WorldWideScience

Sample records for vivo ft-iv deficiency

  1. Spontaneous atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in a/a ma ft/ma ft/J flaky tail mice appear early after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalini Kypriotou

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in human profilaggrin gene have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV, and as a major predisposition factor for atopic dermatitis (AD. Similarly, flaky tail (a/a ma ft/ma ft/J mice were described as a model for IV, and shown to be predisposed to eczema. The aim of this study was to correlate the flaky tail mouse phenotype with human IV and AD, in order to dissect early molecular events leading to atopic dermatitis in mice and men, suffering from filaggrin deficiency. Thus, 5-days old flaky tail pups were analyzed histologically, expression of cytokines was measured in skin and signaling pathways were investigated by protein analysis. Human biopsies of IV and AD patients were analyzed histologically and by real time PCR assays. Our data show acanthosis and hyperproliferation in flaky tail epidermis, associated with increased IL1β and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP expression, and Th2-polarization. Consequently, NFκB and Stat pathways were activated, and IL6 mRNA levels were increased. Further, quantitative analysis of late epidermal differentiation markers revealed increased Small proline-rich protein 2A (Sprr2a synthesis. Th2-polarization and Sprr2a increase may result from high TSLP expression, as shown after analysis of 5-days old K14-TSLP tg mouse skin biopsies. Our findings in the flaky tail mouse correlate with data obtained from patient biopsies of AD, but not IV. We propose that proinflammatory cytokines are responsible for acanthosis in flaky tail epidermis, and together with the Th2-derived cytokines lead to morphological changes. Accordingly, the a/a ma ft/ma ft/J mouse model can be used as an appropriate model to study early AD onset associated with profilaggrin deficiency.

  2. In vivo release of FT-207 from irradiation polymerized composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huaijiang; Kou Qinghe; Song Juzhong; Peng Tao; Chen Xiaohui; Zhang Dexi

    1999-01-01

    Polymer-drugs composite with long periods of controlled slow release was made by radiation induced polymerization in room temperature. In experiment in vivo, the composite was implanted subcutaneously the back of rabbits. The concentration of 1-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil (FT-207) was determined by HPLC. The results of test showed that the concentration of serum drug is 1.0 μg/mL after 1 week in the polymer-drug composites group. The drug concentration of tissue surrounding the composites is 76.2 +- 10.4 μg/mL. The drug concentration in the far organ (e.g.the lung 1.2 +- 0.5 μg/mL) is lower than the tissue surrounding the composite. The serum drug is higher and shorter time by the routine methods. The serum concentration of FT-207 is lower an retarded by implanted

  3. Mutated PET117 causes complex IV deficiency and is associated with neurodevelopmental regression and medulla oblongata lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, G H; Visser, G; Baertling, F; Wintjes, L T; Wolters, V M; van Montfrans, J; de Kort, G A P; Nikkels, P G J; van Hasselt, P M; van der Crabben, S N; Rodenburg, R J T

    2017-06-01

    The genetic basis of the many progressive, multi systemic, mitochondrial diseases that cause a lack of cellular ATP production is heterogeneous, with defects found both in the mitochondrial genome as well as in the nuclear genome. Many different mutations have been found in the genes encoding subunits of the enzyme complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system. In addition, mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in the assembly of these complexes are known to cause mitochondrial disorders. Here we describe two sisters with a mitochondrial disease characterized by lesions in the medulla oblongata, as demonstrated by brain magnetic resonance imaging, and an isolated complex IV deficiency and reduced levels of individual complex IV subunits. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the gene encoding Pet117, a small protein that has previously been predicted to be a complex IV assembly factor. PET117 has not been identified as a mitochondrial disease gene before. Lentiviral complementation of patient fibroblasts with wild-type PET117 restored the complex IV deficiency, proving that the gene defect is responsible for the complex IV deficiency in the patients, and indicating a pivotal role of this protein in the proper functioning of complex IV. Although previous studies had suggested a possible role of this protein in the insertion of copper into complex IV, studies in patient fibroblasts could not confirm this. This case presentation thus implicates mutations in PET117 as a novel cause of mitochondrial disease.

  4. Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency: An underestimated cause of lactic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Habarou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate carboxylase (PC is a biotin-containing mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, thereby being involved in gluconeogenesis and in energy production through replenishment of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle with oxaloacetate. PC deficiency is a very rare metabolic disorder. We report on a new patient affected by the moderate form (the American type A. Diagnosis was nearly fortuitous, resulting from the revision of an initial diagnosis of mitochondrial complex IV (C IV defect. The patient presented with severe lactic acidosis and pronounced ketonuria, associated with lethargy at age 23 months. Intellectual disability was noted at this time. Amino acids in plasma and organic acids in urine did not show patterns of interest for the diagnostic work-up. In skin fibroblasts PC showed no detectable activity whereas biotinidase activity was normal. We had previously reported another patient with the severe form of PC deficiency and we show that she also had secondary C IV deficiency in fibroblasts. Different anaplerotic treatments in vivo and in vitro were tested using fibroblasts of both patients with 2 different types of PC deficiency, type A (patient 1 and type B (patient 2. Neither clinical nor biological effects in vivo and in vitro were observed using citrate, aspartate, oxoglutarate and bezafibrate. In conclusion, this case report suggests that the moderate form of PC deficiency may be underdiagnosed and illustrates the challenges raised by energetic disorders in terms of diagnostic work-up and therapeutical strategy even in a moderate form.

  5. Effect of hypoproteinemia (HP) upon FT4 and FT3 by kinetic radioligandassay (RLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottger, I.G.; Schneck, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    HP, especially hypoalbuminemia (HA), has been associated with false low FT4 by RLA, predominantly of the analogue tracer type. Based upon previous more favourable findings in severe nonthyroidal illness (NTI), this study was designed to study this problem in more detail. Two groups of patients with severe NTI (polytrauma) were selected on the basis of their total serum protein (TSP) concentration and studied during intensive-care. Group I: N = 25, TSP 5.9 g/dl (6.0 - 7.7), A/G: 1.5, sera: N = 76. I and II: low-dose heparin (i.v. 5000 U/24 h), non-detectable in the periphery. The RLA kits used were: FT4/T4 and FT3/T3 (kinetic two-tube), and TBG, Corning Medical, rT3, Serono, TSH, Henning-Berlin, TSP/electrophoresis standard technique. The findings indicate: 1. Typical findings for follow-up of severe NTI; 2. No detection of a significant effect of HP/HA upon these RLAs for FT4 and FT3; and 3. The inter-group differences are most likely due to more severe NT1 in I (R/sub x/, A/G, rT3)

  6. Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan; LeBlanc, Bruce Philip; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Bryant, Joshua; Johnson, Wesley D.; Paquette, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility, operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program, is a wind energy research site with multiple wind turbines scaled for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. The SWiFT site currently includes three variable-speed, pitch-regulated, three-bladed wind turbines. The six volumes of this manual provide a detailed description of the SWiFT wind turbines, including their operation and user interfaces, electrical and mechanical systems, assembly and commissioning procedures, and safety systems. Further dissemination only as authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; other requests shall be approved by the originating facility or higher DOE programmatic authority. 111 UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED RELEASE Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual (SAND2016-0746 ) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Site Supervisor Dave Mitchell (6121) Date Note: Document revision logs are found after the title page of each volume of this manual. iv

  7. Vitamin E deficiency fails to affect myocardial performance during in vivo ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, J S; Powers, S K; Demirel, H A; Hamilton, K L; Jessup, J; Vincent, H K; Shanely, R A

    2000-12-01

    Vitamin E content of cardiac tissue has been proposed to play a major role in the damage caused by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). Previous studies using in vitro models have examined vitamin E deficiency and I-R-induced myocardial damage with equivocal results. The purpose of this study was to use an in vivo model of myocardial I-R to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency on myocardial I-R-induced damage. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (4-mo old) were assigned to either: 1) control diet (CON), or 2) vitamin E deficient diet (VE-DEF). The CON diet was prepared to meet AIN-93M standards, which contains 75 IU vitamin E/kg diet. The VE-DEF diet was the AIN-93M diet prepared with tocopherol stripped corn oil and no vitamin E. Following a 14-week feeding period, significant differences (p CON = 48.2 +/- 3.5; VE-DEF = 12.4 +/- 1.4 micrograms VE/g wet weight). Animals from both experimental groups were subjected to an in vivo I-R protocol consisting of 25 minutes of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion. No group differences (p > 0.05) existed in cardiac performance (peak arterial pressure or ventricular work) or the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias during the I-R protocol. VE-DEF animals had significantly higher (p CON animals. These data suggest that although vitamin E deficiency increases oxidative damage resulting from myocardial I-R, it does not affect cardiac performance during the insult.

  8. Observations of surface-mediated reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) on hematite nanoparticles by ATR FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Hilary P. [Florida International Univ., Applied Research Center, Miami, FL (United States); Powell, Brian A. [Clemson Univ., Dept. of Enviromental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Anderson, SC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that mineral surfaces may facilitate the reduction of plutonium though the mechanisms of the reduction are still unknown. The objective of this study is to use batch sorption and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments to observe the surface-mediated reduction of plutonium on hematite nanoparticles. These techniques allow for in situ measurement of reduction of plutonium with time and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of surface mediated reduction of plutonium. For the first time, ATR FT-IR peaks for Pu(VI) sorbed to hematite are measured at ∝ 916 cm{sup -1}, respectively. The decrease in peak intensity with time provides a real-time, direct measurement of Pu(VI) reduction on the hematite surface. In this work pseudo first order rate constants estimated at the high loadings (22 mg{sub Pu}/g{sub hematite}, 1.34 x 10{sup -6} M{sub Pu}/m{sup 2}) for ATR FT-IR are approximately 10 x slower than at trace concentrations based on previous work. It is proposed that the reduced rate constant at higher Pu loadings occurs after the reduction capacity due to trace Fe(II) has been exhausted and is dependent on the oxidation of water and possibly electron shuttling based on the semiconducting nature of hematite. Therefore, the reduction rate at higher loadings is possibly due to the thermodynamic favorability of Pu(IV)-hydroxide complexes.

  9. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  10. Consequences of Mrp2 deficiency for diclofenac toxicity in the rat intestine ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; van de Vegte, Dennis; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Sekine, Shuichi; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCF) has a high prevalence of intestinal side effects in humans and rats. It has been reported that Mrp2 transporter deficient rats (Mrp2) are more resistant to DCF induced intestinal toxicity. This was explained in vivo by impaired Mrp2-dependent

  11. Effects of Nutrient Deficiencies in Corn Plants on the In Vivo and In Vitro Metabolism of [14C] Diazinon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstman, J.L.; Lichtenstein, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Full text: The effects of calcium, nitrogen, and magnesium deficiencies on the penetration, translocation, and the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of the insecticide [ 14 C] diazinon (diethyl-2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl) in corn plants were investigated. On a per gram fresh weight basis only roots from nitrogen-deficient solutions contained less C while tops from plants grown in calcium-deficient solutions contained nearly four times more radiocarbon than those from complete nutrient solutions. Due to calcium or nitrogen deficiencies a reduced degradation occurred in roots as indicated by the relatively higher recoveries of diazinon and the lower recoveries of an unidentified, more polar 14 C-ring compound. No differencies in [ 14 C] diazinon degradation due to nutrient deficiencies were noticeable with corn tops. The metabolic activity of corn roots was due to a soluble enzyme. In studies with subcellular components from roots, specific activities increased from the homogenate (4.09%/mg of protein) to the 105000 g supernatant (7.77%/mg of protein). Subcellular components from calcium-deficient roots produced significantly less water-soluble radiocarbon (sp act., 0.60) than did control roots (sp act., 1.60), results similar to those observed with in vivo experiments. However, the 10000 g supernatant from root material deficient in nitrogen produced significantly more water—soluble radiocarbon (sp act., 2.85) than subcellular fractions from control roots. (author)

  12. In-vivo characteristics of high and low specific activity radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl) piperidino] cyclohexanol [(+)-pIV] for imaging sigma-1 receptor in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Mori, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In this study, (+)-enantiomer of radioiodinated 2-[4-(4- iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol ((+)-[ 125 I]-p- iodovesamicol) [(+)-[ 125 I]pIV], which is reported to bind with high affinity to the sigma-1 receptor both in vitro and in vivo, was tested to compare the in vivo characteristics between high and low specific activity (+)-[ 125 I]pIV to image sigma-1 receptor in the central nervous system. In the biodistribution study, no significant difference was observed between two methods. Accumulation of (+)- [ 125 I]pIV in rat brain was significant (approximately 3% of the injected dose) and its retention was prolonged. In the blocking study, the accumulation of (+)-[ 125 I] pIV in the rat brain was significantly reduced by the co-administration of sigma ligands such as pentazocine, haloperidol or SA4503 in both methods. But the blocking effect was relatively stronger in the study using high specific activity radioiodinated (+)pIV. Though, the distribution of high and low specific activity (+)-[ 125 I] pIV was more or less similar to bind to sigma-1 receptor in the central nervous system in vivo, high specific activity radioiodinated (+) pIV might have a better specificity to bind sigma-1 receptor in brain. (author)

  13. The effect of heparin administration on the FT4-levels and on an unspecific peripheral thyroid parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eber, B.; Borkenstein, J.; Leb, G.

    1984-01-01

    Heparin produces changes in FT 4 -levels both in vivo and in vitro as determined by commercial kits. Methods utilising the principle of equilibrium dialysis show significant increases whereas methods using T 4 -tracer analogue techniques reveal marked decreases in FT 4 -values. Possible clinical side-effects of heparin administration such as heparin-induced hyperthyroidism and tachyarrhythmias are discussed. The present results confirm the FT 4 -decreasing effect of in vivo and in vitro administration of heparin with FT 4 -RIAs based on the tracer analogue technique; however, the unspecific peripheral thyroid parameter of systolic time-intervals did not reveal any tendency towards hyperthyroidism. Also the discrepant results dependent on the method used, indicate that, following heparin administration FT 4 -levels do not reflect that hormone concentration is relevant to the metabolism of the whole body. (orig.) [de

  14. Phase portraits of general f(T) cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A.; El Hanafy, W.; Nashed, G. G. L.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2018-02-01

    We use dynamical system methods to explore the general behaviour of f(T) cosmology. In contrast to the standard applications of dynamical analysis, we present a way to transform the equations into a one-dimensional autonomous system, taking advantage of the crucial property that the torsion scalar in flat FRW geometry is just a function of the Hubble function, thus the field equations include only up to first derivatives of it, and therefore in a general f(T) cosmological scenario every quantity is expressed only in terms of the Hubble function. The great advantage is that for one-dimensional systems it is easy to construct the phase space portraits, and thus extract information and explore in detail the features and possible behaviours of f(T) cosmology. We utilize the phase space portraits and we show that f(T) cosmology can describe the universe evolution in agreement with observations, namely starting from a Big Bang singularity, evolving into the subsequent thermal history and the matter domination, entering into a late-time accelerated expansion, and resulting to the de Sitter phase in the far future. Nevertheless, f(T) cosmology can present a rich class of more exotic behaviours, such as the cosmological bounce and turnaround, the phantom-divide crossing, the Big Brake and the Big Crunch, and it may exhibit various singularities, including the non-harmful ones of type II and type IV. We study the phase space of three specific viable f(T) models offering a complete picture. Moreover, we present a new model of f(T) gravity that can lead to a universe in agreement with observations, free of perturbative instabilities, and applying the Om(z) diagnostic test we confirm that it is in agreement with the combination of SNIa, BAO and CMB data at 1σ confidence level.

  15. Measurement of serum FT/sub 4/ in pregnancy and binding protein abnormalities by different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, H; Wenzel, K W

    1985-11-01

    In serum of pregnant women in the 3rd trimester, the majority of FT/sub 4/ methods compared in the present study yielded FT/sub 4/ concentrations in the lower parts of normal ranges or beyond the lower normal border lines. In TBG deficiency, serum FT/sub 4/ as measured by six FT/sub 4/ kits was found to be in the manufacturer-specified normal ranges and did not show clearly recognizable systematic differences between single kits or kit groups with different methodological principles. considerable kit-dependent differences of measured FT/sub 4/ were found in euthyroid patients with TBG excess; all values were, however, in the respective normal ranges. In dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia, labelled analogue kits yielded falsely elevated FT/sub 4/ concentrations, while FT/sub 4/ measured by non-analogue methods was normal in agreement with the euthyroid status of the patient.

  16. AKTIVITAS HEPATOPROTEKTOR BATANG FIBRAURE TINCTORIA LOUR SECARA IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Fikriah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on Fibraurea tinctoria Lour (FT stems gives information about its traditional utility as  yellow fever treatment. Research of antecedent of FT stem proved that inhibited lipid peroxidation more effective than tocopherol acetate. These study was intended to prove hepatoprotector activity of ethanolic FT stem extract by in vivo. FT stem extract was macerated using absolute ethanol during 5 days that was repeated  3 times . FT stem extract hepatoprotector activity by in vivo was tested using carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity on Wistar rat. They were given FT stem extract orally once a day at dose 50, 100, and 200 mg/kgBW and Curcumin at dose 50 mg/KgBW as positive control.  After 10 days, all groups were examined liver function (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, liver Malonedialdehide (MDA level by Thiobarbituric acid method,  and liver histopathology by Haemotoxylin-Eosin staining. Group that induced by CCl4 showed significant elevation of SGOT, SGPT and ALT also Liver MDA than group control. FT stem extract treatment inhibited elevation of SGOT, SGPT, ALT and Liver MDA significantly.Qualitative histopathological examination on Group 2 showed extensive fibrosis and necrosis, along with  periportal PMN and lymphocyte infiltration. FT stem extract treatment inhibited pathological change that was induced by CCl4. Dose elevation showed tendency of stronger inhibition on liver cell tissue destruction and inflammation. Key words: Fibraurea tinctoria, hepatoprotector, in vivo   Abstrak Penelusuran secara etnobotani, batang Fibraurea tinctoria Lour (FT digunakan untuk obat sakit kuning. Penelitian pendahuluan batang FT berkemampuan meredam peningkatan lipid peroksidasi secara in vitro yang lebih kuat dibandingkan dengan tokoferol asetat. Membuktikan khasiat ekstrak etanol batang FT sebagai hepatoprotektor secara in vivo. Batang FT dimaserasi dengan etanol absolut selama 3 x 5 hari. Uji hambatan kerusakan hati secara in vivo digunakan model tikus yang

  17. Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-11-01

    Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

  18. Sitagliptin, An Anti-diabetic Drug, Suppresses Estrogen Deficiency-Induced OsteoporosisIn Vivo and Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuandong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disease characterized by excessive osteoclastic bone resorption. Some anti-diabetic drugs were demonstrated for anti-osteoclastic bone-loss effects. The present study investigated the skeletal effects of chronic administration of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV inhibitor that is increasingly used for type 2 diabetes treatments, in an estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis and elucidated the associated mechanisms. This study indicated that sitagliptin effectively prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss and reduced osteoclast numbers in vivo. It was also indicated that sitagliptin suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption, and F-actin ring formation in a manner of dose-dependence. In addition, sitagliptin significantly reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific markers in mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages, including calcitonin receptor (Calcr, dendrite cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dc-stamp, c-Fos, and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (Nfatc1. Further study indicated that sitagliptin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing AKT and ERK signaling pathways, scavenging ROS activity, and suppressing the Ca2+ oscillation that consequently affects the expression and/or activity of the osteoclast-specific transcription factors, c-Fos and NFATc1. Collectively, these findings suggest that sitagliptin possesses beneficial effects on bone and the suppression of osteoclast number implies that the effect is exerted directly on osteoclastogenesis.

  19. The role of interleukin-5 (IL-5 in vivo: studies with IL-5 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus I Matthaei

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil recruitment is a characteristic feature of a number of pathological conditions and was the topic of the recent International Symposium on allergic inflammation, asthma, parasitic and infectious diseases (Rio de Janeiro, June 3-5, 1996. Since interleukin5 (IL5 is believed to regulate the growth, differentiation and activation of eosinophils (Coffman et al. 1989, Sanderson 1992, the role of eosinophils and IL5 are closely linked. Although IL5 specifically regulates eosinophilia in vivo and this is its most well established activity, it is becoming clear that IL5 also has other biological effects. The recent derivation of an IL5 deficient mouse (Kopf et al. 1996, provides a model for exploring not only the role of IL5 and eosinophils but also other novel activities of IL5. Of note is that although the IL5 deficient mice cannot elicit a pronounced eosinophilia in response to inflammatory stimulation following aeroallergen challenge or parasite infection they still produce basal levels of eosinophils that appear to be morphologically and functionally normal. However, the basal levels of eosinophils appear insufficient for normal host defence as IL5 deficiency has now been shown to compromise defence against several helminth infections. In addition, IL5 deficient mice appear to have functional deficiencies in B-1 B lymphocytes and in IgA production.

  20. Cortactin deficiency is associated with reduced neutrophil recruitment but increased vascular permeability in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoor, Michael; Lai, Frank P L; Zarbock, Alexander; Kläver, Ruth; Polaschegg, Christian; Schulte, Dörte; Weich, Herbert A; Oelkers, J Margit; Rottner, Klemens; Vestweber, Dietmar

    2011-08-01

    Neutrophil extravasation and the regulation of vascular permeability require dynamic actin rearrangements in the endothelium. In this study, we analyzed in vivo whether these processes require the function of the actin nucleation-promoting factor cortactin. Basal vascular permeability for high molecular weight substances was enhanced in cortactin-deficient mice. Despite this leakiness, neutrophil extravasation in the tumor necrosis factor-stimulated cremaster was inhibited by the loss of cortactin. The permeability defect was caused by reduced levels of activated Rap1 (Ras-related protein 1) in endothelial cells and could be rescued by activating Rap1 via the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) exchange factor EPAC (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP). The defect in neutrophil extravasation was caused by enhanced rolling velocity and reduced adhesion in postcapillary venules. Impaired rolling interactions were linked to contributions of β(2)-integrin ligands, and firm adhesion was compromised by reduced ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) clustering around neutrophils. A signaling process known to be critical for the formation of ICAM-1-enriched contact areas and for transendothelial migration, the ICAM-1-mediated activation of the GTPase RhoG was blocked in cortactin-deficient endothelial cells. Our results represent the first physiological evidence that cortactin is crucial for orchestrating the molecular events leading to proper endothelial barrier function and leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

  1. Epidermal filaggrin deficiency mediates increased systemic T-helper 17 immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, C. M.; Petersen, T. H.; Bandier, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cellular T-helper (Th)17 infiltrates dominate skin inflammation in filaggrin-deficient flaky tail (ft/ft) mice, and Th17 cells are found in both the skin and blood of patients with acute atopic dermatitis. However, the potential role of loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene...

  2. 25 Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency and Its Relationship to Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Muscogiuri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low 25(OH vitamin D levels have been associated with several autoimmune diseases and recently with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of AT with low 25(OH vitamin D levels in the elderly. Methods: One hundred sixty-eight elderly subjects (mean age: 81.6 ± 9.4 years were enrolled. Serum levels of 25(OH vitamin D, anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab, anti-thyroglobulin (TG-Ab antibodies, free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured. Results: The prevalence of AT was significantly higher in subjects with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH vitamin D < 20 ng/mL when compared with subjects with normal 25(OH vitamin D (25(OH vitamin D ≥ 20 ng/mL levels (28% vs. 8%, respectively, p = 0.002. Patients with AT and vitamin D deficiency had a comparable hormonal profile compared to patients with AT and vitamin D sufficiency in terms of TSH (p = 0.39, FT3 (p = 0.30, FT4 (p = 0.31, TG-Ab (0.44 and TPO-Ab (0.35. Interestingly, a significant correlation between 25(OH vitamin D and TPO-Ab (r = −0.27, p = 0.03 and FT3 (r = 0.35, p = 0.006 has been found in subjects with AT while no correlation was found between 25(OH vitamin D levels and TG-Ab (r = −0.15, p = 0.25, TSH (r = −0.014, p = 0.09 and FT4 (r = 0.13, p = 0.32. Conclusions: These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with AT in the elderly. Therefore, the screening for AT should be suggested in subjects with vitamin D deficiency.

  3. Extreme Growth Failure is a Common Presentation of Ligase IV Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jennie E; Bicknell, Louise S; Yigit, Gökhan; Duker, Angela L; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Haghayegh, Sara; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Kayserili, Hülya; Albert, Michael H; Wise, Carol A; Brandon, January; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Warris, Adilia; van der Flier, Michiel; Bamforth, J Steven; Doonanco, Kurston; Adès, Lesley; Ma, Alan; Field, Michael; Johnson, Diana; Shackley, Fiona; Firth, Helen; Woods, C Geoffrey; Nürnberg, Peter; Gatti, Richard A; Hurles, Matthew; Bober, Michael B; Wollnik, Bernd; Jackson, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Ligase IV syndrome is a rare differential diagnosis for Nijmegen breakage syndrome owing to a shared predisposition to lympho-reticular malignancies, significant microcephaly, and radiation hypersensitivity. Only 16 cases with mutations in LIG4 have been described to date with phenotypes varying from malignancy in developmentally normal individuals, to severe combined immunodeficiency and early mortality. Here, we report the identification of biallelic truncating LIG4 mutations in 11 patients with microcephalic primordial dwarfism presenting with restricted prenatal growth and extreme postnatal global growth failure (average OFC −10.1 s.d., height −5.1 s.d.). Subsequently, most patients developed thrombocytopenia and leucopenia later in childhood and many were found to have previously unrecognized immunodeficiency following molecular diagnosis. None have yet developed malignancy, though all patients tested had cellular radiosensitivity. A genotype–phenotype correlation was also noted with position of truncating mutations corresponding to disease severity. This work extends the phenotypic spectrum associated with LIG4 mutations, establishing that extreme growth retardation with microcephaly is a common presentation of bilallelic truncating mutations. Such growth failure is therefore sufficient to consider a diagnosis of LIG4 deficiency and early recognition of such cases is important as bone marrow failure, immunodeficiency, and sometimes malignancy are long term sequelae of this disorder. PMID:24123394

  4. Deficiency of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 induces BMP2 and increases bone mass in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram Nallamshetty

    Full Text Available The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol, on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald, exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1, the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/- female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/- mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/- mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/- mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/- mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/- mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling.

  5. Deficiency of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 induces BMP2 and increases bone mass in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamshetty, Shriram; Wang, Hong; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kiefer, Florian W; Brown, Jonathan D; Lotinun, Sutada; Le, Phuong; Baron, Roland; Rosen, Clifford J; Plutzky, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol), on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald), exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT) demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/-) ) female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/-) mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/-) mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling.

  6. Biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Endo, Yasuo; Muramoto, Koji; Sugawara, Shunji

    2008-04-01

    Biotin, a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, functions as a cofactor of carboxylases that catalyze an indispensable cellular metabolism. Although significant decreases in serum biotin levels have been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, the biological roles of biotin in inflammatory responses are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of biotin deficiency on TNF-alpha production. Mice were fed a basal diet or a biotin-deficient diet for 8 weeks. Serum biotin levels were significantly lower in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. After i.v. administration of LPS, serum TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. A murine macrophage-like cell line, J774.1, was cultured in a biotin-sufficient or -deficient medium for 4 weeks. Cell proliferation and biotinylation of intracellular proteins were decreased significantly in biotin-deficient cells compared with biotin-sufficient cells. Significantly higher production and mRNA expression of TNF-alpha were detected in biotin-deficient J774.1 cells than biotin-sufficient cells in response to LPS and even without LPS stimulation. Intracellular TNF-alpha expression was inhibited by actinomycin D, indicating that biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production at the transcriptional level. However, the expression levels of TNF receptors, CD14, and TLR4/myeloid differentiation protein 2 complex were similar between biotin-sufficient and -deficient cells. No differences were detected in the activities of the NF-kappaB family or AP-1. The TNF-alpha induction by biotin deficiency was down-regulated by biotin supplementation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that biotin deficiency may up-regulate TNF-alpha production or that biotin excess down-regulates TNF-alpha production, suggesting that biotin status may influence inflammatory diseases.

  7. HUBUNGAN KADAR TIROGLOBULIN, TSH DAN fT4 SERUM PADA ANAK USIA SEKOLAH DI TIGA KABUPATEN DENGAN TINGKAT ENDEMISITAS DEFISIENSI-IODIUM BERBEDA (ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE SERUM THYROGLOBULIN, TSH, AND fT4 AMONG SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN THREE DISTRICTS WITH DIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wibowo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iodine deficiency lowers circulating thyroxine (T4 and raises serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, where free T4 (fT4 and TSH have strong corelation with thyroglobulin (Tg. The results from population studies indicate, Tg appears to be a valuable indicator of thyroid status, but it has yet to be fully explored. This study aimed to measure the association between serum Tg with TSH and fT4 as alternatif indicators thyroid status in school-aged children. This was a cross-sectional study of sample of 398 schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in three districts with different iodine-deficiency endemicity level, i.e. Pati as a mild endemic district, Purbalingga as a moderate endemic district, and Malang as a severe endemic district. Children’s blood have taken 3 cc as a sample for the determination of Tg, TSH, and fT4. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was used to determine Tg, TSH and fT4. Mean of serum Tg 14.3 ± 11.1 ng/mL (cut-off 2-50 ng/mL, TSH 3.7 ± 2.2 µIU/mL (cut-off 0.3-6.2, fT4 1.4 ± 0.4 ng/dL (cut-off 0.8-2.0 ng/dL. Correlation analysis was showed the significance of Tg and TSH (p< 0.05 and Tg with fT4 (p< 0.05. The significance analysis of Tg with TSH and fT4 may be evaluated as indicator  for thyroid function in school-aged children in iodine-deficiency endemic areas.   Keywords: thyroglobulin (Tg, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (fT4, school-aged children ABSTRAK Defisiensi iodium menurunkan tiroksin (T4 yang beredar dalam darah dan meningkatkan Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, di mana T4 bebas (fT4 dan TSH memiliki hubungan erat dengan tiroglobulin (Tg. Hasil studi populasi menunjukkan, Tg tampak menjadi indikator berharga untuk status tiroid di daerah endemik defisiensi iodium, tetapi belum sepenuhnya dieksplorasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur hubungan antara kadar Tg serum dengan kadar TSH dan fT4 sebagai indikator alternatif status tiroid pada anak usia sekolah. Ini merupakan penelitian

  8. Do TSH, FT3, and FT4 Impact BAT Visualization of Clinical FDG-PET/CT Images?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Ryuichi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Mizutani, Youichi; Terada, Tamasa; Kiyohara, Syogo; Wakamatsu, Hideyuki; Fujita, Seigo; Higashi, Tatsuya; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Saga, Tsuneo; Hirai, Toshinori

    2018-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed activated BAT visualization on FDG-PET/CT in patients with various conditions and TH levels to clarify the relationships between visualization of BAT on FDG-PET/CT and the effect of TH. Patients who underwent clinical FDG-PET/CT were reviewed and we categorized patients into 5 groups: (i) thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) group; (ii) recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) group; (iii) hypothyroidism group; (iv) hyperthyroidism group; and (v) BAT group. A total of sixty-two FDG-PET/CT imaging studies in fifty-nine patients were performed. To compare each group, gender; age; body weight; serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels; and outside temperature were evaluated. No significant visualization of BAT was noted in any of the images in the THW, rhTSH, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism groups. All patients in the BAT group were in a euthyroid state. When the BAT-negative and BAT-positive patient groups were compared, it was noted that the minimum and maximum temperature on the day of the PET study and maximum temperature of the one day before the PET study were significantly lower in BAT-positive group than in all those of other groups. Elevated TSH condition before RIT, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism did not significantly impact BAT visualization of clinical FDG-PET/CT images.

  9. Is FT3 by radioligandassay (RLA) superior in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (HT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottger, I.G.; Pabst, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    Based upon our routine experience with more than 50,000/15,000 patients having been examined by FT4/FT3 RLA the authors reported a comparable clinical value of routine parameters for free thyroid hormones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of FT3 by RLA in borderline HT (BHT) in more detail. Two groups of patients were studied prospectively: group I: BHT, 48 sera, HT was suspected on grounds of clinical, scintigraphical and ultrasonic findings, no therapy. Subgroup Ia: negative TRH test (TSH before and after 200 ..mu..g TRH i.v. 0.8 mU/1), T4, FT4, T4/TBG ratio and T3 in the normal range (NR), 22 sera. Subgroup Ib: T3 (NR: 1.6 - 3.6 pmol/1): 3.7 - 3.9 and/or FT4 and/or T4/TBG ratio elevated, 26 sera. Group II: thyroid ablated patients with thyroid carcinoma on TSH-suppressive 1-T4 medication (200 ..mu..g/day) with a negative TRH test, no obvious symptoms of HT, T3 normal. RLAs employed routinely: FT4/T4 and FT3/T3 (kinetic, two-tube), and TBG, Corning Medical, TSH, Henning-Berlin. Group I: T3 levels were in the middle to upper NR, 9 (19 %) of Ib being elevated, T3/TBG was predominantly at the upper limit of the NR, 20 (42%) of this group and 5 (10%) of Ia being increased. 29 (60%) of the FT3 levels in I and 8 (17%) in Ia were elevated up to 15 and 13 pmol/l, respectively. Group II: the T3/TBG ratio was increased in 13 (11%) and the FT3 concentration up to 14 pmol/l in 57 (50%) sera.

  10. Is FT3 by radioligandassay (RLA) superior in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (HT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottger, I.G.; Pabst, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Based upon our routine experience with more than 50,000/15,000 patients having been examined by FT4/FT3 RLA the authors reported a comparable clinical value of routine parameters for free thyroid hormones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of FT3 by RLA in borderline HT (BHT) in more detail. Two groups of patients were studied prospectively: group I: BHT, 48 sera, HT was suspected on grounds of clinical, scintigraphical and ultrasonic findings, no therapy. Subgroup Ia: negative TRH test (TSH before and after 200 μg TRH i.v. 0.8 mU/1), T4, FT4, T4/TBG ratio and T3 in the normal range (NR), 22 sera. Subgroup Ib: T3 (NR: 1.6 - 3.6 pmol/1): 3.7 - 3.9 and/or FT4 and/or T4/TBG ratio elevated, 26 sera. Group II: thyroid ablated patients with thyroid carcinoma on TSH-suppressive 1-T4 medication (200 μg/day) with a negative TRH test, no obvious symptoms of HT, T3 normal. RLAs employed routinely: FT4/T4 and FT3/T3 (kinetic, two-tube), and TBG, Corning Medical, TSH, Henning-Berlin. Group I: T3 levels were in the middle to upper NR, 9 (19 %) of Ib being elevated, T3/TBG was predominantly at the upper limit of the NR, 20 (42%) of this group and 5 (10%) of Ia being increased. 29 (60%) of the FT3 levels in I and 8 (17%) in Ia were elevated up to 15 and 13 pmol/l, respectively. Group II: the T3/TBG ratio was increased in 13 (11%) and the FT3 concentration up to 14 pmol/l in 57 (50%) sera

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  12. Noninvasive in vivo oximetric imaging by radiofrequency FT EPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S; Yamada, K; Irie, A; Murugesan, R; Cook, JA; Devasahayam, N; Van Dam, GM; Mitchell, JB; Krishna, MC

    A novel method, called relaxo-oximetry, for rapid spatially resolved in vivo measurements of oxygen concentration using time-domain radiofrequency (RF) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is described. Time-domain data from triaryl methyl (TAM)-based single-electron contrast agents were processed

  13. Do TSH, FT3, and FT4 Impact BAT Visualization of Clinical FDG-PET/CT Images?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Nishii

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We retrospectively analyzed activated BAT visualization on FDG-PET/CT in patients with various conditions and TH levels to clarify the relationships between visualization of BAT on FDG-PET/CT and the effect of TH. Methods. Patients who underwent clinical FDG-PET/CT were reviewed and we categorized patients into 5 groups: (i thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW group; (ii recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH group; (iii hypothyroidism group; (iv hyperthyroidism group; and (v BAT group. A total of sixty-two FDG-PET/CT imaging studies in fifty-nine patients were performed. To compare each group, gender; age; body weight; serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels; and outside temperature were evaluated. Results. No significant visualization of BAT was noted in any of the images in the THW, rhTSH, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism groups. All patients in the BAT group were in a euthyroid state. When the BAT-negative and BAT-positive patient groups were compared, it was noted that the minimum and maximum temperature on the day of the PET study and maximum temperature of the one day before the PET study were significantly lower in BAT-positive group than in all those of other groups. Conclusions. Elevated TSH condition before RIT, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism did not significantly impact BAT visualization of clinical FDG-PET/CT images.

  14. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    OpenAIRE

    L Sh Vagapova; O D Konstantinova; Ya I Koz; L M Shukshina; E O Skrynnik

    2011-01-01

    To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different bo...

  15. Psychomotor development of children from an iodine-deficient region

    OpenAIRE

    Costeira, Maria José; Oliveira, Pedro; Santos, Nadine Correia; Ares, Susana; Saenz-Rico, Belen; Escobar, Gabriella Morreale de; Palha, Joana Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Psychomotor development of children from an iodine-deficient region. OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychomotor development of the progeny of women from a moderately iodine-deficient area for whom thyroid function during pregnancy was measured. STUDY DESIGN: The development of 86 children was assessed by the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 12, 18, and 24 months. RESULTS: Maternal serum free thyroxine (FT(4)) levels in the first trimester of pregnancy were the major determin...

  16. Neonatal lactic acidosis, complex I/IV deficiency, and fetal cerebral disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, H. L. M.; van Tintelen, J. P.; Trijbels, J. M. F.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Troost, D.; Rozemuller, J. M.; Duran, M.; de Vries, L. S.; Schuelke, M.; Barth, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral developmental abnormalities occur in various inborn errors of metabolism including peroxisomal deficiencies, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and others. Associations with abnormalities of the respiratory chain are rare. Here we report male and female siblings with microcephaly, a

  17. Neonatal lactic acidosis, complex I/IV deficiency, and fetal cerebral disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, HLM; van Tintelen, JP; Trijbels, JMF; van den Heuvel, LP; Troost, D; Rozemuller, JM; Duran, M; de Vries, LS; Schuelke, M; Barth, PG

    Cerebral developmental abnormalities occur in various inborn errors of metabolism including peroxisomal deficiencies, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and others. Associations with abnormalities of the respiratory chain are rare. Here we report male and female siblings with microcephaly, a

  18. Neonatal lactic acidosis, complex I/IV deficiency, and fetal cerebral disruption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, H.L.M. van; Tintelen, J.P. van; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Troost, D.; Rozemuller, J.M.; Duran, M.; Vries, L.S. de; Schuelke, M.; Barth, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral developmental abnormalities occur in various inborn errors of metabolism including peroxisomal deficiencies, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and others. Associations with abnormalities of the respiratory chain are rare. Here we report male and female siblings with microcephaly, a

  19. DFT, FT-IR, FT-Raman and vibrational studies of 3-methoxyphenyl boronic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, N. R.; Hiremath, Sudhir M.; Hiremath, C. S.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this work is to study the possible stable, geometrical molecular structure, experimental and theoretical FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods of 3-Methoxyphenyl boronic acid (3MPBA). FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region of 4000-400 cm-1 and 40000-50 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometric structure and vibrational wavenumbers of the title compound were searched by B3LYP hybrid density functional theory method with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. The Selectedexperimentalbandswereassignedandcharacterizedonthebasisofthescaledtheoreticalwavenumbersby their potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes obtained from VEDA 4 program. Finally, the predicted calculation results were applied to simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title compound, which show agreement with the observed spectra. Whereas, it is observed that, the theoretical frequencies are more than the experimental one for O-H stretching vibration modes of the title molecule.

  20. Radiosynthesis of (S)-["1"8F]T1: The first PET radioligand for molecular imaging of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasamkan, Jiradanai; Fischer, Steffen; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Ludwig, Friedrich-Alexander; Scheunemann, Matthias; Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Vajragupta, Opa; Brust, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Recent pharmacologic data revealed the implication of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in nicotine and drug addiction. To image α3β4 nAChRs in vivo, we aimed to establish the synthesis of a ["1"8F]-labelled analog of the highly affine and selective α3β4 ligand (S)-3-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)quinuclidine ((S)-T1). (S)-["1"8F]T1 was synthesized from ethynyl-4-["1"8F]fluorobenzene (["1"8F]5) and (S)-azidoquinuclidine by click reaction. After a synthesis time of 130 min (S)-["1"8F]T1 was obtained with a radiochemical yield (non-decay corrected) of 4.3±1.3%, a radiochemical purity of >99% and a molar activity of >158 GBq/μmol. The brain uptake and the brain-to-blood ratio of (S)-["1"8F]T1 in mice at 30 min post injection were 2.02 (SUV) and 6.1, respectively. According to an ex-vivo analysis, the tracer remained intact (>99%) in brain. Only one major radiometabolite was detected in plasma and urine samples. In-vitro autoradiography on pig brain slices revealed binding of (S)-["1"8F]T1 to brain regions associated with the expression of α3β4 nAChRs, which could be reduced by the α3β4 nAChR selective drug AT-1001. These findings make (S)-["1"8F]T1 a potential tool for the non-invasive imaging of α3β4 nAChRs in the brain by PET. - Highlights: • (S)-["1"8F]T1 is a promising α3ß4 nAChR ligand for PET imaging. • The novel radioligand (S)-["1"8F]T1 was synthesized by click reaction. • The potential of (S)-["1"8F]T1 was shown by in vitro autoradiography and in vivo evaluation in mice.

  1. Application of reflectance spectroscopies (FTIR-ATR & FT-NIR) coupled with multivariate methods for robust in vivo detection of begomovirus infection in papaya leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Quazi M. I.; Mabood, Fazal; Naureen, Zakira; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Gilani, Sayed A.; Hussain, Javid; Jabeen, Farah; Khan, Ajmal; Al-Sabari, Ruqaya S. M.; Al-khanbashi, Fatema H. S.; Al-Fahdi, Amira A. M.; Al-Zaabi, Ahoud K. A.; Al-Shuraiqi, Fatma A. M.; Al-Bahaisi, Iman M.

    2018-06-01

    Nucleic acid & serology based methods have revolutionized plant disease detection, however, they are not very reliable at asymptomatic stage, especially in case of pathogen with systemic infection, in addition, they need at least 1-2 days for sample harvesting, processing, and analysis. In this study, two reflectance spectroscopies i.e. Near Infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) and Fourier-Transform-Infrared spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflection (FT-IR, ATR) coupled with multivariate exploratory methods like Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) have been deployed to detect begomovirus infection in papaya leaves. The application of those techniques demonstrates that they are very useful for robust in vivo detection of plant begomovirus infection. These methods are simple, sensitive, reproducible, precise, and do not require any lengthy samples preparation procedures.

  2. An FT-Raman, FT-IR, and Quantum Chemical Investigation of Stanozolol and Oxandrolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibebe Lemma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR and the Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman spectra of stanozolol and oxandrolone, and we have performed quantum chemical calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT with a B3LYP/6-31G (d, p level of theory. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were collected in a solid phase. The consistency between the calculated and experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman data indicates that the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p can generate reliable geometry and related properties of the title compounds. Selected experimental bands were assigned and characterized on the basis of the scaled theoretical wavenumbers by their total energy distribution. The good agreement between the experimental and theoretical spectra allowed positive assignment of the observed vibrational absorption bands. Finally, the calculation results were applied to simulate the Raman and IR spectra of the title compounds, which show agreement with the observed spectra.

  3. Crystal structure of ammonium divanadium(IV,V tellurium(IV heptaoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. A. Harrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The polyhedral building blocks of the layered inorganic network in the mixed-valence title compound, (NH4(VIVO2(VVO2(TeO3, are vertex-sharing VVO4 tetrahedra, distorted VIVO6 octahedra and TeO3 pyramids, which are linked by V—O—V and V—O—Te bonds, forming double layers lying parallel to (100. The presumed TeIV lone-pairs of electrons appear to be directed inwards into cavities in the double layers. The charge-balancing ammonium cations lie between the layers and probably interact with them via N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  4. Three-dimensional in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and contact area of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient and -reconstructed subjects using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Choongsoo S; Carpenter, R Dana; Majumdar, Sharmila; Ma, C Benjamin

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether (1) the 3-dimensional in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and patellofemoral contact area of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees are different from those of normal, contralateral knees and (2) ACL reconstruction restores in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and contact area. Ten ACL-deficient knees and twelve ACL-reconstructed knees, as well as the contralateral uninjured knees, were tested. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at full extension and 40 degrees of flexion under simulated partial weight-bearing conditions. Six-degrees of freedom patellofemoral kinematics, patellofemoral contact area, and contact location were analyzed by use of magnetic resonance image-based 3-dimensional patellofemoral knee models. The patella in the ACL-deficient knees underwent significantly more lateral tilt during flexion (P contact areas of ACL-deficient knees at both the extended and flexed positions (37 +/- 22 mm(2) and 357 +/- 53 mm(2), respectively) were significantly smaller than those of contralateral knees (78 +/- 45 mm(2) and 437 +/- 119 mm(2), respectively) (P contact area of ACL-reconstructed knees in the extended position (86 +/- 41 mm(2)) was significantly larger (P contact centroid translation, and contact area showed coefficients of variation of less than 6.8%. ACL injuries alter patellofemoral kinematics including patellar tilt and patellar lateral translation, but ACL reconstruction with hamstring or allograft restores altered patellar tilt. ACL injuries reduce the patellofemoral contact area at both the extended and flexed positions, but ACL reconstruction enlarges the patellofemoral contact area at extension and restores the normal contact area at low angles of flexion. Level III, case-control study.

  5. Possible association of 3' UTR +357 A>G, IVS11-nt 93 T>C, c.1311 C>T polymorphism with G6PD deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdah, Mahmoud M; Shubair, Mohammad E; Al-Kahlout, Mustafa S; Al-Tayeb, Jamal M; Prchal, Josef T; Reading, N Scott

    2017-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked inherited enzymopathic disorder affecting more than 500 million people worldwide. It has so far been linked to 217 distinct genetic variants in the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the G6PD gene, giving rise to a wide range of biochemical heterogeneity and clinical manifestations. Reports from different settings suggested the association of intronic and other mutations outside the reading frame of the G6PD gene with reduced enzyme activity and presenting clinical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate any association of other variations apart of the exonic or exonic intronic boundaries in the development of G6PD deficiency. Sixty-seven unrelated Palestinian children admitted to the pediatric hospital with hemolytic crises due to G6PD deficiency were studied. In our Palestinian cohort of 67 [59 males (M) and 8 females (F)] G6PD-deficient children, previously hospitalized for acute hemolytic anemia due to favism, molecular sequencing of the G6PD gene revealed four cases (3M and 1F) that did not have any of the variants known to cause G6PD deficiency, but the 3' UTR c.*+357A>G (rs1050757) polymorphism in association with IVS 11 (c.1365-13T>C; rs2071429), and c.1311C>T (rs2230037). We now provide an additional evidence form Palestinian G6PD-deficient subjects for a possible role of 3' UTR c.*+357 A>G, c.1365-13T>C, and/or c.1311C>T polymorphism for G6PD deficiency, suggesting that not only a single variation in the exonic or exonic intronic boundaries, but also a haplotype of G6PD should considered as a cause for G6PD deficiency.

  6. Iodine deficiency and subclinical hypothyroidism are common in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naehrlich, Lutz; Dörr, Helmuth-Günther; Bagheri-Behrouzi, Azadeh; Rauh, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Disorders of thyroid function have been inconsistently described in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and in CF transmembrane regulator protein knockout animals. The literature lacks reports on iodine status of CF individuals. We hypothesize, that iodine deficiency is common in CF and account for abnormal thyroid function in CF patients. We investigated 129 children, adolescents, and adults with CF, who were living in the northern part of Bavaria/Germany. Malnutrition and lung function were analyzed. Urinary iodine excretion, TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), and ft4 (free thyroxine) were measured and set in relation to population-based, age-adjusted reference ranges. Subclinical hypothyroidism (normal fT4, elevated TSH) was found in 11.6% of subjects, and iodine deficiency in 83.7%. No correlations were found with age, BMI, status of malnutrition, or lung function. Dramatic iodine deficiency was found in our cohort of CF patients. This condition can cause subclinical hypothyroidism; therefore, an individual iodine supplementation program is necessary and should be started immediately. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutation in mitochondrial complex IV subunit COX5A causes pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia, and failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertling, Fabian; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Joshi, Niranjan P; Venselaar, Hanka; van den Brand, Mariël Am; Nijtmans, Leo Gj; Rodenburg, Richard Jt

    2017-06-01

    COX5A is a nuclear-encoded subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase). We present patients with a homozygous pathogenic variant in the COX5A gene. Clinical details of two affected siblings suffering from early-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia, failure to thrive, and isolated complex IV deficiency are presented. We show that the variant lies within the evolutionarily conserved COX5A/COX4 interface domain, suggesting that it alters the interaction between these two subunits during complex IV biogenesis. In patient skin fibroblasts, the enzymatic activity and protein levels of complex IV and several of its subunits are reduced. Lentiviral complementation rescues complex IV deficiency. The monomeric COX1 assembly intermediate accumulates demonstrating a function of COX5A in complex IV biogenesis. A potential therapeutic lead is demonstrated by showing that copper supplementation leads to partial rescue of complex IV deficiency in patient fibroblasts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Application of reflectance spectroscopies (FTIR-ATR & FT-NIR) coupled with multivariate methods for robust in vivo detection of begomovirus infection in papaya leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Quazi M I; Mabood, Fazal; Naureen, Zakira; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Gilani, Sayed A; Hussain, Javid; Jabeen, Farah; Khan, Ajmal; Al-Sabari, Ruqaya S M; Al-Khanbashi, Fatema H S; Al-Fahdi, Amira A M; Al-Zaabi, Ahoud K A; Al-Shuraiqi, Fatma A M; Al-Bahaisi, Iman M

    2018-06-05

    Nucleic acid & serology based methods have revolutionized plant disease detection, however, they are not very reliable at asymptomatic stage, especially in case of pathogen with systemic infection, in addition, they need at least 1-2days for sample harvesting, processing, and analysis. In this study, two reflectance spectroscopies i.e. Near Infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) and Fourier-Transform-Infrared spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflection (FT-IR, ATR) coupled with multivariate exploratory methods like Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) have been deployed to detect begomovirus infection in papaya leaves. The application of those techniques demonstrates that they are very useful for robust in vivo detection of plant begomovirus infection. These methods are simple, sensitive, reproducible, precise, and do not require any lengthy samples preparation procedures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo vitamin C deficiency in guinea pigs increases ascorbate transporters in liver but not kidney and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Ditte; Lindblad, Maiken M; Paidi, Maya D; Hasselholt, Stine; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille

    2014-07-01

    Moderate vitamin C (vitC) deficiency (plasma concentrations less than 23 μmol/L) affects as much as 10% of adults in the Western World and has been associated with an increased mortality in disease complexes such as cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. The distribution of vitC within the body is subjected to complex and nonlinear pharmacokinetics and largely depends on the sodium-dependent vitC-specific transporters, sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1) and sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2). Although currently not established, it is likely to expect that a state of deficiency may affect the expression of these transporters to preserve vitC concentrations in specific target tissues. We hypothesized that diet-induced states of vitC deficiency lead to alterations in the messenger RNA (mRNA) and/or protein expression of vitC transporters, thereby regulating vitC tissue distribution. Using guinea pigs as a validated model, this study investigated the effects of a diet-induced vitC deficiency (100 mg vitC/kg feed) or depletion (0 mg vitC/kg feed) on the expression of transporters SVCT1 and SVCT2 in selected tissues and the transport from plasma to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In deficient animals, SVCT1 was increased in the liver, whereas a decreased SVCT1 expression but increased SVCT2 mRNA in livers of depleted animals suggests a shift in transporter expression as response to the diet. In CSF, a constant plasma:CSF ratio shows unaltered vitC transport irrespective of dietary regime. The study adds novel information to the complex regulation maintaining vitC homeostasis in vivo during states of deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity and the antidiabetic effect of sodium caseinate hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tzu-Yuan; Hung, Chuan-Chuan; Jao, Chia-Ling; Hsieh, You-Liang; Wu, Si-Xian; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2016-02-01

    The frequency (A), a novel in silico parameter, was developed by calculating the ratio of the number of truncated peptides with Xaa-proline and Xaa-alanine to all peptide fragments from a protein hydrolyzed with a specific protease. The highest in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity (72.7%) was observed in the hydrolysate of sodium caseinate by bromelain (Cas/BRO), and the constituent proteins of bovine casein also had relatively high A values (0.10-0.17) with BRO hydrolysis. 1CBR (the <1 kDa fraction of Cas/BRO) showed the greatest in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity of 77.5% and was used for in vivo test by high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The daily administration of 1CBR for 6 weeks was effective to improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats. The results indicate that the novel in silico method has the potential as a screening tool to predict dietary proteins to generate DPP-IV inhibitory and antidiabetic peptides.

  11. Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Dhakal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L. is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powder. Sample mixtures of turmeric powder and metanil yellow were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.01% (w/w. FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were acquired for these mixture samples as well as for pure samples of turmeric powder and metanil yellow. Spectral analysis showed that the FT-IR method in this study could detect the metanil yellow at the 5% concentration, while the FT-Raman method appeared to be more sensitive and could detect the metanil yellow at the 1% concentration. Relationships between metanil yellow spectral peak intensities and metanil yellow concentration were established using representative peaks at FT-Raman 1406 cm−1 and FT-IR 1140 cm−1 with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively.

  12. Gaseous equilibrium in sector CP IV of the Cerro Prieto, B.C. Mexico geothermal field; Equilibrio gaseoso en el sector CP IV del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); De Leon Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Cerro Prieto, Cerro Prieto, B. C. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Sector CP IV is located in the NE portion of the Cerrro Prieto geothermal field. The wells of this zone produce two-phase fluids, with different characteristics as far as their steam fraction content; in the central part and towards the NW the fluids are of dominant liquid type whereas towards the E and the S, the fluid contains a relatively higher steam fraction. The results of gaseous equilibrium FT- HSH3 showed that the fluids in the deposit are at temperatures between 275 Celsius degrees and 310 Celsius degrees and contain steam fractions between 0.01 and 0.5. The data found for the natural state are aligned in a tendency defined in the diagram FT- HSH3, that suggest the wells receive different proportions from preexisting steam in the deposit, which are mixed with the liquid phase to produce the observed discharges. The present data, besides showing the presence of deposit steam, also indicates the entrance of lower temperature fluid in the central part of sector CP IV. [Spanish] El sector CP IV se localiza en la porcion NE del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto. Los pozos de esta zona producen fluidos bifasicos, con diferentes caracteristicas en cuanto a su contenido de fraccion de vapor: en la parte central y hacia el NW los fluidos son de tipo liquido dominante mientras que hacia el E y hacia el S, el fluido contiene una fraccion relativamente alta de vapor. Los resultados de equilibrio gaseoso FT-HSH3 mostraron que los fluidos en el yacimiento se encuentran a temperaturas de entre 275 grados Celsius y 310 grados Celsius y contienen fracciones de vapor de entre -.01 y .5. Los datos hallados para el estado natural se alinean en una tendencia definida en el diagrama FT-HSH3, que sugiere que los pozos reciben diferentes proporciones de vapor pre-existente en el yacimiento, que se mezclan con fase liquida para producir las descargas que se observan. Los datos actuales, ademas de mostrar la presencia de vapor de yacimiento, tambien indican la entrada de fluidos de

  13. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  14. Chemical nature of implant-derived titanium(IV) ions in synovial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silwood, Christopher J.L.; Grootveld, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Previous investigations have indicated a deleterious leakage of Ti(III) and/or Ti(IV) species from Ti-Al-V alloy joint prostheses into adjacent tissue, synovium or synovial fluid (SF) in vivo. In view of the importance of the particular chemical nature of such complexes in determining their biological activity, we have employed high field proton ( 1 H) NMR spectroscopy to 'speciate' Ti(IV) in inflammatory SF. Treatment of osteoarthritic SF samples with increasing concentrations of Ti(IV) (0.10-1.03 mM [TiO(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ] 2- ) gave rise to a specific broadening of the citrate proton resonances, indicating that this bioavailable oxygen-donor ligand plays an important role in complexing implant-derived Ti(IV). 1 H NMR analysis of Ti(IV)-loaded SF samples subsequently treated with a large excess of ascorbate (0.05 M) showed that this added Ti(IV) chelator was only poorly effective in removing this metal ion from Ti(IV)-citrate/Ti(IV)-oxycitrate complexes. The results obtained here provide evidence for complexation of the low-molecular-mass (non-protein-bound) fraction of implant-derived Ti(IV) by citrate in vivo

  15. Combined Respiratory Chain Deficiency and UQCC2 Mutations in Neonatal Encephalomyopathy: Defective Supercomplex Assembly in Complex III Deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René G. Feichtinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate respiratory chain complex III consists of eleven subunits. Mutations in five subunits either mitochondrial (MT-CYB or nuclear (CYC1, UQCRC2, UQCRB, and UQCRQ encoded have been reported. Defects in five further factors for assembly (TTC19, UQCC2, and UQCC3 or iron-sulphur cluster loading (BCS1L and LYRM7 cause complex III deficiency. Here, we report a second patient with UQCC2 deficiency. This girl was born prematurely; pregnancy was complicated by intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios. She presented with respiratory distress syndrome, developed epileptic seizures progressing to status epilepticus, and died at day 33. She had profound lactic acidosis and elevated urinary pyruvate. Exome sequencing revealed two homozygous missense variants in UQCC2, leading to a severe reduction of UQCC2 protein. Deficiency of complexes I and III was found enzymatically and on the protein level. A review of the literature on genetically distinct complex III defects revealed that, except TTC19 deficiency, the biochemical pattern was very often a combined respiratory chain deficiency. Besides complex III, typically, complex I was decreased, in some cases complex IV. In accordance with previous observations, the presence of assembled complex III is required for the stability or assembly of complexes I and IV, which might be related to respirasome/supercomplex formation.

  16. Iron deficiency intravenous substitution in a Swiss academic primary care division: analysis of practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcher, Monica; Zisimopoulou, Sofia; Braillard, Olivia; Favrat, Bernard; Junod Perron, Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency is a common problem in primary care and is usually treated with oral iron substitution. With the recent simplification of intravenous (IV) iron administration (ferric carboxymaltose) and its approval in many countries for iron deficiency, physicians may be inclined to overutilize it as a first-line substitution. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency management and substitution practices in an academic primary care division 5 years after ferric carboxymaltose was approved for treatment of iron deficiency in Switzerland. Methods All patients treated for iron deficiency during March and April 2012 at the Geneva University Division of Primary Care were identified. Their medical files were analyzed for information, including initial ferritin value, reasons for the investigation of iron levels, suspected etiology, type of treatment initiated, and clinical and biological follow-up. Findings were assessed using an algorithm for iron deficiency management based on a literature review. Results Out of 1,671 patients, 93 were treated for iron deficiency. Median patients’ age was 40 years and 92.5% (n=86) were female. The average ferritin value was 17.2 μg/L (standard deviation 13.3 μg/L). The reasons for the investigation of iron levels were documented in 82% and the suspected etiology for iron deficiency was reported in 67%. Seventy percent of the patients received oral treatment, 14% IV treatment, and 16% both. The reasons for IV treatment as first- and second-line treatment were reported in 57% and 95%, respectively. Clinical and biological follow-up was planned in less than two-thirds of the cases. Conclusion There was no clear overutilization of IV iron substitution. However, several steps of the iron deficiency management were not optimally documented, suggesting shortcuts in clinical reasoning. PMID:27445502

  17. Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy: The Effect on Neurodevelopment in the Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A. Skeaff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4 and tri-iodothyronine (T3, necessary for normal growth and development. An adequate supply of cerebral T3, generated in the fetal brain from maternal free T4 (fT4, is needed by the fetus for thyroid hormone dependent neurodevelopment, which begins in the second half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Around the beginning of the second trimester the fetal thyroid also begins to produce hormones but the reserves of the fetal gland are low, thus maternal thyroid hormones contribute to total fetal thyroid hormone concentrations until birth. In order for pregnant women to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet both her own and her baby’s requirements, a 50% increase in iodine intake is recommended. A lack of iodine in the diet may result in the mother becoming iodine deficient, and subsequently the fetus. In iodine deficiency, hypothyroxinemia (i.e., low maternal fT4 results in damage to the developing brain, which is further aggravated by hypothyroidism in the fetus. The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is cretinism, characterised by profound mental retardation. There is unequivocal evidence that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy impairs brain development in the child. However, only two intervention trials have assessed neurodevelopment in children of moderately iodine deficient mothers finding improved neurodevelopment in children of mothers supplemented earlier rather than later in pregnancy; both studies were not randomised and were uncontrolled. Thus, there is a need for well-designed trials to determine the effect of iodine supplementation in moderate to mildly iodine deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment in the child.

  18. FT-Raman and FT-IR studies of 1:2.5 piroxicam: β-cyclodextrin inclusion compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoluzza, A.; Rossi, M.; Taddei, P.; Redenti, E.; Zanol, M.; Ventura, P.

    1999-05-01

    The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of amorphous 1:2.5 piroxicam (P): β-cyclodextrin (βCD) inclusion compound (PβCD) are presented and discussed in comparison with the spectra of the three main modifications of piroxicam (α,β and monohydrate). In the 1700-1200 cm -1 FT-Raman spectrum of 1:2.5 PβCD inclusion compound the bands of βCD are weak and covered by those stronger of piroxicam, differently from the FT-IR spectrum where the bands of βCD are stronger, so covering a large part of the spectrum. Typical FT-Raman marker bands are assigned for the characterization of the three modifications of piroxicam. The FT-Raman spectrum of 1:2.5 PβCD inclusion compound predominantly shows the bands at about 1465 and 1400 cm -1 of the monohydrate, indicating that piroxicam assumes the zwitterionic structure stabilized by interaction with βCD via electrostatic and hydrogen bonds. The dipolar character of 1:2.5 PβCD inclusion compound improves the solubility and the dissolution rate of piroxicam and thus its rate of absorption.

  19. Interactions and Localization of Escherichia coli Error-Prone DNA Polymerase IV after DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Sarita; Popodi, Ellen M; Hanson, Andrew J; Foster, Patricia L

    2015-09-01

    Escherichia coli's DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV/DinB), a member of the Y family of error-prone polymerases, is induced during the SOS response to DNA damage and is responsible for translesion bypass and adaptive (stress-induced) mutation. In this study, the localization of Pol IV after DNA damage was followed using fluorescent fusions. After exposure of E. coli to DNA-damaging agents, fluorescently tagged Pol IV localized to the nucleoid as foci. Stepwise photobleaching indicated ∼60% of the foci consisted of three Pol IV molecules, while ∼40% consisted of six Pol IV molecules. Fluorescently tagged Rep, a replication accessory DNA helicase, was recruited to the Pol IV foci after DNA damage, suggesting that the in vitro interaction between Rep and Pol IV reported previously also occurs in vivo. Fluorescently tagged RecA also formed foci after DNA damage, and Pol IV localized to them. To investigate if Pol IV localizes to double-strand breaks (DSBs), an I-SceI endonuclease-mediated DSB was introduced close to a fluorescently labeled LacO array on the chromosome. After DSB induction, Pol IV localized to the DSB site in ∼70% of SOS-induced cells. RecA also formed foci at the DSB sites, and Pol IV localized to the RecA foci. These results suggest that Pol IV interacts with RecA in vivo and is recruited to sites of DSBs to aid in the restoration of DNA replication. DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV/DinB) is an error-prone DNA polymerase capable of bypassing DNA lesions and aiding in the restart of stalled replication forks. In this work, we demonstrate in vivo localization of fluorescently tagged Pol IV to the nucleoid after DNA damage and to DNA double-strand breaks. We show colocalization of Pol IV with two proteins: Rep DNA helicase, which participates in replication, and RecA, which catalyzes recombinational repair of stalled replication forks. Time course experiments suggest that Pol IV recruits Rep and that RecA recruits Pol IV. These findings provide in vivo evidence

  20. SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan

  1. The evaluation of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3) in the routine diagnosis of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.; Goebel, R.

    1985-01-01

    The validity of the free thyroid hormone parameters (FT 4 and FT 3 ) was verified in a random sample of 154 ambulatory patients with thyroid conditions. The ''euthyroid range'' of FT 4 was between 15.67 and 30.66 pmol/l; median 21.98 pmol/l. The distribution of the FT 4 readings peaked on the left and sloped to the right (log normal). In our laboratory, the ''euthyroid reference range'' of FT 4 is between 10-28 pmol/l. The ''euthyroid range'' of FT 3 extended from 4.6 to 9.7 pmol/l; median 6.63 pmol/l. The distribution of the readings was likewise log normal. The values of FT 4 and FT 3 are not significantly influenced by TBG concentration anomalies in otherwise healthy thyroid patients. For purposes of discrimination between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, FT 3 (95%) and FT 4 (90%) are better suited than the corresponding quotients for the free hormone fraction or the total hormone concentrations. On the other hand, the free hormone parameters are less suitable for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. These results were deduced theoretically from mathematical function analyses between the TBG-independent free hormone parameters and the TBG-dependent hormone concentrations. (orig.) [de

  2. Forankring af kvarterløft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazanti, B.

    Kvarterløft er et offentligt initiativ, der har til formål at forbedre sociale, bygningsmæssige og andre forhold i en afgrænset bydel. Kvarterløft er per definition tidsbegrænset til fem eller syv år. Mens et kvarterløft står på, er der ofte en mængde og mangfoldighed af aktiviteter og projekter....

  3. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sh Vagapova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different body weight indexes. So, the results of investigation can help to come to the conclusion about the absence of true correlation between body weight and functional thyroid state in female adolescents with irregular menses.

  4. Activated Fps/Fes partially rescues the in vivo developmental potential of Flk1-deficient vascular progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Jody J; Ema, Masatsugu; Haigh, Katharina; Gertsenstein, Marina; Greer, Peter; Rossant, Janet; Nagy, Andras; Wagner, Erwin F

    2004-02-01

    Relatively little is known about the modulators of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)/Flk1 signaling cascade. To functionally characterize this pathway, VEGF-A stimulation of endothelial cells was performed. VEGF-A-mediated Flk1 activation resulted in increased translocation of the endogenous Fps/Fes cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase to the plasma membrane and increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting a role for Fps/Fes in VEGF-A/Flk1 signaling events. Addition of a myristoylation consensus sequence to Fps/Fes resulted in VEGF-A-independent membrane localization of Fps/Fes in endothelial cells. Expression of the activated Fps/Fes protein in Flk1-deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells rescued their contribution to the developing vascular endothelium in vivo by using ES cell-derived chimeras. Activated Fps/Fes contributed to this rescue event by restoring the migratory potential to Flk1 null progenitors, which is required for movement of hemangioblasts from the primitive streak region into the yolk sac proper. Activated Fps/Fes in the presence of Flk1 increased the number of hemangioblast colonies in vitro and increased the number of mesodermal progenitors in vivo. These results suggest that Fps/Fes may act synergistically with Flk1 to modulate hemangioblast differentiation into the endothelium. We have also demonstrated that activated Fps/Fes causes hemangioma formation in vivo, independently of Flk1, as a result of increasing vascular progenitor density.

  5. AKTIP/Ft1, a New Shelterin-Interacting Factor Required for Telomere Maintenance.

    KAUST Repository

    Burla, Romina

    2015-06-25

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect the ends of linear chromosomes from incomplete replication, degradation and detection as DNA breaks. Mammalian telomeres are protected by shelterin, a multiprotein complex that binds the TTAGGG telomeric repeats and recruits a series of additional factors that are essential for telomere function. Although many shelterin-associated proteins have been so far identified, the inventory of shelterin-interacting factors required for telomere maintenance is still largely incomplete. Here, we characterize AKTIP/Ft1 (human AKTIP and mouse Ft1 are orthologous), a novel mammalian shelterin-bound factor identified on the basis of its homology with the Drosophila telomere protein Pendolino. AKTIP/Ft1 shares homology with the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating (UEV) enzymes and has been previously implicated in the control of apoptosis and in vesicle trafficking. RNAi-mediated depletion of AKTIP results in formation of telomere dysfunction foci (TIFs). Consistent with these results, AKTIP interacts with telomeric DNA and binds the shelterin components TRF1 and TRF2 both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of AKTIP- depleted human primary fibroblasts showed that they are defective in PCNA recruiting and arrest in the S phase due to the activation of the intra S checkpoint. Accordingly, AKTIP physically interacts with PCNA and the RPA70 DNA replication factor. Ft1-depleted p53-/- MEFs did not arrest in the S phase but displayed significant increases in multiple telomeric signals (MTS) and sister telomere associations (STAs), two hallmarks of defective telomere replication. In addition, we found an epistatic relation for MST formation between Ft1 and TRF1, which has been previously shown to be required for replication fork progression through telomeric DNA. Ch-IP experiments further suggested that in AKTIP-depleted cells undergoing the S phase, TRF1 is less tightly bound to telomeric DNA than in controls. Thus, our results collectively

  6. AKTIP/Ft1, a New Shelterin-Interacting Factor Required for Telomere Maintenance.

    KAUST Repository

    Burla, Romina; Carcuro, Mariateresa; Raffa, Grazia D; Galati, Alessandra; Raimondo, Domenico; Rizzo, Angela; La Torre, Mattia; Micheli, Emanuela; Ciapponi, Laura; Cenci, Giovanni; Cundari, Enrico; Musio, Antonio; Biroccio, Annamaria; Cacchione, Stefano; Gatti, Maurizio; Saggio, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect the ends of linear chromosomes from incomplete replication, degradation and detection as DNA breaks. Mammalian telomeres are protected by shelterin, a multiprotein complex that binds the TTAGGG telomeric repeats and recruits a series of additional factors that are essential for telomere function. Although many shelterin-associated proteins have been so far identified, the inventory of shelterin-interacting factors required for telomere maintenance is still largely incomplete. Here, we characterize AKTIP/Ft1 (human AKTIP and mouse Ft1 are orthologous), a novel mammalian shelterin-bound factor identified on the basis of its homology with the Drosophila telomere protein Pendolino. AKTIP/Ft1 shares homology with the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating (UEV) enzymes and has been previously implicated in the control of apoptosis and in vesicle trafficking. RNAi-mediated depletion of AKTIP results in formation of telomere dysfunction foci (TIFs). Consistent with these results, AKTIP interacts with telomeric DNA and binds the shelterin components TRF1 and TRF2 both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of AKTIP- depleted human primary fibroblasts showed that they are defective in PCNA recruiting and arrest in the S phase due to the activation of the intra S checkpoint. Accordingly, AKTIP physically interacts with PCNA and the RPA70 DNA replication factor. Ft1-depleted p53-/- MEFs did not arrest in the S phase but displayed significant increases in multiple telomeric signals (MTS) and sister telomere associations (STAs), two hallmarks of defective telomere replication. In addition, we found an epistatic relation for MST formation between Ft1 and TRF1, which has been previously shown to be required for replication fork progression through telomeric DNA. Ch-IP experiments further suggested that in AKTIP-depleted cells undergoing the S phase, TRF1 is less tightly bound to telomeric DNA than in controls. Thus, our results collectively

  7. Increased uracil misincorporation in lymphocytes from folate-deficient rats

    OpenAIRE

    Duthie, S J; Grant, G; Narayanan, S

    2000-01-01

    The development of certain human cancers has been linked with inadequate intake of folates. The effects of folate deficiency in vivo on DNA stability (strand breakage, misincorporated uracil and oxidative base damage) in lymphocytes isolated from rats fed a diet deficient in folic acid was determined. Because the metabolic pathways of folate and other methyl donors are closely coupled, the effects of methionine and choline deficiency alone or in combination with folate deficiency were determi...

  8. 2-Methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sass, Jörn Oliver; Ensenauer, Regina; Röschinger, Wulf

    2008-01-01

    2-Methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (MBD; coded by the ACADSB gene) catalyzes the step in isoleucine metabolism that corresponds to the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase reaction in the degradation of leucine. Deficiencies of both enzymes may be detected by expanded neonatal screening with tandem...... individuals showed clinical symptoms attributable to MBD deficiency although the defect in isoleucine catabolism was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. Several mutations in the ACADSB gene were identified, including a novel one. MBD deficiency may be a harmless metabolic variant although significant...

  9. Maternal Different Degrees of Iodine Deficiency during Pregnant and Lactation Impair the Development of Cerebellar Pinceau in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Iodine is critical for synthesis of thyroid hormones (TH. And iodine deficiency (ID is one of the most significant reasons of intellectual disability and motor memory impairment, although the potential mechanisms are still under investigation. Presently, mild ID and marginal ID are largely ignored problems for women of child bearing age. Mild ID is a subtle form of TH deficiency, which shows low levels of free thyroxine (FT4 and relatively normal free triiodothyronine (FT3 or thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH. And marginal ID is a milder form of ID with decreased total T4 (TT4 but relatively normal FT3, FT4, and TSH. Therefore, we investigated the effects of maternal different degrees of ID on the development of pinceau in cerebellar purkinje cells (PCs and studied the expression of pinceau related protein, which is crucial for the development and maturation of pinceau.Methods and Results: Three developmental iodine deficient rat models were created by feeding dam rats with an iodine-deficient diet and deionized water supplemented with potassiumiodide. Our study showed that different degrees of ID inhibited cerebellar pinceau synapse development and maturation on postnatal day (PN 14 and PN21. What's more, mild and severe ID reduced the expression of AnkG, β4-spectrin, neurofascin186 and NrCAM on PN7, PN14, and PN21. However, marginal ID rarely altered expression of these proteins in the offspring.Conclusion: These results suggested that maternal mild and severe ID impaired the development and maturation of cerebellar pinceau, which may be attributed to the decrease of AnkG, β4-spectrin, neurofascin 186, and NrCAM. And the alteration of development and maturation in cerebellar pinceau in the offspring were also observed following maternal marginal ID, which is slighter than that of mild ID.

  10. Measurement of serum FT3 and FT4 in patients with chronic renal failure and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Qingling; Zhang Hui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid hormones in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and it's clinical significance. Methods: FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH levels were measured with radioimmunoassay for 42 CRF patients (42 CRF patients were subdivided into uremia and azotemia) and 18 cases of renal disease patients with a normal renal function. Results: Levels of FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH in uremia group and azotemia group were significantly lower than that of normal renal function group (P 3 , FT 4 and TSH in uremia group were remarkably lower than azotemia group (P 3 , FT 4 in patients with CRF can reflect the severity of renal function damage, and can also be an important prognosis index

  11. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues dos; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Trombetta, Ivani Credidio [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Arap, Marco Antônio [Faculdade de medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - Urologia (Brazil); Negrão, Carlos Eduardo [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Middlekauff, Holly R. [Division of Cardiology - David Geffen School of Medicine - University of California (United States); Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes, E-mail: janieire.alves@incor.usp.br [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  12. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues dos; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira; Arap, Marco Antônio; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Middlekauff, Holly R.; Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT

  13. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. Objective: We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Methods: Total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66 and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44 groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Results: Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008. Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001. In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02 predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009 and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02 predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001. Conclusion: These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  14. Clinical significance of changes of serum FT3, FT4 and SIL-2R levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Qing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum FT 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2R levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: Serum FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 55 patients with hyperthyroidism both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients the serum FT 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2R levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2 levels were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum FT 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2R levels is valuable for treatment outcome prediction in patients with hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  15. Shatavarins (containing Shatavarin IV) with anticancer activity from the roots of Asparagus racemosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Shankar K.; Prakash, Neswi S.; Sundaram, Ramachandran

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The anticancer activity of shatavarins (containing shatavarin IV) isolated from the roots of Asparagus racemosus (Wild) was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Material and Methods: The shatavarin IV was isolated from ethyl acetate insoluble fraction (AR-2B) of chloroform:methanol (2:1) (AR-2) extract of A. racemosus roots. The cytotoxicity (in vitro) of shatavarin IV and other shatavarins rich fraction was carried out using of MTT assay using MCF-7 (human breast cancer), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), and A-498 (human kidney carcinoma) cell lines. The in vivo anticancer activity of shatavarins (containing shatavarin IV) was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing mice. Results: The isolated shatavarin IV (84.69 %) along with shatavarins rich fraction, coded AR-2B containing 5.05% shatavarin IV showed potent cytotoxicity. Oral administration of AR-2B to tumor bearing mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 10 days, showed significant reduction in percent increase in body weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count, and increased non-viable cell count when compared to the untreated mice of the EAC control group. The restoration of hematological parameters towards normalcy was also observed. Conclusion: The result suggests that the shatavarins (containing shatavarin IV) rich fraction (AR-2B) exhibits significant anticancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:23248403

  16. Iron deficiency intravenous substitution in a Swiss academic primary care division: analysis of practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varcher M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monica Varcher,1 Sofia Zisimopoulou,1 Olivia Braillard,1 Bernard Favrat,2 Noëlle Junod Perron1 1Department of Community, Primary and Emergency Care, Division of Primary Care, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, 2Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland Background: Iron deficiency is a common problem in primary care and is usually treated with oral iron substitution. With the recent simplification of intravenous (IV iron administration (ferric carboxymaltose and its approval in many countries for iron deficiency, physicians may be inclined to overutilize it as a first-line substitution.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency management and substitution practices in an academic primary care division 5 years after ferric carboxymaltose was approved for treatment of iron deficiency in Switzerland.Methods: All patients treated for iron deficiency during March and April 2012 at the Geneva University Division of Primary Care were identified. Their medical files were analyzed for information, including initial ferritin value, reasons for the investigation of iron levels, suspected etiology, type of treatment initiated, and clinical and biological follow-up. Findings were assessed using an algorithm for iron deficiency management based on a literature review.Results: Out of 1,671 patients, 93 were treated for iron deficiency. Median patients’ age was 40 years and 92.5% (n=86 were female. The average ferritin value was 17.2 μg/L (standard deviation 13.3 μg/L. The reasons for the investigation of iron levels were documented in 82% and the suspected etiology for iron deficiency was reported in 67%. Seventy percent of the patients received oral treatment, 14% IV treatment, and 16% both. The reasons for IV treatment as first- and second-line treatment were reported in 57% and 95%, respectively. Clinical and biological follow-up was planned in less than two-thirds of the

  17. Peroxidasin-mediated crosslinking of collagen IV is independent of NADPH oxidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Sirokmány

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Collagen IV is a major component of the basement membrane in epithelial tissues. The NC1 domains of collagen IV protomers are covalently linked together through sulfilimine bonds, the formation of which is catalyzed by peroxidasin. Although hydrogen peroxide is essential for this reaction, the exact source of the oxidant remains elusive. Members of the NOX/DUOX NADPH oxidase family are specifically devoted to the production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Our aim in this study was to find out if NADPH oxidases contribute in vivo to the formation of collagen IV sulfilimine crosslinks. We used multiple genetically modified in vivo model systems to provide a detailed assessment of this question. Our data indicate that in various peroxidasin-expressing tissues sulfilimine crosslinks between the NC1 domains of collagen IV can be readily detected in the absence of functioning NADPH oxidases. We also analyzed how subatmospheric oxygen levels influence the collagen IV network in collagen-producing cultured cells with rapid matrix turnover. We showed that collagen IV crosslinks remain intact even under strongly hypoxic conditions. Our hypothesis is that during collagen IV network formation PXDN cooperates with a NOX/DUOX-independent H2O2 source that is functional also at very low ambient oxygen levels. Keywords: Peroxidasin, NADPH oxidase, Hydrogen peroxide, Collagen IV, Sulfilimine

  18. Evaluation of the ex vivo antimalarial activity of organotin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate on erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Normah; Jumat, Hafizah; Ishak, Shafariatul Akmar; Kamaludin, Nurul Farahana

    2014-06-01

    Malaria is the most destructive and dangerous parasitic disease. The commonness of this disease is getting worse mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against antimalarial drugs. Therefore, the search for new antimalarial drug is urgently needed. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dibutyltin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate (DBEP), diphenyltin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate (DPEP) and triphenyltin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate (TPEP) compounds as antimalarial agents. These compounds were evaluated against erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 via ex vivo. Organotin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate, [R(n)Sn(C9H10NS2)(4-n)] with R = C4H9 and C6H5 for n = 2; R = C6H5 for n = 3 is chemically synthesised for its potential activities. pLDH assay was employed for determination of the concentration that inhibited 50% of the Plasmodium's activity (IC50) after 24 h treatment at concentration range of 10-0.0000001 mg mL(-1). Plasmodium berghei NK65 was cultured in vitro to determine the different morphology of trophozoite and schizont. Only DPEP and TPEP compounds have antimalarial activity towards P. berghei NK65 at IC50 0.094±0.011 and 0.892±0.088 mg mL(-1), respectively. The IC50 of DPEP and TPEP were lowest at 30% parasitemia with IC50 0.001±0.00009 and 0.0009±0.0001 mg mL(-1), respectively. In vitro culture showed that TPEP was effective towards P. berghei NK65 in trophozoite and schizont morphology with IC50 0.0001±0.00005 and 0.00009±0.00003 μg mL(-1), respectively. In conclusion, DPEP and TPEP have antimalarial effect on erythrocytes infected with P. berghei NK65 and have potential as antimalarial and schizonticidal agents.

  19. Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoqiong; Luo, Li; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-05-08

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of the biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) -like genes are important flowering regulators in higher plants. To date, the flowering genes in Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an FT homolog was isolated from Jatropha and designated as JcFT. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of JcFT revealed a high sequence similarity with the FT genes of Litchi chinensis, Populus nigra and other perennial plants. JcFT was expressed in all tissues of adult plants except young leaves, with the highest expression level in female flowers. Overexpression of JcFT in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the constitutive promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or the phloem-specific promoter Arabidopsis SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 promoter resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype. Furthermore, several flowering genes downstream of JcFT were up-regulated in the JcFT-overexpression transgenic plant lines. JcFT may encode a florigen that acts as a key regulator in flowering pathway. This study is the first to functionally characterize a flowering gene, namely, JcFT, in the biofuel plant Jatropha.

  20. A novel homozygous mutation IVS6+5G>T in CYP11B1 gene in a Vietnamese patient with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Mai; Nguyen, Thu Hien; Ngo, Diem Ngoc; Vu, Chi Dung; Nguyen, Thi Kim Lien; Nong, Van Hai; Nguyen, Huy Hoang

    2015-07-10

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by a deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal cortex. CAH cases arising from impaired 11β-hydroxylase are the second most common form. Mutations in the CYP11B1 gene are the cause of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. This study was performed on a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and with premature development such as enlarged penis, muscle development, high blood pressure, and bone age equivalent of 5 years old at 2 years of chronological age. Biochemical tests for steroids confirmed the diagnosis of CAH. We used PCR and sequencing to screen for mutations in CYP11B1 gene. Results showed that the patient has a novel homozygous mutation of guanine (G) to thymine (T) in intron 6 (IVS6+5G>T). The analysis of this mutation by MaxEntScan boundary software indicated that this mutant could affect the gene splicing during transcription. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assembling filamentous phage occlude pIV channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, D K; Russel, M; Simon, S M

    2001-07-31

    Filamentous phage f1 is exported from its Escherichia coli host without killing the bacterial cell. Phage-encoded protein pIV, which is required for phage assembly and secretion, forms large highly conductive channels in the outer membrane of E. coli. It has been proposed that the phage are extruded across the bacterial outer membrane through pIV channels. To test this prediction, we developed an in vivo assay by using a mutant pIV that functions in phage export but whose channel opens in the absence of phage extrusion. In E. coli lacking its native maltooligosacharride transporter LamB, this pIV variant allowed oligosaccharide transport across the outer membrane. This entry of oligosaccharide was decreased by phage production and still further decreased by production of phage that cannot be released from the cell surface. Thus, exiting phage block the pIV-dependent entry of oligosaccharide, suggesting that phage occupy the lumen of pIV channels. This study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, for viral exit through a large aqueous channel.

  2. Constraining f(T) teleparallel gravity by big bang nucleosynthesis. f(T) cosmology and BBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, S. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Lambiase, G. [University of Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Cainaiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Sezione di Napoli, Fisciano (Italy); Saridakis, E.N. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, Athens (Greece); Baylor University, CASPER, Physics Department, Waco, TX (United States)

    2017-09-15

    We use Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) observational data on the primordial abundance of light elements to constrain f(T) gravity. The three most studied viable f(T) models, namely the power law, the exponential and the square-root exponential are considered, and the BBN bounds are adopted in order to extract constraints on their free parameters. For the power-law model, we find that the constraints are in agreement with those obtained using late-time cosmological data. For the exponential and the square-root exponential models, we show that for reliable regions of parameters space they always satisfy the BBN bounds. We conclude that viable f(T) models can successfully satisfy the BBN constraints. (orig.)

  3. Constraining f(T) teleparallel gravity by big bang nucleosynthesis. f(T) cosmology and BBN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, S.; Lambiase, G.; Saridakis, E.N.

    2017-01-01

    We use Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) observational data on the primordial abundance of light elements to constrain f(T) gravity. The three most studied viable f(T) models, namely the power law, the exponential and the square-root exponential are considered, and the BBN bounds are adopted in order to extract constraints on their free parameters. For the power-law model, we find that the constraints are in agreement with those obtained using late-time cosmological data. For the exponential and the square-root exponential models, we show that for reliable regions of parameters space they always satisfy the BBN bounds. We conclude that viable f(T) models can successfully satisfy the BBN constraints. (orig.)

  4. Concepts for the assay of unbound thyroxine (FT4) and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odstrchel, G.; Hertl, W.; Ward, F.B.; Travis, K.; Lindner, R.E.; Mason, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Two new concepts for the assay of thyroid related substances are presented. One assay (FT 4 ) is based on a kinetic measurement of T 4 as it desorbs from binder proteins onto solid-phase T 4 antibody. This reaction can be described by a second order rate equation; r = k (IMA) (FT 4 ). The assay is rapid (2 hours) and gives good agreement (sigma = 0.92) with equilibrium dialysis and a normal range of 0.9 - 2.3 ng/dl. This assay uses a small sample size (25 μl) and is unaffected by drugs such as aspirin and dilantin. Pregnant and estrogen treated women gave normal FT 4 values. A new method for the measurement of functionally active TEG is also presented. In this case the labeled T 4 is partitioned between bovine serum albumin and the patient's samples. The complex is then removed from solution by solid-phase anti-TBG. A curve remiscent of an immunoradiometric assay is obtained. The assay has a sensitivity of 4 μg/ml and is unaffected by aspirin, dilantin or the patient's T 4 concentrations. Correlation with 'rocket' electrophoresis is 0.90. The normal range was 20 +- 7 μg/ml with pregnant women giving values greater than 30 μg/ml. Five hereditary deficient patients gave a value equivalent to zero TBG concentration. (orig.) [de

  5. A change of in vivo characteristics depending on specific activity of radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-pIV] as a ligand for sigma receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Tsuji, Shiro; Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Mori, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    The radioiodinated (+)-p-iodovesamicol [(+)-pIV], which shows a high binding affinity for sigma-1 (σ-1) receptors, is prepared by an exchange reaction. The specific activity (SA) is fairly low and therefore is insufficient for clinical use. In this study, we prepared (+)-[ 125 I]pIV with a high SA from tributylstannyl precursor and compared the in vivo characteristics between high and low SA by imaging σ-1 receptors in the central nervous system. In the biodistribution study, a difference in brain accumulation was observed between the two methods. At 30 min postinjection, the brain accumulation (1.58%ID/g) of low SA [0.6-1.1 TBq/mmol (16-30 Ci/mmol)] (+)-[ 125 I]pIV was higher than that (1.34%ID/g) of high SA [>88.8 TBq/mmol (>2400 Ci/mmol)] (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. In the blocking study, the brain uptake of high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV was reduced more significantly by the coadministration of sigma ligands such as pentazocine, haloperidol or SA4503 than that of low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. These results showed that nonspecific binding of high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV in the brain was lower than that of low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV, and high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV bound more specifically to σ-1 receptors in the brain than low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. In contrast, in the blood-binding study, high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (58.4%) bound to blood cells with higher affinity than low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (46.0%). In metabolite studies, blood metabolites of high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (57.3±3.5%) were higher than those of low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (45.5±4.1%) at 30 min postinjection. Higher SA may be apt to bind to blood cells with higher affinity and to be metabolized faster

  6. Energy profile, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and FT-NMR) and DFT studies of 4-bromoisophthalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Thirunarayanan, S.; Mohan, S.

    2018-04-01

    The stable conformer of 4-bromoisophthalic acid (BIPA) has been identified by potential energy profile analysis. All the structural parameters of 4-bromoisophthalic acid are determined by B3LYP method with 6-311++G**, 6-31G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The fundamental vibrations are analysed with the use of FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm-1) spectra. The harmonic vibrational frequencies are theoretically calculated and compared with experimental FTIR and FT-Raman frequencies. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been analysed and compared with theoretical 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energies are determined by B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method. The electron density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of BIPA molecule have been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with molecular electrostatic potential (MEP). Stability of the molecules arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalizations have been analysed by using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The thermodynamic properties and atomic natural charges of the compound are analysed and the reactive sites of the molecule are identified. The global and local reactivity descriptors are evaluated to analyse the chemical reactivity and site selectivity of molecule through Fukui functions.

  7. [Effect of selenium on serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH of rats with excessive intake of iodine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Haiyan; Zhou, Yuping; Li, Li

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effect of selenium on the TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH level of rats with excessive intake of iodine. Wistar rats were divided into three groups by random:normal control, high iodine group and high iodine plus selenium group. Rats in the high iodine plus selenium group were lavaged with sodium selenite for 10 weeks. The levels of serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH were tested at different time of the experiment. There were no significant change on levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH (P > 0.05). The levels of TGAb and TMAb in the high iodine group were increased slowly (P iodine plus selenium group. Excessive intake of iodine might induce goiter, and selenium might have antagonistic effect on it.

  8. In vivo urea cycle flux distinguishes and correlates with phenotypic severity in disorders of the urea cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brendan; Yu, Hong; Jahoor, Farook; O'Brien, William; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Reeds, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Urea cycle disorders are a group of inborn errors of hepatic metabolism that result in often life-threatening hyperammonemia and hyperglutaminemia. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of partial deficiencies during asymptomatic periods is difficult, and correlation of phenotypic severity with either genotype and/or in vitro enzyme activity is often imprecise. We hypothesized that stable isotopically determined in vivo rates of total body urea synthesis and urea cycle-specific nitrogen flux would correlate with both phenotypic severity and carrier status in patients with a variety of different enzymatic deficiencies of the urea cycle. We studied control subjects, patients, and their relatives with different enzymatic deficiencies affecting the urea cycle while consuming a low protein diet. On a separate occasion the subjects either received a higher protein intake or were treated with an alternative route medication sodium phenylacetate/benzoate (Ucephan), or oral arginine supplementation. Total urea synthesis from all nitrogen sources was determined from [18O]urea labeling, and the utilization of peripheral nitrogen was estimated from the relative isotopic enrichments of [15N]urea and [15N]glutamine during i.v. co-infusions of [5-(amide)15N]glutamine and [18O]urea. The ratio of the isotopic enrichments of 15N-urea/15N-glutamine distinguished normal control subjects (ratio = 0.42 ± 0.06) from urea cycle patients with late (0.17 ± 0.03) and neonatal (0.003 ± 0.007) presentations irrespective of enzymatic deficiency. This index of urea cycle activity also distinguished asymptomatic heterozygous carriers of argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency (0.22 ± 0.03), argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (0.35 ± 0.11), and partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (0.26 ± 0.06) from normal controls. Administration of Ucephan lowered, and arginine increased, urea synthesis to the degree predicted from their respective rates of metabolism. The 15N-urea/15N-glutamine ratio

  9. Quark stars in f(T, T)-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Mark; Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta)

    2017-02-15

    We derive a working model for the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation for quark star systems within the modified f(T, T)-gravity class of models. We consider f(T, T)-gravity for a static spherically symmetric space-time. In this instance the metric is built from a more fundamental tetrad vierbein from which the metric tensor can be derived. We impose a linear f(T) parameter, namely taking f = αT(r) + βT(r) + φ and investigate the behaviour of a linear energy-momentum tensor trace, T. We also outline the restrictions which modified f(T, T)-gravity imposes upon the coupling parameters. Finally we incorporate the MIT bag model in order to derive the mass-radius and mass-central density relations of the quark star within f(T, T)-gravity. (orig.)

  10. FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectra of potassium 3-furoyltrifluoroborate salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iramain, Maximiliano A.; Davies, Lilian; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2018-04-01

    The potassium 3-furoyltrifluoroborate salt has been experimentally characterized by means of FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopies. Here, the predicted FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectra by using theoretical B3LYP/6-31G* and 6-311++G** calculations show very good correlations with the corresponding experimental ones. The solvation energies were predicted by using both levels of calculations. The NBO analyses reveal the high stability of the salt by using the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory while the AIM studies evidence the ionic characteristics of the salt in both media. The strong blue colour observed on the K atom by using the molecular electrostatic potential mapped suggests that this region act as typical electrophilic site. The gap values have revealed that the salt in gas phase is more reactive than in solution, as was reported in the literature while, the F13⋯H6 interaction together with the Ksbnd O bond observed by the studies of their charges could probably modulate the reactivities of this salt in aqueous solution. The force fields were computed with the SQMFF methodology and the Molvib program to perform the complete vibrational analysis. Then, the 39 vibration normal modes classified as 26 A'+ 13 A″ were completely assigned and their force constants are also reported.

  11. Immobilization of Mo(IV) complex in hybrid matrix obtained via sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, C.; Sousa, A.M.; Freire, C.; Neves, I.C.; Fonseca, A.M.; Silva, C.J.R

    2003-10-06

    A molybdenum(IV) complex, trans-bis-[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]-fluoro-(diazopropano) -molybdenum tetraphenylborate, [MoF(DIAZO)(dppe){sub 2}][BPh{sub 4}], was prepared and immobilized in a hybrid matrix synthesized by the sol-gel process. The host matrix, designated as U(500), is an organic-inorganic network material, classed as ureasil, that combines a reticulated siliceous backbone linked by short polyether-based segments. Urea bridges make the link between these two components, and the polymerization of silicate substituted terminal groups generates the inorganic network. The free Mo(IV) complex and all new materials were characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR and UV-Vis) and thermal analysis (DSC). The ionic conductivity of the resulting material was also studied. The results indicate that immobilized Mo(IV) complex has kept its solid-state structure, although there is evidence of inter-molecular interactions between the Mo(IV) complex and some groups/atoms of the hybrid host matrix.

  12. M4FT-16LL080303052-State of Knowledge for Colloid Facilitated Radionuclide Transport and Update on Actinide Diffusion in Bentonite Backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences; Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences

    2016-08-16

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4FT-16LL080303052) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Crystalline Disposal R&D Activity Number FT-16LL080303051 and Crystalline International Collaborations Activity Number FT-16LL080303061. The focus of this research is the interaction of radionuclides with Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and host rock materials at various physico-chemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. They include both chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion. The colloid-facilitated transport effort focused on preparation of a draft manuscript summarizing the state of knowledge and parameterization of colloid-facilitated transport mechanisms in support of reactive transport and performance assessment models for generic crystalline repositories. This draft manuscript is being submitted as a level 3 milestone with LANL as the primary author. LLNL’s contribution to that effort is summarized only briefly in the present report. A manuscript summarizing long-term U(VI) diffusion experiments through bentonite backfill material was recently accepted for publication; the contents of that manuscript are summarized in the present report. The Np(IV) diffusion experiments were started mid-year and are ongoing. The completion of these experiments is planned for early FY17. Our progress in quantifying Np(IV) diffusion in bentonite backfill is summarized in the present report. Our involvement with the NEA TDB project was summarized in a recent Argillite Disposal activity report. It is not included in this report.

  13. McVittie solution in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Jose Guzman, Maria [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-12-15

    We show that McVittie geometry, which describes a black hole embedded in a FLRW universe, not only solves the Einstein equations but also remains as a non-deformable solution of f(T) gravity. This search for GR solutions that survive in f(T) gravity is facilitated by a null tetrad approach. We also show that flat FLRW geometry is a consistent solution of f(T) dynamical equations not only for T = -6H{sup 2} but also for T = 0, which could be a manifestation of the additional degrees of freedom involved in f(T) theories. (orig.)

  14. McVittie solution in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Jose Guzman, Maria; Ferraro, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    We show that McVittie geometry, which describes a black hole embedded in a FLRW universe, not only solves the Einstein equations but also remains as a non-deformable solution of f(T) gravity. This search for GR solutions that survive in f(T) gravity is facilitated by a null tetrad approach. We also show that flat FLRW geometry is a consistent solution of f(T) dynamical equations not only for T = -6H 2 but also for T = 0, which could be a manifestation of the additional degrees of freedom involved in f(T) theories. (orig.)

  15. Extreme growth failure is a common presentation of ligase IV deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, J.E.; Bicknell, L.S.; Yigit, G.; Duker, A.L.; Kogelenberg, M. van; Haghayegh, S.; Wieczorek, D.; Kayserili, H.; Albert, M.H.; Wise, C.A.; Brandon, J.; Kleefstra, T.; Warris, A.; Flier, M. van der; Bamforth, J.S.; Doonanco, K.; Ades, L.; Ma, A.; Field, M.; Johnson, D.; Shackley, F.; Firth, H.; Woods, C.G.; Nurnberg, P.; Gatti, R.A.; Hurles, M.; Bober, M.B.; Wollnik, B.; Jackson, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Ligase IV syndrome is a rare differential diagnosis for Nijmegen breakage syndrome owing to a shared predisposition to lympho-reticular malignancies, significant microcephaly, and radiation hypersensitivity. Only 16 cases with mutations in LIG4 have been described to date with phenotypes varying

  16. Utility of sun-reactive skin typing and melanin index for discerning vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Arshad T; Moore, Charity G; Hall, Christopher; Olabopo, Flora; Rozario, Nigel L; Holick, Michael F; Greenspan, Susan L; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2017-09-01

    BackgroundSkin color, a vitamin D status determinant, can be assessed subjectively by Fitzpatrick sun-reactive skin typing (FST) and objectively by melanin index (MI). FST was validated against MI for discerning vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum 25(OH)D in healthy, 8- to 18-year-old children from one of two vitamin D trials. MI from forehead, hand, and upper arm split at the median of the more racially balanced study cohort and FST (I-III vs. IV-V) were used for discriminating vitamin D deficiency.ResultsA total of 296 participants (mean age, 12.3±2.3 years; black, 208; FST IV-V, 209; 25(OH)D Serum 25(OH)D was negatively associated with MI and FST. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were similar for discriminating vitamin D deficiency between higher vs. lower MI and between FST I-III vs. IV-V. ROC area under the curves for FST (0.59) and MI (forehead (0.63); hand (0.62); and arm (0.64)) were similar.ConclusionsFST is comparable to MI for discerning vitamin D deficiency and can be deemed as an inexpensive, useful surrogate measure of skin color in the context of vitamin D research.

  17. Determination of serum free thyroxine concentration (FT4) by means of fT4-fraction and total thyroxine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.

    1985-01-01

    A new equilibrium assay for the determination of serum free thyroxine was evaluated in 514 patients. The assay comprises a two-vial-procedure to measure total thyroxine and free thyroxine fraction by use of monoclonal antibodies. Free thyroxine concentrations are calculated from fT 4 -fraction and total thyroxine concentration readings. In euthyroidism the average free thyroxine fraction (%fT 4 ) was 0.011%, in hyperthyroidism this fraction was elevated, in hypothyroidism it was below normal. In patients with TBG anomalies, TBG values were inversely correlated with fT 4 fraction readings. The 'euthyroid reference range' of FT 4 (SPAC ET) was between 0.70 to 1.78ng/dl. This euthyroid range of FT 4 was determined from TT 4 concentrations measured by T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 MONO) which were 30% above TT 4 values measured by conventional T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 POLY; polyclonal antibodies). However, a different euthyroid range of FT 4 between 0.55 to 1.30 ng/dl was observed as well as by other investigators when conventional T 4 -RIA measurements were used for calculation of FT 4 values. Our results indicate that calculated FT 4 concentration values are highly dependent on the methods used for determination of total thyroxine concentrations. Precision and reproducability of this two vial equilibrium assay did not meet the requirements mandatory for the application as a clinical routine diagnostic procedure, and its general use for this purpose can as yet not be recommended. (Author)

  18. Analysis of clay smoking pipes from archeological sites in the region of the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) by FT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P.; Ribeiro, Iohanna M.; Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Ana L.; Silva, Mariane L.; Felix, Valter S.; Ferreira, Douglas S.; Coelho, Felipe A.; Gaspar, Maria D.; Pimenta, André R.; Medeiros, Elanio A.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, twenty samples of clay smoking pipes excavated in an 18 km2 area between the Macacu and Caceribu rivers, in the municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were analyzed by FT-IR technique. The samples, excavated in different archeological sites of the region, are dated between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries and are part of the material culture left by Africans and African descendants that lived in the complex. FT-IR analyses and complementary SEM-EDS studies showed that the clay paste used in the manufacture of smoking pipes, mostly handcrafted, is composed of quartz, feldspar, phyllosilicates and iron oxides. Multivariate statistical tests (PCA) were applied to FT-IR data to assess the interactions between the archeological sites. The results indicated that one archeological site - Macacu IV - is greatly related to the other sites. The results obtained have helped archeologists and anthropologists in better understanding the manufacturing process employed in ancient ceramic artifacts produced during the period of colonial Brazil.

  19. Psychological variables and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S; Gutierrez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV are commonly used together in neuropsychological evaluations yet little is known about their interrelationships. This study explored the potential influence of psychological factors on WAIS-IV performance in a sample of 180 predominantly male veteran referrals that underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a VA Medical Center. Exclusionary criteria included failed performance validity testing and self-report distortion on the MMPI-2. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the 15 MMPI-2 content scales, yielding three broader higher-order psychological dimensions: Internalized Emotional Dysfunction (IED), Externalized Emotional Dysfunction (EED), and Fear. Level of IED was not related to performance on the WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ or its four indexes: (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed). EED was not related to WAIS-IV performance. Level of Fear, which encompasses health preoccupations (HEA) and distorted perceptions (BIZ), was significantly related to WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension. These results challenge the common use of high scores on the MMPI-2 IED measures (chiefly depression and anxiety) to explain deficient WAIS-IV performance. In addition, they provide impetus for further investigation of the relation between verbal intelligence and Fear.

  20. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and DFT calculations of melaminium perchlorate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Renganathan, N. G.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-08-01

    Melaminium perchlorate monohydrate (MPM), an organic material has been synthesized by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that MPM crystal belongs to triclinic system with space group P-1. FTIR and FT Raman spectra are recorded at room temperature. Functional group assignment has been made for the melaminium cations and perchlorate anions. Vibrational spectra have also been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Firefly (PC GAMESS) version 7.1 G. Vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with experimental values. The assignment of the bands has been made on the basis of the calculated PED. The Mulliken charges, HOMO-LUMO orbital energies are analyzed directly from Firefly program log files and graphically illustrated. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The theoretically constructed FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of MPM coincide with the experimental one. The chemical structure of the compound has been established by 1H and 13C NMR spectra. No detectable signal was observed during powder test for second harmonic generation.

  1. Biochemical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Injury by FT-IR Spectroscopy—Effects of Therapeutic Alginate Implant in Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckermann, Ortrud; Sitoci-Ficici, Kerim H.; Later, Robert; Beiermeister, Rudolf; Doberenz, Falko; Gelinsky, Michael; Leipnitz, Elke; Schackert, Gabriele; Koch, Edmund; Sablinskas, Valdas; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces complex biochemical changes, which result in inhibition of nervous tissue regeneration abilities. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was applied to assess the outcomes of implants made of a novel type of non-functionalized soft calcium alginate hydrogel in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection (n = 28). Using FT-IR spectroscopic imaging, we evaluated the stability of the implants and the effects on morphology and biochemistry of the injured tissue one and six months after injury. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the distribution of lipids and collagen showed that alginate significantly reduced injury-induced demyelination of the contralateral white matter and fibrotic scarring in the chronic state after SCI. The spectral information enabled to detect and localize the alginate hydrogel at the lesion site and proved its long-term persistence in vivo. These findings demonstrate a positive impact of alginate hydrogel on recovery after SCI and prove FT-IR spectroscopic imaging as alternative method to evaluate and optimize future SCI repair strategies. PMID:26559822

  2. Biochemical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Injury by FT-IR Spectroscopy--Effects of Therapeutic Alginate Implant in Rat Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tamosaityte

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI induces complex biochemical changes, which result in inhibition of nervous tissue regeneration abilities. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy was applied to assess the outcomes of implants made of a novel type of non-functionalized soft calcium alginate hydrogel in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection (n = 28. Using FT-IR spectroscopic imaging, we evaluated the stability of the implants and the effects on morphology and biochemistry of the injured tissue one and six months after injury. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the distribution of lipids and collagen showed that alginate significantly reduced injury-induced demyelination of the contralateral white matter and fibrotic scarring in the chronic state after SCI. The spectral information enabled to detect and localize the alginate hydrogel at the lesion site and proved its long-term persistence in vivo. These findings demonstrate a positive impact of alginate hydrogel on recovery after SCI and prove FT-IR spectroscopic imaging as alternative method to evaluate and optimize future SCI repair strategies.

  3. Changes of serum FT3, FT4, sTSH, TRAb, TGA and TMA concentrations in Graves' patients treated with 131I and clinical significances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenwei; Wei Liqin; Zhao Jie; Ma Qingjie; Sun Hui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significances of serum FT 3 , FT 4 , sTSH, TRAb, TGA and TMA concentration changes in Graves' patients before and after, 131 I treatment. Methods: The serum FT 3 , FT 4 , sTSH; TRAb, TGA and TMA concentrations before treatment, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after therapy in 172 Graves' patients and 43 normal controls were obtained by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay technique. Results: FT 3 and FT 4 concentrations showed an obvious decrease 3 months after treatment, while sTSH and TRAb had remarkable high values, as TGA and TMA demonstrated a trend to increase. FT 3 , FT 4 and sTSH concentrations were close to control group 6 months after treatment, TRAb had a decline trend. All the six indexes approached to normal 18 months after treatment. Conclusion: It is of great of significance for the Graves' patients to accept the developmental observation of serum FT 3 , FT 4 , and sTSH, TRAb, TGA and TMA concentrations before and after 131 I therapy, which provides a great of positive information for therapy guiding, observation and prognosis. (authors)

  4. 40 CFR 52.1780 - VOC rule deficiency correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) North Carolina § 52.1780 VOC rule... Region IV Air Division Director to the Chief of the Air Quality Section, North Carolina Division of... deficiency must be corrected as soon as EPA issues final guidance on Capture Efficiency regulations. (b...

  5. The Alterations in the Expression and Function of P-Glycoprotein in Vitamin A-Deficient Rats as well as the Effect of Drug Disposition in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate whether vitamin A deficiency could alter P-GP expression and function in tissues of rats and whether such effects affected the drug distribution in vivo of vitamin A-deficient rats. We induced vitamin A-deficient rats by giving them a vitamin A-free diet for 12 weeks. Then, Abcb1/P-GP expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that Abcb1a mRNA levels were increased in hippocampus and liver. In kidney, it only showed an upward trend. Abcb1b mRNA levels were increased in hippocampus, but decreased in cerebral cortex, liver and kidney. Western blot results were in good accordance with the alterations of Abcb1b mRNA levels. P-GP function was investigated through tissue distribution and body fluid excretion of rhodamine 123 (Rho123, and the results proclaimed that P-GP activities were also in good accordance with P-GP expression in cerebral cortex, liver and kidney. The change of drug distribution was also investigated through the tissue distribution of vincristine, and the results showed a significantly upward trend in all indicated tissues of vitamin A-deficient rats. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency may alter Abcb1/P-GP expression and function in rat tissues, and the alterations may increase drug activity/toxicity through the increase of tissue accumulation.

  6. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle was determined by qPCR and protein localisation by immunohistochemistry. The structure of col-IV in placenta was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the expression of col-IV alpha chain NC1 domains and collagen receptors was localised by immunohistochemistry. Col-IV alpha chains were selectively up-regulated during the menstrual cycle and decidualisation. Primary extravillous trophoblast cells express collagen receptors and secrete col-IV in vitro and in vivo, resulting in the increased levels found in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis. A novel expression pattern of col-IV in the mesenchyme of placental villi, as a three-dimensional network, was found. NC1 domains of col-IV alpha chains are known to regulate tumour cell migration and the selective expression of these domains in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis was determined. Col-IV is expressed as novel forms in the placenta. These findings suggest that col-IV not only represents a structural protein providing tissue integrity but also influences the invasive behaviour of trophoblast cells at the implantation site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinematic characteristics of anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees with concomitant meniscus deficiency during ascending stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Wenhan; Ma, Limin; Lin, Zefeng; Huang, Huayang; Xia, Hong

    2017-02-01

    It is commonly believed that a torn ACL or a damaged meniscus may be associated with altered knee joint movements. The purpose of this study was to measure the tibiofemoral kinematics of ACL deficiency with concomitant meniscus deficiency. Unilateral knees of 28 ACL deficient participants were studied while ascending stairs. Among these patients, 6 had isolated ACL injuries (group I), 8 had combined ACL and medial meniscus injuries (group II), 8 had combined ACL and lateral meniscus injuries (group III) and 6 had combined ACL and medial-lateral meniscus injuries (group IV). Both knees were then scanned during a stair climb activity using single fluoroscopic image system. Knee kinematics were measured at 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 30° and 60° of flexion during ascending stairs. At 0°, 15° and 30° flexion of the knee, the tibia rotated externally by 13.9 ± 6.1°,13.8 ± 9.5° and 15.9 ± 9.8° in Group I. Group II and III exhibited decreased external rotation from 60° to full extension. Statistical differences were found in 0°, 15°and 30° of flexion for the 2 groups compared with Group I. In general, the tibia showed anterior translation with respect to the femur during ascending stairs. It was further determined that Group III had larger anterior translation compared with Group IV at 0° and 5° of flexion (-6.9 ± 1.7 mm vs. 6.2 ± 11.3 mm, P = 0.041; -9.0 ± 1.8 mm vs. 8.1 ± 13.4 mm, P = 0.044). During ascending stairs the ACL deficient knee with different deficiencies in the meniscus will show significantly different kinematics compared with that of uninjured contralateral knee. Considering the varying effect of meniscus injuries on knee joint kinematics, future studies should concentrate on specific treatment of patients with combined ACL and meniscus injuries to protect the joint from abnormal kinematics and subsequent postoperative degeneration.

  8. Fusion technology (FT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of tha fusion technology (FT) working group discusses the projects carried out by the participating institutes in the fields of 1) fuel injection and plasma heating, 2) magnetic field technology, and 3) systems investigations. (HK) [de

  9. Violation of causality in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otalora, G. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Reboucas, M.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    In the standard formulation, the f(T) field equations are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations, and thus the theory does not inherit the causal structure of special relativity. Actually, even locally violation of causality can occur in this formulation of f(T) gravity. A locally Lorentz covariant f(T) gravity theory has been devised recently, and this local causality problem seems to have been overcome. The non-locality question, however, is left open. If gravitation is to be described by this covariant f(T) gravity theory there are a number of issues that ought to be examined in its context, including the question as to whether its field equations allow homogeneous Goedel-type solutions, which necessarily leads to violation of causality on non-local scale. Here, to look into the potentialities and difficulties of the covariant f(T) theories, we examine whether they admit Goedel-type solutions. We take a combination of a perfect fluid with electromagnetic plus a scalar field as source, and determine a general Goedel-type solution, which contains special solutions in which the essential parameter of Goedel-type geometries, m{sup 2}, defines any class of homogeneous Goedel-type geometries. We show that solutions of the trigonometric and linear classes (m{sup 2} < 0 and m = 0) are permitted only for the combined matter sources with an electromagnetic field matter component. We extended to the context of covariant f(T) gravity a theorem which ensures that any perfect-fluid homogeneous Goedel-type solution defines the same set of Goedel tetrads h{sub A}{sup μ} up to a Lorentz transformation. We also showed that the single massless scalar field generates Goedel-type solution with no closed time-like curves. Even though the covariant f(T) gravity restores Lorentz covariance of the field equations and the local validity of the causality principle, the bare existence of the Goedel-type solutions makes apparent that the covariant formulation of f(T) gravity

  10. Adsorption of thorium(IV) from aqueous solution by non-living biomass of mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.K.; Tan, N.; Yan, X.M.; Chen, F.; Lin, Y.C.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of thorium(IV) from aqueous solution by mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 is studied by using a batch experiments. The parameters that affect the thorium(IV) sorption, such as solution pH, initial thorium(IV) concentration, contact time, and biomass dose, are discussed in detail. The maximum biosorption of thorium(IV) and the equilibrium sorption capacity are found to be 91 ± 1 % and 11.35 mg g -1 respectively at pH 3.0, contact time 20 min, initial thorium(IV) concentration 50 mg L -1 and non-living biomass dose 4.0 g L -1 . Kinetics data follow the pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium data agree with the Temkin isotherm model very well. FT-IR analysis indicates that hydroxyl and carbonyl groups play an important role in the biosorption process. (author)

  11. Platinum(iv) prodrug conjugated Pd@Au nanoplates for chemotherapy and photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Saige; Chen, Xiaolan; Wei, Jingping; Huang, Yizhuan; Weng, Jian; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-03-01

    prepared Pd@Au-PEG-Pt nanocomposite showed excellent stability in physiological solutions and efficient Pt(iv) prodrug loading. Once injected into biological tissue, the Pt(iv) prodrug was easily reduced by physiological reductants (e.g. ascorbic acid or glutathione) into its cytotoxic and hydrophilic Pt(ii) form and released from the original nanocomposite, and the NIR laser irradiation could accelerate the release of Pt(ii) species. More importantly, Pd@Au-PEG-Pt has high tumor accumulation (29%ID per g), which makes excellent therapeutic efficiency at relatively low power density possible. The in vivo results suggested that, compared with single therapy the combined thermo-chemotherapy treatment with Pd@Au-PEG-Pt resulted in complete destruction of the tumor tissue without recurrence, while chemotherapy using Pd@Au-PEG-Pt without irradiation or photothermal treatment using Pd@Au-PEG alone did not. Our work highlights the prospects of a feasible drug delivery strategy of the Pt prodrug by using 2D Pd@Au nanoplates as drug delivery carriers for multimode cancer treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis process of Pt(iv) prodrug, mass data and FT-IR spectra of the intermediate product and Pt(iv) prodrug, TEM images of Pd@Au and Au NPs, thermal gravimetric analysis of nanoparticles, dispersion stability of Pd@Au-PEG-Pt NSs in different solutions, chemical reduction of Pt(ii) in a water bath, viability of different cell lines incubated with different concentrations of materials, uptake of different drugs by HeLa cells, size distribution of nanoparticles, tissue distribution by measuring the Pt amounts and zeta potential information of prodrug function nanomaterials. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09120a

  12. FT-Raman and FT-Infrared investigations of archaeological artefacts from Foeni Neolithic site (Banat, Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Cîntă Pînzaru; Dana Pop; Loredana Nemeth

    2008-01-01

    An impressive collection of chert artefacts from the Foeni Neolithic archaeological site (Timiş County, Banat region, Romania) is hosted by the Banat Museum in Timişoara. A representative set of seven specimens was non-destructively investigated using FT-Raman and ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. The research was carried out for checking if these readily-available, non-destructive, fast, and cheap methods, which do not require preliminary sample preparation could provide significant information for ch...

  13. Genetic organization of the unc-22 IV gene and the adjacent region in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, T M; Baillie, D L

    1985-01-01

    The genetic organization of the region immediately adjacent to the unc-22 IV gene in Caenorhabditis elegans has been studied. We have identified twenty essential genes in this interval of approximately 1.5-map units on Linkage Group IV. The mutations that define these genes were positioned by recombination mapping and complementation with several deficiencies. With few exceptions, the positions obtained by these two methods agreed. Eight of the twenty essential genes identified are represented by more than one allele. Three possible internal deletions of the unc-22 gene have been located by intra-genic mapping. In addition, the right end point of a deficiency or an inversion affecting the adjacent genes let-56 and unc-22 has been positioned inside the unc-22 gene.

  14. Heart failure in patients with kidney disease and iron deficiency; the role of iron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases Amenós, Aleix; Ojeda López, Raquel; Portolés Pérez, José María

    Chronic kidney disease and anaemia are common in heart failure (HF) and are associated with a worse prognosis in these patients. Iron deficiency is also common in patients with HF and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality, regardless of the presence or absence of anaemia. While the treatment of anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with HF have failed to show a benefit in terms of morbidity and mortality, treatment with IV iron in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency is associated with clinical improvement. In a posthoc analysis of a clinical trial, iron therapy improved kidney function in patients with HF and iron deficiency. In fact, the European Society of Cardiology's recent clinical guidelines on HF suggest that in symptomatic patients with reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency, treatment with IV ferric carboxymaltose should be considered to improve symptoms, the ability to exercise and quality of life. Iron plays a key role in oxygen storage (myoglobin) and in energy metabolism, and there are pathophysiological bases that explain the beneficial effect of IV iron therapy in patients with HF. All these aspects are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. uPARAP/endo180 directs lysosomal delivery and degradation of collagen IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Lars; Engelholm, Lars H; Høyer-Hansen, Maria

    2004-01-01

    appearing uniformly within the wild-type cells after longer incubation times. In these cells, some collagen-containing vesicles were identified as lysosomes by staining for LAMP-1. In contrast, collagen IV remained extracellular and associated with fiber-like structures on uPARAP/endo180-deficient...

  16. Astragaloside IV Prevents Cardiac Remodeling in the Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice by Regulating Cardiac Homeostasis and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong-Zhi Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Astragaloside IV (AST-IV possesses cardiovascular protective properties. We hypothesize that AST-IV prevents cardiac remodeling with hypercholesterolemia via modulating tissue homeostasis and alleviating oxidative stress. Methods: The ApoE-/- mice were treated with AST-IV at 1 or 10 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The blood lipids tests, echocardiography, and TUNEL were performed. The mRNA expression profile was detected by real-time PCR. The myocytes size and number, and the expressions of proliferation (ki67, senescence (p16INK4a, oxidant (NADPH oxidase 4, NOX4 and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, SOD were observed by immunofluorescence staining. Results: Neither 1 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg AST-IV treatment could decrease blood lipids in ApoE-/- mice. However, the decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and fractional shortening (FS in ApoE–/– mice were significantly improved after AST-IV treatment. The cardiac collagen volume fraction declined nearly in half after AST-IV treatment. The enlarged myocyte size was suppressed, and myocyte number was recovered, and the alterations of genes expressions linked to cell cycle, proliferation, senescence, p53-apoptosis pathway and oxidant-antioxidants in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice were reversed after AST-IV treatment. The decreased ki67 and increased p16INK4a in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice were recovered after AST-IV treatment. The percentages of apoptotic myocytes and NOX4-positive cells in AST-IV treated mice were decreased, which were consistent with the gene expressions. Conclusion: AST-IV treatment could prevent cardiac remodeling and recover the impaired ventricular function induced by hypercholesterolemia. The beneficial effect of AST-IV might partly be through regulating cardiac homeostasis and anti-oxidative stress.

  17. In vivo and ex vivo EPR detection of spin-labelled ovalbumin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramović, Zrinka; Brgles, Marija; Habjanec, Lidija; Tomasić, Jelka; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Frkanec, Ruza

    2010-10-01

    In this study, spin-labelled ovalbumin (SL-OVA), free or entrapped in liposomes, was administered to mice subcutaneously (s.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with the aim to determine the conditions for pharmacokinetic studies of spin-labelled proteins by EPR and to measure the time course of SL-OVA distribution in vivo in live mice and ex vivo in isolated organs. Upon s.c. administration, the decay of the EPR signal was followed for 60min at the site of application using an L-band EPR spectrometer. Within this time period, the signal of free SL-OVA was diminished by about 70%. It was estimated with the help of the oxidizing agent K(3)[(FeCN)(6)] that approximately 30% was a consequence of the spin label reduction to EPR non-visible hydroxylamine and about 40% was due to the SL-OVA elimination from the site of measurement. For liposome encapsulated SL-OVA, the intensity diminished only by approx. 40% in the same period, indicating that liposomes successfully protect the protein from reduction. EPR signal could not be detected directly over live mouse organs within 60min after s.c. application of SL-OVA. With the available L-band EPR spectrometer, the measurements at the site of s.c. application are possible if the amount of SL-OVA applied to a mouse is more than 3mg. For the pharmacokinetic studies of the protein distribution in organs after s.c. or i.v. injection the concentration of the spin-labelled protein should be more than 0.5mmol/kg. After i.v. administration, only ex vivo measurements were possible using an X-band EPR spectrometer, since the total amount of SL-OVA was not sufficient for in vivo detection and also because of rapid reduction of nitroxide. After 2min, the protein was preferentially distributed to liver and, to a smaller extent, to spleen.

  18. Oxovanadium(IV)-catalysed oxidation of dibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlaja, Adeniyi S; Chidawanyika, Wadzanai; Antunes, Edith; Fernandes, Manuel A; Nyokong, Tebello; Torto, Nelson; Tshentu, Zenixole R

    2012-12-07

    The reaction between [V(IV)OSO(4)] and the tetradentate N(2)O(2)-donor Schiff base ligand, N,N-bis(o-hydroxybenzaldehyde)phenylenediamine (sal-HBPD), obtained by the condensation of salicylaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine in a molar ratio of 2 : 1 respectively, resulted in the formation of [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)]. The molecular structure of [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and confirmed the distorted square pyramidal geometry of the complex with the N(2)O(2) binding mode of the tetradentate ligand. The formation of the polymer-supported p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] proceeded via the nitrosation of sal-HBPD, followed by the reduction with hydrogen to form an amine group that was then linked to Merrifield beads followed by the reaction with [V(IV)OSO(4)]. XPS and EPR were used to confirm the presence of oxovanadium(IV) within the beads. The BET surface area and porosity of the heterogeneous catalyst p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] were found to be 6.9 m(2) g(-1) and 180.8 Å respectively. Microanalysis, TG, UV-Vis and FT-IR were used for further characterization of both [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] and p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)]. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) was investigated using [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] and p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] as catalysts. Progress for oxidation of these model compounds was monitored with a gas chromatograph fitted with a flame ionization detector. The oxidation products were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, microanalysis and NMR. Dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO(2)) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene sulfone (4,6-DMDBTO(2)) were found to be the main products of oxidation. Oxovanadium(IV) Schiff base microspherical beads, p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)], were able to catalyse the oxidation of sulfur in dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) to a tune of 88.0% and 71.8% respectively after 3 h at 40 °C. These oxidation results show promise for potential application

  19. Significance of changes of serum FT3, FT4, s-TSH, TGA, TPO-Ab levels in patients with non-Graves' hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lindi; Xu Changde; Xu Huogen; Wang Wei; Zhang Jie; Nie Shufen; Gu Zhenqi; Zeng Jihua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of thyroid-related hormones (FT 3 , FT 4 , s-TSH, TGA, TPO-Ab) levels in patients with Graves' and non-Graves' hyperthyroidism. Methods: Serum FT 3 , FT 4 , TGA, TPO-Ab (with RIA) and s-TSH (with IRMA) were determined in 43 patients with non-Graves' hyperthyroidism, 29 patients with Graves' disease and 40 controls. Results: In both groups of hyperthyroid patients, the serum levels of FT 3 (15.01 ± 11.01 pg/ml in the non - Graves' group and 15.23 ± 9.57pg/ml in the Graves' group), FT 4 (38.30 ± 19.82, 38.87 ± 17.39pg/ml), TGA(33.89 ± 22. 43%, 49.72 ± 20.55% ) and TPO-Ab (1319.24 ± 1037.78, 2023.24 ± 621.00IU/ml) were significantly higher than those (FT 3 , 6.76 ± 2.01pg/ml, FT 4 16.16 ± 2.58pg/ml, TGA 6.76 ± 2.01%, TPO-Ab 0.01 ± 0.01IU/ml) in the controls (all P 3 , FT 4 and s-TSH levels in both groups were not significantly different from each other. Conclusion: In this study, serum TGA and TPO -Ab levels were lower in patients with non-Graves' hyperthyroidism than those in patients with Graves' disease. (authors)

  20. Measurement of in vivo HGPRT-deficient mutant cell frequency using a modified method for cloning human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, Masayuki; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kobuke, Kyoko; Awa, A.A.

    1987-07-01

    Approximately 80 % of human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes could be cloned in the presence of crude Interleukin-2, phytohemagglutinin, and X-irradiated autologous lymphocytes and Raji B-cells. This modified cloning method was used to measure the in vivo frequency of HGPRT-deficient mutant T-lymphocytes. Repeated experiments using blood from the same individuals revealed that the frequency of mutant cells was almost constant for each individual even though the cloning efficiency of lymphocytes varied somewhat from experiment to experiment. Approximately 80 % of both wild-type unselected and 6-thioguanine-resistant colonies had helper/inducer and about 20 % had suppressor/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte markers. No difference was observed in the distribution of lymphocyte subsets between wild and mutant lymphocyte colonies. (author)

  1. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in HIV-positive patients and its association with neuropsychiatric symptoms and immunological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabha M R; Chowta, Mukta N; Ramapuram, John T; Rao, Satish; Udupa, Karthik; Acharya, Sahana Devdas

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of micronutrients is prevalent even before the development of symptoms of HIV disease and is associated with accelerated HIV disease progression. This study evaluates the prevalence of folate and Vitamin B 12 deficiency in HIV-positive patients with or without tuberculosis (TB) and its association with neuropsychiatric symptoms and immunological response. Cross-sectional, observational study in an outpatient setting. Four groups of HIV-positive patients with TB (Group I), HIV-positive patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (Group II), HIV-positive patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms or TB (Group III), and HIV-negative controls with neuropsychiatric symptoms (Group IV). Vitamin B 12 and folate estimation was done using carbonyl metallo-immunoassay method. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney, Pearson's correlation. The prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 27.1% in the Group I, 31.9% in the Group II, 23.4% in the Group III, and 32% in the Group IV being higher in patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms in both HIV and non-HIV patients. The prevalence of Vitamin B 12 deficiency was 18.8% in Group I, 9.1% in Group II, 4.8% in Group III, and 16.7% in Group IV. The patients with folate deficiency had more severe depression and anxiety. Nearly, 30% of the HIV patients had a folic acid deficiency, and about 10% of the HIV patients had Vitamin B 12 deficiency. The folate deficiency was highest among neuropsychiatric patients with or without HIV infection and Vitamin B 12 deficiency was higher among HIV patients with TB.

  2. A radial velocity survey of extremely hydrogen-deficient stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Kiel Univ.; Drilling, J.S.; Heber, U.

    1987-01-01

    A radial velocity survey of hot extremely hydrogen-deficient stars has been carried out in order to search for possible binaries. The survey found three stars to have large velocity variations. Of these, two are known hydrogen-deficient binaries and one, HDE 320156 (= LSS 4300), is a suspected binary. HDE 320156 (= LSS 4300) is therefore confirmed to be a single-lined spectroscopic hydrogen-deficient binary. The hydrogen-deficient binary stars all show weak C-lines. The remaining stars in the sample are C-strong extreme-helium (EHe) stars and did not show large-amplitude velocity variations. Small-amplitude radial velocity variations known to be present amongst the EHe stars are largely undetected. Evidence for variability is, however, present in the known variable V2076 Oph (HD 160641) and in LS IV - 1 0 2 with amplitudes between 10 and 20 km s -1 . (author)

  3. Iron Supplementation, Response in Iron-Deficiency Anemia: Analysis of Five Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okam, Maureen M; Koch, Todd A; Tran, Minh-Ha

    2017-08-01

    Oral iron-replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment for iron-deficiency anemia, but it is often poorly tolerated or ineffective. Hemoglobin response at day 14 of oral iron may be useful in assessing whether and when to transition patients from oral to intravenous (IV) iron. Pooled data from 5 randomized trials were analyzed to compare oral and IV iron-replacement therapy for iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment criteria and assignment to oral versus IV iron were defined per protocol; this analysis included only subjects receiving oral iron. Responders were subjects with ≥1.0-g/dL increases in hemoglobin at day 14, and nonresponders were those with smaller increases. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated for association with hemoglobin response at multiple timepoints. Most subjects (72.8%) were classified as responders. The proportion of subjects with hemoglobin increases ≥1.0, ≥2.0, and ≥3.0 g/dL was greatest among those with postpartum anemia, intermediate among those with heavy uterine bleeding or gastrointestinal-related causes of anemia, and lowest among those with other causes; this proportion was also significantly greater among responders than nonresponders. A ≥1.0-g/dL increase in hemoglobin on day 14 most accurately predicted satisfactory overall hemoglobin response to oral iron on day 42/56 (sensitivity 90.1%; specificity 79.3%; positive and negative predictive values of 92.9% and 72.7%, respectively). Iron-replacement therapy improved quality of life and reduced fatigue. Hemoglobin responses <1.0 g/dL at day 14 of oral iron identify subjects with iron-deficiency anemia who should be transitioned to IV iron supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Kazuharu, E-mail: bamba@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, E-mail: felicia@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC) and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-11-25

    We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity.

  5. No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Sáez-Gómez, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity

  6. Cosmography in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, S.; Cardone, V. F.; Farajollahi, H.; Ravanpak, A.

    2011-01-01

    Based only on the assumption that the Universe is homogenous and isotropic on large scales, cosmography is an ideal tool to investigate the cosmic expansion history in an almost model-independent way. Fitting the data on the luminosity distance and baryon acoustic oscillations allows to determine the confidence ranges for the cosmographic parameters hence giving some quantitative constraints that at whatever theory has to fulfill. As an application, we consider here the case of teleparallel gravity also referred to as f(T) gravity. To this end, we first work out analytical expressions to express the present day values of f(T) derivatives as a function of the cosmographic parameters, which hold under quite general and physically motivated conditions. We then use the constraints coming from cosmography to find out the confidence ranges for f(T) derivatives up to the fifth order and show how these can be used to check the viability of given teleparallel gravity models without the need to explicitly solve the second order dynamic equations.

  7. Vitamin C deficiency exerts paradoxical cardiovascular effects in osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergely, Catherine; Goirand, Françoise; Ecarnot-Laubriet, Aline; Renard, Céline; Moreau, Daniel; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Dumas, Monique; Rochette, Luc

    2004-04-01

    Vitamin C is considered to be a very efficient water-soluble antioxidant, for which several new cardiovascular properties were recently described. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo the effects of a severe depletion of vitamin C on cardiac and vascular variables and reperfusion arrhythmias. For this purpose, we used a mutant strain of Wistar rats, osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS). After 15 d of consuming a vitamin C-deficient diet, ODS rats had a 90% decrease in plasma and tissue levels of ascorbate compared with ODS vitamin C-supplemented rats and normal Wistar rats. However, plasma antioxidant capacity, proteins, alpha-tocopherol, urate, catecholamines, lipids, and nitrate were not influenced by the vitamin C deficiency in ODS rats. Moreover, there was no difference between ODS vitamin C-deficient and -supplemented rats in heart rate and arterial pressure. After 5 min of an in vivo regional myocardial ischemia, various severe arrhythmias were observed, but their intensities were not modified by vitamin C in vitamin C-deficient ODS rats. The vascular reactivity, measured in vitro on thoracic arteries, was not altered by ascorbate deficiency in ODS rats. These unexpected results suggest that unidentified compensatory mechanisms play a role in maintaining normal cardiac function and vascular reactivity in vitamin C-deficient rats.

  8. Selenium deficiency inhibits the conversion of thyroidal thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in chicken thyroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-lei; Wang, Cong-wu; Tan, Si-ran; Liang, Yang; Yao, Hai-dong; Zhang, Zi-wei; Xu, Shi-wen

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) influences the metabolism of thyroid hormones in mammals. However, the role of Se deficiency in the regulation of thyroid hormones in chickens is not well known. In the present study, we examined the levels of thyroidal triiodothyronine (T3), thyroidal thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the serum and the mRNA expression levels of 25 selenoproteins in chicken thyroids. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to analyze the relationships between the selenoproteins. The results indicated that Se deficiency influenced the conversion of T4 to T3 and induced the accumulation of T4 and FT4. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of the selenoproteins were generally decreased by Se deficiency. The PCA showed that eight selenoproteins (deiodinase 1 (Dio1), Dio2, Dio3, thioredoxin reductase 2 (Txnrd2), selenoprotein i (Seli), selenoprotein u (Selu), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), and Gpx2) have similar trends, which indicated that they may play similar roles in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The results showed that Se deficiency inhibited the conversion of T4 to T3 and decreased the levels of the crucial metabolic enzymes of the thyroid hormones, Dio1, Dio2, and Dio3, in chickens. In addition, the decreased selenoproteins (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, Txnrd2, Seli, Selu, Gpx1, and Gpx2) induced by Se deficiency may indirectly limit the conversion of T4 to T3 in chicken thyroids. The information presented in this study is helpful to understand the role of Se in the thyroid function of chickens.

  9. Identification of type IV collagen exposure as a molecular imaging target for early detection of thoracic aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Yanzhenzi; Qi, Feiran; Yu, Bingran; Li, Ping; Jia, Lixin; Li, Yulin; Xu, Fu-jian; Du, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is an aggressive and life-threatening vascular disease and there is no effective means of early diagnosis of dissection. Type IV collagen (Col-IV) is a major component of the sub-endothelial basement membrane, which is initially exposed followed by endothelial injury as early-stage event of TAD. So, we want to build a noninvasive diagnostic method to detect early dissection by identifying the exposed Col-IV via MRI. Methods: Col-IV-targeted magnetic resonance/ fluorescence dual probe (Col-IV-DOTA-Gd-rhodamine B; CDR) was synthesized by amide reaction and coordination reaction. Flow cytometry analysis was used to evaluate the cell viability of SMC treated with CDR and fluorescence assays were used to assess the Col-IV targeting ability of CDR in vitro. We then examined the sensitivity and specificity of CDR at different stages of TAD via MRI and bioluminescence imaging in vivo. Results: The localization of Col-IV (under the intima) was observed by histology images. CDR bound specifically to Col-IV-expressing vascular smooth muscle cells and BAPN-induced dissected aorta. The CDR signal was co-detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging as early as 2 weeks after BAPN administration (pre-dissection stage). The ability to detect rupture of dissected aorta was indicated by a strong normalized signal enhancement (NSE) in vivo. Moreover, NSE was negatively correlated with the time of dissection rupture after BAPN administration (r2 = 0.8482). Conclusion: As confirmed by in vivo studies, the CDR can identify the exposed Col-IV in degenerated aorta to monitor the progress of aortic dissection from the early stage to the rupture via MRI. Thus, CDR-enhanced MRI proposes a potential method for dissection screening, and for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response. PMID:29290819

  10. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic lesions with a newly developed Evans blue-DTPA-gadolinium contrast medium in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Ikuta, Kenjiro; Uwatoku, Toyokazu; Oi, Keiji; Abe, Kohtaro; Hyodo, Fuminori; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Sugimura, Kohtaro; Utsumi, Hideo; Katayama, Yoshiki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that specifically detect atherosclerotic plaque may be useful for the noninvasive detection of the plaque. We have recently developed a new contrast agent, Evans blue-DTPA-gadolinium (EB-DTPA-Gd), which selectively accumulates vascular lesions with endothelial removal. In this study, we examined whether EB-DTPA-Gd is also useful for in vivo imaging of atherosclerotic plaques. We used male apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice of different ages (3, 6 and 12 months old) and age-matched male wild-type mice. After a single intravenous administration of EB-DTPA-Gd (160 microM/kg body weight), MRI T(1) signal was obtained in vivo. Increased signal intensity in the aortic wall was noted within 10-20 min after intravenous injection of EB-DTPA-Gd and was maintained for 30 min. The MRI enhancement in the aorta of ApoE-/- mice was increased in accordance with age, whereas no such enhancement was noted in wild-type mice. Histological examination demonstrated that there was a topological correlation between the site of MRI enhancement and that of atherosclerotic plaque. These results indicate that EB-DTPA-Gd is a useful MRI contrast medium for the in vivo detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Plasma metabolism of apolipoprotein A-IV in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiselli, G.; Krishnan, S.; Beigel, Y.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    As assessed by molecular sieve chromatography and quantitation by a specific radioimmunoassay, apoA-IV is associated in plasma with the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, to a high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction of smaller size than HDL3, and to the plasma lipoprotein-free fraction (LFF). In this study, the turnover of apoA-IV associated to the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, HDL and LFF was investigated in vivo in normal volunteers. Human apoA-IV isolated from the thoracic duct lymph chylomicrons was radioiodinated and incubated with plasma withdrawn from normal volunteers after a fatty meal. Radioiodinated apoA-IV-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, HDL, and LFF were then isolated by chromatography on an AcA 34 column. Shortly after the injection of the radioiodinated apoA-IV-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, most of the radioactivity could be recovered in the HDL and LFF column fractions. On the other hand, when radioiodinated apoA-IV-labeled HDL or LFF were injected, the radioactivity remained with the originally injected fractions at all times. The residence time in plasma of 125 I-labeled apoA-IV, when injected in association with HDL or LFF, was 1.61 and 0.55 days, respectively. When 125 I-labeled apoA-IV was injected as a free protein, the radioactivity distributed rapidly among the three plasma pools in proportion to their mass. The overall fractional catabolic rate of apoA-IV in plasma was measured in the three normal subjects and averaged 1.56 pools per day. The mean degradation rate of apoA-IV was 8.69 mg/kg X day

  12. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice...... and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age......-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies....

  13. uPARAP/endo180 directs lysosomal delivery and degradation of collagen IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Lars; Engelholm, Lars H; Høyer-Hansen, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Collagen turnover is crucial for tissue homeostasis and remodeling and pathological processes such as cancer invasion, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. A major pathway appears to be internalization and degradation by fibroblasts. We now show that the endocytic...... transmembrane glycoprotein urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP/endo180) directs collagen IV for lysosomal delivery and degradation. In wild-type fibroblasts, fluorescently labeled collagen IV was first internalized into vesicular structures with diffuse fluorescence eventually...... appearing uniformly within the wild-type cells after longer incubation times. In these cells, some collagen-containing vesicles were identified as lysosomes by staining for LAMP-1. In contrast, collagen IV remained extracellular and associated with fiber-like structures on uPARAP/endo180-deficient...

  14. FT-Raman and FT-Infrared investigations of archaeological artefacts from Foeni Neolithic site (Banat, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cîntă Pînzaru

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An impressive collection of chert artefacts from the Foeni Neolithic archaeological site (Timiş County, Banat region, Romania is hosted by the Banat Museum in Timişoara. A representative set of seven specimens was non-destructively investigated using FT-Raman and ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. The research was carried out for checking if these readily-available, non-destructive, fast, and cheap methods, which do not require preliminary sample preparation could provide significant information for characterizing the mineral composition of chert artefacts. Based on vibrational data, it was confirmed that the raw material was represented by microcrystalline quartz and moganite, with local concentrations of accessory minerals (calcite, dolomite, and clay minerals. In spite of their wide macroscopic heterogeneity (colour, transparency, based on single point FT-Raman measurements the chert artefacts could not be assigned to distinctive groups of raw silica materials, in order to provide specific arguments for provenance studies. However, the presence of specific accessory minerals (dolomite, illite pointed to distinctive genetic conditions in the case of one lithic material. Sets of measurements (mapping are required for statistically characterizing each artefact specimen. IR data were less significant, due to the rough surface texture of the specimens in contact with the ZnSe crystal of the ATR-FT-IR module. However, illite was identified based solely on its contribution to the IR spectrum. This pioneering study on chert artefacts from Romania based on optical spectroscopic methods shows that there are good premises for a systematic investigation of highly-valuable museum collections, in particular in terms of chert geology.

  15. Technical Capability Upgrades to the NASA Langley Research Center 8 ft. by 15 ft. Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornblom, Mark N.; Beverly, Joshua; O'Connell, Joseph J.; Duncan, Dwight L.

    2016-01-01

    The 8 ft. by 15 ft. thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC), housed in Building 1250 at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and managed by the Systems Integration and Test Branch within the Engineering Directorate, has undergone several significant modifications to increase testing capability, safety, and quality of measurements of articles under environmental test. Significant modifications include: a new nitrogen distribution manifold for supplying the shroud and other cold surfaces to liquid nitrogen temperatures; a new power supply and distribution system for accurately controlling a quartz IR lamp suite; a suite of contamination monitoring sensors for outgassing measurements and species identification; a new test article support system; signal and power feed-throughs; elimination of unnecessary penetrations; and a new data acquisition and control commanding system including safety interlocks. This paper will provide a general overview of the LaRC 8 ft. by 15 ft. TVAC chamber, an overview of the new technical capabilities, and will illustrate each upgrade in detail, in terms of mechanical design and predicted performance. Additionally, an overview of the scope of tests currently being performed in the chamber will be documented, and sensor plots from tests will be provided to show chamber temperature and pressure performance with actual flight hardware under test.

  16. Technical Capability Upgrades to the NASA Langley Research Center 6 ft. by 6 ft. Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornblom, Mark N.; Beverly, Joshua; O'Connell, Joseph J.; Mau, Johnny C.; Duncan, Dwight L.

    2014-01-01

    The 6 ft. by 6 ft. thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC), housed in Building 1250 at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and managed by the Systems Integration and Test Branch within the Engineering Directorate, has undergone several significant modifications to increase testing capability, safety, and quality of measurements of articles under environmental test. Significant modifications include: a new nitrogen thermal conditioning unit for controlling shroud temperatures from -150degC to +150degC; two horizontal auxiliary cold plates for independent temperature control from -150degC to +200degC; a suite of contamination monitoring sensors for outgassing measurements and species identification; signal and power feed-throughs; new pressure gauges; and a new data acquisition and control commanding system including safety interlocks. This presentation will provide a general overview of the LaRC 6 ft. by 6 ft. TVAC chamber, an overview of the new technical capabilities, and illustrate each upgrade in detail, in terms of mechanical design and predicted performance. Additionally, an overview of the scope of tests currently being performed in the chamber will be documented, and sensor plots from tests will be provided to show chamber temperature and pressure performance with actual flight hardware under test.

  17. Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1 gene in Brachypodium and wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lv

    Full Text Available The phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a critical event in the life cycle of flowering plants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT plays a central role in the regulation of this transition by integrating signals from multiple flowering pathways in the leaves and transmitting them to the shoot apical meristem. In this study, we characterized FT homologs in the temperate grasses Brachypodium distachyon and polyploid wheat using transgenic and mutant approaches. Downregulation of FT1 by RNAi was associated with a significant downregulation of the FT-like genes FT2 and FT4 in Brachypodium and FT2 and FT5 in wheat. In a transgenic wheat line carrying a highly-expressed FT1 allele, FT2 and FT3 were upregulated under both long and short days. Overexpression of FT1 caused extremely early flowering during shoot regeneration in both Brachypodium and hexaploid wheat, and resulted in insufficient vegetative tissue to support the production of viable seeds. Downregulation of FT1 transcripts by RNA interference (RNAi resulted in non-flowering Brachypodium plants and late flowering plants (2-4 weeks delay in wheat. A similar delay in heading time was observed in tetraploid wheat plants carrying mutations for both FT-A1 and FT-B1. Plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-B1 flowered later than plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-A1, which corresponded with higher transcript levels of FT-B1 relative to FT-A1 in the early stages of development. Taken together, our data indicate that FT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of flowering in Brachypodium and wheat, and that this role is associated with the simultaneous regulation of other FT-like genes. The differential effects of mutations in FT-A1 and FT-B1 on wheat heading time suggest that different allelic combinations of FT1 homoeologs could be used to adjust wheat heading time to improve adaptation to changing environments.

  18. UV-visible spectroscopic estimation of photodegradation of rhodamine-B dye using tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangami, G; Dharmaraj, N

    2012-11-01

    Nanocrystalline, tin(IV) oxide (SnO(2)) particles has been prepared by thermal decomposition of tin oxalate precursor obtained from the reactions of tin(IV) chloride and sodium oxalate using eggshell membrane (ESM). The as-prepared SnO(2) nanoparticles were characterized by thermal studies, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, FT-IR and UV-visible studies and used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine-B (Rh-B) dye. The size of the prepared nanoparticles was in the range of 5-12nm as identified from the TEM images. Powder XRD data revealed the presence of a tetragonal, rutile crystalline phase of the tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles. Thermal analysis showed that the decomposition of tin oxalate precursor to yield the titled tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles was completed below 500°C. The extent of degradation of Rh-B in the presence of SnO(2) monitored by absorption spectral measurements demonstrated that 94.48% of the selected dye was degraded upon irradiation with UV light for 60 min. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. FTIR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and quantum chemical investigations of 3-acetylcoumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Sakiladevi, S.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2013-05-01

    3-Acetylcoumarin (3AC) was synthesised by a Knoevenagel reaction. Conformational analysis using the B3LYP method was also carried out to determine the most stable conformation of the compound. FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 3AC have been recorded in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. 1H and 13C NMR spectra have also been recorded. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data and quantum mechanical studies. The experimental vibrational frequencies were compared with the wavenumbers obtained theoretically from the DFT-B3LYP/B3PW91 gradient calculations employing the standard 6-31G**, high level 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets for optimised geometry of the compound. The frontier molecular orbital energies of the compound are determined by DFT method.

  20. Effects of Lysine deficiency and Lys-Lys dipeptide on cellular apoptosis and amino acids metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Lijian; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Wu, Fei; Fang, Rejun; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Chunyong; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Zhang, Yuzhe; Liu, Gang; Yao, Jiming; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2017-09-01

    Lysine (Lys) is a common limiting amino acids (AA) for humans and animals and plays an important role in cell proliferation and metabolism, while metabolism of Lys deficiency and its dipeptide is still obscure. Thus, this study mainly investigated the effects of Lys deficiency and Lys-Lys dipeptide on apoptosis and AA metabolism in vitro and in vivo models. Lys deficiency induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and upregulated Lys transporters in vitro and in vivo. SLC7A11, a cystine-glutamate antiporter, was markedly upregulated by Lys deficiency and then further mediated cystine uptake and glutamate release, which was negatively regulated by cystine and glutamate transporters. Meanwhile, Lys deprivation upregulated pept1 expression, which might improve Lys-Lys dipeptide absorption to compensate for the reduced Lys availability. Lys-Lys dipeptide alleviated Lys deficiency induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and influenced AA metabolism. Furthermore, the mammalian target of rapamycin signal might be involved in sensing cellular Lys starvation and Lys-Lys dipeptide. Altogether, these studies suggest that Lys deficiency impairs AA metabolism and causes apoptosis. Lys-Lys dipeptide serves as a Lys source and alleviates Lys deficiency induced cellular imbalance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A review of the FT distillate pathway in GHGenius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) distillates products are now used throughout the world as a commercial fuel. However, lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from FT distillates fuels are higher than diesel fuel produced from crude oil. This paper provided details of a lifecycle analysis of FT distillates pathways created for GHGenius, a model used to analyze emissions from a variety of combustion sources. The study examined values reported in tests conducted by major oil and gas operators and described the conversion technologies typically used at FT distillates production facilities. Summaries of reports on FT distillates emissions were also provided. Three primary factors were identified that contributed to different results reported for FT distillates emissions: (1) the efficiency of the conversion process; (2) the allocation procedure used in the conventional oil refinery for the emissions of individual products; and (3) the emissions associated with natural gas production. The GHGenius model was used to quantify the impact of the 3 main factors. An alternative system expansion methodology was used to compare crude oil diesel pathways with a high efficiency, low gas leak scenario in order to achieve high values reported by some oil and gas operators. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  2. The role of erythropoiesis stimulating agents and intravenous (IV) iron in the cardio renal anemia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    Anemia is common in Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and is associated with an increased mortality, morbidity and progressive renal failure. The most common causes of the anemia in CHF are (1) the associated Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), which causes depression of erythropoietin (EPO) production in the kidney, and (2) excessive cytokine production in CHF, which can cause both depression of erythropoietin production in the kidney and depression of erythropoietin response in the bone marrow. The cytokines can also induce iron deficiency by increasing hepcidin production from the liver, which both reduces gastrointestinal iron absorption and reduces iron release from iron stores located in the macrophages and hepatocytes. It appears that iron deficiency is very common in CHF and is rarely recognized or treated. The iron deficiency can cause a thrombocytosis that might contribute to cardiovascular complications in both CHF and CKD and is reversible with iron treatment. Thus, attempts to control this anemia in CHF will have to take into consideration both the use of both Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESA) such as EPO and oral and, probably more importantly, intravenous (IV) iron. Many studies of anemia in CHF with ESA and oral or IV iron and even with IV iron without ESA have shown a positive effect on hospitalization, New York Heart Association functional class, cardiac and renal function, quality of life, exercise capacity and reduced Beta Natriuretic Peptide and have not demonstrated an increase in cardiovascular damage related to the therapy. However, adequately powered long-term placebo-controlled studies of ESA and of IV iron in CHF are still needed and are currently being carried out.

  3. Determinants of quality of life of patients with heart failure and iron deficiency treated with ferric carboxymaltose: FAIR-HF sub-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Florian S; Pfeil, Alena M; Comin-Colet, Josep; Ponikowski, Piotr; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Mori, Claudio; Braunhofer, Peter G; Szucs, Thomas D; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Anker, Stefan D

    2013-10-09

    Heart failure (HF) is a burden to patients and health care systems. The objectives of HF treatment are to improve health related quality of life (HRQoL) and reduce mortality and morbidity. We aimed to evaluate determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with iron deficiency and HF treated with intravenous (i.v.) iron substitution or placebo. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (n = 459) in iron-deficient chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with or without anaemia studied clinical and HRQoL benefits of i.v. iron substitution using ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) over a 24-week trial period. Multivariate analysis was carried out with various clinical variables as independent variables and HRQoL measures as dependent variables. Mean change from baseline of European Quality of Life - 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) (value set-based) utilities (on a 0 to 100 scale) at week 24 was 8.91 (i.v. iron) and 0.68 (placebo; p model remained stable. In this study, i.v. iron substitution, exercise tolerance, stroke, country of residence and renal function influenced measures of HRQoL in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency. © 2013.

  4. Heartbeat OCT: in vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Regar, Evelyn; Wieser, Wolfgang; van Beusekom, Heleen; Lancee, Charles T.; Springeling, Geert; Krabbendam, Ilona; van der Steen, Antonius F.W.; Huber, Robert; van Soest, Gijs

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac motion artifacts, non-uniform rotational distortion and undersampling affect the image quality and the diagnostic impact of intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT). In this study we demonstrate how these limitations of IV-OCT can be addressed by using an imaging system that we called “Heartbeat OCT”, combining a fast Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser, fast pullback, and a micromotor actuated catheter, designed to examine a coronary vessel in less than one cardiac cycle. We acquired in vivo data sets of two coronary arteries in a porcine heart with both Heartbeat OCT, working at 2.88 MHz A-line rate, 4000 frames/s and 100 mm/s pullback speed, and with a commercial system. The in vivo results show that Heartbeat OCT provides faithfully rendered, motion-artifact free, fully sampled vessel wall architecture, unlike the conventional IV-OCT data. We present the Heartbeat OCT system in full technical detail and discuss the steps needed for clinical translation of the technology. PMID:26713214

  5. Functional correlates of TSH, fT3 and fT4 in Alzheimer disease: a F-18 FDG PET/CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Ursini, Francesco; Fiorentini, Alessandro; Barbagallo, Gaetano; Martorana, Alessandro; Koch, Giacomo; Tavolozza, Mario; Schillaci, Orazio

    2017-07-24

    The present study was aimed to investigate the relationships between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), freeT3 (fT3) and freeT4 (fT4) and brain glucose consumption as detectable by means of 2-deoxy-2-(F-18) fluoro-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in a selected population with Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated 87 subjects (37 males and 50 females, mean age 70 (±6) years old) with AD. All of them were subjected to TSH, fT3 and fT4 assay and to cerebrospinal fluid amyloid (Aβ1-42) and tau [phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) and total-tau (t-tau)] assay prior PET/CT examination. Values for TSH, fT3 and fT4 were in the normal range. The relationships were evaluated by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) using age, sex, MMSE, scholarship and CSF values of amyloid and tau as covariates. We found a significant positive correlation between TSH values and cortical glucose consumption in a wide portion of the anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally (BA32) and left frontal lobe (BA25) (p FWE-corr <0.001; p FDRcorr <0.000; cluster extent 66950). No significant relationships were found between cortical F-18 FDG uptake and T3 and T4 serum levels. The results of our study suggest that a cortical dysfunction in anterior cingulate and frontal lobes may affect serum values of TSH in AD patients.

  6. FTIR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and quantum chemical investigations of 3-acetylcoumarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Sakiladevi, S; Marchewka, M K; Mohan, S

    2013-05-15

    3-Acetylcoumarin (3AC) was synthesised by a Knoevenagel reaction. Conformational analysis using the B3LYP method was also carried out to determine the most stable conformation of the compound. FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 3AC have been recorded in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm(-1), respectively. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra have also been recorded. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data and quantum mechanical studies. The experimental vibrational frequencies were compared with the wavenumbers obtained theoretically from the DFT-B3LYP/B3PW91 gradient calculations employing the standard 6-31G(**), high level 6-311++G(**) and cc-pVTZ basis sets for optimised geometry of the compound. The frontier molecular orbital energies of the compound are determined by DFT method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is muscle glycogenolysis impaired in X-linked phosphorylase b kinase deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orngreen, M.C.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Jeppesen, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unclear to what extent muscle phosphorylase b kinase (PHK) deficiency is associated with exercise-related symptoms and impaired muscle metabolism, because 1) only four patients have been characterized at the molecular level, 2) reported symptoms have been nonspecific, and 3......) lactate responses to ischemic handgrip exercise have been normal. METHODS: We studied a 50-year-old man with X-linked PHK deficiency using ischemic forearm and cycle ergometry exercise tests to define the derangement of muscle metabolism. We compared our findings with those in patients with Mc...... in healthy subjects. Constant workload elicited a second wind in all patients with McArdle disease, but not in the patient with PHK deficiency. IV glucose administration appeared to improve exercise tolerance in the patient with PHK deficiency, but not to the same extent as in the patients with Mc...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Depletion in Respiratory Chain–Deficient Parkinson Disease Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygiel, Karolina A.; Hepplewhite, Philippa D.; Morris, Christopher M.; Picard, Martin; Turnbull, Doug M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent of respiratory chain abnormalities and investigate the contribution of mtDNA to the loss of respiratory chain complexes (CI–IV) in the substantia nigra (SN) of idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) patients at the single‐neuron level. Methods Multiple‐label immunofluorescence was applied to postmortem sections of 10 IPD patients and 10 controls to quantify the abundance of CI–IV subunits (NDUFB8 or NDUFA13, SDHA, UQCRC2, and COXI) and mitochondrial transcription factors (TFAM and TFB2M) relative to mitochondrial mass (porin and GRP75) in dopaminergic neurons. To assess the involvement of mtDNA in respiratory chain deficiency in IPD, SN neurons, isolated with laser‐capture microdissection, were assayed for mtDNA deletions, copy number, and presence of transcription/replication‐associated 7S DNA employing a triplex real‐time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results Whereas mitochondrial mass was unchanged in single SN neurons from IPD patients, we observed a significant reduction in the abundances of CI and II subunits. At the single‐cell level, CI and II deficiencies were correlated in patients. The CI deficiency concomitantly occurred with low abundances of the mtDNA transcription factors TFAM and TFB2M, which also initiate transcription‐primed mtDNA replication. Consistent with this, real‐time PCR analysis revealed fewer transcription/replication‐associated mtDNA molecules and an overall reduction in mtDNA copy number in patients. This effect was more pronounced in single IPD neurons with severe CI deficiency. Interpretation Respiratory chain dysfunction in IPD neurons not only involves CI, but also extends to CII. These deficiencies are possibly a consequence of the interplay between nDNA and mtDNA‐encoded factors mechanistically connected via TFAM. ANN NEUROL 2016;79:366–378 PMID:26605748

  9. Hyperglucagonemia during insulin deficiency accelerates protein catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.S.; Halliday, D.; Matthews, D.E.; Welle, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperglucagonemia coexists with insulin deficiency or insulin resistance in many conditions where urinary nitrogen excretion is increased, but the precise role of glucagon in these conditions is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperglucagonemia on protein metabolism in insulin-deficient subjects. The authors used the stable isotope of an essential amino acid (L-[1- 13 C]leucine) as a tracer of in vivo protein metabolism. A combined deficiency of insulin and glucagon was induced by intravenous infusion of somatostatin. Hyperglucagonemia and hypoinsulinemia were induced by infusions of somatostatin and glucagon. When somatostatin alone was infused leucine flux increased, indicating a 6-17% increase in proteolysis. When somatostatin and glucagon were infused, leucine flux increased, indicating a 12-32% increase in proteolysis. The increase in leucine flux during the infusion of somatostatin and glucagon was higher than the increase during infusion of somatostatin alone. Somatostatin alone did not change leucine oxidation, whereas the somatostatin plus glucagon increased leucine oxidation 100%. They conclude that hyperglucagonemia accelerated proteolysis and leucine oxidation in insulin-deficient humans

  10. New static solutions in f(T) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daouda, M.H.; Rodrigues, Manuel E. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Houndjo, M.J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    We consider the equations of motion of an anisotropic space-time in f(T) theory, where T is the torsion. New spherically symmetric solutions of black holes and wormholes are obtained with a constant torsion and for the cases for which the radial pressure is proportional to a real constant, to some algebraic functions f(T) and their derivatives f{sub T}(T), or vanishes identically. (orig.)

  11. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  12. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocko, Amy L; Ma, Cathleen; Robertson, Sarah; Esfandiari, Elahe; Nilsson, Ove; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-02-01

    Eucalyptus trees are among the most important species for industrial forestry worldwide. However, as with most forest trees, flowering does not begin for one to several years after planting which can limit the rate of conventional and molecular breeding. To speed flowering, we transformed a Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). We found that FT expression led to very early flowering, with events showing floral buds within 1-5 months of transplanting to the glasshouse. The most rapid flowering was observed when the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was used to drive the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (AtFT). Early flowering was also observed with AtFT overexpression from a 409S ubiquitin promoter and under heat induction conditions with Populus trichocarpa FT1 (PtFT1) under control of a heat-shock promoter. Early flowering trees grew robustly, but exhibited a highly branched phenotype compared to the strong apical dominance of nonflowering transgenic and control trees. AtFT-induced flowers were morphologically normal and produced viable pollen grains and viable self- and cross-pollinated seeds. Many self-seedlings inherited AtFT and flowered early. FT overexpression-induced flowering in Eucalyptus may be a valuable means for accelerating breeding and genetic studies as the transgene can be easily segregated away in progeny, restoring normal growth and form. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Heart failure in patients with kidney disease and iron deficiency: The role of iron therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleix Cases Amenós

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and anaemia are common in heart failure (HF and are associated with a worse prognosis in these patients. Iron deficiency is also common in patients with HF and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality, regardless of the presence or absence of anaemia. While the treatment of anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with HF have failed to show a benefit in terms of morbidity and mortality, treatment with IV iron in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency is associated with clinical improvement. In a post hoc analysis of a clinical trial, iron therapy improved kidney function in patients with HF and iron deficiency. In fact, the European Society of Cardiology's recent clinical guidelines on HF suggest that in symptomatic patients with reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency, treatment with IV ferric carboxymaltose should be considered to improve symptoms, the ability to exercise and quality of life. Iron plays a key role in oxygen storage (myoglobin and in energy metabolism, and there are pathophysiological bases that explain the beneficial effect of IV iron therapy in patients with HF. All these aspects are reviewed in this article. Resumen: La enfermedad renal crónica y la anemia son frecuentes en la insuficiencia cardíaca (IC y su presencia se asocia con un peor pronóstico en estos pacientes. La ferropenia es frecuente en pacientes con IC y aumenta el riesgo de morbimortalidad, independientemente de la presencia o no de anemia. Mientras el tratamiento de la anemia con agentes estimuladores de la eritropoyesis en pacientes con IC no ha demostrado un beneficio sobre la morbimortalidad, el tratamiento con hierro intravenoso (iv en pacientes con IC y fracción de eyección disminuida y déficit de hierro se asocia con una mejoría clínica. Además, en un análisis post hoc de un ensayo clínico, la ferroterapia mejoró la función renal en pacientes con IC y

  14. In vivo characterization of radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl) piperidino] cyclohexanol as a potential σ-1 receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Mori, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the (+)-enantiomer of radioiodinated 2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[ 125 I]-p-iodovesamicol] [(+)-[ 125 I]pIV], which is reported to bind with high affinity to σ-1 receptors in vitro, was tested for its usefulness in imaging σ-1 receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) in vivo. In biodistribution studies, significant amounts (approximately 3% of the injected dose) of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV accumulated in rat brain, and its retention was prolonged. In blocking studies, the accumulation of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV in the rat brain was significantly reduced by the coadministration of σ-ligands such as pentazocine (5.0 μmol), haloperidol (0.5 μmol) or SA4503 (0.5 μmol). The blocking effect of pentazocine (selective σ-1 ligand) was similar to the blocking effects of SA4503 and haloperidol [nonselective σ (σ-1 and σ-2) ligands]. Ex vivo autoradiography of the rat brain at 45 min following intravenous injection of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV showed high localization in brain areas rich in σ-1 receptors. Thus, the distribution of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV was thought to bind to σ-1 receptors in the CNS in vivo. These results indicate that radioiodinated (+)-pIV may have the potential to image σ-1 receptors in vivo

  15. Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency due to mutations in SUCLA2 and SUCLG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzo, Rosalba; Verrigni, Daniela; Rasmussen, Magnhild

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The encephalomyopathic mtDNA depletion syndrome with methylmalonic aciduria is associated with deficiency of succinate-CoA ligase, caused by mutations in SUCLA2 or SUCLG1. We report here 25 new patients with succinate-CoA ligase deficiency, and review the clinical and molecular findings...... deficiency of complexes I and IV, but normal histological and biochemical findings in muscle did not preclude a diagnosis of succinate-CoA ligase deficiency. In five patients, the urinary excretion of methylmalonic acid was only marginally elevated, whereas elevated plasma methylmalonic acid was consistently...

  16. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Liebisch, Gerhard [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Utermöhlen, Olaf [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Langmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.langmann@uk-koeln.de [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  17. Coupling FT Raman and FT SERS microscopy with TLC plates for in situ identification of chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudin, J. P.; Beljebbar, A.; Sockalingum, G. D.; Angiboust, J. F.; Manfait, M.

    1995-11-01

    Direct analysis of sub-femtogram quantities of chemical compounds on thin layer chromatography plates has been made possible by associating Fourier transform Raman microspectroscopy with SERS spectroscopy. The interfacing elements of the FT Raman microscope system are discussed and optimised such that a lateral resolution on the micron scale is achieved in the sample plane. Micro-FT SERS results obtained from a model biological molecule indicate preservation of molecular conformation upon adsorption at the SERS active surface. With NIR radiation it is thus possible to analyse plates with or without fluorescence indicators.

  18. Sick sinus syndrome in HCN1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Stefanie; Krause, Stefanie C; Hassan, Sami I H; Becirovic, Elvir; Auer, Franziska; Bernard, Rebekka; Kupatt, Christian; Lange, Philipp; Ziegler, Tilman; Wotjak, Carsten T; Zhang, Henggui; Hammelmann, Verena; Paparizos, Christos; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian A

    2013-12-17

    Sinus node dysfunction (SND) is a major clinically relevant disease that is associated with sudden cardiac death and requires surgical implantation of electric pacemaker devices. Frequently, SND occurs in heart failure and hypertension, conditions that lead to electric instability of the heart. Although the pathologies of acquired SND have been studied extensively, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that cause congenital SND. Here, we show that the HCN1 protein is highly expressed in the sinoatrial node and is colocalized with HCN4, the main sinoatrial pacemaker channel isoform. To characterize the cardiac phenotype of HCN1-deficient mice, a detailed functional characterization of pacemaker mechanisms in single isolated sinoatrial node cells, explanted beating sinoatrial node preparation, telemetric in vivo electrocardiography, echocardiography, and in vivo electrophysiology was performed. On the basis of these experiments we demonstrate that mice lacking the pacemaker channel HCN1 display congenital SND characterized by bradycardia, sinus dysrhythmia, prolonged sinoatrial node recovery time, increased sinoatrial conduction time, and recurrent sinus pauses. As a consequence of SND, HCN1-deficient mice display a severely reduced cardiac output. We propose that HCN1 stabilizes the leading pacemaker region within the sinoatrial node and hence is crucial for stable heart rate and regular beat-to-beat variation. Furthermore, we suggest that HCN1-deficient mice may be a valuable genetic disease model for human SND.

  19. A novel arctigenin-containing latex glove prevents latex allergy by inhibiting type I/IV allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Xue, Dan-Ting; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Zheng-Min; Shang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing a natural compound with anti-allergic effect and stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions and investigating whether its anti-allergic effect is maintained after its addition into the latex. The effects of nine natural compounds on growth of the RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were determined using MTT assay. The compounds included glycyrrhizin, osthole, tetrandrine, tea polyphenol, catechin, arctigenin, oleanolic acid, baicalin and oxymatrine. An ELISA assay was used for the in vitro anti-type I/IV allergy screening; in this process β-hexosaminidase, histamine, and IL-4 released from RBL-2H3 cell lines and IFN-γ and IL-2 released from mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were taken as screening indices. The physical stability of eight natural compounds and the dissolubility of arctigenin, selected based on the in vitro pharnacodynamaic screening and the stability evaluation, were detected by HPLC. The in vivo pharmacodynamic confirmation of arctigenin and final latex product was evaluated with a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model and an allergen-specific skin response model. Nine natural compounds showed minor growth inhibition on RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes. Baicalin and arctigenin had the best anti-type I and IV allergic effects among the natural compounds based on the in vitro pharmacodynamic screening. Arctigenin and catechin had the best physical stability under different manufacturing conditions. Arctigenin was the selected for further evaluation and proven to have anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The final product of the arctigenin-containing latex glove had anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo which were mainly attributed to arctigenin as proved from the dissolubility results. Arctigenin showed anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vitro and in vivo, with a good stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions

  20. A midgut lysate of the Riptortus pedestris has antibacterial activity against LPS O-antigen-deficient Burkholderia mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ho Am; Seo, Eun Sil; Seong, Min Young; Lee, Bok Luel

    2017-02-01

    Riptortus pedestris, a common pest in soybean fields, harbors a symbiont Burkholderia in a specialized posterior midgut region of insects. Every generation of second nymphs acquires new Burkholderia cells from the environment. We compared in vitro cultured Burkholderia with newly in vivo colonized Burkholderia in the host midgut using biochemical approaches. The bacterial cell envelope of in vitro cultured and in vivo Burkholderia differed in structure, as in vivo bacteria lacked lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen. The LPS O-antigen deficient bacteria had a reduced colonization rate in the host midgut compared with that of the wild-type Burkholderia. To determine why LPS O-antigen-deficient bacteria are less able to colonize the host midgut, we examined in vitro survival rates of three LPS O-antigen-deficient Burkholderia mutants and lysates of five different midgut regions. The LPS O-antigen-deficient mutants were highly susceptible when cultured with the lysate of a specific first midgut region (M1), indicating that the M1 lysate contains unidentified substance(s) capable of killing LPS O-antigen-deficient mutants. We identified a 17 kDa protein from the M1 lysate, which was enriched in the active fractions. The N-terminal sequence of the protein was determined to be a soybean Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. These data suggest that the 17 kDa protein, which was originated from a main soybean source of the R. pedestris host, has antibacterial activity against the LPS O-antigen deficient (rough-type) Burkholderia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute dietary zinc deficiency before conception compromises oocyte epigenetic programming and disrupts embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X; Diaz, F J

    2013-04-01

    Recent findings show that zinc is an important factor necessary for regulating the meiotic cell cycle and ovulation. However, the role of zinc in promoting oocyte quality and developmental potential is not known. Using an in vivo model of acute dietary zinc deficiency, we show that feeding a zinc deficient diet (ZDD) for 3-5 days before ovulation (preconception) dramatically disrupts oocyte chromatin methylation and preimplantation development. There was a dramatic decrease in histone H3K4 trimethylation and global DNA methylation in zinc deficient oocytes. Moreover, there was a 3-20 fold increase in transcript abundance of repetitive elements (Iap, Line1, Sineb1, Sineb2), but a decrease in Gdf9, Zp3 and Figla mRNA. Only 53% and 8% of mature eggs reached the 2-cell stage after IVF in animals receiving a 3 and 5 days ZDD, respectively, while a 5 day ZDD in vivo reduced the proportion of 2-cells to 49%. In vivo fertilized 2-cell embryos cultured in vitro formed fewer (38%) blastocysts compared to control embryos (74%). Likewise, fewer blastocyst and expanded blastocyst were collected from the reproductive tract of zinc deficient animals on day 3.5 of pregnancy. This could be due to a decrease in Igf2 and H19 mRNA in ZDD blastocyst. Supplementation with a methyl donor (SAM) during IVM restored histone H3K4me3 and doubled the IVF success rate from 17% to 43% in oocytes from zinc deficient animals. Thus, the terminal period of oocyte development is extremely sensitive to perturbation in dietary zinc availability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 基于FrFT-MUSIC的空时频算法%Space-time-frequency Algorithm Based on FrFT-MUSIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张声杰; 刘梅

    2011-01-01

    针对传统时频分析方法难以对星载分布式合成孔径雷达(SAR)系统中地面目标速度进行准确估计的问题,提出了分数阶傅里叶变换(FrFT)-多重信号分类(MUSIC)空时频方法.利用FrFT获得信号向量并构造空时频分布矩阵;应用该分布矩阵替代传统MUSIC算法中的协方差矩阵,从而求得FrFT- MUSIC空时频谱,通过对谱函数进行搜索估计目标速度.仿真实验表明,该方法的目标速度估计精度高,抗噪声能力强.%The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT)-multipIe signal classification (MUSIC) space-time-frequency algorithm is proposed to solve the problem that it is difficult for the traditional time-frequency analysis method to accurately estimate the ground targets' azimuth speed which is coupled with spaceborne distributed synthetic aperture radar" (SAR). The signal vector is obtained and the space-time-frequency distribution matrix is formed by FrFT. Then, this distribution matrix is used instead of the traditional MUSIC covariance matrix to construct FrFT- MUSIC spectral function. Target speed is estimated by searching. Simulation results show that this algorithm has a high accuracy of parameter estimation and strong resistance to noise.

  3. Why Need for National Expert Group Technical Consultation on Prevention and Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Aggarwal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutrient deficiency in India. It impacts the lives of millions of mothers and children in our country through impaired health, development, quality of life and productivity. The Government of India initiated National Iron-plus Initiative Programme (NIPI for Control of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in 2013 with an aim to prevent and treat anaemia amongst different age groups, namely i 6-59 months; ii 6-10 years; iii 11-19 years, iv Pregnant and lactating Mothers, and v Women in Reproductive age group.

  4. Análise ex vivo de hiperplasia fibrosa inflamatória de mucosa jugal por espectroscopia FT-Raman

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Luis Felipe das Chagas e Silva [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    A hiperplasia fibrosa inflamatória (HFI) é um processo proliferativo não neoplásico, encontrado em mucosa bucal, geralmente decorrente de traumatismos crônicos. A Espectroscopia Raman fornece informações dos tecidos avaliados através de suas propriedades ópticas. Tem sido empregada em estudos biológicos para a caracterização de alterações neoplásicas. No entanto, são escassos os estudos que envolvam processos inflamatórios. Objetivou-se caracterizar através da Espectroscopia FT-Raman HFI com ...

  5. Endonuclease IV of Escherichia coli is induced by paraquat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, E.; Weiss, B.

    1987-05-01

    The addition of paraquat (methyl viologen) to a growing culture of Escherichia coli K-12 led within 1 hr to a 10- to 20-fold increase in the level of endonuclease IV, a DNase for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. The induction was blocked by chloramphenicol. Increases of 3-fold or more were also seen with plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ produced no more than a 2-fold increase in endonuclease IV activity. The following agents had no significant effect: streptonigrin, nitrofurantoin, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, ..gamma.. rays, 260-nm UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C, and ascorbate. Paraquat, plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate are known to generate superoxide radical anions via redox cycling in vivo. A mutant lacking superoxide dismutase was unusually sensitive to induction by paraquat. In addition, endonuclease IV could be induced by merely growing the mutant in pure O/sub 2/. The levels of endonuclease IV in uninduced or paraquat-treated cells were unaffected by mutations of oxyR, a H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-inducible gene that governs an oxidative-stress regulon. The results indicate that endonuclease IV is an inducible DNA-repair enzyme and that its induction can be mediated via the production of superoxide radicals.

  6. Endonuclease IV of Escherichia coli is induced by paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, E.; Weiss, B.

    1987-01-01

    The addition of paraquat (methyl viologen) to a growing culture of Escherichia coli K-12 led within 1 hr to a 10- to 20-fold increase in the level of endonuclease IV, a DNase for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. The induction was blocked by chloramphenicol. Increases of 3-fold or more were also seen with plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate. H 2 O 2 produced no more than a 2-fold increase in endonuclease IV activity. The following agents had no significant effect: streptonigrin, nitrofurantoin, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, γ rays, 260-nm UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C, and ascorbate. Paraquat, plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate are known to generate superoxide radical anions via redox cycling in vivo. A mutant lacking superoxide dismutase was unusually sensitive to induction by paraquat. In addition, endonuclease IV could be induced by merely growing the mutant in pure O 2 . The levels of endonuclease IV in uninduced or paraquat-treated cells were unaffected by mutations of oxyR, a H 2 O 2 -inducible gene that governs an oxidative-stress regulon. The results indicate that endonuclease IV is an inducible DNA-repair enzyme and that its induction can be mediated via the production of superoxide radicals

  7. Performance Monitoring of a Nearshore Berm at Ft. Myers Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Figure 14. Establishing a temporary benchmark. ERDC/CHL TR-13-11 28 Visually estimated vegetation/ toe -of- dune line, MHHW line (identified...sediment samples were taken at the toe of the dune (where present), backbeach, high tide line, mean sea level, low tide line, and then at approximately...2-ft, 4-ft, 6-ft, and 8-ft water depths. In the berm area, surface sediment samples were taken at the toe of the dune (where present), backbeach

  8. Immobilization of Dystrophin and Laminin α2-Chain Deficient Zebrafish Larvae In Vivo Prevents the Development of Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are often caused by genetic alterations in the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex or its extracellular ligands. These structures are associated with the cell membrane and provide mechanical links between the cytoskeleton and the matrix. Mechanical stress is considered a pathological mechanism and muscle immobilization has been shown to be beneficial in some mouse models of muscular dystrophy. The zebrafish enables novel and less complex models to examine the effects of extended immobilization or muscle relaxation in vivo in different dystrophy models. We have examined effects of immobilization in larvae from two zebrafish strains with muscular dystrophy, the Sapje dystrophin-deficient and the Candyfloss laminin α2-chain-deficient strains. Larvae (4 days post fertilization, dpf of both mutants have significantly lower active force in vitro, alterations in the muscle structure with gaps between muscle fibers and altered birefringence patterns compared to their normal siblings. Complete immobilization (18 hrs to 4 dpf was achieved using a small molecular inhibitor of actin-myosin interaction (BTS, 50 μM. This treatment resulted in a significantly weaker active contraction at 4 dpf in both mutated larvae and normal siblings, most likely reflecting a general effect of immobilization on myofibrillogenesis. The immobilization also significantly reduced the structural damage in the mutated strains, showing that muscle activity is an important pathological mechanism. Following one-day washout of BTS, muscle tension partly recovered in the Candyfloss siblings and caused structural damage in these mutants, indicating activity-induced muscle recovery and damage, respectively.

  9. Characterisation of 1,3-diammonium propylselenate monohydrate by XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, DSC and DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunarayanan, S.; Arjunan, V.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.; Atalay, Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    The crystals of 1,3-diammonium propylselenate monohydrate (DAPS) were prepared and characterised X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopy, and DFT/B3LYP methods. It comprises protonated propyl ammonium moieties (diammonium propyl cations), selenate anions and water molecule which are held together by a number of hydrogen bonds and form infinite chains. The XRD data confirm the transfer of two protons from selenic acid to 1,3-diaminopropane molecule. The DAPS complex is stabilised by the presence of O-H···O and N-H···O hydrogen bonds and the electrostatic interactions as well. The N···O and O···O bond distances are 2.82-2.91 and 2.77 Å, respectively. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 1,3-diammonium propyl selenate monohydrate are recorded and the complete vibrational assignments have been discussed. The geometry is optimised by B3LYP method using 6-311G, 6-311+G and 6-311+G* basis sets and the energy, structural parameters, vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities are determined. Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) data were also presented to analyse the possibility of the phase transition. Complete natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis is carried out to analyse the intramolecular electronic interactions and their stabilisation energies. The electrostatic potential of the complex lies in the range +1.902e × 10-2 to -1.902e × 10-2. The limits of total electron density of the complex is +8.43e × 10-2 to -8.43e × 10-2.

  10. Deficiency of respiratory chain complex I in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Franz A; Neureiter, Daniel; Feichtinger, René G; Trost, Andrea; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Mayr, Johannes A

    2016-01-01

    Oncocytic cells (OCs) are characterized by an accumulation of mitochondria and their occurrence in the thyroid gland of patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is well known. However, their properties and functional relevance are poorly understood. We investigated OC lesions (n=212) in the thyroid of 12 HT patients. Loss of complex I protein was observed in oncocytic lesions of each of the patients. In addition to isolated complex I deficiency, 25% of oncocytic lesions showed combined deficiency of complex I and IV. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time a defect of respiratory chain complex I in OCs of HT patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping Discrimination Experienced by Indonesian Trans* FtM Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Danny; Pratama, Mario Prajna

    2017-01-01

    This work sought to document how Indonesian trans* FtM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace, and health care institutions. Objectives were (1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FtM individuals in Indonesia, and (2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FtM community. In-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents. Findings revealed that respondents experienced othering through rejection, misidentification, harassment, "correction," and bureaucratic discrimination across the five preestablished domains. Health care and a lack of information emerged as areas of particular concern for respondents. This work calls for health care that is sensitive to the needs of trans* FtM people coupled with high-quality information to alleviate the cycles through which discrimination is sustained.

  12. Mena deficiency delays tumor progression and decreases metastasis in polyoma middle-T transgenic mouse mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Evanthia T; Wang, Yarong; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Sellers, Rani S; Wang, Weigang; Li, Jiufeng; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Gertler, Frank B; Condeelis, John S

    2010-01-01

    The actin binding protein Mammalian enabled (Mena), has been implicated in the metastatic progression of solid tumors in humans. Mena expression level in primary tumors is correlated with metastasis in breast, cervical, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Cells expressing high Mena levels are part of the tumor microenvironment for metastasis (TMEM), an anatomical structure that is predictive for risk of breast cancer metastasis. Previously we have shown that forced expression of Mena adenocarcinoma cells enhances invasion and metastasis in xenograft mice. Whether Mena is required for tumor progression is still unknown. Here we report the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression, metastasis and on normal mammary gland development. To investigate the role of Mena in tumor progression and metastasis, Mena deficient mice were intercrossed with mice carrying a transgene expressing the polyoma middle T oncoprotein, driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus. The progeny were investigated for the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression via staging of primary mammary tumors and by evaluation of morbidity. Stages of metastatic progression were investigated using an in vivo invasion assay, intravital multiphoton microscopy, circulating tumor cell burden, and lung metastases. Mammary gland development was studied in whole mount mammary glands of wild type and Mena deficient mice. Mena deficiency decreased morbidity and metastatic dissemination. Loss of Mena increased mammary tumor latency but had no affect on mammary tumor burden or histologic progression to carcinoma. Elimination of Mena also significantly decreased epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced in vivo invasion, in vivo motility, intravasation and metastasis. Non-tumor bearing mice deficient for Mena also showed defects in mammary gland terminal end bud formation and branching. Deficiency of Mena decreases metastasis by slowing tumor progression and reducing tumor cell invasion and intravasation. Mena

  13. Noether symmetry approach in f(T, B) teleparallel cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    We consider the cosmology derived from f(T, B) gravity where T is the torsion scalar and B = (2)/(e)∂{sub μ}(eT{sup μ}) a boundary term. In particular we discuss how it is possible to recover, under the same standard, the teleparallel f(T) gravity, the curvature f(R) gravity, and the teleparallel-curvature f(R, T) gravity, which are particular cases of f(T, B). We adopt the Noether Symmetry Approach to study the related dynamical systems and to find cosmological solutions. (orig.)

  14. Spherically symmetric static spacetimes in vacuum f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2011-01-01

    We show that Schwarzschild geometry remains as a vacuum solution for those four-dimensional f(T) gravitational theories behaving as ultraviolet deformations of general relativity. In the gentler context of three-dimensional gravity, we also find that the infrared-deformed f(T) gravities, like the ones used to describe the late cosmic speed up of the Universe, have as the circularly symmetric vacuum solution a Deser-de Sitter or a Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli-like spacetime with an effective cosmological constant depending on the infrared scale present in the function f(T).

  15. Deficient Circumferential Growth Is the Primary Determinant of Aortic Obstruction Attributable to Partial Elastin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Li, Guangxin; Korneva, Arina; Caulk, Alexander W; Qin, Lingfeng; Bersi, Matthew R; Li, Qingle; Li, Wei; Mecham, Robert P; Humphrey, Jay D; Tellides, George

    2017-05-01

    Williams syndrome is characterized by obstructive aortopathy attributable to heterozygous loss of ELN , the gene encoding elastin. Lesions are thought to result primarily from excessive smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and consequent medial expansion, although an initially smaller caliber and increased stiffness of the aorta may contribute to luminal narrowing. The relative contributions of such abnormalities to the obstructive phenotype had not been defined. We quantified determinants of luminal stenosis in thoracic aortas of Eln -/- mice incompletely rescued by human ELN . Moderate obstruction was largely because of deficient circumferential growth, most prominently of ascending segments, despite increased axial growth. Medial thickening was evident in these smaller diameter elastin-deficient aortas, with medial area similar to that of larger diameter control aortas. There was no difference in cross-sectional SMC number between mutant and wild-type genotypes at multiple stages of postnatal development. Decreased elastin content was associated with medial fibrosis and reduced aortic distensibility because of increased structural stiffness but preserved material stiffness. Elastin-deficient SMCs exhibited greater contractile-to-proliferative phenotypic modulation in vitro than in vivo. We confirmed increased medial collagen without evidence of increased medial area or SMC number in a small ascending aorta with thickened media of a Williams syndrome subject. Deficient circumferential growth is the predominant mechanism for moderate obstructive aortic disease resulting from partial elastin deficiency. Our findings suggest that diverse aortic manifestations in Williams syndrome result from graded elastin content, and SMC hyperplasia causing medial expansion requires additional elastin loss superimposed on ELN haploinsufficiency. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, P A; Knudsen, L; Gniadecka, M

    2013-01-01

    and skin tumour diagnostics in vivo. We obtained Raman spectra in vivo from the normal skin of 55 healthy persons with different skin pigmentation (Fitzpatrick skin type I-VI) and in vivo from 25 basal cell carcinomas, 41 pigmented nevi and 15 malignant melanomas. Increased skin pigmentation resulted...

  17. Association between in vivo bone formation and ex vivo migratory capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K.; Zaher, Walid; Larsen, Kenneth Hauberg

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a clinical need for developing systemic transplantation protocols for use of human skeletal stem cells (also known bone marrow stromal stem cells) (hBMSC) in tissue regeneration. In systemic transplantation studies, only a limited number of hBMSC home to injured tissues...... populations derived from telomerized hBMSC (hBMSC-TERT) with variable ability to form heterotopic bone when implanted subcutaneously in immune deficient mice. In vitro transwell migration assay was used and the in vivo homing ability of transplanted hBMSC to bone fractures in mice was visualized...... suggesting that only a subpopulation of hBMSC possesses "homing" capacity. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a subpopulation of hBMSC defined by ability to form heterotopic bone in vivo, is capable of homing to injured bone. METHODS: We tested ex vivo and in vivo homing capacity of a number of clonal cell...

  18. An Intron 9 CYP19 Gene Variant (IVS9+5G>A), Present in an Aromatase-Deficient Girl, Affects Normal Splicing and Is Also Present in Normal Human Steroidogenic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraco, Nora; Nesi-Franca, Suzana; Sainz, Romina; Marino, Roxana; Marques-Pereira, Rosana; La Pastina, Julia; Perez Garrido, Natalia; Sandrini, Romolo; Rivarola, Marco Aurelio; de Lacerda, Luiz; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Splicing CYP19 gene variants causing aromatase deficiency in 46,XX disorder of sexual development (DSD) patients have been reported in a few cases. A misbalance between normal and aberrant splicing variants was proposed to explain spontaneous pubertal breast development but an incomplete sex maturation progress. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize a novel CYP19A1 intronic homozygote mutation (IVS9+5G>A) in a 46,XX DSD girl presenting spontaneous breast development and primary amenorrhea, and to evaluate similar splicing variant expression in normal steroidogenic tissues. Genomic DNA analysis, splicing prediction programs, splicing assays, and in vitro protein expression and enzyme activity analyses were carried out. CYP19A1 mRNA expression in human steroidogenic tissues was also studied. A novel IVS9+5G>A homozygote mutation was found. In silico analysis predicts the disappearance of the splicing donor site in intron 9, confirmed by patient peripheral leukocyte cP450arom and in vitro studies. Protein analysis showed a shorter and inactive protein. The intron 9 transcript variant was also found in human steroidogenic tissues. The mutation IVS9+5G>A generates a splicing variant that includes intron 9 which is also present in normal human steroidogenic tissues, suggesting that a misbalance between normal and aberrant splicing variants might occur in target tissues, explaining the clinical phenotype in the affected patient. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Different behaviour of 63Ni and 59Fe during absorption in iron-deficient and iron-adequate jejunal rat segments ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Fassbender, M.; Elsenhans, B.; McKie, A.T.; Schuemann, K.

    2003-01-01

    Nickel exhibits low oral toxicity. It shares the absorptive pathways for iron, though there are substantial quantitative differences in handling of both metals. To analyse these differences more closely, jejunal segments from iron-deficient and iron-adequate rats were luminally perfused ex vivo with 59 Fe and 63 Ni at six different concentrations (1-500 μmo1/l) under steady state conditions. 59 Fe over-all absorption increased 2.0-4.6-fold in iron-deficiency at luminal concentrations between 1 and 100 μmol/l, while 63 Ni absorption increased to a much lower extent (2.6-fold at 1 μmol/l and 1.5-fold at higher luminal concentrations). Moreover, there was a 5-7-fold higher concentration for 63 Ni in the jejunal tissue than in the absorbate at luminal concentrations above 50 μmol/l which was not observed at 1 μmol 63 Ni/l and not for 59 Fe. 63 Ni tissue load showed a linear and a saturable fraction. In iron-deficiency the saturable 63 Ni fraction increased 4-fold as compared to only 1.5-fold increments for 59 Fe. Moreover, a substantially higher share of 63 Ni was retained in the jejunal tissue at high as compare to low luminal concentrations after perfusion had been continued without luminal radioactivity. This was not found for 59 Fe and suggests a concentration-dependent block of 63 Ni export across the enterocytes' basolateral membrane. To explain these results one may speculate that 63 Ni may bind more tightly to tissue ligands than 59 Fe due to the higher thermodynamic and kinetic stability of nickel complexes. In particular, nickel may bind to a basolateral population of metal carriers and block its own basolateral transfer in a concentration-dependent manner. Tight 63 Ni binding to non-specific jejunal ligands is responsible for the unaltered high linear fraction of jejunal 63 Ni load in iron-deficient and iron-adequate segments. Binding of 63 Ni to food and tissue ligands in the small intestine may, thus, be a likely explanation for the low oral nickel

  20. CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND IRON-DEFICIENT ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Melnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 62 chronic heart failure (CHF patients with iron-deficient anemia (IDA were studied. Standard CHF therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides was accompanied with the correction of iron deficiency by intravenous injection of Venofer and subsequent Ferro-Folgamma prescription (average daily dose of iron 137,75±5mg. After treatment serum iron level increased by 95,5% and hemoglobin level – by 9,8%. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 32,2% and physical activity tolerance – by 47,6%. Before treatment 32 CHF patients with IDA (51,6% had III functional class (FC of CHF according to NYHA and 16 patients (25,8% – IV FC. After treatment I FC was observed in 18 CHF patients (29%, II FC – in 26 patients and only 18 patients demonstrated III FC of CHF.

  1. CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND IRON-DEFICIENT ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Melnik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 62 chronic heart failure (CHF patients with iron-deficient anemia (IDA were studied. Standard CHF therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides was accompanied with the correction of iron deficiency by intravenous injection of Venofer and subsequent Ferro-Folgamma prescription (average daily dose of iron 137,75±5mg. After treatment serum iron level increased by 95,5% and hemoglobin level – by 9,8%. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 32,2% and physical activity tolerance – by 47,6%. Before treatment 32 CHF patients with IDA (51,6% had III functional class (FC of CHF according to NYHA and 16 patients (25,8% – IV FC. After treatment I FC was observed in 18 CHF patients (29%, II FC – in 26 patients and only 18 patients demonstrated III FC of CHF.

  2. Radiotherapy combined with Tegafur (FT-207s) for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yoshiro

    1981-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has anti-tumor effects as an anti-metabolite, but it cannot pass the Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB). FT-207 a masked-compound of 5-FU, is easily lipid soluble and is able to pass the BBB. Twenty eight patients of primary brain tumor and 8 patients of metastatic brain tumor were treated with irradiation combined with 750 mg of FT-207 suppository. Twenty four patients of primary brain tumor were treated only with irradiation as control. The mean survival time was 20.4 +- 11.8 months for the combined therapy group and 17.6 +- 8.6 months for the control. The concentration of FT-207 and 5-FU in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was investigated after administration of 750 mg of FT-207 suppository per annum. The maximum concentration of FT-207 and of 5-FU in serum was 20.4 +- 11.8 mcg/ml and 0.06 +- 0.02 mcg/ml, respectively. There were observed several side effects, such as anorexia, nausea, exanthema and etc. These side effects were not so great as to interrupt the therapy at the dose level of 750 mg of FT-207. However, at the dose of 1500 mg, one case showed disturbance of consciousness, to which attention should be called. (author)

  3. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  4. Effect of microwave treatment on structure of binders based on sodium carboxymethyl starch: FT-IR, FT-Raman and XRD investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarska, Karolina; Grabowska, Beata; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Bobrowski, Artur; Cukrowicz, Sylwia

    2018-06-15

    The paper deals with the influence of the microwave treatment on sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and XRD analysis data of native potato starch and three different carboxymethyl starches (CMS-Na) with various degree of substitution (DS) before and after exposition to microwave radiation have been compared. FT-IR studies showed that polar groups present in CMS-Na structure take part in the formation of new hydrogen bonds network after water evaporation. However, these changes depend on DS value of the modified starch. The FT-Raman study confirmed that due to the impact on the samples by microwave, the changes of intensity in the characteristic bands associated with the crystalline regions in the sample were noticed. The X-ray diffraction data for microwave treated CMS-Na samples have been compared with the diffractograms of initial materials and analysis of XRD patterns confirmed that microwave-treated samples exhibit completely amorphous structure. Analysis of structural changes allows to state that the binding of sand grains in moulding sand with CMS-Na polymeric binder consists in the formation of hydrogen bonds networks (physical cross-linking). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of microwave treatment on structure of binders based on sodium carboxymethyl starch: FT-IR, FT-Raman and XRD investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarska, Karolina; Grabowska, Beata; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Bobrowski, Artur; Cukrowicz, Sylwia

    2018-06-01

    The paper deals with the influence of the microwave treatment on sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and XRD analysis data of native potato starch and three different carboxymethyl starches (CMS-Na) with various degree of substitution (DS) before and after exposition to microwave radiation have been compared. FT-IR studies showed that polar groups present in CMS-Na structure take part in the formation of new hydrogen bonds network after water evaporation. However, these changes depend on DS value of the modified starch. The FT-Raman study confirmed that due to the impact on the samples by microwave, the changes of intensity in the characteristic bands associated with the crystalline regions in the sample were noticed. The X-ray diffraction data for microwave treated CMS-Na samples have been compared with the diffractograms of initial materials and analysis of XRD patterns confirmed that microwave-treated samples exhibit completely amorphous structure. Analysis of structural changes allows to state that the binding of sand grains in moulding sand with CMS-Na polymeric binder consists in the formation of hydrogen bonds networks (physical cross-linking).

  6. Mass measurements on neutron-deficient nuclides at SHIPTRAP and commissioning of a cryogenic narrow-band FT-ICR mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Garcia, R.

    2007-07-01

    The dissertation presented here deals with high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry on short-lived radionuclides. Owed to the ability of revealing all nucleonic interactions, mass measurements far off the line of {beta}-stability are expected to bring new insight to the current knowledge of nuclear properties and serve to test the predictive power of mass models and formulas. In nuclear astrophysics, atomic masses are fundamental parameters for the understanding of the synthesis of nuclei in the stellar environments. This thesis presents ten mass values of radionuclides around A=90 interspersed in the predicted rp-process pathway. Six of them have been experimentally determined for the first time. The measurements have been carried out at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP using the destructive time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance (TOF-ICR) detection technique. Given the limited performance of the TOF-ICR detection when trying to investigate heavy/superheavy species with small production cross sections ({sigma} <1 {mu}b), a new detection system is found to be necessary. Thus, the second part of this thesis deals with the commissioning of a cryogenic double-Penning trap system for the application of a highly-sensitive, narrow-band Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique. With the non-destructive FT-ICR detection method a single singly-charged trapped ion will provide the required information to determine its mass. First off-line tests of a new detector system based on a channeltron with an attached conversion dynode, of a cryogenic pumping barrier, to guarantee ultra-high vacuum conditions during mass determination, and of the detection electronics for the required single-ion sensitivity are reported. (orig.)

  7. Generalized second law of thermodynamics in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K.; Abdolmaleki, A., E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.ir, E-mail: AAbdolmaleki@uok.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) modified teleparallel gravity. We consider a spatially flat FRW universe containing only the pressureless matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the Hubble horizon. For two viable f(T) models containing f(T) = T+μ{sub 1}((−T)){sup n} and f(T) = T−μ{sub 2}T(1−e{sup βT{sub 0}/T}), we first calculate the effective equation of state and deceleration parameters. Then, (we investigate the null and strong energy conditions and conclude that a sudden future singularity appears in both models. Furthermore, using a cosmographic analysis we check the viability of two models. Finally, we examine the validity of the GSL and find that for both models it) is satisfied from the early times to the present epoch. But in the future, the GSL is violated for the special ranges of the torsion scalar T.

  8. Deficient Mechanical Activation of Anabolic Transcripts and Post-Traumatic Cartilage Degeneration in Matrilin-1 Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Chen

    Full Text Available Matrilin-1 (Matn1, a cartilage-specific peri-cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM protein, has been hypothesized to regulate ECM interactions and transmit mechanical signals in cartilage. Since Matn1 knock-out (Matn1-/- mice exhibit a normal skeleton, its function in vivo is unclear. In this study, we found that the anabolic Acan and Col2a transcript levels were significantly higher in wildtype (Matn1+/+ mouse cartilage than that of MATN1-/- mice in vivo. However, such difference was not observed between Matn1+/+ and MATN1-/- chondrocytes cultured under stationary conditions in vitro. Cyclic loading significantly stimulated Acan and Col2a transcript levels in Matn1+/+ but not in MATN1-/- chondrocytes. This suggests that, while Matn1+/+ chondrocytes increase their anabolic gene expression in response to mechanical loading, the MATN1-/- chondrocytes fail to do so because of the deficiency in mechanotransduction. We also found that altered elastic modulus of cartilage matrix in Matn1-/- mice, suggesting the mechanotransduction has changed due to the deficiency of Matn1. To understand the impact of such deficiency on joint disease, mechanical loading was altered in vivo by destabilization of medial meniscus. While Matn1+/+ mice exhibited superficial fissures and clefts consistent with mechanical damage to the articular joint, Matn1-/- mice presented more severe cartilage lesions characterized by proteoglycan loss and disorganization of cells and ECM. This suggests that Matn1 deficiency affects pathogenesis of post-traumatic osteoarthritis by failing to up-regulate anabolic gene expression. This is the first demonstration of Matn1 function in vivo, which suggests its protective role in cartilage degeneration under altered mechanical environment.

  9. In vivo biocompatibility of new nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid complex biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai ZY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhenyu Dai,1,2,* Yue Li,3,* Weizhong Lu,2,* Dianming Jiang,4 Hong Li,1 Yonggang Yan,1 Guoyu Lv,1 Aiping Yang1 1College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2Department of Orthopedics, Chongqing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, the Second Affiliated Hospital, 4Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To evaluate the compatibility of novel nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (n-CDHA/PAA complex biomaterials with muscle and bone tissue in an in vivo model.Methods: Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Biomaterials were surgically implanted into each rabbit in the back erector spinae and in tibia with induced defect. Polyethylene was implanted into rabbits in the control group and n-CDHA/PAA into those of the experimental group. Animals were examined at four different points in time: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after surgery. They were euthanized after embolization. Back erector spinae muscles with the surgical implants were examined after hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining at these points in time. Tibia bones with the surgical implants were examined by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM at these points in time to evaluate the interface of the bone with the implanted biomaterials. Bone tissues were sectioned and subjected to HE, Masson, and toluidine blue staining.Results: HE staining of back erector spinae muscles at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after implantation of either n-CDHA/PAA or polyethylene showed disappearance of inflammation and normal arrangement in the peripheral tissue of implant biomaterials; no abnormal staining was observed. At 2 weeks after implantation, X-ray imaging of bone tissue samples in both experimental and control groups showed that

  10. ADA Deficiency: Evaluation of the Clinical and Laboratory Features and the Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagdas, Deniz; Gur Cetinkaya, Pınar; Karaatmaca, Betül; Esenboga, Saliha; Tan, Cagman; Yılmaz, Togay; Gümüş, Ersin; Barış, Safa; Kuşkonmaz, Barış; Ozgur, Tuba Turul; Bali, Pawan; Santisteban, Ines; Orhan, Diclehan; Yüce, Aysel; Cetinkaya, Duygu; Boztug, Kaan; Hershfield, Michael; Sanal, Ozden; Tezcan, İlhan

    2018-05-09

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency. It results in the intracellular accumulation of toxic metabolites which have effects particularly on lymphocytes and the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of 13 ADA-deficient patients. We planned to evaluate their clinical and laboratory findings before and after enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT), and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSCGT). Measurement of ADA enzyme activity and metabolites and sequencing of the ADA gene were performed in most of the patients with ADA deficiency. One of the patients with late-onset ADA deficiency was diagnosed by the help of primary immunodeficiency panel screening. Ten out of 13 patients were diagnosed as SCID, while 3 out of 13 were diagnosed as delayed-/late-onset ADA deficiency. Late-onset ADA deficiency patients had clinical and laboratory findings of combined immunodeficiency (CID). Eight patients with ADA-SCID were found to have higher levels of ADA metabolite (dAXP%) (62.1% (34.6-71.9)) than 3 patients with delayed-/late-onset ADA deficiency (6.9% (2.1-8.9). All but one patient with SCID had T-B-NK- phenotype, one had T-B-NK+ phenotype. Genetic defect was documented in 11 patients. Four out of 11 patients had compound heterozygous defects. Three out of 4 patients with compound heterozygous defects had delayed-onset/late-onset ADA deficiency. Seven out of 11 patients with SCID had homozygous defects. Five out of 7 had the same homozygous indel frameshift mutation (c.955-959delGAAGA) showing a founder effect. There were two novel splice site defects: one (IVS10+2T>C) was heterozygous in a patient with late-onset ADA deficiency, and the other was homozygous (IVS2delT+2) in a SCID patient. Other defects were missense defects. Nine out of 13 patients were put on pegylated ADA ERT. Four out of six patients were transplanted without using a conditioning

  11. An immunologic approach to induction of epidermal growth factor deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in pharmacologic doses is able to induce growth and development in the fetus and the newborn. To investigate the opposite situation, the effects of insufficient amounts of EGF during development, we wanted to establish an in vivo model with a state of EGF deficiency....

  12. IDH1 deficiency attenuates gluconeogenesis in mouse liver by impairing amino acid utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Gu, Yu; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Yuanlin; Yuan, Yuan; Hao, Zhenyue; Sheng, Yi; Li, Wanda Y; Wakeham, Andrew; Cairns, Rob A; Mak, Tak W

    2017-01-10

    Although the enzymatic activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) was defined decades ago, its functions in vivo are not yet fully understood. Cytosolic IDH1 converts isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a key metabolite regulating nitrogen homeostasis in catabolic pathways. It was thought that IDH1 might enhance lipid biosynthesis in liver or adipose tissue by generating NADPH, but we show here that lipid contents are relatively unchanged in both IDH1-null mouse liver and IDH1-deficient HepG2 cells generated using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Instead, we found that IDH1 is critical for liver amino acid (AA) utilization. Body weights of IDH1-null mice fed a high-protein diet (HPD) were abnormally low. After prolonged fasting, IDH1-null mice exhibited decreased blood glucose but elevated blood alanine and glycine compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Similarly, in IDH1-deficient HepG2 cells, glucose consumption was increased, but alanine utilization and levels of intracellular α-KG and glutamate were reduced. In IDH1-deficient primary hepatocytes, gluconeogenesis as well as production of ammonia and urea were decreased. In IDH1-deficient whole livers, expression levels of genes involved in AA metabolism were reduced, whereas those involved in gluconeogenesis were up-regulated. Thus, IDH1 is critical for AA utilization in vivo and its deficiency attenuates gluconeogenesis primarily by impairing α-KG-dependent transamination of glucogenic AAs such as alanine.

  13. Static solutions with spherical symmetry in f(T) theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tower

    2011-01-01

    The spherically symmetric static solutions are searched for in some f(T) models of gravity theory with a Maxwell term. To do this, we demonstrate that reconstructing the Lagrangian of f(T) theories is sensitive to the choice of frame, and then we introduce a particular frame based on the conformally Cartesian coordinates. In this particular frame, the existence conditions of various solutions are presented. Our results imply that only a limited class of f(T) models can be solved in this frame. For more general models, the search for spherically symmetric static solutions is still an open and challenging problem, hopefully solvable in other frames.

  14. In vivo biocompatibility of new nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid complex biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenyu; Li, Yue; Lu, Weizhong; Jiang, Dianming; Li, Hong; Yan, Yonggang; Lv, Guoyu; Yang, Aiping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the compatibility of novel nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (n-CDHA/PAA) complex biomaterials with muscle and bone tissue in an in vivo model. Methods Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Biomaterials were surgically implanted into each rabbit in the back erector spinae and in tibia with induced defect. Polyethylene was implanted into rabbits in the control group and n-CDHA/PAA into those of the experimental group. Animals were examined at four different points in time: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after surgery. They were euthanized after embolization. Back erector spinae muscles with the surgical implants were examined after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining at these points in time. Tibia bones with the surgical implants were examined by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at these points in time to evaluate the interface of the bone with the implanted biomaterials. Bone tissues were sectioned and subjected to HE, Masson, and toluidine blue staining. Results HE staining of back erector spinae muscles at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after implantation of either n-CDHA/PAA or polyethylene showed disappearance of inflammation and normal arrangement in the peripheral tissue of implant biomaterials; no abnormal staining was observed. At 2 weeks after implantation, X-ray imaging of bone tissue samples in both experimental and control groups showed that the peripheral tissues of the implanted biomaterials were continuous and lacked bone osteolysis, absorption, necrosis, or osteomyelitis. The connection between implanted biomaterials and bone tissue was tight. The results of HE, Masson, toluidine blue staining and SEM confirmed that the implanted biomaterials were closely connected to the bone defect and that no rejection had taken place. The n-CDHA/PAA biomaterials induced differentiation of a large number of chondrocytes. New bone trabecula began to form at 4 weeks after

  15. In vivo biocompatibility of new nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid complex biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenyu; Li, Yue; Lu, Weizhong; Jiang, Dianming; Li, Hong; Yan, Yonggang; Lv, Guoyu; Yang, Aiping

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the compatibility of novel nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (n-CDHA/PAA) complex biomaterials with muscle and bone tissue in an in vivo model. Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Biomaterials were surgically implanted into each rabbit in the back erector spinae and in tibia with induced defect. Polyethylene was implanted into rabbits in the control group and n-CDHA/PAA into those of the experimental group. Animals were examined at four different points in time: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after surgery. They were euthanized after embolization. Back erector spinae muscles with the surgical implants were examined after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining at these points in time. Tibia bones with the surgical implants were examined by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at these points in time to evaluate the interface of the bone with the implanted biomaterials. Bone tissues were sectioned and subjected to HE, Masson, and toluidine blue staining. HE staining of back erector spinae muscles at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after implantation of either n-CDHA/PAA or polyethylene showed disappearance of inflammation and normal arrangement in the peripheral tissue of implant biomaterials; no abnormal staining was observed. At 2 weeks after implantation, X-ray imaging of bone tissue samples in both experimental and control groups showed that the peripheral tissues of the implanted biomaterials were continuous and lacked bone osteolysis, absorption, necrosis, or osteomyelitis. The connection between implanted biomaterials and bone tissue was tight. The results of HE, Masson, toluidine blue staining and SEM confirmed that the implanted biomaterials were closely connected to the bone defect and that no rejection had taken place. The n-CDHA/PAA biomaterials induced differentiation of a large number of chondrocytes. New bone trabecula began to form at 4 weeks after implanting n

  16. Model of pediatric pituitary hormone deficiency separates the endocrine and neural functions of the LHX3 transcription factor in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Stephanie C.; Malik, Raleigh E.; Showalter, Aaron D.; Sloop, Kyle W.; Rhodes, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of most pediatric hormone deficiency diseases is poorly understood. Children with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) have insufficient levels of multiple anterior pituitary hormones causing short stature, metabolic disease, pubertal failure, and often have associated nervous system symptoms. Mutations in developmental regulatory genes required for the specification of the hormone-secreting cell types of the pituitary gland underlie severe forms of CPHD. To better understand these diseases, we have created a unique mouse model of CPHD with a targeted knockin mutation (Lhx3 W227ter), which is a model for the human LHX3 W224ter disease. The LHX3 gene encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, which has essential roles in pituitary and nervous system development in mammals. The introduced premature termination codon results in deletion of the carboxyl terminal region of the LHX3 protein, which is critical for pituitary gene activation. Mice that lack all LHX3 function do not survive beyond birth. By contrast, the homozygous Lhx3 W227ter mice survive, but display marked dwarfism, thyroid disease, and female infertility. Importantly, the Lhx3 W227ter mice have no apparent nervous system deficits. The Lhx3 W227ter mouse model provides a unique array of hormone deficits and facilitates experimental approaches that are not feasible with human patients. These experiments demonstrate that the carboxyl terminus of the LHX3 transcription factor is not required for viability. More broadly, this study reveals that the in vivo actions of a transcription factor in different tissues are molecularly separable. PMID:21149718

  17. Generation of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides during the enzymatic hydrolysis of tropical banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongonierma, Alice B; Lamoureux, Candice; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2018-01-24

    Tropical banded crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) were studied for their ability to yield hydrolysates with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory properties. A cricket protein isolate (CPI) was prepared following extraction of the water soluble proteins from G. sigillatus powder (CP). The extraction yield and purity were 20.90 ± 0.35% and 57.0 ± 2.23%, respectively. Endogenous proteinase activities were detected in the CP, which were linked to the significant protein breakdown seen in this sample. Fifteen CPI hydrolysates (H1-H15) were generated with Protamex™ using a design of experiments (DOE) approach combining three parameters, temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C), enzyme to substrate ratio (E : S, 0.50, 1.25 and 2.00% (w/w)) and hydrolysis time (60, 150 and 240 min). The DPP-IV half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of the CPI hydrolysates ranged from 0.40 ± 0.03/0.40 ± 0.02 (H2/H3) to 1.01 ± 0.07 mg mL -1 (H7). Following simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID), the DPP-IV IC 50 of CPI decreased (>3.57 vs. 0.78 ± 0.04 mg mL -1 ) while that of H5 increased (0.47 ± 0.03 vs. 0.71 ± 0.06 mg mL -1 ). This study has demonstrated for the first time that G. sigillatus protein hydrolysates are able to inhibit DPP-IV. The study of these hydrolysates in vivo is needed to evaluate their potential role in glycaemic management.

  18. In vivo skin leptin modulation after 14 MeV neutron irradiation: a molecular and FT-IR spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cestelli Guidi, M.; Mirri, C.; Marcelli, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati - INFN, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Fratini, E.; Amendola, R. [ENEA, UT BIORAD-RAB, Rome (Italy); Licursi, V.; Negri, R. [Universita La Sapienza, Dip. Biologia e Biotecnologie ' ' Charles Darwin' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    This paper discusses gene expression changes in the skin of mice treated by monoenergetic 14 MeV neutron irradiation and the possibility of monitoring the resultant lipid depletion (cross-validated by functional genomic analysis) as a marker of radiation exposure by high-resolution FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) imaging spectroscopy. The irradiation was performed at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG), which is specifically dedicated to biological samples. FNG is a linear electrostatic accelerator that produces up to 1.0 x 10{sup 11} 14-MeV neutrons per second via the D-T nuclear reaction. The functional genomic approach was applied to four animals for each experimental condition (unirradiated, 0.2 Gy irradiation, or 1 Gy irradiation) 6 hours or 24 hours after exposure. Coregulation of a subclass of keratin and keratin-associated protein genes that are physically clustered in the mouse genome and functionally related to skin and hair follicle proliferation and differentiation was observed. Most of these genes are transiently upregulated at 6 h after the delivery of the lower dose delivered, and drastically downregulated at 24 h after the delivery of the dose of 1 Gy. In contrast, the gene coding for the leptin protein was consistently upregulated upon irradiation with both doses. Leptin is a key protein that regulates lipid accumulation in tissues, and its absence provokes obesity. The tissue analysis was performed by monitoring the accumulation and the distribution of skin lipids using FT-IR imaging spectroscopy. The overall picture indicates the differential modulation of key genes during epidermis homeostasis that leads to the activation of a self-renewal process at low doses of irradiation. (orig.)

  19. In vivo skin leptin modulation after 14 MeV neutron irradiation: a molecular and FT-IR spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestelli Guidi, M; Mirri, C; Fratini, E; Licursi, V; Negri, R; Marcelli, A; Amendola, R

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses gene expression changes in the skin of mice treated by monoenergetic 14 MeV neutron irradiation and the possibility of monitoring the resultant lipid depletion (cross-validated by functional genomic analysis) as a marker of radiation exposure by high-resolution FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) imaging spectroscopy. The irradiation was performed at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG), which is specifically dedicated to biological samples. FNG is a linear electrostatic accelerator that produces up to 1.0 × 10(11) 14-MeV neutrons per second via the D-T nuclear reaction. The functional genomic approach was applied to four animals for each experimental condition (unirradiated, 0.2 Gy irradiation, or 1 Gy irradiation) 6 hours or 24 hours after exposure. Coregulation of a subclass of keratin and keratin-associated protein genes that are physically clustered in the mouse genome and functionally related to skin and hair follicle proliferation and differentiation was observed. Most of these genes are transiently upregulated at 6 h after the delivery of the lower dose delivered, and drastically downregulated at 24 h after the delivery of the dose of 1 Gy. In contrast, the gene coding for the leptin protein was consistently upregulated upon irradiation with both doses. Leptin is a key protein that regulates lipid accumulation in tissues, and its absence provokes obesity. The tissue analysis was performed by monitoring the accumulation and the distribution of skin lipids using FT-IR imaging spectroscopy. The overall picture indicates the differential modulation of key genes during epidermis homeostasis that leads to the activation of a self-renewal process at low doses of irradiation.

  20. Hepatic imaging in stage IV-S neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Cohen, M.D.; Kisker, C.T.; Platz, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Stage IV-S neuroblastoma describes a group of infants with tumor spread limited to liver, skin, or bone marrow. Such patients, who constitute about 25% of affected infants with neuroblastoma, may expect spontaneous tumor remission. We report 18 infants with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, 83% of whom had liver involvement. Imaging investigations included Technetium 99m sulfur colloid scan, ultrasound, and CT. Two patterns of liver metastasis were noted: ill-defined nodules or diffuse tumor throughout the liver. Distinction of normal and abnormal liver with diffuse type metastasis could be quite difficult, particularly with liver scans. We conclude that patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma have ultrasound or CT examination as an initial workup, with nuclear medicine scans reserved for followup studies. (orig.)

  1. Low FT3: a possible marker of frailty in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoli A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aldo Bertoli,1 Alessia Valentini,1 Maria Assunta Cianfarani,1 Elena Gasbarra,2 Umberto Tarantino,2 Massimo Federici1 1Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy Introduction: Frailty is associated with a functional decline of multiple physiological systems, of which they may be a cause or consequence. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid hormone modifications in elderly frail subjects and its relationship with frailty.Study population and methods: An observational study was carried out at the University Hospital “Tor Vergata” in Rome among ambulatory and hospitalized patients. The study population consisted of 112 elderly subjects: 62 were hospitalized following hip fracture and 50 control subjects were outpatients. Participating patients received a multidimensional geriatric evaluation. The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe Frailty Instrument (SHARE-FI was used to assess the degree of frailty. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3, and free thyroxine (FT4 were measured to evaluate thyroid status.Results: FT3, but not FT4, was significantly correlated with Frailty score, both in patients with hip fracture and in patients from the control group. In the entire study population, FT3 under normal limits is effective in discriminating frail/prefrail subjects from nonfrail subjects.Discussion: The reduction in serum concentrations of FT3 is a clear manifestation of stress associated with fractures. Numerous preexisting factors, such as the fracture patients’ nutritional status, sarcopenia, disability and comorbidities, which characterize the condition of frailty and influence its pathogenesis, are strongly correlated with FT3 values, suggesting the existence of latent nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS.Conclusion: We conclude that measuring

  2. Uptake by J774 macrophages of very-low-density lipoproteins isolated from apoE-deficient mice is mediated by a distinct receptor and stimulated by lipoprotein lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.L.; Sman van der - Beer, F. de; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Vark, L.C. van; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice display marked accumulation in the plasma of VLDL deficient in both apoE and apoBl00 but containing apoB48, apoA-1, apoCs, and apoA-IV. Since apoE-deficient mice develop severe atherosclerotic lesions with lipid-laden macrophages, we reasoned that the uptake of

  3. Radiation effects on membranes. I. Vitamin E deficiency and lipid peroxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, A.W.T.; Drijver, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    Mice which had received a vitamin E-deficient diet from weaning on, were more sensitive to x irradiation than were normal mice, LD/sub 50/30/ being decreased by 0.25 Gy. The vitamin E-deficient mice also showed an increased spleen shrinkage. The cellular membranes of the vitamin E-deficient mice were more vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. X irradiation in vivo shortened the lag period prior to rapid lipid peroxidation as measured in vitro. Injection of the mice with glutathione prior to x irradiation protected the membranes in the in vitro test of peroxidation capacity as was demonstrated by an extended lag period. The possible meaning of these results with respect to the concept that membranes may be important sites for radiation damage is discussed

  4. Estudo de prevalência em recém-nascidos por deficiência de biotinidase Neonatal screening for biotinidase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. R. Pinto

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A deficiência de biotinidase é um erro inato do metabolismo caracterizado principalmente por ataxia, crise convulsiva retardo mental, dermatites, alopécia e susceptibilidade a infecções. É atribuída a esta deficiência enzimática a forma tardia de deficiência múltipla das carboxilases. Com o objetivo de verificar a prevalência da deficiência de biotinidase e validar o teste de triagem neonatal considerando a relação custo/benefício, elaborou-se estudo prospectivo na população de recém-nascidos no Estado do Paraná. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em um período de 8 meses foram triados 125.000 recém-nascidos. A amostra sangüínea foi a mesma obtida para os testes de triagem para fenilcetonúria e hipotireoidismo congênito, submetida ao teste semiquantitativo colorimétrico para atividade de biotinidase. As amostras consideradas suspeitas foram repetidas em duplicatas do mesmo cartão de papel de filtro, e as que permaneceram alteradas solicitou-se novo cartão. O teste quantitativo colorimétrico da doença foi realizado nos casos em que a segunda amostra testada em duplicata sugeriu deficiência de biotinidase. RESULTADOS: A taxa de repetição em duplicata variou de 0,9% a 0,5% do total de exames realizados por mês. A taxa de reconvocação do segundo cartão foi de 0,17%, sendo que destes 212 casos, 30% não retornaram o segundo cartão solicitado. Foram identificados 2 casos, um de deficiência total de biotinidase e outro de deficiência parcial. A prevalência da doença na população de estudo foi de 1:62.500 nascidos-vivos. A sensibilidade do teste semiquantativo colorimétrico foi calculada em 100% e a especificidade 99,88%. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência da doença no Estado do Paraná foi de 1:125.000 nascidos-vivos para deficiência total da enzima, levando-se em consideração que 30% de casos suspeitos que repetiram novo teste. O teste semiquantitativo colorimétrico foi considerado efetivo em identificar os

  5. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Roa, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(IV) species was lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other tetravalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  6. Malaria infectivity of xanthurenic acid-deficient anopheline mosquitoes produced by TALEN-mediated targeted mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Sumitani, Megumi; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    Anopheline mosquitoes are major vectors of malaria parasites. When the gametocytes of the malaria parasite are transferred from a vertebrate to mosquitoes, they differentiate into gametes, and are fertilized in the midguts of mosquitoes. Xanthurenic acid (XA), a waste product of the ommochrome synthesis pathway, has been shown to induce exflagellation during microgametogenesis in vitro; however, it currently remains unclear whether endogenous XA affects the infectivity of anopheline mosquitoes to malaria parasites in vivo due to the lack of appropriate experimental systems such as a XA-deficient line. In the present study, we produced a XA-deficient line in Anopheles stephensi using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated gene targeting (knockout) of the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (kmo) gene, which encodes an enzyme that participates in the ommochrome synthesis pathway. The knockout of kmo resulted in the absence of XA, and oocyst formation was inhibited in the midguts of these XA-deficient mosquitoes, which, in turn, reduced sporozoite numbers in their salivary glands. These results suggest that endogenous XA stimulates exflagellation, and enhances the infectivity of anopheline mosquitoes to malaria parasites in vivo. The XA-deficient line of the anopheline mosquito provides a useful system for analyzing and understanding the associated factors of malaria gametogenesis in the mosquito midgut.

  7. Present status of understanding on the G6PD deficiency and natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available G6PD deficiency is a common hemolytic genetic disorder, particularly in the areas endemic to malaria. Individuals are generally asymptomatic and hemolytic anemia occurs when some anti-malarial drugs or other oxidizing chemicals are administered. It has been proposed that G6PD deficiency provides protection against malaria. Maintaining of G6PD deficient alleles at polymorphic proportions is complicated because of the X-linked nature of G6PD deficiency. A comprehensive review of the literature on the hypothesis of malarial protection and the nature of the selection is being presented. Most of the epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo studies report selection for G6PD deficiency. Analysis of the G6PD gene also reveals that G6PD-deficient alleles show some signatures of selection. However, the question of how this polymorphism is being maintained remains unresolved because the selection/fitness coefficients for the different genotypes in the two sexes have not been established. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Indian caste and tribal populations and the different variants reported has also been reviewed.

  8. The safety of available treatment options for iron-deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Bhandari, Sunil

    2018-02-01

    Iron deficiency (ID), with or without anemia, is highly prevalent worldwide and has clinical consequences. The prevention and treatment of ID is a major public health goal. Accurate diagnosis, selection of the appropriate iron replacement therapy and addressing the underlying cause, remain as the main challenges in ID management. Areas covered: This review aims to provide a narrative review of current available evidence on iron supplementation options regularly used to treat ID, including oral and intravenous (IV) iron formulations, with emphasis on safety issues. Analyzed safety concerns include gastrointestinal side effects (oral iron) and risks of hypotension, anaphylaxis, infection, hypophosphatemia, oxidative stress and mortality (IV iron). Expert opinion: Low-to-moderate doses of oral iron supplementation remains as first line therapy for uncomplicated ID, but it has been scarcely discussed in the setting of inflammation. Confirmatory studies on the efficacy of newer oral iron formulations in this setting are needed. Compared with oral iron, short-term IV iron administration is more efficacious in ID correction, without significant safety concerns. However, long-term safety of IV iron maintenance therapy, head to head comparisons of IV iron preparations, pharmacological modulation of hepcidin and HIF, and extra-erythropoietic effects of iron are among the important areas of research.

  9. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer

  10. Vibrational spectra (FT-IR, FT-Raman), frontier molecular orbital, first hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis and thermodynamics properties of Piroxicam by HF and DFT methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S.; Gunasekaran, S.; Srinivasan, S.

    2015-03-01

    The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-Hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(2-pyridinyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide (Piroxicam) have been recorded in the region 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1 respectively. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of piroxicam in the ground state have been calculated by Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies are scaled and they are compared with experimental obtained by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra of the title compound has been made on the basis of the calculated potential energy distribution (PED). The electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) are also performed. The linear polarizability (α) and the first order hyper polarizability (β) values of the title compound have been computed. The molecular stability arising from hyper conjugative interaction, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  11. Zinc Deficiency Induces Apoptosis via Mitochondrial p53- and Caspase-Dependent Pathways in Human Neuronal Precursor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S.; Gower-Winter, Shannon D.; Morgan, Thomas J., Jr.; Bishop, Brian; Levenson, Cathy W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent…

  12. About the structure and stability of complex carbonates of thorium (IV), cerium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, Jacqueline

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the study of complex carbonates of cations of metals belonging to the IV A column, i.e. thorium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV), and also cerium (IV) and uranium (VI), and more particularly focused on ionic compounds formed in solution, and also on the influence of concentration and nature of cations on stability and nature of the formed solid. The author first presents methods used in this study, discusses their precision and scope of validity. She reports the study of the formation of different complex ions which have been highlighted in solution, and the determination of their formation constants. She reports the preparation and study of the stability domain of solid complexes. The next part reports the use of thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectrometry, and crystallography for the structural study of these compounds

  13. Evaluation of thromboelastography in two factor XII-deficient cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Holowaychuk, Marie K; Wood, R Darren

    2015-01-01

    The current report describes thromboelastography (TEG) findings in two cats with factor XII (FXII) deficiency. The first cat was diagnosed with bilateral perinephric pseudocysts; hemostatic testing was performed prior to performing renal aspirates. The second cat was healthy; hemostatic testing was performed prior to inclusion into a research project. Both cats had markedly prolonged partial thromboplastin times and hypocoagulable TEG tracings when samples were activated with kaolin. However, when tissue factor (TF) was used to activate the sample, both cats had normal-to-hypercoagulable TEG tracings. The cats each had a subnormal FXII level. TEG is becoming widely used to investigate hemostasis in veterinary patients, and TEG results in cats with FXII deficiency have not been previously reported. FXII deficiency is the most common hereditary hemostatic defect in cats. While FXII deficiency does not lead to in vivo hemorrhagic tendencies, it can lead to marked prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin and activated clotting times, and cannot be differentiated from true hemorrhagic diatheses without measuring individual factor activity. With the increased use of TEG to evaluate hemostasis in veterinary patients, it is important to recognize the effects of FXII deficiency on this testing modality. The finding of a hypocoagulable kaolin-activated TEG tracing and a concurrent normal TF-activated TEG tracing in samples should prompt clinicians to consider ruling out FXII deficiency.

  14. Evaluation of thromboelastography in two factor XII-deficient cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna L Blois

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Case summary The current report describes thromboelastography (TEG findings in two cats with factor XII (FXII deficiency. The first cat was diagnosed with bilateral perinephric pseudocysts; hemostatic testing was performed prior to performing renal aspirates. The second cat was healthy; hemostatic testing was performed prior to inclusion into a research project. Both cats had markedly prolonged partial thromboplastin times and hypocoagulable TEG tracings when samples were activated with kaolin. However, when tissue factor (TF was used to activate the sample, both cats had normal-to-hypercoagulable TEG tracings. The cats each had a subnormal FXII level. Relevance and novel information TEG is becoming widely used to investigate hemostasis in veterinary patients, and TEG results in cats with FXII deficiency have not been previously reported. FXII deficiency is the most common hereditary hemostatic defect in cats. While FXII deficiency does not lead to in vivo hemorrhagic tendencies, it can lead to marked prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin and activated clotting times, and cannot be differentiated from true hemorrhagic diatheses without measuring individual factor activity. With the increased use of TEG to evaluate hemostasis in veterinary patients, it is important to recognize the effects of FXII deficiency on this testing modality. The finding of a hypocoagulable kaolin-activated TEG tracing and a concurrent normal TF-activated TEG tracing in samples should prompt clinicians to consider ruling out FXII deficiency.

  15. Observational constraints on f(T) gravity from varying fundamental constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Rafael C.; Bonilla, Alexander [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Pan, Supriya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Mohanpur, West Bengal (India); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [Pontificia Universidad de Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); National Technical University of Athens, Physics Division, Athens (Greece); Baylor University, CASPER, Physics Department, Waco, TX (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We use observations related to the variation of fundamental constants, in order to impose constraints on the viable and most used f(T) gravity models. In particular, for the fine-structure constant we use direct measurements obtained by different spectrographic methods, while for the effective Newton constant we use a model-dependent reconstruction, using direct observational Hubble parameter data, in order to investigate its temporal evolution. We consider two f(T) models and we quantify their deviation from Λ CDM cosmology through a sole parameter. Our analysis reveals that this parameter can be slightly different from its Λ CDM value, however, the best-fit value is very close to the Λ CDM one. Hence, f(T) gravity is consistent with observations, nevertheless, as every modified gravity, it may exhibit only small deviations from Λ CDM cosmology, a feature that must be taken into account in any f(T) model-building. (orig.)

  16. Vitamin D Status in Patients With Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: Findings From Intergroup Trial N9741

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kimmie; Sargent, Daniel J.; Goldberg, Richard M.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Green, Erin M.; Pitot, Henry C.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Pollak, Michael N.; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have suggested that higher plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] levels are associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk and improved survival, but the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in advanced colorectal cancer and its influence on outcomes are unknown. Patients and Methods We prospectively measured plasma 25(OH)D levels in 515 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer participating in a randomized trial of chemotherapy. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D lower than 20 ng/mL, insufficiency as 20 to 29 ng/mL, and sufficiency as ≥ 30 ng/mL. We examined the association between baseline 25(OH)D level and selected patient characteristics. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for death, disease progression, and tumor response, adjusted for prognostic factors. Results Among 515 eligible patients, 50% of the study population was vitamin D deficient, and 82% were vitamin D insufficient. Plasma 25(OH)D levels were lower in black patients compared to white patients and patients of other race (median, 10.7 v 21.1 v 19.3 ng/mL, respectively; P < .001), and females compared to males (median, 18.3 v 21.7 ng/mL, respectively; P = .0005). Baseline plasma 25(OH)D levels were not associated with patient outcome, although given the distribution of plasma levels in this cohort, statistical power for survival analyses were limited. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among patients with stage IV colorectal cancer receiving first-line chemotherapy, particularly in black and female patients. PMID:21422438

  17. A Raman scattering and FT-IR spectroscopic study on the effect of the solar radiation in Antarctica on bovine cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki; Murakami, Naoki; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Raman scattering and FT-IR spectra of the corneas, transported to the Syowa station in Antarctica and exposed to the solar radiation of the mid-summer for four weeks, were studied to reveal that type IV collagen involved in corneas were fragmented. The amide I and III Raman bands were observed at 1660 and 1245 cm -1, respectively, and the amide I and II infrared bands were observed at 1655 and 1545 cm -1, respectively, for original corneas before exposure. The background of Raman signals prominently increased and the ratio of amide II infrared band versus amide I decreased by the solar radiation in Antarctica. The control experiment using an artificial UV lamp was also performed in laboratory. The decline rate of the amide II/amide I was utilized for estimating the degree of fragmentation of collagen, to reveal that the addition of vitamin C suppressed the reaction while the addition of sugars promoted it. The effect of the solar radiation in Antarctica on the corneas was estimated as the same as the artificial UV lamp of four weeks (Raman) or one week (FT-IR) exposure.

  18. Molecular Characterization of FT and FD homologs from Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai forma koshunensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, regulation of flowering is a vital process for successful reproduction. To date, the molecular mechanism of flowering is well studied in the model plant, Arabidopsis, in which key genes such as FLOWERING LOCUST (FTor FD have been identified to regulate flowering. However, the flowering mechanisms are still largely unknown in fruit trees like loquat. To this end, we first cloned one FT- and two FD-like genes from the loquat (E. deflexa Nakai f. koshunensis and referred to as EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2 are conserved during the evolution process. EdFT is mainly expressed in reproductive tissues (e.g. flower buds, flowers and fruits, while EdFD1 and EdFD2 are mainly expressed in apical buds including leaf buds and flower buds. EdFT is localized in the whole cell, while EdFD1 or EdFD2 is localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2 in Arabidopsis results in early flowering. In addition, we have also revealed that the EdFT interacts with both EdFD1 and EdFD2. Overall, these data suggest that the EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2 are the functional homologs of FT and FD, respectively, which might act together to regulate loquat flowering through a similar mechanism found in Arabidopsis.

  19. Diffuse reticuloendothelial system involvement in type IV glycogen storage disease with a novel GBE1 mutation: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulas, Pilar L; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Roy, Angshumoy; Bali, Deeksha S; Finegold, Milton J; Craigen, William J

    2012-06-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IV is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of glycogen metabolism caused by mutations in the GBE1 gene that encodes the 1,4-alpha-glucan-branching enzyme 1. Its clinical presentation is variable, with the most common form presenting in early childhood with primary hepatic involvement. Histologic manifestations in glycogen storage disease type IV typically consist of intracytoplasmic non-membrane-bound inclusions containing abnormally branched glycogen (polyglucosan bodies) within hepatocytes and myocytes. We report a female infant with classic hepatic form of glycogen storage disease type IV who demonstrated diffuse reticuloendothelial system involvement with the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes infiltrated by foamy histiocytes with intracytoplasmic polyglucosan deposits. Sequence analysis of the GBE1 gene revealed compound heterozygosity for a previously described frameshift mutation (c.1239delT) and a novel missense mutation (c.1279G>A) that is predicted to alter a conserved glycine residue. GBE enzyme analysis revealed no detectable activity. A review of the literature for glycogen storage disease type IV patients with characterized molecular defects and deficient enzyme activity reveals most GBE1 mutations to be missense mutations clustering in the catalytic enzyme domain. Individuals with the classic hepatic form of glycogen storage disease type IV tend to be compound heterozygotes for null and missense mutations. Although the extensive reticuloendothelial system involvement that was observed in our patient is not typical of glycogen storage disease type IV, it may be associated with severe enzymatic deficiency and a poor outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In Vivo1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Lactate in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Quynh-Thu; Koong, Albert; Lieskovsky, Yee Yie; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Graves, Edward; Pinto, Harlan; Brown, J. Martin; Spielman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging of lactate for assessing tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers and to determine its utility in predicting the response and outcomes. Methods and Materials: Volume-localized lactate-edited 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 1.5 T was performed in vivo on involved neck nodes and control subcutaneous tissues in 36 patients with Stage IV head and neck cancer. The signal intensities (SIs) of lactate, choline, and creatine and the choline/creatine ratio were measured. The tumor partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ) was obtained in the same lymph node before MRS. Patients were treated with either two cycles of induction chemotherapy (tirapazamine, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) followed by simultaneous chemoradiotherapy or the same regimen without tirapazamine. The lactate SI and the choline/creatine ratio correlated with the tumor pO 2 , nodal response, and locoregional control. Results: The lactate SI was greater for the involved nodes (median, 0.25) than for the subcutaneous tissue (median, 0.04; p = 0.07). No significant correlation was found between the lactate SI and tumor pO 2 (mean, 0.46 ± 0.10 for hypoxic nodes [pO 2 ≤10 mm Hg, n = 15] vs. 0.36 ± 0.07 for nonhypoxic nodes [pO 2 >10 mm Hg, n = 21], p = 0.44). A significant correlation was found between the choline/creatine ratios and tumor pO 2 (mean, 2.74 ± 0.34 for hypoxic nodes vs. 1.78 ± 0.31 for nonhypoxic nodes, p = 0.02). No correlation was found between the lactate SI and the complete nodal response (p = 0.52) or locoregional control rates. Conclusions: The lactate SI did not correlate with tumor pO 2 , treatment response, or locoregional control. Additional research is needed to refine this technique

  1. [Epididymis in an experimental model of DHT deficiency: immunolocalization of ERalpha and ERbeta in rat epididymal epithelial cells. In vivo and in vitro studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of reduced availability of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERalpha and ERbeta) in the epididymis in vivo and in vitro. Expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) is interesting because of the fact that the male reproductive system is controlled not only by androgens but also, in a far-reaching and complex manner, by estrogens. Control by estrogens is exercised through activation of ERs widely distributed in the epididymal epithelium. Epididymal epithelial cells contain a 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-red) which catalyzes the irreversible conversion of testosterone (T) into the most potent and chief androgen of the epididymis, dihydrotestosterone, known to maintain and regulate the structure and functions of the epididymis. Two isoforms of the 5alpha-red were identified: type 1 (5alpha-redl) and type 2 (5alpha-red2). 5alpha-reductase type 2 is more widely expressed in the epididymis than 5alpha-redl. DHT deficit was produced by inhibition of 5alpha-red2 using finasteride (Proscar, MSD Sweden), a steroid inhibitor of this enzyme. The study was performed in the adult, male Wistar rats randomly divided into control (K) and study (Fin56) groups (5 animals in each). Animals in the study group received 5mg finasteride/kg b.w., orally during 56 days (duration of one spermatogenesis). Immunoexpression of ERs was also studied in epididymal epithelial cells cultured with or without finasteride. It was shown that DHT deficiency, both in vivo and in vitro condition, modulated ERs expression in comparison to the epididymis from control rats and to epididymal cells cultured without finasteride. Distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in epididymal cells changed (from nucleus to cytoplasm) and the level of ERs expression was markedly decreased. The present findings show that the DHT deficiency caused by finasteride altered the expression of ERalpha and ERbeta in the epididymis and possibly may

  2. TG/FT-IR characterization of additives typically employed in EPDM formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Beck Sanches

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThermogravimetric analysis coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG/FT-IR is a very popular technique for rubbers characterization. It involves analyses of the base polymer and additives. Ethylene–propylene–diene (EPDM rubbers are frequently investigated by TG/FT-IR; however, the focus has been the degradation temperature range of the polymer. In this study, unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM rubber and its additives were investigated by TG/FT-IR, without solvent extraction, and in a wide temperature range. Initially, the additives were individually characterized. TG/FT-IR identified the characteristic groups of all the additives analyzed and distinguished them from each other. Afterwards, unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM rubbers were investigated without prior extraction.TG/FT-IR detected absorptions due to the additives tetramethylthiuram monosulfide and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. Both of these sulfur-containing additives were present in the EPDM formulation at concentrations of 0.7 phr (0.63 wt %. The TG/FT-IR technique had some limitations, because not all the additives in EPDM rubber were detected. Paraffin oil, stearic acid and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline functional groups were not observed in either the unvulcanized or vulcanized EPDM. Nevertheless, in addition to the ability of this method to detect sulfur-containing groups, the lack of a pre-extraction reduces the time and effort required for additive analysis in rubbers.

  3. Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Prepared by Solvent-Deficient Precipitation (SDP: Effects of Washing, Promoter Addition Step, and Drying Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M. Brunner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel, solvent-deficient precipitation (SDP method for catalyst preparation in general and for preparation of iron FT catalysts in particular is reported. Eight catalysts using a 23 factorial design of experiments to identify the key preparation variables were prepared. The catalysts were characterized by electron microprobe, N2 adsorption, TEM, XRD, and ICP. Results show that the morphology of the catalysts, i.e., surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, crystallite sizes, and promoter distribution are significantly influenced by (1 whether or not the precursor catalyst is washed, (2 the promoter addition step, and (3 the drying condition (temperature. Consequently, the activity, selectivity, and stability of the catalysts determined from fixed-bed testing are also affected by these three variables. Unwashed catalysts prepared by a one-step method and dried at 100 °C produced the most active catalysts for FT synthesis. The catalysts of this study prepared by SDP compared favorably in activity, productivity, and stability with Fe FT catalysts reported in the literature. It is believed that this facile SDP approach has promise for development of future FT catalysts, and also offers a potential alternate route for the preparation of other catalysts for various other applications.

  4. Organic Scintillator Detector Response Simulations with DRiFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Madison Theresa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bates, Cameron Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pinilla, Maria Isabel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, Jr., Clell Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sood, Avneet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Accurate detector modeling is a requirement to design systems in many non-proliferation scenarios; by determining a Detector’s Response Function (DRF) to incident radiation, it is possible characterize measurements of unknown sources. DRiFT is intended to post-process MCNP® output and create realistic detector spectra. Capabilities currently under development include the simulation of semiconductor, gas, and (as is discussed in this work) scintillator detector physics. Energy spectra and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) trends for incident photon and neutron radiation have been reproduced by DRiFT.

  5. Overexpression of PaFT gene in the wild orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarti, Endang; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Rizal, Rinaldi; Slamet, Agus; Utami, Bekti S.; Bestari, Ida A.; Aziz-Purwantoro, Moeljopawiro, S.; Jang, Soenghoe; Machida, Y.; Machida, C.

    2015-09-01

    To shorten vegetative stage and induce transition from vegetative to reproductive stage in orchids, we overexpressed Phalaenopsis amabilis Flowering LocusT (PaFT) gene under the control of Ubiquitin promoter into protocorm of Indonesian Wild Orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume. The dynamic expression of vegetative gene Phalaenopsis Homeobox1 (POH1) and flowering time gene PaFT has been analyzed. Accumulation of mRNA was detected in shoot and leaves of both transgenic and non transgenic plants by using Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) with specific gene primers for POH1 and PaFT in 24 months old plants. To analyze the POH1 and PaFT genes, three pairs of degenerate primers PaFT degF1R1, F2R2 and F3R3 that amplified 531 bp PaFT cDNA were used. We detected 700 bp PaFTcDNA from leaves and shoots of transgenic plants, but not in NT plants. POH1 mRNA was detected in plants. PaFT protein consists of Phospatidyl Ethanolamine-Binding Protein (PEBP) in interval base 73-483 and CETS family protein at base 7-519, which are important motif for transmembrane protein. We inserted Ubipro::PaFT/pGAS101 into P. amabilis protocorm using Agrobacterium. Analysis of transgenic plants showed that PaFTmRNA was accumulated in leaves of 12 months after sowing, although it is not detected in non transgeic plants. Compare to the wild type (NT plants), ectopic expression of PaFT shows alter phenotype as follows: 31% normal, 19% with short-wavy leaves, 5% form rosette leaves and 45% produced multishoots. Analysis of protein profiles of trasgenic plants showed that a putative PaFT protein (MW 19,7 kDa) was produced in 1eaves and shoots.This means that at 12 months, POH1 gene expression gradually decreased/negatively regulated, the expression of PaFT gene was activated, although there is no flower initiation yet. Some environmental factors might play a role to induce inflorescens. This experiment is in progress.

  6. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)

  7. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose; Ferraro, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)

  8. In-vivo and ex-vivo assessment of the accuracy of the computer-aided volumetry of porcine kidney in CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, W.; Harris, G.; Holalkere, N.; Sahani, D.; Yoshida, H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Measurement of kidney volume by computed tomography (CT), called renal volumetry, is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related diseases. Computer-aided volumetry (CAV) of kidney relies on an efficient and accurate segmentation method of the kidney. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of our CAV of kidney scheme using dynamic-threshold (DT) level set method, based on in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards. Eight Yorkshire breed anesthetized pigs were scanned on a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens) after an injection of iodinated (300 mgl/ml) contrast agent through an IV cannula. The kidneys of the pigs were then surgically resected and scanned on CT in the same manner. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo CT images were subjected to our volumetry scheme. The resulting volumes of the kidneys were compared with the in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards: the former was established by manual contouring of the kidneys on the CT images by an experienced radiologist, and the latter was established as the water displacement volume of the resected kidney. Our CAV of kidney scheme demonstrated accurate in-vivo and ex-vivo measurement of kidney volume, despite a large difference between the two reference standards. (orig.)

  9. In-vivo and ex-vivo assessment of the accuracy of the computer-aided volumetry of porcine kidney in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.; Harris, G.; Holalkere, N.; Sahani, D.; Yoshida, H.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of kidney volume by computed tomography (CT), called renal volumetry, is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related diseases. Computer-aided volumetry (CAV) of kidney relies on an efficient and accurate segmentation method of the kidney. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of our CAV of kidney scheme using dynamic-threshold (DT) level set method, based on in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards. Eight Yorkshire breed anesthetized pigs were scanned on a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens) after an injection of iodinated (300 mgl/ml) contrast agent through an IV cannula. The kidneys of the pigs were then surgically resected and scanned on CT in the same manner. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo CT images were subjected to our volumetry scheme. The resulting volumes of the kidneys were compared with the in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards: the former was established by manual contouring of the kidneys on the CT images by an experienced radiologist, and the latter was established as the water displacement volume of the resected kidney. Our CAV of kidney scheme demonstrated accurate in-vivo and ex-vivo measurement of kidney volume, despite a large difference between the two reference standards. (orig.)

  10. Effect of thiamine deficiency, pyrithiamine and oxythiamine on pyruvate metabolism in rat liver and brain in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghal, S.K.; O'Neal, R.M.; Koeppe, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Rats were fed either a thiamine-deficient diet or diets containing pyrithiamine or oxythiamine. When symptoms of thiamine deficiency appeared, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with [2- 14 C] pyruvate six to twelve minutes prior to sacrifice. Free glutamic and aspartic acids were isolated from liver and brain and degraded. The results indicate that, in thiamine-deficient or oxythiamine-treated rats, pyruvate metabolism in liver and brain is similar to that in normal animals. In contrast, pyrithinamine drastically decreases the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate by rat liver. (auth.)

  11. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0–2 months), young adult (2–4 months), and old adult (12–14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults. PMID:27648918

  12. Refeeding syndrome in a young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuy, M; Chen, G-F; Masonek, J M; Scharschmidt, B F

    2015-09-01

    A severely chronically protein and calorie restricted young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency developed transient refeeding syndrome (RFS) and hyperammonemia after modest diet liberalization following initiation of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). The patient required IV supportive care and supplementation with potassium, magnesium and calcium. She is now doing well on GPB and an appropriate maintenance diet. Susceptibility to RFS should be considered in chronically nutritionally restricted patients with metabolic disorders after liberalization of diet.

  13. Surfactant-impregnated activated carbon for enhanced adsorptive removal of Ce(IV) radionuclides from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mamdoh R.; Sharaf El-deen, Gehan E.; Soliman, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon (AC) was impregnated in this work with CTAB and NaLS surfactants. • The materials were evaluated as a sorbent for adsorption of Ce(IV) radionuclides. • Adsorption capacity of AC–NaLS for Ce(IV) is two-times the capacity of AC. • The kinetic and equilibrium data are fitted to pseudo-second-order and D–R models. • The results suggest the applicability of surface modified AC for waste treatment. - Abstract: The surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) were utilized for modifying the activated carbon’s surface. The materials were characterized using BET–N 2 , scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Adsorption of Ce(IV) radionuclides from aqueous solutions by activated carbon (AC) and surfactant-impregnated AC was studied. The obtained data showed that adsorption of Ce(IV) is strongly dependent on the solution pH and AC–NaLS exhibits the widest pH-range of maximum removal. The experimental adsorption capacity of AC–NaLS (0.069 mmol/g) for Ce(IV) is found to be nearly twice greater than that of AC (0.036 mmol/g). The adsorption kinetics of Ce(IV) onto AC and AC–NaLS were analyzed by linear and non-linear fittings to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models. Of these models, the pseudo-second-order is the best kinetic expression for describing the experimental data. The diffusion studies indicated that adsorption of Ce(IV) radionuclides on AC and AC–NaLS is controlled by film diffusion. Linear and non-linear fittings of the adsorption equilibrium data for Ce(IV) onto AC and AC–NaLS revealed that the Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm model fits the experimental data better than Freundlich and Langmuir models. The values of adsorption free energy, E, calculated from both linear and non-linear methods suggested that Ce(IV) radionuclides are physically adsorbed onto AC and AC–NaLS

  14. Completely automated open-path FT-IR spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Peter R; Shao, Limin; Leytem, April B

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric analysis by open-path Fourier-transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry has been possible for over two decades but has not been widely used because of the limitations of the software of commercial instruments. In this paper, we describe the current state-of-the-art of the hardware and software that constitutes a contemporary OP/FT-IR spectrometer. We then describe advances that have been made in our laboratory that have enabled many of the limitations of this type of instrument to be overcome. These include not having to acquire a single-beam background spectrum that compensates for absorption features in the spectra of atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide. Instead, an easily measured "short path-length" background spectrum is used for calculation of each absorbance spectrum that is measured over a long path-length. To accomplish this goal, the algorithm used to calculate the concentrations of trace atmospheric molecules was changed from classical least-squares regression (CLS) to partial least-squares regression (PLS). For calibration, OP/FT-IR spectra are measured in pristine air over a wide variety of path-lengths, temperatures, and humidities, ratioed against a short-path background, and converted to absorbance; the reference spectrum of each analyte is then multiplied by randomly selected coefficients and added to these background spectra. Automatic baseline correction for small molecules with resolved rotational fine structure, such as ammonia and methane, is effected using wavelet transforms. A novel method of correcting for the effect of the nonlinear response of mercury cadmium telluride detectors is also incorporated. Finally, target factor analysis may be used to detect the onset of a given pollutant when its concentration exceeds a certain threshold. In this way, the concentration of atmospheric species has been obtained from OP/FT-IR spectra measured at intervals of 1 min over a period of many hours with no operator intervention.

  15. VT 10 ft Contour Lines generated from bare earth lidar - Chittenden

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ElevationContours_CN10T (10ft contours) was extracted from ElevationContours_CN2T (2ft contours), which was generated by USGS from the 2004...

  16. Astrophysical flows near f(T) gravity black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ayyesha K.; Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Baglica Campus, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we study the accretion process for fluids flowing near a black hole in the context of f(T) teleparallel gravity. Specifically, by performing a dynamical analysis by a Hamiltonian system, we are able to find the sonic points. After that, we consider different isothermal test fluids in order to study the accretion process when they are falling onto the black hole. We find that these flows can be classified according to the equation of state and the black hole features. Results are compared in f(T) and f(R) gravity. (orig.)

  17. Adsorption of platinum(IV) and palladium(II) from aqueous solution by thiourea-modified chitosan microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Limin; Liu Jinhui; Liu Zhirong

    2009-01-01

    The chitosan microparticles were prepared using the inverse phase emulsion dispersion method and modified with thiourea (TCS). TCS was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, sulfur elemental analysis, specific surface area and pore diameter. The effects of various parameters, such as pH, contact time, initial concentration and temperature, on the adsorption of Pt(IV) and Pd(II) by TCS were investigated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was found at pH 2.0 for both Pt(IV) and Pd(II). TCS can selectively adsorb Pt(IV) and Pd(II) from binary mixtures with Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ca(II), and Mg(II). The adsorption reaction followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating the main adsorption mechanism of chemical adsorption. The isotherm adsorption equilibrium was well described by Langmuir isotherms with the maximum adsorption capacity of 129.9 mg/g for Pt(IV) and 112.4 mg/g for Pd(II). The adsorption capacity of both Pt(IV) and Pd(II) decreased with temperature increasing. The negative values of enthalpy (ΔH o ) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG o ) indicate that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The adsorbent was stable without loss of the adsorption capacity up to at least 5 cycles and the desorption efficiencies were above 95% when 0.5 M EDTA-0.5 M H 2 SO 4 eluent was used. The results also showed that the preconcentration factor for Pt(IV) and Pd(II) was 196 and 172, respectively, and the recovery was found to be more than 97% for both precious metal ions.

  18. Transient impairment of the adaptive response to fasting in FXR-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cariou, B; van Harmelen, K; Duran-Sandoval, D; van Dijk, T; Grefhorst, A; Bouchaert, E; Fruchart, JC; Gonzalez, FJ; Kuipers, F; Staels, B

    2005-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been suggested to play a role in gluconeogenesis. To determine whether FXR modulates the response to fasting in vivo, FXR-deficient (FXR-/-) and wild-type mice were submitted to fasting for 48 h. Our results demonstrate that FXR modulates the kinetics of

  19. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  20. Acute dietary zinc deficiency before conception compromises oocyte epigenetic programming and disrupts embryonic development

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, X; Diaz, FJ

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings show that zinc is an important factor necessary for regulating the meiotic cell cycle and ovulation. However, the role of zinc in promoting oocyte quality and developmental potential is not known. Using an in vivo model of acute dietary zinc deficiency, we show that feeding a zinc deficient diet (ZDD) for 3–5 days before ovulation (preconception) dramatically disrupts oocyte chromatin methylation and preimplantation development. There was a dramatic decrease in histone H3K4 tr...

  1. Avascular Necrosis in the Contralateral Hip in Patients With Congenital Femoral Deficiency: A Report of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy S; Wimberly, Robert L; Birch, John G

    2017-01-01

    Congenital femoral deficiency is an uncommon clinical entity. We report 3 patients who developed avascular necrosis of the hip in the long (normal) leg during longitudinal observation and/or treatment of congenital femoral deficiency. Patients were identified in limb length discrepancy clinic and their charts were retrospectively reviewed for clinical and radiographic data collection. We describe the occurrence of idiopathic avascular necrosis in the normal limb in patients being followed for limb length discrepancy. Although no conclusion could be drawn about the etiology of the avascular necrosis, we describe a previously undocumented relationship between congenital femoral deficiency and avascular necrosis in the contralateral hip. This occurred in our congenital femoral deficiency population at a rate higher than expected compared with published incidences of avascular necrosis of the hip in children. Level IV-case series.

  2. Deletion of Dock10 in B Cells Results in Normal Development but a Mild Deficiency upon In Vivo and In Vitro Stimulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Severinson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We sought to identify genes necessary to induce cytoskeletal change in B cells. Using gene expression microarray, we compared B cells stimulated with interleukin-4 (IL-4 and anti-CD40 antibodies that induce B cell spreading, cell motility, tight aggregates, and extensive microvilli with B cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide that lack these cytoskeletal changes. We identified 84 genes with 10-fold or greater expression in anti-CD40 + IL-4 stimulated B cells, one of these encoded the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF dedicator of cytokinesis 10 (Dock10. IL-4 selectively induced Dock10 expression in B cells. Using lacZ expression to monitor Dock10 promoter activity, we found that Dock10 was expressed at all stages during B cell development. However, specific deletion of Dock10 in B cells was associated with a mild phenotype with normal B cell development and normal B cell spreading, polarization, motility, chemotaxis, aggregation, and Ig class switching. Dock10-deficient B cells showed lower proliferation in response to anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulation. Moreover, the IgG response to soluble antigen in vivo was lower when Dock10 was specifically deleted in B cells. Together, we found that most B cell responses were intact in the absence of Dock10. However, specific deletion of Dock10 in B cells was associated with a mild reduction in B cell activation in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Imaging immune response of skin mast cells in vivo with two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunqiang; Pastila, Riikka K.; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has provided insightful information of the dynamic process of immune cells in vivo. However, the use of exogenous labeling agents limits its applications. There is no method to perform functional imaging of mast cells, a population of innate tissue-resident immune cells. Mast cells are widely recognized as the effector cells in allergy. Recently their roles as immunoregulatory cells in certain innate and adaptive immune responses are being actively investigated. Here we report in vivo mouse skin mast cells imaging with two-photon microscopy using endogenous tryptophan as the fluorophore. We studied the following processes. 1) Mast cells degranulation, the first step in the mast cell activation process in which the granules are released into peripheral tissue to trigger downstream reactions. 2) Mast cell reconstitution, a procedure commonly used to study mast cells functioning by comparing the data from wild type mice, mast cell-deficient mice, and mast-cell deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Imaging the BMMCs engraftment in tissue reveals the mast cells development and the efficiency of BMMCs reconstitution. We observed the reconstitution process for 6 weeks in the ear skin of mast cell-deficient Kit wsh/ w-sh mice by two-photon imaging. Our finding is the first instance of imaging mast cells in vivo with endogenous contrast.

  4. FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV spectra and DFT calculations on monomeric and dimeric structure of 2-amino-5-bromobenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Cinar, Mehmet

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the molecular conformation, vibrational and electronic transition analysis of 2-amino-5-bromobenzoic acid (2A5BrBA) were presented for the ground state using experimental techniques (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the regions of 400-4000 cm(-1) and 50-4000 cm(-1), respectively. There are four conformers, C1, C2, C3 and C4 for this molecule. The geometrical parameters, energies and wavenumbers have been obtained for all four conformers. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of 2A5BrBA as the C1 form. The complete assignments of fundamental vibrations were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. Raman activities calculated by DFT method have been converted to the corresponding Raman intensities using Raman scattering theory. The UV spectra of investigated compound were recorded in the region of 200-400 nm for ethanol and water solutions. The electronic properties were evaluated with help of time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) theoretically and results were compared with experimental observations. The thermodynamic properties of the studied compound at different temperatures were calculated, revealing the correlations between standard heat capacity, standard entropy, standard enthalpy changes and temperatures. The observed and the calculated geometric parameters, vibrational wavenumbers and electronic transitions were compared with observed data and found to be in good agreement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Borgerdeltagelse i kvarterløft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Rapporten handler om borgerdeltagelse i den første fase af de syv første kvarterløft. Det vil sige det første ca. halvandet år, hvor kvarterløftorganisationen skulle på plads, borgerne skulle mobiliseres og deres idéer og ønsker bringes frem og omsættes til kvarterplaner. Datagrundlaget for analy...

  6. Refeeding syndrome in a young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stuy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A severely chronically protein and calorie restricted young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency developed transient refeeding syndrome (RFS and hyperammonemia after modest diet liberalization following initiation of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB. The patient required IV supportive care and supplementation with potassium, magnesium and calcium. She is now doing well on GPB and an appropriate maintenance diet. Susceptibility to RFS should be considered in chronically nutritionally restricted patients with metabolic disorders after liberalization of diet.

  7. Hyperthyroidism caused by acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-J; Zhou, J-J; Yuan, X-L; Li, C-Y; Sheng, H; Su, B; Sheng, C-J; Qu, S; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency disease. The etiology of hyperthyroidism, which can also be immune-related, is usually divided into six classical categories, including hypophyseal, hypothalamic, thyroid, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of highly active antimicrobial therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hyperthyroidism caused directly by AIDS has not been previously reported. A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital. The thyroid function test showed that the level of free thyroxine (FT4) was higher than normal and that the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was below normal. He was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Additional investigations revealed a low serum albumin level and chest infection, along with diffuse lung fibrosis. Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters. This is the first reported case of hyperthyroidism caused by AIDS. AIDS may cause hyperthyroidism by immunization regulation with complex, atypical, and easily ignored symptoms. Although hyperthyroidism is rare in patients with AIDS, clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction and should carefully monitor thyroid function in HIV-positive patients.

  8. Administration of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor enhances the intestinal adaptation in a mouse model of short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okawada, Manabu; Holst, Jens Juul; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 induces small intestine mucosal epithelial cell proliferation and may have benefit for patients who suffer from short bowel syndrome. However, glucagon-like peptide-2 is inactivated rapidly in vivo by dipeptidyl peptidase IV. Therefore, we hypothesized that selectively inh...... inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV would prolong the circulating life of glucagon-like peptide-2 and lead to increased intestinal adaptation after development of short bowel syndrome....

  9. Sex differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to endotoxin unfold in vivo but not ex vivo in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Alexander; Benson, Sven; Rebernik, Laura; Spreitzer, Ingo; Jäger, Marcus; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Engler, Harald

    2017-07-01

    Clinical data indicate that inflammatory responses differ across sexes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we assessed in vivo and ex vivo cytokine responses to bacterial endotoxin in healthy men and women to elucidate the role of systemic and cellular factors underlying sex differences in inflammatory responses. Participants received an i.v. injection of low-dose endotoxin (0.4 ng/kg body mass), and plasma TNF-α and IL-6 responses were analyzed over a period of 6 h. In parallel, ex vivo cytokine production was measured in endotoxin-stimulated blood samples obtained immediately before in vivo endotoxin administration. As glucocorticoids (GCs) play an important role in the negative feedback regulation of the inflammatory response, we additionally analyzed plasma cortisol concentrations and ex vivo GC sensitivity of cytokine production. Results revealed greater in vivo pro-inflammatory responses in women compared with men, with significantly higher increases in plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations. In addition, the endotoxin-induced rise in plasma cortisol was more pronounced in women. In contrast, no sex differences in ex vivo cytokine production and GC sensitivity were observed. Together, these findings demonstrate major differences in in vivo and ex vivo responses to endotoxin and underscore the importance of systemic factors underlying sex differences in the inflammatory response.

  10. Quantification of plaque lipids in the aortic root of ApoE-deficient mice by 3D DIXON magnetic resonance imaging in an ex vivo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietel, Barbara; Kuehn, Constanze; Achenbach, Stephan; Budinsky, Lubos; Uder, Michael; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    To establish a dedicated protocol for the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of plaque lipids in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE -/- ) mice using ex vivo MRI. ApoE -/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (n = 10) or normal food (n = 10) for 3 months. Subsequently, a 3D FLASH MRI sequence was used to view the anatomy of the aortic root in the isolated hearts, where a 3D double-echo two-excitation pulse sequence (DIXON sequence) was used to selectively image plaque lipids. The vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid volumes were quantified by MRI and histology for correlation analysis. DIXON MRI allowed visualisation and accurate quantification of plaque lipids. When comparing the vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid sizes in the aortic root, Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis revealed a close correlation between MRI results and the histological data both on a slice-by-slice basis and of the volumetric measurements (vessel wall: r 2 = 0.775, p 2 = 0.875; p = 0.002; plaque lipid: r 2 = 0.819, p = 0.003). The combination of 3D FLASH and DIXON-sequence MRI permits an accurate ex vivo assessment of the investigated plaque parameters in the aortic root of mice, particularly the lipid content. (orig.)

  11. Aplicação de FT-MIR e FT-NIR ao estudo de reação de cura de sistemas epoxídicos FT-IR MIR and FT-NIR applied to the study of reaction of epoxy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedita M. V. Romão

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A reação de cura entre amostras de resina epoxídica (EP e compostos à base de mercaptana (SH, amino-fenol e amina modificada foi estudada nas regiões espectrais do infravermelho médio (MIR e próximo (NIR. Observou-se, basicamente, que a espectroscopia FT-NIR evidencia melhor as alterações espectrométricas ocorridas durante as reações estudadas, permitindo detectar, inclusive, o agente de cura em menor proporção no sistema epoxídico.The cure reaction of epoxy resin (EP and curing agents based on polymercaptans (SH, amine-phenol and modified amine was studied in the MIR and NIR spectral regions. It was observed that the FT-NIR shows better the spectrometric changes of the reactions studied, which makes it possible to detect the curing agent in lower contents in epoxide systems.

  12. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Methionine- and Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis by Suppressing TNF-α Expression and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyung Chae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pentoxifylline (PTX anti-TNF properties are known to exert hepatoprotective effects in various liver injury models. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PTX has beneficial roles in the development of methionine- and choline-deficient-(MCD- diet-induced NAFLD SD rats in vivo and TNF-α-induced Hep3B cells in vitro. Methods. SD Rats were classified according to diet (chow or MCD diet and treatment (normal saline or PTX injection over a period of 4 weeks: group I (chow + saline, n=4, group II (chow + PTX, group III (MCD + saline, and group IV (MCD + PTX. Hep3B cells were treated with 100 ng/ml TNF-α (24 h in the absence or presence of PTX (1 mM. Results. PTX attenuated MCD-diet-induced serum ALT levels and hepatic steatosis. In real-time PCR and western blotting analysis, PTX decreased MCD-diet-induced TNF-alpha mRNA expression and proapoptotic unfolded protein response by ER stress (GRP78, p-eIF2, ATF4, IRE1α, CHOP, and p-JNK activation in vivo. PTX (1 mM reduced TNF-α-induced activation of GRP78, p-eIF2, ATF4, IRE1α, and CHOP in vitro. Conclusion. PTX has beneficial roles in the development of MCD-diet-induced steatohepatitis through partial suppression of TNF-α and ER stress.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and catalytic activity of triorganotin(IV) carboxylates for the production of biodiesel from rocket seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Ali, S.

    2013-01-01

    Organotin(IV) carboxylates have a wide range of industrial applications such as antifouling paints, PVC stabilization, ion carries in electrochemical membranes and homogeneous catalysts. The catalytic application of organotin carboxylates are in the field of silicone curing, polyurethane formation and esterification. Only a limited literature is available regarding the use of organotin carboxylates in the transesterification of vegetable oil to produce biodiesel . The present study deals with the synthesis of some new triorganotin(IV) carboxylates for their subsequent use as catalyst for transesterification of rocket seed oil to produce biodiesel. The three new triorganotin(IV) i.e. (Me/sub 3/SnL) (1),(Bu/sub 3/Snl) (2) and (Ph/sub 3/SnL) (3), were synthesized by refluxing sodium salt of ligand (NaL), where L=O/sub 2/C(CH/sub 3/)C=CHC/sub 6/H/sub 4/F with trimethyl, tributyl and triphenyl tin(IV) chlorides, respectively for 10 hrs. The synthesized compounds were characterized by instrumental techniques like FT-IR and NMR (1H, 13C). The catalytic activity of these compounds was assessed for transesterification of triglycerides in rocket seed oil to produce biodiesel. All the tested compounds showed good catalytic activity in the order 1> 2 > 3. (author)

  14. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  15. Phase III randomized trial comparing intravenous to oral iron in patients with cancer-related iron deficiency anemia not on erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Patil, Vijay Maruti; Banavali, Shripad D; Gupta, Sudeep; Parikh, Purvish M; Marfatia, Shalaka; Punatar, Sachin; More, Sucheta; Goud, Supriya; Nakti, Dipti; Prabhash, Kumar

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to find the optimal route of iron supplementation in patients with malignancy and iron deficiency (true or functional) anemia not receiving erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA). Adult patients with malignancy requiring chemotherapy, hemoglobin (Hb) 10% were randomized to intravenous (IV) iron sucrose or oral ferrous sulfate. The primary endpoint was change in Hb from baseline to 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints included blood transfusion, quality of life (QoL), toxicity, response and overall survival. A total of 192 patients were enrolled over 5 years: 98 on IV arm and 94 on oral arm. Median age was 51 years; over 95% patients had solid tumors. The mean absolute increase in Hb at 6 weeks was 0.11 g/dL (standard deviation [SD]: 1.48) in IV arm and -0.16 g/dL (SD: 1.36) in oral arm, P = 0.23. Twenty-three percent patients on IV iron and 18% patients on oral iron had a rise in Hb of ≥1 g/dL at 6 weeks, P = 0.45. Thirteen patients (13.3%) on the IV iron arm and 14 patients (14.9%) on the oral arm required blood transfusion, P = 1.0. Gastrointestinal toxicity (any grade) developed in 41% patients on IV iron and 44% patients on oral iron, P = 1.0. 5 patients on IV iron and none on oral iron had hypersensitivity, P = 0.06. QoL was not significantly different between the two arms. IV iron was not superior to oral iron in patients with malignancy on chemotherapy and iron deficiency anemia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. An exploratory study of human teeth enamel by using Ft-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afishah Alias; Siti Rahayu Mohd Hashim; Mihaly, Judith; Julyannie Wajir; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    Unaffected , affected and heavily affected teeth enamel were studied by using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The 14 permanent teeths enamel surface were measured randomly, resulting in total n = 43 FT-Raman spectra. The results obtained from FT-Raman spectra of heavily affected, affected and unaffected tooths enamel surfaces did not show any significant difference. In this study, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare the intensity between the categories of enamel as well as the surfaces of teeth samples. (author)

  17. Storage Pool Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  18. Understanding the Strategies to Overcome Phosphorus–Deficiency and Aluminum–Toxicity by Ryegrass Endophytic and Rhizosphere Phosphobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio J. Barra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphobacteria, secreting organic acids and phosphatases, usually favor plant performance in acidic soils by increasing phosphorus (P availability and aluminum (Al complexing. However, it is not well-known how P-deficiency and Al-toxicity affect the phosphobacteria physiology. Since P and Al problems often co-occur in acidic soils, we have therefore proposed the evaluation of the single and combined effects of P-deficiency and Al-toxicity on growth, organic acids secretion, malate dehydrogenase (mdh gene expression, and phosphatase activity of five Al-tolerant phosphobacteria previously isolated from ryegrass. These phosphobacteria were identified as Klebsiella sp. RC3, Stenotrophomona sp. RC5, Klebsiella sp. RCJ4, Serratia sp. RCJ6, and Enterobacter sp. RJAL6. The strains were cultivated in mineral media modified to obtain (i high P in absence of Al–toxicity, (ii high P in presence of Al–toxicity, (iii low P in absence of Al–toxicity, and (iv low P in presence of Al–toxicity. High and low P were obtained by adding KH2PO4 at final concentration of 1.4 and 0.05 mM, respectively. To avoid Al precipitation, AlCl3 × 6H2O was previously complexed to citric acid (sole carbon source in concentrations of 10 mM. The secreted organic acids were identified and quantified by HPLC, relative mdh gene expression was determined by qRT-PCR and phosphatase activity was colorimetrically determined using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Our results revealed that although a higher secretion of all organic acids was achieved under P–deficiency, the patterns of organic acids secretion were variable and dependent on treatment and strain. The organic acid secretion is exacerbated when Al was added into media, particularly in the form of malic and citric acid. The mdh gene expression was significantly up–regulated by the strains RC3, RC5, and RCJ6 under P–deficiency and Al–toxicity. In general, Al–tolerant phosphobacteria under P deficiency

  19. Spectroscopic investigations (FT-IR & FT-Raman) and molecular docking analysis of 6-[1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl) sulfonyl]-7H-purine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, M.; Govindammal, M.; Sathya, B.

    2017-10-01

    The Azathioprine is used as anticancer agent. Azathioprine is chemically called 6-[1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl) sulfonyl]-7H-purine (6M4N5P). The vibrational analysis of the 6M4N5P compound was carried out by using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques and compared with aspects. The optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of 6M4N5P were obtained from the HF and DFT methods with 6-31G (d,p) basis set. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The calculated Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) energies show that charge transfer occur within the molecule. MEP (Molecular Electrostatic Potential) is very useful in the investigation of the charge distributions and molecular structure. The molecule orbital contributions were determined by using the total density of states (TDOS). A molecular docking analysis has been carried out to understand the conformational change and electrostatic properties of 6M4N5P in the active site of Rac1-Receptor.

  20. Apolipoprotein A-IV constrains HPA and behavioral stress responsivity in a strain-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Amy E B; Zhang, Jintao; Myers, Brent; Ko, Chih-Wei; Wang, Fei; Tso, Patrick; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2017-12-01

    There is a critical gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms that govern interactions between daily life experiences (e.g., stress) and metabolic diseases, despite evidence that stress can have profound effects on cardiometabolic health. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a protein found in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that transport lipids throughout the body) where it participates in lipid handling and the regulation of peripheral metabolism. Moreover, apoA-IV is expressed in brain regions that regulate energy balance including the arcuate nucleus. Given that both peripheral and central metabolic processes are important modulators of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, the present work tests the hypothesis that apoA-IV activity affects stress responses. As emerging data suggests that apoA-IV actions can vary with background strain, we also explore the strain-dependence of apoA-IV stress regulation. These studies assess HPA axis, metabolic (hyperglycemia), and anxiety-related behavioral responses to psychogenic stress in control (wildtype) and apoA-IV-deficient (KO) mice on either the C57Bl/6J (C57) or 129×1/SvJ (129) background strain. The results indicate that apoA-IV KO increases post-stress corticosterone and anxiety-related behavior specifically in the 129 strain, and increases stress-induced hyperglycemia exclusively in the C57 strain. These data support the hypothesis that apoA-IV is a novel factor that limits stress reactivity in a manner that depends on genetic background. An improved understanding of the complex relationship among lipid homeostasis, stress sensitivity, and genetics is needed to optimize the development of personalized treatments for stress- and metabolism-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Constraining f(T) gravity in the Solar System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Lorenzo [Ministero dell' Istruzione dell' Università e della Ricerca (M.I.U.R), Viale Unità di Italia 68, 70125 Bari (Italy); Radicella, Ninfa [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, Fisciano (Italy); Ruggiero, Matteo Luca, E-mail: lorenzo.iorio@libero.it, E-mail: ninfa.radicella@sa.infn.it, E-mail: matteo.ruggiero@polito.it [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of f(T) theories of gravity, we solve the field equations for f(T)=T+α T{sup n} in the weak-field approximation and for spherical symmetry spacetime. Since f(T)=T corresponds to Teleparallel Gravity, which is equivalent to General Relativity, the non linearity of the Lagrangian are expected to produce perturbations of the general relativistic solutions, parameterized by α. Hence, we use the f(T) solutions to model the gravitational field of the Sun and exploit data from accurate radio-tracking of spacecrafts orbiting Mercury and Saturn to infer preliminary bounds on the model parameter α and on the cosmological constant Λ.

  2. Applications of FT-IR spectrophotometry in cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Hoang, Vu Dang; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a brief background to the application of infrared spectroscopy, including Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, in biological fluids. It is not meant to be complete or exhaustive but to provide the reader with sufficient background for selected applications in cancer diagnostics. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a fast and nondestructive analytical method. The infrared spectrum of a mixture serves as the basis to quantitate its constituents, and a number of common clinical chemistry tests have proven to be feasible using this approach. This review focuses on biomedical FT-IR applications, published in the period 2009-2013, used for early detection of cancer through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  3. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver.

  4. Quantitative gas analysis with FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Larsen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calibration spectra of CO in the 2.38-5100 ppm concentration range (22 spectra) have been measured with a spectral resolution of 4 cm(-1), in the mid-IR (2186-2001 cm(-1)) region, with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument. The multivariate calibration method partial least-squares (PLS1...

  5. Atm reactivation reverses ataxia telangiectasia phenotypes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Siena, Sara; Campolo, Federica; Gimmelli, Roberto; Di Pietro, Chiara; Marazziti, Daniela; Dolci, Susanna; Lenzi, Andrea; Nussenzweig, Andre; Pellegrini, Manuela

    2018-02-22

    Hereditary deficiencies in DNA damage signaling are invariably associated with cancer predisposition, immunodeficiency, radiation sensitivity, gonadal abnormalities, premature aging, and tissue degeneration. ATM kinase has been established as a central player in DNA double-strand break repair and its deficiency causes ataxia telangiectasia, a rare, multi-system disease with no cure. So ATM represents a highly attractive target for the development of novel types of gene therapy or transplantation strategies. Atm tamoxifen-inducible mouse models were generated to explore whether Atm reconstitution is able to restore Atm function in an Atm-deficient background. Body weight, immunodeficiency, spermatogenesis, and radioresistance were recovered in transgenic mice within 1 month from Atm induction. Notably, life span was doubled after Atm restoration, mice were protected from thymoma and no cerebellar defects were observed. Atm signaling was functional after DNA damage in vivo and in vitro. In summary, we propose a new Atm mouse model to investigate novel therapeutic strategies for ATM activation in ataxia telangiectasia disease.

  6. Beer fermentation: monitoring of process parameters by FT-NIR and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvia; Amigo, José Manuel; Lyndgaard, Christian Bøge; Foschino, Roberto; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2014-07-15

    This work investigates the capability of Fourier-Transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to monitor and assess process parameters in beer fermentation at different operative conditions. For this purpose, the fermentation of wort with two different yeast strains and at different temperatures was monitored for nine days by FT-NIR. To correlate the collected spectra with °Brix, pH and biomass, different multivariate data methodologies were applied. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and locally weighted regression (LWR) were used to assess the relationship between FT-NIR spectra and the abovementioned process parameters that define the beer fermentation. The accuracy and robustness of the obtained results clearly show the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate data analysis, to be used as a quality control tool in the beer fermentation process. FT-NIR spectroscopy, when combined with LWR, demonstrates to be a perfectly suitable quantitative method to be implemented in the production of beer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in determination of microalgal compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yingying; Yao, Changhong; Xue, Song; Yang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in algal strain screening and monitoring cell composition dynamics in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis during algal cultivation. The content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of samples determined by traditional methods had validated the accuracy of FT-IR method. For algal screening, the band absorption ratios of lipid/amide I and carbo/amide I from FT-IR measurements allowed for the selection of Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis as the most potential lipid and carbohydrate producers, respectively. The cell composition dynamics of I. zhangjiangensis measured by FT-IR revealed the diversion of carbon allocation from protein to carbohydrate and neutral lipid when nitrogen-replete cells were subjected to nitrogen limitation. The carbo/amide I band absorption ratio had also been demonstrated to depict physiological status under nutrient stress in T. subcordiformis. FT-IR serves as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content in cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced sampling techniques for hand-held FT-IR instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Weber, Chris; Levy, Dustin

    2013-05-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenging ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, extreme reliability, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the HazMatID™ Elite, a FT-IR instrument designed to balance the portability advantages of a handheld device with the performance challenges associated with miniaturization. In this paper, special focus will be given to the HazMatID Elite's sampling interfaces optimized to collect and interrogate different types of samples: accumulated material using the on-board ATR press, dispersed powders using the ClearSampler™ tool, and the touch-to-sample sensor for direct liquid sampling. The application of the novel sample swipe accessory (ClearSampler) to collect material from surfaces will be discussed in some detail. The accessory was tested and evaluated for the detection of explosive residues before and after detonation. Experimental results derived from these investigations will be described in an effort to outline the advantages of this technology over existing sampling methods.

  9. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  10. Angiotensin IV and LVV-haemorphin 7 enhance spatial working memory in rats: effects on hippocampal glucose levels and blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bundel, Dimitri; Smolders, Ilse; Yang, Rui; Albiston, Anthony L; Michotte, Yvette; Chai, Siew Yeen

    2009-07-01

    The IRAP ligands Angiotensin IV (Ang IV) and LVV-haemorphin 7 (LVV-H7) enhance performance in a range of memory paradigms in normal rats and ameliorate memory deficits in rat models for amnesia. The mechanism by which these peptides facilitate memory remains to be elucidated. In recent in vitro experiments, we demonstrated that Ang IV and LVV-H7 potentiate activity-evoked glucose uptake into hippocampal neurons. This raises the possibility that IRAP ligands may facilitate memory in hippocampus-dependent tasks through enhancement of hippocampal glucose uptake. Acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of 1nmol Ang IV or 0.1nmol LVV-H7 in 3 months-old Sprague-Dawley rats enhanced spatial working memory in the plus maze spontaneous alternation task. Extracellular hippocampal glucose levels were monitored before, during and after behavioral testing using in vivo microdialysis. Extracellular hippocampal glucose levels decreased significantly to about 70% of baseline when the animals explored the plus maze, but remained constant when the animals were placed into a novel control chamber. Ang IV and LVV-H7 did not significantly alter hippocampal glucose levels compared to control animals in the plus maze or control chamber. Both peptides had no effect on hippocampal blood flow as determined by laser Doppler flowmetry, excluding that either peptide increased the hippocampal supply of glucose. We demonstrated for the first time that Ang IV and LVV-H7 enhance spatial working memory in the plus maze spontaneous alternation task but no in vivo evidence was found for enhanced hippocampal glucose uptake or blood flow.

  11. Normal bone density in male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5a- reductase 2 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Elaine Maria Frade

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is an androgen-dependent tissue, but it is not clear whether the androgen action in bone depends on testosterone or on dihydrotestosterone. Patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency present normal levels of testosterone and low levels of dihydrotestosterone, providing an in vivo human model for the analysis of the effect of testosterone on bone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze bone mineral density in 4 adult patients with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. RESULTS: Three patients presented normal bone mineral density of the lumbar column (L1-L4 and femur neck, and the other patient presented a slight osteopenia in the lumbar column. CONCLUSION: Patients with dihydrotestosterone deficiency present normal bone mineral density, suggesting that dihydrotestosterone is not the main androgen acting in bone.

  12. Gene Transfer of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Prevents Neurodegeneration Triggered by FXN Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsu-Jiménez, Yurika; Loría, Frida; Corona, Juan Carlos; Díaz-Nido, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is a predominantly neurodegenerative disease caused by recessive mutations that produce a deficiency of frataxin (FXN). Here, we have used a herpesviral amplicon vector carrying a gene encoding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to drive its overexpression in neuronal cells and test for its effect on FXN-deficient neurons both in culture and in the mouse cerebellum in vivo. Gene transfer of BDNF to primary cultures of mouse neurons prevents the apoptosis which is triggered by the knockdown of FXN gene expression. This neuroprotective effect of BDNF is also observed in vivo in a viral vector-based knockdown mouse cerebellar model. The injection of a lentiviral vector carrying a minigene encoding for a FXN-specific short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) into the mouse cerebellar cortex triggers a FXN deficit which is accompanied by significant apoptosis of granule neurons as well as loss of calbindin in Purkinje cells. These pathological changes are accompanied by a loss of motor coordination of mice as assayed by the rota-rod test. Coinjection of a herpesviral vector encoding for BDNF efficiently prevents both the development of cerebellar neuropathology and the ataxic phenotype. These data demonstrate the potential therapeutic usefulness of neurotrophins like BDNF to protect FXN-deficient neurons from degeneration.

  13. Developmental vitamin D deficiency causes abnormal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, D W; Feron, F; Cui, X; Kesby, J P; Harms, L H; Ko, P; McGrath, J J; Burne, T H J

    2009-12-01

    There is now clear evidence that vitamin D is involved in brain development. Our group is interested in environmental factors that shape brain development and how this may be relevant to neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. The origins of schizophrenia are considered developmental. We hypothesised that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency may be the plausible neurobiological explanation for several important epidemiological correlates of schizophrenia namely: (1) the excess winter/spring birth rate, (2) increased incidence of the disease in 2nd generation Afro-Caribbean migrants and (3) increased urban birth rate. Moreover we have published two pieces of direct epidemiological support for this hypothesis in patients. In order to establish the "Biological Plausibility" of this hypothesis we have developed an animal model to study the effect of DVD deficiency on brain development. We do this by removing vitamin D from the diet of female rats prior to breeding. At birth we return all dams to a vitamin D containing diet. Using this procedure we impose a transient, gestational vitamin D deficiency, while maintaining normal calcium levels throughout. The brains of offspring from DVD-deficient dams are characterised by (1) a mild distortion in brain shape, (2) increased lateral ventricle volumes, (3) reduced differentiation and (4) diminished expression of neurotrophic factors. As adults, the alterations in ventricular volume persist and alterations in brain gene and protein expression emerge. Adult DVD-deficient rats also display behavioural sensitivity to agents that induce psychosis (the NMDA antagonist MK-801) and have impairments in attentional processing. In this review we summarise the literature addressing the function of vitamin D on neuronal and non-neuronal cells as well as in vivo results from DVD-deficient animals. Our conclusions from these data are that vitamin D is a plausible biological risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders and that

  14. Does vitamin C matter? A quest for in vivo effects of vitamin C deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin C has long been recognized as an important dietary micronutrient based on its ability to prevent scurvy in humans. Moreover, over the past decades, ascorbate has been identified as a powerful redox modulator and named ‘‘the most important antioxidant in plasma''. Several investigators have...... shown ascorbate to be an excellent biomarker of ‘‘oxidative stress'' in a variety of biological settings from isolated cells to humans. However, in spite of the amazing redox powers of ascorbate, little evidence has been presented until now demonstrating that vitamin C deficiency results in any clinical...... problem has prompted discussions on the possible beneficial effect of supplementation to humans as a preventive measure but so far large clinical trials have shown no clinical relevance of antioxidant supplementation in general. Two possible pathological consequences of marginal vitamin C deficiency...

  15. Profiling the Metabolism of Astragaloside IV by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Astragaloside IV is a compound isolated from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Astragalus membranaceus, that has been reported to have bioactivities against cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. There is limited information on the metabolism of astragaloside IV, which impedes comprehension of its biological actions and pharmacology. In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS-based approach was developed to profile the metabolites of astragaloside IV in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces samples. Twenty-two major metabolites were detected. The major components found in plasma, bile, urine and feces included the parent chemical and phases I and II metabolites. The major metabolic reactions of astragaloside IV were hydrolysis, glucuronidation, sulfation and dehydrogenation. These results will help to improve understanding the metabolism and reveal the biotransformation profiling of astragaloside IV in vivo. The metabolic information obtained from our study will guide studies into the pharmacological activity and clinical safety of astragaloside IV.

  16. Measurement of serum free thyroxine using fT4(fraction) determined by solidphase radioimmunoassay: First clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Walter, H.; Moll, E.; Boerner, W.

    1983-01-01

    The novel solidphase RIA SPAC ET permits the simultaneous determination of TF 4 , TT 4 and fT 4 -fraction. The duration until the complete results of this assay can be obtained is a little bit less than for parallel radioimmunologic FT 4 - and TT 4 -determinations. The results of our quality control survey indicate that the precision of the precommercial kits tested should be improved. In addition, the normal range of FT 4 from 5.5 pg/ml to 12.5 pg/ml should be adapted in the final assay version of the approximately 30% higher normal ranges which are common with alternative FT 4 -radioimunoassays. In comparison to FT 4 -I, TT 4 /TBG-ratio and other FT 4 -radioimmunoassays, the diagnostic accuracy of FT 4 determined by SPAC ET is equally good. Estrogen-mediated TBG elevations on oral contraceptives are well compensated. In pregnancy, the known tendency towards lower FT 4 levels can be seen with the beginning of the second trimester. While there are no changes of FT 4 levels on medication with acetylosalicyclic acid, a slight tendency towards lower FT 4 determined by SPAC ET can be seen on therapy with phenytoin. Under treatment with heparin, FT 4 by SPAC ET is elevated. This is more reasonable than the decreases of FT 4 concentrations observed with radioimmunoassays using FT 4 analogues as tracers. RIA SPAC ET is an interesting alternative to routinely used direct and indirect methods for determination of free thyroxine. (orig.) [de

  17. Acute in vitro and in vivo toxicity of a commercial grade boron nitride nanotube mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Vamsi K; Roberts, Jenny R; Shoeb, Mohammad; Wolfarth, Michael G; Bishop, Lindsey; Eye, Tracy; Barger, Mark; Roach, Katherine A; Friend, Sherri; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Chen, Bean T; Stefaniak, Aleksandr; Jordan, Kevin C; Whitney, Roy R; Porter, Dale W; Erdely, Aaron D

    2017-10-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are an emerging engineered nanomaterial attracting significant attention due to superior electrical, chemical and thermal properties. Currently, the toxicity profile of this material is largely unknown. Commercial grade BNNTs are composed of a mixture (BNNT-M) of ∼50-60% BNNTs, and ∼40-50% impurities of boron and hexagonal boron nitride. We performed acute in vitro and in vivo studies with commercial grade BNNT-M, dispersed by sonication in vehicle, in comparison to the extensively studied multiwalled carbon nanotube-7 (MWCNT-7). THP-1 wild-type and NLRP3-deficient human monocytic cells were exposed to 0-100 µg/ml and C57BL/6 J male mice were treated with 40 µg of BNNT-M for in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. In vitro, BNNT-M induced a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. This was confirmed in vivo following acute exposure increase in bronchoalveolar lavage levels of lactate dehydrogenase, pulmonary polymorphonuclear cell influx, loss in mitochondrial membrane potential and augmented levels of 4-hydroxynonenal. Uptake of this material caused lysosomal destabilization, pyroptosis and inflammasome activation, corroborated by an increase in cathepsin B, caspase 1, increased protein levels of IL-1β and IL-18 both in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of these effects in NLRP3-deficient THP-1 cells confirmed NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation by BNNT-M. BNNT-M induced a similar profile of inflammatory pulmonary protein production when compared to MWCNT-7. Functionally, pretreatment with BNNT-M caused suppression in bacterial uptake by THP-1 cells, an effect that was mirrored in challenged alveolar macrophages collected from exposed mice and attenuated with NLRP3 deficiency. Analysis of cytokines secreted by LPS-challenged alveolar macrophages collected after in vivo exposure to dispersions of BNNT-M showed a differential macrophage response. The observed results demonstrated acute

  18. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora'), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of these

  19. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron E Walworth

    Full Text Available In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora', which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT. Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5 gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2, a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5, and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1, may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1, LEAFY-like (VcLFY, APETALA1-like (VcAP1, CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1, and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of

  20. The Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Protease FtSH4 Is Involved in Leaf Senescence via Regulation of WRKY-Dependent Salicylic Acid Accumulation and Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengchun; Li, Cui; Wang, Rui; Chen, Yaxue; Shu, Si; Huang, Ruihua; Zhang, Daowei; Li, Jian; Xiao, Shi; Yao, Nan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondria and autophagy play important roles in the networks that regulate plant leaf senescence and cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between mitochondrial signaling and autophagy are currently not well understood. This study characterized the function of the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) mitochondrial AAA-protease gene FtSH4 in regulating autophagy and senescence, finding that FtSH4 mediates WRKY-dependent salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and signaling. Knockout of FtSH4 in the ftsh4-4 mutant resulted in severe leaf senescence, cell death, and high autophagy levels. The level of SA increased dramatically in the ftsh4-4 mutant. Expression of nahG in the ftsh4-4 mutant led to decreased SA levels and suppressed the leaf senescence and cell death phenotypes. The transcript levels of several SA synthesis and signaling genes, including SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 ( SID2 ), NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1 ( NDR1 ), and NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 ( NPR1 ), increased significantly in the ftsh4-4 mutants compared with the wild type. Loss of function of SID2 , NDR1 , or NPR1 in the ftsh4-4 mutant reversed the ftsh4-4 senescence and autophagy phenotypes. Furthermore, ftsh4-4 mutants had elevated levels of transcripts of several WRKY genes, including WRKY40 , WRKY46 , WRKY51 , WRKY60 , WRKY63 , and WRKY75 ; all of these WRKY proteins can bind to the promoter of SID2 Loss of function of WRKY75 in the ftsh4-4 mutants decreased the levels of SA and reversed the senescence phenotype. Taken together, these results suggest that the mitochondrial ATP-dependent protease FtSH4 may regulate the expression of WRKY genes by modifying the level of reactive oxygen species and the WRKY transcription factors that control SA synthesis and signaling in autophagy and senescence. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is involved in the cellulose-responsive induction of cellulose biomass-degrading enzyme genes in Aspergillus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Shuji; Yuki, Shota; Kunitake, Emi; Sumitani, Jun-Ichi; Kawaguchi, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    We screened for factors involved in the cellulose-responsive induction of cellulose biomass-degrading enzyme genes from approximately 12,000 Aspergillus aculeatus T-DNA insertion mutants harboring a transcriptional fusion between the FIII-avicelase gene (cbhI) promoter and the orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase gene. Analysis of 5-fluoroorodic acid (5-FOA) sensitivity, cellulose utilization, and cbhI expression of the mutants revealed that a mutant harboring T-DNA at the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (dppIV) locus had acquired 5-FOA resistance and was deficient in cellulose utilization and cbhI expression. The deletion of dppIV resulted in a significant reduction in the cellulose-responsive expression of both cbhI as well as genes controlled by XlnR-independent and XlnR-dependent signaling pathways at an early phase in A. aculeatus. In contrast, the dppIV deletion did not affect the xylose-responsive expression of genes under the control of XlnR. These results demonstrate that DppIV participates in cellulose-responsive induction in A. aculeatus.

  2. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  3. Pathogenic classification of LPL gene variants reported to be associated with LPL deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Rute; Artieda, Marta; Tejedor, Diego

    2016-01-01

    into the deleterious effect of the mutations is clinically essential. METHODS: We used gene sequencing followed by in-vivo/in-vitro and in-silico tools for classification. We classified 125 rare LPL mutations in 33 subjects thought to have LPL deficiency and in 314 subjects selected for very SHTG. RESULTS: Of the 33...

  4. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Chadha, Manpreet K; Sunga, Annette Y; Fakih, Marwan G; Ashraf, Umeer; Silliman, Carrie G; Hollis, Bruce W; Nesline, Mary K; Tian, Lili; Tan, Wei; Johnson, Candace S

    2009-10-01

    To assess the frequency of vitamin D deficiency among men with prostate cancer, as considerable epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo and clinical data support an association between vitamin D deficiency and prostate cancer outcome. The study included 120 ambulatory men with recurrent prostate cancer and 50 with clinically localized prostate cancer who were evaluated and serum samples assayed for 25-OH vitamin D levels. Then 100 controls (both sexes), matched for age and season of serum sample, were chosen from a prospective serum banking protocol. The relationship between age, body mass index, disease stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, season and previous therapy on vitamin D status were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. The mean 25-OH vitamin D level was 25.9 ng/mL in those with recurrent disease, 27.5 ng/mL in men with clinically localized prostate cancer and 24.5 ng/mL in controls. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-31 ng/mL) was 40% and 32% in men with recurrent prostate; 28% had vitamin D levels that were normal (32-100 ng/mL). Among men with localized prostate cancer, 18% were deficient, 50% were insufficient and 32% were normal. Among controls, 31% were deficient, 40% were insufficient and 29% were normal. Metastatic disease (P = 0.005) and season of blood sampling (winter/spring; P = 0.01) were associated with vitamin D deficiency in patients with prostate cancer, while age, race, performance status and body mass index were not. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among men with prostate cancer and apparently normal controls in the western New York region.

  5. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyarova, L. [Department of Endocrynology, Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  6. A preliminary interpretation of gas composition in the CP IV sector wells, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor M; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Perez Hernandez, Alfredo; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio; Leon Vivar, Jesus de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General Cerro Prieto, B.C. (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    To increase the electrical generation capacity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field from 620 MW to 720 MW, the Cerro Prieto IV (CP IV) sector of the field was developed in the NE portion of the exploited field. Fourteen new wells have been drilled there since 2000. The wells in CP IV zone produce two-phase fluids at wellhead with heterogeneous steam fraction characteristics: at the central zone and towards the NW, the wells are liquid-dominated while those towards the E and S produce a relatively high steam fraction. This work studies the gas compositions of produced fluids to obtain reservoir parameters such as temperature and steam fraction and identify different sources of fluids in the wells. A method was used based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H{sub 2}S equilibria with pyrite-pyrrhotite as a mineral buffer (FT-HSH3). The results for the natural state showed the presence of fluids with reservoir temperatures from 275 to 310 degrees Celsius and excess steam values from -1 to 50%. Data are aligned in a FT-HSH3 trend, suggesting that the well discharges consist of a mixture in different proportions of the two end members. One seems to be a liquid with a temperature of over 300 degrees Celsius with negative or negligible excess steam. The other seems to be a two-phase fluid with a temperature of about 275 degrees Celsius and an excess steam fraction of about 0.5. According to the data for single wells and depending on the production conditions of the wells, reservoir fluid mixtures could occur in different proportions of liquid and steam. Data for 2005 that included wells drilled after 2000 suggest the presence of a steam phase in the reservoir. The steam could be generated with the boiling of deep reservoir fluid from a pressure drop. The mixing trend obtained for the natural state was also seen for 2005 data but lower temperatures (from 265 to 295 degrees Celsius) were obtained compared with those for natural conditions. The entry of lower

  7. Synergistic Radiation Protective Effect of Purified Auricularia auricular-judae Polysaccharide (AAP IV with Grape Seed Procyanidins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Bai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic antioxidant potential and protective effect of grape seed procyanidins (GSP in combination with Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharides (AAP IV on radiation injury in splenocytes. Rat splenocyte irradiation resulted in significantly higher apoptosis rate, malondialdehyde (MDA (p < 0.005, reactive oxygen species (ROS (p < 0.01; cell viability, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD (p < 0.01, catalase (CAT (p < 0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX (p < 0.05, activity and glutathione (GSH (p < 0.01 levels were significantly reduced, compared with the control group. “GSP + AAP IV” treatment of rat splenocytes at doses of “GSP (0.3 μg/mL + AAP IV (50 μg/mL” displayed higher radioprotective and antioxidative effects than the administration of either GSP or AAP IV, as evident by lower levels of MDA (p < 0.001 concentration, as well as higher cell viability and T-SOD (p < 0.05, CAT (p < 0.005, GSH-PX (p < 0.01 and GSH content compared to the radiation group. In addition, in vivo studies have shown that “GSP + AAP IV” significantly ameliorated the decrease of spleen index (p < 0.005 and spleen GSH (p < 0.005 levels and significantly inhibited the increase of MDA (p < 0.005 levels of spleen with radiation-induced damage, compared with the non-treated group. The in vivo and in vitro results suggested that GSP and AAP IV have a synergistic protective effect against radiation-induced injury by improving the antioxidant and immunomodulation activities.

  8. Experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) and theoretical study of alkali metal 2-aminobenzoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonowicz, M.; Świsłocka, R.; Regulska, E.; Lewandowski, W.

    2008-09-01

    The influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium on the electronic system of the 2-aminobenzoic acid was studied by the methods of molecular spectroscopy. The vibrational (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and NMR ( 1H and 13C) spectra for 2-aminobenzoic acid and its alkali metal salts were recorded. The assignment of vibrational spectra was done on the basis of literature data, theoretical calculations and our previous experience. Characteristic shifts of bands and changes in intensities of bands along the metal series were observed. The changes of chemical shifts of protons ( 1H NMR) and carbons ( 13C NMR) in the series of studied alkali metal 2-aminobenzoates were observed too. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were calculated by B3LYP method using 6-311++G ∗∗ basis set. Geometric aromaticity indices, dipole moments and energies were also calculated. The theoretical wavenumbers and intensities of IR and Raman spectra were obtained. The calculated parameters were compared to experimental characteristic of studied compounds.

  9. Acid-base properties, FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopy and computational study of 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Y Sheena; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Procházková, Markéta; Sevčík, Richard; Pazdera, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We report the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy for 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine (PyPi). Single crystals of PyPi suitable for X-ray structural analysis were obtained. The acid-base properties are also reported. PyPi supported on a weak acid cation-exchanger in the single protonated form and this system can be used efficiently as the solid supported analogue of 4-N,N-dimethyl-aminopyridine. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule and with the molecular electrostatic potential map was applied for the reactivity assessment of PyPi molecule toward proton, electrophiles and nucleopholes as well. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of PyPi is 17.46 times that of urea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENGHAMBAT PENGERJAAN TUGAS AKHIR SKRIPSI MAHASISWA PENDIDIKAN TEKNIK OTOMOTIF FT UNY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Siswanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dalam penelitian ini ialah mengetahui dan mendeskripsikan secara faktual, akurat dan sistematis tentang 1 Implementasi pedoman penulisan tugas akhir skripsi mahasiswa FT UNY di Jurusan PT. Otomotif dan 2 Faktor-faktor yang menjadi penghambat dalam pengerjaan tugas akhir skripsi mahasiswa PT. Otomotif FT UNY Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif. Objek penelitian ialah Koordinator tugas akhir skripsi, dosen pembimbing, dan mahasiswa PT. Otomotif FT UNY. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara dan dokumentasi. Teknik analisis data yang dipergunakan ialah metode analisis deskriptif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 1 Implementasi pedoman penulisan tugas akhir skripsi di jurusan PT. Otomotif FT UNY dilakukan dengan pembentukan koordinator tugas akhir skripsi, pembagian tahapan-tahapan pengerjaan skripsi yang terdiri dari pengajuan judul, bimbingan, pengambilan data penelitian, dan ujian TAS sampai dengan pengeluaran nilai TAS. Semua dosen PT. Otomotif FT UNY melaksanakan bimbingan tugas akhir skripsi sesuai dengan pedoman penulisan tugas akhir skripsi. Jurusan PT. Otomotif FT UNY juga melakukan bimbingan klasikal bagi mahasiswa yang akan/sedang mengerjakan tugas akhir skripsi, 2 Faktor-faktor yang menjadi penghambat dalam pengerjaan tugas akhir skripsi yaitu kesulitan dalam menemukan permasalahan yang akan diangkat menjadi judul penelitian, mahasiswa fokus mengerjakan proyek akhir (mahasiswa angkatan 2008 ke bawah, fokus laporan KKN PPL, mengulang banyak mata kuliah, tidak rutin bimbingan dengan dosen, kesulitan dalam menulis karya tulis ilmiah.

  11. A perturbative approach to neutron stars in f(T, T)-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Mark; Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta)

    2017-05-15

    We derive a Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation in neutron star systems within the modified f(T, T)-gravity class of models using a perturbative approach. In our approach f(T, T)-gravity is considered to be a static spherically symmetric space-time. In this instance the metric is built from a more fundamental vierbein which can be used to relate inertial and global coordinates. A linear function f = T(r) + T(r) + χh(T, T) + O(χ{sup 2}) is taken as the Lagrangian density for the gravitational action. Finally we impose the polytropic equation of state of neutron star upon the derived equations in order to derive the mass profile and mass-central density relations of the neutron star in f(T, T)-gravity. (orig.)

  12. Protein Adsorption Patterns and Analysis on IV Nanoemulsions-The Key Factor Determining the Organ Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Cornelia M; Jansch, Mirko; Müller, Rainer H

    2012-12-21

    Intravenous nanoemulsions have been on the market for parenteral nutrition since the 1950s; meanwhile, they have also been used successfully for IV drug delivery. To be well tolerable, the emulsions should avoid uptake by the MPS cells of the body; for drug delivery, they should be target-specific. The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern), typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. The article reviews the 2-D PAGE method, the analytical problems to be faced and the knowledge available on how the composition of emulsions affects the protein adsorption patterns, e.g., the composition of the oil phase, stabilizer layer and drug incorporation into the interface or oil core. Data were re-evaluated and compared, and the implications for the in vivo distribution are discussed. Major results are that the interfacial composition of the stabilizer layer is the main determining factor and that this composition can be modulated by simple processes. Drug incorporation affects the pattern depending on the localization of the drug (oil core versus interface). The data situation regarding in vivo effects is very limited; mainly, it has to be referred to in the in vivo data of polymeric nanoparticles. As a conclusion, determination of the protein adsorption patterns can accelerate IV nanoemulsion formulation development regarding optimized organ distribution and related pharmacokinetics.

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic properties and biological activity of new mono organotin(IV complexes with 5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde-4,4-dimethylthiosemicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenani A. Haque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The organotin(IV complexes [RSn(L] (where R = Me (2, R = n-Bu (3, R = Ph (4; H2L (1 = 5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde-4,4-dimethylthiosemicarbazone have been synthesized by the reaction of organotin(IV chloride(s with H2L (1. All the compounds have been characterized by CHN analyses, UV–vis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectral studies. The molecular structure of H2L (1 has been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectrum gives confirmation for the compound (H2L in the thione form, which is supported with the observed bond lengths from the crystal structure. Spectral studies revealed that the dinegative tridentate ligand is bonded to the tin(IV atom via phenolic-O, azomethine-N and thiolate-S atoms. 119Sn NMR data in DMSO-d6 suggested penta-coordinated Sn(IV atom in solutions for all complexes (2–4. The compound, H2L (1 crystallizes into a monoclinic lattice with the space group P21/c, Z = 4, V = 1,191.75(8Å3. The compounds were also tested for their antiproliferative activity against human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116 and displayed strong cytotoxic activities.

  14. Relationship between vitamin A deficiency and the thyroid axis in clinically stable patients with liver cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eshmawy, Mervat M; Arafa, Mona M; Elzehery, Rasha R; Elhelaly, Rania M; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M; El-Baiomy, Azza A

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and altered thyroid function are commonly encountered in patients with liver cirrhosis. The link between vitamin A metabolism and thyroid function has been previously identified. The aim of this study was to explore the association between VAD and the thyroid axis in clinically stable patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). One hundred and twelve patients with clinically stable HCV-related cirrhosis and 56 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status were recruited for this study. Vitamin A status, liver function, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), and thyroid volume were evaluated. The prevalence of VAD among patients with HCV-related cirrhosis was 62.5% compared with 5.4% among controls (P vitamin A status: VAD and normal vitamin A. Patients with VAD had significantly lower vitamin A intake and serum albumin and higher serum bilirubin, FT4, FT3, and TSH than patients with normal vitamin A status. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that VAD was associated with Child-Pugh score (β = 0.11, P = 0.05) and TSH (β = -1.63, P = 0.02) independently of confounding variables. We conclude that VAD may be linked to central hyperthyroidism in patients with clinically stable HCV-related liver cirrhosis.

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated transient MaFT expression in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Su-Li; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Li-Qun; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Hai; Su, Chao; Qian, Yong-Hua; Jiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation assay in mulberry (Morus alba L.), various infiltration methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strains, and bacterial concentrations were tested in mulberry seedlings. Compared with LBA4404, GV3101 harboring pBE2133 plasmids presented stronger GUS signals at 3 days post infiltration using syringe. Recombinant plasmids pBE2133:GFP and pBE2133:GFP:MaFT were successfully constructed. Transient expression of MaFT:GFP protein was found in leaves, petiole (cross section), and shoot apical meristem (SAM) of mulberry according to the GFP signal. Moreover, MaFT:GFP mRNA was also detected in leaves and SAM via RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. An efficient transient transformation system could be achieved in mulberry seedlings by syringe using A. tumefaciens GV3101 at the OD600 of 0.5. The movement of MaFT expression from leaves to SAM might trigger the precocious flowering of mulberry.

  16. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  17. Model FT631 moisture/density combined gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Dai Zhude; Zhang Jianguo; Zhang Enshang; Huang Jiling; Meng Qingbao

    1990-01-01

    Model FT631 Moisture/Density Combined Gauge has been developed, with which both water content and density, the two parameters of measured medium (soil), are obtained in one act of measurement at the same time. A China patent has been taken for this invention

  18. FT 3 Flight Test Cards for Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.

  19. Amplification of EDHF-type vasodilatations in TRPC1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjestine; Dubrovska, Galyna; Nielsen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    -deficient mice (TRPC1-/-). Experimental approach. Vascular responses were studied using pressure/wire-myography and intravital microscopy. We performed electrophysiological measurements, and confocal Ca(2+) imaging for studying K(Ca)-channel functions and Ca(2+)sparks. Key results. TRPC1-deficiency...... in carotid arteries produced a twofold augmentation of TRAM-34- and UCL1684-sensitive EDHF-type vasodilatations and of endothelial hyperpolarization to acetylcholine. NO-mediated vasodilatations were unchanged. TRPC1-/- exhibited enhanced EDHF-type vasodilatations in resistance-sized arterioles in vivo...... associated with reduced spontaneous tone. Endothelial IK(Ca)/SK(Ca)-type K(Ca) currents, smooth muscle cell Ca(2+) sparks and associated BK(Ca)-mediated spontaneous transient outward currents (STOC) were unchanged in TRPC1-/-. Smooth muscle contractility induced by receptor-operated Ca(2+) influx or Ca(2...

  20. Direct complexonometric determination of thorium (IV), uranium (IV), neptunium (IV), plutonium (IV) by titration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid with xylenol orange as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykov, A.G.; Piskunov, E.M.; Timofeev, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a method of determining Th(IV), U(IV), Np(N) and Pu(IV) in acid solutions by titration with diethylenetriamine pentacetic acid, the indicator being xylenol orange. It has been established that Th, U, Np and Pu can be determined to within 0.5-1.5%. Th and U in quantities of tens of milligrams can be determined with greater accuracy, attaining hundredths of one per cent. During titration the determination is not hindered by singly- and doubly-charged metal ions, trivalent lanthanides and actinides, except plutonium. The proposed method can be used to determine U(IV) in the presence of considerable quantities of U(VI) and Np(IV) in the presence of Np(V). Total concentrations of uranium or neptunium are determined by reducing uranium (VI) or neptunium (V) by a standard method (for example, using metallic lead, cadmium or zinc amalgam) to the tetravalent state and applying the method described in the paper. (E.P.)

  1. Bleomycin-Treated Chimeric Thy1-Deficient Mice with Thy1-Deficient Myofibroblasts and Thy-Positive Lymphocytes Resolve Inflammation without Affecting the Fibrotic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazit Y. Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung fibrosis is characterized by abnormal accumulation of fibroblasts in the interstitium of the alveolar space. Two populations of myofibroblasts, distinguished by Thy1 expression, are detected in human and murine lungs. Accumulation of Thy1-negative (Thy1− myofibroblasts was shown in the lungs of humans with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and of bleomycin-treated mice. We aimed to identify genetic changes in lung myofibroblasts following Thy1 crosslinking and assess the impact of specific lung myofibroblast Thy1-deficiency, in vivo, in bleomycin-injured mouse lungs. Thy1 increased in mouse lung lymphocytes following bleomycin injury but decreased in myofibroblasts when fibrosis was at the highest point (14 days, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Using gene chip analysis, we detected that myofibroblast Thy1 crosslinking mediates downregulation of genes promoting cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, and reduces production of extracellular matrix (ECM components, while concurrently mediating the upregulation of genes known to foster inflammation and immunological functions. Chimeric Thy1-deficient mice with Thy1+ lymphocytes and Thy1− myofibroblasts showed fibrosis similar to wild-type mice and an increased number of CD4/CD25 regulatory T cells, with a concomitant decrease in inflammation. Lung myofibroblasts downregulate Thy1 expression to increase their proliferation but to diminish the in vivo inflammatory milieu. Inflammation is not essential for evolution of fibrosis as was previously stated.

  2. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Iodine Deficiency Leer en Español Iodine Deficiency Iodine is an element that is needed ... world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. Iodine Deficiency FAQs WHAT IS THE THYROID GLAND? The ...

  3. In vivo intracellular recordings from spinal lumbar motoneurones in P0-deficient mice indicate an activity-dependent axonal conduction failure in otherwise functional motoneurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehnhoff, Janna; Moldovan, Mihai; Hedegaard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Mice deficient for the peripheral myelin binding protein zero (P0-/-) show a progressive dysmyelinating neuropathy phenotypically resembling severe forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Traditionally, the progression of the disease was attributed to axonal loss, but the effect of chronic...... dysmyelination remains poorly understood. In this study, in vivo electrophysiological recordings were used to assess the function of both central and axonal components of spinal lumbar motoneurones in adult P0-/- mice.Three month old P0-/- mice (n=7) and wild type (WT) littermate controls (n=5) were...... anaesthetized with Hypnorm (0.315 mg/mL fentanyl-citrate + 10 mg/mL fluanisone), Midazolam (5 mg/mL), and sterile water, mixed in the ratio 1:1:2 (induction: 0.15mL/25g, maintenance: 0.05 mL/20 minutes, S.C.). Anaesthesia during surgery was assessed by the lack of reflexes to a short noxious pinch on the hind...

  4. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV-Visible) and quantum chemical studies of molecular geometry, Frontier molecular orbital, NLO, NBO and thermodynamic properties of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S; Gunasekaran, S; Srinivasan, S

    2014-11-11

    The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid) have been recorded in the region 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm(-1) respectively. The optimized molecular geometry and fundamental vibrational frequencies are interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and normal coordinate force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) method and a comparative study between Hartree Fork (HF) method at 6-311++G(d,p) level basis set. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies are scaled and they are compared with experimentally obtained FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra of this compound has been made on the basis of the calculated potential energy distribution (PED). The time dependent DFT method is employed to predict its absorption energy and oscillator strength. The linear polarizability (α) and the first order hyper polarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule have been computed. The electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) are also performed. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interaction, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Data Sources for NetZero Ft Carson Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Table of values used to parameterize and evaluate the Ft Carson NetZero integrated Model with published reference sources for each value. This dataset is associated...

  6. Genótipos de feijoeiro comum sob deficiência hídrica Common bean genotypes under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber M. Guimarães

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a adaptação de genótipos de fejoeiro comum à deficiência hídrica. Avaliaram-se 49 genótipos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em experimentos com e sem deficiência hídrica, na Estação Experimental da SEAGRO, em Porangatu, GO, em 2006 e 2007. Aplicou-se a análise multivariada através do método de Ward e se classificaram os genótipos em quatro grupos, considerando-se os valores médios das produtividades observadas em cada ambiente hídrico, nos dois anos de condução dos experimentos. Verificou-se que as produtividades médias dos grupos diferiram significativamente entre si tanto no ambiente com como naquele sem deficiência hídrica. Os genótipos BRA 130583 CIAT G 6490 e FT 84 - 292 foram classificados como mais produtivos tanto na ausência como na presença de deficiência hídrica enquanto os genótipos BRA 283983 CIAT G 6492, BRA 129721 CIAT G 6896 e G 983 foram classificados como produtivos na ausência de deficiência hídrica porém foram mais sensíveis a esse estresse. Verificou-se, dentre os componentes primários da produção do feijoeiro comum, que o número de vagens por planta foi o componente agronômico mais sensível à deficiência hídrica.The objective of the work was to study the adaptation of common bean genotypes to water deficit. Forty-nine genotypes were evaluated in a randomized block design, with three replications, in experiments with and without water deficit, conducted at the Experimental Station of SEAGRO, in Porangatu-GO during 2006 and 2007. Multivariable analysis was applied using de Ward's method and the genotypes were divided in four groups based on the average grain yield of each water treatment, during the two years of the experimentation. The genotypes BRA 130583 CIAT G 6490 and FT 84 - 292 were classified as the most productive in the absence or under water deficit, while the genotypes BRA 283983 CIAT G 6492, BRA 129721

  7. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (Pdistribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermodynamics and cosmological reconstruction in f(T , B) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Zubair, M.; Abbas, G.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, it was formulated a teleparallel theory called f(T , B) gravity which connects both f(T) and f(R) under suitable limits. In this theory, the function in the action is assumed to depend on the torsion scalar T and also on a boundary term related with the divergence of torsion, B = 2∇μTμ. In this work, we study different features of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology in this theory. First, we show that the FLRW equations can be transformed to the form of Clausius relation TˆhSeff = - dE + WdV, where Tˆh is the horizon temperature and Seff is the entropy which contains contributions both from horizon entropy and an additional entropy term introduced due to the non-equilibrium. We also formulate the constraint for the validity of the generalised second law of thermodynamics (GSLT). Additionally, using a cosmological reconstruction technique, we show that both f(T , B) and - T + F(B) gravity can mimic power-law, de-Sitter and ΛCDM models. Finally, we formulate the perturbed evolution equations and analyse the stability of some important cosmological solutions.

  9. Autophagy deficiency in macrophages enhances NLRP3 inflammasome activity and chronic lung disease following silica exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, Forrest; Hamilton, Raymond F.; Rhoderick, Joseph F.; Shaw, Pamela K.; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is an important metabolic mechanism that can promote cellular survival following injury. The specific contribution of autophagy to silica-induced inflammation and disease is not known. The objective of these studies was to determine the effects of silica exposure on the autophagic pathway in macrophages, as well as the general contribution of autophagy in macrophages to inflammation and disease. Silica exposure enhanced autophagic activity in vitro in Bone Marrow derived Macrophages and in vivo in Alveolar Macrophages isolated from silica-exposed mice. Impairment of autophagy in myeloid cells in vivo using Atg5 fl/fl LysM-Cre + mice resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity and inflammation after silica exposure compared to littermate controls, including elevated IL-18 and the alarmin HMGB1 in the whole lavage fluid. Autophagy deficiency caused some spontaneous inflammation and disease. Greater silica-induced acute inflammation in Atg5 fl/fl LysM-Cre + mice correlated with increased fibrosis and chronic lung disease. These studies demonstrate a critical role for autophagy in suppressing silica-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation in disease development. Furthermore, this data highlights the importance of basal autophagy in macrophages and other myeloid cells in maintaining lung homeostasis. - Highlights: • Silica exposure increases autophagy in macrophages. • Autophagy deficient mice have enhanced inflammation and silicosis. • Autophagy deficiency in macrophages results in greater silica-induced cytotoxicity. • Autophagy deficiency in macrophages increases extracellular IL-18 and HMGB1.

  10. Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Rucaparib Camsylate in Treating Patients With Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer With Homologous Recombination DNA Repair Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-20

    ATM Gene Mutation; BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Castration Levels of Testosterone; Castration-Resistant Prostate Carcinoma; Homologous Recombination Deficiency; Prostate Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone; PSA Level Greater Than or Equal to Two; PSA Progression; Stage IV Prostate Adenocarcinoma AJCC v7

  11. In vitro and in vivo approaches to study osteocyte biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalajzic, Ivo; Matthews, Brya G; Torreggiani, Elena; Harris, Marie A; Divieti Pajevic, Paola; Harris, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    Osteocytes, the most abundant cell population of the bone lineage, have been a major focus in the bone research field in recent years. This population of cells that resides within mineralized matrix is now thought to be the mechanosensory cell in bone and plays major roles in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. Studies of osteocytes had been impaired by their location, resulting in numerous attempts to isolate primary osteocytes and to generate cell lines representative of the osteocytic phenotype. Progress has been achieved in recent years by utilizing in vivo genetic technology and generation of osteocyte directed transgenic and gene deficiency mouse models. We will provide an overview of the current in vitro and in vivo models utilized to study osteocyte biology. We discuss generation of osteocyte-like cell lines and isolation of primary osteocytes and summarize studies that have utilized these cellular models to understand the functional role of osteocytes. Approaches that attempt to selectively identify and isolate osteocytes using fluorescent protein reporters driven by regulatory elements of genes that are highly expressed in osteocytes will be discussed. In addition, recent in vivo studies utilizing overexpression or conditional deletion of various genes using dentin matrix protein (Dmp1) directed Cre recombinase are outlined. In conclusion, evaluation of the benefits and deficiencies of currently used cell lines/genetic models in understanding osteocyte biology underlines the current progress in this field. The future efforts will be directed towards developing novel in vitro and in vivo models that would additionally facilitate in understanding the multiple roles of osteocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Iron deficiency in chronic systolic heart failure(indic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic systolic heart failure (HF is characterized by the left ventricular dysfunction, exercise intolerance and is associated with neurohormonal activation that affects several organs such as kidney and skeletal muscle. Anemia is common in HF and may worsen symptoms. Iron deficiency (ID is also common in HF patients with or without anemia. Iron is the key cofactor in oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and the Krebs cycle. There is a paucity of data regarding iron metabolism in chronic systolic HF in India. Methods: IroN Deficiency In CHF study (INDIC is an observational study that investigated forty chronic heart failure patients for the presence of ID. Serum ferritin (micrograms per liter, serum iron (micrograms per liter, total iron binding capacity (micrograms per liter, transferring (milligrams per deciliter, and transferrin saturation were measured to assess iron status. Results: There were 67.5% (27/40 patients who had ID with a mean serum ferritin level of 76.4 μg/L. Of the 27 iron deficient patients, 22 (55% had an absolute ID, and 5 had a functional ID. Eight out of 27 of the iron deficient patients were anemic (20% of the total cohort, 30% of the iron deficient patients. Anemia was seen in 6 other patients, which was possibly anemia of chronic disease. There was a trend for more advanced New York Heart Association (NYHA class (NYHA III and NYHA IV patients with ID (37.4% vs. 30.77%, P = 0.697. Conclusion: In our study, ID was very common, affecting more than half of the patients with systolic HF. Absolute ID was the most common cause of ID and patients with ID had a tendency to have advanced NYHA class. Our study also demonstrated that ID can occur in the absence of anemia (iron depletion.

  13. Alterations of sirtuins in mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Björn Potthast

    Full Text Available Sirtuins are NAD+ dependent deacetylases, which regulate mitochondrial energy metabolism as well as cellular response to stress. The NAD/NADH-system plays a crucial role in oxidative phosphorylation linking sirtuins and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Furthermore, sirtuins are able to directly deacetylate and activate different complexes of the respiratory chain. This prompted us to analyse sirtuin levels in skin fibroblasts from patients with cytochrome c-oxidase (COX deficiency and to test the impact of different pharmaceutical activators of sirtuins (SRT1720, paeonol to modulate sirtuins and possibly respiratory chain enzymes in patient cells in vitro.We assayed intracellular levels of sirtuin 1 and the mitochondrial sirtuins SIRT3 and SIRT4 in human fibroblasts from patients with COX- deficiency. Furthermore, sirtuins were measured after inhibiting complex IV in healthy control fibroblasts by cyanide and after incubation with activators SRT1720 and paeonol. To determine the effect of sirtuin inhibition at the cellular level we measured total cellular acetylation (control and patient cells, with and without treatment by Western blot.We observed a significant decrease in cellular levels of all three sirtuins at the activity, protein and transcriptional level (by 15% to 50% in COX-deficient cells. Additionally, the intracellular concentration of NAD+ was reduced in patient cells. We mimicked the biochemical phenotype of COX- deficiency by incubating healthy fibroblasts with cyanide and observed reduced sirtuin levels. A pharmacological activation of sirtuins resulted in normalized sirtuin levels in patient cells. Hyper acetylation was also reversible after treatment with sirtuin activators. Pharmacological modulation of sirtuins resulted in altered respiratory chain complex activities.We found inhibition of situins 1, 3 and 4 at activity, protein and transcriptional levels in fibroblasts from patient with COX-deficiency. Pharmacological

  14. VEGF-A/Notch-Induced Podosomes Proteolyse Basement Membrane Collagen-IV during Retinal Sprouting Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Spuul

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During angiogenic sprouting, endothelial tip cells emerge from existing vessels in a process that requires vascular basement membrane degradation. Here, we show that F-actin/cortactin/P-Src-based matrix-degrading microdomains called podosomes contribute to this step. In vitro, VEGF-A/Notch signaling regulates the formation of functional podosomes in endothelial cells. Using a retinal neovascularization model, we demonstrate that tip cells assemble podosomes during physiological angiogenesis in vivo. In the retina, podosomes are also part of an interconnected network that surrounds large microvessels and impinges on the underlying basement membrane. Consistently, collagen-IV is scarce in podosome areas. Moreover, Notch inhibition exacerbates podosome formation and collagen-IV loss. We propose that the localized proteolytic action of podosomes on basement membrane collagen-IV facilitates endothelial cell sprouting and anastomosis within the developing vasculature. The identification of podosomes as key components of the sprouting machinery provides another opportunity to target angiogenesis therapeutically.

  15. Fundamental evaluation of in vivo labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m using stannous chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, T; Katayama, M; Ando, I; Ando, A [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Hisada, K

    1982-04-01

    Stannous chloride was evaluated as a stannous ion source for the in vivo labeling of red blood cells(RBC) with Tc-99m. In this study, the labeling of RBC with Tc-99m was performed by two successive intravenous administrations of stannous chloride and Tc-99m-pertechnetate, and the optimal dose of stannous chloride and the optimal time interval between the two injections were evaluated. The labeling efficiency for this procedure was also evaluated as a function of time after the pertechnetate injection. The results of our investigation revealed that the maximal in vivo RBC labeling (86%) can be obtained at 15 min after the pertechnetate injection with an i.v. dose of 12.7 ..mu..g/kg of stannous chloride followed 15 min later by an i.v. injection of Tc-99m-pertechnetate. In conclusion, stannous chloride was found to be an excellent stannous ion source for the in vivo labeling of RBC with Tc-99m.

  16. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  17. FTIR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR, UV-visible and quantum chemical investigations of 2-amino-4-methylbenzothiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Sakiladevi, S; Rani, T; Mythili, C V; Mohan, S

    2012-03-01

    The FT-IR (4000-400 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) spectral measurements and complete assignments of the observed spectra of 2-amino-4-methylbenzothiazole (2A4MBT) have been proposed. Ab initio and DFT calculations have been performed and the structural parameters of the compound were determined from the optimised geometry with 6-31G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets and giving energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, depolarisation ratios, IR intensities and Raman activities. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-visible spectrum of the compound was also recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO, LUMO and band gap energies were measured by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The geometric parameters, energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities, Raman activities chemical shifts and absorption wavelengths were compared with the available experimental data of the molecule. The influences of methyl and amino groups on the skeletal modes and on the proton chemical shifts have been investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. RNF4 is required for DNA double-strand break repair in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyas, R; Kumar, R; Clermont, F

    2013-01-01

    for both homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining repair. To establish a link between Rnf4 and the DNA damage response (DDR) in vivo, we generated an Rnf4 allelic series in mice. We show that Rnf4-deficiency causes persistent ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and signaling...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  20. Congenital bilateral neuroblastoma (stage IV-S): case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Lee, Sang Rak; Kim, Heung Sik

    2002-01-01

    Congenital neonatal neuroblastoma is not uncommon but bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma is rare, accounting for about ten percent of neuroblastomas in children. We report the US the MR findings of a stage IV-S congenital bilateral neuroblastoma occurring in a one-day-old neonate

  1. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E.; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora (‘VcFT-Aurora’), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in ‘VcFT-Aurora’. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all

  2. Experimental demyelination and axonal loss are reduced in MicroRNA-146a deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie A.; Molnar, Viktor; Szilagyi, Gabor T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The cuprizone (CPZ) model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was used to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) related to in vivo de- and remyelination. We further investigated the role of miR-146a in miR-146a-deficient (KO) mice: this miRNA is differentially expressed in MS lesions and promotes differ...

  3. Hydroponics on a chip: analysis of the Fe deficient Arabidopsis thylakoid membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Gómez, Stephen M; Whitelegge, Julian P; Nishio, John N

    2009-04-13

    The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was used to evaluate the thylakoid membrane proteome under Fe-deficient conditions. Plants were cultivated using a novel hydroponic system, called "hydroponics on a chip", which yields highly reproducible plant tissue samples for physiological analyses, and can be easily used for in vivo stable isotope labeling. The thylakoid membrane proteome, from intact chloroplasts isolated from Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient plants grown with hydroponics on a chip, was analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Intact masses of thylakoid membrane proteins were measured, many for the first time, and several proteins were identified with post-translational modifications that were altered by Fe deficiency; for example, the doubly phosphorylated form of the photosystem II oxygen evolving complex, PSBH, increased under Fe-deficiency. Increased levels of photosystem II protein subunit PSBS were detected in the Fe-deficient samples. Antioxidant enzymes, including ascorbate peroxidase and peroxiredoxin Q, were only detected in the Fe-deficient samples. We present the first biochemical evidence that the two major LHC IIb proteins (LHCB1 and LHCB2) may have significantly different functions in the thylakoid membrane. The study illustrates the utility of intact mass proteomics as an indispensable tool for functional genomics. "Hydroponics on a chip" provides the ability to grow A. thaliana under defined conditions that will be useful for systems biology.

  4. Sustained beta-cell dysfunction but normalized islet mass in aged thrombospondin-1 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Johan Drott

    Full Text Available Pancreatic islet endothelial cells have in recent years been shown to support beta-cell mass and function by paracrine interactions. Recently, we identified an islets endothelial-specific glycoprotein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1, that showed to be of importance for islet angiogenesis and beta-cell function in young mice. The present study aimed to investigate long-term consequences for islet morphology and beta-cell function of TSP-1 deficiency. Islet and beta-cell mass were observed increased at 10-12 weeks of age in TSP-1 deficient mice, but were normalized before 16 weeks of age when compared to wild-type controls. Islet vascularity was normal in 10-12 and 16-week-old TSP-1 deficient animals, whereas islets of one-year-old animals lacking TSP-1 were hypervascular. Beta-cell dysfunction in TSP-1 deficient animals was present at similar magnitudes between 10-12 and 52 weeks of age, as evaluated by glucose tolerance tests. The insulin secretion capacity in vivo of islets in one-year-old TSP-1 deficient animals was only ∼15% of that in wild-type animals. Using a transplantation model, we reconstituted TSP-1 in adult TSP-deficient islets. In contrast to neonatal TSP-1 deficient islets that we previously reported to regain function after TSP-1 reconstitution, adult islets failed to recover. We conclude that TSP-1 deficiency in islets causes changing vascular and endocrine morphological alterations postnatally, but is coupled to a chronic beta-cell dysfunction. The beta-cell dysfunction induced by TSP-1 deficiency is irreversible if not substituted early in life.

  5. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  6. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taru Sharma, G.; Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: ► Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. ► Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. ► Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it supported buffalo EBs formation, their subsequent differentiation could prove to

  7. Estudo de prevalência em recém-nascidos por deficiência de biotinidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Anna L. R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A deficiência de biotinidase é um erro inato do metabolismo caracterizado principalmente por ataxia, crise convulsiva retardo mental, dermatites, alopécia e susceptibilidade a infecções. É atribuída a esta deficiência enzimática a forma tardia de deficiência múltipla das carboxilases. Com o objetivo de verificar a prevalência da deficiência de biotinidase e validar o teste de triagem neonatal considerando a relação custo/benefício, elaborou-se estudo prospectivo na população de recém-nascidos no Estado do Paraná. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em um período de 8 meses foram triados 125.000 recém-nascidos. A amostra sangüínea foi a mesma obtida para os testes de triagem para fenilcetonúria e hipotireoidismo congênito, submetida ao teste semiquantitativo colorimétrico para atividade de biotinidase. As amostras consideradas suspeitas foram repetidas em duplicatas do mesmo cartão de papel de filtro, e as que permaneceram alteradas solicitou-se novo cartão. O teste quantitativo colorimétrico da doença foi realizado nos casos em que a segunda amostra testada em duplicata sugeriu deficiência de biotinidase. RESULTADOS: A taxa de repetição em duplicata variou de 0,9% a 0,5% do total de exames realizados por mês. A taxa de reconvocação do segundo cartão foi de 0,17%, sendo que destes 212 casos, 30% não retornaram o segundo cartão solicitado. Foram identificados 2 casos, um de deficiência total de biotinidase e outro de deficiência parcial. A prevalência da doença na população de estudo foi de 1:62.500 nascidos-vivos. A sensibilidade do teste semiquantativo colorimétrico foi calculada em 100% e a especificidade 99,88%. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência da doença no Estado do Paraná foi de 1:125.000 nascidos-vivos para deficiência total da enzima, levando-se em consideração que 30% de casos suspeitos que repetiram novo teste. O teste semiquantitativo colorimétrico foi considerado efetivo em identificar os

  8. Inflorescence Development and the Role of LsFT in Regulating Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Ding, Yunyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Yan, Shuangshuang; Luo, Chen; Jiang, Xiaotang; Ge, Danfeng; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2018-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important leafy vegetable that is consumed during its vegetative growth. The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is induced by high temperature, which has significant economic effect on lettuce production. However, the progression of floral transition and the molecular regulation of bolting are largely unknown. Here we morphologically characterized the inflorescence development and functionally analyzed the FLOWERING LOCUS T (LsFT) gene during bolting regulation in lettuce. We described the eight developmental stages during floral transition process. The expression of LsFT was negatively correlated with bolting in different lettuce varieties, and was promoted by heat treatment. Overexpression of LsFT could recover the late-flowering phenotype of ft-2 mutant. Knockdown of LsFT by RNA interference dramatically delayed bolting in lettuce, and failed to respond to high temperature. Therefore, this study dissects the process of inflorescence development and characterizes the role of LsFT in bolting regulation in lettuce. PMID:29403510

  9. Inflorescence Development and the Role of LsFT in Regulating Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Ding, Yunyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Yan, Shuangshuang; Luo, Chen; Jiang, Xiaotang; Ge, Danfeng; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important leafy vegetable that is consumed during its vegetative growth. The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is induced by high temperature, which has significant economic effect on lettuce production. However, the progression of floral transition and the molecular regulation of bolting are largely unknown. Here we morphologically characterized the inflorescence development and functionally analyzed the FLOWERING LOCUS T (LsFT) gene during bolting regulation in lettuce. We described the eight developmental stages during floral transition process. The expression of LsFT was negatively correlated with bolting in different lettuce varieties, and was promoted by heat treatment. Overexpression of LsFT could recover the late-flowering phenotype of ft-2 mutant. Knockdown of LsFT by RNA interference dramatically delayed bolting in lettuce, and failed to respond to high temperature. Therefore, this study dissects the process of inflorescence development and characterizes the role of LsFT in bolting regulation in lettuce.

  10. Developments in FT-ICR MS instrumentation, ionization techniques, and data interpretation methods for petroleomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunju; Ahmed, Arif; Islam, Annana; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Because of the increasing importance of heavy and unconventional crude oil as an energy source, there is a growing need for petroleomics: the pursuit of more complete and detailed knowledge of the chemical compositions of crude oil. Crude oil has an extremely complex nature; hence, techniques with ultra-high resolving capabilities, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), are necessary. FT-ICR MS has been successfully applied to the study of heavy and unconventional crude oils such as bitumen and shale oil. However, the analysis of crude oil with FT-ICR MS is not trivial, and it has pushed analysis to the limits of instrumental and methodological capabilities. For example, high-resolution mass spectra of crude oils may contain over 100,000 peaks that require interpretation. To visualize large data sets more effectively, data processing methods such as Kendrick mass defect analysis and statistical analyses have been developed. The successful application of FT-ICR MS to the study of crude oil has been critically dependent on key developments in FT-ICR MS instrumentation and data processing methods. This review offers an introduction to the basic principles, FT-ICR MS instrumentation development, ionization techniques, and data interpretation methods for petroleomics and is intended for readers having no prior experience in this field of study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mutations in COA3 cause isolated complex IV deficiency associated with neuropathy, exercise intolerance, obesity, and short stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Weraarpachai, Woranontee; Ravn, Kirstine Johanne Theresia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated a subject with an isolated cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency presenting with an unusual phenotype characterised by neuropathy, exercise intolerance, obesity, and short stature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis s...

  12. Spectroscopic investigation (FT-IR, FT-Raman), HOMO-LUMO, NBO, and molecular docking analysis of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a potential anticancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Islam, S. S.; Ahmad, Hilal; Prabaharan, A.

    2018-02-01

    Nitrosourea plays an important role in the treatment of cancer. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, also known as ENU, (chemical formula C3H7N3O2), is a highly potent mutagen. The chemical is an alkylating agent and acts by transferring the ethyl group of ENU to nucleobases (usually thymine) in nucleic acids. The molecular structure of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea has been elucidated using experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) and theoretical (DFT) techniques. APT charges, Mulliken atomic charges, Natural bond orbital, Electrostatic potential, HOMO-LUMO and AIM analysis were performed to identify the reactive sites and charge transfer interactions. Furthermore, to evaluate the anticancer activity of ENU molecular docking studies were carried out against 2JIU protein.

  13. FT-NIR: A Tool for Process Monitoring and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoccia, Domenico; Lutz, Holger; Cohen, Yvan; Jerphagnon, Thomas; Jenelten, Urban

    2018-03-30

    With ever-increasing pressure to optimize product quality, to reduce cost and to safely increase production output from existing assets, all combined with regular changes in terms of feedstock and operational targets, process monitoring with traditional instruments reaches its limits. One promising answer to these challenges is in-line, real time process analysis with spectroscopic instruments, and above all Fourier-Transform Near Infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR). Its potential to afford decreased batch cycle times, higher yields, reduced rework and minimized batch variance is presented and application examples in the field of fine chemicals are given. We demonstrate that FT-NIR can be an efficient tool for improved process monitoring and optimization, effective process design and advanced process control.

  14. Characterization of Momordica charantia Ussing FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Keseru

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, because earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout, the present investigation was carried to characterized a principal components of plant using FT-IR technique

  15. Protein Adsorption Patterns and Analysis on IV Nanoemulsions—The Key Factor Determining the Organ Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jansch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous nanoemulsions have been on the market for parenteral nutrition since the 1950s; meanwhile, they have also been used successfully for IV drug delivery. To be well tolerable, the emulsions should avoid uptake by the MPS cells of the body; for drug delivery, they should be target-specific. The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern, typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. The article reviews the 2-D PAGE method, the analytical problems to be faced and the knowledge available on how the composition of emulsions affects the protein adsorption patterns, e.g., the composition of the oil phase, stabilizer layer and drug incorporation into the interface or oil core. Data were re-evaluated and compared, and the implications for the in vivo distribution are discussed. Major results are that the interfacial composition of the stabilizer layer is the main determining factor and that this composition can be modulated by simple processes. Drug incorporation affects the pattern depending on the localization of the drug (oil core versus interface. The data situation regarding in vivo effects is very limited; mainly, it has to be referred to in the in vivo data of polymeric nanoparticles. As a conclusion, determination of the protein adsorption patterns can accelerate IV nanoemulsion formulation development regarding optimized organ distribution and related pharmacokinetics.

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  17. Monitoring wine aging with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basalekou Marianthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oak wood has commonly been used in wine aging but recently other wood types such as Acacia and Chestnut, have attracted the interest of the researchers due to their possible positive contribution to wine quality. However, only the use of oak and chestnut woods is approved by the International Enological Codex of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine. In this study Fourier Transform (FT-mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with Discriminant Analysis was used to differentiate wines aged in barrels made from French oak, American oak, Acacia and Chestnut and in tanks with oak chips, over a period of 12 months. Two red (Mandilaria, Kotsifali and two white (Vilana, Dafni native Greek grape varieties where used to produce four wines. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectra of the samples were recorded on a Zinc Selenide (ZnSe window after incubation at 40 °C for 30 min. A complete differentiation of the samples according to both the type of wood used and the contact time was achieved based on their FT-IR spectra.

  18. Some aspects of reconstruction using a scalar field in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Soumya [Indian Institute of Technology, Centre for Theoretical Studies, Kharagpur (India); Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida, MSD (Malta); Farrugia, Gabriel [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida, MSD (Malta)

    2017-12-15

    General relativity characterizes gravity as a geometric property exhibited on spacetime by massive objects, while teleparallel gravity achieves the same results at the level of equations, by taking a torsional perspective of gravity. Similar to the f(R) theory teleparallel gravity can also be generalized to f(T), with the resulting field equations being inherently distinct from f(R) gravity in that they are second order, while in the former case they turn out to be fourth order. In the present case, a minimally coupled scalar field is investigated in the f(T) gravity context for several forms of the scalar field potential. A number of new f(T) solutions are found for these potentials. Their respective state parameters are also being examined. (orig.)

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  20. Type IV collagen is a novel DEJ biomarker that is reduced by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, J D; Gorski, J P; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y; Walker, M P

    2014-10-01

    The dental basement membrane (BM) is composed of collagen types IV, VI, VII, and XVII, fibronectin, and laminin and plays an inductive role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth development. The BM is degraded and removed during later-stage tooth morphogenesis; however, its original position defines the location of the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) in mature teeth. We recently demonstrated that type VII collagen is a novel component of the inner enamel organic matrix layer contiguous with the DEJ. Since it is frequently co-expressed with and forms functional complexes with type VII collagen, we hypothesized that type IV collagen should also be localized to the DEJ in mature human teeth. To identify collagen IV, we first evaluated defect-free erupted teeth from various donors. To investigate a possible stabilizing role, we also evaluated extracted teeth exposed to high-dose radiotherapy--teeth that manifest post-radiotherapy DEJ instability. We now show that type IV collagen is a component within the morphological DEJ of posterior and anterior teeth from individuals aged 18 to 80 yr. Confocal microscopy revealed that immunostained type IV collagen was restricted to the 5- to 10-µm-wide optical DEJ, while collagenase treatment or previous in vivo tooth-level exposure to > 60 Gray irradiation severely reduced immunoreactivity. This assignment was confirmed by Western blotting with whole-tooth crown and enamel extracts. Without reduction, type IV collagen contained macromolecular α-chains of 225 and 250 kDa. Compositionally, our results identify type IV collagen as the first macromolecular biomarker of the morphological DEJ of mature teeth. Given its network structure and propensity to stabilize the dermal-epidermal junction, we propose that a collagen-IV-enriched DEJ may, in part, explain its well-known fracture toughness, crack propagation resistance, and stability. In contrast, loss of type IV collagen may represent a biochemical rationale for the DEJ

  1. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with protein S deficiency: Perioperative implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Balan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein S (PS along with activated protein C plays an important role in the down-regulation of in vivo thrombin generation. Its deficiency can cause abnormal and inappropriate clot formation within the circulation necessitating chronic anticoagulation therapy. The risk of developing thrombotic complications is heightened in the perioperative period in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Heparin resistance is very rare in these patients, especially when antithrombin levels are near normal. Management of CPB in this scenario is quite challenging. We report the perioperative management, particularly the CPB management, of a patient with type I PS deficiency and incidentally detected heparin resistance, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB.

  2. Characterization of additives typically employed in EPDM formulations by using FT-IR of gaseous pyrolyzates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Beck Sanches

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was employed to investigate the gaseous pyrolysis products of ethylene - propylene - diene rubber (EPDM. The objective was to evaluate the potential of FT-IR analysis of gaseous pyrolyzates (PY-G/FT-IR for characterization of EPDM additives. Two EPDM formulations, containing additives typically employed in EPDM rubbers, were analyzed. Initially, gaseous pyrolysis products from paraffin oil, stearic acid, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline, tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (TMTM, tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT were characterized separately, and their main absorptions were identified. Subsequently, the gaseous pyrolysis products of raw, unvulcanized, and vulcanized EPDM formulations were analyzed. The similarities observed in the FT-IR spectra of unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM show that the vulcanization process does not interfere with the pyrolysis products. The identification of the functional groups of the studied additives was possible in both unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM samples, without solvent extraction. Results also demonstrate that the PY-G/FT-IR technique can identify additives containing sulfur in concentrations as low as 1.4 phr (1.26% in both unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM. However, the method showed some limitation due to overlapping and to similarities of TMTM and TMTD PY-G/FT-IR spectra, which could not be distinguished from each other. The PY-G/FT-IR technique is a faster and cheaper alternative to the sophisticated techniques usually applied to detection of additives in rubbers.

  3. FT4 Data Analysis Summary (SSI-ARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Douglas R.; Gong, Chester; Reardon, Scott Edward; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    Standards for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) systems are currently being developed under the auspices of the RTCA Special Committee 228 (SC-228). To support the development of these standards, a series of flight tests has been conducted at NASAs Armstrong Flight Research Center (NASA-AFRC). The fourth in this series of flight test activities (Flight Test 4, or simply FT4) was conducted during the Spring and Summer of 2016. FT4 supported the objectives of numerous organizations working toward UAS DAA Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) and UAS DAA Radar MOPS. The summary provided herein is limited to the objectives, analysis and conclusions of the NASA Ames Research Center (NASA-ARC) SSI team toward the refinement of UAS DAA MOPS. This document provides a high-level overview of FT4 and the SSI-ARC objectives, a summary of the data analysis methodology and recommendations for UAS DAA MOPS refinements based on the data analysis results. A total of 72 encounters were flown to support SSI-ARC objectives. Test results were generally consistent with acceptable UAS DAA system performance and will be considered in broader SC-228 requirements validation efforts. Observed alert lead times indicated acceptable UAS DAA alerting performance. Effective interoperability between the UAS DAA system and the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) was observed with one notable exception: TCAS Resolutions Advisories (RA) were observed in the absence of any DAA alert on two occasions, indicating the need for alert parameter refinement. Findings further indicated the need for continued work in the areas of DAA Well Clear Recovery logic and alert stability for Mode-C-only intruders. Finally, results demonstrated a high level of compliance with a set of evaluation criteria designed to provide anecdotal evidence of acceptable UAS DAA system performance.

  4. Ionizing radiation modulates the exposure of the HUIV26 cryptic epitope within collagen type IV during angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Peter C.; Roth, Jennifer M.; Lymberis, Stella C.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Broek, Daniel; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The majority of the research on the biologic effects of ionizing radiation has focused on the impact of radiation on cells in terms of gene expression, DNA damage, and cytotoxicity. In comparison, little information is available concerning the direct effects of radiation on the extracellular microenvironment, specifically the extracellular matrix and its main component, collagen. We have developed a series of monoclonal antibodies that bind to cryptic epitopes of collagen Type IV that are differentially exposed during matrix remodeling and are key mediators of angiogenesis. We have hypothesized that ionizing radiation might affect the process of angiogenesis through a direct effect on the extracellular matrix and specifically on collagen Type IV. Methods and Materials: Angiogenesis was induced in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model; 24 h later, a single-dose treatment with ionizing radiation (0.5, 5, and 20 cGy) was administered. Angiogenesis was assessed, and the exposure of two cryptic regulatory epitopes within collagen Type IV (HUI77 and HUIV26) was studied in vitro by solid-phase ELISA and in vivo by immunofluorescence staining. Results: A dose-dependent reduction of angiogenesis with maximum inhibition (85%-90%) occurring at 20 cGy was demonstrated in the CAM model. Exposure of the cryptic HUIV26 site, an angiogenesis control element, was inhibited both in vitro and in vivo by the same radiation dose, whereas little if any change was observed for the HUI77 cryptic epitope. Conclusions: A dose-dependent alteration of the functional exposure of the HUIV26 cryptic epitope is induced by radiation in vitro and in the CAM model in vivo. This radiation-induced change in protein structure and function may contribute to the inhibitory effects of ionizing radiation on new blood vessel growth and warrants further studies in other models

  5. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed interesterification for bulky fats modification with FT-IR/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Lai, Xuxin; Zhang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for bulky fat modification. The reaction was conducted between palm stearin and coconut oil (70/30, w/w) with the catalysis of Lipozyme TL IM at 70°C in a batch reactor...

  6. Concomitants of alcoholism: differential effects of thiamine deficiency, liver damage, and food deprivation on the rat brain in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Natalie M; Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Mayer, Dirk; Collins, Amy M; Luong, Richard; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2016-07-01

    Serious neurological concomitants of alcoholism include Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This study was conducted in animal models to determine neuroradiological signatures associated with liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thiamine deficiency caused by pyrithiamine treatment, and nonspecific nutritional deficiency caused by food deprivation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were used to evaluate brains of wild-type Wistar rats at baseline and following treatment. Similar to observations in ethanol (EtOH) exposure models, thiamine deficiency caused enlargement of the lateral ventricles. Liver damage was not associated with effects on cerebrospinal fluid volumes, whereas food deprivation caused modest enlargement of the cisterns. In contrast to what has repeatedly been shown in EtOH exposure models, in which levels of choline-containing compounds (Cho) measured by MRS are elevated, Cho levels in treated animals in all three experiments (i.e., liver damage, thiamine deficiency, and food deprivation) were lower than those in baseline or controls. These results add to the growing body of literature suggesting that MRS-detectable Cho is labile and can depend on a number of variables that are not often considered in human experiments. These results also suggest that reductions in Cho observed in humans with alcohol use disorder (AUD) may well be due to mild manifestations of concomitants of AUD such as liver damage or nutritional deficiencies and not necessarily to alcohol consumption per se.

  7. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavya Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD, yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD.

  8. Analysis of organophosphorus pesticides using FT-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Ando, Hiroaki

    1988-01-01

    A rapid and highly selective method of the identification of 23 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides was develop by using 31 P FT-NMR with 1 H complete decoupling method. Chemical shifts referenced by 85 % H 3 PO 4 were within -4 to 100 ppm, and there was no overlapping among the organophosphorus pesticides used in this experiment. (author)

  9. Analytic rotating black-hole solutions in N-dimensional f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashed, G.G.L. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, Cairo (Egypt); Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Mathematics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group (ERG), Cairo (Egypt); El Hanafy, W. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, Cairo (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group (ERG), Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    A non-diagonal vielbein ansatz is applied to the N-dimension field equations of f(T) gravity. An analytical vacuum solution is derived for the quadratic polynomial f(T)=T+εT{sup 2} and an inverse relation between the coupling constant ε and the cosmological constant Λ. Since the induced metric has off-diagonal components, it cannot be removed by a mere coordinate transformation, the solution has a rotating parameter. The curvature and torsion scalars invariants are calculated to study the singularities and horizons of the solution. In contrast to general relativity, the Cauchy horizon differs from the horizon which shows the effect of the higher order torsion. The general expression of the energy-momentum vector of f(T) gravity is used to calculate the energy of the system. Finally, we have shown that this kind of solution satisfies the first law of thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) gravitational theories. (orig.)

  10. FT-IR spectroscopy of lipoproteins—A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Balarin, Maja; Kosović, Marin; Gamulin, Ozren; Brnjas-Kraljević, Jasminka

    2009-08-01

    FT-IR spectra, in the frequency region 4000-600 cm -1, of four major lipoprotein classes: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and two subclasses of high density lipoproteins (HDL 2 and HDL 3) were analyzed to obtain their detailed spectral characterization. Information about the protein domain of particle was obtained from the analysis of amide I band. The procedure of decomposition and curve fitting of this band confirms the data already known about the secondary structure of two different apolipoproteins: apo A-I in HDL 2 and HDL 3 and apo B-100 in LDL and VLDL. For information about the lipid composition and packing of the particular lipoprotein the well expressed lipid bands in the spectra were analyzed. Characterization of spectral details in the FT-IR spectrum of natural lipoprotein is necessary to study the influence of external compounds on its structure.

  11. FT-Raman, FT-IR spectra and total energy distribution of 3-pentyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one: DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, S; Saleem, H; Erdogdu, Y; Rajarajan, G; Thanikachalam, V

    2011-11-01

    FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were recorded for 3-pentyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one (PDPO) sample in solid state. The equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared and the Raman scattering intensities were computed using DFT/6-31G(d,p) level. Results obtained at this level of theory were used for a detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra, based on the total energy distribution (TED) of the normal modes. Molecular parameters such as bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles were calculated and compared with X-ray diffraction data. This comparison was good agreement. The intra-molecular charge transfer was calculated by means of natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). Hyperconjugative interaction energy was more during the π-π* transition. Energy gap of the molecule was found using HOMO and LUMO calculation, hence the less band gap, which seems to be more stable. Atomic charges of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen were calculated using same level of calculation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. GHSR deficiency suppresses neointimal formation in injured mouse arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Man; Wang, Mo; Wang, Zhipeng; Liu, Yahan; Zhang, Weizhen; Wang, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the role of GHSR in neointimal formation following vascular injury. In the mouse model of femoral artery wire injury, we found that vessel intima-to-media ratio was significantly reduced in GHSR deficiency (GHSR −/− ) mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the smooth muscle cell (SMCs) in the neointima were significantly decreased in the injured arteries of GHSR −/− mice which was associated with decreased SMC proliferation and migration. Furthermore, immunoblotting demonstrated that, in cultured rat aortic SMCs, small interfering RNA-mediated GHSR knockdown suppressed the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings suggested a novel role of GHSR in neointimal formation likely via promoting the proliferation and migration of SMCs involving Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, GHSR may be a potential therapeutic target in restenosis and vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • GHSR deficiency inhibits neointimal formation after vascular injury. • GHSR deficiency suppresses SMCs numbers in vivo. • Knockdown GHSR represses SMCs proliferation and migration in vitro. • Knockdown GHSR inhibited Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in SMCs.

  13. Efficacy of in vitro sensitized cells generated by in vivo priming with OK-432 for adoptive immunotherapy of the poorly immunogenic B16-Bl6 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, S; Kato, H; Kimura, S; Asai, K; Kawahito, Y; Inoue, M; Yamamura, Y; Sano, H; Sugino, S; Shu, S; Kondo, M

    1996-02-01

    We investigated the efficacy of the streptococcal preparation OK-432 as an adjuvant for in vivo priming in induction of sensitized cells for adoptive immunotherapy of the poorly immunogenic B16-BL6 (BL6) melanoma. C57BL/6 (B6) mice were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) with 3 x 10(6) viable BL6 tumor cells admixed with various doses of OK-432 ranging from 1 to 100 micrograms in the foot-pad. Draining popliteal lymph nodes (LNs) were harvested 7 days after immunization and LN cells were further sensitized with irradiated tumor cells in the presence of 60-300 IU/ml of IL-2 for 11 days. These in vitro sensitized (IVS) cells (2 x 10(6)) were transferred intravenously (i.v.) to B6 mice bearing 4-day pulmonary metastases established by i.v. injection of 2-4 x 10(5) viable BL6 cells. The mice were also received intraperitoneally (i.p.) 4 x 10(4) IU/day of IL-2 for 4 days after adoptive transfer. Transfer of IVS cells from mice immunized by s.c. injection of tumor cells admixed with 10 micrograms of OK-432 significantly reduced the numbers of BL6 pulmonary metastases compared with that of control IVS' cells without the administration of OK-432 (P = 0.003). These effective IVS cells also significantly prolonged the survival of treated animals (P = 0.003). Functional IVS cells required in vitro stimulation with tumor cells. However, addition of OK-432 in the vaccine resulted in no enhancement of in vitro cytotoxicity and no characteristic change of phenotype of IVS cells. These results suggest that in vivo priming of OK-432 facilitates the sensitization of tumor-reactive T-cells. The procedure of in vivo priming with OK-432 may be beneficial in the adoptive immunotherapy of melanoma.

  14. OSCAR is a collagen receptor that costimulates osteoclastogenesis in DAP12-deficient humans and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrow, Alexander David; Raynal, Nicolas; Levin Andersen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    by preosteoclasts in vitro, but OSCAR lacks a cognate ligand and its role in vivo has been unclear. Using samples from mice and patients deficient in various ITAM signaling pathways, we show here that OSCAR costimulates one of the major FcRγ-associated pathways required for osteoclastogenesis in vivo. Furthermore...... to signaling that increased numbers of osteoclasts in culture. Thus, our results suggest that ITAM-containing receptors can respond to exposed ligands in collagen, leading to the functional differentiation of leukocytes, which provides what we believe to be a new concept for ITAM regulation of cytokine...

  15. Oxochloroalkoxide of the Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV as oxides precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Luiz Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV oxides mixture (CeO2-3TiO2 was prepared by thermal treatment of the oxochloroisopropoxide of Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV. The chemical route utilizing the Cerium (III chloride alcoholic complex and Titanium (IV isopropoxide is presented. The compound Ce5Ti15Cl16O30 (iOPr4(OH-Et15 was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and TG/DTG. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the oxides resulting from the thermal decomposition of the precursor at 1000 degreesC for 36 h indicated the formation of cubic cerianite (a = 5.417Å and tetragonal rutile (a = 4.592Å and (c = 2.962 Å, with apparent crystallite sizes around 38 and 55nm, respectively.

  16. High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging of Human Tissue Sections towards Improving Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter L.; Davidson, Bennett; Akkina, Sanjeev; Guzman, Grace; Setty, Suman; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Walsh, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging approach to obtain detailed images that have associated biochemical information. FT-IR imaging of tissue is based on the principle that different regions of the mid-infrared are absorbed by different chemical bonds (e.g., C=O, C-H, N-H) within cells or tissue that can then be related to the presence and composition of biomolecules (e.g., lipids, DNA, glycogen, protein, collagen). In an FT-IR image, every pixel within the image comprises an entire Infrared (IR) spectrum that can give information on the biochemical status of the cells that can then be exploited for cell-type or disease-type classification. In this paper, we show: how to obtain IR images from human tissues using an FT-IR system, how to modify existing instrumentation to allow for high-definition imaging capabilities, and how to visualize FT-IR images. We then present some applications of FT-IR for pathology using the liver and kidney as examples. FT-IR imaging holds exciting applications in providing a novel route to obtain biochemical information from cells and tissue in an entirely label-free non-perturbing route towards giving new insight into biomolecular changes as part of disease processes. Additionally, this biochemical information can potentially allow for objective and automated analysis of certain aspects of disease diagnosis. PMID:25650759

  17. The Cloning and Functional Characterization of Peach CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologous Genes PpCO and PpFT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Flowering is an essential stage of plant growth and development. The successful transition to flowering not only ensures the completion of plant life cycles, it also serves as the basis for the production of economically important seeds and fruits. CONSTANS (CO and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT are two genes playing critical roles in flowering time control in Arabidopsis. Through homology-based cloning and rapid-amplifications of cDNA ends (RACE, we obtained full-lengths cDNA sequences of Prunus persica CO (PpCO and Prunus persica FT (PpFT from peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and investigated their functions in flowering time regulation. PpCO and PpFT showed high homologies to Arabidopsis CO and FT at DNA, mRNA and protein levels. We showed that PpCO and PpFT were nucleus-localized and both showed transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells, consistent with their potential roles as transcription activators. Moreover, we established that the over-expression of PpCO could restore the late flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant, and the late flowering defect of the Arabidopsis ft-1 mutant can be rescued by the over-expression of PpFT, suggesting functional conservations of CO and FT genes in peach and Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that PpCO and PpFT are homologous genes of CO and FT in peach and they may function in regulating plant flowering time.

  18. Vibrational microspectroscopy of food. Raman vs. FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Løkke, Mette Marie; Micklander, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    . The high spatial resolution makes it possible to study areas down to approximately 10x10 mum with FT-IR microspectroscopy and approximately 1 x 1 mum with Raman microspectroscopy. This presentation highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the two microspectroscopic techniques when applied...

  19. The hidden flat like universe. Starobinsky-like inflation induced by f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hanafy, W. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, El Sherouk (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group, Giza (Egypt); Nashed, G.G.L. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, El Sherouk (Egypt); Ain Shams University, Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-06-15

    We study a single-fluid component in a flat like universe (FLU) governed by f(T) gravity theories, where T is the teleparallel torsion scalar. The FLU model, regardless of the value of the spatial curvature k, identifies a special class of f(T) gravity theories. Remarkably, FLU f(T) gravity does not reduce to teleparallel gravity theory. In large Hubble spacetime the theory is consistent with the inflationary universe scenario and respects the conservation principle. The equation of state evolves similarly in all models k = 0,±1. We study the case when the torsion tensor consists of a scalar field, which enables to derive a quintessence potential from the obtained f(T) gravity theory. The potential produces Starobinsky-like model naturally without using a conformal transformation, with higher orders continuously interpolate between Starobinsky and quadratic inflation models. The slow-roll analysis shows double solutions, so that for a single value of the scalar tilt (spectral index) n{sub s} the theory can predict double tensor-to-scalar ratios r of E-mode and B-mode polarizations. (orig.)

  20. The hidden flat like universe. Starobinsky-like inflation induced by f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hanafy, W.; Nashed, G.G.L.

    2015-01-01

    We study a single-fluid component in a flat like universe (FLU) governed by f(T) gravity theories, where T is the teleparallel torsion scalar. The FLU model, regardless of the value of the spatial curvature k, identifies a special class of f(T) gravity theories. Remarkably, FLU f(T) gravity does not reduce to teleparallel gravity theory. In large Hubble spacetime the theory is consistent with the inflationary universe scenario and respects the conservation principle. The equation of state evolves similarly in all models k = 0,±1. We study the case when the torsion tensor consists of a scalar field, which enables to derive a quintessence potential from the obtained f(T) gravity theory. The potential produces Starobinsky-like model naturally without using a conformal transformation, with higher orders continuously interpolate between Starobinsky and quadratic inflation models. The slow-roll analysis shows double solutions, so that for a single value of the scalar tilt (spectral index) n s the theory can predict double tensor-to-scalar ratios r of E-mode and B-mode polarizations. (orig.)

  1. CD36 deficiency leads to choroidal involution via COX2 down-regulation in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Houssier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Western world, a major cause of blindness is age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Recent research in angiogenesis has furthered the understanding of choroidal neovascularization, which occurs in the "wet" form of AMD. In contrast, very little is known about the mechanisms of the predominant, "dry" form of AMD, which is characterized by retinal atrophy and choroidal involution. The aim of this study is to elucidate the possible implication of the scavenger receptor CD36 in retinal degeneration and choroidal involution, the cardinal features of the dry form of AMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We here show that deficiency of CD36, which participates in outer segment (OS phagocytosis by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE in vitro, leads to significant progressive age-related photoreceptor degeneration evaluated histologically at different ages in two rodent models of CD36 invalidation in vivo (Spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR and CD36-/- mice. Furthermore, these animals developed significant age related choroidal involution reflected in a 100%-300% increase in the avascular area of the choriocapillaries measured on vascular corrosion casts of aged animals. We also show that proangiogenic COX2 expression in RPE is stimulated by CD36 activating antibody and that CD36-deficient RPE cells from SHR rats fail to induce COX2 and subsequent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression upon OS or antibody stimulation in vitro. CD36-/- mice express reduced levels of COX2 and VEGF in vivo, and COX2-/- mice develop progressive choroidal degeneration similar to what is seen in CD36 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: CD36 deficiency leads to choroidal involution via COX2 down-regulation in the RPE. These results show a novel molecular mechanism of choroidal degeneration, a key feature of dry AMD. These findings unveil a pathogenic process, to our knowledge previously undescribed, with important implications for the development of new therapies.

  2. Response to parenteral iron therapy distinguish unexplained refractory iron deficiency anemia from iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, M; Sarbay, H; Guler, S; Balci, Y I; Polat, A

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated that response to parenteral iron therapy could be helpful in distinguishing the types of iron deficiency anemia. This study analyzed responses to IV iron sucrose therapy of 15 children with unexplained refractory iron deficiency anemia (URIDA). We compared the results at diagnosis, 6 weeks and 6 months after the therapy. Results were compared with responses of 11 patients' results with iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) from our previous study. Six weeks after the start of treatment, ferritin, MCV, MCH and Hb values were in normal range in 10 patients. The increase in Hb, MCH, MCV, and ferritin values ranged 2.6-3.5 g/dL, 1.7-4.2 pg, 2-9 fL, and 13-25 ng/mL, respectively. In five patients, Hb, MCH, and MCV mean (range) values [11.2 g/dL (11-12.2), 24.5 pg (24-25.6), and 67 fL (65-70)] were nearly normal but ferritin mean (range) values [9.8 ng/mL (8-11)] were below normal. Six weeks after the start of treatment, Hb, MCH, MCV and ferritin values of patients with IRIDA were increased. The increase in Hb, MCH, MCV, and ferritin values ranged 0.8-2.7 g/dL, 1.7-4.2 pg, 2-9 fL, and 13-25 ng/mL, respectively. IRIDA is only partially responsive to parenteral iron supplementation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the response to intravenous iron therapy for the URIDA cases improved blood parameters more effectively than hereditary IRIDA. Response to parenteral iron therapy would be helpful to distinguish unexplained refractory IDA from hereditary IRIDA for clinicians who do not have access to hepcidin or TMPRS6 mutation analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein localized to the nucleus restores HBx-deficient virus replication in HepG2 cells and in vivo in hydrodynamically-injected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keasler, Victor V.; Hodgson, Amanda J.; Madden, Charles R.; Slagle, Betty L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the requirements for the regulatory HBx protein in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is an important goal. A plasmid-based HBV replication assay was used to evaluate whether HBx subcellular localization influences its ability to promote virus replication, as measured by real time PCR quantitation of viral capsid-associated DNA. HBx targeted to the nucleus by a nuclear localization signal (NLS-HBx) was able to restore HBx-deficient HBV replication, while HBx containing a nuclear export signal (NES-HBx) was not. Both NLS-HBx and NES-HBx were expressed at similar levels (by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting), and proper localization of the signal sequence-tagged proteins was confirmed by deconvolution microscopy using HBx, NLS-HBx, and NES-HBx proteins fused to GFP. Importantly, these findings were confirmed in vivo by hydrodynamic injection into mice. Our results demonstrate that in these HBV replication assays, at least one function of HBx requires its localization to the nucleus.

  4. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County 5ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — 5ft cartographic contour file for Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It includes indexes for 10, 25,...

  6. [Study of alkaline lignin from Arundo donax linn based on FT Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ting-ting; Ma, Jian-feng; Guo, Si-qin; Xu, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Arundo donax linn, as a perennial energy crop, has promising application prospect. In the present study, Fourier transform Raman (FT Raman) spectroscopy was applied to determine the structural information of materials, milled wood lignin (MWL), and alkaline lignins (AL, under different treated time) from A. donax stem nondestructively. The results indicated that, extractable compounds in A. donax had negative contribution to the Raman spectra without rising new Raman peaks. FT Raman spectrum of MWL indicated that MWL from A. donax was HGS type lignins. Compared with the spectra of MWL from wood materials, the peak at 1173 cm(-1) was much higher in intensity for the MWL from A. donax stem, which may be assigned to hydroxycinnamic acid by analyzing the standard. With respect to FT Raman spectra of ALs, the relatively highest intensity of 1173 cm(-1) was found in alkaline lignin (AL2), which was treated for 40 min by alkaline. Moreover, the peak of coniferaldehyde/sinapaldehyde (1630 cm(-1)) was lowest in intensity while the band attributed to coniferyl alcohol/sinapyl alcohol (1660 cm(-1)) was almost disappeared in AL2. It could be inferred that AL2 demonstrated a highest content of phenolic acid, which may improve its potential application, such as for antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the results obtained by FT Raman spectra were verified by two dimensional heteronuclear singlequantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Above all, FT Raman spectroscopy provided alternative safe, rapid, accurate, and nondestructive technology for lignin structure determination.

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  8. Relationship Between Gonadal Function and Cardiometabolic Risk in Young Men With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Nash, Mark S; Tefara, Eshetu; Tinsley, Emily; Groah, Suzanne

    2018-04-01

    We reported previously that young men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have a greater prevalence of testosterone deficiency compared with an age-matched, healthy control population. Young men with SCI also are at increased risk for developing cardiometabolic dysfunction after injury. It is unclear whether testosterone deficiency is associated with heightened cardiometabolic risk in men with SCI. To investigate associations among levels of testosterone in young men with chronic SCI and surrogate markers of cardiometabolic risk. Secondary cross-sectional analysis. Rehabilitation research centers in Washington, DC, and Miami, Florida. Men (n = 58) aged 18-45 years with chronic (≥1 year), motor complete SCI without comorbidities or use of testosterone therapy. Plasma concentrations of testosterone, lipids, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), percent hemoglobin A1c, glucose, and insulin were measured in a fasting state using standard assays. A 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test and Framingham Risk Score were assessed for each subject. Body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry scan. Surrogate markers of cardiometabolic risk among men based on the level of total testosterone (TT; ≤300, 301-500, or >500 ng/dL) and free testosterone (fT; ≤9 or >9 ng/dL). Comparisons were made between men with normal and low TT or fT. Framingham Risk Score was significantly greater in men with low fT (P .08), were greater in men with low TT or low fT. Men with low TT or low fT had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P .1) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P > .07). Men with low TT had greater levels of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (P .8). In young men with chronic SCI who undergo an accelerated aging process postinjury, hypogonadism is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile. Further research is needed to determine whether a causal relationship exists between hypogonadism and heightened

  9. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Andrew G; Mah, Richard; Keddie, Danae; Noble, Ronan M N; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Lemieux, Hélène; Bourque, Stephane L

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal iron deficiency alters fetal developmental trajectories, which results in persistent changes in organ function. Here, we studied the effects of prenatal iron deficiency on fetal kidney and liver mitochondrial function. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed partially or fully iron-restricted diets to induce a state of moderate or severe iron deficiency alongside iron-replete control rats. We assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirometry and reactive oxygen species generation via fluorescence microscopy on gestational d 21. Hemoglobin levels were reduced in dams in the moderate (-31%) and severe groups (-54%) compared with controls, which was accompanied by 55% reductions in fetal hemoglobin levels in both moderate and severe groups versus controls. Male iron-deficient kidneys exhibited globally reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, as well as increased cytosolic superoxide and decreased NO. Female iron-deficient kidneys exhibited complex II down-regulation and increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. Male iron-deficient livers exhibited reduced complex IV respiration and increased cytosolic superoxide, whereas female liver tissues exhibited no alteration in oxidant levels or mitochondrial function. These findings indicate that prenatal iron deficiency causes changes in mitochondrial content and function as well as oxidant status in a sex- and organ-dependent manner, which may be an important mechanism that underlies the programming of cardiovascular disease.-Woodman, A. G., Mah, R., Keddie, D., Noble, R. M. N., Panahi, S., Gragasin, F. S., Lemieux, H., Bourque, S. L. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

  10. 2D FT-ICR MS of Calmodulin: A Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Federico; van Agthoven, Maria; Chiron, Lionel; Soulby, Andrew J; Wootton, Christopher A; Lam, Yuko P Y; Barrow, Mark P; Delsuc, Marc-André; O'Connor, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (2D FT-ICR MS) allows data-independent fragmentation of all ions in a sample and correlation of fragment ions to their precursors through the modulation of precursor ion cyclotron radii prior to fragmentation. Previous results show that implementation of 2D FT-ICR MS with infrared multi-photon dissociation (IRMPD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) has turned this method into a useful analytical tool. In this work, IRMPD tandem mass spectrometry of calmodulin (CaM) has been performed both in one-dimensional and two-dimensional FT-ICR MS using a top-down and bottom-up approach. 2D IRMPD FT-ICR MS is used to achieve extensive inter-residue bond cleavage and assignment for CaM, using its unique features for fragment identification in a less time- and sample-consuming experiment than doing the same thing using sequential MS/MS experiments. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. A Caenorhabditis elegans RNA polymerase II gene, ama-1 IV, and nearby essential genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, T M; Riddle, D L

    1988-01-01

    The amanitin-binding subunit of RNA polymerase II in Caenorhabditis elegans is encoded by the ama-1 gene, located approximately 0.05 map unit to the right of dpy-13 IV. Using the amanitin-resistant ama-1(m118) strain as a parent, we have isolated amanitin-sensitive mutants that carry recessive-lethal ama-1 alleles. Of the six ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants examined, two are arrested late in embryogenesis. One of these is a large deficiency, mDf9, but the second may be a novel point mutation. The four other mutants are hypomorphs, and presumably produce altered RNA polymerase II enzymes with some residual function. Two of these mutants develop into sterile adults at 20 degrees but are arrested as larvae at 25 degrees, and two others are fertile at 20 degrees and sterile at 25 degrees. Temperature-shift experiments performed with the adult sterile mutant, ama-1(m118m238ts), have revealed a temperature-sensitive period that begins late in gonadogenesis and is centered around the initiation of egg-laying. Postembryonic development at 25 degrees is slowed by 30%. By contrast, the amanitin-resistant allele of ama-1 has very little effect on developmental rate or fertility. We have identified 15 essential genes in an interval of 4.5 map units surrounding ama-1, as well as four gamma-ray-induced deficiencies and two duplications that include the ama-1 gene. The larger duplication, mDp1, may include the entire left arm of chromosome IV, and it recombines with the normal homologue at a low frequency. The smallest deficiency, mDf10, complements all but three identified genes: let-278, dpy-13 and ama-1, which define an interval of only 0.1 map unit. The terminal phenotype of mDf10 homozygotes is developmental arrest during the first larval stage, suggesting that there is sufficient maternal RNA polymerase II to complete embryonic development.

  12. Improving Effect Of Vitamin E Supplementation In Rats Suffering From Zinc Deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E is a membrane-bound soluble lipid and naturally occurring antioxidant which protects animal tissues against oxidative damage. Several studies have suggested a possible interaction between zinc status and vitamin E in animals. The current investigation was conduced to elucidate the improving effect of vitamin E supplementation on some selected biochemical variables in the blood and tissues of albino rats suffering from zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency was induced in rats by feeding male rats a low zinc diet for 6 weeks. Dietary vitamin E and zinc, separated or combined, were used to ameliorate the impacts of zinc deficiency in the last two weeks of the experiment. Fifty male albino rats weighing 70-80g in 5 equal groups were given for 6 weeks five semi purified diets different in their contents of vitamin E and zinc / kg diet as follows: Zn adequate diet (Zn =35 ppm) for group (I) served as control, Zn deficient diet (Zn = 3 ppm) for group (II), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc (Zn = 84 ppm) for group (III), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental vitamin E (50 IU) for group (IV) and Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc and vitamin E (Zn = 84 ppm + i.p. 50 IU vitamin E) for group (V). Supplemental zinc and vitamin E were only given on the last two weeks of the experiment.The obtained results revealed that Zn deficiency led to a significant (P 4 , T 3 and testosterone levels were declined significantly in Zn deficient rats as well as a significant (P < 0.05) rise in TSH level as compared with their levels in the Zn deficient rats supplemented with Zn and vitamin E.In contrast, the concentration of serum total cholesterol (T.Chol) and triglycerides (TG) in Zn deficient rats were significantly increased than those recorded in control group. On the other hand, the activities of cytochrome P450 reductase and microsomal NADPH reductase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in liver homogenates while significant increase was recorded in their corresponding

  13. Differentiation of Leishmania species by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Josafá C.; Mittmann, Josane; Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Raniero, Leandro

    2015-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease caused by protozoa that belong to the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Sand fly. The disease is endemic in 88 countries Desjeux (2001) [1] (16 developed countries and 72 developing countries) on four continents. In Brazil, epidemiological data show the disease is present in all Brazilian regions, with the highest incidences in the North and Northeast. There are several methods used to diagnose leishmaniasis, but these procedures have many limitations, are time consuming, have low sensitivity, and are expensive. In this context, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis has the potential to provide rapid results and may be adapted for a clinical test with high sensitivity and specificity. In this work, FT-IR was used as a tool to investigate the promastigotes of Leishmaniaamazonensis, Leishmaniachagasi, and Leishmaniamajor species. The spectra were analyzed by cluster analysis and deconvolution procedure base on spectra second derivatives. Results: cluster analysis found four specific regions that are able to identify the Leishmania species. The dendrogram representation clearly indicates the heterogeneity among Leishmania species. The band deconvolution done by the curve fitting in these regions quantitatively differentiated the polysaccharides, amide III, phospholipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. L. chagasi and L. major showed a greater biochemistry similarity and have three bands that were not registered in L. amazonensis. The L. amazonensis presented three specific bands that were not recorded in the other two species. It is evident that the FT-IR method is an indispensable tool to discriminate these parasites. The high sensitivity and specificity of this technique opens up the possibilities for further studies about characterization of other microorganisms.

  14. MicroRNA-146a Deficiency Protects against Listeria monocytogenes Infection by Modulating the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Tao Du

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota and microRNAs play important roles in the defense against infection. However, the role of miR-146a in L. monocytogenes infection and gut microbiota remains unclear. We tried to determine whether miR-146a controlled L. monocytogenes infection by regulating the gut microbiota. Wild-type and miR-146a-deficient mice or macrophages were used to characterize the impact of miR-146a on animal survival, cell death, bacterial clearance, and gut microbiota following L. monocytogenes challenge. We found that L. monocytogenes infection induced miR-146a expression both in vitro and in vivo. When compared to wild-type mice, miR-146a-deficient mice were more resistant to L. monocytogenes infection. MiR-146a deficiency in macrophages resulted in reduced invasion and intracellular survival of L. monocytogenes. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that the gut microbiota composition differed between miR-146a-deficient and wild-type mice. Relative to wild-type mice, miR-146a-deficient mice had decreased levels of the Proteobacteria phylum, Prevotellaceae family, and Parasutterella genus, and significantly increased short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria, including the genera Alistipes, Blautia, Coprococcus_1, and Ruminococcus_1. Wild-type mice co-housed with miR-146a-deficient mice had increased resistance to L. monocytogenes, indicating that miR-146a deficiency guides the gut microbiota to alleviate infection. Together, these results suggest that miR-146a deficiency protects against L. monocytogenes infection by regulating the gut microbiota.

  15. MicroRNA-146a Deficiency Protects against Listeria monocytogenes Infection by Modulating the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chong-Tao; Gao, Wei; Ma, Ke; Yu, Shui-Xing; Li, Na; Yan, Shi-Qing; Zhou, Feng-Hua; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Lei, Lian-Cheng; Yang, Yong-Jun; Han, Wen-Yu

    2018-03-26

    The gut microbiota and microRNAs play important roles in the defense against infection. However, the role of miR-146a in L. monocytogenes infection and gut microbiota remains unclear. We tried to determine whether miR-146a controlled L. monocytogenes infection by regulating the gut microbiota. Wild-type and miR-146a-deficient mice or macrophages were used to characterize the impact of miR-146a on animal survival, cell death, bacterial clearance, and gut microbiota following L. monocytogenes challenge. We found that L. monocytogenes infection induced miR-146a expression both in vitro and in vivo. When compared to wild-type mice, miR-146a-deficient mice were more resistant to L. monocytogenes infection. MiR-146a deficiency in macrophages resulted in reduced invasion and intracellular survival of L. monocytogenes . High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that the gut microbiota composition differed between miR-146a-deficient and wild-type mice. Relative to wild-type mice, miR-146a-deficient mice had decreased levels of the Proteobacteria phylum, Prevotellaceae family, and Parasutterella genus, and significantly increased short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria, including the genera Alistipes , Blautia , Coprococcus_1, and Ruminococcus_1 . Wild-type mice co-housed with miR-146a-deficient mice had increased resistance to L. monocytogenes , indicating that miR-146a deficiency guides the gut microbiota to alleviate infection. Together, these results suggest that miR-146a deficiency protects against L. monocytogenes infection by regulating the gut microbiota.

  16. In Vivo TLR9 Inhibition Attenuates CpG-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Boehm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9, a receptor for bacterial DNA, in septic cardiac depression has not been clarified in vivo. Thus, the aim of the study was to test possible TLR9 inhibitors (H154-thioate, IRS954-thioate, and chloroquine for their ability to protect the cardiovascular system in a murine model of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide- (ODN- dependent systemic inflammation. Sepsis was induced by i.p. application of the TLR9 agonist 1668-thioate in C57BL/6 wild type (WT and TLR9-deficient (TLR9-D mice. Thirty minutes after stimulation TLR9 antagonists were applied i.v. Survival was monitored up to 18 h after stimulation. Cardiac mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators was analyzed 2 h and 6 h after stimulation with 1668-thioate and hemodynamic parameters were monitored at the later time point. Stimulation with 1668-thioate induced a severe sepsis-like state with significant drop of body temperature and significantly increased mortality in WT animals. Additionally, there was a time-dependent increase of inflammatory mediators in the heart accompanied by development of septic heart failure. These effects were not observed in TLR9-D mice. Inhibition of TLR9 by the suppressive ODN H154-thioate significantly ameliorated cardiac inflammation, preserved cardiac function, and improved survival. This suppressive ODN was the most efficient inhibitor of the tested substances.

  17. Blood Mononuclear Cell Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex IV Activity is Decreased in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Effects of β-Interferon Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Hargreaves

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evidence of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC dysfunction and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS. However, at present, there is no reliable low invasive surrogate available to evaluate mitochondrial function in these patients. In view of the particular sensitivity of MRC complex IV to oxidative stress, the aim of this study was to assess blood mononuclear cell (BMNC MRC complex IV activity in MS patients and compare these results to age matched controls and MS patients on β-interferon treatment. Methods: Spectrophotometric enzyme assay was employed to measure MRC complex IV activity in blood mononuclear cell obtained multiple sclerosis patients and aged matched controls. Results: MRC Complex IV activity was found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05 in MS patients (2.1 ± 0.8 k/nmol × 10−3; mean ± SD] when compared to the controls (7.2 ± 2.3 k/nmol × 10−3. Complex IV activity in MS patients on β-interferon (4.9 ± 1.5 k/nmol × 10−3 was not found to be significantly different from that of the controls. Conclusions: This study has indicated evidence of peripheral MRC complex IV deficiency in MS patients and has highlighted the potential utility of BMNCs as a potential means to evaluate mitochondrial function in this disorder. Furthermore, the reported improvement of complex IV activity may provide novel insights into the mode(s of action of β-interferon.

  18. Transuranium perrhenates: Np(IV), Pu(IV) and (III), Am (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, Jean-Paul; Freundlich, William; Pages, Monique

    1977-01-01

    Synthesis in aqueous solution and by solid state reactions, crystallographical characterization and study of the stability of some transuranium perrhenates: Asup(n+)(ReO 4 - )sub(n) (A=Np(IV), Pu(IV), Pu(III), Am(III) [fr

  19. Aryl- and heteroaryl-substituted aminobenzo[a]quinolizines as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Markus; Fischer, Holger; Hennig, Michael; Hunziker, Daniel; Huwyler, Joerg; Kuhn, Bernd; Loeffler, Bernd M; Luebbers, Thomas; Mattei, Patrizio; Narquizian, Robert; Sebokova, Elena; Sprecher, Urs; Wessel, Hans Peter

    2010-02-01

    Synthesis and SAR are described for a structurally distinct class of DPP-IV inhibitors based on aminobenzo[a]quinolizines bearing (hetero-)aromatic substituents in the S1 specificity pocket. The m-(fluoromethyl)-phenyl derivative (S,S,S)-2g possesses the best fit in the S1 pocket. However, (S,S,S)-2i, bearing a more hydrophilic 5-methyl-pyridin-2-yl residue as substituent for the S1 pocket, displays excellent in vivo activity and superior drug-like properties. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Generalized Noether symmetry in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni Sadjadi, H.

    2012-01-01

    We consider modified teleparallel gravity (f(T) gravity), as a framework to explain the present accelerated expansion of the universe. The matter component is assumed to be cold dark matter. To find the explicit form of the function f, we utilize generalized Noether theorem and use generalized vector fields as variational symmetries of the corresponding Lagrangian. We study the cosmological consequences of the obtained results.

  1. RAM, an RGDS analog, exerts potent anti-melanoma effects in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simona Aguzzi

    Full Text Available Peptides containing the RGD sequence are under continuous investigation given their ability to control cell adhesion and apoptosis. Since small peptides are quickly metabolized and degraded in vivo, developing analogs resistant to serum-induced degradation is a challenging task. RGD analogs developed so far are known as molecules mostly inhibiting cell adhesion; this feature may reduce cell proliferation and tumor development but may not induce regression of tumors or metastases already formed. In the current study, carried out in melanoma in vitro and in vivo models, we show that RAM, an RGD-non-peptide Analog-Molecule, strongly inhibits cells adhesion onto plastic, vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin and von Willebrand Factor while it does not inhibit cell adhesion onto collagen IV, similarly to the RGDS template peptide. It also strongly inhibits in vitro cell proliferation, migration and DNA-synthesis, increases melanoma cells apoptosis and reduces survivin expression. All such effects were observed in collagen IV seeded cells, therefore are most likely independent from the anti adhesive properties. Further, RAM is more stable than the template RGDS; in fact it maintains its anti-proliferation and anti-adhesion effects after long serum exposure while RGDS almost completely loses its effects upon serum exposure. In a mouse metastatic melanoma in vivo model, increasing doses of RAM significantly reduce up to about 80% lung metastases development, while comparable doses of RGDS are less potent. In conclusion these data show that RAM is a potent inhibitor of melanoma growth in vitro, strongly reduces melanoma metastases development in vivo and represents a novel candidate for further in vivo investigations in the cancer treatment field.

  2. The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV and NMR) first order hyperpolarizability and HOMO-LUMO analysis of dansyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, M.; Cinar, M.; Kurt, M.; Poiyamozhi, A.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of dansyl chloride (DC) have been recorded in the regions 400-4000 and 50-4000 cm-1, respectively. The spectra have been interpreted in terms of fundamentals modes, combination and overtone bands. The structure of the molecule has been optimized and the structural characteristics have been determined by density functional theory (B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) as basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated for most stable conformer and were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. The infrared and Raman spectra have also been predicted from the calculated intensities. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-600 nm and the electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. Nonlinear optical and thermodynamic properties were interpreted. All the calculated results were compared with the available experimental data of the title molecule.

  3. Prediction of purine derivatives, creatinine and total nitrogen concentrations in urine by FT-Near-lnfrared Reflectance spectroscopy (FT-NIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Piani, B.; Toso, B.; Stefanon, B.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an alternative method for the determination of purine derivatives (PD, which include allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine), creatinine and total nitrogen (N) concentrations in urine. About 180 urine samples from cattle, buffaloes and rabbit were collected and analyzed for PD by HPLC, creatinine by spectrophotometry and N by Kjeldahl method. The urine samples were then analyzed by Fourier Transformed Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (FT-NIR) to find conformity between this technique and the HPLC and colorimetric methods. FT-NIR can predict allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, creatinine, total N and sum of N in both allantoin and uric acid with a satisfactory level of accuracy: the determination coefficient (r 2 ) of validation ranged from 0.888% for uric acid to 0.982% for total N. The coefficients of determination for allantoin, creatinine and sum of N in both allantoin and uric acid were 0.92, 0.894 and 0.90%, respectively. Hypoxanthine and xanthine in urine samples were not detectable by NIRS, probably because of their low concentrations, and therefore they were not considered for instrumental calibration. (author)

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)amide is transformed to glucagon-like peptide-1-(9-36)amide by dipeptidyl peptidase IV in the capillaries supplying the L cells of the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L; Deacon, C F; Orskov, C

    1999-01-01

    already been degraded to the truncated form both in vitro (53.8+/-0.9% intact) and in vivo (32.9+/-10.8% intact). In the presence of a specific dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor (valine-pyrrolidide), the proportion of intact GLP-1 released from the perfused ileum was increased under both basal...... (99% intact; P epithelium as well as in the capillary endothelium. Double staining showed juxtapositioning of DPP IV-positive capillaries...

  5. FT-IR, FT-Raman, and DFT computational studies of melaminium nitrate molecular-ionic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanak, Hasan; Marchewka, Mariusz K.

    2013-02-01

    The experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of melaminium nitrate were studied. The Raman and infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the melaminium nitrate and its deuterated analogue were recorded in the solid phase. Molecular geometry and vibrational frequency values of melaminium nitrate in the electronic ground state were calculated using the density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated results show that the optimized geometry can well reproduce the crystal structure, and the theoretical vibrational frequency values show good agreement with experimental values. The NBO analysis reveals that the N-H···O and N-H···N intermolecular interactions significantly influence crystal packing in this molecule.

  6. Reconstruction from scalar-tensor theory and the inhomogeneous equation of state in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta)

    2017-12-15

    General relativity (GR) characterizes gravity as a geometric properly exhibited as curvature on spacetime. Teleparallelism describes gravity through torsional properties, and can reproduce GR at the level of equations. Similar to f(R) gravity, on taking a generalization, f(T) gravity can produce various modifications its gravitational mechanism. The resulting field equations are inherently distinct to f(R) gravity in that they are second order. In the present work, f(T) gravity is examined in the cosmological context with a number of solutions reconstructed by means of an auxiliary scalar field. To do this, various forms of the Hubble parameter are considered with an f(T) Lagrangian emerging for each instance. In addition, the inhomogeneous equation of state (EoS) is investigated with a particular Hubble parameter model used to show how this can be used to reconstruct the f(T) Lagrangian. Observationally, the auxiliary scalar field and the exotic terms in the FRW field equations give the same results, meaning that the variation in the Hubble parameter may be interpreted as the need to reformulate gravity in some way, as in f(T) gravity. (orig.)

  7. Reconstruction from scalar-tensor theory and the inhomogeneous equation of state in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Jackson Levi

    2017-01-01

    General relativity (GR) characterizes gravity as a geometric properly exhibited as curvature on spacetime. Teleparallelism describes gravity through torsional properties, and can reproduce GR at the level of equations. Similar to f(R) gravity, on taking a generalization, f(T) gravity can produce various modifications its gravitational mechanism. The resulting field equations are inherently distinct to f(R) gravity in that they are second order. In the present work, f(T) gravity is examined in the cosmological context with a number of solutions reconstructed by means of an auxiliary scalar field. To do this, various forms of the Hubble parameter are considered with an f(T) Lagrangian emerging for each instance. In addition, the inhomogeneous equation of state (EoS) is investigated with a particular Hubble parameter model used to show how this can be used to reconstruct the f(T) Lagrangian. Observationally, the auxiliary scalar field and the exotic terms in the FRW field equations give the same results, meaning that the variation in the Hubble parameter may be interpreted as the need to reformulate gravity in some way, as in f(T) gravity. (orig.)

  8. Characterization and identification of microorganisms by FT-IR microspectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Thi, N. A.; Kirschner, C.; Naumann, D.

    2003-12-01

    We report on a novel FT-IR approach for microbial characterization/identification based on a light microscope coupled to an infrared spectrometer which offers the possibility to acquire IR-spectra of microcolonies containing only few hundred cells. Microcolony samples suitable for FT-IR microspectroscopic measurements were obtained by a replica technique with a stamping device that transfers spatially accurate cells of microcolonies growing on solid culture plates to a special, IR-transparent or reflecting stamping plate. High quality spectra could be recorded either by applying the transmission/absorbance or the reflectance/absorbance mode of the infrared microscope. Signal to noise ratios higher than 1000 were obtained for microcolonies as small as 40 μm in diameter. Reproducibility levels were established that allowed species and strain identification. The differentiation and classification capacity of the FT-IR microscopic technique was tested for different selected microorganisms. Cluster and factor analysis methods were used to evaluate the complex spectral data. Excellent discrimination between bacteria and yeasts, and at the same time Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains was obtained. Twenty-two selected strains of different species within the genus Staphylococcus were repetitively measured and could be grouped into correct species cluster. Moreover, the results indicated that the method allows also identifications at the subspecies level. Additionally, the new approach allowed spectral mapping analysis of single colonies which provided spatially resolved characterization of growth heterogeneity within complex microbial populations such as colonies.

  9. New observational constraints on f(T) cosmology from radio quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jing-Zhao; Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); Biesiada, Marek; Zheng, Xiaogang [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); University of Silesia, Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland)

    2017-08-15

    Using a new recently compiled milliarcsecond compact radio data set of 120 intermediate-luminosity quasars in the redshift range 0.46 < z < 2.76, whose statistical linear sizes show negligible dependence on redshifts and intrinsic luminosity and thus represent standard rulers in cosmology, we constrain three viable and most popular f(T) gravity models, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallel gravity. Our analysis reveals that constraining power of the quasars data (N = 120) is comparable to the Union2.1 SN Ia data (N = 580) for all three f(T) models. Together with other standard ruler probes such as cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillation distance measurements, the present value of the matter density parameter Ω{sub m} obtained by quasars is much larger than that derived from other observations. For one of the models considered (f{sub 1}CDM) a small but noticeable deviation from ΛCDM cosmology is present, while in the framework of f{sub 3}CDM the effective equation of state may cross the phantom divide line at lower redshifts. These results indicate that intermediate-luminosity quasars could provide an effective observational probe comparable to SN Ia at much higher redshifts, and f(T) gravity is a reasonable candidate for the modified gravity theory. (orig.)

  10. In vivo hypotensive effect and in vitro inhibitory activity of some Cyperaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Lacerda Lopes Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1820, French naturalist August Saint Hillaire, during a visit in Espírito Santo (ES, a state in southeastern Brazil, reported a popular use of Cyperaceae species as antidote to snake bites. The plant may even have a hypotensive effect, though it was never properly researched. The in vitro inhibitory of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE activity of eigth ethanolic extracts of Cyperaceae was evaluated by colorimetric assay. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined using colorimetric assay. The hypotensive effect of the active specie (Rhychonospora exaltata, ERE and the in vivo ACE assay was measured in vivo using male Wistar Kyoto (ERE, 0.01-100mg/kg, with acetylcholine (ACh as positive control (5 µg/kg, i.v.. The evaluation of ACE in vivo inhibitory effect was performed comparing the mean arterial pressure before and after ERE (10 mg/kg in animals which received injection of angiotensin I (ANG I; 0,03, 03 and 300 µg/kg, i.v.. Captopril (30 mg/kg was used as positive control. Bulbostylis capillaris (86.89 ± 15.20% and ERE (74.89 ± 11.95%, ERE were considered active in the in vitro ACE inhibition assay, at 100 µg/mL concentration. ACh lead to a hypotensive effect before and after ERE's curve (-40±5% and -41±3%. ERE showed a dose-dependent hypotensive effect and a in vivo ACE inhibitory effect. Cyperaceae species showed an inhibitory activity of ACE, in vitro, as well as high content of total phenolic and flavonoids. ERE exhibited an inhibitory effect on both in vitro and in vivo ACE. The selection of species used in popular medicine as antidotes, along with the in vitro assay of ACE inhibition, might be a biomonitoring method for the screening of new medicinal plants with hypotensive properties.

  11. Designing means and specifications for model FT-619 kidney function instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongding

    1988-04-01

    In this paper, it is pointed out that the model FT-619 Kidney Function Equipment is a new cost-effective nuclear medicine instrument, which takes the leading position in China. The performance of the model FT-619,especially the lead collimated scintillation detector has reached the same level as the advanced equipment in the world market. It is also described in this article in detail that the design of the lead collimator and the shielding as well as the detection efficiency have achieved the optimum level and that a comparison has been made with foreign products

  12. Deficiency Mutations of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin. Effects on Folding, Function, and Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Imran; Irving, James A; Saleh, Aarash D; Dron, Louis; Regan-Mochrie, Gemma L; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Hurst, John R; Gooptu, Bibek; Lomas, David A

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding, polymerization, and defective secretion of functional alpha-1 antitrypsin underlies the predisposition to severe liver and lung disease in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. We have identified a novel (Ala336Pro, Baghdad) deficiency variant and characterized it relative to the wild-type (M) and Glu342Lys (Z) alleles. The index case is a homozygous individual of consanguineous parentage, with levels of circulating alpha-1 antitrypsin in the moderate deficiency range, but is a biochemical phenotype that could not be classified by standard methods. The majority of the protein was present as functionally inactive polymer, and the remaining monomer was 37% active relative to the wild-type protein. These factors combined indicate an 85 to 95% functional deficiency, similar to that seen with ZZ homozygotes. Biochemical, biophysical, and computational studies further defined the molecular basis of this deficiency. These studies demonstrated that native Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin could populate the polymerogenic intermediate-and therefore polymerize-more readily than either wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin or the Z variant. In contrast, folding was far less impaired in Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin than in the Z variant. The data are consistent with a disparate contribution by the "breach" region and "shutter" region of strand 5A to folding and polymerization mechanisms. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that, in these variants, folding efficiency does not correlate directly with the tendency to polymerize in vitro or in vivo. They therefore differentiate generalized misfolding from polymerization tendencies in missense variants of alpha-1 antitrypsin. Clinically, they further support the need to quantify loss-of-function in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency to individualize patient care.

  13. Coordination and solvent extraction behaviour of oxozirconium(IV), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The systematic liquid-liquid extraction behaviour of oxozirconium (IV), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) have been investigated using a number of synthesised and commercial chelating extractants. The synergism or antagonism for these processes in presence of neutral donor ligands have also been identified and the conditions for separation and isolation of pure individual metal ions have been established. The coordination behaviour of oxozirconium(IV), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) with a large number of mono- and polydentate ligands have been studied. With oxozirconium(IV), invariably always a cyclic, tetranuclear species is obtained, derived from the tetrameric structure of the parent ZrOCl 2 .8H 2 O which is actually (Zr 4 (OH) 8 (H 2 O) 16 )Cl 8 .12H 2 O. No simple, monomeric oxozirconium(IV) complex was obtained. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) form a wide variety of complexes of higher coordination numbers and several bi- and trinuclear complexes were also characterised where the two adjacent metal centres are joined to each other by a double hydroxo-bridge. (author). 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Low energy costs of F1Fo ATP synthase reversal in colon carcinoma cells deficient in mitochondrial complex IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Alexander V; Andreev, Dmitry E; Baranov, Pavel V; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial polarisation is paramount for a variety of cellular functions. Under ischemia, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and proton gradient (ΔpH) are maintained via a reversal of mitochondrial F1Fo ATP synthase (mATPase), which can rapidly deplete ATP and drive cells into energy crisis. We found that under normal conditions in cells with disassembled cytochrome c oxidase complex (COX-deficient HCT116), mATPase maintains ΔΨm at levels only 15-20% lower than in WT cells, and for this utilises relatively little ATP. For a small energy expenditure, mATPase enables mitochondrial ΔpH, protein import, Ca 2+ turnover, and supports free radical detoxication machinery enlarged to protect the cells from oxidative damage. Whereas in COX-deficient cells the main source of ATP is glycolysis, the ΔΨm is still maintained upon inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocators with bongkrekic acid and carboxyatractyloside, indicating that the role of ANTs is redundant, and matrix substrate level phosphorylation alone or in cooperation with ATP-Mg/P i carriers can continuously support the mATPase activity. Intriguingly, we found that mitochondrial complex III is active, and it contributes not only to free radical production, but also to ΔΨm maintenance and energy budget of COX-deficient cells. Overall, this study demonstrates that F1Fo ATP synthase can support general mitochondrial and cellular functions, working in extremely efficient 'energy saving' reverse mode and flexibly recruiting free radical detoxication and ATP producing / transporting pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Discordant results obtained with Francisella tularensis during in vitro and in vivo immunological studies are attributable to compromised bacterial structural integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Singh

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis (Ft is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Because Ft can be dispersed via small droplet-aerosols and has a very low infectious dose it is characterized as a category A Select Agent of biological warfare. Respiratory infection with the attenuated Live Vaccine Strain (LVS and the highly virulent SchuS4 strain of Ft engenders intense peribronchiolar and perivascular inflammation, but fails to elicit select pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ within the first ~72 h. This in vivo finding is discordant with the principally TH1-oriented response to Ft frequently observed in cell-based studies wherein the aforementioned cytokines are produced. An often overlooked confounding factor in the interpretation of experimental results is the influence of environmental cues on the bacterium's capacity to elicit certain host responses. Herein, we reveal that adaptation of Ft to its mammalian host imparts an inability to elicit select pro-inflammatory mediators throughout the course of infection. Furthermore, in vitro findings that non-host adapted Ft elicits such a response from host cells reflect aberrant recognition of the DNA of structurally-compromised bacteria by AIM2-dependent and -independent host cell cytosolic DNA sensors. Growth of Ft in Muller-Hinton Broth or on Muller-Hinton-based chocolate agar plates or genetic mutation of Ft was found to compromise the structural integrity of the bacterium thus rendering it capable of aberrantly eliciting pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ. Our studies highlight the profound impact of different growth conditions on host cell response to infection and demonstrate that not all in vitro-derived findings may be relevant to tularemia pathogenesis in the mammalian host. Rational development of a vaccine and immunotherapeutics can only proceed from a foundation of knowledge based upon

  16. Molecular orientation in aligned electrospun polyimide nanofibers by polarized FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoqi; Jiang, Shaohua; Fang, Hong; Hu, Xiaowu; Duan, Gaigai; Hou, Haoqing

    2018-07-05

    Quantitative explanation on the improved mechanical properties of aligned electrospun polyimide (PI) nanofibers as the increased imidization temperatures is highly required. In this work, polarized FT-IR spectroscopy is applied to solve this problem. Based on the polarized FT-IR spectroscopy and the molecular model in the fibers, the length of the repeat unit of PI molecule, the angle between the fiber axis and the symmetric stretching direction of carbonyl group on the imide ring, and the angle between the PI molecular axis and fiber axis are all investigated. The Mark-Howink equation is used to calculate the number-average molar mass of PI molecules. The orientation states of PI molecules in the electrospun nanofibers are studied from the number-average molar mass of PI molecules and the average fiber diameter. Quantitative analysis of the orientation factor of PI molecules in the electrospun nanofibers is performed by polarized FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Response to GH treatment in adult GH deficiency is predicted by gender, age, and IGF1 SDS but not by stimulated GH-peak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Brabant, Georg; Maiter, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether the severity of GH deficiency (GHD) defined as i) GH-peak on stimulation tests (insulin tolerance test (ITT), arginine, and glucagon), ii) number of additional pituitary deficits, or iii) baseline IGF1 SDS could impact the response to GH treatment. We further explored whether iv...

  18. Assessment of Azithromycin in Pharmaceutical Formulation by Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR Transmission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Mallah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and economical method for azithromycin quantification in solid tablet and capsule formulations has been developed by applying Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR transmission spectroscopy for regular quality monitoring. The newly developed method avoids the sample preparation, except grinding for pellet formation and does not involve consumption of any solvent as it absolutely eliminates the need of extraction. KBr pellets were employed for the appraisal of azithromycin while acquiring spectra of standards as well as samples on FT-IR. By selecting the FT-IR carbonyl band (C=O in the region 1,744–1,709 cm−1 the calibration model was developed based on simple Beer’s law. The excellent regression coefficient (R2 0.999 was accomplished for calibration set having standard error of calibration equal to 0.01 mg. The current work exposes that transmission FT-IR spectroscopy can definitely be applied to determine the exact amount of azithromycin to control the processing and quality of solid formulations with reduced cost and short analysis time.

  19. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR spectroscopy for gunshot residue analysis: potential for ammunition determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-08-06

    The ability to link a suspect to a particular shooting incident is a principal task for many forensic investigators. Here, we attempt to achieve this goal by analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) through the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with statistical analysis. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical process. Therefore, the products of this process (GSR) will vary based upon numerous factors, including the specific combination of the firearm and ammunition which was discharged. Differentiation of FT-IR data, collected from GSR particles originating from three different firearm-ammunition combinations (0.38 in., 0.40 in., and 9 mm calibers), was achieved using projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The technique was cross (leave-one-out), both internally and externally, validated. External validation was achieved via assignment (caliber identification) of unknown FT-IR spectra from unknown GSR particles. The results demonstrate great potential for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of GSR for forensic purposes.

  20. Role for Cela1 in Postnatal Lung Remodeling and AAT-deficient Emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Rashika; Heinz, Andrea; Fan, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    RATIONALE: α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency-related emphysema is the fourth leading indication for lung transplantation. Chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 (Cela1) is a digestive protease that is expressed during lung development in association with regions of elastin remodeling, exhibits stretch...... elastin similarly to pancreatic elastase. Cela1 promoter and protein sequences were phylogenetically distinct in the placental mammal lineage suggesting an adaptive role for lung-expressed Cela1 in this clade. A six-week antisense oligo mouse model of AAT deficiency resulted in emphysema with increased......-dependent expression during lung regeneration, and binds lung elastin in a stretch-dependent manner. AAT covalently neutralizes Cela1 in vitro. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the role of Cela1 in postnatal lung physiology, whether it interacted with AAT in vivo, and any effects it may have in the context of AAT...

  1. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is dispensable for IgE-mediated cutaneous reaction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Xie, Zhongping; Li, Hua; Yue, Lei; Pang, Zheng; MacNeil, Adam J; Tremblay, Michel L; Tang, Jin-Tian; Lin, Tong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells play a critical role in allergic reactions. The cross-linking of FcεRI-bound IgE with multivalent antigen initiates a cascade of signaling events leading to mast cell activation. It has been well-recognized that cross linking of FcεRI mediates tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the mechanism involved in tyrosine dephosphorylation in mast cells is less clear. Here we demonstrated that protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-deficient mast cells showed increased IgE-mediated phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and enhanced production of CCL9 (MIP-1γ) and IL-6 in IgE-mediated mast cells activation in vitro. However, IgE-mediated calcium mobilization, β-hexaosaminidase release (degranulation), and phosphorylation of IκB and MAP kinases were not affected by PTP1B deficiency. Furthermore, PTP1B deficient mice showed normal IgE-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and late phase cutaneous reactions in vivo. Thus, PTP1B specifically regulates IgE-mediated STAT5 pathway, but is redundant in influencing mast cell function in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 deficiency alters the gut microbiome response to Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jethro S; Opiyo, Monica N; Thomson, Marian; Gharbi, Karim; Seckl, Jonathan R; Heger, Andreas; Chapman, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) interconverts active glucocorticoids and their intrinsically inert 11-keto forms. The type 1 isozyme, 11β-HSD1, predominantly reactivates glucocorticoids in vivo and can also metabolise bile acids. 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show altered inflammatory responses and are protected against the adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet. However, the impact of 11β-HSD1 on the composition of the gut microbiome has not previously been investigated. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to characterise the gut microbiome of 11β-HSD1-deficient and C57Bl/6 control mice, fed either a standard chow diet or a cholesterol- and fat-enriched 'Western' diet. 11β-HSD1 deficiency significantly altered the composition of the gut microbiome, and did so in a diet-specific manner. On a Western diet, 11β-HSD1 deficiency increased the relative abundance of the family Bacteroidaceae, and on a chow diet, it altered relative abundance of the family Prevotellaceae Our results demonstrate that (i) genetic effects on host-microbiome interactions can depend upon diet and (ii) that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome may contribute to the aspects of the metabolic and/or inflammatory phenotype observed with 11β-HSD1 deficiency. © 2017 The authors.

  3. Development of F.T. Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-19

    Virginia, 22217 5000, U.S.A*.ELMNNO NONOACSINN. End of Year Report on the contract 2 PERSONAL AU7I40R(S) P.J. Hda and M. Fl cm 3a TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME...to do, have .- considerable progress. The area in which we have .ated involves the zeolites. We have sorbed pyridine tc .- of -eolites ( acidic and...react-ion using F.T. Raman methods and then to eX.plore rmechaniszzs, types of acid sites involved and the role o.: temperature. -:olla-’-rators

  4. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  5. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders. PMID:23838831

  6. High-level inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV is required to increase glutamate release from the nerve terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilbride Seán M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activities of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, EC 1.10.2.2 and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase EC 1.9.3.1 are reduced by 30-70% in Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, and are associated with excitotoxic cell death in these disorders. In this study, we investigated the control that complexes III and complex IV exert on glutamate release from the isolated nerve terminal. Results Inhibition of complex III activity by 60-90% was necessary for a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release to occur from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes depolarized with 4-aminopyridine or KCl. Similarly, an 85-90% inhibition of complex IV activity was required before a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release from depolarized synaptosomes was observed. Inhibition of complex III and IV activities by ~ 60% and above was required before rates of glutamate efflux from polarized synaptosomes were increased. Conclusions These results suggest that nerve terminal mitochondria possess high reserves of complex III and IV activity and that high inhibition thresholds must be reached before excess glutamate is released from the nerve terminal. The implications of the results in the context of the relationship between electron transport chain enzyme deficiencies and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  7. High-level inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV is required to increase glutamate release from the nerve terminal

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kilbride, Sean M

    2011-07-26

    Abstract Background The activities of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, EC 1.10.2.2) and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase EC 1.9.3.1) are reduced by 30-70% in Huntington\\'s disease and Alzheimer\\'s disease, respectively, and are associated with excitotoxic cell death in these disorders. In this study, we investigated the control that complexes III and complex IV exert on glutamate release from the isolated nerve terminal. Results Inhibition of complex III activity by 60-90% was necessary for a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release to occur from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) depolarized with 4-aminopyridine or KCl. Similarly, an 85-90% inhibition of complex IV activity was required before a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release from depolarized synaptosomes was observed. Inhibition of complex III and IV activities by ~ 60% and above was required before rates of glutamate efflux from polarized synaptosomes were increased. Conclusions These results suggest that nerve terminal mitochondria possess high reserves of complex III and IV activity and that high inhibition thresholds must be reached before excess glutamate is released from the nerve terminal. The implications of the results in the context of the relationship between electron transport chain enzyme deficiencies and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  8. Angiotensin II blockade causes acute renal failure in eNOS-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schnermann

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared with wild-type mice, adult endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice (eight months of age have increased blood pressure (BP (126±9 mmHg vs. 100±4 mmHg, and an increased renal vascular resistance (155±16 vs. 65±4 mmHg.min/ml. Renal vascular resistance responses to i.v. administration of noradrenaline were markedly enhanced in eNOS knockout mice. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR of anaesthetised eNOS -/- mice was 324±57 µl/min gKW, significantly lower than the GFR of 761±126 µl/min.gKW in wild-type mice. AT1-receptor blockade with i.v. candesartan (1—1.5 mg/kg reduced arterial blood pressure and renal vascular resistance, and increased renal blood flow (RBF to about the same extent in wild-type and eNOS -/- mice. Candesartan did not alter GFR in wild-type mice (761±126 vs. 720±95 µl/min.gKW, but caused a marked decrease in GFR in eNOS -/- mice (324.5±75.2 vs. 77±18 µl/min.gKW. A similar reduction in GFR of eNOS deficient mice was also caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition. Afferent arteriolar granularity, a measure of renal renin expression, was found to be reduced in eNOS -/- compared with wild-type mice. In chronically eNOS-deficient mice, angiotensin II (Ang II is critical for maintaining glomerular filtration pressure and GFR, presumably through its effect on efferent arteriolar tone.

  9. Use of FT-NIR Spectroscopy for Bovine Colostrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Navrátilová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transformation near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR in combination with partial least squares (PLS method were used to determine the content of total solids, fat, non-fatty solids, lactose and proteins in bovine colostrum. Spectra of 90 samples were measured in the reflectance mode with a transflectance cuvette in the 10000-4000 cm-1 spectral ranges with 100 scans. Calibration was performed and statistical values of correlation coefficients (R and standard error of calibration values (SEC were computed for total solids (0.986 and 0.919, respectively, fat (0.997 and 0.285, respectively, non-fatty solids (0.995 and 0.451, respectively, lactose (0.934 and 0.285, respectively and protein (0.999 and 0.149, respectively. The calibration models developed were verified by cross validation. It follows from the study that FT-NIR spectroscopy can be used to determine the components of bovine colostrum.

  10. Thyroid autonomy: sensitive detection in vivo and estimation of its functional relevance using quantified high-resolution scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Lindemann, C.; Emrich, D.; Hilgers, R.

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with 236 euthyroid individuals living in an area of iodine deficiency, 227 of whom had endemic goitres. In these subjects, autonomy could be suspected owing to an inhomogeneous activity distribution on the thyroid scintigram or a subnormal TSH response to TRH. They complete a total number of 426 investigated individuals. Previously, in 190 separated controls without evidence of autonomy, the reference ranges for the thyroid 99m Tc pertechnetate uptake under suppression (TcU s ), a measure for the non-suppressible thyroid iodide clearance, and for suppressibility of circumscribed thyroid regions, had been determined. These two parameters obtained by highresolution quantified scintigraphy were used for an accurate detection of thyroid autonomy among the 236 individuals. Suppression scintigraphy revealed autonomy in 171 patients. ΔTSH after TRH was subnormal in 40% of the subjects with abnormal thyroid suppressibility. Prevalence of abnormal suppression was dependent on three factors: patient age, goitre type and estimated thyroid weight. In the total investigated collective, the prevalence of autonomy was 77% in patients with a goitre weight above 50 g. The individuals with abnormal suppression were grouped into four classes of TcU s . I these classes, free thyroxie index (FT 4 I) and total triiodothyronine (TT 3 ) icreased with increasing TcU s , whereas ΔTSH decreased. This finding indicates a continuum of different extents of autonomous thyroid function, whereas in the individual patient, the extent can be determined using the pertechnetate uptake under suppression. In addition, FT 4 I, TT 3 and ΔTSH in each of the TcU s classes depended on the individual iodine supply. It is concluded that, in patients with thyroid autonomy, actual thyroid hormone concentrations and TSH stimulation are determined by two major factors: the extent of autonomy and the individual iodine supply. Therefore, in iodine deficiency, the TRH test may be normal

  11. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Promote Fatty Liver Disease Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Højland Ipsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and the subsequent reprogramming of the white adipose tissue are linked to human disease-complexes including metabolic syndrome and concurrent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The dietary imposed dyslipidemia promotes redox imbalance by the generation of excess levels of reactive oxygen species and induces adipocyte dysfunction and reprogramming, leading to a low grade systemic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition, e.g., in the liver, hereby promoting a vicious circle in which dietary factors initiate a metabolic change that further exacerbates the negative consequences of an adverse life-style. Large epidemiological studies and findings from controlled in vivo animal studies have provided evidence supporting an association between poor vitamin C (VitC status and propagation of life-style associated diseases. In addition, overweight per se has been shown to result in reduced plasma VitC, and the distribution of body fat in obesity has been shown to have an inverse relationship with VitC plasma levels. Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have indicated a VitC intake below the recommended daily allowance (RDA in NAFLD-patients, suggesting an association between dietary habits, disease and VitC deficiency. In the general population, VitC deficiency (defined as a plasma concentration below 23 μM affects around 10% of adults, however, this prevalence is increased by an adverse life-style, deficiency potentially playing a broader role in disease progression in specific subgroups. This review discusses the currently available data from human surveys and experimental models in search of a putative role of VitC deficiency in the development of NAFLD and NASH.

  12. Isolated autosomal dominant growth hormone deficiency: an evolving pituitary deficit? A multicenter follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Primus E; Robinson, Iain C A F; Salemi, Souzan; Eblé, Andrée; Besson, Amélie; Vuissoz, Jean-Marc; Deladoey, Johnny; Simon, Dominique; Czernichow, Paul; Binder, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    Four distinct familial types of isolated GH deficiency have been described so far, of which type II is the autosomal dominant inherited form. It is mainly caused by mutations within the first 6 bp of intervening sequence 3. However, other splice site and missense mutations have been reported. Based on in vitro experiments and transgenic animal data, there is strong evidence that there is a wide variability in phenotype in terms of the severity of GH deficiency. Therefore, we studied a total of 57 subjects belonging to 19 families suffering from different splice site as well as missense mutations within the GH-1 gene. The subjects presenting with a splice site mutation within the first 2 bp of intervening sequence 3 (5'IVS +1/+2 bp) leading to a skipping of exon 3 were found to be more likely to present in the follow-up with other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In addition, although the patients with missense mutations have previously been reported to be less affected, a number of patients presenting with the P89L missense GH form, showed some pituitary hormone impairment. The development of multiple hormonal deficiencies is not age dependent, and there is a clear variability in onset, severity, and progression, even within the same families. The message of clinical importance from these studies is that the pituitary endocrine status of all such patients should continue to be monitored closely over the years because further hormonal deficiencies may evolve with time.

  13. Result interpretation of experimental calibration for milk citric acid determination via infra-red spectroscopy (MIR-FT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid (KC in milk is indicator of cow energy metabolism. Milk laboratories set up KC determination. A method can be infra-red analyse (MIR-FT. The goal was to develop a relevant method for reference sample preparation for MIR-FT (indirect method, Lactoscope FTIR and MilkoScan FT 6000 calibration. As reference was used a photometric method (c; 428 nm. KC was added (n = 3 into some re­fe­ren­ce milk samples (n = 10, bulk milk. Mean value was 9.220 ± 3.094 mmol . l−1 with variation range from 6.206 to 15.975 mmol . l−1. Recovery c was from 100.8 to 120.2 %. Correlation between c and ­MIR-FT were from 0.979 to 0.992 (P < 0.001. These were lower in the set of native milk samples (n = 7, from 0.751 (Lactoscope FTIR; P < 0.05 to 0.947 (MilkoScan FT 6000; P < 0.001 in comparison to original va­lues from 0.981 to 0.992 (n = 10; P < 0.001. Correlations between calibrated MIR-FT instruments were from 0.958 to 1.0 (P < 0.001. Average recovery for instruments (n = 12 was 101.6 ± 18.1 %. The mean differences between c method and MIR-FT after calibration (n = 4 moved from −0.001 across zero to 0.037 %. Standard deviation of differences was from 0.0074 to 0.0187 % at MilkoScan FT 6000 and from 0.0105 to 0.0117 % for Lactoscope FTIR. Relative variability of differences (MIR-F (filter technology and FT for major components fat (T, proteins (B and lactose (L in total and minor components KC and free fatty acids (VMK was estimated to 1.0 and 7.2 and 34.4 %. The KC result is inferior than T, B and L superior than VMK. Autocorrelation (0.042; P > 0.05 of results demonstrated the in­de­pen­den­ce of consecutive measurements. Milk preservation effect amounted 0.2323 (P < 0.001 with bronopol and 0.0339 (P > 0.05 mmol . l−1 with dichromate. It was (3.0 and 0.44 % practically negligible, redeemable via relevant calibration. The results of proficiency testing in post-calibration period and evaluation of double

  14. Oral declines and mastication deficiencies cause alteration of food bolus properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, M-A; Santé-Lhoutellier, V; François, O; Hennequin, M

    2018-02-21

    In the elderly, masticatory function often presents failure in certain oral tasks due to impairment such as decline in muscular force, jaw or tongue motility, neuro-muscular coordination, tooth damage, malocclusion and saliva production. Great disparity is observed in the various and potentially cumulative oral declines that occur with ageing. Such difficulties may have an impact on food consumption and nutritional status. To obtain better understanding of the consequences of several oral deficiencies, a series of swallowable boluses were prepared in vitro with the AM 2 masticator apparatus with normal and deficient programming. Physiological normal mastication (NM) was simulated using in vivo data from healthy subjects. Chewing deficiencies were reproduced by alteration of NM programming to perform different levels and combinations of force loss, lack of saliva and decrease in the motility of oral elements. Poultry meatballs were used as test-food. Particle size distribution in the food bolus was measured by sieving and rheological features (hardness, cohesiveness and elasticity) were assessed with a TPA test. Compared to the NM outcome, significant and gradual deterioration of the food bolus was observed and associated with alteration in force, saliva and motility. Combinations of several failures led to greater or cumulative deficiencies in swallowable bolus properties. For the elderly presenting a high prevalence of various oral injuries, tailoring textured food cannot be ignored as a solution for remedying deficiencies and favoring the formation of a safe-swallowable bolus, which is an essential vector of nutrients. Knowing the impacts of oral injuries on the food bolus is obviously a requisite for developing diet strategies, including nutritional items for specific populations.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of chiral thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) benzamidinate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, Sebastian; Maerz, Juliane; Kaden, Peter; Patzschke, Michael; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    Two chiral benzamidinate complexes of tetravalent actinides (Th(IV) and U(IV)) were synthesized using a salt metathesis reaction of the corresponding actinide(IV) tetrachlorides and the potassium salt of the chiral benzamidine (S,S)-N,N-Bis-(1-phenylethyl)-benzamidine ((S)-HPEBA). The structure of the complexes was determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction. These are the first examples of chiral amidinate complexes of actinides.

  16. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  17. iväkoti Riemula

    OpenAIRE

    Alanko, Reetta; Ihanamäki, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä kuvataan yleisesti päivähoidon kehitystä Suomessa sekä päivähoitoa yrittäjän näkökulmasta, tuoden esille sen tämän päivän haasteet ja mahdollisuudet. Työssä on pohdittu yhteistyön merkitystä kunnan kanssa ja sitä, miten kunta voi osaltaan joko rajoittaa tai edesauttaa yksityisen päivähoitoyrityksen toimintaa. Opinnäytetyössä kerrotaan teoriassa Päiväkoti Riemula nimisen, erityispäivähoitopalveluita tarjoavan yrityksen perustamiseen liittyvistä suunnitelmista. Suunnitelluss...

  18. Wormholes in a viable f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics (CAMP), Islamabad (Pakistan); Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakstan (Kazakhstan)); Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakstan (Kazakhstan))

    2013-01-15

    In this paper, we derive some new exact solutions of static wormholes in f(T) gravity. We discuss independent cases of the pressure components including isotropic and anisotropic pressure. Lastly we consider radial pressure satisfying a barotropic equation of state. We also check the behavior of null energy condition (NEC) for each case and observe that it is violated for the anisotropic case, while it is satisfied for isotropic and barotropic cases. (orig.)

  19. Energy balance in the ohmically heated FT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.; Brusati, M.; Cilloco, F.

    1981-01-01

    A typical discharge in the FT Tokamak at 60 kG has been studied in detail in order to derive the power balance between the ohmic input and the plasma losses. Impurity and radiation losses together with ion and electron energy balance are discussed. A power transport term for electrons is derived which is ascribed to anomalous thermal conduction. This resulting thermal transport is compared with those derived from different proposed scalings

  20. Can f(T) gravity theories mimic ΛCDM cosmic history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The f(T) modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function f(T) by demanding a background ΛCDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat ΛCDM (the radiation ere with ω{sub eff} = (1/3), matter and de Sitter eras with ω{sub eff} = 0 and ω{sub eff} = −1, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with Ω{sub 0r} = 1 and the matter dominate during the matter phases when Ω{sub 0m} = 1. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the ΛCDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically viability condition for these models. We investigate the stability condition with respect to the homogeneous scalar perturbations in each era and we obtain the stability conditions for the fixed points in each eras. Finally, we reconstruct the function f(T) which mimics cosmic expansion history.

  1. FT-IR imaging for quantitative determination of liver fat content in non-alcoholic fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, K; Maslak, E; Chlopicki, S; Baranska, M

    2015-08-07

    In this work we apply FT-IR imaging of large areas of liver tissue cross-section samples (∼5 cm × 5 cm) for quantitative assessment of steatosis in murine model of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFLD). We quantified the area of liver tissue occupied by lipid droplets (LDs) by FT-IR imaging and Oil Red O (ORO) staining for comparison. Two alternative FT-IR based approaches are presented. The first, straightforward method, was based on average spectra from tissues and provided values of the fat content by using a PLS regression model and the reference method. The second one – the chemometric-based method – enabled us to determine the values of the fat content, independently of the reference method by means of k-means cluster (KMC) analysis. In summary, FT-IR images of large size liver sections may prove to be useful for quantifying liver steatosis without the need of tissue staining.

  2. Textural Properties of Agarose Gels described by FT-Rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, C.O.; Venema, P.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2008-01-01

    Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear was used to determine the non-linear rheological properties of agarose gels. The analysis was performed with the characteristic functions method based on FT-Rheology, that gives access to a physical interpretation of the non-linear regime. This analysis was then

  3. Intravenous Iron Therapy in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: Dosing Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Koch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide clinicians with evidence-based guidance for iron therapy dosing in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA, we conducted a study examining the benefits of a higher cumulative dose of intravenous (IV iron than what is typically administered. Methods. We first individually analyzed 5 clinical studies, averaging the total iron deficit across all patients utilizing a modified Ganzoni formula; we then similarly analyzed 2 larger clinical studies. For the second of the larger studies (Study 7, we also compared the efficacy and retreatment requirements of a cumulative dose of 1500 mg ferric carboxymaltose (FCM to 1000 mg iron sucrose (IS. Results. The average iron deficit was calculated to be 1531 mg for patients in Studies 1–5 and 1392 mg for patients in Studies 6-7. The percentage of patients who were retreated with IV iron between Days 56 and 90 was significantly (p<0.001 lower (5.6% in the 1500 mg group, compared to the 1000 mg group (11.1%. Conclusions. Our data suggests that a total cumulative dose of 1000 mg of IV iron may be insufficient for iron repletion in a majority of patients with IDA and a dose of 1500 mg is closer to the actual iron deficit in these patients.

  4. Slitrk1-deficient mice display elevated anxiety-like behavior and noradrenergic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K; Yamada, K; Ornthanalai, V G; Inoue, T; Ota, M; Murphy, N P; Aruga, J

    2010-02-01

    Mutations in SLITRK1 are found in patients with Tourette's syndrome and trichotillomania. SLITRK1 encodes a transmembrane protein containing leucine-rich repeats that is produced predominantly in the nervous system. However, the role of this protein is largely unknown, except that it can modulate neurite outgrowth in vitro. To clarify the role of Slitrk1 in vivo, we developed Slitrk1-knockout mice and analyzed their behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes. Slitrk1-deficient mice exhibited elevated anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze test as well as increased immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Neurochemical analysis revealed that Slitrk1-knockout mice had increased levels of norepinephrine and its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. Administration of clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist that is frequently used to treat patients with Tourette's syndrome, attenuated the anxiety-like behavior of Slitrk1-deficient mice in the elevated plus-maze test. These results lead us to conclude that noradrenergic mechanisms are involved in the behavioral abnormalities of Slitrk1-deficient mice. Elevated anxiety due to Slitrk1 dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Tourette's syndrome and trichotillomania.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  7. Isolated cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in G93A SOD1 mice overexpressing CCS protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Marjatta; Leary, Scot C; Romain, Nadine; Pierrel, Fabien; Winge, Dennis R; Haller, Ronald G; Elliott, Jeffrey L

    2008-05-02

    G93A SOD1 transgenic mice overexpressing CCS protein develop an accelerated disease course that is associated with enhanced mitochondrial pathology and increased mitochondrial localization of mutant SOD1. Because these results suggest an effect of mutant SOD1 on mitochondrial function, we assessed the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 and control mice. CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord demonstrates a 55% loss of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) activity compared with spinal cord from age-matched non-transgenic or G93A SOD1 mice. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 spinal cord shows no reduction in the activities of complex I, II, or III. Blue native gel analysis further demonstrates a marked reduction in the levels of complex IV but not of complex I, II, III, or V in spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 mice compared with non-transgenic, G93A SOD1, or CCS/WT SOD1 controls. With SDS-PAGE analysis, spinal cords from CCS/G93A SOD1 mice showed significant decreases in the levels of two structural subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, COX1 and COX5b, relative to controls. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord showed no reduction in levels of selected subunits from complexes I, II, III, or V. Heme A analyses of spinal cord further support the existence of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in CCS/G93A SOD1 mice. Collectively, these results establish that CCS/G93A SOD1 mice manifest an isolated complex IV deficiency which may underlie a substantial part of mutant SOD1-induced mitochondrial cytopathy.

  8. What Are Rare Clotting Factor Deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  11. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  12. Effects of Nrf2 Deficiency on Bone Microarchitecture in an Experimental Model of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ibáñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Redox imbalance contributes to bone fragility. We have evaluated the in vivo role of nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2, an important regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress, in bone metabolism using a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods. Ovariectomy was performed in both wild-type and mice deficient in Nrf2 (Nrf2−/−. Bone microarchitecture was analyzed by μCT. Serum markers of bone metabolism were also measured. Reactive oxygen species production was determined using dihydrorhodamine 123. Results. Sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice exhibit a loss in trabecular bone mineral density in femur, accompanied by a reduction in cortical area in vertebrae. Nrf2 deficiency tended to increase osteoblastic markers and significantly enhanced osteoclastic markers in sham-operated animals indicating an increased bone turnover with a main effect on bone resorption. We have also shown an increased production of oxidative stress in bone marrow-derived cells from sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice and a higher responsiveness of bone marrow-derived cells to osteoclastogenic stimuli in vitro. Conclusion. We have demonstrated in vivo a key role of Nrf2 in the maintenance of bone microarchitecture.

  13. Pentastatin-1, a collagen IV derived 20-mer peptide, suppresses tumor growth in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimaki, Jacob E; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Tang, Benjamin C; Hammers, Hans; Watkins, D Neil; Pili, Roberto; Popel, Aleksander S

    2010-02-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of neovasculature from a pre-existing vascular network. Progression of solid tumors including lung cancer is angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a bioinformatics-based methodology to identify endogenous anti-angiogenic peptide sequences, and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration assays. One family of peptides with high activity is derived from the alpha-fibrils of type IV collagen. Based on the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of a 20 amino acid peptide derived from the alpha5 fibril of type IV collagen, pentastatin-1, to suppress vessel growth in an angioreactor-based directed in vivo angiogenesis assay (DIVAA). In addition, pentastatin-1 suppressed tumor growth with intraperitoneal peptide administration in a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenograft model in nude mice using the NCI-H82 human cancer cell line. Pentastatin-1 decreased the invasion of vessels into angioreactors in vivo in a dose dependent manner. The peptide also decreased the rate of tumor growth and microvascular density in vivo in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model. The peptide treatment significantly decreased the invasion of microvessels in angioreactors and the rate of tumor growth in the xenograft model, indicating potential treatment for angiogenesis-dependent disease, and for translational development as a therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  14. Pentastatin-1, a collagen IV derived 20-mer peptide, suppresses tumor growth in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskimaki, Jacob E; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Tang, Benjamin C; Hammers, Hans; Watkins, D Neil; Pili, Roberto; Popel, Aleksander S

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of neovasculature from a pre-existing vascular network. Progression of solid tumors including lung cancer is angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a bioinformatics-based methodology to identify endogenous anti-angiogenic peptide sequences, and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration assays. One family of peptides with high activity is derived from the α-fibrils of type IV collagen. Based on the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of a 20 amino acid peptide derived from the α5 fibril of type IV collagen, pentastatin-1, to suppress vessel growth in an angioreactor-based directed in vivo angiogenesis assay (DIVAA). In addition, pentastatin-1 suppressed tumor growth with intraperitoneal peptide administration in a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenograft model in nude mice using the NCI-H82 human cancer cell line. Pentastatin-1 decreased the invasion of vessels into angioreactors in vivo in a dose dependent manner. The peptide also decreased the rate of tumor growth and microvascular density in vivo in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model. The peptide treatment significantly decreased the invasion of microvessels in angioreactors and the rate of tumor growth in the xenograft model, indicating potential treatment for angiogenesis-dependent disease, and for translational development as a therapeutic agent for lung cancer

  15. On the molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein deficiency type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija L Mehtälä

    Full Text Available Molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein (D-BP deficiency was studied with wild type and five disease-causing variants of 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase fragment of the human MFE-2 (multifunctional enzyme type 2 protein. Complementation analysis in vivo in yeast and in vitro enzyme kinetic and stability determinants as well as in silico stability and structural fluctuation calculations were correlated with clinical data of known patients. Despite variations not affecting the catalytic residues, enzyme kinetic performance (K(m, V(max and k(cat of the recombinant protein variants were compromised to a varying extent and this can be judged as the direct molecular cause for D-BP deficiency. Protein stability plays an additional role in producing non-functionality of MFE-2 in case structural variations affect cofactor or substrate binding sites. Structure-function considerations of the variant proteins matched well with the available data of the patients.

  16. Magnesium deficiency improves glucose homeostasis in the rat: studies in vivo and in isolated islets in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M A; Latorraca, M Q; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Saad, M J; Velloso, L A; Reyes, F G

    2001-05-01

    The serum mineral levels, glucose disappearance rate (kg), total area under the glucose (DeltaG) and insulin (DeltaI) curves, and static insulin secretion were compared among rats fed a Mg-deficient diet for 6 (DF-6) or 11 (DF-11) weeks, and rats fed a control diet for the same periods (CO-6 and CO-11 groups). No change in glucose homeostasis was observed among DF-6, CO-6 and CO-11 rats. DF-11 rats showed an elevated kg and a reduced DeltaG and DeltaI. For evaluating the effect of supplementation, rats fed a control or Mg-deficient diet for 6 weeks were then fed a Mg- supplemented diet for 5 weeks (SCO and SDF groups respectively). The serum Mg levels in SDF rats were similar to those in CO-11 and SCO rats, but higher than in the DF-11 group. SDF rats showed similar kg, DeltaG and DeltaI compared with the CO-11 and SCO groups. However, a significantly lower kg and higher DeltaG and DeltaI were observed in SDF compared with DF-11 rats. Basal and 8.3 mmol glucose/l-stimulated insulin secretion by islets from DF-11 rats were higher than by islets from CO-11 rats. These results indicate that moderate Mg depletion for a long period may increase the secretion and sensitivity to insulin, while Mg supplementation in formerly Mg-deficient rats may prevent the increase in sensitivity and secretion of insulin.

  17. Molecular analysis of beta-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) deficiency among persons of French Canadian background living in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.; Richard, M.; Wasel, N. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnepeg (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) results from mutations in the HEXA gene that cause Hex A deficiency. Enzyme screening for disease prevention has been applied in the Ashkenazi Jewish and French Canadian populations which have an elevated disease incidence. However, benign mutations that cause Hex A deficiency, but not TSD, complicate enzyme screening programs. While benign mutations account for only about 2% of Jewish carriers, they account for about 36% of non-Jewish enzyme-defined carriers. We have found a carrier frequency of 1/72 (n=1300) among persons of French Canadian background living in New England using an enzyme-based assay. The HEXA gene of these carriers and others was analyzed to determine the molecular basis of Hex A deficiency in this group. DNA samples were tested for common previously identified mutations; samples in which no change was found were screened for uncommon or novel mutations using SSCP analysis. Exons showing mobility shifts were sequenced and most mutations were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion. Known disease-causing mutations were found in 8 samples (4 had a 7.6 kb deletion found in 80% of French Canadian TSD alleles) and known benign mutations were found in 4 samples. Seven novel mutations (G748A; +18 IVS-10 G-to-A; T1338C; +94 IVS-14 T-to-G; C1164G; +30 IVS-6 T-to-G) were identified; the G748A (Gly250Ser) change was found in 3 samples. The effects of the novel mutations on Hex A is unknown; some are likely polymorphisms. The molecular basis of this carrier population is clearly different from that of French Canadian TSD patients. Screening centers should be aware of the presence of benign mutations in the French Canadian population. Given the frequency of the Gly250Ser mutation, and the fact that it has been detected in a TSD patient, it too may be benign.

  18. Computer simulation of FT-NMR multiple pulse experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, A.; Pouzard, G.

    1989-04-01

    Using the product operator formalism in its real form, SIMULDENS expands the density matrix of a scalar coupled nuclear spin system and simulates analytically a large variety of FT-NMR multiple pulse experiments. The observable transverse magnetizations are stored and can be combined to represent signal accumulation. The programming language is VAX PASCAL, but a MacIntosh Turbo Pascal Version is also available.

  19. Ficolins Promote Fungal Clearance in vivo and Modulate the Inflammatory Cytokine Response in Host Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, N; Cramer, E Præstekjær; Rosbjerg, A

    2016-01-01

    the lectin pathway of complement. Previous in vitro studies reported that ficolins bind to A. fumigatus, but their part in host defense against fungal infections in vivo is unknown. In this study, we used ficolin-deficient mice to investigate the role of ficolins during lung infection with A. fumigatus......-mediated complement activation in ficolin knockout mice and wild-type mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ficolins are important in initial innate host defense against A. fumigatus infections in vivo....

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  1. Health Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all health deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  2. Antioxidant Capacity of Flavonoids in Hepatic Microsomes Is not Reflected by Antioxidant Effects In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Duthie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with potential antioxidant activity via multiple reduction capacities. Oxidation of cellular lipids has been implicated in many diseases. Consequently, this study has assessed the ability of several dietary flavonoid aglycones to suppress lipid peroxidation of hepatic microsomes derived from rats deficient in the major lipid soluble antioxidant, dα-tocopherol. Antioxidant effectiveness was galangin > quercetin > kaempferol > fisetin > myricetin > morin > catechin > apigenin. However, none of the flavonoids were as effective as dα-tocopherol, particularly at the lowest concentrations used. In addition, there appears to be an important distinction between the in vitro antioxidant effectiveness of flavonoids and their ability to suppress indices of oxidation in vivo. Compared with dα-tocopherol, repletion of vitamin E deficient rats with quercetin, kaempferol, or myricetin did not significantly affect indices of lipid peroxidation and tissue damage. Direct antioxidant effect of flavonoids in vivo was not apparent probably due to low bioavailability although indirect redox effects through stimulation of the antioxidant response element cannot be excluded.

  3. Fc Receptor-Targeting of Immunogen as a Strategy for Enhanced Antigen Loading, Vaccination, and Protection Using Intranasally-Administered Antigen-Pulsed Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H.; Iglesias, Bibiana V.; Gosselin, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using an F. tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25068496

  4. Fc receptor-targeting of immunogen as a strategy for enhanced antigen loading, vaccination, and protection using intranasally administered antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H; Iglesias, Bibiana V; Gosselin, Edmund J

    2014-09-08

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using a Francisella tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR-targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  6. Quantum computational studies, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis) profiling, natural hybrid orbital and molecular docking analysis on 2,4 Dibromoaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Christina Susan; Prasana, Johanan Christian; Muthu, S.; Rizwana B, Fathima; Raja, M.

    2018-05-01

    The research exploration will comprise of investigating the molecular structure, vibrational assignments, bonding and anti-bonding nature, nonlinear optical, electronic and thermodynamic nature of the molecule. The research is conducted at two levels: First level employs the spectroscopic techniques - FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis characterizing techniques; at second level the data attained experimentally is analyzed through theoretical methods using and Density Function Theories which involves the basic principle of solving the Schrodinger equation for many body systems. A comparison is drawn between the two levels and discussed. The probability of the title molecule being bio-active theoretically proved by the electrophilicity index leads to further property analyzes of the molecule. The target molecule is found to fit well with Centromere associated protein inhibitor using molecular docking techniques. Higher basis set 6-311++G(d,p) is used to attain results more concurrent to the experimental data. The results of the organic amine 2, 4 Dibromoaniline is analyzed and discussed.

  7. Complexation of the An(IV) by NTA; Complexation des An(IV) par le NTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, L. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)]|[CEA Valrho, Lab. de Chimie des Actinides (LCA), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of the Nuclear and Environmental Toxicology program, developed in France, it has been decided to take again the studies concerning the actinides decorporation. A similar study of the neptunium complexation by the citrate ions has been carried out on the complexation of Np(IV) with the nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). The NTA can be considered as a model molecule of the de-corporating molecules (amino-carboxy- ligand). The results of the spectrophotometric measurements being encouraging, the behaviour of several actinides at the same oxidation state (+IV) (Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV)) has been determined. The experimental results are presented. In order to determine the structure of the complexes of stoichiometry 1:2 An(IV)-(NTA){sub 2} in solution, quantic chemistry calculations and EXAFS measurements have been carried out in parallel. These studies confirm the presence of An(IV)-nitrogen bonds whose length decreases from thorium to plutonium and indicate the presence of a water molecule bound to the thorium and the uranium (coordination number 8 for Np/Pu, 9 for Th/U). The evolution of the complexation constants determined in this study in terms of 1/r (r ionic radius of the cation taking into account its coordination number 8 or 9) confirms the change of the coordination number between Th/U and Np/Pu. (O.M.)

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  9. FY17 Accomplishments - Testing Facilities and Capabilities at SWiFT, SNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) facility operated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has, in support of the Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) research program, acquired measurements of wind turbine wake dynamics under various atmospheric conditions and while interacting with a downstream wind turbine. SNL researchers, in collaboration with National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers, installed a customized LIDAR system created by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in one of the SWiFT wind turbines (Figure 1) and operated that turbine with intentional yaw-versus-winddirection misalignment to study the behavior of the turbine wake under numerous combinations of atmospheric conditions and turbine yaw offsets. The DTU-customized LIDAR provided detailed measurements of the wake’s shape and location at many distances downwind of the turbine (Figure 2). These measurements will benefit wind energy researchers looking to understand wind turbine wake behavior and improve modeling and simulation of wake dynamics, including the “wake steering” affect that is observed when turbine yaw offset is controlled. During the test campaign, two SWiFT wind turbines were operated at the same time to observe the influence of the turbines on each other as the wake of the upwind turbine was observed sweeping over and interacting with the downwind turbine.

  10. In vivo evaluation of striatal dopamine reuptake sites using 11C-nomifensine and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, S.-M.; Bergstroem, K.; Eckernaes, S.-Aa.; Leenders, K.L.; Hartvig, P.; Lundquist, H.; Antoni, G.; Gee, A.; Rimland, A.; Uhlin, J.; Langstroem, B.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro nomifensine demonstrates high affinity and specificity for dopamine reuptake sites in the brain. In the present study 11 C-nomifensine was administered i.v. in trace amounts (10-50 μg) to ketamine anaesthetized Rhesus monkeys (6-10 kg b.w.) and the timecourse of radioactivity within different brain regions was measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Six base-line experiments lasting for 60-80 min were performed. The procedure was repeated after pretreatment with nomifensine (2-6 mg/kg i.v.), another reuptake inhibitor, mazindol (0.3 mg/kg i.v.), desipramine (0.5 mg/kg i.v.) or spiperone (0.3 mg/kg i.v.) before the administration of a second 11 C-nomifensine dose. The highest radioactivity uptake was found in the dopamine innervated striatum and the lowest in a region containing the cerebellum, known to be almost devoid of dopaminergic neurons. The difference between striatal and cerebellar uptake of 11 C-nomifensine derived radioactivity was markedly reduced after nomifensine and mazindol but not after desipramine and spiperone. These results indicate that in vivo the striatal uptake of 11 C-nomifensine, as measured with PET, involves specific binding with the dopamine reuptake sites. In the first human applications of 11 C-nomifensine and PET in a healthy volunteer, the regional uptake of radioactivity was similar to that in base-line experiments with Rhesus monkeys. In the healthy subject the striatal/cerebellar ratio was 1.6, 50 min after the injection of 11 C-nomifensine. In a hemi-parkinsonian patient this ratio was 1.1 contralaterally and 1.3 ipsilaterally to the affected side. 11 C-nomifensine and PET seems to be an auspicious method to measure the striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals of man in vivo. (author)

  11. A novel synthetic single crystal diamond device for in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, Marco; Prestopino, G.; Tonnetti, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Falco, M. D.; Bagalà, P.; Pimpinella, M.; Guerra, A. S.; De Coste, V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of the present work is to evaluate the synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky photodiode developed at the laboratories of “Tor Vergata” University in Rome in a new dosimeter configuration specifically designed for offline wireless in vivo dosimetry (IVD) applications. Methods: The new diamond based dosimeter, single crystal diamond detector (SCDD-iv), consists of a small unwired detector and a small external reading unit that can be connected to commercial electrometers for getting the detector readout after irradiation. Two nominally identical SCDD-iv dosimeter prototypes were fabricated and tested. A basic dosimetric characterization of detector performances relevant for IVD application was performed under irradiation with "6"0Co and 6 MV photon beams. Preirradiation procedure, response stability, short and long term reproducibility, leakage charge, fading effect, linearity with dose, dose rate dependence, temperature dependence, and angular response were investigated. Results: The SCDD-iv is simple, with no cables linked to the patient and the readout is immediate. The range of response with dose has been tested from 1 up to 12 Gy; the reading is independent of the accumulated dose and dose rate independent in the range between about 0.5 and 5 Gy/min; its temperature dependence is within 0.5% between 25 and 38 °C, and its directional dependence is within 2% from 0° to 90°. The combined relative standard uncertainty of absorbed dose to water measurements is estimated lower than the tolerance and action level of 5%. Conclusions: The reported results indicate the proposed novel offline dosimeter based on a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky photodiode as a promising candidate for in vivo dosimetry applications with photon beams

  12. Curcumin-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex: stability, solubility, characterisation by FT-IR, FT-Raman, X-ray diffraction and photoacoustic spectroscopy, and food application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolim, Camila Sampaio; Moriwaki, Cristiane; Nogueira, Ana Claudia; Sato, Francielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Neto, Antônio Medina; Matioli, Graciette

    2014-06-15

    Curcumin was complexed with β-CD using co-precipitation, freeze-drying and solvent evaporation methods. Co-precipitation enabled complex formation, as indicated by the FT-IR and FT-Raman techniques via the shifts in the peaks that were assigned to the aromatic rings of curcumin. In addition, photoacoustic spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, with the disappearance of the band related to aromatic rings, by Gaussian fitting, and modifications in the spectral lines, respectively, also suggested complex formation. The possible complexation had an efficiency of 74% and increased the solubility of the pure colourant 31-fold. Curcumin-β-CD complex exhibited a sunlight stability 18% higher than the pure colourant. This material was stable to pH variations and storage at -15 and 4°C. With an isothermal heating at 100 and 150°C for 2h, the material exhibited a colour retention of approximately 99%. The application of curcumin-β-CD complex in vanilla ice creams intensified the colour of the products and produced a great sensorial acceptance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of alkaloids in capsules, milk and ethanolic extracts of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) by ATR-FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hartwig; Baranska, Malgorzata; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Schütze, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Fourier transform (FT) infrared spectroscopy using a diamond composite ATR crystal and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy techniques were applied for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the most important alkaloids in poppy capsules. Most of the characteristic Raman signals of the alkaloids can be identified in poppy milk isolated from unripe capsules. But also poppy extracts present specific bands relating clearly to the alkaloid fraction. Raman spectra obtained by excitation with a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm show no disturbing fluorescence effects; therefore the plant tissue can be recorded without any special preparation. The used diamond ATR technique allows to measure very small sample amounts (5-10 microL or 2-5 mg) without the necessity to perform time-consuming pre-treatments. When applying cluster analysis a reliable discrimination of "low-alkaloid" and "high-alkaloid" poppy single-plants can be easily achieved. The examples presented in this study provide clear evidence of the benefits of Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy in efficient quality control, forensic analysis and high-throughput evaluation of poppy breeding material.

  14. Mutation of the human mitochondrial phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase causes infantile-onset epilepsy and cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Abdulraheem; Alston, Charlotte L; Parker, Alasdair; Simonic, Ingrid; Mehta, Sarju G; He, Langping; Reza, Mojgan; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Lightowlers, Robert N; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are essential enzymes in protein synthesis since they charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. Mutations in the genes encoding mitochondrial aaRSs have been associated with a wide spectrum of human mitochondrial diseases. Here we report the identification of pathogenic mutations (a partial genomic deletion and a highly conserved p. Asp325Tyr missense variant) in FARS2, the gene encoding mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, in a patient with early-onset epilepsy and isolated complex IV deficiency in muscle. The biochemical defect was expressed in myoblasts but not in fibroblasts and associated with decreased steady state levels of COXI and COXII protein and reduced steady state levels of the mt-tRNA(Phe) transcript. Functional analysis of the recombinant mutant p. Asp325Tyr FARS2 protein showed an inability to bind ATP and consequently undetectable aminoacylation activity using either bacterial tRNA or human mt-tRNA(Phe) as substrates. Lentiviral transduction of cells with wildtype FARS2 restored complex IV protein levels, confirming that the p.Asp325Tyr mutation is pathogenic, causing respiratory chain deficiency and neurological deficits on account of defective aminoacylation of mt-tRNA(Phe). © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a delays flowering time in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yupeng; Chen, Li; Liu, Xiujie; Guo, Chen; Sun, Shi; Wu, Cunxiang; Jiang, Bingjun; Han, Tianfu; Hou, Wensheng

    2018-01-01

    Flowering is an indication of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth and has considerable effects on the life cycle of soya bean (Glycine max). In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to specifically induce targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a, an integrator in the photoperiod flowering pathway in soya bean. The soya bean cultivar Jack was transformed with three sgRNA/Cas9 vectors targeting different sites of endogenous GmFT2a via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Site-directed mutations were observed at all targeted sites by DNA sequencing analysis. T1-generation soya bean plants homozygous for null alleles of GmFT2a frameshift mutated by a 1-bp insertion or short deletion exhibited late flowering under natural conditions (summer) in Beijing, China (N39°58', E116°20'). We also found that the targeted mutagenesis was stably heritable in the following T2 generation, and the homozygous GmFT2a mutants exhibited late flowering under both long-day and short-day conditions. We identified some 'transgene-clean' soya bean plants that were homozygous for null alleles of endogenous GmFT2a and without any transgenic element from the T1 and T2 generations. These 'transgene-clean' mutants of GmFT2a may provide materials for more in-depth research of GmFT2a functions and the molecular mechanism of photoperiod responses in soya bean. They will also contribute to soya bean breeding and regional introduction. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Drift and transmission FT-IR spectroscopy of forest soils: an approach to determine decomposition processes of forest litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberhauer, G.; Gerzabek, M.H.

    1999-06-01

    A method is described to characterize organic soil layers using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The applicability of FT-IR, either dispersive or transmission, to investigate decomposition processes of spruce litter in soil originating from three different forest sites in two climatic regions was studied. Spectral information of transmission and diffuse reflection FT-IR spectra was analyzed and compared. For data evaluation Kubelka Munk (KM) transformation was applied to the DRIFT spectra. Sample preparation for DRIFT is simpler and less time consuming in comparison to transmission FT-IR, which uses KBr pellets. A variety of bands characteristics of molecular structures and functional groups has been identified for these complex samples. Analysis of both transmission FT-IR and DRIFT, showed that the intensity of distinct bands is a measure of the decomposition of forest litter. Interferences due to water adsorption spectra were reduced by DRIFT measurement in comparison to transmission FT-IR spectroscopy. However, data analysis revealed that intensity changes of several bands of DRIFT and transmission FT-IR were significantly correlated with soil horizons. The application of regression models enables identification and differentiation of organic forest soil horizons and allows to determine the decomposition status of soil organic matter in distinct layers. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it may be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of decomposition dynamics in forest soils. (author)

  17. Hubungan Kadar FT4 dengan Gejala Klinis yang Terkait Efek Simpatis berdasarkan Indek Wayne pada Nagari Koto Salak Kabupaten Dharmasraya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Kurniawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPeningkatan aktivitas saraf simpatis dapat terjadi pada keadaan hipertiroid dan sebaliknya pada hipotiroid. Pengukuran kadar hormon tiroid dilakukan dengan mengukur kadar FT4, FT3, TSH, dll. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi hubungan kadar FT4 dengan gejala klinis yang terkait efek simpatis di Nagari Koto Salak Kabupaten Dharmasraya. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian cross sectional study. Hasil penelitian didapatkan subjek dengan peningkatan kadar FT4 12,96%. Subjek dengan gejala klinis palpitasi, penurunan berat badan, nervous, berkeringat lebih dan tremor jari halus dengan persentase berturut-turut adalah 42,59%, 38,89%, 46,30%, 25,93% dan 44,44%. Analisis bivariat dengan menggunakan uji statistik chi-square diperoleh hasil tidak ada hubungan hubungan kadar FT4 dengan 5 gejala klinis yang terkait efek simpatis berdasarkan indeks Wayne (p > 0.05. Penelitian ini masih sederhana dan belum bisa menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara kadar FT4 dengan gejala klinis yang terkait efek simpatis. Sebaiknya untuk penelitian yang akan datang diharapkan dapat memiliki jumlah sampel yang banyak dan cakupan gejala klinis lain yang terlibat dalam aktivitas saraf simpatis yang lebih luas sehingga dapat lebih lengkap dan spesifik.Kata kunci: Kadar FT4, efek simpatis, gejala klinis AbstractIncreased sympathetic nerve activity may occur in the state of hyperthyroidism and conversely in hypothyroidism. Measurement of thyroid hormone levels is done by measuring the levels of FT4, FT3, TSH, etc. The objective of this study was to identify the relation between FT4 levels and the clinical symptoms of sympathetic effects in Nagari Koto Salak Kabupaten Dharmasraya. This research used cross sectional study design. According to the research found that subjects with elevated levels of FT4 12.96%. There are subjects with clinical symptoms of palpitations, weight loss, nervousness, sweating more and fine finger tremor by the following

  18. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System: subclasses for in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology and IVIVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Mudie, Deanna M; Langguth, Peter; Amidon, Greg E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-06-16

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has found widespread utility in drug discovery, product development and drug product regulatory sciences. The classification scheme captures the two most significant factors influencing oral drug absorption; solubility and intestinal permeability and it has proven to be a very useful and a widely accepted starting point for drug product development and drug product regulation. The mechanistic base of the BCS approach has, no doubt, contributed to its wide spread acceptance and utility. Nevertheless, underneath the simplicity of BCS are many detailed complexities, both in vitro and in vivo which must be evaluated and investigated for any given drug and drug product. In this manuscript we propose a simple extension of the BCS classes to include sub-specification of acid (a), base (b) and neutral (c) for classes II and IV. Sub-classification for Classes I and III (high solubility drugs as currently defined) is generally not needed except perhaps in border line solubility cases. It is well known that the , pKa physical property of a drug (API) has a significant impact on the aqueous solubility dissolution of drug from the drug product both in vitro and in vivo for BCS Class II and IV acids and bases, and is the basis, we propose for a sub-classification extension of the original BCS classification. This BCS sub-classification is particularly important for in vivo predictive dissolution methodology development due to the complex and variable in vivo environment in the gastrointestinal tract, with its changing pH, buffer capacity, luminal volume, surfactant luminal conditions, permeability profile along the gastrointestinal tract and variable transit and fasted and fed states. We believe this sub-classification is a step toward developing a more science-based mechanistic in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology. Such a dissolution methodology can be used by development scientists to assess the likelihood of a

  19. The effect of iron-deficiency anemia on cytolytic activity of mice spleen and peritoneal cells against allogenic tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvibidila, S.R.; Baliga, B.S.; Suskind, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The capacity of spleen and peritoneal cells from iron deficient mice, ad libitum fed control mice, and pair-fed mice to kill allogenic tumor cells (mastocytoma tumor P815) has been investigated. In the first study, mice were sensitized in vivo with 10(7) viable tumor cells 51 and 56 days after weaning. The capacity of splenic cells and peritoneal cells from sensitized and nonsensitized mice to kill tumor cells was evaluated 5 days after the second dose of tumor cells. At ratios of 2.5:1 to 100:1 of attacker to target cells, the percentage 51 Cr release after 4 h of incubation was significantly less in iron-deficient mice than control and/or pair-fed mice (p less than 0.05). Protein-energy undernutrition in pair-fed mice had no significant effect. In the second study, spleen cells and enriched T cell fractions were incubated in vitro for 5 days with uv irradiated Balb/C spleen cells in a 2:1 ratio. The cytotoxic capacity against the same allogenic tumor cells was again evaluated. The percentage chromium release at different attacker to target cells was less than 30% in the iron-deficient group compared to either control or pair-fed supporting the results of in vivo sensitized cells. The possible mode of impairment of the cytotoxic capacity is discussed

  20. Computer simulation of FT-NMR multiple pulse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouche, A.; Pouzard, G.

    1989-01-01

    Using the product operator formalism in its real form, SIMULDENS expands the density matrix of a scalar coupled nuclear spin system and simulates analytically a large variety of FT-NMR multiple pulse experiments. The observable transverse magnetizations are stored and can be combined to represent signal accumulation. The programming language is VAX PASCAL, but a MacIntosh Turbo Pascal Version is also available. (orig.)

  1. The relationship between iron level and thyroid function during the first trimester of pregnancy: A cross-sectional study in Wuxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinyan; Yang, Anqiang; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Yunlong; Gu, Ying; Xu, Yaohui; Chen, Daozhen

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between iron level and thyroid function during the first trimester of pregnancy in Eastern China. This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional observational study. A total of 1764 pregnant women were enrolled during their first trimester of gestation in Wuxi city. Serum ferritin (SF), hemoglobin (Hb), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were measured and evaluated in pregnant women. The median of TSH,FT4 and FT3 were 1.53mIU/L,10.43pmol/L and 4.50pmol/L respectively. The median UIC was 200μg/L and the median Hb was 126g/L. Of all the women, 1.76% of the subjects had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) (SFiron deficiency (ID) (SF100μg/L group, the FT4 level was significantly lower in SF20μg/L group was significantly higher than that in SF 20-100μg/L group (P=0.038) and SF>100μg/L group(P=0.034). There was an inverse linear relationship between TSH and FT4 after log transformation (r=0.245,P=0.000). Moreover, spearman's correlation analysis showed that UIC were correlated with SF and FT3 (all Piron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia shoud be evaluated and treated to combat thyroid dysfunction during the first trimester of pregnancy, Meanwhile, an increased attention should be paid on iodine nutritional status among this pregnant women simultaneous iron deficiency and thyroid dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies of (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and DFT) 4-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) butan-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, P; Gunasekaran, S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range 4000-50 cm(-1) and 4000-450 cm(-1) respectively for 4-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) butan-2-one (abbreviated as 4MNBO) molecule. Theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method using 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The difference between the observed and calculated wavenumber value of most of the fundamentals were very small. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The UV-Vis spectrum was recorded in the methanol solution. The energy, wavelength and oscillator's strength were calculated by Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) and matched to the experimental findings. The intramolecular contacts have been interpreted using natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis. Thermodynamic properties of 4MNBO at different temperature have been calculated. The molecular electrostatic potential surface (MESP) and Frontier molecular orbital's (FMO's) analysis were investigated using theoretical calculations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D-deficient mice have more invasive urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Olof; Lüthje, Petra; Sullivan, Devin; Aspenström, Pontus; Brauner, Annelie

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem with consequences not limited to bone and calcium hemostasis. Low levels have also been linked to tuberculosis and other respiratory infections as well as autoimmune diseases. We have previously shown that supplementation with vitamin D can induce the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin during ex vivo infection of human urinary bladder. In rodents, however, cathelicidin expression is not linked to vitamin D and therefore this vitamin D-related effect fighting bacterial invasion is not relevant. To determine if vitamin D had further protective mechanisms during urinary tract infections, we therefore used a mouse model. In vitamin D-deficient mice, we detected more intracellular bacterial communities in the urinary bladder, higher degree of bacterial spread to the upper urinary tract and a skewed cytokine response. Furthermore, we show that the vitamin D receptor was upregulated in the urinary bladder and translocated into the cell nucleus after E. coli infection. This study supports a more general role for vitamin D as a local immune response mediator in the urinary tract.

  4. Lysis-deficient phages as novel therapeutic agents for controlling bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempashanaiah Nanjundappa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in phage therapy has grown over the past decade due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. However, the use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes has raised concerns over the potential for immune response, rapid toxin release by the lytic action of phages, and difficulty in dose determination in clinical situations. A phage that kills the target cell but is incapable of host cell lysis would alleviate these concerns without compromising efficacy. Results We developed a recombinant lysis-deficient Staphylococcus aureus phage P954, in which the endolysin gene was rendered nonfunctional by insertional inactivation. P954, a temperate phage, was lysogenized in S. aureus strain RN4220. The native endolysin gene on the prophage was replaced with an endolysin gene disrupted by the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat gene through homologous recombination using a plasmid construct. Lysogens carrying the recombinant phage were detected by growth in presence of chloramphenicol. Induction of the recombinant prophage did not result in host cell lysis, and the phage progeny were released by cell lysis with glass beads. The recombinant phage retained the endolysin-deficient genotype and formed plaques only when endolysin was supplemented. The host range of the recombinant phage was the same as that of the parent phage. To test the in vivo efficacy of the recombinant endolysin-deficient phage, immunocompromised mice were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus at a dose that results in 80% mortality (LD80. Treatment with the endolysin-deficient phage rescued mice from the fatal S. aureus infection. Conclusions A recombinant endolysin-deficient staphylococcal phage has been developed that is lethal to methicillin-resistant S. aureus without causing bacterial cell lysis. The phage was able to multiply in lytic mode utilizing a heterologous endolysin expressed from a plasmid in the propagation host

  5. The Vaccinium corymbosum FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT): a flowering activator reverses photoperiodic and chilling requirements in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Walworth, Aaron; Zhao, Dongyan; Jiang, Ning; Hancock, James F

    2013-11-01

    The blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T ( FT )-like gene ( VcFT ) cloned from the cDNA of a tetraploid, northern highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is able to reverse the photoperiodic and chilling requirements and drive early and continuous flowering. Blueberry is a woody perennial bush with a longer juvenile period than annual crops, requiring vernalization to flower normally. Few studies have been reported on the molecular mechanism of flowering in blueberry or other woody plants. Because FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) from Arabidopsis thaliana plays a multifaceted role in generating mobile molecular signals to regulate plant flowering time, isolation and functional analysis of the blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT-like gene (VcFT) will facilitate the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of flowering in woody plants. Based on EST sequences, a 525-bpVcFT was identified and cloned from the cDNA of a tetraploid, northern highbush blueberry cultivar, Bluecrop. Ectopic expression of 35S:VcFT in tobacco induced flowering an average of 28 days earlier than wild-type plants. Expression of the 35S:VcFT in the blueberry cultivar Aurora resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype, which flowered not only during in vitro culture, a growth stage when nontransgenic shoots had not yet flowered, but also in 6-10-week old, soil-grown transgenic plants, in contrast to the fact that at least 1 year and 800 chilling hours are required for the appearance of the first flower of both nontransgenic 'Aurora' and transgenic controls with the gusA. These results demonstrate that the VcFT is a functional floral activator and overexpression of the VcFT is able to reverse the photoperiodic and chilling requirements and drive early and continuous flowering.

  6. Iodine deficiency disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.).

  7. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuyuki; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding cellular fusion and nuclear reprogramming may aid in cell therapy strategies for skeletal muscle diseases. An issue with cell therapy approaches to restore dystrophin expression in muscular dystrophy is obtaining a sufficient quantity of cells that normally fuse with muscle. Here we conferred fusogenic activity without transdifferentiation to multiple non-muscle cell types and tested dystrophin restoration in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. We previously demonstrated that myomaker, a skeletal muscle-specific transmembrane protein necessary for myoblast fusion, is sufficient to fuse 10T 1/2 fibroblasts to myoblasts in vitro. Whether myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion is functional in vivo and whether the newly introduced nonmuscle nuclei undergoes nuclear reprogramming has not been investigated. We showed that mesenchymal stromal cells, cortical bone stem cells, and tail-tip fibroblasts fuse to skeletal muscle when they express myomaker. These cells restored dystrophin expression in a fraction of dystrophin-deficient myotubes after fusion in vitro. However, dystrophin restoration was not detected in vivo although nuclear reprogramming of the muscle-specific myosin light chain promoter did occur. Despite the lack of detectable dystrophin reprogramming by immunostaining, this study indicated that myomaker could be used in nonmuscle cells to induce fusion with muscle in vivo, thereby providing a platform to deliver therapeutic material.-Mitani, Y., Vagnozzi, R. J., Millay, D. P. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming. © FASEB.

  8. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Rønø, Birgitte; Hald, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    -sensitive MMPs during wound healing. To address whether MMP2 is accountable for the galardin-induced healing deficiency in wildtype and Plg-deficient mice, incisional skin wounds were generated in MMP2 single-deficient mice and in MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice and followed until healed. Alternatively, tissue...... was isolated 7 days post wounding for histological and biochemical analyses. No difference was found in the time from wounding to overt gross restoration of the epidermal surface between MMP2-deficient and wildtype control littermate mice. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice were viable and fertile, and displayed...... an unchallenged general phenotype resembling that of Plg-deficient mice, including development of rectal prolapses. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice displayed a slight increase in the wound length throughout the healing period compared with Plg-deficient mice. However, the overall time to complete healing...

  9. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. In vivo therapeutic responses contingent on Fanconi anemia/BRCA2 status of the tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Michiel S; Brody, Jonathan R; Dezentje, David A; Gallmeier, Eike; Cunningham, Steven C; Swartz, Michael J; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Isacoff, William H; Hruban, Ralph H; Kern, Scott E

    2005-10-15

    BRCA2, FANCC, and FANCG gene mutations are present in a subset of pancreatic cancer. Defects in these genes could lead to hypersensitivity to interstrand cross-linkers in vivo and a more optimal treatment of pancreatic cancer patients based on the genetic profile of the tumor. Two retrovirally complemented pancreatic cancer cell lines having defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway, PL11 (FANCC-mutated) and Hs766T (FANCG-mutated), as well as several parental pancreatic cancer cell lines with or without mutations in the Fanconi anemia/BRCA2 pathway, were assayed for in vitro and in vivo sensitivities to various chemotherapeutic agents. A distinct dichotomy of drug responses was observed. Fanconi anemia-defective cancer cells were hypersensitive to the cross-linking agents mitomycin C (MMC), cisplatin, chlorambucil, and melphalan but not to 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, doxorubicin, etoposide, vinblastine, or paclitaxel. Hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents was confirmed in vivo; FANCC-deficient xenografts of PL11 and BRCA2-deficient xenografts of CAPAN1 regressed on treatment with two different regimens of MMC whereas Fanconi anemia-proficient xenografts did not. The MMC response comprised cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and necrosis. Xenografts of PL11 also regressed after a single dose of cyclophosphamide whereas xenografts of genetically complemented PL11(FANCC) did not. MMC or other cross-linking agents as a clinical therapy for pancreatic cancer patients with tumors harboring defects in the Fanconi anemia/BRCA2 pathway should be specifically investigated.

  11. Factors influencing preclinical in vivo evaluation of mumps vaccine strain immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halassy, B; Kurtović, T; Brgles, M; Lang Balija, M; Forčić, D

    2015-01-01

    Immunogenicity testing in animals is a necessary preclinical assay for demonstration of vaccine efficacy the results of which are often the basis for the decision whether to proceed or withdraw the further development of the novel vaccine candidate. However, in vivo assays are rarely, if at all, optimized and validated. Here we clearly demonstrate the importance of in vivo assay (mumps virus immunogenicity testing in guinea pigs) optimization for gaining reliable results and the suitability of Fractional factorial design of experiments (DoE) for such a purpose. By the use of DoE with resolution IV (2IV((4-1))) we clearly revealed that the parameters significantly increasing assay sensitivity were interval between animal immunizations followed by the body weight of experimental animals. The quantity (0 versus 2%) of the stabilizer (fetal bovine serum, FBS) in the sample was shown as non-influencing parameter in DoE setup. However, the separate experiment investigating only the FBS influence, and performed under other parameters optimally set, showed that FBS also influences the results of immunogenicity assay. Such finding indicated that (a) factors with strong influence on the measured outcome can hide the effects of parameters with modest/low influence and (b) the matrix of mumps virus samples to be compared for immunogenicity must be identical for reliable virus immunogenicity comparison. Finally the 3 mumps vaccine strains widely used for decades in the licensed vaccines were for the first time compared in an animal model, and results obtained were in line with their reported immunogenicity in human population supporting the predictive power of the optimized in vivo assay.

  12. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  13. In vivo localization of cloned IL-2-dependent T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.M.; Palladino, M.A.; Oettgen, H.; De Sousa, M.

    1983-01-01

    The quantitative organ distribution and tissue microenvironment positioning of radioisotopically labeled cloned T cells were characterized. Intravenous (iv) injection of 51chromium ( 51 Cr)-labeled, long-term cultured cloned T-helper cells and cells from several cloned cytolytic T-lymphocyte lines (CTLL) resulted in poor localization of these cells in recipient lymphoid tissues, similar to results reported for activated lymphoblastoid cells. Simultaneous administration of interleukin 2 (IL-2) with labeled cells resulted in enhanced recovery from recipient spleen. By the intraperitoneal (ip) injection route, overall percentage recovery of injected radioactivity was lower than by the iv route, but significant localization to lymph nodes occurred. Examination of autoradiographs of tissue sections from recipients of [ 3 H]adenosine-labeled cells showed most label associated with intact, isolated cells in the liver, lungs, spleen, and small intestine. By 24 hr after iv injection, labeled cells in spleen sections were distributed to both nonlymphoid and T- and B-lymphoid areas. These findings suggest that poor localization of these cells to recipient lymphoid tissue is due both to intrinsic characteristics of cultured lymphocytes and to the possible reduced viability of IL-2-dependent cells in vivo

  14. Determination of cellulose I crystallinity by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Two new methods based on FT-Raman spectroscopy, one simple, based on band intensity ratio, and the other, using a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model, are proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. In the simple method, crystallinity in semicrystalline cellulose I samples was determined based on univariate regression that was first developed using the...

  15. A bifurcation identifier for IV-OCT using orthogonal least squares and supervised machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maysa M G; Guimarães, Welingson V N; Galon, Micheli Z; Takimura, Celso K; Lemos, Pedro A; Gutierrez, Marco Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT) is an in-vivo imaging modality based on the intravascular introduction of a catheter which provides a view of the inner wall of blood vessels with a spatial resolution of 10-20 μm. Recent studies in IV-OCT have demonstrated the importance of the bifurcation regions. Therefore, the development of an automated tool to classify hundreds of coronary OCT frames as bifurcation or nonbifurcation can be an important step to improve automated methods for atherosclerotic plaques quantification, stent analysis and co-registration between different modalities. This paper describes a fully automated method to identify IV-OCT frames in bifurcation regions. The method is divided into lumen detection; feature extraction; and classification, providing a lumen area quantification, geometrical features of the cross-sectional lumen and labeled slices. This classification method is a combination of supervised machine learning algorithms and feature selection using orthogonal least squares methods. Training and tests were performed in sets with a maximum of 1460 human coronary OCT frames. The lumen segmentation achieved a mean difference of lumen area of 0.11 mm(2) compared with manual segmentation, and the AdaBoost classifier presented the best result reaching a F-measure score of 97.5% using 104 features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Signal-to-noise ratio of FT-IR CO gas spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Clausen, Sønnik

    1999-01-01

    in emission and transmission spectrometry, an investigation of the SNR in CO gas spectra as a function of spectral resolution has been carried out. We present a method to (1) determine experimentally the SNR at constant throughput, (2) determine the SNR on the basis of measured noise levels and Hitran......The minimum amount of a gaseous compound which can be detected and quantified with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the measured gas spectra. In order to use low-resolution FT-IR spectrometers to measure combustion gases like CO and CO2...... simulated signals, and (3) determine the SNR of CO from high to low spectral resolutions related to the molecular linewidth and vibrational-rotational lines spacing. In addition, SNR values representing different spectral resolutions but scaled to equal measurement times were compared. It was found...

  17. Restoration of adenosine deaminase-deficient human thymocyte development in vitro by inhibition of deoxynucleoside kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachims, Michelle L; Marble, Patrick A; Laurent, Aletha B; Pastuszko, Peter; Paliotta, Marco; Blackburn, Michael R; Thompson, Linda F

    2008-12-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding adenosine deaminase (ADA), a purine salvage enzyme, lead to immunodeficiency in humans. Although ADA deficiency has been analyzed in cell culture and murine models, information is lacking concerning its impact on the development of human thymocytes. We have used chimeric human/mouse fetal thymic organ culture to study ADA-deficient human thymocyte development in an "in vivo-like" environment where toxic metabolites accumulate in situ. Inhibition of ADA during human thymocyte development resulted in a severe reduction in cellular expansion as well as impaired differentiation, largely affecting mature thymocyte populations. Thymocyte differentiation was not blocked at a discrete stage; rather, the paucity of mature thymocytes was due to the induction of apoptosis as evidenced by activation of caspases and was accompanied by the accumulation of intracellular dATP. Inhibition of adenosine kinase and deoxycytidine kinase prevented the accumulation of dATP and restored thymocyte differentiation and proliferation. Our work reveals that multiple deoxynucleoside kinases are involved in the phosphorylation of deoxyadenosine when ADA is absent, and suggests an alternate therapeutic strategy for treatment of ADA-deficient patients.

  18. Crif1 Deficiency Reduces Adipose OXPHOS Capacity and Triggers Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Min Jeong; Kim, Soung Jung; Kim, Yong Kyung; Choi, Min Jeong; Tadi, Surendar; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Seong Eun; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Jung, Saet Byel; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Jo, Young Suk; Kim, Koon Soon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jin Man; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Park, Ki Cheol; Lee, Jung Uee; Kong, Young Yun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chung, Jongkyeong; Shong, Minho

    2013-01-01

    Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has been proposed as an etiological mechanism underlying insulin resistance. However, the initiating organ of OXPHOS dysfunction during the development of systemic insulin resistance has yet to be identified. To determine whether adipose OXPHOS deficiency plays an etiological role in systemic insulin resistance, the metabolic phenotype of mice with OXPHOS–deficient adipose tissue was examined. Crif1 is a protein required for the intramitochondrial production of mtDNA–encoded OXPHOS subunits; therefore, Crif1 haploinsufficient deficiency in mice results in a mild, but specific, failure of OXPHOS capacity in vivo. Although adipose-specific Crif1-haploinsufficient mice showed normal growth and development, they became insulin-resistant. Crif1-silenced adipocytes showed higher expression of chemokines, the expression of which is dependent upon stress kinases and antioxidant. Accordingly, examination of adipose tissue from Crif1-haploinsufficient mice revealed increased secretion of MCP1 and TNFα, as well as marked infiltration by macrophages. These findings indicate that the OXPHOS status of adipose tissue determines its metabolic and inflammatory responses, and may cause systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:23516375

  19. In vivo UVA irradiation of mouse is more efficient in promoting pulmonary melanoma metastasis than in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously shown in vitro that UVA increases the adhesiveness of mouse B16-F1 melanoma cells to endothelium. We have also shown in vivo that UVA exposure of C57BL/6 mice, i.v. injected with B16-F1 cells, increases formation of pulmonary colonies of melanoma. The aim of the present animal study was to confirm the previously observed in vivo UVA effect and to determine whether in vitro UVA-exposure of melanoma cells, prior the i.v. injection, will have an enhancing effect on the pulmonary colonization capacity of melanoma cells. As a second aim, UVA-derived immunosuppression was determined. Methods Mice were i.v. injected with B16-F1 cells into the tail vein and then immediately exposed to UVA. Alternatively, to study the effect of UVA-induced adhesiveness on the colonization capacity of B16-F1 melanoma, cells were in vitro exposed prior to i.v. injection. Fourteen days after injection, lungs were collected and the number of pulmonary nodules was determined under dissecting microscope. The UVA-derived immunosuppression was measured by standard contact hypersensitivity assay. Results and Discussion Obtained results have confirmed that mice, i.v. injected with B16-F1 cells and thereafter exposed to UVA, developed 4-times more of melanoma colonies in lungs as compared with the UVA non-exposed group (p UVA-induced changes in the adhesive properties of melanoma cells do not alone account for the 4-fold increase in the pulmonary tumor formation. Instead, it suggests that some systemic effect in a mouse might be responsible for the increased metastasis formation. Indeed, UVA was found to induce moderate systemic immunosuppression, which effect might contribute to the UVA-induced melanoma metastasis in mice lungs. PMID:21645404

  20. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  1. Application of FT-IR spectroscopy on breast cancer serum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Movaghar, Afshin Fayyaz; Elmi, Maryam Mitra; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nikbakhsh, Novin

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer is regarded as the most malignant tumor among women throughout the world. Therefore, early detection and proper diagnostic methods have been known to help save women's lives. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with PCA-LDA analysis, is a new technique to investigate the characteristics of serum in breast cancer. In this study, 43 breast cancer and 43 healthy serum samples were collected, and the FT-IR spectra were recorded for each one. Then, PCA analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the spectral data. The results showed that there were differences between the spectra of the two groups. Discriminating wavenumbers were associated with several spectral differences over the 950-1200 cm- 1(sugar), 1190-1350 cm- 1 (collagen), 1475-1710 cm- 1 (protein), 1710-1760 cm- 1 (ester), 2800-3000 cm- 1 (stretching motions of -CH2 & -CH3), and 3090-3700 cm- 1 (NH stretching) regions. PCA-LDA performance on serum IR could recognize changes between the control and the breast cancer cases. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PCA-LDA analysis for 3000-3600 cm- 1 (NH stretching) were found to be 83%, 84%, 74% for the control and 80%, 76%, 72% for the breast cancer cases, respectively. The results showed that the major spectral differences between the two groups were related to the differences in protein conformation in serum samples. It can be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy, together with multivariate data analysis, is able to discriminate between breast cancer and healthy serum samples.

  2. Non-destructive technique for determining the viability of soybean (Glycine max) seeds using FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, Dewi; Lee, Hoonsoo; Lohumi, Santosh; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2018-03-01

    The viability of seeds is important for determining their quality. A high-quality seed is one that has a high capability of germination that is necessary to ensure high productivity. Hence, developing technology for the detection of seed viability is a high priority in agriculture. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy is one of the most popular devices among other vibrational spectroscopies. This study aims to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to determine the viability of soybean seeds. Viable and artificial ageing seeds as non-viable soybeans were used in this research. The FT-NIR spectra of soybean seeds were collected and analysed using a partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to classify viable and non-viable soybean seeds. Moreover, the variable importance in projection (VIP) method for variable selection combined with the PLS-DA was employed. The most effective wavelengths were selected by the VIP method, which selected