy of cell death induction, the manipulation of apoptosis initiation might be used as a means to suppress some pathological process. In the present study the in vivo induction of γ-ray mediated programmed cell death in humans is reported. The in vivo induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by ionizing radiations was investigated in 33 patients after each of two sessions (2 Gy and 4 Gy) of fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as part of their conditioning regimen before bone marrow transplantation. PBL committed to apoptosis were scored before irradiation (S1), 4 h (S2) and 24 h after 2 Gy (S3, 14-17 h after the second 2 Gy fraction). Nuclear morphology and chromatin-DNA were analysed by fluorescence microscopy immediately after blood sample withdrawal (I) and after 24 h in cell culture medium (II). (author)

  18. In vivo fluorescence imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma using a novel GPC3-specific aptamer probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Menglong; Dong, Lili; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Shuohui

    2018-01-01

    Background Glypican-3 (GPC3) is highly expressed in most of the hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), even in small HCCs. It may be used as a potential biomarker for early detection of HCC. The aptamer is a promising targeting agent with unique advantages over antibody. This study was to introduce a novel GPC3 specific aptamer (AP613-1), to verify its specific binding property in vitro, and to evaluate its targeting efficiency in vivo by performing near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging on an HCC xenograft model. Methods AP613-1 was generated from the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Flow cytometry and aptamer-based immunofluorescence imaging were performed to verify the binding affinity of AP613-1 to GPC3 in vitro. NIR Fluorescence images of nude mice with unilateral (n=12) and bilateral (n=4) subcutaneous xenograft tumors were obtained. Correlation between the tumor fluorescence intensities in vivo and ex vivo was analyzed. Results AP613-1 could specifically bind to GPC3 in vitro. In vivo and ex vivo tumors, fluorescence intensities were in excellent correlation (Pfluorescence intensity is significantly higher in tumors given Alexa Fluor 750 (AF750) labeled AP613-1 than in those given AF750 labeled initial ssDNA library both in vivo (Pfluorescence intensities than A549 tumors both in vivo (P=0.016) and ex vivo (P=0.004). Conclusions AP613-1 displays a specific binding affinity to GPC3 positive HCC. Fluorescently labeled AP613-1 could be used as an imaging probe to subcutaneous HCC in xenograft models. PMID:29675356

  19. Identification of adulterants in a Chinese herbal medicine by LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR and comparative in vivo study with standards in a hypertensive rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, Jingqi; Sørensen, Dan

    2010-02-05

    Based on anecdotal evidence of anti-hypertensive effect of Gold Nine Soft Capsules, an in vivo study of this complex Chinese "herbal-based" medicine was initiated. Dosage of the content of Gold Nine capsules in spontaneous hypertensive rats showed a remarkably good effect. This led to further investigation of the components of the preparation and eventual identification of three known anti-hypertensive drugs; amlodipine, indapamide and valsartan, which were not declared on the label. Compounds were rapidly identified using LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR, quantified by HPLC, and the in vivo activity of a combination of commercially purchased standards was shown to be equivalent to that of the capsule content. Adulteration of herbal remedies and dietary supplements with synthetic drugs is an increasing problem that may lead to serious adverse effects. LC-MS-SPE/NMR as a method for the rapid identification of such adulterants is highlighted in this case study.

  20. 3D morphological analysis of the mouse cerebral vasculature: Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Steinman

    Full Text Available Ex vivo 2-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM with optical clearing enables vascular imaging deep into tissue. However, optical clearing may also produce spherical aberrations if the objective lens is not index-matched to the clearing material, while the perfusion, clearing, and fixation procedure may alter vascular morphology. We compared in vivo and ex vivo 2PFM in mice, focusing on apparent differences in microvascular signal and morphology. Following in vivo imaging, the mice (four total were perfused with a fluorescent gel and their brains fructose-cleared. The brain regions imaged in vivo were imaged ex vivo. Vessels were segmented in both images using an automated tracing algorithm that accounts for the spatially varying PSF in the ex vivo images. This spatial variance is induced by spherical aberrations caused by imaging fructose-cleared tissue with a water-immersion objective. Alignment of the ex vivo image to the in vivo image through a non-linear warping algorithm enabled comparison of apparent vessel diameter, as well as differences in signal. Shrinkage varied as a function of diameter, with capillaries rendered smaller ex vivo by 13%, while penetrating vessels shrunk by 34%. The pial vasculature attenuated in vivo microvascular signal by 40% 300 μm below the tissue surface, but this effect was absent ex vivo. On the whole, ex vivo imaging was found to be valuable for studying deep cortical vasculature.

  1. The in vivo biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Maria; Alhede, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria can grow and proliferate either as single, independent cells or organized in aggregates commonly referred to as biofilms. When bacteria succeed in forming a biofilm within the human host, the infection often becomes very resistant to treatment and can develop into a chronic state. Biofilms...... have been studied for decades using various in vitro models, but it remains debatable whether such in vitro biofilms actually resemble in vivo biofilms in chronic infections. In vivo biofilms share several structural characteristics that differ from most in vitro biofilms. Additionally, the in vivo...... experimental time span and presence of host defenses differ from chronic infections and the chemical microenvironment of both in vivo and in vitro biofilms is seldom taken into account. In this review, we discuss why the current in vitro models of biofilms might be limited for describing infectious biofilms...

  2. In vivo radioprotection by alpha-TMG: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyamitra, M; Devi, P U; Murase, H; Kagiya, V T

    2001-08-08

    alpha-TMG is a novel water-soluble derivative of Vitamin E that has shown excellent antioxidant activity. The parent compound has demonstrated protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in vivo. Hence, the preliminary experiments to determine the radioprotective activity of alpha-TMG were carried out in adult Swiss albino mice. Acute toxicity of the drug was studied taking 24h, 72 h and 30 day mortality after a single intraperitoneal injection of 500-2000 mg/kg body weight of the drug. The drug LD(50) for 24h and 72 h/30 day survival were found to be 1120 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The optimum time of drug administration and drug dose-dependent effect on in vivo radiation protection of bone marrow chromosomes was studied in mice. Injection of 600 mg/kg of the drug 15 min before or within 5, 15 or 30min after 3Gy whole body gamma radiation resulted in a significant decrease in the aberrant metaphases percent at 24h post-irradiation; the maximum effect was seen when the drug was given immediately after irradiation. Injection of 200-800 mg/kg TMG within 5 min of irradiation with 3 Gy produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes at 24h after exposure, with a corresponding decrease in the different types of aberrations. The optimum dose for protection without drug toxicity was 600 mg/kg body weight. At this dose, TMG produced 70 and >60% reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and micronucleated erythrocytes, respectively. The high water solubility and effectiveness when administered post-irradiation favor TMG as a likely candidate for protection in case of accidental exposures.

  3. Rose Bengal Photothrombosis by Confocal Optical Imaging In Vivo: A Model of Single Vessel Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley Watts, Lora; Zheng, Wei; Garling, R Justin; Frohlich, Victoria C; Lechleiter, James Donald

    2015-06-23

    In vivo imaging techniques have increased in utilization due to recent advances in imaging dyes and optical technologies, allowing for the ability to image cellular events in an intact animal. Additionally, the ability to induce physiological disease states such as stroke in vivo increases its utility. The technique described herein allows for physiological assessment of cellular responses within the CNS following a stroke and can be adapted for other pathological conditions being studied. The technique presented uses laser excitation of the photosensitive dye Rose Bengal in vivo to induce a focal ischemic event in a single blood vessel. The video protocol demonstrates the preparation of a thin-skulled cranial window over the somatosensory cortex in a mouse for the induction of a Rose Bengal photothrombotic event keeping injury to the underlying dura matter and brain at a minimum. Surgical preparation is initially performed under a dissecting microscope with a custom-made surgical/imaging platform, which is then transferred to a confocal microscope equipped with an inverted objective adaptor. Representative images acquired utilizing this protocol are presented as well as time-lapse sequences of stroke induction. This technique is powerful in that the same area can be imaged repeatedly on subsequent days facilitating longitudinal in vivo studies of pathological processes following stroke.

  4. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitara S R Ajjampur

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, isolate B (ST7-B and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H, we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  5. Studies on the disbonding initiation of interfacial cracks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, Brian J. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA); Pearson, Raymond A. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA)

    2005-08-01

    With the continuing trend of decreasing feature sizes in flip-chip assemblies, the reliability tolerance to interfacial flaws is also decreasing. Small-scale disbonds will become more of a concern, pointing to the need for a better understanding of the initiation stage of interfacial delamination. With most accepted adhesion metric methodologies tailored to predict failure under the prior existence of a disbond, the study of the initiation phenomenon is open to development and standardization of new testing procedures. Traditional fracture mechanics approaches are not suitable, as the mathematics assume failure to originate at a disbond or crack tip. Disbond initiation is believed to first occur at free edges and corners, which act as high stress concentration sites and exhibit singular stresses similar to a crack tip, though less severe in intensity. As such, a 'fracture mechanics-like' approach may be employed which defines a material parameter--a critical stress intensity factor (K{sub c})--that can be used to predict when initiation of a disbond at an interface will occur. The factors affecting the adhesion of underfill/polyimide interfaces relevant to flip-chip assemblies were investigated in this study. The study consisted of two distinct parts: a comparison of the initiation and propagation phenomena and a comparison of the relationship between sub-critical and critical initiation of interfacial failure. The initiation of underfill interfacial failure was studied by characterizing failure at a free-edge with a critical stress intensity factor. In comparison with the interfacial fracture toughness testing, it was shown that a good correlation exists between the initiation and propagation of interfacial failures. Such a correlation justifies the continuing use of fracture mechanics to predict the reliability of flip-chip packages. The second aspect of the research involved fatigue testing of tensile butt joint specimens to determine lifetimes at sub

  6. Development of andrographolide loaded PLGA microspheres: optimization, characterization and in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunxia; Wang, Fang; Xu, Hui; Liu, Hui; Meng, Qingguo; Liu, Wanhui

    2014-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop a sustained-release drug delivery system based on the injectable PLGA microspheres loaded with andrographolide. The andrographolide loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method with optimization of formulation using response surface methodology (RSM). Physicochemical characterization, in vitro release behavior and in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation were then evaluated. The percent absorbed in vivo was determined by deconvolution using the Loo-Riegelman method, and then the in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was established. Results showed that the microspheres were spherical with a smooth surface. Average particle size, entrapment efficiency and drug loading were found to be 53.18±2.11 μm, 75.79±3.02% and 47.06±2.18%, respectively. In vitro release study showed a low initial burst release followed by a prolonged release up to 9 days and the release kinetics followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. After a single intramuscular injection, the microspheres maintained relatively high plasma concentration of andrographolide over one week. A good linear relationship was observed between the in vitro and in vivo release behavior (R(2)=0.9951). These results suggest the PLGA microspheres could be developed as a potential delivery system for andrographolide with high drug loading capacity and sustained drug release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diode In-vivo Dosimetry for External Beam Radiotherapy: Patient Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrcela, I.; Bokulic, T.; Budanec, M; Froebe, A.; Soldic, Z.; Kusic, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In-vivo dosimetry is known as simple and reliable method for checking the final accuracy of the dose delivered in external radiotherapy making a supplement to the regular quality control. Entrance dose measurements in the beginning of the treatment assure detection of major errors that can affect the therapy outcome. Silicon diodes are often the detectors of choice for their ability of real time dose measurements and the simplicity of use. There are many publications describing the procedures for the implementation of in-vivo dosimetry. Routine in-vivo dosimetry has been introduced in our department after initial procedures including physical characterization, calibration and determination of correction factors for the detectors in use. This work presents patient data analysis with more than 700 field measurements taken in last 2 years period

  8. High resolution in vivo bioluminescent imaging for the study of bacterial tumour targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cronin

    Full Text Available The ability to track microbes in real time in vivo is of enormous value for preclinical investigations in infectious disease or gene therapy research. Bacteria present an attractive class of vector for cancer therapy, possessing a natural ability to grow preferentially within tumours following systemic administration. Bioluminescent Imaging (BLI represents a powerful tool for use with bacteria engineered to express reporter genes such as lux. BLI is traditionally used as a 2D modality resulting in images that are limited in their ability to anatomically locate cell populations. Use of 3D diffuse optical tomography can localize the signals but still need to be combined with an anatomical imaging modality like micro-Computed Tomography (μCT for interpretation.In this study, the non-pathogenic commensal bacteria E. coli K-12 MG1655 and Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003, or Salmonella Typhimurium SL7207 each expressing the luxABCDE operon were intravenously (i.v. administered to mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c FLuc-expressing xenograft tumours. Bacterial lux signal was detected specifically in tumours of mice post i.v.-administration and bioluminescence correlated with the numbers of bacteria recovered from tissue. Through whole body imaging for both lux and FLuc, bacteria and tumour cells were co-localised. 3D BLI and μCT image analysis revealed a pattern of multiple clusters of bacteria within tumours. Investigation of spatial resolution of 3D optical imaging was supported by ex vivo histological analyses. In vivo imaging of orally-administered commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT was also achieved using 3D BLI. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential to simultaneously image multiple BLI reporter genes three dimensionally in vivo using approaches that provide unique information on spatial locations.

  9. Cannabinoid antagonist in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs): design, characterization and in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Ravani, Laura [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Drechsler, Markus [BIMF/Soft Matter Electron Microscopy, University of Bayreuth (Germany); Mariani, Paolo [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences and CNISM, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60100 Ancona (Italy); Contado, Catia [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ruokolainen, Janne [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Ratano, Patrizia; Campolongo, Patrizia [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma (Italy); Trezza, Viviana [Department of Science, Roma Tre University, 00146 Roma (Italy); Nastruzzi, Claudio, E-mail: nas@unife.it [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Cortesi, Rita [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation in rats of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) encapsulating rimonabant (RMN) as prototypical cannabinoid antagonist. A study was conducted in order to optimize NLC production by melt and ultrasonication method. NLCs were prepared by alternatively adding the lipid phase into the aqueous one (direct protocol) or the aqueous phase into the lipid one (reverse protocol). RMN-NLCs have been characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), X-ray, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF). Reverse NLCs were treated with polysorbate 80. RMN release kinetics have been determined in vitro by dialysis method. In vivo RMN biodistribution in rats was evaluated after intranasal (i.n.) administration of reverse RMN-NLC. The reverse protocol enabled to prevent the lost of lipid phase and to achieve higher RMN encapsulation efficacy (EE) with respect to the direct protocol (98% w/w versus 67% w/w). The use of different protocols did not affect NLC morphology and dimensional distribution. An in vitro dissolutive release rate of RMN was calculated. The in vivo data indicate that i.n. administration of RMN by reverse NLC treated with polysorbate 80 increased RMN concentration in the brain with respect to the drug in solution. The nanoencapsulation protocol presented here appears as an optimal strategy to improve the low solubility of cannabinoid compounds in an aqueous system suitable for in vivo administration. - Highlights: • Rimonabant (RMN) can be encapsulated in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). • Nanoencapsulation improves RMN solubility in a stable physiologic aqueous formulation. • RMN is released in vitro from NLC by a controlled dissolutive release modality. • I.n. administration leads to higher RMN concentration in the brain with respect to plasma. • NLC increases RMN concentration in the brain with respect to

  10. Preliminary studies with [18F]haloperidol: a radioligand for in vivo studies of the dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewson, T.J.; Raichle, M.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The authors report a synthesis of [ 18 F]haloperidol of sufficiently high specific activity to permit the mapping of dopamine receptors in vivo in man using PET. The preliminary work with this radioligand in vivo in monkeys clearly suggests that haloperidol enters brain from blood by means of carrier-mediated, facilitated diffusion rather than simple diffusion. This rather surprising observation not only assumes special importance in the interpretation of in vivo pharmacokinetic data on dopamine receptors in man or animals but may also be important in considerations of the possible mode of action of this drug on the central nervous system. (Auth.)

  11. High-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance angiography: a feasibility study on biological and medical tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boel Lene WT

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In biomedical sciences, ex vivo angiography is a practical mean to elucidate vascular structures three-dimensionally with simultaneous estimation of intravascular volume. The objectives of this study were to develop a magnetic resonance (MR method for ex vivo angiography and to compare the findings with computed tomography (CT. To demonstrate the usefulness of this method, examples are provided from four different tissues and species: the human placenta, a rice field eel, a porcine heart and a turtle. Results The optimal solution for ex vivo MR angiography (MRA was a compound containing gelatine (0.05 g/mL, the CT contrast agent barium sulphate (0.43 mol/L and the MR contrast agent gadoteric acid (2.5 mmol/L. It was possible to perform angiography on all specimens. We found that ex vivo MRA could only be performed on fresh tissue because formalin fixation makes the blood vessels permeable to the MR contrast agent. Conclusions Ex vivo MRA provides high-resolution images of fresh tissue and delineates fine structures that we were unable to visualise by CT. We found that MRA provided detailed information similar to or better than conventional CTA in its ability to visualize vessel configuration while avoiding interfering signals from adjacent bones. Interestingly, we found that vascular tissue becomes leaky when formalin-fixed, leading to increased permeability and extravascular leakage of MR contrast agent.

  12. Case Experience of Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: From an Ex Vivo Animal Study to an Initial Ablation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsang Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is a minimally invasive technique, used with ultrasound or computed tomography guidance, which can produce tissue coagulation necrosis in various kinds of tumors in the human body. In the past 10 years, numerous studies about RFA in benign thyroid nodules have been published. Reviewing these studies, we noticed that the effectiveness of ablation was higher when it was performed with the “moving-shot technique” via an internally cooled electrode. A consensus statement published from the Korean Society of Radiology also suggested the moving-shot technique as a standard ablation procedure for benign thyroid nodule ablation in Korea. In Taiwan, most symptomatic benign nodules are currently treated with surgical removal. RFA for mass lesions is primarily performed for the treatment of metastatic hepatic tumors. In our case, we have attempted to introduce RFA for benign thyroid nodules in Taiwan. Because endocrinologists in Taiwan were not familiar with this technique, we adopted a stepwise approach in learning how to perform RFA. We conducted ex vivo animal ablation exercises to gain experience in setting the radiofrequency generator for the right ablation mode and appropriate power output. The thyroid nodule volume reduction rate after 1 year of follow up was approximately 50% in this case. The most important thing we learned from this trial is that we confirmed the safety of thyroid nodule ablation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study of RFA of a thyroid nodule in Taiwan.

  13. Biobanking of human pancreas cancer tissue: impact of ex-vivo procurement times on RNA quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudloff, Udo; Bhanot, Umesh; Gerald, William; Klimstra, David S; Jarnagin, William R; Brennan, Murray F; Allen, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    Tissue banking has become a major initiative at many oncology centers. The influence of warm ex-vivo ischemia times, storage times, and biobanking protocols on RNA integrity and subsequent microarray data is not well documented. A prospective institutional review board-approved protocol for the banking of abdominal neoplasms was initiated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in 2001. Sixty-four representative pancreas cancer specimens snap-frozen at various ex-vivo procurement times (1 h) and banked during three time periods (2001-2004, 2004-2006, 2006-2008) were processed. RNA integrity was determined by microcapillary electrophoresis using the RNA integrity number (RIN) algorithm and by results of laser-capture microdissection (LCM). Overall, 42% of human pancreas cancer specimens banked under a dedicated protocol yielded RNA with a RIN of > or =7. Limited warm ex-vivo ischemia times did not negatively impact RNA quality (percentage of tissue with total RNA with RIN of > or =7 for 60 min, 42%), and long-term storage of banked pancreas cancer biospecimens did not negatively influence RNA quality (total RNA with RIN of > or =7 banked 2001-2004, 44%; 2004-2006, 38%; 2006-2008, 50%). RNA retrieved from pancreatic cancer samples with RIN of > or =7 subject to LCM yielded RNA suitable for further downstream applications. Fresh-frozen pancreas tissue banked within a standardized research protocol yields high-quality RNA in approximately 50% of specimens and can be used for enrichment by LCM. Quality of tissues of the biobank were not adversely impacted by limited variations of warm ischemia times or different storage periods. This study shows the challenges and investments required to initiate and maintain high-quality tissue repositories.

  14. In vitro and in vivo suppository studies with perturbed angular correlation and external scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, M.; Beihn, R.M.; Snyder, G.A.; McClanahan, J.S.; Digenis, G.A.; Caldwell, L.; Mlodozeniec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the rectal delivery of drugs as an alternative to parenteral administration. Because of their complexity, little is known about the release behavior of drugs from suppositories in vivo, and the universal applicability of most in vitro tests developed to date awaits broad acceptance. A novel technique has recently been utilized for the measurement of both in vitro and in vivo dissolution profiles of solid oral dosage forms. This technique, known as perturbed angular correlation (PAC), utilizes the property of cascading decay exhibited by indium-111. The authors now wish to report on the application of this technique for in vitro studies measuring the dissolution of an [ 111 In]salicylate coprecipitate incorporated in a suppository base. The PAC technique was also used in combination with external scintigraphic techniques for the in vivo measurement of the deformation and liquefaction of a suppository containing 111 In in humans in a totally non-invasive manner. (Auth.)

  15. In vitro and in vivo suppository studies with perturbed angular correlation and external scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, M.; Beihn, R.M.; Snyder, G.A.; McClanahan, J.S.; Digenis, G.A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA). College of Pharmacy and Medicine); Caldwell, L.; Mlodozeniec, A. (INTER Research Corporation, Lawrence, KS (USA). Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories)

    1983-04-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the rectal delivery of drugs as an alternative to parenteral administration. Because of their complexity, little is known about the release behavior of drugs from suppositories in vivo, and the universal applicability of most in vitro tests developed to date awaits broad acceptance. A novel technique has recently been utilized for the measurement of both in vitro and in vivo dissolution profiles of solid oral dosage forms. This technique, known as perturbed angular correlation (PAC), utilizes the property of cascading decay exhibited by indium-111. The authors now wish to report on the application of this technique for in vitro studies measuring the dissolution of an (/sup 111/In)salicylate coprecipitate incorporated in a suppository base. The PAC technique was also used in combination with external scintigraphic techniques for the in vivo measurement of the deformation and liquefaction of a suppository containing /sup 111/In in humans in a totally non-invasive manner.

  16. Nasal inserts containing ondansetron hydrochloride based on Chitosan–gellan gum polyelectrolyte complex: In vitro–in vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonje, Ashish G.; Mahajan, Hitendra S., E-mail: hsmahajan@rediffmail.com

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was the production of ondansetron hydrochloride loaded lyophilized insert for nasal delivery. The nasal insert was prepared by the lyophilisation technique using Chitosan–gellan gum polyelectrolyte complex as the polymer matrix. The ondansetron loaded inserts were evaluated with respect to water uptake, bioadhesion, drug release kinetic study, ex vivo permeation study, and in vivo study. Lyophilised nasal inserts were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the porous sponge like structure of inserts whereas release kinetic model revealed that drug release followed non-fickian case II diffusion. The nasal delivery showed improved bioavailability as compared to oral delivery. In conclusion, the ondansetron containing nasal inserts based on Chitosan–gellan gum complex with potential muco-adhesive potential is suitable for nasal delivery. - Highlights: • Chitosan–gellan gum polyelectrolyte complex based inserts have been prepared. • The synthesized polymer complex demonstrated important insert properties. • No toxicity was observed toward nasal mucosa. • In vivo study demonstrates the enhancement of bioavailability.

  17. Force degradation of orthodontic latex elastics: An in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qodcieh, Sadeq M Adel; Al-Khateeb, Susan N; Jaradat, Ziad W; Abu Alhaija, Elham S J

    2017-03-01

    Our objectives were to assess the force degradation of orthodontic latex elastics over 48 hours in vivo and to study the relationship between the amount of mouth opening and the degree of force decay. Fifty-two orthodontic patients wearing fixed appliances using Class II elastics were asked to wear premeasured-force 3/16-in heavy and medium intermaxillary elastics. The force amounts were measured and compared at different time intervals. Fifty percent of the force was lost after 3.9 hours for the medium elastics and after 4.9 hours for the heavy elastics. A continuous significant force drop in all elastics was seen at all time intervals (P elastics compared with the medium elastics in vivo at all time intervals (P degradation occurred in the first 4 to 5 hours. Because of breakage and for oral hygiene purposes, orthodontic elastics should be changed daily; otherwise, elastics can be used for 48 hours. Force decay of the elastics was correlated to the lateral distance between the maxillary canine and the mandibular first molar in occlusion. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant Regeneration and Cellular Behaviour Studies in Celosia cristata Grown In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Rosna Mat; Wafa, Sharifah Nurashikin

    2012-01-01

    Tissue culture studies of Celosia cristata were established from various explants and the effects of various hormones on morphogenesis of this species were examined. It was found that complete plant regeneration occurred at highest percentage on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L BAP, with the best response showed by shoot explants. In vitro flowering was observed on MS basal medium after six weeks. The occurrence of somaclonal variation and changes in cellular behavior from in vivo and in vitro grown plants were investigated through cytological studies and image analysis. It was observed that Mitotic Index (MI), mean chromosome numbers, and mean nuclear to cell area ratio of in vitro root meristem cells were slightly higher compared to in vivo values. However, in vitro plants produced lower mean cell areas but higher nuclear areas when compared to in vivo plants. Thus, no occurrence of somaclonal variation was detected, and this was supported by morphological features of the in vitro plants. PMID:22593677

  19. In vivo studies of peritendinous tissue in exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    Soft tissue injury of tendons represents a major problem within sports medicine. Although several animal and cell culture studies have addressed this, human experiments have been limited in their ability to follow changes in specific tissue directly in response to interventions. Recently, methods...... have allowed for in vivo determination of tissue concentrations and release rates of substances involved in metabolism, inflammation and collagen synthesis, together with the measurement of tissue blood flow and oxygenation in the peritendinous region around the Achilles tendon in humans during...... exercise. This coincides with a surprisingly marked drop in tissue pressure during contraction. With regards to both circulation, metabolism and collagen formation, peritendinous tissue represents a dynamic, responsive region that adapts markedly to acute muscular activity....

  20. 'In-vivo' and bioassay results from two contrasting cases of plutonium-239 inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.; Bains, M.E.D.; Fraser, D.C.

    1969-06-01

    'In-vivo' and bioassay measurements following two incidents involving plutonium-239 inhalation are described and contrasted. Incident 1, involving the inhalation of insoluble plutonium oxide, resulted in a lung content of about 20 nCi after the initial clearance. Urine excretion was negligible and the estimation of exposure was based on 'in-vivo' data and faecal excretion. Incident,2, involving the inhalation of soluble plutonium, proved negligible and the estimation of exposure, based on urinary excretion, was 0.6 nCi. (author)

  1. Ex vivo rabbit cornea diffusion studies with a soluble insert of moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Morelló, María; Calatayud-Pascual, María Aracely; Rodilla, Vicent; Balaguer-Fernández, Cristina; López-Castellano, Alicia

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate an ocular insert for the controlled drug delivery of moxifloxacin which could perhaps be used in the treatment of corneal keratitis or even bacterial endophthalmitis. We have evaluated the ex vivo ocular diffusion of moxifloxacin through rabbit cornea, both fresh and preserved under different conditions. Histological studies were also carried out. Subsequently, drug matrix inserts were prepared using bioadhesive polymers. The inserts were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters. Ophthalmic ex vivo permeation of moxifloxacin was carried out with the most promising insert. The formulate insert was thin and provided higher ocular diffusion than commercial formulations. Ocular diffusion studies revealed significant differences between fresh and frozen corneas. Histological examinations also showed differences in the thickness of stroma between fresh and frozen corneas. The ophthalmic insert we have developed allows a larger quantity of moxifloxacin to permeate through the cornea than existing commercial formulations of the drug. Ocular delivery of moxifloxacin with this insert could be a new approach for the treatment of eye diseases.

  2. Chemopreventive potential of β-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model - an In vitro and In vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulraj Gabriel M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of β-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods The active molecule was isolated, based upon bioassay guided fractionation, and identified as β-sitosterol on spectral evidence. The ability to induce apoptosis was determined by its in vitro antiradical activity, cytotoxic studies using human colon adenocarcinoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines, and the expression of β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in human colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM. The chemopreventive potential of β-sitosterol in colon carcinogenesis was assessed by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg b.w. into male Wistar rats and supplementing this with β-sitosterol throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w. Results β-sitosterol induced significant dose-dependent growth inhibition of COLO 320 DM cells (IC50 266.2 μM, induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressed the expression of β-catenin and PCNA antigens in human colon cancer cells. β-sitosterol supplementation reduced the number of aberrant crypt and crypt multiplicity in DMH-initiated rats in a dose-dependent manner with no toxic effects. Conclusion We found doses of 10-20 mg/kg b.w. β-sitosterol to be effective for future in vivo studies. β-sitosterol had chemopreventive potential by virtue of its radical quenching ability in vitro, with minimal toxicity to normal cells. It also attenuated β-catenin and PCNA expression, making it a potential anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis.

  3. Chemopreventive potential of β-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model - an In vitro and In vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of β-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods The active molecule was isolated, based upon bioassay guided fractionation, and identified as β-sitosterol on spectral evidence. The ability to induce apoptosis was determined by its in vitro antiradical activity, cytotoxic studies using human colon adenocarcinoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines, and the expression of β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in human colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM). The chemopreventive potential of β-sitosterol in colon carcinogenesis was assessed by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg b.w.) into male Wistar rats and supplementing this with β-sitosterol throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w. Results β-sitosterol induced significant dose-dependent growth inhibition of COLO 320 DM cells (IC50 266.2 μM), induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressed the expression of β-catenin and PCNA antigens in human colon cancer cells. β-sitosterol supplementation reduced the number of aberrant crypt and crypt multiplicity in DMH-initiated rats in a dose-dependent manner with no toxic effects. Conclusion We found doses of 10-20 mg/kg b.w. β-sitosterol to be effective for future in vivo studies. β-sitosterol had chemopreventive potential by virtue of its radical quenching ability in vitro, with minimal toxicity to normal cells. It also attenuated β-catenin and PCNA expression, making it a potential anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis. PMID:20525330

  4. Formulation Optimization and Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation of Celecoxib Microemulsion-Based Gel for Transdermal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengyuan; Ren, Lili; Chen, Guoguang

    2017-08-01

    Celecoxib (CXB) is a poorly aqueous solubility sulfonamide non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Hence, the formulation of CXB was selected for solubilization and bioavailability. To find out suitable formulation for microemulsion, the solubility of CXB in triacetin (oil phase), Tween 80 (surfactant), and Transcutol-P (co-surfactant) was screened respectively and optimized by using orthogonal experimental design. The Km value and concentration of oil, S mix , and water were confirmed by pseudo-ternary phase diagram studies and central composite design. One percent carbopol 934 was added to form CXB microemulsion-based gel. The final formulation was evaluated for its appearance, pH, viscosity, stability, drug content determination, globule size, and zeta potential. Its ex vivo drug permeation and the in vivo pharmacokinetic was investigated. Further research was performed to ensure the safety and validity by skin irritation study and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity study. Ex vivo permeation study in mice was designed to compare permeation and transdermal ability between microemulsion formulation and conventional gel. The results revealed that optimized microemulsion-based gel gained higher permeation based on smaller globule size and high drug loading of microemulsion. Transdermal ability was also greatly improved. Bioavailability was compared to market Celebrex® by the in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits. The results indicated that CXB microemulsion-based gel had better bioavailability than Celebrex®.

  5. Interaction of D-LSD with binding sites in brain: a study in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebersole, B.L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The localization of [ 3 H]-d-lysergic acid diethylamide ([ 3 H]LSD) binding sites in the mouse brain was compared in vivo and in vitro. Radioautography of brain sections incubated with [ 3 H]LSD in vitro revealed substantial specific [ 3 H]LSD binding in cortical layers III-IV and areas CA1 and dentate gyrus in hippocampus. In contrast, in brain sections from animals that received [ 3 H]LSD in vivo, binding in hippocampus was scant and diffuse, although the pattern of labeling in cortex was similar to that seen in vitro. The low specific binding in hippocampus relative to cortex was confirmed by homogenate filtration studies of brain areas from mice that received injections of [ 3 H]LSD. Time-course studies established that peak specific binding at ten minutes was the same in cortex and hippocampus. At all times, binding in hippocampus was about one-third of that in cortex; in contrast, the concentration of free [ 3 H]LSD did not vary between regions. This finding was unexpected, because binding studies in vitro in membrane preparations indicated that the density and affinity of [ 3 H]LSD binding sites were similar in both brain regions. Saturation binding studies in vivo showed that the lower amount of [ 3 H]LSD binding in hippocampus was attributable to a lower density of sites labeled by [ 3 H]LSD. The pharmacological identify of [ 3 H]LSD binding sites in vivo may be relevant to the hallucinogenic properties of LSD and of other related hallucinogens

  6. 'Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Will; Small, Will; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; McNeil, Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Patient attrition is common among people enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs and most pronounced during the first year of treatment. However, the experiences of patients initiating MMT have been overlooked in the literature. This study explores experiences of MMT initiation among MMT patients, focusing on contextual influences on MMT initiation and perceptions of MMT and their subsequent influence on treatment retention. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 MMT patients in Vancouver, Canada. Individuals reporting enrolment in MMT were recruited from within two ongoing cohort studies comprised of people who use drugs. Interview transcripts were analysed using an inductive and iterative approach. Two groups of MMT initiators were identified: (i) 'crisis initiators' prescribed methadone following critical transition events, such as incarceration or pregnancy; and (ii) 'everyday initiators' enrolled in MMT as part of routine healthcare utilisation. While most 'crisis initiators' and some 'everyday initiators' described experiencing coercion during MMT initiation, 'crisis initiators' were further subjected to the coercive leveraging of their vulnerability to motivate 'consent' for MMT. 'Crisis initiators' developed negative views towards MMT and were more likely to discontinue treatment. Long-standing patient-provider relationships and open dialogue were associated with more positive views regarding MMT, regardless of the circumstances of initiation. Findings underscore the need for clear and effective communication regarding treatment regimens and expectations during MMT initiation. Furthermore, training in trauma-informed care may help reduce perceptions of coercion and rates of early treatment termination. [Damon W, Small W, Anderson S, Maher L, Wood E, Kerr T, McNeil R. Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation. Drug

  7. Small animal positron emission tomography imaging and in vivo studies of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a growing health challenge globally, and despite our knowledge of the disease has increased over the last couple of decades, many unanswered questions remain. As molecular imaging can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellu...... knowledge obtained from in vivo positron emission tomography studies of atherosclerosis performed in small animals....

  8. In vivo thermoluminescent dosimetry in studies of helicoid computed tomography and excretory urogram; Dosimetria termoluminiscente In vivo en estudios de tomografia computada helicoidal y urograma excretor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, D.; Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Saucedo A, V.M.; Barajas O, J.L. [Unidad de Especialidades Medicas, Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The dosimetry is the field of measurement of the ionizing radiations. It final objective is to determine the 'absorbed dose' for people. The dosimetry is vital in the radiotherapy, the radiological protection and the treatment technologies by irradiation. Presently work, we develop 'In vivo' dosimetry, in exposed patients to studies of helical computed tomography and excretory urogram. The dosimetry 'in vivo' was carried out in 20 patients selected aleatorily, for each medical study. The absorbed dose was measured in points of interest located in crystalline, thyroid, chest and abdomen of each patient, by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) LiF: Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national fabrication. Also it was quantified the dose in the working area. (Author)

  9. Effects of hydrophilicity and microtopography of titanium implant surfaces on initial supragingival plaque biofilm formation. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, F; Sculean, A; Wieland, M; Horn, N; Nuesry, E; Bube, C; Becker, J

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present pilot study is to investigate the effects of hydrophilicity and microtopography of titanium implant surfaces on initial supragingival plaque biofilm formation. Test specimens were manufactured from commercially pure grade 2 titanium according to one of the following procedures: polished (P), acid-etched (A), chemically modified (mod) A (modA), sand-blasted large grit and A (SLA), and modSLA. Intraoral splints were used to collect an in vivo supragingival plaque biofilm in each group at 12, 24, and 48 h. Stained plaque biofilm (PB) areas (%) were morphometrically assessed. All groups exhibited significant increases of mean PB areas over time (p P > A =modA (p modSLA = P > A = modA (p A = modA (p < 0.001; respectively). Within the limits of a pilot study, it could be concluded that hydrophilicity had no apparent effect, while microtopography had a highly uneven and unpredictable influence on supragingival plaque biofilm formation.

  10. In vitro and in vivo study of a nanoliposomal cisplatin as a radiosensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiaomeng Zhang1*, Huanjun Yang1*, Ke Gu1, Jian Chen2, Mengjie Rui2, Guo-Liang Jiang11Departments of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center; Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College,Fudan University,Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; *Xiaomeng Zhang and Huanjun Yang share the first authorshipObjective: To investigate the in vitro and in vivo radiosensitization effect of an institutionally designed nanoliposome encapsulated cisplatin (NLE-CDDP.Materials and methods: NLE-CDDP was developed by our institute. In vitro radiosensitization of NLE-CDDP was evaluated by colony forming assay in A549 cells. In vivo radiosensitization was studied with tumor growth delay (TGD in Lewis lung carcinoma. The radiosensitization for normal tissue was investigated by jejunal crypt survival. The radiosensitization studies were carried out with a 72 h interval between drug administration and irradiation. The mice were treated with 6 mg/kg of NLE-CDDP or CDDP followed by single doses of 2 Gy, 6 Gy, 16 Gy, and 28 Gy. Sensitization enhancement ratio (SER was calculated by D0s of cell survival curves for A549 cells, doses needed to yield TGD of 20 days in Lewis lung carcinoma, or D0s of survival curves in crypt cells in radiation alone and radiation plus drug groups.Results: Our NLE-CDDP could inhibit A549 cells in vitro with half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.12 µg/mL, and its toxicity was 2.35 times that observed in CDDP. For in vitro studies of A549 cells, SERs of NLE-CDDP and CDDP were 1.40 and 1.14, respectively, when combined with irradiation. For in vivo studies of Lewis lung carcinoma, the strongest radiosensitization was found in the 72 h interval between NLE-CDDP and irradiation. When given 72 h prior to irradiation, NLE-CDDP yielded higher radiosensitization than CDDP (SER of 4.92 vs 3.21 and slightly increased injury in jejunal

  11. In vivo evaluation of different alterations of redox status by studying pharmacokinetics of nitroxides using magnetic resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačić, Goran; Pavićević, Aleksandra; Peyrot, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS), are involved in various pathologies, injuries related to radiation, ischemia-reperfusion or ageing. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to directly detect free radicals in vivo, but the redox status of the whole organism or particular organ can be studied in vivo by using magnetic resonance techniques (EPR and MRI) and paramagnetic stable free radicals – nitroxides. Here we review results obtained in vivo following the pharmacokinetics of nitroxides on experimental animals (and a few in humans) under various conditions. The focus was on conditions where the redox status has been altered by induced diseases or harmful agents, clearly demonstrating that various EPR/MRI/nitroxide combinations can reliably detect metabolically induced changes in the redox status of organs. These findings can improve our understanding of oxidative stress and provide a basis for studying the effectiveness of interventions aimed to modulate oxidative stress. Also, we anticipate that the in vivo EPR/MRI approach in studying the redox status can play a vital role in the clinical management of various pathologies in the years to come providing the development of adequate equipment and probes. PMID:26827126

  12. In vivo evaluation of different alterations of redox status by studying pharmacokinetics of nitroxides using magnetic resonance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bačić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS, are involved in various pathologies, injuries related to radiation, ischemia-reperfusion or ageing. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to directly detect free radicals in vivo, but the redox status of the whole organism or particular organ can be studied in vivo by using magnetic resonance techniques (EPR and MRI and paramagnetic stable free radicals – nitroxides. Here we review results obtained in vivo following the pharmacokinetics of nitroxides on experimental animals (and a few in humans under various conditions. The focus was on conditions where the redox status has been altered by induced diseases or harmful agents, clearly demonstrating that various EPR/MRI/nitroxide combinations can reliably detect metabolically induced changes in the redox status of organs. These findings can improve our understanding of oxidative stress and provide a basis for studying the effectiveness of interventions aimed to modulate oxidative stress. Also, we anticipate that the in vivo EPR/MRI approach in studying the redox status can play a vital role in the clinical management of various pathologies in the years to come providing the development of adequate equipment and probes.

  13. Fusing in vivo and ex vivo NMR sources of information for brain tumor classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitor-Sava, A R; Laudadio, T; Sima, D M; Van Huffel, S; Martinez-Bisbal, M C; Celda, B; Piquer, J; Heerschap, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study we classify short echo-time brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data by applying a model-based canonical correlation analyses algorithm and by using, as prior knowledge, multimodal sources of information coming from high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS), MRSI and magnetic resonance imaging. The potential and limitations of fusing in vivo and ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance sources to detect brain tumors is investigated. We present various modalities for multimodal data fusion, study the effect and the impact of using multimodal information for classifying MRSI brain glial tumors data and analyze which parameters influence the classification results by means of extensive simulation and in vivo studies. Special attention is drawn to the possibility of considering HR-MAS data as a complementary dataset when dealing with a lack of MRSI data needed to build a classifier. Results show that HR-MAS information can have added value in the process of classifying MRSI data

  14. A novel orbital tissue expander (OTE): design, in vitro, and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabete; Tse, David; Pinchuk, Leonard; Acosta, Ana C.; Martin, John B.; Davis, Stewart B.; Hernandez, Eleut; Yamamoto, Hideo; Denham, David B.; Dubovy, Sander; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of a novel orbital tissue expander (OTE) in treating congenital anophthalmic and microphthalmic infants. Methods: The OTE implant is an inflatable (0.5 to >6cc) silicone rubber globe sliding on a titanium T-shaped bone plate secured to the temporal bone with 1mm titanium screws. In vitro testing was performed to assess injection volume versus diameter measurements to determine consistency between devices, flex fatigue for durability of the implants when compressed, weight change in isotonic saline at 37°C to mimic human body temperature, seal durability by puncturing the globe numerous times while inflating, capacity before rupture to determine the maximum amount of saline it is able to contain, and effective sterilization. Ex-vivo testing was performed for adjustments prior to in vivo study. An OTE was then implanted in five 2-week old kittens (OS only) and inflated in 0.5cc increments. Three control animals received enucleation alone. All 8 animals were followed for 18 weeks and underwent euthanasia for morphological and histopathological analysis. Results: In vitro testing confirmed a effects in the normal maturation, weight gain, and food intake of the cats. Light microscopy showed no signs of foreign body reaction. Pictures of the implants were obtained by using a shadow-photogrammetry system to compare the explanted OTE with the OD control eye. Conclusion: In vitro and in vivo studies show the implant's potential to safely treat anophthalmic and microphthalmic infants.

  15. Evaluation of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylphenol sodium salt, and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the rat comet assay as part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Marlies; van der Leede, Bas-jan; De Vlieger, Kathleen; Geys, Helena; Vynckier, An; Van Gompel, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPD), o-phenylphenol sodium salt (OPP), and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), were analyzed in this laboratory as coded test chemicals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of the test compounds, 24 and 21 h apart and liver and stomach were sampled 3h after the final dose administration. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage were observed in liver and stomach with PPD and OPP up to 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. 2,4-DAT, a known genotoxic carcinogen, induced a weak but reproducible, dose-related and statistically significant increase in DNA damage in liver cells while no increases were observed in stomach cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Blocking Modification of Eukaryotic Initiation 5A2 Antagonizes Cervical Carcinoma via Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK Signal Transduction Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiamei; Chu, Zhangtao; Liu, Dongli

    2017-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death for female worldwide. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 belongs to the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A family and is proposed to be a key factor involved in the development of diverse cancers. In the current study, a series of in vivo and in vitro investigations were performed to characterize the role of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in oncogenesis and metastasis of cervical carcinoma. The expression status of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in 15 cervical carcinoma patients was quantified. Then, the effect of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown on in vivo tumorigenicity ability, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell mobility of HeLa cells was measured. To uncover the mechanism driving the function of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma, expression of members within RhoA/ROCK pathway was detected, and the results were further verified with an RhoA overexpression modification. The level of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma samples was significantly higher than that in paired paratumor tissues ( P cycle arrest ( P ROCK I, and ROCK II were downregulated. The above-mentioned changes in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells were alleviated by the overexpression of RhoA. The major findings outlined in the current study confirmed the potential of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 as a promising prognosis predictor and therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma treatment. Also, our data inferred that eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 might function in carcinogenesis of cervical carcinoma through an RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner.

  17. Age-related changes in factor VII proteolysis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, F A; Craven, S; Dewar, L; Anvari, N; Andrew, M; Blajchman, M A

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have reported that pre-operative plasmas of patients over the age of 40 years who developed post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) had approximately twice the amount of proteolysed factor VII found in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis with heparin or low M(r) heparin was successful. These and other studies also reported higher concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin III in pre- and post-operative plasmas of patients who developed post-operative thrombosis than in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis was successful. Whether the extent of factor VII proteolysis seen in the patients who developed post-operative DVT is related to the severity of their disease or age is not known. This report investigated age-related changes in the concentrations of total factor VII protein, factor VII zymogen, factor VIIa, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, thrombin-antithrombin III, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in normal plasmas and the relationships between these parameters. With the exception of thrombin-antithrombin III, statistically significant increases in the concentrations of these parameters with age were found. Additionally, the differences between the concentrations of total factor VII protein and factor VII zymogen, an index factor VII proteolysis in vivo, were statistically significant only for individuals over age 40. Using linear regression analysis, a significant correlation was found to exist between the concentrations of plasma factor VIIa and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. Since factor VIIa-tissue factor probably initiates coagulation in vivo, we hypothesize that the elevated plasma factor VIIa (reflecting a less tightly regulated tissue factor activity and therefore increased thrombin production in vivo) accounts for the high risk for post-operative thrombosis seen in individuals over the age of 40.

  18. Microtubule depolymerization normalizes in vivo myocardial contractile function in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Narishige, T.; Sato, H.; Nemoto, S.; DeFreyte, G.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper G, I. V.; Carabello, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because initially compensatory myocardial hypertrophy in response to pressure overloading may eventually decompensate to myocardial failure, mechanisms responsible for this transition have long been sought. One such mechanism established in vitro is densification of the cellular microtubule network, which imposes a viscous load that inhibits cardiocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we extended this in vitro finding to the in vivo level and tested the hypothesis that this cytoskeletal abnormality is important in the in vivo contractile dysfunction that occurs in experimental aortic stenosis in the adult dog. In 8 dogs in which gradual stenosis of the ascending aorta had caused severe left ventricular (LV) pressure overloading (gradient, 152+/-16 mm Hg) with contractile dysfunction, LV function was measured at baseline and 1 hour after the intravenous administration of colchicine. Cardiocytes obtained by biopsy before and after in vivo colchicine administration were examined in tandem. Microtubule depolymerization restored LV contractile function both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These and additional corroborative data show that increased cardiocyte microtubule network density is an important mechanism for the ventricular contractile dysfunction that develops in large mammals with adult-onset pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  19. Study of brain uptake of etorphine, in vivo in the Baboon Papio-Papio, by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artola, A.

    1983-01-01

    In order to study in vivo opiate receptors in brain, etorphine, a morphine-like drug was labelled with 11 C. Etorphine possesses an extremely high affinity for specific opiate binding sites. It passes easily through the blood-brain barrier. The brain pharmacokinetics of 11 C-etorphine was studied in vivo in the Baboon Papio-Papio, by positron emission tomography. 11 C-etorphine concentration reached its maximum two minutes after intravenous injection and then decreased rapidly. In some experiments, cyprenorphine, a morphine antagonist, was injected subsequently in order to study the displacement of the radioactive ligand from brain structures. Hepato-biliary and blood pharmacokinetics of 11 C-etorphine were also studied [fr

  20. Preliminary studies with (/sup 18/F)haloperidol: a radioligand for in vivo studies of the dopamine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewson, T J; Raichle, M E; Welch, M J [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA). Edward Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology

    1980-06-16

    The authors report a synthesis of (/sup 18/F)haloperidol of sufficiently high specific activity to permit the mapping of dopamine receptors in vivo in man using PET. The preliminary work with this radioligand in vivo in monkeys clearly suggests that haloperidol enters brain from blood by means of carrier-mediated, facilitated diffusion rather than simple diffusion. This rather surprising observation not only assumes special importance in the interpretation of in vivo pharmacokinetic data on dopamine receptors in man or animals but may also be important in considerations of the possible mode of action of this drug on the central nervous system.

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]MPEPy as a potential PET ligand for mGlu5 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severance, Alin J.; Parsey, Ramin V.; Kumar, J.S. Dileep; Underwood, Mark D.; Arango, Victoria; Majo, Vattoly J.; Prabhakaran, Jaya; Simpson, Norman R.; Heertum, Ronald L. van; Mann, J. John

    2006-01-01

    Excessive activation via the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR 5 ) has been implicated in depression, neuropathic pain and other psychiatric, neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. A mGluR 5 radioligand for in vivo quantification by positron emission tomography (PET) would facilitate studies of the role of this receptor in disease and treatment. 3-Methoxy-5-pyridin-2-ylethynylpyridine (MPEPy), a selective and high-affinity antagonist at the mGluR 5 receptor was selected as a candidate ligand; a recent publication by Yu et al. [Nucl Med Biol 32 (2005) 631-640] presented initial micro-PET results for [ 11 C]MPEPy with enthusiasm. Building on their efforts, we report as unique contributions (1) an improved chemical synthesis method, (2) the first data using human tissue, (3) phosphor images for rat brain preparations, (4) a novel comparison of anesthetic agents and (5) in vivo data in baboon. In vitro phosphor imaging studies of this ligand using human and rat brain tissue demonstrated high specific binding in the hippocampus, striatum and cortex with minimal specific binding in the cerebellum. In contrast, in vivo micro-PET studies in rats using urethane anesthesia, PET studies in baboons using isoflurane anesthesia and ex vivo micro-PET studies in unanesthetized rats each showed little specific binding in the brain. Despite the promising in vitro results, the low signal-to-noise ratio found in vivo does not justify the use of [ 11 C]MPEPy as a PET radiotracer in humans

  2. In vitro-in vivo correlation in skin permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, D; Matts, P J; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2014-02-01

    In vitro skin permeation studies have been used extensively in the development and optimisation of delivery of actives in vivo. However, there are few reported correlations of such in vitro studies with in vivo data. The aim of this study was to investigate the skin permeation of a model active, niacinamide, both in vitro and in vivo. Conventional diffusion cell studies were conducted in human skin to determine niacinamide permeation from a range of vehicles which included dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML), N-methyl 2-pyrrolidone (NMP), Miglyol 812N® (MG), and mineral oil (MO). Single, binary or ternary systems were examined. The same vehicles were subsequently examined to investigate niacinamide delivery in vivo. For this proof-of-concept study one donor was used for the in vitro studies and one volunteer for the in vivo investigations to minimise biovariability. Analysis of in vitro samples was conducted using HPLC and in vivo uptake of niacinamide was evaluated using Confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS). The amount of niacinamide permeated through skin in vitro was linearly proportional to the intensity of the niacinamide signal determined in the stratum corneum in vivo. A good correlation was observed between the signal intensities of selected vehicles and niacinamide signal intensity. The findings provide further support for the use of CRS to monitor drug delivery into and across the skin. In addition, the results highlight the critical role of the vehicle and its disposition in skin for effective dermal delivery.

  3. In vivo trace element speciation study by using enriched stable isotopic tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiyue; Chai Zhifang; Shi Junwen; Ding Wenjun

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to the radioactive tracer method, the enriched stable isotopic technique used in life sciences will not cause radiation damage to cells and its operation will be no radioactive risk, In our laboratory, the enriched stable isotopes Cr-50, Hg-196 and Hg-198 combined with biochemical separation, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-IVIS) have been used to investigate the element speciation in vivo. Chromium (Cr) is proposed to act as a potentiator of insulin action in animals and human beings. Its deficiency induces the symptoms resembling diabetes and its supplement can alleviate these symptoms. However, as the concentration of Cr in vivo is usually at ultratrace level(- ng/g), its speciation study is usually difficult, since it is almost impossible to avoid the exogenous Cr contamination caused by separation and determination processes. Therefore, in this study, 50 Cr 2 O 3 with 94.2% 50 Cr was used as a tracer combined with gel chromatography to study the Cr speciation in serum, liver, urine and other tissues of healthy and diabetic rats. The Cr concentrations can be determined via 50 Cr(n, γ) 51 Cr by NAA, which is ideally suited for the ultratrace element analyses due to its high precision, accuracy and sensitivity. Such research have found that the most quantity of chromium in vivo is mainly combined with high molecular weight proteins, which is later identified as transferrin and low molecular weight protein is mainly excreted from urine. Mercury is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the global environment. Mercury compounds in the environment are often difficult to degrade. However, the mechanism on mercury toxicity to developing children following long term and low dose of mercury exposure is still not clear. Therefore, high sensitive method in vivo needs to be developed to study such low level mercury toxicity to fetus In this

  4. Antimalarial benzoheterocyclic 4-aminoquinolines: Structure-activity relationship, in vivo evaluation, mechanistic and bioactivation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongarora, Dennis S B; Strydom, Natasha; Wicht, Kathryn; Njoroge, Mathew; Wiesner, Lubbe; Egan, Timothy J; Wittlin, Sergio; Jurva, Ulrik; Masimirembwa, Collen M; Chibale, Kelly

    2015-09-01

    A novel class of benzoheterocyclic analogues of amodiaquine designed to avoid toxic reactive metabolite formation was synthesized and evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against K1 (multidrug resistant) and NF54 (sensitive) strains of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the identification of highly promising analogues, the most potent of which had IC50s in the nanomolar range against both strains. The compounds further demonstrated good in vitro microsomal metabolic stability while those subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic studies had desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. In vivo antimalarial efficacy in Plasmodium berghei infected mice was evaluated for four compounds, all of which showed good activity following oral administration. In particular, compound 19 completely cured treated mice at a low multiple dose of 4×10mg/kg. Mechanistic and bioactivation studies suggest hemozoin formation inhibition and a low likelihood of forming quinone-imine reactive metabolites, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vivo and in vitro pollen maturation in Lilium: influence of carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Clement

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for in vitro conform pollen maturation, as a model to study the involvement of carbohydrates on pollen maturation in Lilium. In vivo and in vitro pollen maturations were followed and compared by transmission electron microscopy, and several in vitro parameters were tested in terms of carbohydrate physiology. In vivo, pollen maturation was initiated at the vacuolated microspore stage, and consisted of two successive phases. The first phase was characterized by reactivation of microspore organelles, followed by microspore mitosis, starch synthesis and vacuole breakdown. During the second phase, starch was progressively degraded whereas lipid and phytine reserves accumulated. In vivo, pollen maturation occured within 14 days and pollen germination rate was 73.6 ± 2.2%. We then attempted to realise in vitro pollen maturation starting from the vacuolated microspore stage. The best results were obtained with flower buds cultivated at 26oC, in 100 µmol/m2/s light, with a 16h/8h photoperiod on a modified Heller's medium supplemented with NAA (10-2 mg/l and sucrose (M/6. In these conditions, pollen maturation occured within 7 days only. In vitro matured pollen is cytologically comparable to in vivo developed pollen grains and the germination rate was 72.4 ± 3.7%. When flower buds were cultivated in the dark, the germination rate decreased, but this could be compensated by providing high sucrose concentrations (1M in the medium. Further, photosynthesis inhibitors had the same effect on pollen maturation than the darkness, strongly suggesting that photosynthesis occurs in the flower bud and is important for pollen maturation in Lilium.

  6. GABAergic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia: Linking Postmortem and In Vivo Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jeroen C.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Marsman, Anouk

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impairments in cognitive functioning. Evidence from postmortem studies suggests that alterations in cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons contribute to the clinical features of schizophrenia. In vivo measurement of brain GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers the possibility to provide more insight into the relationship between problems in GABAergic neurotransmission and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients. This study reviews and links alterations in the GABA system in postmortem studies, animal models, and human studies in schizophrenia. Converging evidence implicates alterations in both presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia, and GABA may thus play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. MRS studies can provide direct insight into the GABAergic mechanisms underlying the development of schizophrenia as well as changes during its course. PMID:28848455

  7. GABAergic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia: Linking Postmortem and In Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen C. de Jonge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impairments in cognitive functioning. Evidence from postmortem studies suggests that alterations in cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic neurons contribute to the clinical features of schizophrenia. In vivo measurement of brain GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS offers the possibility to provide more insight into the relationship between problems in GABAergic neurotransmission and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients. This study reviews and links alterations in the GABA system in postmortem studies, animal models, and human studies in schizophrenia. Converging evidence implicates alterations in both presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia, and GABA may thus play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. MRS studies can provide direct insight into the GABAergic mechanisms underlying the development of schizophrenia as well as changes during its course.

  8. Imaging of oxygen gradients in giant umbrella cells: an ex vivo PLIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, A V; Golubeva, A V; Okkelman, I A; Cryan, J F; Papkovsky, D B

    2015-10-01

    O2 plays a pivotal role in aerobic metabolism and regulation of cell and tissue function. Local differences and fluctuations in tissue O2 levels are well documented; however, the physiological significance of O2 microgradients, particularly at the subcellular level, remains poorly understood. Using the cell-penetrating phosphorescent O2 probe Pt-Glc and confocal fluorescence microscopy, we visualized O2 distribution in individual giant (>100-μm) umbrella cells located superficially in the urinary bladder epithelium. We optimized conditions for in vivo phosphorescent staining of the inner surface of the mouse bladder and subsequent ex vivo analysis of excised live tissue. Imaging experiments revealed significant (≤85 μM) and heterogeneous deoxygenation within respiring umbrella cells, with radial O2 gradients of up to 40 μM across the cell, or ∼0.6 μM/μm. Deeply deoxygenated (5-15 μM O2) regions were seen to correspond to the areas enriched with polarized mitochondria. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial respiration decreased oxygenation and O2 gradients in umbrella cells, while inhibition with antimycin A dissipated the gradients and caused gradual reoxygenation of the tissue to ambient levels. Detailed three-dimensional maps of O2 distribution potentially can be used for the modeling of intracellular O2-dependent enzymatic reactions and downstream processes, such as hypoxia-inducible factor signaling. Further ex vivo and in vivo studies on intracellular and tissue O2 gradients using confocal imaging can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating O2-dependent (patho)physiological processes in the bladder and other tissues. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. The influence of storage and heat treatment on a magnesium-based implant material: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracht, Katja; Angrisani, Nina; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Eifler, Rainer; Weizbauer, Andreas; Reifenrath, Janin

    2015-10-19

    Magnesium alloys are recommended as a potential material for osteosynthesis. It is known that storage-induced property modifications can occur in materials like aluminum. Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of storage durations of up to 48 weeks on the biomechanical, structural, and degradation properties of the degradable magnesium alloy LAE442. Extruded implants (n = 104; Ø 2.5 mm × 25 mm) were investigated after storage periods of 0, 12, 24, and 48 weeks in three different sub-studies: (I) immediately after the respective storage duration and after an additional (II) 56 days of in vitro corrosion in simulated body fluid (SFB), and (III) 48 weeks in vivo corrosion in a rabbit model, respectively. In addition, the influence of a T5-heat treatment (206 °C for 15 h in an argon atmosphere) was tested (n = 26; 0 week of storage). Evaluation was performed by three-point bending, scanning electron microscopy, radiography, µ-computed tomography, evaluation of the mean grain size, and contrast analysis of precipitations (such as aluminum or lithium). The heat treatment induced a significant reduction in initial stability, and enhanced the corrosion resistance. In vivo experiments showed a good biocompatibility for all implants. During the storage of up to 48 weeks, no significant changes occurred in the implant properties. LAE442 implants can be safely used after up to 48 weeks of storage.

  10. A pharmaceutical study on lornoxicam fast disintegrating tablets: formulation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutasim, Mohamed Yousif; ElMeshad, Aliaa Nabil; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Lornoxicam is an anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve rheumatoid arthritis pain, but the low water solubility and bitter taste of the drug present challenges for formulation as fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs). Complexation of the drug with β-cyclodextrin was initially carried out to increase the drug solubility and to mask its bitter taste. Tablets were prepared by direct compression of drug complex (DC), F-Melt, mannitol, crospovidone, and sodium starch glycolate (SSG). FDTs were characterized in terms of disintegration time (DT) and dissolution. A bioequivalence study was carried out using (Zeficam® tablets (Eva Pharma) as reference with the help of human volunteers (n = 4). The chosen formula (F2, DC 24 mg, F-Melt 88.4 mg, and crospovidone 5 mg) exhibited the shortest in vitro (18 s) and in vivo DT (13 s), and the percent drug released after Q6min was 95.90%. Following administration of F2 and Zeficam®, the respective maximum drug plasma concentrations (C max ) were 510 and 532.5 ng/mL, at times (T max ) of 1 and 2.5 h, of mean residence times (MRTs) of 12.25 and 11.35 h and of areas under the plasma curve [AUC(0-24)] of 5080.253 and 4815.775 ng/h/mL. There were significant differences in T max and MRT of both treatments (p < 0.05). Moreover, the volunteers found F2 to be palatable. FDTs could be considered as promising dosage forms for lornoxicam as they exhibited a short in vivo DT and an increased rate of drug release and attained a relative bioavailability of 105.49%. This could offer a fast relief of pain accompanying rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. In vivo P-31 MR spectroscopic studies of liver in normal adults and cirrhotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, N.; Moriyasu, F.; Tamada, T.

    1986-01-01

    The author performed in vivo P-31 MR spectroscopic studies of normal and diseased human liver using an experimental 2.0-T whole-body MR imager. Then normal adults and ten cirrhotic patients in the fasting state were studied. Spatially localized in vivo P-31 MR spectra of human liver were obtained in combination with the use of a surface coil and gradient magnetic field. Six spectral peaks were observed in both groups and were assigned, from left to right, to phosphomonoester, inorganic phosphate, phosophodiester, γ-ATP, α-ATP, and β-ATP, on the basis of the chemical shifts. There were no definite differences between the spectral patterns of normal adults and those of cirrhotic patients in the fasting state

  12. In vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlgren, L.

    1980-02-01

    Measurements on five occupationally exposed persons have shown that it is possible to use X-ray fluorescence analysis for in vivo measurements of lead in the skeleton. The technique for calibrating in vivo X-ray fluorescence measurements of lead in bone tissue has been studied in detail and a two-component phantom simulating the bone and the soft tissue parts of the finger constructed. The technique has been used for in vivo measurements on 22 occupationally exposed persons. The minimum detectable concentration of lead in fingerbones was found to be around 20 μg x g -1 . The lead concentrations in their skeletons and blood were compared: the correlation was poor. The variations in lead concentrations in the skeleton have been studied in occupationally exposed persons and in samples from archaeological skeletons. The sensitivity and the minimum detectable concentration of cadmium in the kidney cortex in in vivo measurements has been studied by measurements on kidney models. The minimum detectable concentration was 20 μg x g -1 at a skin-kidney distance of 30 mm and 40 μg x g -1 at 40 mm. Five persons occupationally exposed were studied. (Author)

  13. Population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Jeon, Tina; Yu, Qiaowen; Ouyang, Minhui; Peng, Qinmu; Mishra, Virendra; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sestan, Nenad; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu; Hsiao, Steven; Liu, Shuwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Animal models of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), the most widely used nonhuman primate, have been irreplaceable in neurobiological studies. However, a population-averaged macaque brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) atlas, including comprehensive gray and white matter labeling as well as bony and facial landmarks guiding invasive experimental procedures, is not available. The macaque white matter tract pathways and microstructures have been rarely recorded. Here, we established a population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space incorporating bony and facial landmarks, and delineated microstructures and three-dimensional pathways of major white matter tracts in vivo MRI/DTI and ex vivo (postmortem) DTI of ten rhesus macaque brains were acquired. Single-subject macaque brain DTI template was obtained by transforming the postmortem high-resolution DTI data into in vivo space. Ex vivo DTI of ten macaque brains was then averaged in the in vivo single-subject template space to generate population-averaged macaque brain DTI atlas. The white matter tracts were traced with DTI-based tractography. One hundred and eighteen neural structures including all cortical gyri, white matter tracts and subcortical nuclei, were labeled manually on population-averaged DTI-derived maps. The in vivo microstructural metrics of fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivity of the traced white matter tracts were measured. Population-averaged digital atlas integrated into in vivo space can be used to label the experimental macaque brain automatically. Bony and facial landmarks will be available for guiding invasive procedures. The DTI metric measurements offer unique insights into heterogeneous microstructural profiles of different white matter tracts.

  14. Performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: in-vivo measurements, pilot study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, A.V.; Fisher, D.R.; Reece, W.D.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1986-10-01

    This document describes a project to evaluate the in-vivo counting performance criteria of draft ANSI Standard N13.30, Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay. The draft ANSI Standard provides guidance to in-vivo counting facilities regarding the precision and accuracy of measurements for certain categories of commonly assayed radionuclides and critical regions of the body. The draft ANSI Standard was evaluated by conducting an intercomparison test involving a number of whole-body counting facilities. The testing involved three types of measurements: chest counting for detection of radioactive materials in the lung, whole-body counting for detection of uniformly distributed activity, and neck counting for detection of radioactive material concentrated in the thyroid. Results of the first-round intercomparison test are presented in this report. The appropriateness of the draft Standard performance criteria was judged by the measurement results reported by participating in-vivo counting facilities. The intercomparison testing showed that some laboratories had difficulty meeting the performance criteria specified in the draft ANSI Standard N13.30.

  15. Performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: in-vivo measurements, pilot study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.V.; Fisher, D.R.; Reece, W.D.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1986-10-01

    This document describes a project to evaluate the in-vivo counting performance criteria of draft ANSI Standard N13.30, Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay. The draft ANSI Standard provides guidance to in-vivo counting facilities regarding the precision and accuracy of measurements for certain categories of commonly assayed radionuclides and critical regions of the body. The draft ANSI Standard was evaluated by conducting an intercomparison test involving a number of whole-body counting facilities. The testing involved three types of measurements: chest counting for detection of radioactive materials in the lung, whole-body counting for detection of uniformly distributed activity, and neck counting for detection of radioactive material concentrated in the thyroid. Results of the first-round intercomparison test are presented in this report. The appropriateness of the draft Standard performance criteria was judged by the measurement results reported by participating in-vivo counting facilities. The intercomparison testing showed that some laboratories had difficulty meeting the performance criteria specified in the draft ANSI Standard N13.30

  16. Elucidating the in vivo fate of nanocrystals using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model: a case study with the anticancer agent SNX-2112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong D

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dong Dong,1* Xiao Wang,1* Huailing Wang,1 Xingwang Zhang,2 Yifei Wang,1 Baojian Wu2 1Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, 2Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: SNX-2112 is a promising anticancer agent but has poor solubility in both water and oil. In the study reported here, we aimed to develop a nanocrystal formulation for SNX-2112 and to determine the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the prepared nanocrystals. Methods: Nanocrystals of SNX-2112 were prepared using the wet-media milling technique and characterized by particle size, differential scanning calorimetry, drug release, etc. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was undertaken to evaluate the drug’s disposition in rats following administration of drug cosolvent or nanocrystals. Results: The optimized SNX-2112 nanocrystals (with poloxamer 188 as the stabilizer were 203 nm in size with a zeta potential of -11.6 mV. In addition, the nanocrystals showed a comparable release profile to the control (drug cosolvent. Further, the rat PBPK model incorporating the parameters of particulate uptake (into the liver and spleen and of in vivo drug release was well fitted to the experimental data following administration of the drug nanocrystals. The results reveal that the nanocrystals rapidly released drug molecules in vivo, accounting for their cosolvent-like pharmacokinetic behaviors. Due to particulate uptake, drug accumulation in the liver and spleen was significant at the initial time points (within 1 hour. Conclusion: The nanocrystals should be a good choice for the systemic delivery of the poorly soluble drug SNX-2112. Also, our study contributes to an improved understanding of the in vivo fate of nanocrystals. Keywords: intravenous delivery, PBPK, tissue distribution, poloxamer 188

  17. In Vivo Evidence of Increased nNOS Activity in Acute MPTP Neurotoxicity: A Functional Pharmacological MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiing Yee Siow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP is a neurotoxin commonly used to produce an animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Previous studies have suggested a critical role for neuronal nitric oxide (NO synthase- (nNOS- derived NO in the pathogenesis of MPTP. However, NO activity is difficult to assess in vivo due to its extremely short biological half-life, and so in vivo evidence of NO involvement in MPTP neurotoxicity remains scarce. In the present study, we utilized flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery sequences, in vivo localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion-weighted imaging to, respectively, assess the hemodynamics, metabolism, and cytotoxicity induced by MPTP. The role of NO in MPTP toxicity was clarified further by administering a selective nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, intraperitoneally to some of the experimental animals prior to MPTP challenge. The transient increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF in the cortex and striatum induced by systemic injection of MPTP was completely prevented by pretreatment with 7-NI. We provide the first in vivo evidence of increased nNOS activity in acute MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. Although the observed CBF change may be independent of the toxicogenesis of MPTP, this transient hyperperfusion state may serve as an early indicator of neuroinflammation.

  18. Proteoliposomes as matrix vesicles' biomimetics to study the initiation of skeletal mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.S. Simão

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During the process of endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes and osteoblasts mineralize their extracellular matrix by promoting the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA seed crystals in the sheltered interior of membrane-limited matrix vesicles (MVs. Ion transporters control the availability of phosphate and calcium needed for HA deposition. The lipidic microenvironment in which MV-associated enzymes and transporters function plays a crucial physiological role and must be taken into account when attempting to elucidate their interplay during the initiation of biomineralization. In this short mini-review, we discuss the potential use of proteoliposome systems as chondrocyte- and osteoblast-derived MVs biomimetics, as a means of reconstituting a phospholipid microenvironment in a manner that recapitulates the native functional MV microenvironment. Such a system can be used to elucidate the interplay of MV enzymes during catalysis of biomineralization substrates and in modulating in vitro calcification. As such, the enzymatic defects associated with disease-causing mutations in MV enzymes could be studied in an artificial vesicular environment that better mimics their in vivo biological milieu. These artificial systems could also be used for the screening of small molecule compounds able to modulate the activity of MV enzymes for potential therapeutic uses. Such a nanovesicular system could also prove useful for the repair/treatment of craniofacial and other skeletal defects and to facilitate the mineralization of titanium-based tooth implants.

  19. Targeting sarcoma tumor-initiating cells through differentiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I down-regulation has been reported in many human cancers to be associated with poor clinical outcome. However, its connection to tumor-initiating cells (TICs remains unknown. In this study, we report that HLA-I is down-regulated in a subpopulation of cells that have high tumor initiating capacity in different types of human sarcomas. Detailed characterization revealed their distinct molecular profiles regarding proliferation, apoptosis and stemness programs. Notably, these TICs can be induced to differentiate along distinct mesenchymal lineages, including the osteogenic pathway. The retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway is overexpressed in HLA-1 negative TICs. All-trans retinoic acid treatment successfully induced osteogenic differentiation of this subpopulation, in vitro and in vivo, resulting in significantly decreased tumor formation. Thus, our findings indicate down-regulated HLA-I is a shared feature of TICs in a variety of human sarcomas, and differentiation therapy strategies may specifically target undifferentiated TICs and inhibit tumor formation.

  20. Endocrine disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day each......) were examined in the Hershberger assay. In the second study, pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole or ketoconazole (50 mg/kg/day each) from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD 21. Caesarian sections were performed on dams at GD 21. Tebuconazole and propiconazole...... demonstrated no antiandrogenic effects at doses between 50 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day in the Hershberger assay. In the in utero exposure toxicity study, ketoconazole, a pharmaceutical to treat human fungal infections, decreased anogenital distance and reduced testicular testosterone levels, demonstrating...

  1. Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy for Ex Vivo Diagnosis of Conjunctival Tumors: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovieno, Alfonso; Longo, Caterina; De Luca, Mariacarla; Piana, Simonetta; Fontana, Luigi; Ragazzi, Moira

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the potential use of fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) for ex vivo diagnosis and excision margin assessment of conjunctival neoplasms. Validity study. setting: Single institution. Consecutive patients with clinically suspicious conjunctival lesions. Conjunctival lesions were excised in toto using a standard "no-touch technique" by a single surgeon (A.I.). Collected specimens were examined with a commercially available laser scanning fluorescence confocal microscope after immersion in a 0.6 mM solution of acridine orange dye for 10-20 seconds. Specimens were subsequently processed with standard histologic analysis. FCM diagnosis of the nature and extension of conjunctival lesions. Sixteen consecutive patients were included in the study (11 male, 5 female; mean age 58.1 ± 26.1 years, range 10-90 years). The median time needed to process and analyze a sample with FCM was 15 minutes. Eleven of 16 lesions were identified by FCM as squamous (2 benign papillomas, 2 grade 2 conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasias, 7 in situ squamous carcinomas) and 5 as nonsquamous (1 pingueculum, 1 dermolipoma, 2 melanocytic nevi, 1 melanoma). In all cases FCM was able to detect horizontal and vertical extension of the lesion. All FCM findings were confirmed by corresponding subsequent histologic examination. FCM provides a fast ex vivo preliminary diagnosis of suspicious conjunctival lesions with good histologic details and margin assessment, and may represent a novel tool for intraoperative and postsurgical management of conjunctival tumors. This is the first study to investigate ex vivo FCM application in ophthalmology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vivo x-ray phase contrast analyzer-based imaging for longitudinal osteoarthritis studies in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, Paola [Faculty of Medicine and Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Wagner, Andreas; Mollenhauer, Juergen [Department of Orthopaedics of the University of Jena, Rudolf-Elle-Hospital Eisenberg (Germany); Bravin, Alberto; Diemoz, Paul C; Keyrilaeinen, Jani, E-mail: Paola.Coan@physik.uni-muenchen.d [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France)

    2010-12-21

    Over the last two decades phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques have been extensively studied for applications in the biomedical field. Published results demonstrate the high capability of these imaging modalities of improving the image contrast of biological samples with respect to standard absorption-based radiography and routinely used clinical imaging techniques. A clear depiction of the anatomic structures and a more accurate disease diagnosis may be provided by using radiation doses comparable to or lower than those used in current clinical methods. In the literature many works show images of phantoms and excised biological samples proving the high sensitivity of the phase contrast imaging methods for in vitro investigations. In this scenario, the applications of the so-called analyzer-based x-ray imaging (ABI) phase contrast technique are particularly noteworthy. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo x-ray ABI phase contrast imaging for biomedical applications and in particular with respect to joint anatomic depiction and osteoarthritis detection. ABI in planar and tomographic modes was performed in vivo on articular joints of guinea pigs in order to investigate the animals with respect to osteoarthritis by using highly monochromatic x-rays of 52 keV and a low noise detector with a pixel size of 47 x 47 {mu}m{sup 2}. Images give strong evidence of the ability of ABI in depicting both anatomic structures in complex systems as living organisms and all known signs of osteoarthritis with high contrast, high spatial resolution and with an acceptable radiation dose. This paper presents the first proof of principle study of in vivo application of ABI. The technical challenges encountered when imaging an animal in vivo are discussed. This experimental study is an important step toward the study of clinical applications of phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques.

  3. In vivo and ex vivo characterization of a novel Er fiber laser system for fractional treatment of soft oral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatilova, Ksenia; Aloian, Georgii; Karabut, Maria; Ryabova, Valentina; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Altshuler, Gregory

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present the first histological in vivo and ex vivo study of effects of fractional Er fiber laser (wavelength 1550 nm, peak power 25 W) on keratinized gum and alveolar mucosa for gum regeneration. Biopsy with subsequent NBTC staining was used as primary evaluation technique. Ex vivo, porcine tissue model was used. Effects of pulse energy, beam diameter, and beam divergence were investigated in detail. It has been demonstrated that under optimal conditions columns up to 800 μm in depth could be reliably produced with 130 mJ pulses. Clinically, 2 subjects were treated and 4 punch biopsies were collected. The results were compared with ex vivo data. Both ex vivo and in vivo datasets suggest feasibility of a dental fractional system intended for gum regeneration.

  4. Synthesis of the possible receptor Ligand [125I]-spiperone for D2-dopamine receptor and in-vivo biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.M.; Shoukry, M.; Abd EL-Bary, A.

    2009-01-01

    The spiperone is a selective D2-dopamine receptor antagonist radioiodination of spiperone is of interest for dopamine (DA) receptor studies both in vivo and in vitro. The labeling of spiperone with iodine-125 was extremely done in a neutral ph 7, using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent via heating the reaction mixture at 70 C (degree) for 10 - 15 minutes producing radiochemical yield of 97 %. In vivo biodistribution studies showed that the initial brain uptake correlated fairly well with the brain uptake index and that the kinetics of the radioactivity specifically bound to the striatum were strongly influenced by the dopamine receptor binding affinity of the compound. The brain uptake of 125 I-Spiperone was high and equal to 3.5, 3.25,2.75 and 1.7 % per gram tissue at 5, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post injection, respectively. 125 I-Spiperone binds with high affinity to dopamine receptors in vivo. Specific binding is about 65% of the total binding as is displaced stereo-specifically by clozapine. 125 I-spiperone may prove to be a useful ligand in studies examining D2-dopamine receptors. Furthermore iodinated spiperone may be useful in radioreceptor assays of neuroleptic drug levels and, in a 123 I-labeled form, for imaging of dopamine receptors, in vivo, using single photon tomography.

  5. The radiosensitizing effects of ornidazole in hypoxic mammalian tissue: an in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkan, S.; Uzel, R.

    1982-01-01

    In this study the sensitizing effects of ornidazole is investigated in vivo. The selected test system is the acute killing effect of radiation within 4-6 days after abdominal irradiation ranging from 9 to 24 Gy, in groups of C 57 black mice. Ornidazole is given intraperitoneally in 500 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg doses prior to irradiation of animals breathing air, oxygen or nitrogen. A decreae of LD 50 dose is observed from 24.39 +/- 5.66 to 16.38 +/- 1.86 and 18.04 +/- 2.48 Gy, respectively, in nitrogen breathing animals. No sensitizing effect was observed in doses of 20 mg/kg. Enhancement Ratio (ER) was found to be 1.48 +/- 0.25 and 1.35 +/- 0.27; relative sensitizing efficiency (RSE) was 40% and 29% respectively. No sensitizing effect was observed in animals irradiated in oxic conditions. These results showed that ornidazole (Ro-7-0207) has a sensitizing effect on hypoxic cells in vivo. It is worthwhile to try this drug in a clinical study

  6. Discrete tomography in an in vivo small animal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Casteele, Elke; Perilli, Egon; Van Aarle, Wim; Reynolds, Karen J; Sijbers, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the feasibility of a discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) to be used in in vivo small animal bone studies. The advantage of discrete tomography is the possibility to reduce the amount of X-ray projection images, which makes scans faster and implies also a significant reduction of radiation dose, without compromising the reconstruction results. Bone studies are ideal for being performed with discrete tomography, due to the relatively small number of attenuation coefficients contained in the image [namely three: background (air), soft tissue and bone]. In this paper, a validation is made by comparing trabecular bone morphometric parameters calculated from images obtained by using DART and the commonly used standard filtered back-projection (FBP). Female rats were divided into an ovariectomized (OVX) and a sham-operated group. In vivo micro-CT scanning of the tibia was done at baseline and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The cross-section images were reconstructed using first the full set of projection images and afterwards reducing them in number to a quarter and one-sixth (248, 62, 42 projection images, respectively). For both reconstruction methods, similar changes in morphometric parameters were observed over time: bone loss for OVX and bone growth for sham-operated rats, although for DART the actual values were systematically higher (bone volume fraction) or lower (structure model index) compared to FBP, depending on the morphometric parameter. The DART algorithm was, however, more robust when using fewer projection images, where the standard FBP reconstruction was more prone to noise, showing a significantly bigger deviation from the morphometric parameters obtained using all projection images. This study supports the use of DART as a potential alternative method to FBP in X-ray micro-CT animal studies, in particular, when the number of projections has to be drastically minimized, which directly reduces

  7. Hanford tank initiative test facility site selection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehr, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project is developing equipment for the removal of hard heel waste from the Hanford Site underground single-shell waste storage tanks. The HTI equipment will initially be installed in the 241-C-106 tank where its operation will be demonstrated. This study evaluates existing Hanford Site facilities and other sites for functional testing of the HTI equipment before it is installed into the 241-C-106 tank

  8. Comparative in vivo mucoadhesion studies of thiomer formulations using magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, K; Greindl, M; Kremser, C; Wolf, C; Debbage, P; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2006-09-28

    The aim of this study was to compare different oral delivery systems based on the thiolated polymer polycarbophil-cysteine (PCP-Cys) and to provide evidence for the validity of the hypothesis that unhydrated polymers provide better mucoadhesion in vivo. To achieve dry polymer application, a new, experimental dosage form named Eutex (made of Eudragit L100-55 and latex) capsule has been developed. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to localize the point of release of the thiolated polymer from the application forms via the positive magnetic resonance signal from a gadolinium complex (Gd-DTPA). In vivo mucoadhesion was determined by ascertaining the residence time of the fluorescence-tagged thiomer on intestinal mucosa after 3 h. Results showed that in comparison to conventional application forms the Eutex capsules led to 1.9-fold higher mucoadhesive properties of PCP-Cys when compared to application with a conventional enteric-coated capsule, and to 1.4-fold higher mucoadhesion when compared to administration with an enteric-coated tablet of the thiomer. The findings of this study should contribute to the understanding of mucoadhesion and mucoadhesion influencing parameters in vivo and should therefore be of considerable interest for the development of future mucoadhesive oral drug delivery dosage forms.

  9. Enhanced dermal delivery of diflucortolone valerate using lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles: in-vitro and in-vivo evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, İpek; Azizoğlu, Erkan; Şenyiğit, Taner; Özyazıcı, Mine; Özer, Özgen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare a suitable formulation for dermal delivery of diflucortolone valerate (DFV) that would maintain the localization in skin layers without any penetration and to optimize efficiency of DFV. Drug-loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles with high entrapment efficiency (86.8%), were successfully prepared by ionic interaction technique. Sustained release of DFV was achieved without any initial burst release. Nanoparticles were also incorporated into chitosan gel at different ratios for preparing a more suitable formulation for topical drug delivery with adequate viscosity. In ex-vivo permeation studies, nanoparticles increased the accumulation of DFV especially in the stratum corneum + epidermis of rat skin without any significant permeation. Retention of DFV from nanoparticle in chitosan gel formulation (0.01%) was twofold higher than commercial cream, although it contained ten times less DFV. Nanoparticles in gel formulations produced significantly higher edema inhibition in rats compared with commercial cream in in-vivo studies. Skin blanching assay using a chromameter showed vasoconstriction similar to that of the commercial product. There were no barrier function changes upon application of nanoparticles. In-vitro and in-vivo results demonstrated that lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel may be a promising carrier for dermal delivery of DFV in various skin disorders. PMID:23390364

  10. Online in vivo dosimetry in conformal radio therapies with MOSkin detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarini, G.; Tenconi, C.; Mantaut, N.; Carrara, M.; Borroni, M.; Pignoli, E.; Cutajar, D.; Petasecca, M.; Fuduli, I.; Lerch, M.; Rosenfeld, A.

    2012-10-01

    A novel MOSFET based dosimeter, the MOSkin, has been developed at the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong (Australia). This dosimeter is designed with suitable packaging that allows skin dose measurements at depths of 0.07 mm, as recommended by the ICRP. Initially proposed for real-time skin dose measurement, it is now studied for real-time in vivo dosimetry during high dose rate (Hdr) brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy. MOSkin detectors have shown good characteristics of reproducibility and linearity. Experiments performed with the 192 Ir source of a Hdr brachytherapy facility have shown negligible energy response for photons from the Ir-192 source. The angular response is within the experimental error when used in a dual-MOSkin configuration. In this work, urethral dose measurements were performed in a tissue-equivalent phantom reproducing prostate brachytherapy treatments. The obtained urethral doses were compared to the dose values calculated by the treatment planning system and the discrepancy was found to be within 4%, showing that dual-MOSkin detectors can be profitably utilized for real-time in vivo dosimetry during a brachytherapy treatment. (Author)

  11. In vivo study of central receptors in man using pet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.

    1986-09-01

    Central neurotransmitter systems and receptors are intimately involved in the mechanism of several neurologic and phychiatric disorders. Although neurotransmitter concentration and receptor function can be measured regionnally post-mortem, studies performed during life may provide insight into changes at early stages of the disease as well as follow-up data on, and pharmacological modification of, such changes. Positron Tomography (PET) allows to monitor non-invasively the time-course of regional tissue tracer concentration following administration of a radioactive drug. If the latter is known to interact selectively with specific binding sites, it can be used to probe in vivo the regional distribution and affinity of the receptors involved. As shown in this progress report, several receptor systems can now be studied reliably in humans, using PET

  12. Imaging of Human Hepatic Stem Cells In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Report on progress in MRI and PET of stem cell tracking. Human hepatic stem cell imaging for both MRI and PET have been accomplished within SCID/nod mice, and succeeded in cell specificity labeling with in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo image tracking. For MRI, stem cell labeling was accomplished by two methods: (1) in vitro labeling the stem cells just prior to in vivo transplantation, and/or (2) transplanting the stem cells into SCID/nod mice and in vivo specificity labeling the cells just prior to MRI. For labeling techniques 1 and 2, multiple image controls were utilized and include: (A) stem cells(-) and contrast label(-), (B) stem cells(+) and contrast label(-), and (C) stem cells(-) and contrast label(+) help to confirm signal noise background interference, which is a result of slight nonspecific cell labeling. Contrast labeled stem cells are directly transplanted into liver tissues, the tissues excised, and immediately MR imaged to determine cell dispersion dynamics. In this method, the contrast labeled cells appear as void foci throughout the organs. The images are imported into Metamorph imaging software and analyzed for foci radii, diameter, and to discern spheroid volumes. Then, cell numbers are extrapolated to understand ''imaged'' cell aggregate requirements using this technique. For this ex vivo method, a cell aggregate of ∼100 stem cells is required to MRI monitor signal activities. For in vivo imaging, contrast labeled human stem cells within SCID/nod mice are also confirmed as small foci voids and are evident within liver tissues. Initially, these short-term studies where accomplished by in vitro labeling stem cells, transplanting the cells, then in vivo imaging the tissues between days 3-15. Next and to avoid imaged time limitations of detaching contrast agents, the proliferative stem cells were labeled after transplantation, and before MR imaging. This was accomplished to confirm the ability to specifically label unique cell subsets after the

  13. Sequestration of the Abeta peptide prevents toxicity and promotes degradation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila M Luheshi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation, arising from the failure of the cell to regulate the synthesis or degradation of aggregation-prone proteins, underlies many neurodegenerative disorders. However, the balance between the synthesis, clearance, and assembly of misfolded proteins into neurotoxic aggregates remains poorly understood. Here we study the effects of modulating this balance for the amyloid-beta (Abeta peptide by using a small engineered binding protein (Z(Abeta3 that binds with nanomolar affinity to Abeta, completely sequestering the aggregation-prone regions of the peptide and preventing its aggregation. Co-expression of Z(Abeta3 in the brains of Drosophila melanogaster expressing either Abeta(42 or the aggressive familial associated E22G variant of Abeta(42 abolishes their neurotoxic effects. Biochemical analysis indicates that monomer Abeta binding results in degradation of the peptide in vivo. Complementary biophysical studies emphasize the dynamic nature of Abeta aggregation and reveal that Z(Abeta3 not only inhibits the initial association of Abeta monomers into oligomers or fibrils, but also dissociates pre-formed oligomeric aggregates and, although very slowly, amyloid fibrils. Toxic effects of peptide aggregation in vivo can therefore be eliminated by sequestration of hydrophobic regions in monomeric peptides, even when these are extremely aggregation prone. Our studies also underline how a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments provide mechanistic insight with regard to the relationship between protein aggregation and clearance and show that engineered binding proteins may provide powerful tools with which to address the physiological and pathological consequences of protein aggregation.

  14. Pulmonary deposition of aerosolised pentamidine using a new nebuliser: efficiency measurements in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, P.P.; Versari, A.; Gafa, S.I.; Becquemin, M.H.; Barchi, E.; Serafini, D.; Roy, M.; Salvo, D.; Bouchikhi, A.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the performance of a new nebuliser (Pentasave) by comparison both in vitro and in vivo with a standard nebuliser (Respirgard II). In vitro, deposition of pentamidine labelled with technetium-99m human serum albumin was measured indirectly by capturing inhaled particles on an absolute filter and measuring radioactivity with a gamma camera. The nebulisers were initially assessed with a pentamidine dose of 100 mg in 5 ml al 44 psi and an air flow of 10 l/min for Respirgard II and 16 l/min for Pentasave. Nebuliser output, expressed as the percentage of the initial nebuliser radioactivity captured by the inhalation filter, was 15%±2% (mean±SD) for Respirgard II, and significantly increased to 23%±3% for an initial version and to 33%±2% for the final version of Pentasave. Measurements with a gamma camera in a group of ten patients with human immuno-deficiency virus infection were made in vivo. The results revealed that pulmonary drug distributions are good using both Respirgard II and Pentasave. We measured pulmonary pentamidine deposition of 20.22±4.31 mg using Respirgard II (with 300 mg in 5 ml) and of 16.00±7.18 mg using Pentasave (with 150 mg in 6 ml). These findings show that the therepeutic dose of pentamidine (9 mg) was widely exceeded with both nebulisers. (orig./MG)

  15. Quantitative Analysis of HER2 Receptor Expression In Vivo by Near-Infrared Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Chernomordik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 overexpression in breast cancers is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Current techniques for estimating this important characteristic use ex vivo assays that require tissue biopsies. We suggest a novel noninvasive method to characterize HER2 expression in vivo, using optical imaging, based on HER2-specific probes (albumin-binding domain–fused-(ZHER2:3422-Cys Affibody molecules [Affibody AB, Solna, Sweden], labeled with Alexa Fluor 750 [Molecular Probes, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA] that could be used concomitantly with HER2-targeted therapy. Subcutaneous tumor xenografts, expressing different levels of HER2, were imaged with a near-infrared fluorescence small-animal imaging system at several times postinjection of the probe. The compartmental ligand-receptor model was used to calculate HER2 expression from imaging data. Correlation between HER2 amplification/overexpression in tumor cells and parameters, directly estimated from the sequence of optical images, was observed (eg, experimental data for BT474 xenografts indicate that initial slope, characterizing the temporal dependence of the fluorescence intensity detected in the tumor, linearly depends on the HER2 expression, as measured ex vivo by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the same tumor. The results obtained from tumors expressing different levels of HER2 substantiate a similar relationship between the initial slope and HER2 amplification/overexpression. This work shows that optical imaging, combined with mathematical modeling, allows noninvasive monitoring of HER2 expression in vivo.

  16. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J.; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region.

  17. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of nano-based films for buccal delivery of zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Essa AL-DHUBIAB

    Full Text Available Abstract Insomnia is becoming increasingly prevalent in the world general population. Therapies used by patients include over-the-counter therapies, herbal and dietary supplements, and pharmacological or nonpharmacological treatments. Among these, zolpidem is a pharmacological treatment popularly used for insomnia. Zolpidem is well tolerated and especially efficacious for initiation of sleep, and therefore is effective for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia. The purpose of the present study was to design and evaluate zolpidem nanoparticle-impregnated buccal films to prolong the duration of its action. Zolpidem nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation and then loaded into buccoadhesive films (Z1-Z4 comprised of different concentrations of HPMC K100, Eudragit® RL 100, and carbopol 974P. The prepared films were characterized for physicomechanical properties, mucoadhesion, percent hydration, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, and in vivo studies. In vitro drug release was found to depend upon film composition. Ex vivo studies showed that film Z4 had the highest flux. In vivo studies revealed that administration of zolpidem nanosphere-impregnated film enhanced absorption of the drug (p < 0.0001, with a higher peak plasma concentration (52.54 ± 8.22 ng/mL and area under the curve from time 0 to α (236.00 ± 39.51 ng.h/mL than oral administration. The increase in time taken to reach the maximum drug concentration (1.5 h further signifies the potential of these films to provide prolonged drug release. Given these promising results, we concluded that these buccal films could be an alternative route for effective zolpidem delivery.

  18. 15N studies on the in-vivo assay of nitrate reductase in leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate and nitrite in the leaf disks of seven di- and two mono-cotyledonous species under the in-vivo assay conditions of nitrate reductase was studied using N-15 labeled substrates. The significant reduction of both nitrate and nitrite into ammonia and amino acids was detected in the atmosphere of air. In the atmosphere of N 2 gas, anaerobic incubation enhanced the accumulation of nitrite, but the subsequent reduction to the basic nitrogen compounds was from 40 to 180 % of the aerobic rate. The present examination indicated that the in-vivo assay of nitrate reductase under aerobic condition may give greatly underestimated results due to nitrite reduction, and that the exclusion of oxygen from the in-vivo assay mixture is desirable. The addition of n- propanol may be desirable for the assay under aerobic condition. Significant difference was not observed in the reduction of nitrate supplied as sodium and potassium salts on the nitrite formation and on the incorporation of nitrate-N into basic fractions. The N-15 experiment on the dark assimilation of nitrate, nitrite and ammonia into amino acids in wheat leaves showed that these three nitrogen sources were assimilated through the same route, and that the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthetase pathway was the main route. By anaerobic treatment, the incorporation of nitrogen into alanine and serine was relatively high. (Kako, I.)

  19. Deducing the kinetics of protein synthesis in vivo from the transition rates measured in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Rudorf

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular machinery of life relies on complex multistep processes that involve numerous individual transitions, such as molecular association and dissociation steps, chemical reactions, and mechanical movements. The corresponding transition rates can be typically measured in vitro but not in vivo. Here, we develop a general method to deduce the in-vivo rates from their in-vitro values. The method has two basic components. First, we introduce the kinetic distance, a new concept by which we can quantitatively compare the kinetics of a multistep process in different environments. The kinetic distance depends logarithmically on the transition rates and can be interpreted in terms of the underlying free energy barriers. Second, we minimize the kinetic distance between the in-vitro and the in-vivo process, imposing the constraint that the deduced rates reproduce a known global property such as the overall in-vivo speed. In order to demonstrate the predictive power of our method, we apply it to protein synthesis by ribosomes, a key process of gene expression. We describe the latter process by a codon-specific Markov model with three reaction pathways, corresponding to the initial binding of cognate, near-cognate, and non-cognate tRNA, for which we determine all individual transition rates in vitro. We then predict the in-vivo rates by the constrained minimization procedure and validate these rates by three independent sets of in-vivo data, obtained for codon-dependent translation speeds, codon-specific translation dynamics, and missense error frequencies. In all cases, we find good agreement between theory and experiment without adjusting any fit parameter. The deduced in-vivo rates lead to smaller error frequencies than the known in-vitro rates, primarily by an improved initial selection of tRNA. The method introduced here is relatively simple from a computational point of view and can be applied to any biomolecular process, for which we have

  20. Evaluation of an ex vivo murine local lymph node assay: multiple endpoint comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccotti, Joseph R; Knight, Stephanie A; Gillhouse, Kimberly; Lagattuta, Mark S; Bleavins, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used to assess the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the standard assay, mice are treated topically on the dorsum of both ears with test substance for 3 days. Following 2 days of rest, the initiation of the hypersensitivity response is evaluated by injecting (3)H-thymidine into a tail vein, and then measuring the levels of radioisotope incorporated into the DNA of lymph node cells draining the ears. In the current study, BALB/c mice were treated with the contact sensitizers hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA) and oxazolone, and the nonsensitizer methyl salicylate. The proliferative response of lymph node cells was evaluated in an ex vivo assay, in which isolated cells were cultured in vitro with (3)H-thymidine. Treatment of mice with HCA at 5-50% resulted in concentration-related increases in (3)H-thymidine incorporation, with stimulation indices ranging from 3 to 14. Low animal-to-animal variability was seen in three replicate assays testing HCA at 25%. As anticipated, the proliferative response induced by the potent sensitizer oxazolone at 0.25% was greater than HCA at all concentrations tested. Stimulation indices of 1.5 and 3 were seen in two independent experiments with methyl salicylate. These equivocal findings were likely due to the irritancy properties of the compound. Importantly, measuring ex vivo (3)H-thymidine incorporation was more sensitive than evaluating lymph node weight and cellularity, and in vitro bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Furthermore, the results of the ex vivo LLNA were comparable to the standard assay. This study provided evidence that supports the use of an ex vivo LLNA for hazard assessment of contact hypersensitivity. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Converted marine coral hydroxyapatite implants with growth factors: In vivo bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, Jayanta [Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Kolkata (India); Mahato, Arnab; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-04-01

    Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250 °C, the HCCHAp found to have ~ 87% crystallinity, 70–75% porosity and 2 ± 0.5 MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90 days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds. - Highlights: • In vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite • Scaffolds with and without growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2) • In vitro drug release was more sustained for IGF-1 than BMP-2. • Growth factor significantly improved osseous tissue formation of implanted scaffold. • Established through detailed statistical score sheet from histological observations.

  2. Converted marine coral hydroxyapatite implants with growth factors: In vivo bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Samit K.; Kundu, Biswanath; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Mahato, Arnab; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250 °C, the HCCHAp found to have ~ 87% crystallinity, 70–75% porosity and 2 ± 0.5 MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90 days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds. - Highlights: • In vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite • Scaffolds with and without growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2) • In vitro drug release was more sustained for IGF-1 than BMP-2. • Growth factor significantly improved osseous tissue formation of implanted scaffold. • Established through detailed statistical score sheet from histological observations

  3. Identification of adulterants in a Chinese herbal medicine by LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR and comparative in vivo study with standards in a hypertensive rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, JingQi; Sørensen, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Based on anecdotal evidence of anti-hypertensive effect of Gold Nine Soft Capsules, an in vivo study of this complex Chinese "herbal-based" medicine was initiated. Dosage of the content of Gold Nine capsules in spontaneous hypertensive rats showed a remarkably good effect. This led to further...... of a combination of commercially purchased standards was shown to be equivalent to that of the capsule content. Adulteration of herbal remedies and dietary supplements with synthetic drugs is an increasing problem that may lead to serious adverse effects. LC-MS-SPE/NMR as a method for the rapid identification...

  4. In vivo Study of the Accuracy of Dual-arch Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Martinelli Santayana; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Junior, Luiz Henrique Burnett; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated in vivo the accuracy of metal (Smart®) and plastic (Triple Tray®) dual-arch trays used with vinyl polysiloxane (Flexitime®), in the putty/wash viscosity, as well as polyether (Impregum Soft®) in the regular viscosity. In one patient, an implant-level transfer was screwed on an implant in the mandibular right first molar, serving as a pattern. Ten impressions were made with each tray and impression material. The impressions were poured with Type IV gypsum. The width and height of the pattern and casts were measured in a profile projector (Nikon). The results were submitted to Student's t-test for one sample (α = 0.05). For the width distance, the plastic dual-arch trays with vinyl polysiloxane (4.513 mm) and with polyether (4.531 mm) were statistically wider than the pattern (4.489 mm). The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane (4.504 mm) and with polyether (4.500 mm) did not differ statistically from the pattern. For the height distance, only the metal dual-arch tray with polyether (2.253 mm) differed statistically from the pattern (2.310 mm). The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane, in the putty/wash viscosities, reproduced casts with less distortion in comparison with the same technique with the plastic dual-arch tray. The plastic or metal dual-arch trays with polyether reproduced cast with greater distortion. How to cite the article: Santayana de Lima LM, Borges GA, Burnett LH Jr, Spohr AM. In vivo study of the accuracy of dual-arch impressions. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):50-5.

  5. Rocking media over ex vivo corneas improves this model and allows the study of the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Pallavi; Ortega, Ílida; Sefat, Farshid; Sangwan, Virender S; Green, Nicola; Claeyssens, Frederik; MacNeil, Sheila

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro cornea model to study the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on wound healing. Initial studies investigated how to maintain the ex vivo models for up to 4 weeks without loss of epithelium. To study the effect of cytokines, corneas were cultured with the interleukins IL-17A, IL-22, or a combination of IL-17A and IL-22, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effect of IL-17A on wound healing was then examined. With static culture conditions, organ cultures deteriorated within 2 weeks. With gentle rocking of media over the corneas and carbon dioxide perfusion, the ex vivo models survived for up to 4 weeks without loss of epithelium. The cytokine that caused the most damage to the cornea was IL-17A. Under static conditions, wound healing of the central corneal epithelium occurred within 9 days, but only a single-layered epithelium formed whether the cornea was exposed to IL-17A or not. With rocking of media gently over the corneas, a multilayered epithelium was achieved 9 days after wounding. In the presence of IL-17A, however, there was no wound healing evident. Characterization of the cells showed that wherever epithelium was present, both differentiated cells and highly proliferative cells were present. We propose that introducing rocking to extend the effective working life of this model and the introduction of IL-17A to this model to induce aspects of inflammation extend its usefulness to study the effects of agents that influence corneal regeneration under normal and inflamed conditions. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  6. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  7. Ethosomal nanocarriers: the impact of constituents and formulation techniques on ethosomal properties, in vivo studies, and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbaqi IM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim M Abdulbaqi, Yusrida Darwis, Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan, Reem Abou Assi, Arshad A Khan School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia Abstract: Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone extensive research since they were invented in 1996; new compounds were added to their initial formula, which led to the production of new types of ethosomal systems. Different preparation techniques are used in the preparation of these novel carriers. For ease of application and stability, ethosomal dispersions are incorporated into gels, patches, and creams. Highly diverse in vivo models are used to evaluate their efficacy in dermal/ transdermal delivery, in addition to clinical trials. This article provides a detailed review of the ethosomal systems and categorizes them on the basis of their constituents to classical ethosomes, binary ethosomes, and transethosomes. The differences among these systems are discussed from several perspectives, including the formulation, size, ζ-potential (zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, skin-permeation properties, and stability. This paper gives a detailed review on the effects of ethosomal system constituents, preparation methods, and their significant roles in determining the final properties of these nanocarriers. Furthermore, the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms of ethosomal gels, patches, and creams are highlighted. The article also provides detailed information regarding the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for the evaluation of these vesicular systems. Keywords: ethosomes, transdermal, lipid-based vesicles, delivery systems

  8. RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly studied in vivo by RNA transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, A.M.; Pederson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a method for studying RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly in vivo, by using RNA synthesized in vitro. SP6-transcribed 32 P-labeled U2 small nuclear RNA precursor molecules were introduced into cultured human 293 cells by calcium phosphate-mediated uptake, as in standard DNA transfection experiments. RNase protection mapping demonstrated that the introduced pre-U2 RNA underwent accurate 3' end processing. The introduced U2 RNA was assembled into ribonucleoprotein particles that reacted with an antibody specific for proteins known to be associated with the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle. The 3' end-processed, ribonucleoprotein-assembled U2 RNA accumulated in the nuclear fraction. When pre-U2 RNA with a 7-methylguanosine group at the 5' end was introduced into cells, it underwent conversion to a 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap structure, a characteristic feature of the U-small nuclear RNAs. Pre-U2 RNA introduced with an adenosine cap (Ap-ppG) also underwent processing, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein assembly, and nuclear accumulation, establishing that a methylated guanosine cap structure is not required for these steps in U2 small nuclear ribonucleprotein biosynthesis. Beyond its demonstrated usefulness in the study of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein biosynthesis, RNA transfection may be of general applicability to the investigation of eukaryotic RNA processing in vivo and may also offer opportunities for introducing therapeutically targeted RNAs (ribozymes or antisense RNA) into cells

  9. Reproducibility of in-vivo diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Laura-Ann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial disarray is an important histological feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM which has been studied post-mortem, but its in-vivo prevalence and extent is unknown. Cardiac Diffusion Tensor Imaging (cDTI provides information on mean intravoxel myocyte orientation and potentially myocardial disarray. Recent technical advances have improved in-vivo cDTI, and the aim of this study was to assess the interstudy reproducibility of quantitative in-vivo cDTI in patients with HCM. Methods and results A stimulated-echo single-shot-EPI sequence with zonal excitation and parallel imaging was implemented. Ten patients with HCM were each scanned on 2 different days. For each scan 3 short axis mid-ventricular slices were acquired with cDTI at end systole. Fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, and helix angle (HA maps were created using a cDTI post-processing platform developed in-house. The mean ± SD global FA was 0.613 ± 0.044, MD was 0.750 ± 0.154 × 10-3 mm2/s and HA was epicardium −34.3 ± 7.6°, mesocardium 3.5 ± 6.9° and endocardium 38.9 ± 8.1°. Comparison of initial and repeat studies showed global interstudy reproducibility for FA (SD = ± 0.045, Coefficient of Variation (CoV = 7.2%, MD (SD = ± 0.135 × 10-3 mm2/s, CoV = 18.6% and HA (epicardium SD = ± 4.8°; mesocardium SD = ± 3.4°; endocardium SD = ± 2.9°. Reproducibility of FA was superior to MD (p = 0.003. Global MD was significantly higher in the septum than the reference lateral wall (0.784 ± 0.188 vs 0.750 ± 0.154 x10-3 mm2/s, p  Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the interstudy reproducibility of DTI in the human HCM heart in-vivo and the largest cDTI study in HCM to date. Our results show good reproducibility of FA, MD and HA which indicates that current technology yields robust in-vivo measurements that have potential clinical value. The

  10. Clinical application of sentinel lymph node mapping in colon cancer: in vivo vs. ex vivo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Yeop; Kim, Do Yoon; Kim, Young Bae; Suh, Kwang Wook

    2014-09-01

    Clinical usefulness of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in colorectal cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the SLN mapping technique using serial sectioning, and to compare the results between ex vivo and in vivo techniques. From February 2011 to October 2012, 34 colon cancer patients underwent SLN mapping during surgical resection. Eleven patients were analyzed with the in vivo method, and 23 patients with the ex vivo method. Patient characteristics and results of SLN mapping were evaluated. The SLN mapping was performed in 34 patients. Mean age was 67.3 years (range, 44-81 years). Primary tumors were located in the following sites: 13 in the right colon (38.2%) and 21 in the left colon (61.8%). SLN mapping was performed successfully in 88.2% of the patients. There was no significant difference in the identification rate between the two methods (90.9% vs. 87.0%, P = 1.000). Both the mapping methods showed a low sensitivity and high rate of skip metastasis. This study showed that SLN evaluation using serial sectioning could not predict the nodal status with clinically acceptable accuracy despite the high detection rate.

  11. Study of the influence of radionuclide biokinetics on in vivo counting using voxel phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, St.

    2008-10-01

    procedure was applied to the in vivo counting system of the medical laboratory of AREVA NC La Hague and to a real case of contamination. This work enabled to study and quantify the incomplete knowledge of the body distribution of activity as another systematic source of uncertainty, .Discrepancies of the order of 50% were found in the estimation of the retention of activity from the lung measurement of the 59.54 keV ray of Am-241 in the first days following the contamination. The developed method will be used in the laboratory of AREVA NC La Hague and can be applied in every laboratory dedicated to the in vivo counting of nuclear workers, to correct the efficiency calibration depending on the biokinetics. By mitigating the associated source of uncertainty, this work will therefore contribute to optimizing the estimation of the internal dose. (author)

  12. In-vivo dosimetric study of carcinoma of uterine cervix with FBX solution in external beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, Challapalli; Shenoy, K. Kamalaksh; Dinesh, M.; Savitha, K.S.; Kasturi, Dinesh Pai; Supe, S.S.; Nagesha, Y.N.

    1999-01-01

    To ensure accurate dose delivery to target site in external beam therapy and brachytherapy, various authors have conducted tests to assess the process of manual dose calculations. In vivo dosimetric measurement is one of these methods to verify these calculations. In this study, an attempt has been made to compare the manually calculated dose to dose estimated using a chemical dosimeter (FBX) solution (in-vivo method, using polypropylene vials), on 12 patients of carcinoma of uterine cervix in external beam therapy. Dose measured by FBX vial varies in the range of ± 2 to 6.75%, as compared with manual calculations. These variations seen may be attributed to the location of the vial position in the vagina, with reference to the beam axis (may not be horizontal), off axis position, manual calculation variations and reproducibility of the FBX system etc. FBX dosimetry offers itself as an in-vivo method to estimate the dose delivered to the target site in external beam therapy. (author)

  13. Formulation and in Vitro, ex Vivo and in Vivo Evaluation of Elastic Liposomes for Transdermal Delivery of Ketorolac Tromethamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Mendoza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to formulate ketorolac tromethamine-loaded elastic liposomes and evaluate their in vitro drug release and their ex vivo and in vivo transdermal delivery. Ketorolac tromethamine (KT, which is a potent analgesic, was formulated in elastic liposomes using Tween 80 as an edge activator. The elastic vesicles were prepared by film hydration after optimizing the sonication time and number of extrusions. The vesicles exhibited an entrapment efficiency of 73 ± 11%, vesicle size of 127.8 ± 3.4 nm and a zeta potential of −12 mV. In vitro drug release was analyzed from liposomes and an aqueous solution, using Franz diffusion cells and a cellophane dialysis membrane with molecular weight cut-off of 8000 Da. Ex vivo permeation of KT across pig ear skin was studied using a Franz diffusion cell, with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 at 32 °C as receptor solution. An in vivo drug permeation study was conducted on healthy human volunteers using a tape-stripping technique. The in vitro results showed (i a delayed release when KT was included in elastic liposomes, compared to an aqueous solution of the drug; (ii a flux of 0.278 mg/cm2h and a lag time of about 10 h for ex vivo permeation studies, which may indicate that KT remains in the skin (with the possibility of exerting a local effect before reaching the receptor medium; (iii a good correlation between the total amount permeated, the penetration distance (both determined by tape stripping and transepidermal water loss (TEWL measured during the in vivo permeation studies. Elastic liposomes have the potential to transport the drug through the skin, keep their size and drug charge, and release the drug into deep skin layers. Therefore, elastic liposomes hold promise for the effective topical delivery of KT.

  14. Reduction of quaternary ammonium-induced ocular surface toxicity by emulsions: an in vivo study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H; Brignole-Baudouin, F; Rabinovich-Guilatt, L; Mao, Z; Riancho, L; Faure, M O; Warnet, J M; Lambert, G; Baudouin, C

    2008-01-31

    To evaluate and compare the toxicological profiles of two quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), benzalkonium chloride (BAK), and cetalkonium chloride (CKC), in standard solution or cationic emulsion formulations in rabbit eyes using newly developed in vivo and ex vivo experimental approaches. Seventy eyes of 35 adult male New Zealand albino rabbits were used in this study. They were randomly divided into five groups: 50 microl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), PBS containing 0.02% BAK or 0.002% CKC (BAK Sol and CKC Sol, respectively), and emulsion containing 0.02% BAK or 0.002% CKC (BAK Em and CKC Em, respectively) were applied to rabbit eyes 15 times at 5-min intervals. The ocular surface changes induced by these eye drops were investigated using slit-lamp examination, flow cytometry (FCM), impression cytology (IC) on conjunctiva, and corneal in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Standard immunohistology in cryosections was also examined for cluster of differentiation (CD) 45+ infiltrating and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL)+ apoptotic cells. Clinical observations and IVCM showed that the highest toxicity was induced by BAK Sol, characterized by damaged corneal epithelium and a high level of inflammatory infiltration. BAK Em and CKC Sol presented moderate effects, and CKC Em showed the lowest toxicity with results similar to those of PBS. Conjunctival imprints analyzed by FCM showed a higher expression of RLA-DR and TNFR1 markers in BAK Sol-instilled eyes than in all other groups, especially at 4 h. Immunohistology was correlated with in vivo and ex vivo findings and confirmed this toxicity profile. A high level of infiltration of CD45+ inflammatory cells and TUNEL+ apoptotic cells was observed in limbus and conjunctiva, especially in QAC solution-receiving eyes compared to QAC emulsion-instilled eyes. The acute administration of 15 instillations at 5 min intervals was a rapid and efficient model to assess quaternary

  15. Evaluation of the In Vivo and Ex Vivo Binding of Novel BC1 Cannabinoid Receptor Radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.; Gatley, J.; Gifford, A.

    2002-01-01

    The primary active ingredient of marijuana, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, exerts its psychoactive effects by binding to cannabinoid CB1 receptors. These receptors are found throughout the brain with high concentrations in the hippocampus and cerebellum. The current study was conducted to evaluate the binding of a newly developed putative cannabinoid antagonist, AM630, and a classical cannabinoid 8-tetrahydrocannabinol as potential PET and/or SPECT imaging agents for brain CB1 receptors. For both of these ligands in vivo and ex vivo studies in mice were conducted. AM630 showed good overall brain uptake (as measure by %IA/g) and a moderately rapid clearance from the brain with a half-clearance time of approximately 30 minutes. However, AM630 did not show selective binding to CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Ex vivo autoradiography supported the lack of selective binding seen in the in vivo study. Similar to AM630, 8-tetrahydrocanibol also failed to show selective binding to CB1 receptor rich brain areas. The 8-tetrahydrocanibol showed moderate overall brain uptake and relatively slow brain clearance as compared to AM630. Further studies were done with AM2233, a cannabinoid ligand with a similar structure as AM630. These studies were done to develop an ex vivo binding assay to quantify the displacement of [131I]AM2233 binding by other ligands in Swiss-Webster and CB1 receptor knockout mice. By developing this assay we hoped to determine the identity of an unknown binding site for AM2233 present in the hippocampus of CB1 knockout mice. Using an approach based on incubation of brain slices prepared from mice given intravenous [131I]AM2233 in either the presence or absence of AM2233 (unlabelled) it was possible to demonstrate a significant AM2233-displacable binding in the Swiss-Webster mice. Future studies will determine if this assay is appropriate for identifying the unknown binding site for AM2233 in the CB1 knockout mice.

  16. Methods of in-vivo mouse lung micro-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Nixon, Earl; Thiesse, Jacqueline; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ross, Alan; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Micro-CT will have a profound influence on the accumulation of anatomical and physiological phenotypic changes in natural and transgenetic mouse models. Longitudinal studies will be greatly facilitated, allowing for a more complete and accurate description of events if in-vivo studies are accomplished. The purpose of the ongoing project is to establish a feasible and reproducible setup for in-vivo mouse lung micro-computed tomography (μCT). We seek to use in-vivo respiratory-gated μCT to follow mouse models of lung disease with subsequent recovery of the mouse. Methodologies for optimizing scanning parameters and gating for the in-vivo mouse lung are presented. A Scireq flexiVent ventilated the gas-anesthetized mice at 60 breaths/minute, 30 cm H20 PEEP, 30 ml/kg tidal volume and provided a respiratory signal to gate a Skyscan 1076 μCT. Physiologic monitoring allowed the control of vital functions and quality of anesthesia, e.g. via ECG monitoring. In contrary to longer exposure times with ex-vivo scans, scan times for in-vivo were reduced using 35μm pixel size, 158ms exposure time and 18μm pixel size, 316ms exposure time to reduce motion artifacts. Gating via spontaneous breathing was also tested. Optimal contrast resolution was achieved at 50kVp, 200μA, applying an aluminum filter (0.5mm). There were minimal non-cardiac related motion artifacts. Both 35μm and 1μm voxel size images were suitable for evaluation of the airway lumen and parenchymal density. Total scan times were 30 and 65 minutes respectively. The mice recovered following scanning protocols. In-vivo lung scanning with recovery of the mouse delivered reasonable image quality for longitudinal studies, e.g. mouse asthma models. After examining 10 mice, we conclude μCT is a feasible tool evaluating mouse models of lung pathology in longitudinal studies with increasing anatomic detail available for evaluation as one moves from in-vivo to ex-vivo studies. Further developments include automated

  17. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhulika; Suman, Shankar; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  18. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  19. Muscle-Driven In Vivo Nanogenerator

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhou

    2010-05-05

    (Figure Presented) A nanogenerator based on a single piezoelectric fine wire producing an alternating current (AC) is successfully used for the harvesting of biomechanical energy under in vivo conditions. We demonstrate the implanting and working of such a nanogenerator in a live rat where it harvests energy generated by its breathing or heart beating. This study shows the potential of applying these nanogenerators for driving in vivo nanodevices. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KCaA, Weinheim.

  20. Molecular characterization of the Borrelia burgdorferi in vivo-essential protein PncA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Mollie W; Jain, Sunny; Linowski, Angelika K; Sarkar, Amit; Rosa, Patricia A

    2011-10-01

    The conversion of nicotinamide to nicotinic acid by nicotinamidase enzymes is a critical step in maintaining NAD(+) homeostasis and contributes to numerous important biological processes in diverse organisms. In Borrelia burgdorferi, the nicotinamidase enzyme, PncA, is required for spirochaete survival throughout the infectious cycle. Mammals lack nicotinamidases and therefore PncA may serve as a therapeutic target for Lyme disease. Contrary to the in vivo importance of PncA, the current annotation for the pncA ORF suggests that the encoded protein may be inactive due to the absence of an N-terminal aspartic acid residue that is a conserved member of the catalytic triad of characterized PncA proteins. Herein, we have used genetic and biochemical strategies to determine the N-terminal sequence of B. burgdorferi PncA. Our data demonstrate that the PncA protein is 24 aa longer than the currently annotated sequence and that pncA translation is initiated from the rare, non-canonical initiation codon AUU. These findings are an important first step in understanding the catalytic function of this in vivo-essential protein.

  1. Validation of Dynamic optical coherence tomography for non-invasive, in vivo microcirculation imaging of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, L.; Welzel, Julia; Ciardo, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is an angiographic variation of OCT that non-invasively provides images of the in vivo microvasculature of the skin by combining conventional OCT images with flow data. The objective of this study was to investigate and report on the D.......001), and also the redness a measurements were positively correlated with the D-OCT measurements (r = 0.48; 95% CI [0.406, 0.55]). D-OCT was able to reliably image and identify morphologic changes in the vascular network consistent with the induced physiological changes of blood flow. Conclusion: This study has...... initiated validation of the use of D-OCT for imaging of skin blood flow. Our results showed that D-OCT was able to reliably image and identify changes in the skin vasculature consistent with the induced physiological blood flow changes. These basic findings support the use of D-OCT imaging for in vivo...

  2. Spinal cord dopamine D2/D3 receptors: in vivo and ex vivo imaging in the rat using 18F/11C-fallypride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Khararjian, Armen; Coleman, Robert A.; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The spinal cord is known to be innervated with dopaminergic cells with catecholaminergic projections arising from the medulla and pons and dopaminergic transmission in the spinal cord is vital for sensory and motor function. Our goal was to evaluate and compare the imaging capability of dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the rat spinal cord using PET ligands 18 F-fallypride and 11 C-fallypride. Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were used in all in vitro and in vivo studies. Spinal cord and brain sections were used for in vitro autoradiography and ex vivo autoradiography. For in vivo studies animals received a 18 F-fallypride scan or a 11 C-fallypride PET scan. The spinal cord and the brain were then harvested, flash-frozen and imaged ex vivo. For in vivo analysis Logan plots with cerebellum as a reference was used to evaluate binding potentials (BP). Tissue ratios were used for ex vivo analysis. Drug effects were evaluated using clozapine, haloperidol and dopamine were evaluated on spinal cord sections in vitro. Results: In vitro studies showed 18 F-fallypride binding to superficial dorsal horn (SDH), dorsal horn (DH), ventral horn (VH) and the pars centralis (PC). In the cervical section, the greatest amount of binding appeared to be in the SDH. Ex vivo studies showed approximately 6% of 18 F-fallypride in SDH compared to that observed in the striatum. In vivo analysis of both 18 F-fallypride and 11 C-fallypride in the spinal cord were comparable to that in the extrastriatal regions. Haloperidol and clozapine displaced more than 75% of the 18 F-fallypride in spinal cord sections. Conclusions: Our studies showed 18 F-fallypride and 11 C-fallypride binding in the spinal cord in vitro and in vivo. The binding pattern correlates well with the known distribution of dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the spinal cord

  3. In-vivo and ex-vivo assessment of the accuracy of the computer-aided volumetry of porcine kidney in CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, W.; Harris, G.; Holalkere, N.; Sahani, D.; Yoshida, H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Measurement of kidney volume by computed tomography (CT), called renal volumetry, is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related diseases. Computer-aided volumetry (CAV) of kidney relies on an efficient and accurate segmentation method of the kidney. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of our CAV of kidney scheme using dynamic-threshold (DT) level set method, based on in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards. Eight Yorkshire breed anesthetized pigs were scanned on a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens) after an injection of iodinated (300 mgl/ml) contrast agent through an IV cannula. The kidneys of the pigs were then surgically resected and scanned on CT in the same manner. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo CT images were subjected to our volumetry scheme. The resulting volumes of the kidneys were compared with the in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards: the former was established by manual contouring of the kidneys on the CT images by an experienced radiologist, and the latter was established as the water displacement volume of the resected kidney. Our CAV of kidney scheme demonstrated accurate in-vivo and ex-vivo measurement of kidney volume, despite a large difference between the two reference standards. (orig.)

  4. In-vivo and ex-vivo assessment of the accuracy of the computer-aided volumetry of porcine kidney in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.; Harris, G.; Holalkere, N.; Sahani, D.; Yoshida, H.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of kidney volume by computed tomography (CT), called renal volumetry, is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related diseases. Computer-aided volumetry (CAV) of kidney relies on an efficient and accurate segmentation method of the kidney. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of our CAV of kidney scheme using dynamic-threshold (DT) level set method, based on in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards. Eight Yorkshire breed anesthetized pigs were scanned on a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens) after an injection of iodinated (300 mgl/ml) contrast agent through an IV cannula. The kidneys of the pigs were then surgically resected and scanned on CT in the same manner. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo CT images were subjected to our volumetry scheme. The resulting volumes of the kidneys were compared with the in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards: the former was established by manual contouring of the kidneys on the CT images by an experienced radiologist, and the latter was established as the water displacement volume of the resected kidney. Our CAV of kidney scheme demonstrated accurate in-vivo and ex-vivo measurement of kidney volume, despite a large difference between the two reference standards. (orig.)

  5. Endocytosis via galactose receptors in vivo. Ligand size directs uptake by hepatocytes and/or liver macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlepper-Schaefer, J.; Huelsmann, D.; Djovkar, A.; Meyer, H.E.; Herbertz, L.; Kolb, H.; Kolb-Bachofen, V.

    1986-01-01

    The intrahepatic binding and uptake of variously sized ligands with terminal galactosyl residues is rat liver was followed. The ligands were administered to prefixed livers in binding studies and in vivo and in situ (serum-free perfused livers) in uptake studies. Gold sols with different particle diameters were prepared: 5 nm (Au 5 ), 17 nm (Au 17 ), 50 nm (Au 50 ) and coated with galactose exposing glycoproteins (asialofetuin (ASF) or lactosylated BSA (LacBSA)). Electron microscopy of mildly prefixed livers perfused with LacBSA-Au 5 in serum-free medium showed ligand binding to liver macrophages, hepatocytes and endothelial cells. Ligands bound to prefixed cell surfaces reflect the initial distribution of receptor activity: pre-aggregated clusters of ligands are found on liver macrophages, single particles statistically distributed on hepatocytes and pre-aggregated clusters of particles restricted to coated pits on endothelial cells. Ligand binding is prevented in the presence of 80 mM N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), while N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is without effect. Electron microscopy of livers after ligand injection into the tail vein shows that in vivo uptake of electron-dense galactose particles by liver cells is size-dependent. In vivo uptake by liver macrophages is mediated by galactose-specific recognition as shown by inhibition with GalNAc

  6. Nanomedicine for Inner Ear Diseases: A Review of Recent In Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kee Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles are promising therapeutic options for inner ear disease. In this report, we review in vivo animal studies in the otologic field using nanoparticles over the past 5 years. Many studies have used nanoparticles to deliver drugs, genes, and growth factors, and functional and morphological changes have been observed. The constituents of nanoparticles are also diversifying into various biocompatible materials, including poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. The safe and effective delivery of drugs or genes in the inner ear will be a breakthrough for the treatment of inner ear diseases, including age-related hearing loss.

  7. Comparative study for antibacterial potential of in vitro and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafique, M; Khan, S J [Pakistan Councile of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Food and Biotechnology

    2011-09-15

    The antimicrobial activities of in vitro grown callus extract and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant leaves extracts were studied and compared. Effect of extraction solvent was also assessed. These extracts were tested in vitro against eight bacterial strains following disc diffusion method. The results indicated that in vitro grown callus extracts of O. basilicum exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against tested Gram positive microorganisms as compared to in vivo grown plant material extract. These findings indicate towards potential use of biotechnology for natural therapeutic agent production. (author)

  8. Comparative study for antibacterial potential of in vitro and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, M.; Khan, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of in vitro grown callus extract and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant leaves extracts were studied and compared. Effect of extraction solvent was also assessed. These extracts were tested in vitro against eight bacterial strains following disc diffusion method. The results indicated that in vitro grown callus extracts of O. basilicum exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against tested Gram positive microorganisms as compared to in vivo grown plant material extract. These findings indicate towards potential use of biotechnology for natural therapeutic agent production. (author)

  9. In vitro–in vivo studies of the quantitative effect of calcium, multivitamins and milk on single dose ciprofloxacin bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishakhi Dey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin, commonly used in India as an anti-microbial for prolonged use in chronic and non-specific indications, may affect the bioavailability of the drug. The drug prescribed is commonly taken with multivitamins, calcium and milk. A simple and reliable analytical methodology obtaining a correlation with in vivo urinary excretion studies using UV and HPLC and in vitro dissolution studies (IVIVC has shown a significant increase in elimination rate of ciprofloxacin co-administered with multivitamins, calcium and milk. Appreciable IVIVC results proved that dissolution studies could serve as an alternative to in vivo bioavailability and also support bio-waivers.

  10. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Joachim H.; Hemmsen, Martin C.; Madsen, Signe S.; Hansen, Peter M.; Nielsen, Michael B.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2013-03-01

    A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequen- tial beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imag- ing (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence that was implemented on the UltraView system acquires both SASB-THI and DRF-THI simultaneously. Twenty-four simultaneously acquired video sequences of in-vivo abdominal SASB-THI and DRF-THI scans on 3 volunteers of 4 different sections of liver and kidney tissues were created. Videos of the in-vivo scans were presented in double blinded studies to two radiologists for image quality performance scoring. Limitations to the systems transmit stage prevented user defined transmit apodization to be applied. Field II simulations showed that side lobes in SASB could be improved by using Hanning transmit apodization. Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.

  11. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  12. Time kinetics of bone defect healing in response to BMP-2 and GDF-5 characterised by in vivo biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Wulsten

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports that treatment of osseous defects with different growth factors initiates distinct rates of repair. We developed a new method for monitoring the progression of repair, based upon measuring the in vivo mechanical properties of healing bone. Two different members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP family were chosen to initiate defect healing: BMP-2 to induce osteogenesis, and growth-and-differentiation factor (GDF-5 to induce chondrogenesis. To evaluate bone healing, BMPs were implanted into stabilised 5 mm bone defects in rat femurs and compared to controls. During the first two weeks, in vivo biomechanical measurements showed similar values regardless of the treatment used. However, 2 weeks after surgery, the rhBMP-2 group had a substantial increase in stiffness, which was supported by the imaging modalities. Although the rhGDF-5 group showed comparable mechanical properties at 6 weeks as the rhBMP-2 group, the temporal development of regenerating tissues appeared different with rhGDF-5, resulting in a smaller callus and delayed tissue mineralisation. Moreover, histology showed the presence of cartilage in the rhGDF-5 group whereas the rhBMP-2 group had no cartilaginous tissue.Therefore, this study shows that rhBMP-2 and rhGDF-5 treated defects, under the same conditions, use distinct rates of bone healing as shown by the tissue mechanical properties. Furthermore, results showed that in vivo biomechanical method is capable of detecting differences in healing rate by means of change in callus stiffness due to tissue mineralisation.

  13. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. In vitro-in vivo correlation study for the dermatopharmacokinetics of terbinafine hydrochloride topical cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeheng, Suwadee; Nosoongnoen, Wichit; Varothai, Supenya; Sathirakul, Korbtham

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between dermatopharmacokinetic (DPK) tape stripping from in vitro and in vivo using 1% terbinafine hydrochloride topical cream as the model formulation. In vitro and in vivo tape strippings were conducted on separated pig ear skin used as a biological membrane for franz diffusion cell testing and the non-hairy skin area at the ventral forearms of healthy volunteers, respectively. Terbinafine (1%) topical cream was applied to the skin for 0.5, 2, and 4 h. The drug profiles of terbinafine across the stratum corneum were determined immediately (time 0 h), and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after removing the formulation. The amounts of terbinafine were analyzed by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. The area under the curve (AUC) and the maximum amounts of terbinafine absorption (Q(max)) were obtained from pharmacokinetic software. Partition coefficient (K(SC/veh)) and diffusion parameter (D/L²) were derived from the Fick's second law equation. During the schedule time of 8 h, the deviations of in vitro and in vivo data were 6.61 and 30.46% for AUC and Q(max), respectively. There was insignificant difference of the K(SC/veh) and the D/L² between excised pig ear and human skin. In addition, K(SC/veh) and D/L² at T(max) of 2 h were used to predict the AUC presented the value of 4.7481 %h whereas the true value calculated from pharmacokinetic software provided the value of 5.9311 %h differing from each other in approximate of 20%. In vitro tape stripping using the separated pig ear skin as a viable membrane of the franz diffusion cell testing demonstrates the potential to represent in vivo tape stripping in human for topical bioavailability/bioequivalence study of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% topical cream.

  15. Association between in vivo bone formation and ex vivo migratory capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K.; Zaher, Walid; Larsen, Kenneth Hauberg

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a clinical need for developing systemic transplantation protocols for use of human skeletal stem cells (also known bone marrow stromal stem cells) (hBMSC) in tissue regeneration. In systemic transplantation studies, only a limited number of hBMSC home to injured tissues...... populations derived from telomerized hBMSC (hBMSC-TERT) with variable ability to form heterotopic bone when implanted subcutaneously in immune deficient mice. In vitro transwell migration assay was used and the in vivo homing ability of transplanted hBMSC to bone fractures in mice was visualized...... suggesting that only a subpopulation of hBMSC possesses "homing" capacity. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a subpopulation of hBMSC defined by ability to form heterotopic bone in vivo, is capable of homing to injured bone. METHODS: We tested ex vivo and in vivo homing capacity of a number of clonal cell...

  16. Teachers’ perceptions of their own initiative: Collective initiative vs. personal initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džinović Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in education demand from teachers to exhibit proactive behaviour and assume responsibility for the implementation of changes in school practice. In that sense, it is important to study how teachers perceive their own initiative and to gain insight into the activities where such initiative is demonstrated. This study has been conceived as a mixed-methods research. The qualitative study implied forming four focus groups with subject teachers and class teachers (N=38, while the quantitative study entailed surveying 1441 teachers in forty primary schools in Serbia using the questionnaire constructed based on qualitative data. Data from focus groups were processed by qualitative thematic analysis, while the questionnaire data were processed by principal component analysis and univariate analysis of variance. The findings of the study have shown that teachers mostly demonstrate initiative through co­operative activities that include planning of joint teaching as well as conducting joint projects within school and with the local community actors. Teachers are least ready to demonstrate personal initiative and the initiative aimed at accomplishing considerable changes in school work. The concluding part includes the recommendations for encouraging teachers’ personal initiative and building organizational culture that would support such initiative. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije i br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje i stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu

  17. Analysis of antigen-specific B-cell memory directly ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHeyzer-Williams, Louise J; McHeyzer-Williams, Michael G

    2004-01-01

    Helper T-cell-regulated B-cell memory develops in response to initial antigen priming as a cellular product of the germinal center (GC) reaction. On antigen recall, memory response precursors expand rapidly with exaggerated differentiation into plasma cells to produce the high-titer, high-affinity antibody(Ab) that typifies the memory B-cell response in vivo. We have devised a high-resolution flow cytometric strategy to quantify the emergence and maintenance of antigen-specific memory B cells directly ex vivo. Extended cell surface phenotype establishes a level of cellular diversity not previously appreciated for the memory B-cell compartment. Using an "exclusion transfer" strategy, we ascertain the capacity of two distinct memory B-cell populations to transfer antigen-specific memory into naive adoptive hosts. Finally, we sequence expressed messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) from single cells within the population to estimate the level of somatic hypermutation as the best molecular indicator of B-cell memory. In this chapter, we describe the methods used in each of these four sections that serve to provide high-resolution quantification of antigen-specific B-cell memory responses directly ex vivo.

  18. Ex-vivo release of Pipeline Embolization Device polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sleeves for improved distal landing zone accuracy in-vivo: A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessenauer, Christoph J; Gupta, Raghav; Moore, Justin; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2016-12-01

    Distal landing zone accuracy is critical in some intracranial aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), and delayed opening of the distal end of the device can complicate the procedure. Here, we report a technical nuance that facilitates accurate placement of the distal end of the PED by ex-vivo, pre-implantation release of the PED Flex polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sleeves. The PED Flex is partially pushed out of the introducer sheath ex-vivo, pre-implantation until the distal PED opens entirely and the PTFE sleeves are located distal to the device. Without inverting the PTFE sleeves, the PED is carefully pulled back into the introducer sheath placing the PTFE sleeves inside the device. The PED is loaded into the microcatheter and advanced toward the site of implantation. When the PED is initially deployed and pushed out of the microcatheter, it opens immediately and provides an anchor for the remainder of the deployment process. We present a video (supplementary material) that illustrates the technique along with an illustrative case. Ex-vivo, pre-implantation release of the PTFE sleeves is an option in aneurysm treatment where distal landing accuracy is critical. Even without the protection of the PTFE sleeves, our clinical observation shows that the PED can be advanced safely through the microcatheter in selected cases. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Diamidines versus Monoamidines as Anti-Pneumocystis Agents: An in Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moukhtar Aliouat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Some compounds articulated around a piperazine or an ethylenediamine linker have been evaluated in vitro to determine their activity in the presence of a 3T6 fibroblast cell line and an axenic culture of Pneumocystis carinii, respectively. The most efficient antifungal derivatives, namely N,N′-bis(benzamidine-4-ylethane-1,2-diamine (compound 6, a diamidine and N-(benzamidine-4-yl-N′-phenylethane-1,2-diamine (compound 7, a monoamidine, exhibited no cytotoxicity and were evaluated in vivo in a rat model. Only the diamidine 6 emerged as a promising hit for further studies.

  20. In-vivo corneal pulsation in relation to in-vivo intraocular pressure and corneal biomechanics assessed in-vitro. An animal pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Maja M; Danielewska, Monika E; Antończyk, Agnieszka; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Rogowska, Marta E; Kozuń, Marta; Detyna, Jerzy; Iskander, D Robert

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to ascertain whether the characteristics of the corneal pulse (CP) measured in-vivo in a rabbit eye change after short-term artificial increase of intraocular pressure (IOP) and whether they correlate with corneal biomechanics assessed in-vitro. Eight New Zealand white rabbits were included in this study and were anesthetized. In-vivo experiments included simultaneous measurements of the CP signal, registered with a non-contact method, IOP, intra-arterial blood pressure, and blood pulse (BPL), at the baseline and short-term elevated IOP. Afterwards, thickness of post-mortem corneas was determined and then uniaxial tensile tests were conducted leading to estimates of their Young's modulus (E). At the baseline IOP, backward stepwise regression analyses were performed in which successively the ocular biomechanical, biometric and cardiovascular predictors were separately taken into account. Results of the analysis revealed that the 3rd CP harmonic can be statistically significantly predicted by E and central corneal thickness (Models: R 2  = 0.662, p biomechanics in-vitro was confirmed. In particular, spectral analysis revealed that higher amplitude and power of the 3rd CP harmonic indicates higher corneal stiffness, while the 1st CP harmonic correlates positively with the corresponding harmonic of the BPL signal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Focused genetic recombination of bacteriophage t4 initiated by double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor; Granovsky, Igor; Plugina, Lidiya; Shcherbakova, Tamara; Sizova, Svetlana; Pyatkov, Konstantin; Shlyapnikov, Michael; Shubina, Olga

    2002-10-01

    A model system for studying double-strand-break (DSB)-induced genetic recombination in vivo based on the ets1 segCDelta strain of bacteriophage T4 was developed. The ets1, a 66-bp DNA fragment of phage T2L containing the cleavage site for the T4 SegC site-specific endonuclease, was inserted into the proximal part of the T4 rIIB gene. Under segC(+) conditions, the ets1 behaves as a recombination hotspot. Crosses of the ets1 against rII markers located to the left and to the right of ets1 gave similar results, thus demonstrating the equal and symmetrical initiation of recombination by either part of the broken chromosome. Frequency/distance relationships were studied in a series of two- and three-factor crosses with other rIIB and rIIA mutants (all segC(+)) separated from ets1 by 12-2100 bp. The observed relationships were readily interpretable in terms of the modified splice/patch coupling model. The advantages of this localized or focused recombination over that distributed along the chromosome, as a model for studying the recombination-replication pathway in T4 in vivo, are discussed.

  2. Exogenous melatonin entrains rhythm and reduces amplitude of endogenous melatonin : An in vivo microdialysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, W.J; Homan, E.J; Brons, H.F; Oakley, M; Skingle, M; Grol, Cor; Westerink, B.H.C.

    The circadian rhythm of melatonin production was studied using on-line, in vivo microdialysis in the rat pineal gland. With this technique it was possible to record a pronounced melatonin rhythm with very high time resolution. Three phase-markers of the rhythm were calculated from the data,

  3. Online in vivo dosimetry in conformal radio therapies with MOSkin detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Tenconi, C.; Mantaut, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Carrara, M.; Borroni, M.; Pignoli, E. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Giuseppe Ponzio 44, Milan (Italy); Cutajar, D.; Petasecca, M.; Fuduli, I.; Lerch, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [University of Wollongong, Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, 2522 Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia)

    2012-10-15

    A novel MOSFET based dosimeter, the MOSkin, has been developed at the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong (Australia). This dosimeter is designed with suitable packaging that allows skin dose measurements at depths of 0.07 mm, as recommended by the ICRP. Initially proposed for real-time skin dose measurement, it is now studied for real-time in vivo dosimetry during high dose rate (Hdr) brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy. MOSkin detectors have shown good characteristics of reproducibility and linearity. Experiments performed with the {sup 192}Ir source of a Hdr brachytherapy facility have shown negligible energy response for photons from the Ir-192 source. The angular response is within the experimental error when used in a dual-MOSkin configuration. In this work, urethral dose measurements were performed in a tissue-equivalent phantom reproducing prostate brachytherapy treatments. The obtained urethral doses were compared to the dose values calculated by the treatment planning system and the discrepancy was found to be within 4%, showing that dual-MOSkin detectors can be profitably utilized for real-time in vivo dosimetry during a brachytherapy treatment. (Author)

  4. Ex vivo and in vivo coherent Raman imaging of the peripheral and central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Terry Brandon

    A hallmark of nervous system disorders is damage or degradation of the myelin sheath. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying myelin degeneration and repair represent one of the great challenges in medicine. This thesis work details the development and utilization of advanced optical imaging methods to gain insight into the structure and function of myelin in both healthy and diseased states in the in vivo environment. This first part of this thesis discusses ex vivo studies of the effects of high-frequency stimulation of spinal tissues on the structure of the node of Ranvier as investigated by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging (manuscript submitted to Journal of Neurosciece). Reversible paranodal myelin retraction at the nodes of Ranvier was observed during 200 Hz electrical stimulation, beginning minutes after the onset and continuing for up to 10 min after stimulation was ceased. A mechanistic study revealed a Ca2+ dependent pathway: high-frequency stimulation induced paranodal myelin retraction via pathologic calcium influx into axons, calpain activation, and cytoskeleton degradation through spectrin break-down. Also, the construction of dual-scanning CARS microscope for large area mapping of CNS tissues is detailed (Optics Express, 2008, 16:19396-193409). A confocal scanning head equipped with a rotating polygon mirror provides high speed, high resolution imaging and is coupled with a motorized sample stage to generate high-resolution large-area images of mouse brain coronal section and guinea pig spinal cord cross section. The polygon mirror decreases the mosaic acquisition time significantly without reducing the resolution of individual images. The ex vivo studies are then extended to in vivo imaging of mouse sciatic nerve tissue by CARS and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging (Journal of Microscopy, 2007, 225: 175-182). Following a minimally invasive surgery to open the skin, CARS imaging of myelinated axons and SHG imaging of the

  5. In vitro and in vivo studies of ultrafine-grain Ti as dental implant material processed by ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Baili; Li, Zhirui; Diao, Xiaoou [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Shannxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Xin, Haitao, E-mail: xhthmj@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Shannxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Xiaorui; Wu, Yulu; Li, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Shannxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Guo, Yazhou [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface characterization of ultrafine-grain pure titanium (UFG-Ti) after sandblasting and acid-etching (SLA) and to evaluate its biocompatibility as dental implant material in vitro and in vivo. UFG-Ti was produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). Microstructure and yield strength were investigated. The morphology, wettability and roughness of the specimens were analyzed after they were modified by SLA. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were seeded onto the specimens to evaluate its biocompatibility in vitro. For the in vivo study, UFG-Ti implants after SLA were embedded into the femurs of New Zealand rabbits. Osseointegration was investigated though micro-CT analysis, histological assessment and pull-out test. The control group was CP-Ti. UFG-Ti with enhanced mechanical properties was produced by four passes of ECAP in B{sub C} route at room temperature. After SLA modification, the hierarchical porous structure on its surface exhibited excellent wettability. The adhesion, proliferation and viability of cells cultured on the UFG-Ti were superior to that of CP-Ti. In the in vivo study, favorable osseointegration occurred between the implant and bone in CP and UFG-Ti groups. The combination intensity of UF- Ti with bone was higher according to the pull-out test. This study supports the claim that UFG-Ti has grain refinement with outstanding mechanical properties and, with its excellent biocompatibility, has potential for use as dental implant material. - Highlights: • Yield strength and Vickers hardness of Ti are improved significantly after it is grain-refined by ECAP process. • The hierarchical micro-porous structure with superior wettability could be formed on the surface of ECAP Ti after SLA. • The results in vitro exhibited excellent cell biocompatibility of UFG-Ti after sandblasting and acid-etching. • The osseointegration between UFG-Ti implant and surrounding bone could

  6. In vitro and in vivo studies of ultrafine-grain Ti as dental implant material processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Baili; Li, Zhirui; Diao, Xiaoou; Xin, Haitao; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Xiaorui; Wu, Yulu; Li, Kai; Guo, Yazhou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface characterization of ultrafine-grain pure titanium (UFG-Ti) after sandblasting and acid-etching (SLA) and to evaluate its biocompatibility as dental implant material in vitro and in vivo. UFG-Ti was produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). Microstructure and yield strength were investigated. The morphology, wettability and roughness of the specimens were analyzed after they were modified by SLA. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were seeded onto the specimens to evaluate its biocompatibility in vitro. For the in vivo study, UFG-Ti implants after SLA were embedded into the femurs of New Zealand rabbits. Osseointegration was investigated though micro-CT analysis, histological assessment and pull-out test. The control group was CP-Ti. UFG-Ti with enhanced mechanical properties was produced by four passes of ECAP in B_C route at room temperature. After SLA modification, the hierarchical porous structure on its surface exhibited excellent wettability. The adhesion, proliferation and viability of cells cultured on the UFG-Ti were superior to that of CP-Ti. In the in vivo study, favorable osseointegration occurred between the implant and bone in CP and UFG-Ti groups. The combination intensity of UF- Ti with bone was higher according to the pull-out test. This study supports the claim that UFG-Ti has grain refinement with outstanding mechanical properties and, with its excellent biocompatibility, has potential for use as dental implant material. - Highlights: • Yield strength and Vickers hardness of Ti are improved significantly after it is grain-refined by ECAP process. • The hierarchical micro-porous structure with superior wettability could be formed on the surface of ECAP Ti after SLA. • The results in vitro exhibited excellent cell biocompatibility of UFG-Ti after sandblasting and acid-etching. • The osseointegration between UFG-Ti implant and surrounding bone could be

  7. Is virtual reality effective to motivate and raise interest in phobic children toward therapy? A clinical trial study of in vivo with in virtuo versus in vivo only treatment exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jacques, Julie; Bouchard, Stéphane; Bélanger, Claude

    2010-07-01

    The first objective of this study was to assess if a combined treatment with mostly virtual reality-based (in virtuo) exposure increases phobic children's motivation toward therapy compared to children who only receive in vivo exposure. Another objective was the assessment of motivation as a predictor of treatment outcome. Thirty-one DSM-IV-diagnosed arachnophobic participants aged from 8 to 15 years were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions: in vivo exposure alone or in virtuo plus in vivo exposure. Measures of motivation were taken at pretest and at the end of each part of the treatment; some other measures were taken at each session. The "Why Are You in Therapy?" questionnaire for children was the target measure of motivation and the main variable in the study. Outcome measures were taken at pretest, at the end of each part of the treatment, and at the 6-month follow-up. This study was conducted between September 2006 and March 2007. The results showed that children who received in virtuo exposure did not show a higher level of motivation toward their treatment than those who received in vivo exposure, but statistically significant interactions were found for both parts of the treatment. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that motivation was a significant predictor of outcome (P virtual reality did not increase motivation toward psychotherapy. At the end of the second part of therapy, all participants were comparably efficient in facing a live tarantula. These results bear important clinical implications concerning how to use virtual reality with children and concerning motivation of children toward therapy in general. They are discussed in the light of how to present in virtuo therapy to children. (c) Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Defective mitochondrial function in vivo in skeletal muscle in adults with Down's syndrome: a 31P-MRS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Phillips

    Full Text Available Down's syndrome (DS is a developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID. We have previously shown that people with DS engage in very low levels of exercise compared to people with ID not due to DS. Many aspects of the DS phenotype, such as dementia, low activity levels and poor muscle tone, are shared with disorders of mitochondrial origin, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in cultured DS tissue. We undertook a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS study in the quadriceps muscle of 14 people with DS and 11 non-DS ID controls to investigate the post-exercise resynthesis kinetics of phosphocreatine (PCr, which relies on mitochondrial respiratory function and yields a measure of muscle mitochondrial function in vivo. We found that the PCr recovery rate constant was significantly decreased in adults with DS compared to non-DS ID controls (1.7 ± 0.1 min(-1 vs 2.1 ± 0.1 min(-1 respectively who were matched for physical activity levels, indicating that muscle mitochondrial function in vivo is impaired in DS. This is the first study to investigate mitochondrial function in vivo in DS using (31P-MRS. Our study is consistent with previous in vitro studies, supporting a theory of a global mitochondrial defect in DS.

  9. Bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 containing lumbrokinase isolated from Lumbricus rubellus: ex vivo, in vivo, and pharmaceutic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandrawinata RR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Raymond R Tjandrawinata,1 Jessica Trisina,1 Puji Rahayu,1 Lorentius Agung Prasetya,1 Aang Hanafiah,2 Heni Rachmawati3 1Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Dexa Medica, Cikarang, Indonesia; 2National Nuclear Energy Agency, Bandung, Indonesia; 3School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia Abstract: DLBS1033 is a bioactive protein fraction isolated from Lumbricus rubellus that tends to be unstable when exposed to the gastrointestinal environment. Accordingly, appropriate pharmaceutical development is needed to maximize absorption of the protein fraction in the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo stability assays were performed to study the stability of the bioactive protein fraction in gastric conditions. The bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 was found to be unstable at low pH and in gastric fluid. The “enteric coating” formulation showed no leakage in gastric fluid–like medium and possessed a good release profile in simulated intestinal medium. DLBS1033 was absorbed through the small intestine in an intact protein form, confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE analysis. This result confirmed that an enteric coating formula using methacrylic acid copolymer could protect DLBS1033 from the acidic condition of the stomach by preventing the release of DLBS1033 in the stomach, while promoting its release when reaching the intestine. From the blood concentration–versus-time curve, 99mTc-DLBS1033 showed a circulation half-life of 70 minutes. This relatively long biological half-life supports its function as a thrombolytic protein. Thus, an enteric delivery system is considered the best approach for DLBS1033 as an oral thrombolytic agent. Keywords: bioactive protein fraction, enteric coated tablet, pharmacodynamic

  10. Metabolism of 5-fluorouracil in human liver: an in vivo 19F NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohankrishnan, P.; Sprigg, J.; Cardwell, D.; Komoroski, R.A.; Hutchins, L.; Nauke, S.; Williamson, M.R.; Jagannathan, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    In vivo fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 19 F NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human liver. Nine patients received 5-FU, and additional chemotherapeutic agents (methotrexate, leucovorin, or levamisole) either prophylactically after breast cancer surgery or for colorectal cancer. The time constant for the disappearance of 5-FU from the liver in vivo varied from 5 to 17 min, while the time constant for the appearance of α-fluoro-β-alanine (the major catabolite of 5 FU) varied from 7 to 86 min. The modulators of 5-FU metabolism did not appear to affect the time constant for the disappearance of 5-FU from the liver or for the appearance of α-fluoro-β-alanine. Results obtained indicate that the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU and α-fluoro-β-alanine may vary substantially at different times in a given individual. (author)

  11. In and ex vivo breast disease study by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raniero, L.; Canevari, R. A.; Ramalho, L. N. Z.

    2011-01-01

    ex vivo measurements gave the highest specificity and sensitivity: 96 and 97%, respectively, as well as a largest percentage for correct discrimination: 94%. Now that the important bands have been experimentally determined in this and other works, what remains is for first principles molecular...

  12. In vivo and in vitro effects of imidacloprid on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus): a light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, H; D'Haese, J; Mencke, N; Hansen, O

    2001-04-01

    The effects of imidacloprid (Advantage) on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus Linne 1758) were studied in vivo and in vitro by means of direct observation (monitored on video tape) and by light and electron microscopy. It was found that: 1. Imidacloprid acted rapidly on all motile stages of the sheep keds. Within 3-4 min after exposure they became immobile and their legs and the abdomen started tetanic trembling movements for 15-30 min, leading to death. 2. The compound is apparently taken up by the body, since it also acted on those sheep keds that had been exclusively exposed to imidacloprid-contaminated filter papers. 3. The compound is available and active for more than 1 month in the wool of sheep; even rainfall does not reduce its efficacy. Body contact between treated mother sheep and their lambs protects them from infestation with these ectoparasites. 4. The compound initiates an ultimately lethal destruction of the ganglia, nerve chords and related muscle fibers, as can be seen in electron micrographs.

  13. Magnetic Field Interactions of Copper-Containing Intrauterine Devices in 3.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In Vivo Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger-Kulemann, Vanessa; Einspieler, Henrik [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Hachemian, Nilouparak [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Prayer, Daniela; Trattnig, Siegfried; Weber, Michael; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    An ex vivo study found a copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD) to be safe for women undergoing an MRI examination at a 3.0-T field. No significant artifacts caused by the metallic implant were detected. However, there are still no in vivo data about these concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate 3.0-T magnetic field interactions of copper-containing IUDs in vivo. Magnetic field interactions and potential adverse events were evaluated in 33 women using a questionnaire-based telephone survey. Two experienced radiologists performed artifact evaluation on MR images of the pelvis. Eighteen patients were eligible for the survey. One patient reported a dislocation of the IUD after the MR examination. All other patients had no signs of field interactions. No IUD-related artifacts were found. MRI at 3.0-T is possible for women with copper-containing IUDs. However, consulting a gynecologist to check the correct position of the IUD and exclude complications after an MR examination is highly recommended. High-quality clinical imaging of the female pelvis can be performed without a loss in image quality.

  14. Magnetic Field Interactions of Copper-Containing Intrauterine Devices in 3.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In Vivo Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger-Kulemann, Vanessa; Einspieler, Henrik; Hachemian, Nilouparak; Prayer, Daniela; Trattnig, Siegfried; Weber, Michael; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    An ex vivo study found a copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD) to be safe for women undergoing an MRI examination at a 3.0-T field. No significant artifacts caused by the metallic implant were detected. However, there are still no in vivo data about these concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate 3.0-T magnetic field interactions of copper-containing IUDs in vivo. Magnetic field interactions and potential adverse events were evaluated in 33 women using a questionnaire-based telephone survey. Two experienced radiologists performed artifact evaluation on MR images of the pelvis. Eighteen patients were eligible for the survey. One patient reported a dislocation of the IUD after the MR examination. All other patients had no signs of field interactions. No IUD-related artifacts were found. MRI at 3.0-T is possible for women with copper-containing IUDs. However, consulting a gynecologist to check the correct position of the IUD and exclude complications after an MR examination is highly recommended. High-quality clinical imaging of the female pelvis can be performed without a loss in image quality

  15. Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model for the study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Mulcahy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing both acute and chronic infections in susceptible hosts. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections are thought to be caused by bacterial biofilms. Biofilms are highly structured, multicellular, microbial communities encased in an extracellular matrix that enable long-term survival in the host. The aim of this research was to develop an animal model that would allow an in vivo study of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections in a Drosophila melanogaster host. At 24 h post oral infection of Drosophila, P. aeruginosa biofilms localized to and were visualized in dissected Drosophila crops. These biofilms had a characteristic aggregate structure and an extracellular matrix composed of DNA and exopolysaccharide. P. aeruginosa cells recovered from in vivo grown biofilms had increased antibiotic resistance relative to planktonically grown cells. In vivo, biofilm formation was dependent on expression of the pel exopolysaccharide genes, as a pelB::lux mutant failed to form biofilms. The pelB::lux mutant was significantly more virulent than PAO1, while a hyperbiofilm strain (PAZHI3 demonstrated significantly less virulence than PAO1, as indicated by survival of infected flies at day 14 postinfection. Biofilm formation, by strains PAO1 and PAZHI3, in the crop was associated with induction of diptericin, cecropin A1 and drosomycin antimicrobial peptide gene expression 24 h postinfection. In contrast, infection with the non-biofilm forming strain pelB::lux resulted in decreased AMP gene expression in the fly. In summary, these results provide novel insights into host-pathogen interactions during P. aeruginosa oral infection of Drosophila and highlight the use of Drosophila as an infection model that permits the study of P. aeruginosa biofilms in vivo.

  16. Tumor scintigraphy by the method for subtracting the initial image with technetium-99m labeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karube, Yoshiharu; Katsuno, Kentaro; Ito, Sanae; Matsunaga, Kazuhisa; Takata, Jiro; Kuroki, Masahide; Murakami, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The method for subtracting the initial image from the localization image was evaluated for radioimmunoscintigraphy of tumors with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were parental mouse and mouse-human chimeric antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), designated F11-39 and ChF11-39, respectively, both of which have been found to discriminate CEA in tumor tissues from the CEA-related antigens. After reduction of the intrinsic disulfide bonds, these antibodies were labeled with Tc-99m. In vivo studies were performed on athymic nude mice bearing the human CEA-producing gastric carcinoma xenografts. Though biodistribution results showed selective and progressive accumulation of Tc-99m labeled antibodies at the tumor site, high radioactivity in blood was inappropriate for scintigraphic visualization of the tumors within a few hours. We examined the subtraction of the initial Tc-99m image from the Tc-99m localization image after a few hours. Subtracted images of the same count reflected the in vivo behavior of the Tc-99m radioactivity. The subtracted scintigrams revealed excellent tumor images with no significant extrarenal background. Visualization of the tumor site was dependent on antigen-specific binding and nonspecific exudation. These results demonstrate that a method of subtraction of the initial image may serve as a potentially useful diagnostic method for an abnormal site for agents with a low pharmacokinetic value. (author)

  17. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entissar S. AlSuhaibani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI. However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration.

  18. Effect of irradiation on gene expression of rat liver adhesion molecules. In vivo and in vitro studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriconi, Federico; Malik, Ihtzaz; Ahmad, Ghayyor; Dudas, Joszef; Ramadori, Giuliano; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Migration of leukocytes into tissue is a key element of innate and adaptive immunity. An animal study showed that liver irradiation, in spite of induction of chemokine gene expression, does not lead to recruitment of leukocytes into the parenchyma. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression of adhesion molecules, which mediate leukocyte recruitment into organs, in irradiated rat liver in vivo and rat hepatocytes in vitro. Material and methods: Rat livers in vivo were irradiated selectively at 25 Gy. Isolated hepatocytes in vitro were irradiated at 8 Gy. RNA extracted within 48 h after irradiation in vivo and in vitro was analyzed by real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and Northern blot. Adhesion molecule concentration in serum was measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Cryostat sections of livers were used for immunohistology. Results: Significant radiation-induced increase of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), JAM-1 (junctional adhesion molecule-1), β 1 -integrin, β 2 -integrin, E-cadherin, and P-selectin gene expression could be detected in vivo, while PECAM-1 (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) gene expression remained unchanged. In vitro, β 1 -integrin, JAM-1, and ICAM-2 showed a radiation-induced increased expression, whereas the levels of P-selectin, ICAM-1, PECAM-1, VCAM-1, Madcam-1 (mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1), β 2 -integrin, and E-cadherin were downregulated. However, incubation of irradiated hepatocytes with either tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-)α, interleukin-(IL-)1β, or IL-6 plus TNF-α led to an upregulation of P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Conclusion: The findings suggest that liver irradiation modulates gene expression of the main adhesion molecules in vivo and in cytokine-activated hepatocytes, with the exception of PECAM-1. This may be one reason for the lack of inflammation in the irradiated rat liver. (orig.)

  19. In vivo gluten challenge in coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HJ Ellis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo gluten challenge has been used since the early 1950s to study the role of cereal fractions in celiac disease. While early studies relied on crude indicators of celiac toxicity, the advent of jejunal biopsy and sophisticated immunohistochemical techniques has allowed accurate studies to be performed. Studies to determine the nature of the cereal component that is toxic to patients with celiac disease have concentrated on wheat because of its nutritional importance. A number of in vitro studies indicated the presence of one or more celiac-activating epitopes with the N-terminus of the A-gliadin molecule. In vivo challenge with three synthetic peptides subsequently indicated the toxicity of a peptide corresponding to amino acids 31 to 49 of A-gliadin. In vivo gluten challenge is the gold standard for the assessment of celiac toxicity; however, jejunal biopsy is a relatively invasive procedure, thus, other methods have been investigated. Direct infusion of the rectum with gluten has been shown to result in an increase in mucosal intraepithelial lymphocytes, occurring only in celiac patients. This method has been used to study the celiac toxicity of gliadin subfractions. The in vitro technique of small intestinal biopsy organ culture is also a useful tool and appears to give the same results as in vivo challenge. The importance of tiny amounts of gliadin in the diet, such as that which occurs in wheat starch, has been studied by in vivo challenge; this technique has clarified the position of oats in the gluten-free diet. Several studies suggest that this cereal may be included in the diet of most adult celiac patients. Studies of the transport of gliadin across the enterocyte following ingestion or challenge suggest that gliadin may be metabolized by a different pathway in celiac disease. This could result in an abnormal presentation to the immune system, triggering a pathogenic rather than a tolerogenic response.

  20. Low density lipoprotein receptors: preliminary results on 'in vivo' study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupattelli, G.; Virgolini, I.; Li, S.R.; Sinzinger, H.

    1991-01-01

    Plasmatic levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) are regulated by the receptor pathway and most LDL receptor are located in the liver. A receptor defect due to genetic mutations of the LDL receptor gene is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (F.H.), a disease characterized by high cholesterol levels and premature atherosclerosis. Injections of autologous radiolabelled LDL, followed by hepatic scintiscanning, can be used to obtain 'in vivo' quantification of hepatic receptor activity, both in normal and hypercholesterolemic patients. In this study we observe no hepatic increase of radioactivity in patients affected by F.H., confirming the liver receptor defect. Scintigraphy is a non-invasive technique which can be used to diagnose this disease and to monitor the efficiacy of hypolipidemic therapy. (Authors)

  1. Utility of a human-mouse xenograft model and in vivo near-infrared fluorescent imaging for studying wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Victoria K; Tassi, Elena; Schmidt, Marcel O; McNish, Sean; Baker, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher; Wang, Hong; Shara, Nawar; Wellstein, Anton

    2015-12-01

    To study the complex cellular interactions involved in wound healing, it is essential to have an animal model that adequately mimics the human wound microenvironment. Currently available murine models are limited because wound contraction introduces bias into wound surface area measurements. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate utility of a human-mouse xenograft model for studying human wound healing. Normal human skin was harvested from elective abdominoplasty surgery, xenografted onto athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, and allowed to engraft for 3 months. The graft was then wounded using a 2-mm punch biopsy. Wounds were harvested on sequential days to allow tissue-based markers of wound healing to be followed sequentially. On the day of wound harvest, mice were injected with XenoLight RediJect cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) probe and imaged according to package instructions. Immunohistochemistry confirms that this human-mouse xenograft model is effective for studying human wound healing in vivo. Additionally, in vivo fluorescent imaging for inducible COX-2 demonstrated upregulation from baseline to day 4 (P = 0·03) with return to baseline levels by day 10, paralleling the reepithelialisation of the wound. This human-mouse xenograft model, combined with in vivo fluorescent imaging provides a useful mechanism for studying molecular pathways of human wound healing. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Quantification of tumour initiating effect of jute batching oil and its distillates over mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, R; Kumar, S; Shukla, Y; Antony, M; Mehrotra, N K

    1985-09-30

    In order to identify the tumour initiating constituent(s) of a mineral oil, jute batching oil (JBO), used in the processing of jute fibres, it was fractionally distilled in various boiling range fractions. The latter were then subjected to in vivo assessment of their aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) inducing potential in mouse epidermis. Fractions with almost similar AHH inducing potential were regrouped and studied for their tumour initiating potential over mouse skin following two-stage initiation-promotion protocol and using 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as tumour promoter. It was noticed that: (1) JBO as initiator, provoked local development of benign skin tumours over mouse back; (2) fractions of JBO boiling below 335 degrees C and above 399 degrees C accounted for most of the tumour initiating potential of the oil; (3) the histological features of the tumours (i.e. benign papillomas and keratoacanthomas) initiated by these fractions were similar to those developed after being initiated with unfractionated or reconstituted JBO; (4) removal of these fractions from JBO may be attempted which could decontaminate the batch oil from most of its tumorigenic components and make it safer for industrial use.

  3. Celiac Disease-Specific TG2-Targeted Autoantibodies Inhibit Angiogenesis Ex Vivo and In Vivo in Mice by Interfering with Endothelial Cell Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Kalliokoski

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of celiac disease is the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2, reputed to have a function in angiogenesis. In this study we investigated whether TG2-specific autoantibodies derived from celiac patients inhibit angiogenesis in both ex vivo and in vivo models and sought to clarify the mechanism behind this phenomenon. We used the ex vivo murine aorta-ring and the in vivo mouse matrigel-plug assays to address aforementioned issues. We found angiogenesis to be impaired as a result of celiac disease antibody supplementation in both systems. Our results also showed the dynamics of endothelial cells was affected in the presence of celiac antibodies. In the in vivo angiogenesis assays, the vessels formed were able to transport blood despite impairment of functionality after treatment with celiac autoantibodies, as revealed by positron emission tomography. We conclude that celiac autoantibodies inhibit angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo and impair vascular functionality. Our data suggest that the anti-angiogenic mechanism of the celiac disease-specific autoantibodies involves extracellular TG2 and inhibited endothelial cell mobility.

  4. Celiac Disease–Specific TG2-Targeted Autoantibodies Inhibit Angiogenesis Ex Vivo and In Vivo in Mice by Interfering with Endothelial Cell Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Suvi; Sulic, Ana-Marija; Korponay-Szabó, Ilma R.; Szondy, Zsuzsa; Frias, Rafael; Perez, Mileidys Alea; Martucciello, Stefania; Roivainen, Anne; Pelliniemi, Lauri J.; Esposito, Carla; Griffin, Martin; Sblattero, Daniele; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri; Caja, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    A characteristic feature of celiac disease is the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2), reputed to have a function in angiogenesis. In this study we investigated whether TG2-specific autoantibodies derived from celiac patients inhibit angiogenesis in both ex vivo and in vivo models and sought to clarify the mechanism behind this phenomenon. We used the ex vivo murine aorta-ring and the in vivo mouse matrigel-plug assays to address aforementioned issues. We found angiogenesis to be impaired as a result of celiac disease antibody supplementation in both systems. Our results also showed the dynamics of endothelial cells was affected in the presence of celiac antibodies. In the in vivo angiogenesis assays, the vessels formed were able to transport blood despite impairment of functionality after treatment with celiac autoantibodies, as revealed by positron emission tomography. We conclude that celiac autoantibodies inhibit angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo and impair vascular functionality. Our data suggest that the anti-angiogenic mechanism of the celiac disease-specific autoantibodies involves extracellular TG2 and inhibited endothelial cell mobility. PMID:23824706

  5. Anisotropic Conductivity Tensor Imaging of In Vivo Canine Brain Using DT-MREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z K; Katoch, Nitish; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2017-01-01

    We present in vivo images of anisotropic electrical conductivity tensor distributions inside canine brains using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (DT-MREIT). The conductivity tensor is represented as a product of an ion mobility tensor and a scale factor of ion concentrations. Incorporating directional mobility information from water diffusion tensors, we developed a stable process to reconstruct anisotropic conductivity tensor images from measured magnetic flux density data using an MRI scanner. Devising a new image reconstruction algorithm, we reconstructed anisotropic conductivity tensor images of two canine brains with a pixel size of 1.25 mm. Though the reconstructed conductivity values matched well in general with those measured by using invasive probing methods, there were some discrepancies as well. The degree of white matter anisotropy was 2 to 4.5, which is smaller than previous findings of 5 to 10. The reconstructed conductivity value of the cerebrospinal fluid was about 1.3 S/m, which is smaller than previous measurements of about 1.8 S/m. Future studies of in vivo imaging experiments with disease models should follow this initial trial to validate clinical significance of DT-MREIT as a new diagnostic imaging modality. Applications in modeling and simulation studies of bioelectromagnetic phenomena including source imaging and electrical stimulation are also promising.

  6. Gallic acid against hepatocellular carcinoma: An integrated scheme of the potential mechanisms of action from in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglan, Hadeer A; Ahmed, Hanaa H; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Mahmoud, Nadia S

    2017-06-01

    The global burden of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing; actually, it is estimated as 750,000 new cases annually. This study was initiated to emphasize the possibility that gallic acid could alleviate hepatocarcinogenesis in vivo. In this study, 40 rats were enrolled and distributed as follows; group 1 was set as negative control, while all of groups 2, 3, and 4 were orally received N-nitrosodiethylamine for hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Group 2 was left untreated, whereas groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with gallic acid and doxorubicin, respectively. The current data indicated that gallic acid administration in hepatocellular carcinoma bearing rats yielded significant decline in serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, glypican-3, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 along with significant enhancement in serum suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 level. Also, gallic acid-treated group displayed significant downregulation in the gene expression levels of hepatic gamma glutamyl transferase and heat shock protein gp96. Intriguingly, treatment with gallic acid remarkably ameliorated the destabilization of liver tissue architecture caused by N-nitrosodiethylamine intoxication as evidenced by histopathological investigation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the hepatocarcinogenic effect of N-nitrosodiethylamine can be abrogated by gallic acid supplementation owing to its affinity to regulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway through its outstanding bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, and antitumor effects.

  7. Myeloperoxidase-mediated protein lysine oxidation generates 2-aminoadipic acid and lysine nitrile in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongqiao; Levison, Bruce S; Buffa, Jennifer A; Huang, Ying; Fu, Xiaoming; Wang, Zeneng; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies reveal 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) is both elevated in subjects at risk for diabetes and mechanistically linked to glucose homeostasis. Prior studies also suggest enrichment of protein-bound 2-AAA as an oxidative post-translational modification of lysyl residues in tissues associated with degenerative diseases of aging. While in vitro studies suggest redox active transition metals or myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) may produce protein-bound 2-AAA, the mechanism(s) responsible for generation of 2-AAA during inflammatory diseases are unknown. In initial studies we observed that traditional acid- or base-catalyzed protein hydrolysis methods previously employed to measure tissue 2-AAA can artificially generate protein-bound 2-AAA from an alternative potential lysine oxidative product, lysine nitrile (LysCN). Using a validated protease-based digestion method coupled with stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS, we now report protein bound 2-AAA and LysCN are both formed by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and the MPO/H 2 O 2 /Cl - system of leukocytes. At low molar ratio of oxidant to target protein N ε -lysine moiety, 2-AAA is formed via an initial N ε -monochloramine intermediate, which ultimately produces the more stable 2-AAA end-product via sequential generation of transient imine and semialdehyde intermediates. At higher oxidant to target protein N ε -lysine amine ratios, protein-bound LysCN is formed via initial generation of a lysine N ε -dichloramine intermediate. In studies employing MPO knockout mice and an acute inflammation model, we show that both free and protein-bound 2-AAA, and in lower yield, protein-bound LysCN, are formed by MPO in vivo during inflammation. Finally, both 2-AAA and to lesser extent LysCN are shown to be enriched in human aortic atherosclerotic plaque, a tissue known to harbor multiple MPO-catalyzed protein oxidation products. Collectively, these results show that MPO-mediated oxidation of protein lysyl

  8. Metabolomic Effects of Xylitol and Fluoride on Plaque Biofilm in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, N.; Washio, J.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is initiated by demineralization of the tooth surface through acid production from sugar by plaque biofilm. Fluoride and xylitol have been used worldwide as caries-preventive reagents, based on in vitro-proven inhibitory mechanisms on bacterial acid production. We attempted to confirm the inhibitory mechanisms of fluoride and xylitol in vivo by performing metabolome analysis on the central carbon metabolism in supragingival plaque using the combination of capillary electrophores...

  9. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate efficiently kills breast tumour-initiating cells in a complex II-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bing; Stantic, Marina; Zobalova, Renata; Bezawork-Geleta, Ayenachew; Stapelberg, Michael; Stursa, Jan; Prokopova, Katerina; Dong, Lanfeng; Neuzil, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that breast cancer involves tumour-initiating cells (TICs), which play a role in initiation, metastasis, therapeutic resistance and relapse of the disease. Emerging drugs that target TICs are becoming a focus of contemporary research. Mitocans, a group of compounds that induce apoptosis of cancer cells by destabilising their mitochondria, are showing their potential in killing TICs. In this project, we investigated mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate (MitoVES), a recently developed mitocan, for its in vitro and in vivo efficacy against TICs. The mammosphere model of breast TICs was established by culturing murine NeuTL and human MCF7 cells as spheres. This model was verified by stem cell marker expression, tumour initiation capacity and chemotherapeutic resistance. Cell susceptibility to MitoVES was assessed and the cell death pathway investigated. In vivo efficacy was studied by grafting NeuTL TICs to form syngeneic tumours. Mammospheres derived from NeuTL and MCF7 breast cancer cells were enriched in the level of stemness, and the sphere cells featured altered mitochondrial function. Sphere cultures were resistant to several established anti-cancer agents while they were susceptible to MitoVES. Killing of mammospheres was suppressed when the mitochondrial complex II, the molecular target of MitoVES, was knocked down. Importantly, MitoVES inhibited progression of syngeneic HER2 high tumours derived from breast TICs by inducing apoptosis in tumour cells. These results demonstrate that using mammospheres, a plausible model for studying TICs, drugs that target mitochondria efficiently kill breast tumour-initiating cells. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1394-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. Defining human mesenchymal stem cell efficacy in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennon Donald P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can suppress graft versus host disease (GvHD and have profound anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity in stroke, infarct, spinal cord injury, meniscus regeneration, tendinitis, acute renal failure, and heart disease in human and animal models of disease. There is significant clinical hMSC variability in efficacy and the ultimate response in vivo. The challenge in hMSC based therapy is defining the efficacy of hMSC in vivo. Models which may provide insight into hMSC bioactivity in vivo would provide a means to distinguish hMSCs for clinical utility. hMSC function has been described as both regenerative and trophic through the production of bioactive factors. The regenerative component involves the multi-potentiality of hMSC progenitor differentiation. The secreted factors generated by the hMSCs are milieu and injury specific providing unique niches for responses in vivo. These bioactive factors are anti-scarring, angiogenic, anti-apoptotic as well as regenerative. Further, from an immunological standpoint, hMSC's can avoid host immune response, providing xenographic applications. To study the in vivo immuno-regulatory effectiveness of hMSCs, we used the ovalbumin challenge model of acute asthma. This is a quick 3 week in vivo pulmonary inflammation model with readily accessible ways of measuring effectiveness of hMSCs. Our data show that there is a direct correlation between the traditional ceramic cube score to hMSCs attenuation of cellular recruitment due to ovalbumin challenge. The results from these studies verify the in vivo immuno-modulator effectiveness of hMSCs and support the potential use of the ovalbumin model as an in vivo model of hMSC potency and efficacy. Our data also support future directions toward exploring hMSCs as an alternative therapeutic for the treatment of airway inflammation associated with asthma.

  11. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  12. 21 CFR 320.27 - Guidelines on the design of a multiple-dose in vivo bioavailability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vivo bioavailability study. 320.27 Section 320.27 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.27...

  13. In vivo and ex vivo EPR detection of spin-labelled ovalbumin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramović, Zrinka; Brgles, Marija; Habjanec, Lidija; Tomasić, Jelka; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Frkanec, Ruza

    2010-10-01

    In this study, spin-labelled ovalbumin (SL-OVA), free or entrapped in liposomes, was administered to mice subcutaneously (s.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with the aim to determine the conditions for pharmacokinetic studies of spin-labelled proteins by EPR and to measure the time course of SL-OVA distribution in vivo in live mice and ex vivo in isolated organs. Upon s.c. administration, the decay of the EPR signal was followed for 60min at the site of application using an L-band EPR spectrometer. Within this time period, the signal of free SL-OVA was diminished by about 70%. It was estimated with the help of the oxidizing agent K(3)[(FeCN)(6)] that approximately 30% was a consequence of the spin label reduction to EPR non-visible hydroxylamine and about 40% was due to the SL-OVA elimination from the site of measurement. For liposome encapsulated SL-OVA, the intensity diminished only by approx. 40% in the same period, indicating that liposomes successfully protect the protein from reduction. EPR signal could not be detected directly over live mouse organs within 60min after s.c. application of SL-OVA. With the available L-band EPR spectrometer, the measurements at the site of s.c. application are possible if the amount of SL-OVA applied to a mouse is more than 3mg. For the pharmacokinetic studies of the protein distribution in organs after s.c. or i.v. injection the concentration of the spin-labelled protein should be more than 0.5mmol/kg. After i.v. administration, only ex vivo measurements were possible using an X-band EPR spectrometer, since the total amount of SL-OVA was not sufficient for in vivo detection and also because of rapid reduction of nitroxide. After 2min, the protein was preferentially distributed to liver and, to a smaller extent, to spleen.

  14. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornblower, V D M; Yu, E; Fenster, A; Battista, J J; Malthaner, R A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo

  15. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornblower, V D M [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Yu, E [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Fenster, A [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Battista, J J [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Malthaner, R A [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-01-07

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo.

  16. Evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding by red blood cells labeled in vivo with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzelberg, G.G.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of abdominal imaging with RBCs labeled in vivo with Tc-99m, for the detection of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, 28 control subjects and ten patients with suspected bleeding underwent scintigraphy at 0 to 24 hr after tracer injection. Colonic activity was noted in one of the controls within 3 hr of injection, and in five of ten controls at 24 hr, all of whom had initial gastric activity. Of the ten patients with suspected GI bleeding, eight had documented active bleeding; seven of these had positive scintigrams. Nasogastric (NG) suction markedly decreased the presence of initial gastric activity in the patients with active bleeding. With this blood-pool radiopharmaceutical, frequent imaging of the abdomen over 24 hr can be done to test for active bleeding. Continuous NG suction is recommended to reduce accumulation of gastric activity. These results suggest that red blood cells labeled in vivo with Tc-99m provide a sensitive method of detecting active GI bleeding

  17. In vitro and in vivo studies of gadolinium-159 liposomes in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Daniel Cristian Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, estimates of new cancer cases, valid for the years 2010 and 2011 show that the disease will be responsible for the deaths of about 500,000 people. As an alternative therapy the radiotherapy technique, widely used in treating various types of tumors, act indiscriminate tumoral and healthy cells. Seeking to minimize these effects, nano structured carriers containing radioisotopes, such as liposomes, have been studied with the aim of improving the specificity of action of ionizing radiation, delivering and retaining adequate amounts of radioactive material in tumor cells, leading them to death. In this context, the present study, we prepared liposomes stealth pH-sensitive metal complex containing the radioactive 159 Gd-DTPA-BMA ( 159 Gd-SpHL) aiming to study in vitro and in vivo its effects in cancer treatment. The vesicles showed encapsulation rate of about 20%, average diameter of 100 nm and low release kinetics of radioactivity in biological media. The formulation was characterized through physic-chemical and morphological studies and the results revealed a low polydispersity index and negative Zeta potential. We studied in vitro and in vivo its action against the cells of Ehrlich tumor models and RT2 (rat glioma). The results of in vitro studies showed that the complex has significant radioactive cytotoxicity against the cells of two of the three models studied and that, being encapsulated in liposomes, the cytotoxicity was greatly enhanced. Additionally, we investigated the involvement of caspase-3 protein in Ehrlich and RT2 cell death. The results suggest that the main mechanism involved in the cytotoxic action of radioactive complex is related to apoptosis. The results of in vivo studies showed that liposomes containing 159 Gd-DTPA-BMA accumulated significantly in Ehrlich solid tumor in mice. Aiming to improve this uptake, we prepared pH-sensitive liposomes coated with folate containing the same radioactive complex ( 159 Gd-FTSpHL). The results

  18. Analysis of clustered point mutations in the human ribosomal RNA gene promoter by transient expression in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.H.; Learned, R.M.; Tjian, R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have mapped the cis regulatory elements required in vivo for initiation at the human rRNA promoter by RNA polymerase I. Transient expression in COS-7 cells was used to evaluate the transcription phenotype of clustered base substitution mutations in the human rRNA promoter. The promoter consists of two major elements: a large upstream region, composed of several domains, that lies between nucleotides -234 and -107 relative to the transcription initiation site and affects transcription up to 100-fold and a core element that lies between nucleotides -45 and +20 and affects transcription up to 1000-fold. The upstream regions is able to retain partial function when positioned within 100-160 nucleotides of the transcription initiation site, but it cannot stimulate transcription from distances of ≥ 600 nucleotides. In addition, they demonstrate, using mouse-human hybrid rRNA promoters, that the sequences responsible for human species-specific transcription in vivo appear to reside in both the core and upstream elements, and sequences from the mouse rRNA promoter cannot be substituted for them

  19. Studying repair of a single protein-bound nick in vivo using the Flp-nick system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ida; Andersen, Anni Hangaard; Bjergbæk, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    The Flp-nick system is a simple in vivo system developed for studying the cellular responses to a protein-bound nick at a single genomic site in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Flp-nick system takes advantage of a mutant Flp recombinase that can introduce a nick at a specific Flp ...

  20. The in vivo toxicity of hydroxyurea depends on its direct target catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Trine; Malolepszy, Anna; Dybkaer, Karen; Kidmose, Rune; Rasmussen, Jan Trige; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2010-07-09

    Hydroxyurea (HU) is a well tolerated ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor effective in HIV, sickle cell disease, and blood cancer therapy. Despite a positive initial response, however, most treated cancers eventually progress due to development of HU resistance. Although RNR properties influence HU resistance in cell lines, the mechanisms underlying cancer HU resistance in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, we screened for HU resistance in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana and identified seventeen unique catalase mutants, thereby establishing that HU toxicity depends on catalase in vivo. We further demonstrated that catalase is a direct HU target by showing that HU acts as a competitive inhibitor of catalase-mediated hydrogen peroxide decomposition. Considering also that catalase can accelerate HU decomposition in vitro and that co-treatment with another catalase inhibitor alleviates HU effects in vivo, our findings suggests that HU could act as a catalase-activated pro-drug. Clinically, we found high catalase activity in circulating cells from untreated chronic myeloid leukemia, offering a possible explanation for the efficacy of HU against this malignancy.

  1. Foresight studies and reform initiatives in construction: Lessons for developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses construction foresight studies and construction reform initiatives with a view to identifying lessons for developing countries. It notes the number of construction reform initiatives over the last 60 years, mostly...

  2. Studying circulation times of liver cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G; Li, Y; Fan, Z; Guo, J; Tan, X; Wei, X, E-mail: xwei@fudan.edu.cn [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may metastasize to lung kidney and many other organs. The survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed. A recently developed 'in vivo flow cytometer' combined with real-time confocal fluorescence imaging are used to assess spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. The in vivo flow cytometer has the capability to detect and quantify continuously the number and flow characteristics of fluorescently labeled cells in vivo in real time without extracting blood sample. We have measured the depletion kinetics of two related human HCC cell lines high-metastatic HCCLM3 cells and low-metastatic HepG2 cells which were from the same origin and obtained by repetitive screenings in mice. >60% HCCLM3 cells are depleted within the first hour. Interestingly the low-metastatic HepG2 cells possess noticeably slower depletion kinetics. In comparison <40% HepG2 cells are depleted within the first hour. The differences in depletion kinetics might provide insights into early metastasis processes.

  3. DNA damage in lens epithelium of cataract patients in vivo and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øsnes-Ringen, Oyvind; Azqueta, Amaia O; Moe, Morten C; Zetterström, Charlotta; Røger, Magnus; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Collins, Andrew R

    2013-11-01

    DNA damage has been described in the human cataractous lens epithelium, and oxidative stress generated by UV radiation and endogenous metabolic processes has been suggested to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of cataract. In this study, the aim was to explore the quality and relative quantity of DNA damage in lens epithelium of cataract patients in vivo and after incubation in a cell culture system. Capsulotomy specimens were analysed, before and after 1 week of ex vivo cultivation, using the comet assay to measure DNA strand breaks, oxidized purine and pyrimidine bases and UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. DNA strand breaks were barely detectable, oxidized pyrimidines and pyrimidine dimers were present at low levels, whereas there was a relatively high level of oxidized purines, which further increased after cultivation. The observed levels of oxidized purines in cataractous lens epithelium may support a theory consistent with light damage and oxidative stress as mediators of molecular damage to the human lens epithelium. Damage commonly associated with UV-B irradiation was relatively low. The levels of oxidized purines increased further in a commonly used culture system. This is of interest considering the importance and versatility of ex vivo systems in studies exploring the pathogenesis of cataract. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  4. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The development and clinical application of a number of nuclear techniques for studying body composition is described. These techniques include delayed neutron activation for the analysis of calcium, phsophorus, sodium and chlorine and prompt-gamma activation for the measurement of nitrogen and cadmium. In addition, the measurement of in vivo iron by nuclear resonance scattering and lead by x-ray fluorescence is described. (author)

  5. Nicotine Blocks Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase): In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Studies in Female Baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegon, A.; Kim, S.-W.; Logan, J.; Hooker, J.M.; Muench, L.; Fowler, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and nicotine have complex effects on human physiology and behavior, including some effects similar to those elicited by inhibition of aromatase, the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. We report the first in vivo primate study to determine whether there is a direct effect of nicotine administration on brain aromatase. Brain aromatase availability was examined with positron emission tomography and the selective aromatase inhibitor ( 11 C)vorozole in six baboons before and after exposure to IV nicotine at .015 and .03 mg/kg. Nicotine administration produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in ( 11 C)vorozole binding. The amygdala and preoptic area showed the largest reductions. Plasma levels of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were similar to those found in cigarette smokers. Nicotine interacts in vivo with primate brain aromatase in regions involved in mood, aggression, and sexual behavior.

  6. In vivo and ex vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary and secondary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, Roger M.; Stanwell, Peter; Stretch, Jonathan R.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Thompson, John F.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Lean, Cynthia L

    2005-03-01

    In vivo magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 1.5T was performed on a large polypoid cutaneous melanoma, and two enlarged lymph nodes containing metastatic melanoma, from three patients. Spectra were acquired in vivo from voxels wholly within the primary tumour or secondary lymph node and were thus uncontaminated by signals from adjacent tissue. Tissue biopsies taken after resection of primary tumours and secondary lymph nodes were examined by 8.5T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the results compared with the in vivo spectra, and with spectra from normal skin and a benign skin lesion. There was good agreement between the dominant features of 1.5T spectra acquired in vivo and 8.5T spectra acquired from resected tissue. However, less intense resonances observed at 8.5T in malignant biopsy tissue were not consistently observed at 1.5T in vivo. In vivo spectra from primary and metastatic melanoma showed high levels of choline metabolites. An intense lactate resonance was also present in the in vivo spectrum of primary melanoma. All 8.5T spectra of biopsies from primary and secondary melanoma showed high levels of choline metabolites and lactate, and additional resonances consistent with elevated levels of taurine, alanine, lysine, and glutamate/glutamine relative to normal and benign tissue. Elevated levels of choline, lactate, taurine, and amino acids appear to be clinically useful markers for identifying the pathology of primary and metastatic melanoma.

  7. In vivo evaluation of femoral blood flow measured with magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, O.; Staahlberg, F.; Thomsen, C.; Moegelvang, J.; Persson, B.; Lund Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of blood flow based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using conventional multiple spin echo sequences were evaluated in vivo in healthy young volunteers. Blood flow was measured using MRI in the femoral vein. The initial slope of the multiple spin echo decay curve, corrected for the T2 decay of non-flowing blood was used to calculate the blood flow. As a reference, the blood flow in the femoral artery was measured simultaneously with an invasive indicator dilution technique. T2 of non-flowing blood was measured in vivo in popliteal veins during regional circulatory arrest. The mean T2 of non-flowing blood was found to be 105±31 ms. The femoral blood flow ranged between 0 and 643 ml/min measured with MRI and between 280 and 531 ml/min measured by the indicator dilution technique. There was thus poor agreement between the two methods. The results indicate that in vivo blood flow measurements made with MRI based on wash-out effects, commonly used in multiple spin echo imaging, do not give reliable absolute values for blood flow in the femoral artery or vein. (orig.)

  8. Percutaneous absorption and skin decontamination of PCBs: In vitro studies with human skin and in vivo studies in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Bucks, D.A.; McMaster, J.; Mobayen, M.; Sarason, R.; Moore, A.

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge of the entry of polychlorinated biphenyls through the skin into the body and subsequent disposition aids estimation of potential for human health hazard. [14C]Aroclor 1242 and [14C]Aroclor 1254 were separately administered intravenously and topically to rhesus monkeys. Following iv administration, 30-d excretion was 39.4 +/- 5.9% urine and 16.1 +/- 0.8% feces (total 55.5 +/- 5.1%) for Aroclor 1242, and 7.0 +/- 2.2% urine and 19.7 +/- 5.8% feces (total 26.7 +/- 7.5%) for Aroclor 1254. Mineral oil and trichlorobenzene are common PCB cosolvents in transformers. Skin absorption of Aroclor 1242 was 20.4 +/- 8.5% formulated in mineral oil and 18.0 +/- 3.8% in trichlorobenzene (p greater than .05). Absorption of Aroclor 1254 was 20.8 +/- 8.3% in mineral oil and 14.6 +/- 3.6% in trichlorobenzene (p greater than .05). PCBs are thus absorbed through skin, and excretion from the body is slow. Vehicle (trichlorobenzene or mineral oil) did not affect percutaneous absorption. In vitro skin absorption in human cadaver skin did not correlate with in vivo findings. This was due to lack of PCB partition from skin into the water receptor fluid, even with addition of 6% Oleth 20 (Volpo 20) solubilizer. Skin decontamination of PCBs showed soap and water to be as effective as or better than the solvent ethanol, mineral oil, and trichlorobenzene in removing PCBs from skin. There is a dynamic time lapse for PCBs between initial skin contact and skin absorption (irreversible removal). Thus initially most PCBs could be removed from skin, but this ability decreased with time to the point where at 24 h only about 25% of the initial PCB skin dose could be recovered with skin washing

  9. Toxicological evaluation of Cd-based fluorescent nanoprobes by means of in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Patricia M. A.; Ma-Hock, Lan; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2018-02-01

    Cadmium still represents a stigma for many research- and/or industrial applications. Some deleterious effects are attributed to Cadmium. In the present work, highly fluorescent Cadmium sulfide quantum dots are investigated by e.g. physical-chemical characterization. Most important however is their application as fluorescent probes for bio-imaging in living cells and tissues. This work presents their toxicological evaluation by means of in vivo studies. Bio-imaging experiments are performed without any pre-treatment. The toxicological studies performed, strongly indicate that the use of Cadmium based nanoparticles as fluorescent probes may be nonhazardous and not induce side effects for cells/tissues.

  10. Correlations between the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the Ti/HA composites fabricated by a powder metallurgy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Congqin; Zhou, Yu

    2008-11-01

    Ti/HA composites were successfully prepared by a powder metallurgy method and the effect of phase composition on the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the Ti/HA composites was investigated in the present study. The correlations between the in vitro and in vivo biological behaviors were highlighted. The results showed that the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the Ti/HA composites was dependent on their phase composition. The in vitro bioactivity of the Ti/HA composites was evaluated in simulated body fluid with ion concentrations similar to those of human plasma. After immersion in the simulated body fluid for a certain time, apatite precipitations formed on the surface of the composites with an initial titanium content of 50 and 70 wt.%, and no apatite was found on the surface of the composite with 30% titanium. Ti(2)O was responsible for the apatite formation on the surfaces of the composites. For in vivo analysis, Ti/HA cylinders were implanted in the metaphases of the rabbit femur. At the early stage of implantation, the new bone formed on the surface of the composite with 30% titanium was much less than that on the surfaces of the composites with 50% and 70% titanium. All the Ti/HA composites formed a chemical bone-bonding interface with the host bone by 6 months after implantation. The Ti/HA composites formed the bone-bonding interface with the surrounding bone through an apatite layer. The results in the present study suggested that the in vivo results agreed well with the in vitro results.

  11. Cystoscopic optical coherence tomography for urinary bladder imaging in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. G.; Adler, H.; Chan, D.; Jain, A.; Xie, H. K.; Wu, Z. L.; Pan, Y. T.

    2006-02-01

    This paper summarizes the development of new 2D MEMS mirrors and the pertinent modification to improve OCT endoscopic catheter packaging suitable for in vivo imaging diagnosis of bladder cancers. Comparative study of the newly developed endocopic OCT versus the bench-top OCT is presented. Results of in vivo OCT cystoscopy based on a porcine acute inflammation model are presented to compare time-domain OCT and spectral-domain OCT for in vivo imaging. In addition, results of spectral-domain Doppler OCT are presented to image blood flow in the lamina propria of the bladder. The results of our in vivo animal study using the presented OCT endoscope are discussed for potential problems in the future clinical applications.

  12. Measuring in-vivo and in-situ ex-vivo the 3D deformation of the lamina cribrosa microstructure under elevated intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junchao; Yang, Bin; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Tran, Huong; Brazile, Bryn; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel; Smith, Matthew A.; Wollstein, Gadi; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-02-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) deforms the lamina cribrosa (LC), a structure within the optic nerve head (ONH) in the back of the eye. Evidence suggests that these deformations trigger events that eventually cause irreversible blindness, and have therefore been studied in-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ex-vivo using OCT and a diversity of techniques. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no in-situ ex-vivo studies of LC mechanics. Our goal was two-fold: to introduce a technique for measuring 3D LC deformations from OCT, and to determine whether deformations of the LC induced by elevated IOP differ between in-vivo and in-situ ex-vivo conditions. A healthy adult rhesus macaque monkey was anesthetized and IOP was controlled by inserting a 27- gauge needle into the anterior chamber of the eye. Spectral domain OCT was used to obtain volumetric scans of the ONH at normal and elevated IOPs. To improve the visibility of the LC microstructure the scans were first processed using a novel denoising technique. Zero-normalized cross-correlation was used to find paired corresponding locations between images. For each location pair, the components of the 3D strain tensor were determined using non-rigid image registration. A mild IOP elevation from 10 to 15mmHg caused LC effective strains as large as 3%, and about 50% larger in-vivo than in-situ ex-vivo. The deformations were highly heterogeneous, with substantial 3D components, suggesting that accurate measurement of LC microstructure deformation requires high-resolution volumes. This technique will help improve understanding of LC biomechanics and how IOP contributes to glaucoma.

  13. Correcting Effect of Therapeutic Doses of Optical Radiation on Hematological Parameters of Blood Irradiated In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the effect of therapeutic doses of optical radiation on the hematological parameters of blood irradiated in vivo: hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and the number of erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of patients during courses of extracorporeal, overvein, and intravenous blood irradiation and after treatment. The reversible changes during the procedures were found to differ from the changes obtained after treatment completion. At the end of the treatment course, the hematological parameters had changed in different directions and became higher, the same, or lower than the initial parameters depending on the initial parameters and photoinduced changes in blood oxygenation. A compensatory effect was found for photohemotherapy on oxygen-dependent processes altering the oxygen inflow into cells as well as the generation of active oxygen species and their inhibition by antioxidant systems.

  14. In vivo bioprinting for computer- and robotic-assisted medical intervention: preliminary study in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keriquel, Virginie; Guillemot, Fabien; Arnault, Isabelle; Guillotin, Bertrand; Amedee, Joelle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Catros, Sylvain [INSERM, U577, Bordeaux, F-33076 (France) and Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, UMR-S577 Bordeaux, F-33076 (France); Miraux, Sylvain [Centre de Resonance Magnetique des Systemes Biologiques, UMR 5536 (France)

    2010-03-15

    We present the first attempt to apply bioprinting technologies in the perspective of computer-assisted medical interventions. A workstation dedicated to high-throughput biological laser printing has been designed. Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) was printed in the mouse calvaria defect model in vivo. Critical size bone defects were performed in OF-1 male mice calvaria with a 4 mm diameter trephine. Prior to laser printing experiments, the absence of inflammation due to laser irradiation onto mice dura mater was shown by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Procedures for in vivo bioprinting and results obtained using decalcified sections and x-ray microtomography are discussed. Although heterogeneous, these preliminary results demonstrate that in vivo bioprinting is possible. Bioprinting may prove to be helpful in the future for medical robotics and computer-assisted medical interventions.

  15. In vivo bioprinting for computer- and robotic-assisted medical intervention: preliminary study in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keriquel, Virginie; Guillemot, Fabien; Arnault, Isabelle; Guillotin, Bertrand; Amedee, Joelle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Catros, Sylvain; Miraux, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    We present the first attempt to apply bioprinting technologies in the perspective of computer-assisted medical interventions. A workstation dedicated to high-throughput biological laser printing has been designed. Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) was printed in the mouse calvaria defect model in vivo. Critical size bone defects were performed in OF-1 male mice calvaria with a 4 mm diameter trephine. Prior to laser printing experiments, the absence of inflammation due to laser irradiation onto mice dura mater was shown by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Procedures for in vivo bioprinting and results obtained using decalcified sections and x-ray microtomography are discussed. Although heterogeneous, these preliminary results demonstrate that in vivo bioprinting is possible. Bioprinting may prove to be helpful in the future for medical robotics and computer-assisted medical interventions.

  16. In Vitro Membrane Permeation Studies and in Vivo Antinociception of Glycosylated Dmt(1)-DALDA Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballet, Steven; Betti, Cecilia; Novoa, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In this study the μ opioid receptor (MOR) ligands DALDA (Tyr-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2) and Dmt(1)-DALDA (Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2, Dmt = 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) were glycosylated at the N- or C-terminus. Subsequently, the modified peptides were subjected to in vitro and in vivo evaluation. In contrast to t...

  17. Comparative study of phloem loading radiotracer techniques for in vivo sucrose translocation in non woody and woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Pranav; Pandey, Manish; Suprasanna Penna; Ramteke, Sahadeo

    2017-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes for analysing the in vivo physiological responses in plants is a well known practical approach for the plant physiologists. Physiological difference in woody and non woody plants necessitates the need for universal way of application of radioisotopes to study in vivo sucrose translocation. In this study, grape vine (Vitis vinifera cv. Thomson seedless) and mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Bold) plants having active source and sink were used as representative system for woody and non woody plants. In present work we applied different strategies for radio activity loading in both boody and non woody plant viz. phloem loading via cut end, direct injection into phloem and activity incorporation through minor vein of leaves (gaseous CO 2 incorporation)

  18. Development of a disposable maglev centrifugal blood pump intended for one-month support in bridge-to-bridge applications: in vitro and initial in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Mariko; Waguri, Satoshi; Ushiyama, Tomohiro; Nagaoka, Eiki; Hijikata, Wataru; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Arai, Hirokuni; Takatani, Setsuo

    2009-09-01

    MedTech Dispo, a disposable maglev centrifugal blood pump with two degrees of freedom magnetic suspension and radial magnetic coupling rotation, has been developed for 1-month extracorporeal circulatory support. As the first stage of a two-stage in vivo evaluation, 2-week evaluation of a prototype MedTech Dispo was conducted. In in vitro study, the pump could produce 5 L/min against 800 mm Hg and the normalized index of hemolysis was 0.0054 +/- 0.0008 g/100 L. In in vivo study, the pump, with its blood-contacting surface coated with biocompatible 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer, was implanted in seven calves in left heart bypass. Pump performance was stable with a mean flow of 4.49 +/- 0.38 L/min at a mean speed of 2072.1 +/- 64.5 rpm. The maglev control revealed its stability in rotor position during normal activity by the calves. During 2 weeks of operation in two calves which survived the intended study period, no thrombus formation was seen inside the pump and levels of plasma free hemoglobin were maintained below 4 mg/dL. Although further experiments are required, the pump demonstrated the potential for sufficient and reliable performance and biocompatibility in meeting the requirements for cardiopulmonary bypass and 1-week circulatory support.

  19. Improving in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by incorporating toxicokinetic measurements: A case study of lindane-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croom, Edward L.; Shafer, Timothy J.; Evans, Marina V.; Mundy, William R.; Eklund, Chris R.; Johnstone, Andrew F.M.; Mack, Cina M.; Pegram, Rex A., E-mail: pegram.rex@epa.gov

    2015-02-15

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane cell and media concentrations in vitro, together with in vitro concentration-response data for lindane effects on neuronal network firing rates, were compared to in vivo data and model simulations as an exercise in extrapolation for chemical-induced neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Time- and concentration-dependent lindane dosimetry was determined in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons in vitro using “faux” (without electrodes) microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In vivo data were derived from literature values, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to extrapolate from rat to human. The previously determined EC{sub 50} for increased firing rates in primary cultures of cortical neurons was 0.6 μg/ml. Media and cell lindane concentrations at the EC{sub 50} were 0.4 μg/ml and 7.1 μg/ml, respectively, and cellular lindane accumulation was time- and concentration-dependent. Rat blood and brain lindane levels during seizures were 1.7–1.9 μg/ml and 5–11 μg/ml, respectively. Brain lindane levels associated with seizures in rats and those predicted for humans (average = 7 μg/ml) by PBPK modeling were very similar to in vitro concentrations detected in cortical cells at the EC{sub 50} dose. PBPK model predictions matched literature data and timing. These findings indicate that in vitro MEA results are predictive of in vivo responses to lindane and demonstrate a successful modeling approach for IVIVE of rat and human neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for lindane neurotoxicity was performed. • Dosimetry of lindane in a micro-electrode array (MEA) test system was assessed. • Cell concentrations at the MEA EC

  20. A quantitative analysis of statistical power identifies obesity end points for improved in vivo preclinical study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimkhanov, J; Thompson, W C; Guo, J; Hall, K D; Musante, C J

    2017-08-01

    The design of well-powered in vivo preclinical studies is a key element in building the knowledge of disease physiology for the purpose of identifying and effectively testing potential antiobesity drug targets. However, as a result of the complexity of the obese phenotype, there is limited understanding of the variability within and between study animals of macroscopic end points such as food intake and body composition. This, combined with limitations inherent in the measurement of certain end points, presents challenges to study design that can have significant consequences for an antiobesity program. Here, we analyze a large, longitudinal study of mouse food intake and body composition during diet perturbation to quantify the variability and interaction of the key metabolic end points. To demonstrate how conclusions can change as a function of study size, we show that a simulated preclinical study properly powered for one end point may lead to false conclusions based on secondary end points. We then propose the guidelines for end point selection and study size estimation under different conditions to facilitate proper power calculation for a more successful in vivo study design.

  1. 'In vivo' and high resolution spectroscopy in solids by NMR: an instrument for transgenic plants study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colnago, L.A.; Herrmann, P.S.P.; Bernardes Filho, R.

    1995-01-01

    This work has developed a study on transgenic plants using two different techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance, in vivo NMR and high resolution NMR. In order to understand the gene mutations and characterize the plants constituents, NMR spectral data were analysed and discussed, then the results were presented

  2. The initial growth of complex oxides : study and manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the initial growth stage, i.e., nucleation and growth of the first few unit cell layers, of complex oxides was studied in real time during pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These studies were performed at their optimal epitaxial growth conditions, i.e., high temperature and high oxygen

  3. Translational step inhibited in vivo by aflatoxin B1 in rat-liver polysomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasin, A.; Moule, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 strongly inhibits protein synthesis in rat liver cells. This paper confirms the foregoing results and represents an attempt to localize the translational step inhibited in vivo by aflatoxin B 1 . We used the simulation study developed by Li, Kisilevsky, Wasan and Hammond, 1972 (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 272, 451-462) to determine precisely the site inhibited in vivo after drug intoxication. This analysis is based on two parameters: the kinetics of polysome labeling to follow the nascent peptide synthesis, and the kinetics of supernatant labeling to follow the completed protein synthesis. Up to 5 h after dosing, aflatoxin specifically inhibits the elongation and/or termination steps during protein synthesis; after longer periods of time inhibition occurs essentially at the initiation step. When the intracellular concentration of aflatoxin is too high, particularly 2 h after dosing, each step of protein synthesis is blocked. Polypeptide synthesis by the postmitochondrial supernatants isolated from aflatoxin-treated animals is impaired in the same proportion as protein synthesis in vivo. The damage caused by aflatoxin is mostly observed on microsomes. However, purified polysomes isolated from aflatoxin-treated rats synthesize proteins in vitro to the same extent as those from controls. These results suggest that aflatoxin metabolite(s) are bound to polysomes with noncovalent bonds. These active metabolites are probably lost during polysome isolation procedures. Finally, relationships between protein metabolism and aflatoxin carcinogenesis are discussed. (orig./BSC) [de

  4. The in Vivo Toxicity of Hydroxyurea Depends on Its Direct Target Catalase*

    OpenAIRE

    Juul, Trine; Malolepszy, Anna; Dybk?r, Karen; Kidmose, Rune; Rasmussen, Jan Trige; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Johnsen, Hans Erik; J?rgensen, Jan-Elo; Andersen, Stig Uggerh?j

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyurea (HU) is a well tolerated ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor effective in HIV, sickle cell disease, and blood cancer therapy. Despite a positive initial response, however, most treated cancers eventually progress due to development of HU resistance. Although RNR properties influence HU resistance in cell lines, the mechanisms underlying cancer HU resistance in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, we screened for HU resistance in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana and identified ...

  5. Perfusion device for liver preservation ex vivo before transplantation: first experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Reznik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Successful liver transplantation including from donors with a sudden irreversible cardiac arrest requires the use of modern hardware and technical support to maintain, select and sustain organ viability for the period from harvesting to transplantation to the recipient.Materials and methods. Hardware-software system (HSS developed by the Russian State Scientific Center for Robotics and Technical Cybernetics (RTC was used for testing of normothermic perfusion of donor’s liver ex vivo. The experiment was conducted on the isolated pig liver (Duroc breed in accordance with the ethical principles.Result. During perfusion spontaneous recovery of bile outflow through the cannula installed in the common bile duct (volume of bile released – 240 ml was observed, and the color and uniformity of the perfused liver did not differ from the normal parameters. Biochemical indicators were stabilized at the physiological values after 40 minutes of perfusion procedure.Conclusion. Isolated liver transplant was completely restored after 30 minutes of warm ischemia and was functioning well due to ex vivo perfusion procedure on the new perfusion device. The first case of the new device usage for normothermic liver ex vivo demonstrated hopeful results to be further investigated.

  6. Modeling the in vivo case with in vitro nanotoxicity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Michael L; Wagner, Andrew J; Hussain, Saber M; Bleckmann, Charles

    2008-01-01

    As more in vitro nanotoxicity data appear in the literature, these findings must be translated to in vivo effects to define nanoparticle exposure risk. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has played a significant role in guiding and validating in vivo studies for molecular chemical exposure and can develop as a significant tool in guiding similar nanotoxicity studies. This study models the population dynamics of a single cell type within a specific tissue. It is the first attempt to model the in vitro effects of a nanoparticle exposure, in this case aluminum (80 nm) and its impact on a population of rat alveolar macrophages (Wagner et al. 2007, J. Phys. Chem. B 111:7353-7359). The model demonstrates how in vitro data can be used within a simulation setting of in vivo cell dynamics and suggests that PBPK models should be developed quickly to interpret nanotoxicity data, guide in vivo study design, and accelerate nanoparticle risk assessment.

  7. The effect of 60Co γ-radiation and hydroxyurea on the in vivo chain growth of DNA in crypt cells of the small intestine of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, K.J.; Rydberg, B.

    1977-01-01

    DNA chain growth has been studied in small intestinal crypt cells of the mouse in vivo using a sensitive method. The method was designed primarily to study radiation-induced DNA-breaks and their repair; but since there were breaks in DNA at the replicating fork, it was also possible to study DNA chain growth after a 3 H-thymidine pulse. It was found that DNA chain growth was not depressed by 200 rad of 60 Co γ-radiation. This finding supports the hypothesis that irradiation interferes mainly with the initiation of new replicons in mammalian cells affecting DNA chain growth only at higher doses. Hydroxyurea at sufficient dosage, however, depressed or even stopped DNA chain growth in mouse crypt cells in vivo. (author)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of trabecular and cortical bone in mice: comparison of high resolution in vivo and ex vivo MR images with corresponding histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Michael H.; Sharp, Jonathan C.; Latta, Peter; Sramek, Milos; Hassard, H. Thomas; Orr, F. William

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of bone morphometry and remodeling have been shown to reflect bone strength and can be used to diagnose degenerative bone disease. In this study, in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to assess trabecular and cortical bone properties have been compared to each other and to histology as a novel means for the quantification of bone. Femurs of C57Bl/6 mice were examined both in vivo and ex vivo on an 11.7 T MRI scanner, followed by histologic processing and morphometry. A thresholding analysis technique was applied to the MRI images to generate contour lines and to delineate the boundaries between bone and marrow. Using MRI, an optimal correlation with histology was obtained with an in vivo longitudinal sectioned short echo time gradient-echo versus an in vivo long echo time spin-echo sequence or an ex vivo pulse sequence. Gradient-echo images were acquired with a maximum in-plane resolution of 35 μm. Our results demonstrated that in both the in vivo and ex vivo data sets, the percent area of marrow increases and percent area of trabecular bone and cortical bone thickness decreases moving from the epiphyseal growth plate to the diaphysis. These changes, observed with MRI, correlate with the histological data. Investigations using in vivo MRI gradient-echo sequences consistently gave the best correlation with histology. Our quantitative evaluation using both ex vivo and in vivo MRI was found to be an effective means to visualize non-invasively the normal variation in trabecular and cortical bone as compared to a histological 'gold standard' The experiments validated in vivo MRI as a potential high resolution technique for investigating both soft tissue, such as marrow, and bone without radiation exposure

  9. In-vivo dosimetry with Gafchromic films for multi-isocentric VMAT irradiation of total marrow lymph-nodes: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Pierina; Reggiori, Giacomo; Cozzi, Luca; Fogliata, Antonella; Gaudino, Anna; Lobefalo, Francesca; Paganini, Lucia; Palumbo, Valentina; Sarina, Barbara; Stravato, Antonella; Castagna, Luca; Tomatis, Stefano; Scorsetti, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Total marrow (lymph-nodes) irradiation (TMI-TMLI) by volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was shown to be feasible by dosimetric feasibility studies. It was demonstrated that several partially overlapping arcs with different isocenters are required to achieve the desired coverage of the hematopoietic or lymphoid tissues targets and to spare the neighbouring healthy tissues. The effect of isocenter shifts was investigated with the treatment planning system but an in- vivo verification of the procedure was not carried out. The objective of this study was the in-vivo verification of the consistency between the delivered and planned doses using bi-dimensional GafChromic EBT3 films. In a first phase a phantom study was carried out to quantify the uncertainties under controlled conditions. In a second phase three patients treated with TMLI were enrolled for in-vivo dosimetry. The dose prescription was 2Gy in single fraction. Ten arcs paired on 4-6 isocenters were used to cover the target. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) was used to verify the patient positioning at each isocenter. GafChromic EBT3 films were placed below the patient on the top of a dedicated immobilization system specifically designed. The dose maps measured with the EBT3 films were compared with the corresponding calculations along the patient support couch. Gamma Agreement Index (GAI) with dose difference of 5% and distance to agreement of 5 mm was computed. In the phantom study, optimal target coverage and healthy tissue sparing was observed. GAI(5%,5 mm) was 99.4%. For the patient-specific measurements, GAI(5%,5 mm) was greater than 95% and GAI (5%,3 mm) > 90% for all patients. In vivo measurements demonstrated the delivered dose to be in good agreement with the planned one for the TMI-TMLI protocol where partially overlapping arcs with different isocenters are required

  10. In vitro dissolution methodology, mini-Gastrointestinal Simulator (mGIS), predicts better in vivo dissolution of a weak base drug, dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Susumu; Matsui, Kazuki; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-08-30

    USP apparatus I and II are gold standard methodologies for determining the in vitro dissolution profiles of test drugs. However, it is difficult to use in vitro dissolution results to predict in vivo dissolution, particularly the pH-dependent solubility of weak acid and base drugs, because the USP apparatus contains one vessel with a fixed pH for the test drug, limiting insight into in vivo drug dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs. This discrepancy underscores the need to develop new in vitro dissolution methodology that better predicts in vivo response to assure the therapeutic efficacy and safety of oral drug products. Thus, the development of the in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology is necessitated. The major goals of in vitro dissolution are to ensure the performance of oral drug products and the support of drug formulation design, including bioequivalence (BE). Orally administered anticancer drugs, such as dasatinib and erlotinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), are used to treat various types of cancer. These drugs are weak bases that exhibit pH-dependent and high solubility in the acidic stomach and low solubility in the small intestine (>pH 6.0). Therefore, these drugs supersaturate and/or precipitate when they move from the stomach to the small intestine. Also of importance, gastric acidity for cancer patients may be altered with aging (reduction of gastric fluid secretion) and/or co-administration of acid-reducing agents. These may result in changes to the dissolution profiles of weak base and the reduction of drug absorption and efficacy. In vitro dissolution methodologies that assess the impact of these physiological changes in the GI condition are expected to better predict in vivo dissolution of oral medications for patients and, hence, better assess efficacy, toxicity and safety concerns. The objective of this present study is to determine the initial conditions for a mini-Gastrointestinal Simulator (mGIS) to assess in vivo

  11. Design, development, and initial operation of BabyScan: An in-vivo counter for children around Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, Frazier; Hayano, Ryugo; Oginni, Babatunde; Jaderstrom, Henrik; Ilie, Gabriela; Yamanaka, Shunji; Muramatsu, Isamu

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident has released large quantities of radionuclides, including 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs. These radionuclides, when inhaled or ingested, cause internal dose to the individual. Whole Body Counting [WBC], also known as in-vivo counting is a common method to assess internal radioactivity as a tool to evaluate internal dose. The FastScan WBC system was widely used following the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents for in-vivo measurements of the population. Although the FastScan was designed for adults, it was successfully used for children by having them stand on a small stool. However small children and infants cannot stand, and have a much lower quantity of radioactive cesium. That required the development of a much more sensitive WBC system, called the BabyScan. A very important element of the project was to make the unit look esthetically pleasing, while not compromising performance. The steel shield was enclosed in a molded fiberglass exterior skin, whereas a carbon-fiber liner was used on the interior, to keep the background low. The system was calibrated using MCNP; on-site testing with phantoms confirmed the adequacy of the mathematical efficiency calibrations. The system has a Minimum Detectable Activity with a 4-min measurement of approximately 20 Bq for infants approximately 10 kg in weight, and ~40 Bq for children approximately 30 kg in weight. The 40 K that is naturally present is also reliably detected at the appropriate quantity for infants as small as 6 kg. Data from the first 365 subjects counted showed that 40 K was detected in all of them, and that there was no 134 Cs or 137 Cs above the MDA levels

  12. Design, development, and initial operation of BabyScan: An in-vivo counter for children around Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, Frazier, E-mail: fbronson@canberra.com [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States); Hayano, Ryugo [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Oginni, Babatunde; Jaderstrom, Henrik; Ilie, Gabriela [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States); Yamanaka, Shunji [Department of Mechanical and Biofunctional Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Muramatsu, Isamu [Canberra Japan KK, 4-19-8 Asakusabashi, Taito-ku, Tokyo, 111-0053 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident has released large quantities of radionuclides, including {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs. These radionuclides, when inhaled or ingested, cause internal dose to the individual. Whole Body Counting [WBC], also known as in-vivo counting is a common method to assess internal radioactivity as a tool to evaluate internal dose. The FastScan WBC system was widely used following the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents for in-vivo measurements of the population. Although the FastScan was designed for adults, it was successfully used for children by having them stand on a small stool. However small children and infants cannot stand, and have a much lower quantity of radioactive cesium. That required the development of a much more sensitive WBC system, called the BabyScan. A very important element of the project was to make the unit look esthetically pleasing, while not compromising performance. The steel shield was enclosed in a molded fiberglass exterior skin, whereas a carbon-fiber liner was used on the interior, to keep the background low. The system was calibrated using MCNP; on-site testing with phantoms confirmed the adequacy of the mathematical efficiency calibrations. The system has a Minimum Detectable Activity with a 4-min measurement of approximately 20 Bq for infants approximately 10 kg in weight, and ~40 Bq for children approximately 30 kg in weight. The {sup 40}K that is naturally present is also reliably detected at the appropriate quantity for infants as small as 6 kg. Data from the first 365 subjects counted showed that {sup 40}K was detected in all of them, and that there was no {sup 134}Cs or {sup 137}Cs above the MDA levels.

  13. Visualization of multidrug resistance in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrikse, N.H.; Franssen, E.J.F.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Vries, E.G.E. de; Vaalburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) for chemotherapeutic drugs, such as the drug efflux pumps, P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). In this review the mechanisms involved in MDR are described and results are reviewed with particular attention to the in vivo imaging of Pgp and MRP. Various detection assays provide information about the presence of drug efflux pumps at the mRNA and protein levels. However, these methods do not yield information about the dynamic function of Pgp and MRP in vivo. For the study of Pgp- and MRP-mediated transport, single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) are available. Technetium-99m sestamibi is a substrate for Pgp and MRP, and has been used in clinical studies for tumour imaging, and to visualize blockade of Pgp-mediated transport after modulation of the Pgp pump. Other 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals, such as 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and several 99 Tc-Q complexes, are also substrates for Pgp, but to date only results from in vitro and animal studies are available for these compounds. Several agents, including [ 11 C]colchicine, [ 11 C]verapamil and [ 11 C]daunorubicin, have been evaluated for the quantification of Pgp-mediated transport with PET in vivo. The results suggest that radiolabelled colchicine, verapamil and daunorubicin are feasible substrates with which to image Pgp function in tumours. Uptake of [ 11 C]colchicine and [ 11 C]verapamil is relatively high in the chest area, reducing the value of both tracers for monitoring Pgp-mediated drug transport in tumours located in this region. In addition, it has to be borne in mind that only comparison of Pgp-mediated transport of radioalabelled substrates in the absence and in the presence of Pgp blockade gives quantitative information on Pgp-mediated pharmacokinetics. Leukotrienes are specific substrates for MRP. Therefore, N-[ 11 C]acetyl-leukotriene E 4 provides an opportunity to study MRP

  14. Software Development Initiatives to Identify and Mitigate Security Threats - Two Systematic Mapping Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Software Security and development experts have addressed the problem of building secure software systems. There are several processes and initiatives to achieve secure software systems. However, most of these lack empirical evidence of its application and impact in building secure software systems. Two systematic mapping studies (SM have been conducted to cover the existent initiatives for identification and mitigation of security threats. The SMs created were executed in two steps, first in 2015 July, and complemented through a backward snowballing in 2016 July. Integrated results of these two SM studies show a total of 30 relevant sources were identified; 17 different initiatives covering threats identification and 14 covering the mitigation of threats were found. All the initiatives were associated to at least one activity of the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC; while 6 showed signs of being applied in industrial settings, only 3 initiatives presented experimental evidence of its results through controlled experiments, some of the other selected studies presented case studies or proposals.

  15. Mammalian poly(A)-binding protein is a eukaryotic translation initiation factor, which acts via multiple mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kahvejian, Avak; Svitkin, Yuri V.; Sukarieh, Rami; M'Boutchou, Marie-Noël; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2005-01-01

    Translation initiation is a multistep process involving several canonical translation factors, which assemble at the 5′-end of the mRNA to promote the recruitment of the ribosome. Although the 3′ poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs and its major bound protein, the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), have been studied extensively, their mechanism of action in translation is not well understood and is confounded by differences between in vivo and in vitro systems. Here, we provide direct evidence for ...

  16. Cartilage-Specific and Cre-Dependent Nkx3.2 Overexpression In Vivo Causes Skeletal Dwarfism by Delaying Cartilage Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Un; Choi, Je-Yong; Kim, Dae-Won

    2017-01-01

    Nkx3.2, the vertebrate homologue of Drosophila bagpipe, has been implicated as playing a role in chondrogenic differentiation. In brief, Nkx3.2 is initially expressed in chondrocyte precursor cells and later during cartilage maturation, its expression is diminished in hypertrophic chondrocytes. In addition to Nkx3.2 expression analyses, previous studies using ex vivo chick embryo cultures and in vitro cell cultures have suggested that Nkx3.2 can suppress chondrocyte hypertrophy. However, it has never been demonstrated that Nkx3.2 functions in regulating chondrocyte hypertrophy during cartilage development in vivo. Here, we show that cartilage-specific and Cre-dependent Nkx3.2 overexpression in mice results in significant postnatal dwarfism in endochondral skeletons, while intramembranous bones remain unaltered. Further, we observed significant delays in cartilage hypertrophy in conditional transgenic ciTg-Nkx3.2 mice. Together, these findings confirm that Nkx3.2 is capable of controlling hypertrophic maturation of cartilage in vivo, and this regulation plays a significant role in endochondral ossification and longitudinal bone growth. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 78-90, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Insulin action in vivo: studies in control and exercise trained rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis is primarily concerned with in vivo insulin action and how this is modified by exercise training. The aims are; to define differential insulin action within the major insulin sensitive tissues; to characterize the relationship between these individual responses and whole body insulin action; and to examine the effect of exercise training on whole body and differential tissue insulin action. A technique, based on the euglycaemic clamp, is described for examining in vivo insulin action on glucose utilization and storage in individual tissues in the conscious, unrestrained rat. Tissue glucose metabolic rate (Rg') was estimated using (/sup 3/H)-2-deoxyglucose and glucose disposal was examined by measuring glycogen content and /sup 14/C-glucose incorporation into tissue glycogen or lipids. Elevating plasma insulin to 150 mU/l resulted in significant increases of glucose utilization in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Oxidative skeletal muscle could account for up to 70% of total glucose disposal whereas adipose tissue and liver could account for less than 3%. The following conclusions have been drawn from these studies. The whole body insulin response curve for glucose utilization closely reflects muscle glucose metabolism; mild elevations in plasma insulin will markedly elevate the glucose utilization rate in oxidative but not glycolytic skeletal muscle fibers; the increased whole body insulin sensitivity which is observed following exercise training is due to increased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that exercise training will undoubtedly result in improved glucose disposal in the prandial state. This emphasises the potential benefit of exercise in obesity and Type II diabetes.

  18. Targeted gold nanoparticles enable molecular CT imaging of cancer: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuveni T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobi Reuveni1, Menachem Motiei1, Zimam Romman2, Aron Popovtzer3, Rachela Popovtzer11Faculty of Engineering and the Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-ilan University, Ramat Gan, 2GE HealthCare, Tirat Hacarmel, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and Onology, Davidoff Center, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tiqwa, IsraelAbstract: In recent years, advances in molecular biology and cancer research have led to the identification of sensitive and specific biomarkers that associate with various types of cancer. However, in vivo cancer detection methods with computed tomography, based on tracing and detection of these molecular cancer markers, are unavailable today. This paper demonstrates in vivo the feasibility of cancer diagnosis based on molecular markers rather than on anatomical structures, using clinical computed tomography. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor conjugated gold nanoparticles (30 nm were intravenously injected into nude mice implanted with human squamous cell carcinoma head and neck cancer. The results clearly demonstrate that a small tumor, which is currently undetectable through anatomical computed tomography, is enhanced and becomes clearly visible by the molecularly-targeted gold nanoparticles. It is further shown that active tumor targeting is more efficient and specific than passive targeting. This noninvasive and nonionizing molecular cancer imaging tool can facilitate early cancer detection and can provide researchers with a new technique to investigate in vivo the expression and activity of cancer-related biomarkers and molecular processes.Keywords: functional computed tomography, molecular imaging, gold nanoparticles, biologically targeted in vivo imaging, contrast agents

  19. In vivo effects of adenosine 5´-triphosphate on rat preneoplastic liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Frontini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of adenosine 5´-triphosphate (ATP infusions to inhibit the growth of some human and animals tumors was based on the anticancer activity observed in in vitro and in vivo experiments, but contradictory results make the use of ATP in clinical practice rather controversial. Moreover, there is no literature regarding the use of ATP infusions to treat hepatocarcinomas. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ATP prevents in vivo oncogenesis in very-early-stage cancer cells in a well characterized two-stage model of hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. As we could not preclude the possible effect due to the intrinsic properties of adenosine, a known tumorigenic product of ATP hydrolysis, the effect of the administration of adenosine was also studied. Animals were divided in groups: rats submitted to the two stage preneoplasia initiation/promotion model of hepatocarcinogenesis, rats treated with intraperitoneal ATP or adenosine during the two phases of the model and appropriate control groups. The number and volume of preneoplastic foci per liver identified by the expression of glutathione S-transferase placental type and the number of proliferating nuclear antigen positive cells significantly increased in ATP and adenosine treated groups. Taken together, these results indicate that in this preneoplastic liver model, ATP as well as adenosine disturb the balance between apoptosis and proliferation contributing to malignant transformation.

  20. In-vivo evaluation of convex array synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an in-vivo study of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging in comparison to conventional imaging, evaluating whether STA imaging is feasible in-vivo, and whether the image quality obtained is comparable to traditional scanned imaging in terms of penetration depth, spatial...

  1. Comparison of ex vivo stability of copeptin and vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Judith E; Boesten, Lianne S M; Ettema, Esmée M; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Zittema, Debbie

    BACKGROUND: Copeptin, part of the vasopressin precursor, is increasingly used as marker for vasopressin and is claimed to have better ex vivo stability. However, no study has directly compared the ex vivo stability of copeptin and vasopressin. METHODS: Blood of ten healthy volunteers was collected

  2. Novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nanogels for enhanced cutaneous targeting of terconazole: development, in vitro and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Yosra SR; Talaat, Sara M; Bahey-El-Din, Mohammed; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2016-01-01

    Terconazole (Tr) is the first marketed, most active triazole for vaginal candidiasis. Owing to poor skin permeation and challenging physicochemical properties, Tr was not employed for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. This is the first study to investigate the relevance of novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nano-organogels (LCGs) to improve physicochemical characteristics of Tr in order to enable its dermal application in skin candidiasis. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using lecithin/capryol 90/water to identify the region of liquid crystalline organogel. The selected organogel possessed promising physicochemical characteristics based on particle size, rheological behavior, pH, loading efficiency, and in vitro antifungal activity. Microstructure of the selected organogel was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo and in vivo skin permeation studies revealed a significant 4.7- and 2.7-fold increase in the permeability of Tr-loaded LCG when compared to conventional hydrogel. Moreover, acute irritation study indicated safety and compatibility of liquid crystalline organogel to the skin. The in vivo antifungal activity confirmed the superiority of LCG over the conventional hydrogel for the eradication of Candida infection. Overall, lecithin-based liquid crystalline organogel confirmed its potential as an interesting dermal nanocarrier for skin targeting purpose. PMID:27822033

  3. Novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nanogels for enhanced cutaneous targeting of terconazole: development, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Yosra Sr; Talaat, Sara M; Bahey-El-Din, Mohammed; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    Terconazole (Tr) is the first marketed, most active triazole for vaginal candidiasis. Owing to poor skin permeation and challenging physicochemical properties, Tr was not employed for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. This is the first study to investigate the relevance of novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nano-organogels (LCGs) to improve physicochemical characteristics of Tr in order to enable its dermal application in skin candidiasis. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using lecithin/capryol 90/water to identify the region of liquid crystalline organogel. The selected organogel possessed promising physicochemical characteristics based on particle size, rheological behavior, pH, loading efficiency, and in vitro antifungal activity. Microstructure of the selected organogel was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo and in vivo skin permeation studies revealed a significant 4.7- and 2.7-fold increase in the permeability of Tr-loaded LCG when compared to conventional hydrogel. Moreover, acute irritation study indicated safety and compatibility of liquid crystalline organogel to the skin. The in vivo antifungal activity confirmed the superiority of LCG over the conventional hydrogel for the eradication of Candida infection. Overall, lecithin-based liquid crystalline organogel confirmed its potential as an interesting dermal nanocarrier for skin targeting purpose.

  4. Studying RNA-protein interactions in vivo by RNA immunoprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selth, Luke A; Close, Pierre; Svejstrup, Jesper Q

    2011-01-01

    and have significant effects on gene expression. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) is a powerful technique used to detect direct and indirect interactions between individual proteins and specific RNA molecules in vivo. Here, we describe RIP methods for both yeast and mammalian cells.......The crucial roles played by RNA-binding proteins in all aspects of RNA metabolism, particularly in the regulation of transcription, have become increasingly evident. Moreover, other factors that do not directly interact with RNA molecules can nevertheless function proximally to RNA polymerases...

  5. Tablet Technology in Teacher Preparation: A Case Study--The Nook Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hope; Hunter, Elizabeth; Douglas, Maegan; Wighting, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Regent University's Special Education and Reading Specialist Programs introduced the Nook Initiative fall 2013. This paper discusses the implementation, the need for integrated tablet technology in teacher preparation, initial outcomes of the study, and offers suggestions for practice. A second tablet pilot program introducing the iPad mini in the…

  6. Benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo with (/sup 3/)-Ro 15-1788

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeders, N.E.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1985-07-29

    In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding has generally been studied by ex vivo techniques. In this investigation, the authors identify the conditions where (/sup 3/H)-Ro 15-1788 labels benzodiazepine receptors by true in vivo binding, i.e. where workable specific to nonspecific ratios are obtained in intact tissues without homogenization or washing. (/sup 3/H)-Flunitrazepam and (/sup 3/H)-clonazepam did not exhibit useful in vivo receptor binding. 39 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  7. A New In Vivo Screening Paradigm to Accelerate Antimalarial Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Viera, Sara; Ibáñez, Javier; Mulet, Teresa; Magán-Marchal, Noemí; Garuti, Helen; Gómez, Vanessa; Cortés-Gil, Lorena; Martínez, Antonio; Ferrer, Santiago; Fraile, María Teresa; Calderón, Félix; Fernández, Esther; Shultz, Leonard D.; Leroy, Didier; Wilson, David M.; García-Bustos, José Francisco; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to available antimalarials requires the urgent development of new medicines. The recent disclosure of several thousand compounds active in vitro against the erythrocyte stage of Plasmodium falciparum has been a major breakthrough, though converting these hits into new medicines challenges current strategies. A new in vivo screening concept was evaluated as a strategy to increase the speed and efficiency of drug discovery projects in malaria. The new in vivo screening concept was developed based on human disease parameters, i.e. parasitemia in the peripheral blood of patients on hospital admission and parasite reduction ratio (PRR), which were allometrically down-scaled into P. berghei-infected mice. Mice with an initial parasitemia (P0) of 1.5% were treated orally for two consecutive days and parasitemia measured 24 h after the second dose. The assay was optimized for detection of compounds able to stop parasite replication (PRR = 1) or induce parasite clearance (PRR >1) with statistical power >99% using only two mice per experimental group. In the P. berghei in vivo screening assay, the PRR of a set of eleven antimalarials with different mechanisms of action correlated with human-equivalent data. Subsequently, 590 compounds from the Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set with activity in vitro against P. falciparum were tested at 50 mg/kg (orally) in an assay format that allowed the evaluation of hundreds of compounds per month. The rate of compounds with detectable efficacy was 11.2% and about one third of active compounds showed in vivo efficacy comparable with the most potent antimalarials used clinically. High-throughput, high-content in vivo screening could rapidly select new compounds, dramatically speeding up the discovery of new antimalarial medicines. A global multilateral collaborative project aimed at screening the significant chemical diversity within the antimalarial in vitro hits described in the literature is a feasible task

  8. A new in vivo screening paradigm to accelerate antimalarial drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Jiménez-Díaz

    Full Text Available The emergence of resistance to available antimalarials requires the urgent development of new medicines. The recent disclosure of several thousand compounds active in vitro against the erythrocyte stage of Plasmodium falciparum has been a major breakthrough, though converting these hits into new medicines challenges current strategies. A new in vivo screening concept was evaluated as a strategy to increase the speed and efficiency of drug discovery projects in malaria. The new in vivo screening concept was developed based on human disease parameters, i.e. parasitemia in the peripheral blood of patients on hospital admission and parasite reduction ratio (PRR, which were allometrically down-scaled into P. berghei-infected mice. Mice with an initial parasitemia (P0 of 1.5% were treated orally for two consecutive days and parasitemia measured 24 h after the second dose. The assay was optimized for detection of compounds able to stop parasite replication (PRR = 1 or induce parasite clearance (PRR >1 with statistical power >99% using only two mice per experimental group. In the P. berghei in vivo screening assay, the PRR of a set of eleven antimalarials with different mechanisms of action correlated with human-equivalent data. Subsequently, 590 compounds from the Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set with activity in vitro against P. falciparum were tested at 50 mg/kg (orally in an assay format that allowed the evaluation of hundreds of compounds per month. The rate of compounds with detectable efficacy was 11.2% and about one third of active compounds showed in vivo efficacy comparable with the most potent antimalarials used clinically. High-throughput, high-content in vivo screening could rapidly select new compounds, dramatically speeding up the discovery of new antimalarial medicines. A global multilateral collaborative project aimed at screening the significant chemical diversity within the antimalarial in vitro hits described in the literature is a

  9. Ex-vivo assessment and non-invasive in vivo imaging of internal hemorrhages in Aga2/+ mutant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolayev, Vladimir [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Building 56, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Cohrs, Christian M. [Institute for Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Mohajerani, Pouyan; Ale, Angelique [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Building 56, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Hrabé de Angelis, Martin [Institute for Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ntziachristos, Vasilis, E-mail: v.ntziachristos@tum.de [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Building 56, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Aga2/+ mice, model for Osteogenesis imperfecta, have type I collagen mutation. ► Aga2/+ mice display both moderate and severe phenotypes lethal 6–11th postnatal. ► Internal hemorrhages studied in Aga2/+ vs. control mice at 6 and 9 days postnatal. ► Anatomical and functional findings in-vivo contrasted to the ex-vivo appearance. -- Abstract: Mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1/2) typically lead to Osteogenesis imperfecta, the most common heritable cause of skeletal fractures and bone deformation in humans. Heterozygous Col1a1{sup Aga2/+}, animals with a dominant mutation in the terminal C-propeptide domain of type I collagen develop typical skeletal hallmarks and internal hemorrhages starting from 6 day after birth. The disease progression for Aga2/+ mice, however, is not uniform differing between severe phenotype lethal at the 6–11th day of life, and moderate-to-severe one with survival to adulthood. Herein we investigated whether a new modality that combines X-ray computer tomography with fluorescence tomography in one hybrid system can be employed to study internal bleedings in relation to bone fractures and obtain insights into disease progression. The disease phenotype was characterized on Aga2/+ vs. wild type mice between 6 and 9 days postnatal. Anatomical and functional findings obtained in-vivo were contrasted to the ex-vivo appearance of the same tissues under cryo-slicing.

  10. Ex-vivo assessment and non-invasive in vivo imaging of internal hemorrhages in Aga2/+ mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolayev, Vladimir; Cohrs, Christian M.; Mohajerani, Pouyan; Ale, Angelique; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aga2/+ mice, model for Osteogenesis imperfecta, have type I collagen mutation. ► Aga2/+ mice display both moderate and severe phenotypes lethal 6–11th postnatal. ► Internal hemorrhages studied in Aga2/+ vs. control mice at 6 and 9 days postnatal. ► Anatomical and functional findings in-vivo contrasted to the ex-vivo appearance. -- Abstract: Mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1/2) typically lead to Osteogenesis imperfecta, the most common heritable cause of skeletal fractures and bone deformation in humans. Heterozygous Col1a1 Aga2/+ , animals with a dominant mutation in the terminal C-propeptide domain of type I collagen develop typical skeletal hallmarks and internal hemorrhages starting from 6 day after birth. The disease progression for Aga2/+ mice, however, is not uniform differing between severe phenotype lethal at the 6–11th day of life, and moderate-to-severe one with survival to adulthood. Herein we investigated whether a new modality that combines X-ray computer tomography with fluorescence tomography in one hybrid system can be employed to study internal bleedings in relation to bone fractures and obtain insights into disease progression. The disease phenotype was characterized on Aga2/+ vs. wild type mice between 6 and 9 days postnatal. Anatomical and functional findings obtained in-vivo were contrasted to the ex-vivo appearance of the same tissues under cryo-slicing

  11. In Vivo Experimental Study of Noninvasive Insulin Microinjection through Hollow Si Microneedle Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Resnik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of in vivo insulin delivery through microinjection by using hollow silicon microneedle array is presented. A case study was carried out on a healthy human subject in vivo to determine the influence of delivery parameters on drug transfer efficiency. As a microinjection device, a hollow microneedle array (13 × 13 mm2 having 100 microneedles (220 µm high, 130 µm-outer diameter and 50 µm-inner diameter was designed and fabricated using classical microfabrication techniques. The efficiency of the delivery process was first characterized using methylene blue and a saline solution. Based on these results, the transfer efficiency was found to be predominantly limited by the inability of viable epidermis to absorb and allow higher drug transport toward the capillary-rich region. Two types of fast-acting insulin were used to provide evidence of efficient delivery by hollow MNA to a human subject. By performing blood analyses, infusion of more-concentrated insulin (200 IU/mL, international units (IU exhibited similar blood glucose level drop (5–7% compared to insulin of standard concentration (100 IU/mL, however, significant increase of serum insulin (40–50% with respect to the preinfusion values was determined. This was additionally confirmed by a distinctive increase of insulin to C-peptide ratio as compared to preinfusion ratio. Moreover, we noticed that this route of administration mimics a multiple dose regimen, able to get a “steady state” for insulin plasma concentration.

  12. In vivo endoscopic multi-beam optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standish, Beau A; Mariampillai, Adrian; Munce, Nigel R; Leung, Michael K K; Vitkin, I Alex [Deptartment of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Lee, Kenneth K C; Yang, Victor X D [Ontario Cancer Institute/University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)], E-mail: standish@ee.ryerson.ca

    2010-02-07

    A multichannel optical coherence tomography (multi-beam OCT) system and an in vivo endoscopic imaging probe were developed using a swept-source OCT system. The distal optics were micro-machined to produce a high numerical aperture, multi-focus fibre optic array. This combination resulted in a transverse design resolution of <10 {mu}m full width half maximum (FWHM) throughout the entire imaging range, while also increasing the signal intensity within the focus of the individual channels. The system was used in a pre-clinical rabbit study to acquire in vivo structural images of the colon and ex vivo images of the oesophagus and trachea. A good correlation between the structural multi-beam OCT images and H and E histology was achieved, demonstrating the feasibility of this high-resolution system and its potential for in vivo human endoscopic imaging.

  13. In vivo endoscopic multi-beam optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standish, Beau A; Mariampillai, Adrian; Munce, Nigel R; Leung, Michael K K; Vitkin, I Alex; Lee, Kenneth K C; Yang, Victor X D

    2010-01-01

    A multichannel optical coherence tomography (multi-beam OCT) system and an in vivo endoscopic imaging probe were developed using a swept-source OCT system. The distal optics were micro-machined to produce a high numerical aperture, multi-focus fibre optic array. This combination resulted in a transverse design resolution of <10 μm full width half maximum (FWHM) throughout the entire imaging range, while also increasing the signal intensity within the focus of the individual channels. The system was used in a pre-clinical rabbit study to acquire in vivo structural images of the colon and ex vivo images of the oesophagus and trachea. A good correlation between the structural multi-beam OCT images and H and E histology was achieved, demonstrating the feasibility of this high-resolution system and its potential for in vivo human endoscopic imaging.

  14. Using 1H2O MR to measure and map sodium pump activity in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Charles S.

    2018-06-01

    The cell plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase [NKA] is one of biology's most [if not the most] significant enzymes. By actively transporting Na+ out [and K+ in], it maintains the vital trans-membrane ion concentration gradients and the membrane potential. The forward NKA reaction is shown in the Graphical Abstract [which is elaborated in the text]. Crucially, NKA does not operate in isolation. There are other transporters that conduct K+ back out of [II, Graphical Abstract] and Na+ back into [III, Graphical Abstract] the cell. Thus, NKA must function continually. Principal routes for ATP replenishment include mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and creatine kinase [CrK] activity. However, it has never been possible to measure, let alone map, this integrated, cellular homeostatic NKA activity in vivo. Active trans-membrane water cycling [AWC] promises a way to do this with 1H2O MR. In the Graphical Abstract, the AWC system is characterized by active contributions to the unidirectional rate constants for steady-state water efflux and influx, respectively, kio(a) and koi(a). The discovery, validation, and initial exploration of active water cycling are reviewed here. Promising applications in cancer, cardiological, and neurological MRI are covered. This initial work employed paramagnetic Gd(III) chelate contrast agents [CAs]. However, the significant problems associated with in vivo CA use are also reviewed. A new analysis of water diffusion-weighted MRI [DWI] is presented. Preliminary results suggest a non-invasive way to measure the cell number density [ρ (cells/μL)], the mean cell volume [V (pL)], and the cellular NKA metabolic rate [cMRNKA (fmol(ATP)/s/cell)] with high spatial resolution. These crucial cell biology properties have not before been accessible in vivo. Furthermore, initial findings indicate their absolute values can be determined.

  15. Methacrylate micro/nano particles prepared by spray drying: a preliminary in vitro/in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Ortega, Begoña; Sallam, Marwa Ahmed; Marín Boscá, M Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Delivery systems controlling drug release only in the colon holds great promises since they improve utilization of drug and decrease the dosing times comparison with conventional forms. The aim of the present study was to prepare polymeric microparticles on the basis of Ciprofloxacin via oral route for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Ciprofloxacin was selected because of its extensive coverage for intestinal flora, relatively favorable side-effect profile and preliminary data suggesting its efficacy in the treatment of active Crohn's Disease. Microparticles were prepared using different acrylic compounds, namely Eudragit® RL (PO) and RS (PO) and a mixture of both. Spray-drying was used as a preparation method of Ciprofloxacin/Eudragit® microparticles using a Mini Spray Dryer B-290 (Büchi, Postfach, Switzerland). In vitro dissolution studies were performed to choose the best formulation and selected microparticles were characterized by size and morphology by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Yield and encapsulation efficiency were calculated and in vivo/ex vivo experiments were investigated both of which suggest that selected microparticles can be used for colon targeting of drugs increasing residence time of the drug in the affected area.

  16. In vivo stability and inertness of various direct labelled and chelate-tagged protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoki, A.; Korosi, L.; Klivenyi, G.; Spett, B.

    1987-01-01

    There were looking for methods giving precise information about composition and activity distribution of protein components, both in the initial samples and serum samples after intravenous administration. It was tested the applicability of electroimmunoassay, polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography for the assessment of in vivo stability and labelled proteins. The model compound was human serum albumin (HSA) labelled with 99m Tc and 125 I, respectively. Bifunctional chelate labelling was done with desferrioxamine, in this case protein was labelled with 67 Ga. Biodistribution of the labelled compounds and their elimination from the blood were studied in rabbits. Experience with various labelling proteins, especially with Tc-Sn-HSA system indicate that in vivo stability of this compounds are generally low. Following intravenous injection of proteins labelled with metal isotopes, due to dilution and to the presence of considerable amount of compatitive protein in the serum, part of the label is being detached from the carrier protein. Distribution of the detached metal is different from the original distribution of the protein. This problem arises also with radiopharmaceuticals based on monoclonal antibodies. (M.E.L.) [es

  17. Spatial heterogeneity of metabolism in skeletal muscle in vivo studied by 31P-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challiss, R.A.J.; Blackledge, M.J.; Radda, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Phase modulated rotating-frame imaging, a localization technique for phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, has been applied to obtain information on heterogeneity of phosphorus-containing metabolites in skeletal muscle of the rat in vivo. The distal muscles of the rat hindlimb have been studied at rest and during steady-state isometric twitch contraction; the use of a transmitter surface coil and an electrically isolated, orthogonal receiver Helmholtz coil ensure accurate spatial assignment (1 mm resolution). At rest, intracellular pH was higher and PCr/(PCr + P i ) was lower in deeper muscle compared with superficial muscle of the distal hindlimb. Upon steady-state stimulation, the relatively more alkaline pH of deep muscle was maintained, whereas greater changes in PCr/(PCr + P i ) and P i /ATP occurred in the superficial muscle layer. This method allows rapid (75 min for each spectral image) acquisition of quantitative information on metabolic heterogeneity in vivo

  18. Synthesis of 99mTc-nimotuzumab with tricarbonyl ion: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria Fernanda; Camacho, Ximena; Calzada, Victoria; Fernandez, Marcelo; Porcal, Williams; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays an important role in carcinogenesis. CIMAher® (Nimotuzumab), is a humanized monoclonal antibody, which recognizes EGFR with high affinity. The aim of this work was to perform the direct labeling of Nimotuzumab with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ as precursor and to evaluate its labeling conditions, in vitro and in vivo stability and biodistrution in normal C57 BL/6J mice. 99mTc(CO3)-Nimotuzumab labeling yields were up to 90%. More than 90% of the complex remained intact after 24 h of incubation with L-Histidine (1/300 molar ratio). Biodistribution studies in normal mice were also performed. Inmunoreactivity was confirmed by cell binding assays with A431cells. These results encourage the evaluation of the potential role of 99mTc(CO)3-Nimotuzumab as a novel tumor-avid radiotracer for targeting in vivo EGFR expression.

  19. PGE2 suppresses NK activity in vivo directly and through adrenal hormones: Effects that cannot be reflected by ex-vivo assessment of NK cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, G.; Tishler, Y.; Shaashua, L.; Rosenne, E.; Levi, B.; Melamed, R.; Gotlieb, N.; Matzner, P.; Sorski, L.; Ben-Eliyahu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Surgery can suppress in vivo levels of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) through various mechanisms, including catecholamine-, glucocorticoid (CORT)-, and prostaglandin (PG)-mediated responses. However, PGs are synthesized locally following tissue damage, driving proinflammatory and CORT responses, while their systemic levels are often unaffected. Thus, we herein studied the role of adrenal factors in mediating in vivo effects of PGs on NKCC, using adrenalectomized and sham-operated F344 rats subjected to surgery or PGE2 administration. In vivo and ex-vivo approaches were employed, based on intravenous administration of the NK-sensitive MADB106 tumor line, and based on ex-vivo assessment of YAC-1 and MADB106 target-line lysis. Additionally, in vitro studies assessed the kinetics of the impact of epinephrine, CORT, and PGE2 on NKCC. The results indicated that suppression of NKCC by epinephrine and PGE2 are short lasting, and cannot be evident when these compounds are removed from the in vitro assay milieu, or in the context of ex-vivo assessment of NKCC. In contrast, the effects of CORT are long-lasting and are reflected in both conditions even after its removal. Marginating-pulmonary NKCC was less susceptible to suppression than circulating NKCC, when tested against the xenogeneic YAC-1 target line, but not against the syngeneic MADB106 line, which seems to involve different cytotoxicity mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that elevated systemic PG levels can directly suppress NKCC in vivo, but following laparotomy adrenal hormones mediate most of the effects of endogenously-released PGs. Additionally, the ex-vivo approach seems limited in reflecting the short-lasting NK-suppressive effects of catecholamines and PGs. PMID:23153554

  20. PGE2 suppresses NK activity in vivo directly and through adrenal hormones: effects that cannot be reflected by ex vivo assessment of NK cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, G; Tishler, Y; Shaashua, L; Rosenne, E; Levi, B; Melamed, R; Gotlieb, N; Matzner, P; Sorski, L; Ben-Eliyahu, S

    2013-02-01

    Surgery can suppress in vivo levels of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) through various mechanisms, including catecholamine-, glucocorticoid (CORT)-, and prostaglandin (PG)-mediated responses. However, PGs are synthesized locally following tissue damage, driving proinflammatory and CORT responses, while their systemic levels are often unaffected. Thus, we herein studied the role of adrenal factors in mediating in vivo effects of PGs on NKCC, using adrenalectomized and sham-operated F344 rats subjected to surgery or PGE(2) administration. In vivo and ex vivo approaches were employed, based on intravenous administration of the NK-sensitive MADB106 tumor line, and based on ex vivo assessment of YAC-1 and MADB106 target-line lysis. Additionally, in vitro studies assessed the kinetics of the impact of epinephrine, CORT, and PGE(2) on NKCC. The results indicated that suppression of NKCC by epinephrine and PGE(2) are short lasting, and cannot be evident when these compounds are removed from the in vitro assay milieu, or in the context of ex vivo assessment of NKCC. In contrast, the effects of CORT are long-lasting and are reflected in both conditions even after its removal. Marginating-pulmonary NKCC was less susceptible to suppression than circulating NKCC, when tested against the xenogeneic YAC-1 target line, but not against the syngeneic MADB106 line, which seems to involve different cytotoxicity mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that elevated systemic PG levels can directly suppress NKCC in vivo, but following laparotomy adrenal hormones mediate most of the effects of endogenously-released PGs. Additionally, the ex vivo approach seems limited in reflecting the short-lasting NK-suppressive effects of catecholamines and PGs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional imaging of the multidrug resistance in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Tae

    2001-01-01

    Although diverse mechanisms are involved in multidrug resistance for chemotherapeutic drugs, the development of cellular P-glycoprotein(Pgp) and multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) are improtant factors in the chemotherapy failure to cancer. Various detection assays provide information about the presence of drug efflux pumps at the mRNA and protein levels. However these methods do not yield information about dynamic function of Pgp and MRP in vivo. Single photon emission tomograpy (SPECT) and positron emission tomograpy (PET) are available for the detection of Pgp and MRP-mediated transport. 99m Tc-sestaMIBI and other 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals are substrates for Pgp and MRP, and have been used in clinical studies of tumor imaging, and to visualize blockade of Pgp-mediated transport after modulation of Pgp pump. Colchicine, verapamil and daunorubicin labeled with 11 C have been evaluated for the quantification of Pgp-mediated transport with PET in vivo and reported to be feasible substrates with which to image Pgp function in tumors. Leukotrienes are specific substrates for MRP and N- (11 C]acetyl-leukotriene E4 provides an opportunity to study MRP function non-invasively in vivo. Results obtained from recent publications are reviewed to confirm the feasibility of using SPECT and PET to study the functionality of MDR transportes in vivo

  2. Localization of gastrointestinal deposition of mercuric chloride studied in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, J.B.; Andersen, H.L.; Soerensen, J.A.; Andersen, O.

    1992-01-01

    During the last 5 years, the site of gastrointestinal absorption of inorganic mercury has been attempted identified mainly by experiments using perfused intestinal segments in vitro or in situ. The present investigation will discuss the localization of the absorption site for mercuric chloride based on a completely undisturbed in vivo experimental model in mice. As the mice were allowed to eat their normal diet during the experimental period, the present results would independently add to existing knowledge on intestinal absorption sites for inorganic mercury. The mice were given 203 Hg labelled mercuric chloride orally, either through stomach tube or in the drinking water, and were killed after various time intervals. Mercury was localized and quantified in various segments of the gastrointestinal tract by gamma-counting. Time course analysis of the segmental deposition of mercury demonstrated that the deposition mainly takes place in the proximal jejunum and suggested that a larger part of the jejunum than previously reported is involved in absorption of mercury. Using this in vivo model, tetraethylthiuram disulfide was demonstrated to increase the intestinal deposition and absorption without changing the site of deposition. (au)

  3. [Genomic research of traditional Chinese medicines in vivo metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shui-Ming; Bai, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-11-01

    Gene is the base of in vivo metabolism and effectiveness for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), and the gene expression, regulation and modification are used as the research directions to perform the TCM multi-component, multi-link and multi-target in vivo metabolism studies, which will improve the research on TCM metabolic proecess, effect target and molecular mechanism. Humans are superorganisms with 1% genes inherited from parents and 99% genes from various parts of the human body, mainly coming from the microorganisms in intestinal flora. These indicate that genetically inherited human genome and "second genome" could affect the TCM in vivo metabolism from inheritance and "environmental" aspects respectively. In the present paper, typical case study was used to discuss related TCM in vivo metabolic genomics research, mainly including TCM genomics research and gut metagenomics research, as well as the personalized medicine evoked from the individual difference of above genomics (metagenomics). Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Enhanced dermal delivery of diflucortolone valerate using lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles: in-vitro and in-vivo evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan İ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available İpek Özcan, Erkan Azizoğlu, Taner Şenyiğit, Mine Özyazıcı, Özgen ÖzerEge University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Bornova, Izmir, TurkeyAbstract: The objective of this study was to prepare a suitable formulation for dermal delivery of diflucortolone valerate (DFV that would maintain the localization in skin layers without any penetration and to optimize efficiency of DFV. Drug-loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles with high entrapment efficiency (86.8%, were successfully prepared by ionic interaction technique. Sustained release of DFV was achieved without any initial burst release. Nanoparticles were also incorporated into chitosan gel at different ratios for preparing a more suitable formulation for topical drug delivery with adequate viscosity. In ex-vivo permeation studies, nanoparticles increased the accumulation of DFV especially in the stratum corneum + epidermis of rat skin without any significant permeation. Retention of DFV from nanoparticle in chitosan gel formulation (0.01% was twofold higher than commercial cream, although it contained ten times less DFV. Nanoparticles in gel formulations produced significantly higher edema inhibition in rats compared with commercial cream in in-vivo studies. Skin blanching assay using a chromameter showed vasoconstriction similar to that of the commercial product. There were no barrier function changes upon application of nanoparticles. In-vitro and in-vivo results demonstrated that lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel may be a promising carrier for dermal delivery of DFV in various skin disorders.Keywords: skin permeation, anti-inflammatory activity, skin blanching, TEWL

  5. Framework for 3D histologic reconstruction and fusion with in vivo MRI: Preliminary results of characterizing pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela, E-mail: mirabela.rusu@gmail.com; Wang, Haibo; Madabhushi, Anant [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Golden, Thea; Gow, Andrew [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary inflammation is associated with a variety of diseases. Assessing pulmonary inflammation on in vivo imaging may facilitate the early detection and treatment of lung diseases. Although routinely used in thoracic imaging, computed tomography has thus far not been compellingly shown to characterize inflammation in vivo. Alternatively, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a nonionizing radiation technique to better visualize and characterize pulmonary tissue. Prior to routine adoption of MRI for early characterization of inflammation in humans, a rigorous and quantitative characterization of the utility of MRI to identify inflammation is required. Such characterization may be achieved by considering ex vivo histology as the ground truth, since it enables the definitive spatial assessment of inflammation. In this study, the authors introduce a novel framework to integrate 2D histology, ex vivo and in vivo imaging to enable the mapping of the extent of disease from ex vivo histology onto in vivo imaging, with the goal of facilitating computerized feature analysis and interrogation of disease appearance on in vivo imaging. The authors’ framework was evaluated in a preclinical preliminary study aimed to identify computer extracted features on in vivo MRI associated with chronic pulmonary inflammation. Methods: The authors’ image analytics framework first involves reconstructing the histologic volume in 3D from individual histology slices. Second, the authors map the disease ground truth onto in vivo MRI via coregistration with 3D histology using the ex vivo lung MRI as a conduit. Finally, computerized feature analysis of the disease extent is performed to identify candidate in vivo imaging signatures of disease presence and extent. Results: The authors evaluated the framework by assessing the quality of the 3D histology reconstruction and the histology—MRI fusion, in the context of an initial use case involving characterization of chronic

  6. Framework for 3D histologic reconstruction and fusion with in vivo MRI: Preliminary results of characterizing pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Wang, Haibo; Madabhushi, Anant; Golden, Thea; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary inflammation is associated with a variety of diseases. Assessing pulmonary inflammation on in vivo imaging may facilitate the early detection and treatment of lung diseases. Although routinely used in thoracic imaging, computed tomography has thus far not been compellingly shown to characterize inflammation in vivo. Alternatively, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a nonionizing radiation technique to better visualize and characterize pulmonary tissue. Prior to routine adoption of MRI for early characterization of inflammation in humans, a rigorous and quantitative characterization of the utility of MRI to identify inflammation is required. Such characterization may be achieved by considering ex vivo histology as the ground truth, since it enables the definitive spatial assessment of inflammation. In this study, the authors introduce a novel framework to integrate 2D histology, ex vivo and in vivo imaging to enable the mapping of the extent of disease from ex vivo histology onto in vivo imaging, with the goal of facilitating computerized feature analysis and interrogation of disease appearance on in vivo imaging. The authors’ framework was evaluated in a preclinical preliminary study aimed to identify computer extracted features on in vivo MRI associated with chronic pulmonary inflammation. Methods: The authors’ image analytics framework first involves reconstructing the histologic volume in 3D from individual histology slices. Second, the authors map the disease ground truth onto in vivo MRI via coregistration with 3D histology using the ex vivo lung MRI as a conduit. Finally, computerized feature analysis of the disease extent is performed to identify candidate in vivo imaging signatures of disease presence and extent. Results: The authors evaluated the framework by assessing the quality of the 3D histology reconstruction and the histology—MRI fusion, in the context of an initial use case involving characterization of chronic

  7. Liver volume measurement: reason of the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and intraoperative ex vivo determination and how to cope it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehues SM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Volumetric assessment of the liver regularly yields discrepant results between pre- and intraoperatively determined volumes. Nevertheless, the main factor responsible for this discrepancy remains still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically determine the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and ex vivo volumetry in a pig animal model. Material and Methods Eleven pigs were studied. Liver density assessment, CT-volumetry and water displacement volumetry was performed after surgical removal of the complete liver. Known possible errors of volume determination like resection or segmentation borders were eliminated in this model. Regression analysis was performed and differences between CT-volumetry and water displacement determined. Results Median liver density was 1.07 g/ml. Regression analysis showed a high correlation of r2 = 0.985 between CT-volumetry and water displacement. CTvolumetry was found to be 13% higher than water displacement volumetry (p Conclusion In this study the only relevant factor leading to the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and ex vivo water displacement volumetry seems to be blood perfusion of the liver. The systematic difference of 13 percent has to be taken in account when dealing with those measures.

  8. The Zebrafish as a New Model for the In Vivo Study of Shigella flexneri Interaction with Phagocytes and Bacterial Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Serge; Boucontet, Laurent; Mazon Moya, Maria J.; Sirianni, Andrea; Boudinot, Pierre; Hollinshead, Michael; Cossart, Pascale; Herbomel, Philippe; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Colucci-Guyon, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, an ancient and highly conserved intracellular degradation process, is viewed as a critical component of innate immunity because of its ability to deliver cytosolic bacteria to the lysosome. However, the role of bacterial autophagy in vivo remains poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a vertebrate model for the study of infections because it is optically accessible at the larval stages when the innate immune system is already functional. Here, we have characterized the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to Shigella flexneri, a paradigm for bacterial autophagy, and have used this model to study Shigella-phagocyte interactions in vivo. Depending on the dose, S. flexneri injected in zebrafish larvae were either cleared in a few days or resulted in a progressive and ultimately fatal infection. Using high resolution live imaging, we found that S. flexneri were rapidly engulfed by macrophages and neutrophils; moreover we discovered a scavenger role for neutrophils in eliminating infected dead macrophages and non-immune cell types that failed to control Shigella infection. We observed that intracellular S. flexneri could escape to the cytosol, induce septin caging and be targeted to autophagy in vivo. Depletion of p62 (sequestosome 1 or SQSTM1), an adaptor protein critical for bacterial autophagy in vitro, significantly increased bacterial burden and host susceptibility to infection. These results show the zebrafish larva as a new model for the study of S. flexneri interaction with phagocytes, and the manipulation of autophagy for anti-bacterial therapy in vivo. PMID:24039575

  9. In vivo and in vitro degradation comparison of pure Mg, Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag: a short term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Marco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare short term in vitro and in vivo biodegradation studies with low purity Mg (> 99.94 %, Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag designed for biodegradable implant applications. Three in vitro testing conditions were applied, using (i phosphate buffered saline (PBS, (ii Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS and (iii Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM in 5 % CO2 under sterile conditions. Gas evolution and mass loss (ML were assessed, as well as the degradation layer, by elemental mapping and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In vivo, implantations were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats evaluating both, gas cavity volume and implant volume reduction by micro-computed tomography (µCT, 7 d after implantation. Samples were produced by casting, solution heat treatment and extrusion in disc and pin shape for the in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively. Results showed that when the processing of the Mg sample varied, differences were found not only in the alloy impurity content and the grain size, but also in the corrosion behaviour. An increase of Fe and Ni or a large grain size seemed to play a major role in the degradation process, while the influence of alloying elements, such as Gd and Ag, played a secondary role. Results also indicated that cell culture conditions induced degradation rates and degradation layer elemental composition comparable to in vivo conditions. These in vitro and in vivo degradation layers consisted of Mg hydroxide, Mg-Ca carbonate and Ca phosphate.

  10. Cholic acid-modified polyethylenimine: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dube B

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brahmanand Dube,1,2 Abhijeet Pandey,1 Ganesh Joshi,3 Rita Mulherkar,3 Krutika Sawant1 1Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, 2Wockhardt Research Centre, Wockhardt Ltd, Aurangabad, India; 3Genetic Engineering Laboratory, ACTREC Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai Abstract: Low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine has lower cytotoxicity than high molecular weight polyethylenimine, but it is not an efficient transfection agent because of limitations of DNA delivery into the cytoplasm. Therefore, in the present study, the hydrophobic modification of low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (PEI 2 kDa [PEI2] by cholic acid (ChA was performed to form PEI2-ChA, and in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. Results indicate that the nanoplexes of PEI2-ChA with gWIZ-GFP have greater transfection efficiency (27% in NT8e cell lines as evaluated by flow cytometry and also observed by fluorescence imaging. The present study concluded that the transferrin-containing nanoplexes of PEI2-ChA conjugates with plasmid p53 warrant clinical trials in humans after exhaustive animal studies for use as a novel gene delivery system. Keywords: polyethylenimine, biodistribution, tumor regression

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of electrospun nanofibers of PCL, chitosan and gelatin: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, S.R.; Rodrigues, G.; Martins, G.G.; Roberto, M.A.; Mafra, M.; Henriques, C.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Many polymers have been investigated with respect to their use in skin tissue engineering. However, directly comparable data on the role played by different polymers in assisting skin wound healing requires their in vitro and in vivo evaluation under the same conditions. Therefore, we performed a study in order to compare the performance of electrospun nanofiber mats from three different polymers concerning cell–scaffold interaction and wound healing promotion. A polyester (polycaprolactone, PCL), a protein (gelatin from cold water fish skin, GEL) and a polysaccharide (chitosan, CS) were the polymers chosen. Gelatin nanofibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapor. The scaffolds were characterized physico-chemically, in vitro by seeding with human fetal fibroblasts, HFFF2, and used in vivo as skin substitutes in a rat wound model with total skin removal. In vitro tests revealed that cells adhered and proliferated in all scaffolds. However, cells deep into the scaffold were only observed in the PCL and CS scaffolds. In in vivo tests CS scaffolds had the highest impact on the healing process by decreasing the extent of wound contraction and enhancing the production of a neodermis and re-epithelialization of the wound. - Highlights: • We produced and compared the properties of electrospun PCL, CS and fish GEL. • In vitro, cells adhered and proliferated better on GEL scaffolds. • Deep cell migration was observed in the PCL and CS matrices. • In vivo, both CS and GEL matrices integrated well within the wounds. • Only CS effectively blocked, although only partially, the contraction phenomenon

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of electrospun nanofibers of PCL, chitosan and gelatin: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, S.R., E-mail: srrg@campus.fct.unl.pt [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica/Departamento de Física Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Rodrigues, G. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental/Departamento de Biologia Animal Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Martins, G.G. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental/Departamento de Biologia Animal Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, R. da Quinta Grande, 6, 2780-156 Oeiras (Portugal); Roberto, M.A. [Departamento de Cirurgia Plástica e Reconstrutiva e Unidade de Queimados, Hospital de São José, Rua José António Serrano, 1150-199 Lisboa (Portugal); Mafra, M. [Serviço de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital de São José, Rua José António Serrano, 1150-199 Lisboa (Portugal); Henriques, C.M.R. [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica/Departamento de Física Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); and others

    2015-01-01

    Many polymers have been investigated with respect to their use in skin tissue engineering. However, directly comparable data on the role played by different polymers in assisting skin wound healing requires their in vitro and in vivo evaluation under the same conditions. Therefore, we performed a study in order to compare the performance of electrospun nanofiber mats from three different polymers concerning cell–scaffold interaction and wound healing promotion. A polyester (polycaprolactone, PCL), a protein (gelatin from cold water fish skin, GEL) and a polysaccharide (chitosan, CS) were the polymers chosen. Gelatin nanofibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapor. The scaffolds were characterized physico-chemically, in vitro by seeding with human fetal fibroblasts, HFFF2, and used in vivo as skin substitutes in a rat wound model with total skin removal. In vitro tests revealed that cells adhered and proliferated in all scaffolds. However, cells deep into the scaffold were only observed in the PCL and CS scaffolds. In in vivo tests CS scaffolds had the highest impact on the healing process by decreasing the extent of wound contraction and enhancing the production of a neodermis and re-epithelialization of the wound. - Highlights: • We produced and compared the properties of electrospun PCL, CS and fish GEL. • In vitro, cells adhered and proliferated better on GEL scaffolds. • Deep cell migration was observed in the PCL and CS matrices. • In vivo, both CS and GEL matrices integrated well within the wounds. • Only CS effectively blocked, although only partially, the contraction phenomenon.

  13. Study on synthesis, application and mechanism of benzophenone/amine initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Wei; Liu Jinshui; Wen Yinjun; Wan Qizhong; Zhou Xianyan; Xiao Hanling; Yang Jianwen

    1999-01-01

    Through Michael addition reaction of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) with diethylamine (DEA), a new kind of tertiary amine derivative was synthesized and its structure was identified by 'H-NMR. When used in combination with benzophenone, this amine presented excellent curing speed and could be a substitute for initiator Darocur R 1173, which is effective but expensive. If so, the cost of UV-curable coatings can descend apparently. The functioning mechanism of benzophenone/amine bimolecular initiator was studied

  14. Difference in initial dental biofilm accumulation between night and day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Schlafer, Sebastian; Nyvad, Bente

    2012-01-01

    formed during day and night. We hypothesised that there is a diurnal variation in the rate of accumulation of bacteria on solid surfaces in the oral cavity. Material and methods. In situ biofilm from healthy individuals was collected for 12 h during day and night, respectively, subjected to fluorescent......Objective. The study of initial microbial colonization on dental surfaces is a field of intensive research because of the aetiological role of biofilms in oral diseases. Most previous studies of de novo accumulation and composition of dental biofilms in vivo do not differentiate between biofilms...... in situ hybridization, and visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results. Analysis of the biofilms using stereological methods and digital image analysis revealed a consistent statistically significant difference between both the total number of bacteria and the biovolume in the two 12-h...

  15. In vitro and in vivo studies of the endocrine disrupting potency of cadmium in roach (Rutilus rutilus) liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbron, M.; Geraudie, P.; Xuereb, B.; Marie, S.; Minier, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ex vivo and in vivo experiments suggest estrogen receptor-driven effects of cadmium. • CdCl 2 is strongly anti-estrogenic when co-exposed to E2. • CdCl 2 + E2 significantly inhibit vtg and erα mRNA expressions. • CdCl 2 compromises the E2-mediated induction of the ar mRNA expression in vivo. - Abstract: Cadmium has been reported to exert estrogenic, antiestrogenic or both effects in vertebrate species. To elucidate the endocrine disrupting action of CdCl 2 , ex vivo and in vivo experiments were performed in roach (Rutilus rutilus). Roach liver explants were exposed to a range of CdCl 2 concentrations alone (0.1–50 μM) or with an effective concentration (100 nM) of 17β-estradiol (E2). In addition, juvenile roach were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl 2 (0.1–2.5 mg/kg) with or without 1 mg E2/kg. Subsequent analysis evaluated the effect of CdCl 2 on vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis both at the mRNA and protein level, on estrogen receptors (erα and erβ1) and on androgen receptor (ar) mRNA expression. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments indicated that CdCl 2 is strongly anti-estrogenic as, when co-exposed to E2, CdCl 2 significantly inhibited VTG production as well as vtg and erα mRNA expressions. Moreover, CdCl 2 compromised the E2-mediated induction of the ar mRNA expression in vivo

  16. Cytokines in the management of rotavirus infection: A systematic review of in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Santos, Victor Santana; Denadai, Marina; da Silva Calisto, Valdete Kaliane; de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Jullyana; de Oliveira E Silva, Ana Mara; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Narain, Narendra; Cuevas, Luis Eduardo; Júnior, Lucindo José Quintans; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea. Rotavirus vaccines are effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, but have lower efficacy in low income countries in Africa. Anti-rotavirus treatment is not available. This study reviews the literature of animal studies evaluating whether cytokine mediated pathways of immune activation could improve rotavirus therapy. We performed a systematic review of articles in English published from 2010 to 2016 reporting agents with in vivo antirotavirus activity for the management of rotavirus infection. The search was carried in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science. Animal experiments where cytokines were investigated to assess the outcome of rotavirus therapy were included. A total of 869 publications were identified. Of these, 19 pertained the objectives of the review, and 11 articles described the effect of probiotics/commensals on rotavirus infection and immune responses in animals. Eight further in vivo studies evaluated the immunomodulating effects of herbs, secondary metabolites and food-derived products on cytokine responses of rotavirus-infected animals. Studies extensively reported the regulatory roles for T-helper (Th)1 (interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) cytokines responses to rotavirus pathogenesis and immunity, inhibiting rotavirus infection through suppression of inflammation by viral inhibition. Th1 and Th2 cytokines stimulate the immune system, inhibiting rotavirus binding and/or replication in animal models. Th1/Th2 cytokine responses have optimal immunomodulating effects to reduce rotavirus diarrhoea and enhance immune responses in experimental rotavirus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasound Mediated Microbubbles Destruction Augmented Sonolysis: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was aimed at exploring ultrasound mediated microbubbles destruction (UMMD assisted sonolysis in both the in vitro and in vivo clots. Methods. Therapeutic ultrasound (TUS and lipid microbubbles (MBs were used in whole blood clots and divided into the control, TUS group, and TUS + MB group. Thrombolytic rates and microscopy were performed. Color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI and angiography were performed to evaluate the recanalization rates and flow scores in femoral arterial thrombus (FAT in rabbits. FAT were dyed with H&E. Results. The average thrombolytic ratios of TUS + MB group were significantly higher than those of TUS group and the control group (both P<0.05. Clots had different pathological changes. Recanalization rates and flow scores in TUS + MB group were significantly higher than the control and TUS group. Flow scores and recanalization ratios were grade 0 in 0% of the control group, grade I in 25% of TUS group, and grade II or higher in 87.5% of TUS + MB group after 30 min sonolysis. Conclusions. Both the in vitro and in vivo sonolysis can be significantly augmented by the introduction of MBs without thrombolytic agents, which might be induced by the enhanced cavitation via UMMD.

  18. Primary Study about Intensity Signal of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in vivo Tooth Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hoon; Gang, Seo Gon; Kim, Jeong In; Lee, Byung Il [KHNP Radiation Health Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The signal of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance(EPR) dosimetry system using human tooth has been well introduced as one of the efficient tool to evaluate radiation exposure. But, EPR dosimetry, even in the case of classical in vitro EPR system using tooth sample(measured molars), was regarded as having big signal fluctuation. One of reason for such difficulty in getting accurate intensity was the big effect of organic materials mixed in enamel part of teeth samples. They are mainly caused by the adaptation process of system itself to the movement of measured human subject. Generally, when we measured human teeth in vivo, five of six teeth spectrum were gathered and averaged for real evaluation. The these spectrum are measured under very different environment like angle of external magnet making magnetic filed with teeth(incisor). Random movement of these signals should be considered in different view point to understand and compare each EPR in vivo EPR spectrum. The peak to peak value of obtained five or six in vivo EPR system to get averaged value for final quantity of free radicals in hydroxy apatite crystal construction in enamel part of human teeth looks so randomly changed without regulation. But, in overall view, the EPR signal, especially at no irradiation level, is almost same for every measurement trial which is mainly composed of big noise and very small signal from real free radicals. The peak to peak value of obtained five or six in vivo EPR system to get averaged value for final quantity of free radicals in hydroxy apatite crystal construction in enamel part of human teeth looks so randomly changed without regulation.

  19. Primary Study about Intensity Signal of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in vivo Tooth Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hoon; Gang, Seo Gon; Kim, Jeong In; Lee, Byung Il

    2017-01-01

    The signal of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance(EPR) dosimetry system using human tooth has been well introduced as one of the efficient tool to evaluate radiation exposure. But, EPR dosimetry, even in the case of classical in vitro EPR system using tooth sample(measured molars), was regarded as having big signal fluctuation. One of reason for such difficulty in getting accurate intensity was the big effect of organic materials mixed in enamel part of teeth samples. They are mainly caused by the adaptation process of system itself to the movement of measured human subject. Generally, when we measured human teeth in vivo, five of six teeth spectrum were gathered and averaged for real evaluation. The these spectrum are measured under very different environment like angle of external magnet making magnetic filed with teeth(incisor). Random movement of these signals should be considered in different view point to understand and compare each EPR in vivo EPR spectrum. The peak to peak value of obtained five or six in vivo EPR system to get averaged value for final quantity of free radicals in hydroxy apatite crystal construction in enamel part of human teeth looks so randomly changed without regulation. But, in overall view, the EPR signal, especially at no irradiation level, is almost same for every measurement trial which is mainly composed of big noise and very small signal from real free radicals. The peak to peak value of obtained five or six in vivo EPR system to get averaged value for final quantity of free radicals in hydroxy apatite crystal construction in enamel part of human teeth looks so randomly changed without regulation.

  20. In vitro and in vivo studies on biodegradable magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Hou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, mechanical property, electrochemical behavior and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy (BioDe MSM™ were studied in the present work. The experimental results demonstrated that grain refining induced by extrusion improves the alloy strength significantly from 162 MPa for the as-cast alloy to 241 MPa for the as-extruded one. The anticorrosion properties of the as-extruded alloy also increased. Furthermore, the hemolysis ratio was decreased from 4.7% for the as-cast alloy to 2.9% for the as-extruded one, both below 5%. BioDe MSM™ alloy shows good biocompatibility after being implanted into the dorsal muscle and the femoral shaft of the New Zealand rabbit, respectively, and there are no abnormalities after short-term implantation. In vivo observation indicated that the corrosion rate of this alloy varies with different implantation positions, with higher degradation rate in the femur than in the muscle.

  1. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Enhances Intravascular Ultrasound Assessment of Vulnerable Coronary Plaque: A Combined Pathological and In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Madder, Ryan D; Madden, Sean P; Sum, Stephen T; Wolski, Kathy; Muller, James E; Andrews, Jordan; King, Karilane L; Kataoka, Yu; Uno, Kiyoko; Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat; Nissen, Steven E; Virmani, Renu; Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    Pathological studies demonstrate the dual significance of plaque burden (PB) and lipid composition for mediating coronary plaque vulnerability. We evaluated relationships between intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-derived PB and arterial remodeling with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived lipid content in ex vivo and in vivo human coronary arteries. Ex vivo coronary NIRS and IVUS imaging was performed through blood in 116 coronary arteries of 51 autopsied hearts, followed by 2-mm block sectioning (n=2070) and histological grading according to modified American Heart Association criteria. Lesions were defined as the most heavily diseased 2-mm block per imaged artery on IVUS. IVUS-derived PB and NIRS-derived lipid core burden index (LCBI) of each block and lesion were analyzed. Block-level analysis demonstrated significant trends of increasing PB and LCBI across more complex atheroma (Ptrend <0.001 for both LCBI and PB). Lesion-based analyses demonstrated the highest LCBI and remodeling index within coronary fibroatheroma (Ptrend <0.001 and 0.02 versus all plaque groups, respectively). Prediction models demonstrated similar abilities of PB, LCBI, and remodeling index for discriminating fibroatheroma (c indices: 0.675, 0.712, and 0.672, respectively). A combined PB+LCBI analysis significantly improved fibroatheroma detection accuracy (c index 0.77, P=0.028 versus PB; net-reclassification index 43%, P=0.003), whereas further adding remodeling index did not (c index 0.80, P=0.27 versus PB+LCBI). In vivo comparisons of 43 age- and sex-matched patients (to the autopsy cohort) undergoing combined NIRS-IVUS coronary imaging yielded similar associations to those demonstrated ex vivo. Adding NIRS to conventional IVUS-derived PB imaging significantly improves the ability to detect more active, potentially vulnerable coronary atheroma. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fupo, E-mail: fphebm@126.com [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ren, Weiwei [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tian, Xiumei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmchenw@126.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  3. Epidermal protection with cryogen spray cooling during high fluence pulsed dye laser irradiation: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnell, J W; Nelson, J S; Torres, J H; Anvari, B

    2000-01-01

    Higher laser fluences than currently used in therapy (5-10 J/cm(2)) are expected to result in more effective treatment of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. However, higher incident fluences increase the risk of epidermal damage caused by absorption of light by melanin. Cryogen spray cooling offers an effective method to reduce epidermal injury during laser irradiation. The objective of this study was to determine whether high laser incident fluences (15-30 J/cm(2)) could be used while still protecting the epidermis in ex vivo human skin samples. Non-PWS skin from a human cadaver was irradiated with a Candela ScleroPlus Laser (lambda = 585 nm; pulse duration = 1.5 msec) by using various incident fluences (8-30 J/cm(2)) without and with cryogen spray cooling (refrigerant R-134a; spurt durations: 40-250 msec). Assessment of epidermal damage was based on histologic analysis. Relatively short spurt durations (40-100 msec) protected the epidermis for laser incident fluences comparable to current therapeutic levels (8-10 J/cm(2)). However, longer spurt durations (100-250 msec) increased the fluence threshold for epidermal damage by a factor of three (up to 30 J/cm(2)) in these ex vivo samples. Results of this ex vivo study show that epidermal protection from high laser incident fluences can be achieved by increasing the cryogen spurt duration immediately before pulsed laser exposure. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fupo; Ren, Weiwei; Tian, Xiumei; Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua; Chen, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  5. Snail1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumor initiating stem cell characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Hien; Ding, Wei; Emerson, Dow; Rountree, C Bart

    2011-01-01

    Tumor initiating stem-like cells (TISCs) are a subset of neoplastic cells that possess distinct survival mechanisms and self-renewal characteristics crucial for tumor maintenance and propagation. The induction of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) by TGFβ has been recently linked to the acquisition of TISC characteristics in breast cancer. In HCC, a TISC and EMT phenotype correlates with a worse prognosis. In this work, our aim is to elucidate the underlying mechanism by which cells acquire tumor initiating characteristics after EMT. Gene and protein expression assays and Nanog-promoter luciferase reporter were utilized in epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype liver cancer cell lines. EMT was analyzed with migration/invasion assays. TISC characteristics were analyzed with tumor-sphere self-renewal and chemotherapy resistance assays. In vivo tumor assay was performed to investigate the role of Snail1 in tumor initiation. TGFβ induced EMT in epithelial cells through the up-regulation of Snail1 in Smad-dependent signaling. Mesenchymal liver cancer post-EMT demonstrates TISC characteristics such as tumor-sphere formation but are not resistant to cytotoxic therapy. The inhibition of Snail1 in mesenchymal cells results in decreased Nanog promoter luciferase activity and loss of self-renewal characteristics in vitro. These changes confirm the direct role of Snail1 in some TISC traits. In vivo, the down-regulation of Snail1 reduced tumor growth but was not sufficient to eliminate tumor initiation. In summary, TGFβ induces EMT and TISC characteristics through Snail1 and Nanog up-regulation. In mesenchymal cells post-EMT, Snail1 directly regulates Nanog expression, and loss of Snail1 regulates tumor growth without affecting tumor initiation

  6. Study on the fatigue crack initiation life under spherical contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Joo; Kim, Tae Wan [Busan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mun Ju [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    In case of contact fatigue, the accurate calculation of surface tractions and subsurface stress is essential to the prediction of crack initiation life. Surface tractions influencing shear stress amplitude have been obtained by contact analysis based on influence function. Subsurface stress has been obtained by using rectangular patch solutions. In this study, to simulate asperity contact under sliding condition, the tip of asperity was simulated by sphere and to calculate crack initiation life in the substrate, dislocation pileup theory was used.

  7. Study on the fatigue crack initiation life under spherical contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Joo; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Mun Ju

    2001-01-01

    In case of contact fatigue, the accurate calculation of surface tractions and subsurface stress is essential to the prediction of crack initiation life. Surface tractions influencing shear stress amplitude have been obtained by contact analysis based on influence function. Subsurface stress has been obtained by using rectangular patch solutions. In this study, to simulate asperity contact under sliding condition, the tip of asperity was simulated by sphere and to calculate crack initiation life in the substrate, dislocation pileup theory was used

  8. Ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A; Dawe, Robert J; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work were to (a) develop an approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, (b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and (c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in vivo and ex vivo. An approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex vivo was assessed. The relationship between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both antemortem and postmortem. This approach for ex vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than intersubject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements. Regional brain volumes measured with this approach for ex vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in vivo and ex vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that this approach captures information linked to antemortem macrostructural brain characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  10. Ex vivo and in vivo evaluation of microemulsion based transdermal delivery of E. coli specific T4 bacteriophage: A rationale approach to treat bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Yadav, Pragya; Verma, Anurag; Pandit, Jayanta K

    2017-09-30

    This study is focused on the development and evaluation of transdermal delivery of E. coli-specific T4 bacteriophages both ex-vivo and in-vivo using microemulsion as delivery carrier in eradicating the infection caused by E. coli. Microemulsions were prepared by mixing selected oil, surfactants and aqueous phase containing bacteriophages. The formulations were subjected to physicochemical characterization, ex-vivo and in-vivo permeation, stability studies, histological and immunofluorescence examination. The colloidal system exhibits a uniform size distribution, of finite size (150-320nm). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the encapsulation of bacteriophage in the aqueous globule. Ex-vivo permeation across skin was successfully achieved as 6×10 6 PFU/mL and 6.7×10 6 PFU/mL of T4 permeated from ME 6% and 10%, respectively. ME 6% was found to be thermodynamically stable and in-vivo permeation resulted in 5.49×10 5 PFU/mL of bacteriophages in the blood of the E. coli challenged rats, while 2.48×10 5 PFU/mL was detected in germ free rats, at the end of the study. Infected rats that were treated with bacteriophage were survived while significant mortality was observed in others. Histological and IL-6 immunofluorescence examination of the tissues revealed the efficacy/safety of the therapy. The microemulsion-based transdermal delivery of bacteriophage could be a promising approach to treat the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. OpenVIVO: Transparency in Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ilik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available OpenVIVO is a free and open-hosted semantic web platform that anyone can join and that gathers and shares open data about scholarship in the world. OpenVIVO, based on the VIVO open-source platform, provides transparent access to data about the scholarly work of its participants. OpenVIVO demonstrates the use of persistent identifiers, the automatic real-time ingest of scholarly ecosystem metadata, the use of VIVO-ISF and related ontologies, the attribution of work, and the publication and reuse of data—all critical components of presenting, preserving, and tracking scholarship. The system was created by a cross-institutional team over the course of 3 months. The team created and used RDF models for research organizations in the world based on Digital Science GRID data, for academic journals based on data from CrossRef and the US National Library of Medicine, and created a new model for attribution of scholarly work. All models, data, and software are available in open repositories.

  12. In vivo evaluation of femoral blood flow measured with magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C

    1989-01-01

    , corrected for the T2 decay of non-flowing blood was used to calculate the blood flow. As a reference, the blood flow in the femoral artery was measured simultaneously with an invasive indicator dilution technique. T2 of non-flowing blood was measured in vivo in popliteal veins during regional circulatory...... arrest. The mean T2 of non-flowing blood was found to be 105 +/- 31 ms. The femoral blood flow ranged between 0 and 643 ml/min measured with MRI and between 280 and 531 ml/min measured by the indicator dilution technique. There was thus poor agreement between the two methods. The results indicate......Quantitative measurements of blood flow based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using conventional multiple spin echo sequences were evaluated in vivo in healthy young volunteers. Blood flow was measured using MRI in the femoral vein. The initial slope of the multiple spin echo decay curve...

  13. Vergleich zwischen konventionellen und digitalen Abformungen präparierter Zähne : eine in-vivo Studie

    OpenAIRE

    Bosniac, Patricia Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser in-vivo Studie war es, die marginale Diskrepanz von Zirkoniumoxid-Käppchen, die mithilfe zwei direkter und einer indirekten digitalen Abformmethode hergestellt wurden, miteinander zu vergleichen. Insgesamt wurden bei 23 Patienten 63 Zähne zur Aufnahme einer Kronenrestauration präpariert und nachfolgend intraoral digitalisiert sowie konventionell abgeformt. Hierfür wurden die zwei Intraoralscanner CEREC AC Omnicam und Cara TRIOS verwendet. Die konventionelle Abformung wurde ...

  14. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela; Venâncio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, João Vitor; Merlini, Aline; Streck, Emílio L.; Marques da Silva, Paula; Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5–45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  15. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil); Venancio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, Joao Vitor; Merlini, Aline [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Streck, Emilio L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Unidade Academica de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Fisiopatologia Experimental (Brazil); Marques da Silva, Paula [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa, E-mail: vmoraesdeandrade@yahoo.com.br [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5-45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  16. Ex-vivo MR Volumetry of Human Brain Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Dawe, Robert J.; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E.; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this work were to: a) develop an approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in-vivo and ex-vivo. Methods An approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex-vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex-vivo was assessed. The relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both ante-mortem and postmortem. Results The presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than inter-subject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements. Conclusion Regional brain volumes measured with the presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that the presented approach captures information linked to ante-mortem macrostructural brain characteristics. PMID:23440751

  17. Real-time dynamic imaging of virus distribution in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean E Hofherr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of viruses and gene therapy vectors is difficult to assess in a living organism. For instance, trafficking in murine models can usually only be assessed after sacrificing the animal for tissue sectioning or extraction. These assays are laborious requiring whole animal sectioning to ascertain tissue localization. They also obviate the ability to perform longitudinal or kinetic studies in one animal. To track viruses after systemic infection, we have labeled adenoviruses with a near-infrared (NIR fluorophore and imaged these after intravenous injection in mice. Imaging was able to track and quantitate virus particles entering the jugular vein simultaneous with injection, appearing in the heart within 500 milliseconds, distributing in the bloodstream and throughout the animal within 7 seconds, and that the bulk of virus distribution was essentially complete within 3 minutes. These data provide the first in vivo real-time tracking of the rapid initial events of systemic virus infection.

  18. A new generation of high flex life polyurethane urea for polymer heart valve--studies on in vivo biocompatibility and biodurability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vinoy; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2009-04-01

    Development of new generation high flex life polyurethane urea (HFL18-PU) with appropriate elastic modulus, biocompatibility, blood compatibility, resistant to calcification, and biodurability for the long-term use as cardiac device is still a challenge. This study reports the development of a fully aliphatic, ether-free physically cross-linked and low elastic modulus (6.841 +/- 0.27 MPa) polyurethane urea having in vivo biostability, in vivo biocompatibility and high flex-life (721 +/- 30 million cycles) that can satisfy the requirements for the fabrication of tri-leaflet heart valve. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Primary Bovine Extra-Embryonic Cultured Cells: A New Resource for the Study of In Vivo Peri-Implanting Phenotypes and Mesoderm Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Hue

    Full Text Available In addition to nourishing the embryo, extra-embryonic tissues (EETs contribute to early embryonic patterning, primitive hematopoiesis, and fetal health. These tissues are of major importance for human medicine, as well as for efforts to improve livestock efficiency, but they remain incompletely understood. In bovines, EETs are accessible easily, in large amounts, and prior to implantation. We took advantage of this system to describe, in vitro and in vivo, the cell types present in bovine EETs at Day 18 of development. Specifically, we characterized the gene expression patterns and phenotypes of bovine extra-embryonic ectoderm (or trophoblast; bTC, endoderm (bXEC, and mesoderm (bXMC cells in culture and compared them to their respective in vivo micro-dissected cells. After a week of culture, certain characteristics (e.g., gene expression of the in vitro cells were altered with respect to the in vivo cells, but we were able to identify "cores" of cell-type-specific (and substrate-independent genes that were shared between in vitro and in vivo samples. In addition, many cellular phenotypes were cell-type-specific with regard to extracellular adhesion. We evaluated the ability of individual bXMCs to migrate and spread on micro-patterns, and observed that they easily adapted to diverse environments, similar to in vivo EE mesoderm cells, which encounter different EE epithelia to form chorion, yolk sac, and allantois. With these tissue interactions, different functions arose that were detected in silico and corroborated in vivo at D21-D25. Moreover, analysis of bXMCs allowed us to identify the EE cell ring surrounding the embryonic disc (ED at D14-15 as mesoderm cells, which had been hypothesized but not shown prior to this study. We envision these data will serve as a major resource for the future in the analysis of peri-implanting phenotypes in response to the maternal metabolism and contribute to subsequent studies of placental/fetal development in

  20. Nanodiamonds for In Vivo Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, KiranJ; Hasani, Masoumeh; Zheng, Tingting; Schirhagl, Romana

    2018-05-01

    Due to their unique optical properties, diamonds are the most valued gemstones. However, beyond the sparkle, diamonds have a number of unique properties. Their extreme hardness gives them outstanding performance as abrasives and cutting tools. Similar to many materials, their nanometer-sized form has yet other unique properties. Nanodiamonds are very inert but still can be functionalized on the surface. Additionally, they can be made in very small sizes and a narrow size distribution. Nanodiamonds can also host very stable fluorescent defects. Since they are protected in the crystal lattice, they never bleach. These defects can also be utilized for nanoscale sensing since they change their optical properties, for example, based on temperature or magnetic fields in their surroundings. In this Review, in vivo applications are focused upon. To this end, how different diamond materials are made and how this affects their properties are discussed first. Next, in vivo biocompatibility studies are reviewed. Finally, the reader is introduced to in vivo applications of diamonds. These include drug delivery, aiding radiology, labeling, and use in cosmetics. The field is critically reviewed and a perspective on future developments is provided. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Fundamental study of crack initiation and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, D.M. Jr.; Reaugh, J.E.; Moran, B.; Quinones, D.F.; Wilkins, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Objective is to determine the fracture toughness of A533B-1 steel by computer modeling Charpy V-notch tests. A computer model of ductile fracture was developed that predicts fracture initiation. The model contains a set of material-dependent parameters obtained by computer simulations of small specimen tests. The computer calculations give detailed stress and strain histories up to the time of fracture, which are used to determine the model parameter values. The calibrated fracture model, that correctly predicts fracture initiation (and initiation energy) in the Charpy specimen, may then be used to simulate tests of accepted fracture-toughness specimens and hence obtain fracture toughness. The model parameters were calibrated to predict fracture in four different test specimens: two different notched-tension specimens, a simple tension specimen, and a precracked compact-tension specimen. The model was then used in a computer simulation of the Charpy V-notch specimen to initiate and advance a flat fracture. Results were compared with interrupted Charpy tests. Calibration of the model for two additional heat treatments of A533B-1 steel is in progress

  2. Formulation Study of Topically Applied Lotion: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Nisar Hussain Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: This article presents the development and evaluation of a new topical formulation of diclofenac diethylamine (DDA as a locally applied analgesic lotion. Methods: To this end, the lotion formulations were formulated with equal volume of varying concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%; v/v of permeation enhancers, namely propylene glycol (PG and turpentine oil (TO. These lotions were subjected to physical studies (pH, viscosity, spreadability, homogeneity, and accelerated stability, in vitro permeation, in vivo animal studies and sensatory perception testing. In vitro permeation of DDA from lotion formulations was evaluated across polydimethylsiloxane membrane and rabbit skin using Franz cells. Results: It was found that PG and TO content influenced the permeation of DDA across model membranes with the lotion containing 4% v/v PG and TO content showed maximum permeation enhancement of DDA. The flux values for L4 were 1.20±0.02 μg.cm-2.min-1 and 0.67 ± 0.02 μg.cm-2.min-1 for polydimethylsiloxane and rabbit skin, respectively. Flux values were significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of the control. The flux enhancement ratio of DDA from L4 was 31.6-fold and 4.8-fold for polydimethylsiloxane and rabbit skin, respectively. In the in vivo animal testing, lotion with 4% v/v enhancer content showed maximum anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without inducing any irritation. Sensatory perception tests involving healthy volunteers rated the formulations between 3 and 4 (values ranging between -4 to +4, indicating a range of very bad to excellent, respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that the DDA lotion containing 4% v/v PG and TO exhibit the best performance overall and that this specific formulation should be the basis for further clinical investigations.

  3. Intranasal brain-targeted clonazepam polymeric micelles for immediate control of status epilepticus: in vitro optimization, ex vivo determination of cytotoxicity, in vivo biodistribution and pharmacodynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Samia A; Abdelmalak, Nevine S; Naguib, Marianne J; Rashed, Hassan M; Ibrahim, Ahmed B

    2016-11-01

    Clonazepam (CZ) is an anti-epileptic drug used mainly in status epilepticus (SE). The drug belongs to Class II according to BCS classification with very limited solubility and high permeability and it suffers from extensive first-pass metabolism. The aim of the present study was to develop CZ-loaded polymeric micelles (PM) for direct brain delivery allowing immediate control of SE. PM were prepared via thin film hydration (TFH) technique adopting a central composite face-centered design (CCFD). The seventeen developed formulae were evaluated in terms of entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), and in vitro release. For evaluating the in vivo behavior of the optimized formula, both biodistrbution using 99m Tc-radiolabeled CZ and pharmacodynamics studies were done in addition to ex vivo cytotoxicty. At a drug:Pluronic® P123:Pluronic® L121 ratio of 1:20:20 (PM7), a high EE, ZP, Q8h, and a low PDI was achieved. The biodistribution studies revealed that the optimized formula had significantly higher drug targeting efficiency (DTE = 242.3%), drug targeting index (DTI = 144.25), and nose-to-brain direct transport percentage (DTP = 99.30%) and a significant prolongation of protection from seizures in comparison to the intranasally administered solution with minor histopathological changes. The declared results reveal the ability of the developed PM to be a strong potential candidate for the emergency treatment of SE.

  4. In vivo study of drug interaction with brain benzodiazepine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, O.; Shinotoh, H.; Ito, T.; Suzuki, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Yamasaki, T.

    1985-05-01

    The possibility of direct estimation of in vivo Bz receptor occupancy in brain was evaluated using C-11, or H-3-flumazepil (Ro15-1788). In animal experiments, 1 ..mu..Ci of H-3-Ro15-1788 was injected at 0.5 or 20 hr after i.v. injection of various dosage of clonazepam. Then radioactivity in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and blood at 5 min. after injection of the tracer was compared. Competitive inhibition of in vivo binding was clearly observed when clonazepam was pretreated at 0.5 hr before injection of the tracer. On the other hand, brain radioactivity was increased when clonazepam was administered at 20 hr before injection of the tracer. This increase in binding of H-3-Ro15-1788 might be caused by rebound of Bz receptor function by treatment with Bz agonist, and this rebound may have an important role in physiological function. Clinical investigation concerning drug interaction with brain Bz receptor was performed in normal volunteer and patients with neurological disorders. The distribution of C-11-Ro15-1788 in the brain of patients chronically treated with clonazepam were significantly heterogeneous. However, cerebral blood flow estimated with N-13 NH3 of these patients were normal.

  5. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examination of buccal absorption of metoprolol with varying pH in TR146 cell culture, porcine buccal mucosa and Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Meng-Lund, Emil; Andersen, Morten B.

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the buccal absorption of metoprolol in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo as a function of buffered pH at 7.4, 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5. Permeability studies showed a correlation (r(2)=0.92) between in vitro TR146 cell culture and ex vivo porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber...... was obtained after buccal dosing (58-107%) compared to oral (3%) administration, ranging 58-107% and 3%, respectively. Macroscopically, no local toxic effects were observed by visual inspection of mini-pig cheeks. A very clear level C in vitro in vivo correlation (r(2)=0.98) was obtained between the observed....... A higher apparent permeability was observed at higher pH values, i.e. the more compound that was unionised the higher the permeability. In vivo studies were conducted in anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs. A clear influence of pH on the absorption was seen and a significant higher absolute bioavailability...

  6. Muscle-Driven In Vivo Nanogenerator

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhou; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Wang, Aurelia C.; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-01-01

    of such a nanogenerator in a live rat where it harvests energy generated by its breathing or heart beating. This study shows the potential of applying these nanogenerators for driving in vivo nanodevices. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KCaA, Weinheim.

  7. A novel nanoparticles impregnated ocular insert for enhanced bioavailability to posterior segment of eye: In vitro, in vivo and stability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Lalaji V.; Kapadia, Rakhee; Sawant, Krutika K., E-mail: dr_krutikasawant@rediffmail.com

    2017-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to demonstrate with the help of in vitro and in vivo studies that nanoparticles impregnated ocular inserts effectively delivers significant concentration of drug to the posterior segment of eye after topical administration for treatment of glaucoma. Drug loaded Nanoparticles and their ocular insert have been reported to reduce side effects of orally administered Acetazolamide. Eudragit NPs were prepared by the solvent diffusion nanoprecipitation technique. The prepared NPs were evaluated for various parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, % entrapment efficiency, % drug loading, DSC, FTIR, TEM and stability studies. Ocular inserts of NPs were prepared by solvent casting method. The prepared ocular inserts were evaluated for thickness, content uniformity, folding endurance, disintegration time, morphology and stability study. The NPs and ocular inserts were evaluated for in-vitro drug diffusion study, ex-vivo trans-corneal permeability study, in-vivo ocular tolerability and intra ocular pressure (IOP) reduction study. The optimized batch was stable for a period of 3 months in lyophilized form. The optimized formulations had size range of 367 nm ± 8 nm, zeta potential around + 7 mV ± 1.3 mV and 51.61% ± 3.84% entrapment efficiency with 19% ± 1.40% drug loading. The ex-vivo trans-corneal study showed higher cumulative corneal permeation, flux across corneal tissue (2.460 ± 0.028 μg/ml) and apparent corneal permeability (3.926 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s & 3.863 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s) from drug loaded Eudragit NPs and Ocular inserts as compared to drug solution (0.671 ± 0.020 μg/ml & 3.166 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s). In-vivo study showed the Eudragit NPs and ocular insert produced significant (P < 0.001) lowering in intra ocular pressure compared with the solution of free drug after 3 h of topical ocular administration. Plain Eudragit NPs caused no inflammation and/or discomfort in rabbit eyes and

  8. A novel nanoparticles impregnated ocular insert for enhanced bioavailability to posterior segment of eye: In vitro, in vivo and stability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, Lalaji V.; Kapadia, Rakhee; Sawant, Krutika K.

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to demonstrate with the help of in vitro and in vivo studies that nanoparticles impregnated ocular inserts effectively delivers significant concentration of drug to the posterior segment of eye after topical administration for treatment of glaucoma. Drug loaded Nanoparticles and their ocular insert have been reported to reduce side effects of orally administered Acetazolamide. Eudragit NPs were prepared by the solvent diffusion nanoprecipitation technique. The prepared NPs were evaluated for various parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, % entrapment efficiency, % drug loading, DSC, FTIR, TEM and stability studies. Ocular inserts of NPs were prepared by solvent casting method. The prepared ocular inserts were evaluated for thickness, content uniformity, folding endurance, disintegration time, morphology and stability study. The NPs and ocular inserts were evaluated for in-vitro drug diffusion study, ex-vivo trans-corneal permeability study, in-vivo ocular tolerability and intra ocular pressure (IOP) reduction study. The optimized batch was stable for a period of 3 months in lyophilized form. The optimized formulations had size range of 367 nm ± 8 nm, zeta potential around + 7 mV ± 1.3 mV and 51.61% ± 3.84% entrapment efficiency with 19% ± 1.40% drug loading. The ex-vivo trans-corneal study showed higher cumulative corneal permeation, flux across corneal tissue (2.460 ± 0.028 μg/ml) and apparent corneal permeability (3.926 × 10 −6 cm 2 /s & 3.863 × 10 −6 cm 2 /s) from drug loaded Eudragit NPs and Ocular inserts as compared to drug solution (0.671 ± 0.020 μg/ml & 3.166 × 10 −6 cm 2 /s). In-vivo study showed the Eudragit NPs and ocular insert produced significant (P < 0.001) lowering in intra ocular pressure compared with the solution of free drug after 3 h of topical ocular administration. Plain Eudragit NPs caused no inflammation and/or discomfort in rabbit eyes and neither affected the intra

  9. Gender and Women Development Initiatives in Bangladesh: A Study of Rural Mother Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Lindberg, Lene; Wamala, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Women-focused development initiatives have become a controversial issue connected with women's health and welfare. Previous studies indicated that development initiatives might increase women's workload, family conflict, and marital violence. This study explored the gendered characteristics of a development initiative Rural Mother Center in Bangladesh. Data incorporated policy document and interviews of social workers working with the mother centers in two northwest subdistricts. The qualitative content analysis of data emerged a general theme of expanding women's responsibility while maintaining male privilege explaining gendered design and practice of the development initiative. The theme was supported by two gendered categories related to the design: (a) essentializing women's participation; (b) maintaining traditional gender, and four categories related to the practice; (c) inadequate gender knowledge and skills; (d) reinforcing traditional gender; (e) using women for improving office performance; and (f) upholding male privilege. The study suggests that though women-focused development initiatives need to be embraced with gender-redistributive policies, the social workers should be trained for attaining gender-transformative motivation and competencies.

  10. Evaluation of two different HEDP content kits: Stability study against dilution both in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, O.; Ikeda, I.; Kurata, K.

    1982-01-01

    Two different HEDP content kits (Kit A, HEDP: 1 mg, SnCl 2 x 2H 2 O: 0.5 mg; and Kit B, HEDP: 10 mg, SnCl 2 x 2H 2 O: 0.5 mg) were evaluated for their stability against dillution. Sup(99m)Tc-HEDP solutions prepared from these two kits were diluted from 10 to 6000 fold with 0.9% NaCl solution just before evaluation both in vivo and in vitro. In the case of Kit A, significant soft tissue uptake in vivo and released free pertechnetate in vitro were observed by diluting the sup(99m)Tc-HEDP solution. On the other hand, sup(99m)Tc-HEDP prepared from Kit B was found to be sufficiently stable against dilution. The stability after preparation of each diluted sup(99m)-HEDP was also greatly affected by its HEDP concentration. Preliminary analysis of absorption spectra for each 99 Tc-HEDP indicated the possibility of two different sup(99m)Tc-HEDP complex formation by varied HEDP concentration. These results indicated that a cold reagent like Kit A might cause a higher soft tissue uptake due to its dilution in vivo during a clinical study for bone scanning. (orig.) [de

  11. Development of highly potent melanogenesis inhibitor by in vitro, in vivo and computational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Q

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Qamar Abbas,1 Zaman Ashraf,2 Mubashir Hassan,1 Humaira Nadeem,3 Muhammad Latif,4 Samina Afzal,5 Sung-Yum Seo1 1Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, 3Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Center for Genetics and Inherited Diseases, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakria University, Multan, Pakistan Abstract: The present work describes the synthesis of few hydroxylated amide derivatives as melanogenesis inhibitors. In vitro, in vivo and computational studies proved that compound 6d is a highly potent melanogenesis inhibitor compared to standard kojic acid. The title amides 4a–e and 6a–e were synthesized following simple reaction routes with excellent yields. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but compound 6d showed excellent activity (IC50 0.15 µM compared to standard kojic acid (IC50 16.69 µM. Lineweaver–Burk plots were used for the determination of kinetic mechanism, and it was found that compounds 4c and 6d showed non-competitive inhibition while 6a and 6b showed mixed-type inhibition. The kinetic mechanism further revealed that compound 6d formed irreversible complex with the target enzyme tyrosinase. The Ki values determined for compounds 4c, 6a, 6b and 6d are 0.188, 0.84, 2.20 and 0.217 µM respectively. Results of human tyrosinase inhibitory activity in A375 human melanoma cells showed that compound 6d exhibited 91.9% inhibitory activity at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. In vivo cytotoxicity evaluation of compound 6d in zebrafish embryos showed that it is non-toxic to zebrafish. Melanin depigmentation assay performed in zebrafish indicated that compound 6d possessed greater potential in decreasing melanin contents

  12. An in vivo model to study the anti-malaric capacity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model to study the antimalaric effect of plant extracts is described. White mice (25-30g body weight are treated subcutaneously with 0.6ml of the diluted extract starting seven days before P. berghei infection; treatment continues until death or for 30 days. Simultaneously 0.2ml of the extract are applied per os starting three days before infection. In a test of the model, treated and non-treated animals differed in body weight, survival time, haematocrite, parasitemia development, and spleen or liver weight of recent dead or killed mice.

  13. In vivo studies: comparing the administration via and the impact on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Suyene Rocha; Sarcinelle, Michelle Alvares; Souza Albernaz, Marta de; Silva, Franciana Maria Rosa da; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Almeida do Nascimento, Patricia; Carvalho, Cosme Leonardo Gomes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The use of in vivo assay to determine the biodistribution and subsequent inter-comparison with human parameters has been used since the dawn of science. The use of this type of test admits the metabolic equity among animals for inter-comparison. Thus, the use of Wistar rats in particular is quite frequent. Regarding routes of administration, there are three ways to test priority: jugular vein, intraocular (eye plexus) and caudal; there is a consensus that these three pathways behave in the same way, or at least very similar. Biodistribution studies of drugs, especially radiopharmaceuticals, have been using randomly any of these pathways believed to be effective in their likeness without worrying about your real analytic equity. In this study, we performed in vivo assay in 8 Wistar rats using 99mTc -labeled Herceptin to review the route of administration on the biodistribution result. Thus, four mice were injected via the intraocular (eye plexus), and four were injected via tail (caudal plexus). The results were quite disparate and call the attention of the scientific community to reassess the protocols for animal experiments, in order to have uniformity and fairness between the data and may represent a test for human inter-comparison of more reliable and trustworthy way

  14. Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spliethoff, Jarich; Prevoo, Warner; Meier, Mark A.J.; de Jong, Jeroen; Evers, Daniel; Evers, Daniel J.; Sterenborg, Hendricus J.C.M.; Lucassen, Gerald; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Hendriks, Benno H.W.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents the first in vivo real-time tissue characterization during image-guided percutaneous lung biopsies using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) sensing at the tip of a biopsy needle with integrated optical fibers. Experimental Design: Tissues from 21 consented patients

  15. Influence of hemodilution of plasma proteins on erythrocyte aggregability : An in vivo study in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Graaff, R; de Hoog, E; Veeger, NJGM; Panday, G; Boonstra, PW; van Oeveren, W

    2005-01-01

    Erythrocyte aggregation is known to be affected by a number of factors including the concentration of various plasma proteins. This study was performed to examine the in vivo effect of hemodilution of plasma proteins on erythrocyte aggregation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)

  16. Nuclear-based techniques for the in vivo study of human body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This report comprises working papers presented at an Advisory Group Meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fourteen contributions from seven countries describe measurement systems, and their applications, for the in vivo study of human body composition, mainly with respect to the elements calcium, nitrogen, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus, cadmium and lead. The techniques used include neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, computerized axial tomography, nuclear resonance scattering and photon absorptiometry. Also included is a collection of ''system descriptions'' containing information on equipment developed for such measurements at seventeen centres in eight countries (institute address and name of persons to contact for more information, overall system performance, irradiation and country device, estimated cost)

  17. Microstructural imaging of human neocortex in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Luke J; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2018-03-24

    The neocortex of the human brain is the seat of higher brain function. Modern imaging techniques, chief among them magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allow non-invasive imaging of this important structure. Knowledge of the microstructure of the neocortex has classically come from post-mortem histological studies of human tissue, and extrapolations from invasive animal studies. From these studies, we know that the scale of important neocortical structure spans six orders of magnitude, ranging from the size of axonal diameters (microns), to the size of cortical areas responsible for integrating sensory information (centimetres). MRI presents an opportunity to move beyond classical methods, because MRI is non-invasive and MRI contrast is sensitive to neocortical microstructure over all these length scales. MRI thus allows inferences to be made about neocortical microstructure in vivo, i.e. MRI-based in vivo histology. We review recent literature that has applied and developed MRI-based in vivo histology to probe the microstructure of the human neocortex, focusing specifically on myelin, iron, and neuronal fibre mapping. We find that applications such as cortical parcellation (using R 1 maps as proxies for myelin content) and investigation of cortical iron deposition with age (using R 2 * maps) are already contributing to the frontiers of knowledge in neuroscience. Neuronal fibre mapping in the cortex remains challenging in vivo, but recent improvements in diffusion MRI hold promise for exciting applications in the near future. The literature also suggests that utilising multiple complementary quantitative MRI maps could increase the specificity of inferences about neocortical microstructure relative to contemporary techniques, but that further investment in modelling is required to appropriately combine the maps. In vivo histology of human neocortical microstructure is undergoing rapid development. Future developments will improve its specificity, sensitivity, and

  18. In vitro transcription accurately predicts lac repressor phenotype in vivo in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Almond Sochor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of studies have looked at the in vivo and in vitro behavior of the lac repressor binding to DNA and effector molecules in order to study transcriptional repression, however these studies are not always reconcilable. Here we use in vitro transcription to directly mimic the in vivo system in order to build a self consistent set of experiments to directly compare in vivo and in vitro genetic repression. A thermodynamic model of the lac repressor binding to operator DNA and effector is used to link DNA occupancy to either normalized in vitro mRNA product or normalized in vivo fluorescence of a regulated gene, YFP. An accurate measurement of repressor, DNA and effector concentrations were made both in vivo and in vitro allowing for direct modeling of the entire thermodynamic equilibrium. In vivo repression profiles are accurately predicted from the given in vitro parameters when molecular crowding is considered. Interestingly, our measured repressor–operator DNA affinity differs significantly from previous in vitro measurements. The literature values are unable to replicate in vivo binding data. We therefore conclude that the repressor-DNA affinity is much weaker than previously thought. This finding would suggest that in vitro techniques that are specifically designed to mimic the in vivo process may be necessary to replicate the native system.

  19. Effects of ex-vivo and in-vivo treatment with probiotics on the inflammasome in dogs with chronic enteropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Schmitz

    Full Text Available Inflammasomes coordinate the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18 in response to danger signals. They are vital for maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and have been linked to chronic intestinal inflammation in humans. Probiotics have been advocated as treatment in intestinal inflammation. So far, no study has investigated the role of the inflammasome in canine chronic enteropathy (CE. In this study the intestinal expression of inflammasome components was assessed in CE dogs compared to controls, when treated with probiotic Enterococcus faecium (EF ex-vivo and in-vivo. RNA extraction from endoscopic biopsies and reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR was performed for NLRP3, casp-1, IL-1β and IL-18. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate protein expression in tissues. Gene expression of casp-1 and NLRP3 was lower in CE samples than controls. Ex-vivo treatment with EF reduced NLRP3 expression in control samples. Treatment of CE dogs with EF alongside dietary intervention had no effect on gene expression. In contrast, IL-1β protein expression in CE decreased with dietary treatment (but not with probiotics. The results of this study suggest that the inflammasome or its components may be partially involved in the inflammatory process seen in CE, but distinct from intestinal inflammation in humans.

  20. Initial trade and design studies for the fusion engineering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), initiated a program of trade and design studies in October 1980 to support the selection of the FED concept. This document presents the results of these initial trade and design studies. Based on these results, a baseline configuration has been identified and the Design Center effort for the remainder of the fiscal year will be devoted to the development of a self-consistent FED design description

  1. Exploring sex differences in the adult zebra finch brain: In vivo diffusion tensor imaging and ex vivo super-resolution track density imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaide, Julie; De Groof, Geert; Van Steenkiste, Gwendolyn; Jeurissen, Ben; Van Audekerke, Johan; Naeyaert, Maarten; Van Ruijssevelt, Lisbeth; Cornil, Charlotte; Sijbers, Jan; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2017-02-01

    Zebra finches are an excellent model to study the process of vocal learning, a complex socially-learned tool of communication that forms the basis of spoken human language. So far, structural investigation of the zebra finch brain has been performed ex vivo using invasive methods such as histology. These methods are highly specific, however, they strongly interfere with performing whole-brain analyses and exclude longitudinal studies aimed at establishing causal correlations between neuroplastic events and specific behavioral performances. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to implement an in vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) protocol sensitive enough to detect structural sex differences in the adult zebra finch brain. Voxel-wise comparison of male and female DTI parameter maps shows clear differences in several components of the song control system (i.e. Area X surroundings, the high vocal center (HVC) and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN)), which corroborate previous findings and are in line with the clear behavioral difference as only males sing. Furthermore, to obtain additional insights into the 3-dimensional organization of the zebra finch brain and clarify findings obtained by the in vivo study, ex vivo DTI data of the male and female brain were acquired as well, using a recently established super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) imaging strategy. Interestingly, the SRR-DTI approach led to a marked reduction in acquisition time without interfering with the (spatial and angular) resolution and SNR which enabled to acquire a data set characterized by a 78μm isotropic resolution including 90 diffusion gradient directions within 44h of scanning time. Based on the reconstructed SRR-DTI maps, whole brain probabilistic Track Density Imaging (TDI) was performed for the purpose of super resolved track density imaging, further pushing the resolution up to 40μm isotropic. The DTI and TDI maps realized atlas

  2. Is subnanomolar binding affinity required for the in vivo imaging of acetylcholinesterase? Studies on 18F-labeled G379

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choe, Yearn Seong; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Iimura, Yoichi; Choi, Yong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2006-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important cholinergic marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and shows reduced activity in postmortem AD brain tissues. 1-(4-Fluorobenzyl)-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxoindan-2-fluoro-2-yl)methyl] piperidine (G379, ), an AChE inhibitor with a subnanomolar IC 5 (0.56 nM), was prepared as a 18 F-labeled radioligand ([ 18 F]) and evaluated in mice. Metabolism studies of [ 18 F] showed no metabolites in the mouse brain. Tissue distribution studies demonstrated its uniform regional distribution in the mouse brain, suggesting that this radioligand is not suitable for the in vivo imaging of AChE. This result along with reports on radiolabeled N-benzylpiperidine lactam benzisoxazole (IC 5 5 >1 nM) suggested that a subnanomolar IC 5 may not be the only important factor in determining the suitability of a radioligand for in vivo studies of AChE

  3. Soft tissue influence on ex vivo mobility in the hip of Iguana: comparison with in vivo movement and its bearing on joint motion of fossil sprawling tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Fischer, Martin S; Nyakatura, John A

    2014-07-01

    The reconstruction of a joint's maximum range of mobility (ROM) often is a first step when trying to understand the locomotion of fossil tetrapods. But previous studies suggest that the ROM of a joint is restricted by soft tissues surrounding the joint. To expand the limited informative value of ROM studies for the reconstruction of a fossil species' locomotor characteristics, it is moreover necessary to better understand the relationship of ex vivo ROM with the actual in vivo joint movement. To gain insight into the relationship between ex vivo mobility and in vivo movement, we systematically tested for the influence of soft tissues on joint ROM in the hip of the modern lizard Iguana iguana. Then, we compared the ex vivo mobility to in vivo kinematics of the hip joint in the same specimens using X-ray sequences of steady-state treadmill locomotion previously recorded. With stepwise removal of soft tissues and a repeated-measurement protocol, we show that soft tissues surrounding the hip joint considerably limit ROM, highlighting the problems when joint ROM is deduced from bare bones only. We found the integument to have the largest effect on the range of long-axis rotation, pro- and retraction. Importantly, during locomotion the iguana used only a fragment of the ROM that was measured in our least restrictive dissection situation (i.e. pelvis and femur only conjoined by ligaments), demonstrating the discrepancy between hip joint ROM and actual in vivo movement. Our study emphasizes the necessity for caution when attempting to reconstruct joint ROM or even locomotor kinematics from fossil bones only, as actual in vivo movement cannot be deduced directly from any condition of cadaver mobility in Iguana and likely in other tetrapods. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  4. Lipid drug conjugate nanoparticle as a novel lipid nanocarrier for the oral delivery of decitabine: ex vivo gut permeation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupane, Yub Raj; Sabir, M D; Ahmad, Nafees; Ali, Mushir; Kohli, Kanchan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop lipid drug conjugate (LDC) nanoparticles of decitabine (DCB) using stearic acid as a lipid to increase the permeability of the drug along with its protection from chemical degradation. The LDC was prepared by salt formation of DCB with stearic acid and followed by cold homogenization technique to produce the LDC nanoparticles. The role of key independent variables influencing on dependent variables were determined by using a Box–Behnken design. The optimized batch revealed spherical morphology under TEM analysis with particle size of 202.6 ± 1.65 nm and 0.334 ± 0.987 PDI. The zeta potential and %EE were found to be −33.6 ± 0.845 mV and 68.89% ± 0.59 respectively. Lyophilized powder showed the crystalline structure under DSC analysis. In vitro release studies showed the initial burst release followed by a sustained release up to 24 h in PBS pH 7.4 and the data were further studied using release kinetic models which revealed the first-order model as a best-fitting model. Ex vivo gut permeation studies proved that the formulation containing lipid and surfactants has a higher permeability than the plain drug solution with nearly fourfold increase in the apparent permeability coefficients. Finally, LDC nanoparticles prepared by using stearic acid as a lipid and surfactants as Tween 80, Poloxamer 188, and Labrasol in equal ratio possess high potential for the oral delivery of hydrophilic drugs. (paper)

  5. Lipid drug conjugate nanoparticle as a novel lipid nanocarrier for the oral delivery of decitabine: ex vivo gut permeation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Yub Raj; Sabir, M. D.; Ahmad, Nafees; Ali, Mushir; Kohli, Kanchan

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop lipid drug conjugate (LDC) nanoparticles of decitabine (DCB) using stearic acid as a lipid to increase the permeability of the drug along with its protection from chemical degradation. The LDC was prepared by salt formation of DCB with stearic acid and followed by cold homogenization technique to produce the LDC nanoparticles. The role of key independent variables influencing on dependent variables were determined by using a Box-Behnken design. The optimized batch revealed spherical morphology under TEM analysis with particle size of 202.6 ± 1.65 nm and 0.334 ± 0.987 PDI. The zeta potential and %EE were found to be -33.6 ± 0.845 mV and 68.89% ± 0.59 respectively. Lyophilized powder showed the crystalline structure under DSC analysis. In vitro release studies showed the initial burst release followed by a sustained release up to 24 h in PBS pH 7.4 and the data were further studied using release kinetic models which revealed the first-order model as a best-fitting model. Ex vivo gut permeation studies proved that the formulation containing lipid and surfactants has a higher permeability than the plain drug solution with nearly fourfold increase in the apparent permeability coefficients. Finally, LDC nanoparticles prepared by using stearic acid as a lipid and surfactants as Tween 80, Poloxamer 188, and Labrasol in equal ratio possess high potential for the oral delivery of hydrophilic drugs.

  6. In vivo persistence of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) induced by gamma rays in mouse bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Ramirez, P.; Vallarino-Kelly, T.; Rodriguez-Reyes, R.

    1984-01-01

    The sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies induced in bone marrow cells by in vivo irradiation with gamma rays before or after bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation were compared. The frequency of SCE at different postirradiation times was also measured in bone marrow cells in vivo, irradiated before BrdUrd incorporation. Increased sensitivity to SCE induction by radiation was found in cells after BrdUrd incorporation for one cycle when compared with cells irradiated before BrdUrd incorporation. The increased SCE frequency persisted for at least 72 hr after the initial irradiation, implying that the gamma ray-induced lesion(s) capable of eliciting an SCE are persistent and cannot be easily repaired

  7. Aging of monolithic zirconia dental prostheses: Protocol for a 5-year prospective clinical study using ex vivo analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Vinciane; Wulfman, Claudine P; Derbanne, Mathieu A; Dupont, Nathalie M; Le Goff, Stéphane O; Tang, Mie-Leng; Seidel, Laurence; Dewael, Thibaut Y; Vanheusden, Alain J; Mainjot, Amélie K

    2016-12-15

    Recent introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) monolithic zirconia dental prostheses raises the issue of material low thermal degradation (LTD), a well-known problem with zirconia hip prostheses. This phenomenon could be accentuated by masticatory mechanical stress. Until now zirconia LTD process has only been studied in vitro . This work introduces an original protocol to evaluate LTD process of monolithic zirconia prostheses in the oral environment and to study their general clinical behavior, notably in terms of wear. 101 posterior monolithic zirconia tooth elements (molars and premolars) are included in a 5-year prospective clinical trial. On each element, several areas between 1 and 2 mm 2 (6 on molars, 4 on premolars) are determined on restoration surface: areas submitted or non-submitted to mastication mechanical stress, glazed or non-glazed. Before prosthesis placement, ex vivo analyses regarding LTD and wear are performed using Raman spectroscopy, SEM imagery and 3D laser profilometry. After placement, restorations are clinically evaluated following criteria of the World Dental Federation (FDI), complemented by the analysis of fracture clinical risk factors. Two independent examiners perform the evaluations. Clinical evaluation and ex vivo analyses are carried out after 6 months and then each year for up to 5 years. For clinicians and patients, the results of this trial will justify the use of monolithic zirconia restorations in dental practice. For researchers, the originality of a clinical study including ex vivo analyses of material aging will provide important data regarding zirconia properties.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02150226.

  8. Improving gastric cancer preclinical studies using diverse in vitro and in vivo model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hae Ryung; Park, Hee Seo; Ahn, Young Zoo; Nam, Seungyoon; Jung, Hae Rim; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Sang Jin; Balch, Curt; Powis, Garth; Ku, Ja-Lok; Kim, Yon Hui

    2016-01-01

    “Biomarker-driven targeted therapy,” the practice of tailoring patients’ treatment to the expression/activity levels of disease-specific genes/proteins, remains challenging. For example, while the anti-ERBB2 monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, was first developed using well-characterized, diverse in vitro breast cancer models (and is now a standard adjuvant therapy for ERBB2-positive breast cancer patients), trastuzumab approval for ERBB2-positive gastric cancer was largely based on preclinical studies of a single cell line, NCI-N87. Ensuing clinical trials revealed only modest patient efficacy, and many ERBB2-positive gastric cancer (GC) patients failed to respond at all (i.e., were inherently recalcitrant), or succumbed to acquired resistance. To assess mechanisms underlying GC insensitivity to ERBB2 therapies, we established a diverse panel of GC cells, differing in ERBB2 expression levels, for comprehensive in vitro and in vivo characterization. For higher throughput assays of ERBB2 DNA and protein levels, we compared the concordance of various laboratory quantification methods, including those of in vitro and in vivo genetic anomalies (FISH and SISH) and xenograft protein expression (Western blot vs. IHC), of both cell and xenograft (tissue-sectioned) microarrays. The biomarker assessment methods strongly agreed, as did correlation between RNA and protein expression. However, although ERBB2 genomic anomalies showed good in vitro vs. in vivo correlation, we observed striking differences in protein expression between cultured cells and mouse xenografts (even within the same GC cell type). Via our unique pathway analysis, we delineated a signaling network, in addition to specific pathways/biological processes, emanating from the ERBB2 signaling cascade, as a potential useful target of clinical treatment. Integrated analysis of public data from gastric tumors revealed frequent (10 – 20 %) amplification of the genes NFKBIE, PTK2, and PIK3CA, each of which

  9. Physical limits to autofluorescence signals in vivo recordings in the rat olfactory bulb: a Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, B.; Gurden, H.; Pinot, L.; Mastrippolito, R.; Lefebvre, F.; Lanièce, P.; Pain, F.

    2007-07-01

    Understanding the cellular mechanisms of energy supply to neurons following physiological activation is still challenging and has strong implications to the interpretation of clinical functional images based on metabolic signals such as Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging or 18F-Fluorodexoy-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography. Intrinsic Optical Signal Imaging provides with high spatio temporal resolution in vivo imaging in the anaesthetized rat. In that context, intrinsic signals are mainly related to changes in the optical absorption of haemoglobin depending on its oxygenation state. This technique has been validated for imaging of the rat olfactory bulb, providing with maps of the actived olfactory glomeruli, the functional modules involved in the first step of olfactory coding. A complementary approach would be autofluorescence imaging relying on the fluorescence properties of endogenous Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) or Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) both involved in intracellular metabolic pathways. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of in vivo autofluorescence imaging in the rat olfactory bulb. We performed standard Monte Carlo simulations of photons scattering and absorption at the excitation and emission wavelengths of FAD and NADH fluorescence. Characterization of the fluorescence distribution in the glomerulus, effect of hemoglobin absorption at the excitation and absorption wavelengths as well as the effect of the blurring due to photon scattering and the depth of focus of the optical apparatus have been studied. Finally, optimal experimental parameters are proposed to achieve in vivo validation of the technique in the rat olfactory bulb.

  10. Ex vivo permeation of carprofen from nanoparticles: A comprehensive study through human, porcine and bovine skin as anti-inflammatory agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Alexander; Clares, Beatriz; Rosselló, Ana; Garduño-Ramírez, María L; Abrego, Guadalupe; García, María L; Calpena, Ana C

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this study was the development of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for the dermal delivery of carprofen (CP). The developed nanovehicle was then lyophilized using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) as cryoprotectant. The ex vivo permeation profiles were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells using three different types of skin membranes: human, porcine and bovine. Furthermore, biomechanical properties of skin (trans-epidermal water loss and skin hydration) were tested. Finally, the in vivo skin irritation and the anti-inflammatory efficacy were also assayed. Results demonstrated the achievement of NPs 187.32 nm sized with homogeneous distribution, negatively charged surface (-23.39 mV) and high CP entrapment efficiency (75.38%). Permeation studies showed similar diffusion values between human and porcine skins and higher for bovine. No signs of skin irritation were observed in rabbits. Topically applied NPs significantly decreased in vivo inflammation compared to the reference drug in a TPA-induced mouse ear edema model. Thus, it was concluded that NPs containing CP may be a useful tool for the dermal treatment of local inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vivo Metabolism Study of Xiamenmycin A in Mouse Plasma by UPLC-QTOF-MS and LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiamenmycin A is an antifibrotic leading compound with a benzopyran skeleton that is isolated from mangrove-derived Streptomyces xiamenensis. As a promising small molecule for fibrotic diseases, less information is known about its metabolic characteristics in vivo. In this study, the time-course of xiamenmycin A in mouse plasma was investigated by relative quantification. After two types of administration of xiamenmycin A at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, the plasma concentrations were measured quantitatively by LC-MS/MS. The dynamic changes in the xiamenmycin A concentration showed rapid absorption and quick elimination in plasma post-administration. Four metabolites (M1–M4 were identified in blood by UPLC-QTOF-MS, and xiamenmycin B (M3 is the principal metabolite in vivo, as verified by comparison of the authentic standard sample. The structures of other metabolites were identified based on the characteristics of their MS and MS/MS data. The newly identified metabolites are useful for understanding the metabolism of xiamenmycin A in vivo, aiming at the development of an anti-fibrotic drug candidate for the therapeutic treatment of excessive fibrotic diseases.

  12. Lack of indirect sensitization in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, F.W.; Avery, K.; Mensinger, M.; Frinak, S.; Tidwell, C.

    1985-01-01

    The possible utility of respiratory inhibiting drugs as indirect radiation sensitizers has been investigated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In vitro studies were conducted in V79 monolayer and spheroid cultures examining both respiratory inhibition and radiation survival as end points. These drugs (BCNU, Mustargen and Chlorambucil) were found to be potent respiratory inhibitors and, in the spheroid system, to be effective indirect radiation sensitizers with enhancement ratios of approximately 2.0. In vivo studies with these drugs have also been conducted in a C/sub 3/H mouse MCa tumor system to determine if the same reoxygenation effect observed in spheroids could be demonstrated in the solid tumor system. Detailed microelectrode studies, employing each drug at its LD/sub 10/ level, have been unable to demonstrate any drug induced reoxygenation for any of the drugs tested. Complete details are presented

  13. In vivo and in vitro radiosensitivities ofnewly established mouse ascites tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Tsuboi, A.; Tsuchiya, T.

    1981-01-01

    The response of two newly established mouse mammary tumors to x irradiation in vitro and in vivo was studied by colony-forming assay in soft agar. Cells irradiated in vivo were more resistant than those irradiated in vitro. The D 0 values for in vitro irradiation were 112 rad at both exponential and stationary phases, while those for in vivo irradiation were 303 rad at exponential phase and 556 rad at stationary phase. This increase in D 0 value, which is greater than the OER, suggests that radiosensitivity in vivo cannot be explained only by hypoxia

  14. Astrocyte lipid metabolism is critical for synapse development and function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deijk, Anne-Lieke F; Camargo, Nutabi; Timmerman, Jaap; Heistek, Tim; Brouwers, Jos F; Mogavero, Floriana; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Smit, August B; Verheijen, Mark H G

    2017-04-01

    The brain is considered to be autonomous in lipid synthesis with astrocytes producing lipids far more efficiently than neurons. Accordingly, it is generally assumed that astrocyte-derived lipids are taken up by neurons to support synapse formation and function. Initial confirmation of this assumption has been obtained in cell cultures, but whether astrocyte-derived lipids support synapses in vivo is not known. Here, we address this issue and determined the role of astrocyte lipid metabolism in hippocampal synapse formation and function in vivo. Hippocampal protein expression for the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and its target gene fatty acid synthase (Fasn) was found in astrocytes but not in neurons. Diminishing SREBP activity in astrocytes using mice in which the SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) was deleted from GFAP-expressing cells resulted in decreased cholesterol and phospholipid secretion by astrocytes. Interestingly, SCAP mutant mice showed more immature synapses, lower presynaptic protein SNAP-25 levels as well as reduced numbers of synaptic vesicles, indicating impaired development of the presynaptic terminal. Accordingly, hippocampal short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity were defective in mutant mice. These findings establish a critical role for astrocyte lipid metabolism in presynaptic terminal development and function in vivo. GLIA 2017;65:670-682. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Precision cut intestinal slices are an appropriate ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; van der Bij, Hendrik A.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents, however, they are associated with a high prevalence of intestinal side effects. In this investigation, rat precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were evaluated as an ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal

  16. Titanium Implant Impairment and Surrounding Muscle Cell Death Following High-Salt Diet: An In Vivo Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lecocq

    Full Text Available High-salt consumption has been widely described as a risk factor for cardiovascular, renal and bone functions. In the present study, the extent to which high-salt diet could influence Ti6Al4V implant surface characteristic, its adhesion to rat tibial crest, and could modify muscle cell viability of two surrounding muscles, was investigated in vivo. These parameters have also been assessed following a NMES (neuro-myoelectrostimulation program similar to that currently used in human care following arthroplasty.After a three-week diet, a harmful effect on titanium implant surface and muscle cell viability was noted. This is probably due to salt corrosive effect on metal and then release of toxic substance around biologic tissue. Moreover, if the use of NMES with high-salt diet induced muscles damages, the latter were higher when implant was added. Unexpectedly, higher implant-to-bone adhesion was found for implanted animals receiving salt supplementation.Our in vivo study highlights the potential dangerous effect of high-salt diet in arthroplasty based on titanium prosthesis. This effect appears to be more important when high-salt diet is combined with NMES.

  17. Using exomarkers to assess mitochondrial reactive species in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Angela; Cochemé, Helena M; Li Pun, Pamela Boon; Apostolova, Nadezda; Smith, Robin A J; Larsen, Lesley; Larsen, David S; James, Andrew M; Fearnley, Ian M; Rogatti, Sebastian; Prime, Tracy A; Finichiu, Peter G; Dare, Anna; Chouchani, Edward T; Pell, Victoria R; Methner, Carmen; Quin, Caroline; McQuaker, Stephen J; Krieg, Thomas; Hartley, Richard C; Murphy, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    The ability to measure the concentrations of small damaging and signalling molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo is essential to understanding their biological roles. While a range of methods can be applied to in vitro systems, measuring the levels and relative changes in reactive species in vivo is challenging. One approach towards achieving this goal is the use of exomarkers. In this, exogenous probe compounds are administered to the intact organism and are then transformed by the reactive molecules in vivo to produce a diagnostic exomarker. The exomarker and the precursor probe can be analysed ex vivo to infer the identity and amounts of the reactive species present in vivo. This is akin to the measurement of biomarkers produced by the interaction of reactive species with endogenous biomolecules. Our laboratories have developed mitochondria-targeted probes that generate exomarkers that can be analysed ex vivo by mass spectrometry to assess levels of reactive species within mitochondria in vivo. We have used one of these compounds, MitoB, to infer the levels of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide within flies and mice. Here we describe the development of MitoB and expand on this example to discuss how better probes and exomarkers can be developed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Current methods to study reactive oxygen species - pros and cons and biophysics of membrane proteins. Guest Editor: Christine Winterbourn. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vivo-morpholinos induced transient knockdown of physical activity related proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Ferguson

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with disease prevention and overall wellbeing. Additionally there has been evidence that physical activity level is a result of genetic influence. However, there has not been a reliable method to silence candidate genes in vivo to determine causal mechanisms of physical activity regulation. Vivo-morpholinos are a potential method to transiently silence specific genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to validate the use of Vivo-morpholinos in a mouse model for voluntary physical activity with several sub-objectives. We observed that Vivo-morpholinos achieved between 60-97% knockdown of Drd1-, Vmat2-, and Glut4-protein in skeletal muscle, the delivery moiety of Vivo-morpholinos (scramble did not influence physical activity and that a cocktail of multiple Vivo-morpholinos can be given in a single treatment to achieve protein knockdown of two different targeted proteins in skeletal muscle simultaneously. Knocking down Drd1, Vmat2, or Glut4 protein in skeletal muscle did not affect physical activity. Vivo-morpholinos injected intravenously alone did not significantly knockdown Vmat2-protein expression in the brain (p = 0.28. However, the use of a bradykinin analog to increase blood-brain-barrier permeability in conjunction with the Vivo-morpholinos significantly (p = 0.0001 decreased Vmat2-protein in the brain with a corresponding later over-expression of Vmat2 coincident with a significant (p = 0.0016 increase in physical activity. We conclude that Vivo-morpholinos can be a valuable tool in determining causal gene-phenotype relationships in whole animal models.

  19. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  20. Photodynamic effect of photosensitizer-loaded hollow silica nanoparticles for hepatobiliary malignancies: an in vitro and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofeng; Xiong, Li; Wen, Yu; Liu, Zhongtao; Pei, Dongni; Huang, Yaxun; Miao, Xiongying

    2014-03-01

    Background and aims: Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient delivery system for photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. In this study, polyhematoporphyrin (C34H38N4NaO5,) was loaded into hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNP) by one-step wet chemical-based synthetic route. We evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyhematoporphyrin-loaded HSNP with hepatobiliary malignant cells and in vivo models. Methods: Human liver cancer, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer cells were cultured with the HSNP and cellular viability was determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were measured by flow cytometry. Finally, we investigate its effect in vivo. Results: In MTT assay, the cell viability of QBC939, Huh-7, GBC-SD and HepG2 cells of the HSNP was 6.4+/-1.3%, 6.5+/-1.2%, 3.7+/-1.2% and 4.7+/-2.0%, respectively, which were significant different from that of free polyhematoporphyrin 62.4+/-4.7%, 62.5+/-6.0%, 33.4+/-6.5% and 44.3+/-1.9%. Flow cytometry demonstrated the laser-induced cell death with polyhematoporphyrin-loaded HSNP was much more severe. Similarly, in vivo results of each kind of cell revealed 14 days post-photoradiated, tumor sizes of the HSNP group were significantly smaller. Administration of the HSNP without illumination cannot cause killing effect both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conclusions: HSNP is a desirable delivery system in photodynamic therapy for hepatobiliary malignacies, with improved aqueous solubility, stability and transport efficiency of photosensitizers.

  1. Renaissance of morphological studies: the examination of functional structures in living animal organs using the in vivo cryotechnique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shinichi; Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Medical and biological scientists wish to understand the in vivo structures of the cells and tissues that make up living animal organs, as well as the locations of their molecular components. Recently, the live imaging of animal cells and tissues with fluorescence-labeled proteins produced via gene manipulation has become increasingly common. Therefore, it is important to ensure that findings derived from histological or immunohistochemical tissue sections of living animal organs are compatible with those obtained from live images of the same organs, which can be assessed using recently developed digital imaging techniques. Over the past two decades, we have performed immunohistochemical and morphological studies of the cells and tissues in living animal organs using a novel in vivo cryotechnique. The use of a specially designed liquid cryogen system with or without a cryoknife during this cryotechnique solved the technical problems that inevitably arise during the conventional preparation methods employed prior to light or electron microscopic examinations. Our in vivo cryotechnique has been found to be extremely useful for arresting transient physiological processes in cells and tissues and for maintaining their functional components-such as rapidly changing signaling molecules, membrane channels, or receptors-in situ. The purpose of the present review is to describe the basic mechanism underlying cryotechniques and the significance of our in vivo cryotechnique. In addition, it describes various morphological or immunohistochemical findings, observations made using quantum dots, and a Raman cryomicroscopy-based method for assessing oxygen saturation in the erythrocytes flowing through intestinal tissues.

  2. Experimental studies on cytogenetic dosimetry for in vitro simulated and in vivo partial body exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Baoguang; Chen Di; Jin Cuizhen; Liu Xiulin; Luo Yisheng

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility was examined of the contaminated Poisson distribution method as applied to dose estimation of in vitro simulated and in vivo partial body exposure of New Zealand rabbits. For this purpose, the preparatory experiments were conducted. Aberration yields were obtained for mixed cultures prepared from normal and irradiated peripheral lymphocytes with volume ratio 3 to 7 and for pure cultures of irradiated cells. Comparison of the dicentric yields from these two types of cultures indicated that the probability of cultured irradiated cells entering M 1 phase was exponentially decreased as the absorbed dose increased with a D 37 value of 2.41 Gy. Analysis of the dicentric yields obtained from pure cultures demonstrated that the dose-response relationship of dicentric yields was represented by a linear-quadratic model. Partial body exposures with irradiated fractions ranging from 90% to 30% were simulated by irradiating rabbit blood in vitro with 5 Gy 60 Co γ rays. The contaminated Poisson distribution method was utilized to derive the fraction of irradiated blood in the mixed culture and its absorbed dose. The results showed the estimations are in good agreement with true values. Moreover, the same results were arrived at for in vivo partial body irradiation in spite of many complicated factors inhered. Two groups of rabbits were irradiated in vivo on right halves along their backbones at 3.6 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Heart blood was sampled 24 hours later. The result analysed by the same method approximated the true values. Before the in vivo irradiation, heart blood was sampled and irradiated in vitro to simulate half body and whole body exposure, which provided self-control for its in vivo data. These offered further proof for the previous results of in vitro simulated partial body exposure

  3. Limiting glioma development by photodynamic therapy-generated macrophage vaccine and allo-stimulation: an in vivo histological study in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Steen J.; Christie, Catherine; Huynh, Khoi; Peng, Qian; Uzal, Francisco A.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2018-02-01

    Immunotherapy of brain tumors involves the stimulation of an antitumor immune response. This type of therapy can be targeted specifically to tumor cells thus sparing surrounding normal brain. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, the brain is relatively isolated from the systemic circulation and, as such, the initiation of significant immune responses is more limited than other types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to show that the efficacy of tumor primed antigen presenting macrophage (MaF98) vaccines can be increased by: (1) photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the priming tumor cells and (2) intracranial injection of allogeneic glioma cells directly into the tumor site. Experiments were conducted in an in vivo brain tumor development model using Fischer rats and F98 (syngeneic) and BT4C (allogeneic) glioma cells. The results showed that immunization with Ma (acting as antigen-presenting cells), primed with PDT-treated tumor cells (MaF98), significantly slowed but did not prevent the growth of F98-induced tumors in the brain. Complete suppression of tumor development was obtained via MaF98 inoculation combined with direct intracranial injection of allogeneic glioma cells. No deleterious effects were noted in any of the animals during the 14-day observation period.

  4. Combined in vivo and ex vivo analysis of mesh mechanics in a porcine hernia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Lindsey G; Lake, Spencer P; McAllister, Jared M; Tan, Wen Hui; Yu, Jennifer; Thompson, Dominic; Brunt, L Michael; Blatnik, Jeffrey A

    2018-02-01

    Hernia meshes exhibit variability in mechanical properties, and their mechanical match to tissue has not been comprehensively studied. We used an innovative imaging model of in vivo strain tracking and ex vivo mechanical analysis to assess effects of mesh properties on repaired abdominal walls in a porcine model. We hypothesized that meshes with dissimilar mechanical properties compared to native tissue would alter abdominal wall mechanics more than better-matched meshes. Seven mini-pigs underwent ventral hernia creation and subsequent open repair with one of two heavyweight polypropylene meshes. Following mesh implantation with attached radio-opaque beads, fluoroscopic images were taken at insufflation pressures from 5 to 30 mmHg on postoperative days 0, 7, and 28. At 28 days, animals were euthanized and ex vivo mechanical testing performed on full-thickness samples across repaired abdominal walls. Testing was conducted on 13 mini-pig controls, and on meshes separately. Stiffness and anisotropy (the ratio of stiffness in the transverse versus craniocaudal directions) were assessed. 3D reconstructions of repaired abdominal walls showed stretch patterns. As pressure increased, both meshes expanded, with no differences between groups. Over time, meshes contracted 17.65% (Mesh A) and 0.12% (Mesh B; p = 0.06). Mesh mechanics showed that Mesh A deviated from anisotropic native tissue more than Mesh B. Compared to native tissue, Mesh A was stiffer both transversely and craniocaudally. Explanted repaired abdominal walls of both treatment groups were stiffer than native tissue. Repaired tissue became less anisotropic over time, as mesh properties prevailed over native abdominal wall properties. This technique assessed 3D stretch at the mesh level in vivo in a porcine model. While the abdominal wall expanded, mesh-ingrown areas contracted, potentially indicating stresses at mesh edges. Ex vivo mechanics demonstrate that repaired tissue adopts mesh properties, suggesting

  5. Study of in vivo generators Pb-212/Bi--212 and U-230/Th-226 for alpha radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-radioimmunotherapy is a promising cancer therapy that uses a-particles vectorized by monoclonal antibody to break down cancerous tumors. The notion of in vivo generator was introduced in 1989 by Leonard Mausner. The concept involves labeling of various molecular carriers (antibodies, peptides, etc) with intermediate half-life generator parents, which after accumulation in the desired tissue generate much shorter half-life daughter radionuclide. This thesis focuses on the study of two in vivo generators potentially interesting for alpha-radioimmunotherapy: Pb-212 / Bi-212 generator and U-230 / Th-226 generator. The first part of this work presents the Pb-212 / Bi-212 generator, two approaches allowing the vectorization. Chelation approach on a protein and an approach by encapsulation in liposomes have been proposed. This last approach appears to be the most interesting. In vitro stability studies have been performed on these labeling. The second part of this work presents the U-230 / Th-226 generator. Studies have first been made to achieve a theoretical model to describe the speciation of Th(IV) in human serum. The efficacy of DTPA as chelating agent for complexation of Th(IV) in human serum could thus be estimated. (author)

  6. In vivo studies on the nitrogen, chlorine, calcium and phosphorus composition of rats by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel-Jacrot, Micheline.

    1975-01-01

    The role of neutron activation analysis 'in vivo' to determine the elementary composition of the rat organism is demonstrated. In part one the possibilities offered by certain methods which establish the elementary composition of living organisms are analyzed, together with the contribution and scope of neutron activation analysis. In part two the technical details of the neutron activation of rats in vivo are determined and the problems raised by application of the method considered. This is followed by an application of neutron activation analys