WorldWideScience

Sample records for vivo conditions occurs

  1. Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0374 TITLE: Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zohreh...SUBTITLE Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...project is to better understand the relationship between autism and obesity. It is not clear if obesity is co-occurring with autism or is related to

  2. Preferential flow occurs in unsaturated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Because it commonly generates high-speed, high-volume flow with minimal exposure to solid earth materials, preferential flow in the unsaturated zone is a dominant influence in many problems of infiltration, recharge, contaminant transport, and ecohydrology. By definition, preferential flow occurs in a portion of a medium – that is, a preferred part, whether a pathway, pore, or macroscopic subvolume. There are many possible classification schemes, but usual consideration of preferential flow includes macropore or fracture flow, funneled flow determined by macroscale heterogeneities, and fingered flow determined by hydraulic instability rather than intrinsic heterogeneity. That preferential flow is spatially concentrated associates it with other characteristics that are typical, although not defining: it tends to be unusually fast, to transport high fluxes, and to occur with hydraulic disequilibrium within the medium. It also has a tendency to occur in association with large conduits and high water content, although these are less universal than is commonly assumed. Predictive unsaturated-zone flow models in common use employ several different criteria for when and where preferential flow occurs, almost always requiring a nearly saturated medium. A threshold to be exceeded may be specified in terms of the following (i) water content; (ii) matric potential, typically a value high enough to cause capillary filling in a macropore of minimum size; (iii) infiltration capacity or other indication of incipient surface ponding; or (iv) other conditions related to total filling of certain pores. Yet preferential flow does occur without meeting these criteria. My purpose in this commentary is to point out important exceptions and implications of ignoring them. Some of these pertain mainly to macropore flow, others to fingered or funneled flow, and others to combined or undifferentiated flow modes.

  3. Comparison of Different Cytokine Conditions Reveals Resveratrol as a New Molecule for Ex Vivo Cultivation of Cord Blood-Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Niels; Ehrnström, Birgitta; Schambach, Axel; Schwarzer, Adrian; Modlich, Ute; Schiedlmeier, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Human cord blood (CB)-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are an interesting source for HSC transplantation. However, the number of collected CB-HSCs is often too low for one transplantation; therefore, ex vivo expansion of CB-HSCs is desirable. Current expansion protocols are based on the use of cytokine combinations, including insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) and angiopoietin-like proteins, or combinations with "small molecules" such as stemregenin-1. The aim of our project was to compare the potential of different CB-HSC expansion strategies side-by-side by phenotypical analysis in vitro and serial engraftment properties in NOD/SCID/IL2rg-/- (NSG) immunodeficient mice. We further identified resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, as a new, alternative small molecule combined with cytokines to facilitate serum-free ex vivo expansion of human CB-HSCs. The cultivation in resveratrol preserved the CB-HSC phenotype in vitro most efficiently and was ∼2 times more potent than commonly used cytokine conditions (including stem cell factor, thrombopoietin, Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, interleukin-6) and the recently established serum-free culture, including IGFBP2 and angiopoietin-like 5. Serial transplantation studies further confirmed resveratrol to support robust multilineage engraftment in primary and secondary NSG recipients. Therefore, our work proposes resveratrol as a new small molecule for improved ex vivo culture and modification of human HSCs based on an efficient ex vivo propagation of the HSC fate. Human cord blood (CB)-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are an important source for HSC transplantations but restricted in their usage because of their low numbers. In gene therapy, modifications of HSCs relies on their ex vivo modification without losing their stemness properties. Therefore, ex vivo cultivation and expansion of CB-HSCs is important for their effective application in HSC transplantation and gene

  4. Responses of Soybean Mutant Lines to Aluminium under In Vitro and In Vivo Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliasti; Sudarsono

    2011-01-01

    The main limited factors of soybean plants expansion in acid soil are Aluminium (Al) toxicity and low pH. The best approach to solve this problem is by using Al tolerance variety. In vitro or in vivo selections using selective media containing AlCl 3 and induced callus embryonic of mutant lines are reliable methods to develop a new variety. The objectives of this research are to evaluate response of soybean genotypes against AlCl 3 under in vitro and in vivo condition. Addition of 15 part per million (ppm) AlCl 3 into in vitro and in vivo media severely affected plant growth. G3 soybean mutant line was identified as more tolerant than the control soybean cultivar Tanggamus. This mutant line was able to survive under more severe AlCl 3 concentrations (15 ppm) under in vitro conditions. Under in vivo conditions, G1 and G4 mutants were also identified as more tolerant than Tanggamus since they produced more pods and higher dry seed weigh per plant. Moreover, G4 mutant line also produced more dry seed weight per plant than Tanggamus when they were grown on soil containing high Al concentration 8.1 me/100 gr = 81 ppm Al +3 . (author)

  5. Microaerophilic conditions permit to mimic in vitro events occurring during in vivo Helicobacter pylori infection and to identify Rho/Ras-associated proteins in cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Sandra; Corthésy-Theulaz, Irène; Spertini, François; Corthésy, Blaise

    2002-09-13

    Molecular dissection of the mechanisms underlying Helicobacter pylori infection suffers from the lack of in vitro systems mimicking in vivo observations. A system was developed whereby human epithelial cells (Caco-2) grown as polarized monolayers and bacteria can communicate with each other under culture conditions optimal for each partner. Caco-2 cells grown on filter supports were inserted in a vertical position into diffusion chambers equilibrated with air and 5% CO(2) at their basolateral surface (aerophilic conditions) and 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), 90% N(2) (microaerophilic conditions) in the apical compartment. Remarkably, the epithelial polarized layer was stable under these asymmetric culture conditions for at least 24 h, and the presence of Caco-2 cells was necessary to maintain H. pylori growth. In contrast to previous studies conducted with non-polarized Caco-2 cells and other cell lines kept under aerophilic conditions, we found H. pylori-dependent stimulation of cytokine secretion (MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), GRO-alpha (growth-regulated oncogene-alpha), RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)). This correlated with nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p50 and p65 subunits. Tyrosine phosphorylation of nine cellular proteins was induced or enhanced; we identified p120(RasGAP), p190(RhoGAP), p62dok (downstream of tyrosine kinases), and cortactin as H. pylori-inducible targets. Moreover, reduction of H. pylori urease expression was observed in adherent bacteria as compared with bacteria in suspension. In addition to mimicking several observations seen in the inflamed gastric mucosa, the novel in vitro system was allowed to underscore complex cellular events not seen in classical in vitro analyses of microaerophilic bacteria-epithelial cell cross-talk.

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Dental Conditions Occurring During Conflicts, Deployments, and Field Training Exercises

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Janet

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the types and incidence of dental conditions that occur in a variety of operational scenarios and to identify the appropriate mix of supplies for treating those conditions...

  7. Desmosomes In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garrod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, function, and regulation of desmosomal adhesion in vivo are discussed. Most desmosomes in tissues exhibit calcium-independent adhesion, which is strongly adhesive or “hyperadhesive”. This is fundamental to tissue strength. Almost all studies in culture are done on weakly adhesive, calcium-dependent desmosomes, although hyperadhesion can be readily obtained in confluent cell culture. Calcium dependence is a default condition in vivo, found in wounds and embryonic development. Hyperadhesion appears to be associated with an ordered arrangement of the extracellular domains of the desmosomal cadherins, which gives rise to the intercellular midline identified in ultrastructural studies. This in turn probably depends on molecular order in the desmosomal plaque. Protein kinase C downregulates hyperadhesion and there is preliminary evidence that it may also be regulated by tyrosine kinases. Downregulation of desmosomes in vivo may occur by internalisation of whole desmosomes rather than disassembly. Hyperadhesion has implications for diseases such as pemphigus.

  8. Fluorescent-Spectroscopic Research of in Vivo Tissues Pathological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Medzhidov, R. T.

    The steady-state spectra of autofluorescence and the reflection coefficient on the excitation wavelength of some stomach tissues in vivo with various pathological conditions (surface gastritis, displasia, cancer) are measured under excitation by the nitrogen laser irradiation (λex=337.1 nm). The contour expansion of obtained fluorescence spectra into contributions of components is conducted by the Gaussian-Lorentzian curves method. It is shown that at least 7 groups of fluorophores forming a total luminescence spectrum can be distinguished during the development of displasia and tumor processes. The correlation of intensities of flavins and NAD(P)·H fluorescence is determined and the degree of respiratory activity of cells for the functional condition considered is estimated. The evaluations of the fluorescence quantum yield of the tissue's researched are given.

  9. Association of Adverse Childhood Experiences with Co-occurring Health Conditions in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Melissa A; Thompson, Lindsay A

    2018-01-01

    To understand how adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with co-occurring physical, mental and developmental problems during early childhood. A subsample of 19,957 children aged 2-5 years were selected from the 2011-2012 National Survey for Child Health. Outcomes included 18 health conditions organized in singular condition domains (physical, mental, and developmental), and combinations of condition domains (e.g., physical plus mental, mental plus developmental, etc.). Predictors included 8 ACEs (divorce of a parent, death of a parent, exposure to domestic violence, living with someone with a drug or alcohol abuse problem, household member with a mental illness, parent incarceration, neighborhood violence, discrimination). Multivariable logistic regression was performed controlling for demographic characteristics, having a personal doctor, health insurance coverage, and seeing a health care professional in the previous year. Experiencing 3 or more ACEs before the age of 5 years was associated with increased likelihood of nearly every co-occurring condition combination across 3 domains of health. Most notably, experiencing 3 or more ACEs was also associated with a 2-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical condition and ≥1 developmental condition, a 9-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 mental and ≥1 developmental condition, and a 7-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical, ≥1 mental, and ≥1 developmental condition. This study demonstrates that we can identify the health effects of adversity quite early in development and that management should include communication between both health care and early childhood education providers.

  10. Allele-specific MMP-3 transcription under in vivo conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaoyong, Zhu [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Odeberg, Jacob [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Hamsten, Anders [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Per [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-29

    A common matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) -1612 5A/6A promoter polymorphism is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases. Here we used the haplotype chromatin immunoprecipitation method to study allele-specific MMP-3 expression under in vivo conditions in heterozygous THP-1 cells. Pyrosequencing was used to analyse the ratio of 5A-allele to 6A-allele after chromatin immunoprecipitation using an antibody against phosphorylated active RNA polymerase II. There was no allele-specific difference in transcriptional activity during basal conditions, i.e., in unstimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. However, after stimulation of MMP-3 expression by monocyte differentiation or incubation with IL-1{beta}, the haplotype containing the 5A-allele was associated with higher transcriptional activity compared with the 6A-containing haplotype. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated increased binding of nuclear proteins to the 5A-allele after monocyte differentiation. In conclusion, the common MMP-3 5A/6A promoter polymorphism appears to be functional only during specific environmental conditions involving inflammation.

  11. Response Surface Methodology: An Extensive Potential to Optimize in vivo Photodynamic Therapy Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirand, Loraine; Bastogne, Thierry; Bechet, Denise M.Sc.; Linder, Michel; Thomas, Noemie; Frochot, Celine; Guillemin, Francois; Barberi-Heyob, Muriel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the interaction of a photosensitizing (PS) agent, light, and oxygen. Few new PS agents are being developed to the in vivo stage, partly because of the difficulty in finding the right treatment conditions. Response surface methodology, an empirical modeling approach based on data resulting from a set of designed experiments, was suggested as a rational solution with which to select in vivo PDT conditions by using a new peptide-conjugated PS targeting agent, neuropilin-1. Methods and Materials: A Doehlert experimental design was selected to model effects and interactions of the PS dose, fluence, and fluence rate on the growth of U87 human malignant glioma cell xenografts in nude mice, using a fixed drug-light interval. All experimental results were computed by Nemrod-W software and Matlab. Results: Intrinsic diameter growth rate, a tumor growth parameter independent of the initial volume of the tumor, was selected as the response variable and was compared to tumor growth delay and relative tumor volumes. With only 13 experimental conditions tested, an optimal PDT condition was selected (PS agent dose, 2.80 mg/kg; fluence, 120 J/cm 2 ; fluence rate, 85 mW/cm 2 ). Treatment of glioma-bearing mice with the peptide-conjugated PS agent, followed by the optimized PDT condition showed a statistically significant improvement in delaying tumor growth compared with animals who received the PDT with the nonconjugated PS agent. Conclusions: Response surface methodology appears to be a useful experimental approach for rapid testing of different treatment conditions and determination of optimal values of PDT factors for any PS agent.

  12. In vitro and in vivo development of mice morulae after storage in non-frozen conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Dios Hourcade Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interchange of genetically modified (GM mice between laboratories using embryos provides several advantages. Not only is transport stress avoided, but also the health status of the recipient colony is not compromised. Embryos do not need to be shipped in frozen stage, which requires expensive packaging in addition to a certain degree of expertise in order to freeze and thaw them correctly. The aim of this study was to examine different storage conditions and their effect on embryo viability in order to establish the feasibility of practical, non-frozen conditions for embryo shipment. Methods Mouse morulae developed in vivo (collected from donors 2.5d post coitum or in vitro (zygotes cultured until morulae stage were stored, combining two different media (KSOMeq or KSOM-H and temperatures (4 degrees C, 15 degrees C and 37 degrees C throughout 24 or 48 hours. After storage in vitro viability was assessed determining percentage of development to blastocyst and total cell number. In vivo viability was determined based on the number of implantations and living fetuses after embryo transfer of stored embryos. The storage effect at the molecular level was assessed by studying a gene pool involved in early development by quantitative RT-PCR. Results In vivo-produced morulae stored for 24 hours did not show differences in development up to the blastocyst stage, regardless of the storage type. Even though a decrease in the total cell number in vivo was observed, embryo development after embryo transfer was not affected. All 24 hour storage conditions tested provided a similar number of implantations and fetuses at day 14 of pregnancy. Morulae obtained from in vitro embryo culture collected at the 1-cell stage showed a decreased ability to develop to blastocyst after 24 hours of storage at 15degrees C both in KSOMeq and KSOM-H. Concomitantly, a significant decrease of embryo implantation rates after transfer to recipients was

  13. Characterization of the Pivotal Carbon Metabolism of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 under ex Vivo and Chemically Defined in Vitro Conditions by Isotopologue Profiling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Jörg; Huber, Claudia; Koczula, Anna; Lange, Birgit; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen that has to adapt to the nutritional requirements in the different host niches encountered during infection and establishment of invasive diseases. To dissect the central metabolic activity of S. suis under different conditions of nutrient availability, we performed labeling experiments starting from [13C]glucose specimens and analyzed the resulting isotopologue patterns in amino acids of S. suis grown under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. In combination with classical growth experiments, we found that S. suis is auxotrophic for Arg, Gln/Glu, His, Leu, and Trp in chemically defined medium. De novo biosynthesis was shown for Ala, Asp, Ser, and Thr at high rates and for Gly, Lys, Phe, Tyr, and Val at moderate or low rates, respectively. Glucose degradation occurred mainly by glycolysis and to a minor extent by the pentose phosphate pathway. Furthermore, the exclusive formation of oxaloacetate by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation became evident from the patterns in de novo synthesized amino acids. Labeling experiments with S. suis grown ex vivo in blood or cerebrospinal fluid reflected the metabolic adaptation to these host niches with different nutrient availability; however, similar key metabolic activities were identified under these conditions. This points at the robustness of the core metabolic pathways in S. suis during the infection process. The crucial role of PEP carboxylation for growth of S. suis in the host was supported by experiments with a PEP carboxylase-deficient mutant strain in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25575595

  14. In Vivo-Like Culture Conditions in a Bioreactor Facilitate Improved Tissue Quality in Corneal Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Richard; Tarau, Ioana-Sandra; Rossi, Angela; Leonhardt, Stefan; Schwarz, Thomas; Schuerlein, Sebastian; Lotz, Christian; Hansmann, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The cornea is the most-transplanted tissue worldwide. However, the availability and quality of grafts are limited due to the current methods of corneal storage. In this study, a dynamic bioreactor system is employed to enable the control of intraocular pressure and the culture at the air-liquid interface. Thereby, in vivo-like storage conditions are achieved. Different media combinations for endothelium and epithelium are tested in standard and dynamic conditions to enhance the viability of the tissue. In contrast to culture conditions used in eye banks, the combination of the bioreactor and biochrom medium 1 allows to preserve the corneal endothelium and the epithelium. Assessment of transparency, swelling, and the trans-epithelial-electrical-resistance (TEER) strengthens the impact of the in vivo-like tissue culture. For example, compared to corneas stored under static conditions, significantly lower optical densities and significantly higher TEER values were measured (p-value <0.05). Furthermore, healing of epithelial defects is enabled in the bioreactor, characterized by re-epithelialization and initiated stromal regeneration. Based on the obtained results, an easy-to-use 3D-printed bioreactor composed of only two parts was derived to translate the technology from the laboratory to the eye banks. This optimized bioreactor facilitates noninvasive microscopic monitoring. The improved storage conditions ameliorate the quality of corneal grafts and the storage time in the eye banks to increase availability and reduce re-grafting. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Demographics and co-occurring conditions in a clinic-based cohort with Down syndrome in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Jennifer Price; Al Ahbabi, Fatima Jaber Sehmi; Al Dhaheri, Hind Saif; Chedid, Fares

    2017-09-01

    The majority of studies describing demographics and co-occurring conditions in cohorts with Down syndrome come from regions outside of the Middle East, mainly from Europe and North America. This paper describes demographics and co-occurring conditions in a hospital-based cohort of individuals with Down syndrome living in the Middle Eastern country of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The first dedicated Down syndrome clinic in the UAE was established in 2012 at Tawam Hospital in Al Ain. This paper describes a clinic-based cohort of 221 participants over 4 years from the Gulf Down Syndrome Registry, a new Down syndrome database and contact registry created at Tawam Hospital. Key demographic findings include mean maternal age of 37 years, among the highest described in the literature. Sixty-two percent of mothers are >35 years. Over 90% of mothers received post-natal diagnosis of Down syndrome. High sex ratio, parental consanguinity, and large family size also characterize the group. The spectrum of many co-occurring conditions mirrors that of previously described populations, with some notable differences. Cardiovascular malformations are well represented, however, atrioventricular canal is not the most common. Genitourinary conditions are common, as evidenced by 12% of males with hypospadias and 15% with undescended testes. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, alpha thalassemia trait, hypovitaminosis D, and dental caries are common in our cohort. This study describes a large hospital-based group with Down syndrome presenting to a new dedicated Down syndrome clinic in the UAE, highlighting unique demographic and co-occurring conditions found in that population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis by RNAseq of necrotic enteritis Clostridium perfringens during in vivo colonization and in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Valeria R; Russell, Kay; Athanasiadou, Spiridoula; Prescott, John F

    2016-08-12

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by netB-positive type A Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial disease of poultry. Through its complex regulatory system, C. perfringens orchestrates the expression of a collection of toxins and extracellular enzymes that are crucial for the development of the disease; environmental conditions play an important role in their regulation. In this study, and for the first time, global transcriptomic analysis was performed on ligated intestinal loops in chickens colonized with a netB-positive C. perfringens strain, as well as the same strain propagated in vitro under various nutritional and environmental conditions. Analysis of the respective pathogen transcriptomes revealed up to 673 genes that were significantly expressed in vivo. Gene expression profiles in vivo were most similar to those of C. perfringens grown in nutritionally-deprived conditions. Taken together, our results suggest a bacterial transcriptome responses to the early stages of adaptation, and colonization of, the chicken intestine. Our work also reveals how netB-positive C. perfringens reacts to different environmental conditions including those in the chicken intestine.

  17. In vivo conditions to identify Prkci phosphorylation targets using the analog-sensitive kinase method in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cibrián Uhalte

    Full Text Available Protein kinase C iota is required for various cell biological processes including epithelial tissue polarity and organ morphogenesis. To gain mechanistic insight into different roles of this kinase, it is essential to identify specific substrate proteins in their cellular context. The analog-sensitive kinase method provides a powerful tool for the identification of kinase substrates under in vivo conditions. However, it has remained a major challenge to establish screens based on this method in multicellular model organisms. Here, we report the methodology for in vivo conditions using the analog-sensitive kinase method in a genetically-tractable vertebrate model organism, the zebrafish. With this approach, kinase substrates can uniquely be labeled in the developing zebrafish embryo using bulky ATPγS analogs which results in the thiophosphorylation of substrates. The labeling of kinase substrates with a thiophosphoester epitope differs from phosphoesters that are generated by all other kinases and allows for an enrichment of thiophosphopeptides by immunoaffinity purification. This study provides the foundation for using the analog-sensitive kinase method in the context of complex vertebrate development, physiology, or disease.

  18. Modulation of the counts and functions of neutrophils and monocytes under in vivo hyperthermia conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, M; Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H

    1994-01-01

    reduced 2 h after hot WI. The total amount (per litre of blood) of superoxide production by PMN stimulated with opsonized zymosan (OZ) was significantly augmented at 39 and 39.5 degrees C and 2 h after WI. In vivo hyperthermia did not affect the function of monocytes, but when correlated to the changes...... in the concentrations of monocytes (response per litre blood) a significant increase in the phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)- and OZ-enhanced superoxide production occurred at 38 and 39 degrees C, as well as 2 h after termination of hot WI. Furthermore the OZ-enhanced monocyte chemiluminescence response per litre...

  19. Oil accumulation in soybean seeds grown in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonardo Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The soybean seed presents around 20% of oil and 40% of protein. These levels, during the filling of the seeds, can be influenced by environmental conditions, where are produced changes on its biochemistry composition. The higher temperatures promote the accumulation of protein, and the moderate temperatures favor the oil accumulation. Under in vivo growing conditions the control of these factors is difficult. The in vitro procedure can help the research, because the seed can be isolated from the mother plant in controlled environment. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the oil content of BRS184 and BRS282in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo procedure, occurred in the greenhouse, with 3plantsper potand seed collectionin R8, and in vitro procedure, developed in the laboratory, where the immature seeds were taken from the mother plant in R5 stage, cultured with a liquid culture medium containing 20 mM, 40 mM and 60 mM glutamine, with a constant agitation, during eight days at 25 ± 0.2 °C, and sucrose concentration of 204.5 mM. After the in vitro cultivation time for, the fresh weight gain of the seeds was evaluated, and after both experiments, was determined by the oil content for cultivation in R5, and R8. The accumulation of oil in soybean seeds presents a complex interaction, ranging between the genotype and the environmental conditions, under in vivo and in vitro cultivation. There is a positive correlation between production and oil content in seeds.

  20. Conditions to generate Steam Fog Occurred around the Chungju Lake in the South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byungwoo, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have collected the field observation data of the steam fog occurred around the Chungju Lake in the South Korea for 3 years(2014 2016) and analyzed conditions in which the steam fog occurred. The Chungju Lake is an artificial lake made by the Chungju Dam with a water storage of 2.7 billion tons, which is the second largest in South Korea. The Chungju Dam have discharged water of the average 2.2 million tons downstream to produce electricity per day. The drainage water heats downstream of the Chungju dam and the air above water surface of downstream of that. When the warm, humid air above the downstream water mixed with cold air mass, it caused "steam fog" around the downstream of Chungju lake regardless of amount of the discharged water. The condition that promote the generation of steam fog in autumn and winter is as follows: (1) cloudless night with light winds below 1.5 m/s. (2) The differences between the temperature of discharged water from the Chungju Dam and the air temperature above the discharged water varied from 3° to 15° in autumn, from 15° to 20° in winter respectively. (3) When stream fog was generated, sensible heat flux ranged in autumn from 5 to 15 W/m2, in winter from 15 to 20 W/m2 respectively. Latent heat flux ranged in autumn from 15 to 20 W/m2, in winter from 10 to 15 W/m2 respectively.

  1. An evaluation of in vivo models for toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasso, A.F., E-mail: sasso.alan@epa.gov; Schlosser, P.M., E-mail: schlosser.paul@epa.gov

    2015-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6) is a drinking water contaminant that has been detected in most of the water systems throughout the United States. In 2-year drinking water bioassays, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats and mice. Because reduction of Cr6 to trivalent chromium (Cr3) is an important detoxifying step in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract prior to systemic absorption, models have been developed to estimate the extent of reduction in humans and animals. The objective of this work was to use a revised model of ex vivo Cr6 reduction kinetics in gastric juice to analyze the potential reduction kinetics under in vivo conditions for mice, rats and humans. A published physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was adapted to incorporate the new reduction model. This paper focuses on the toxicokinetics of Cr6 in the stomach compartment, where most of the extracellular Cr6 reduction is believed to occur in humans. Within the range of doses administered by the NTP bioassays, neither the original nor revised models predict saturation of stomach reducing capacity to occur in vivo if applying default parameters. However, both models still indicate that mice exhibit the lowest extent of reduction in the stomach, meaning that a higher percentage of the Cr6 dose may escape stomach reduction in that species. Similarly, both models predict that humans exhibit the highest extent of reduction at low doses. - Highlights: • We outline a new in vivo model for hexavalent chromium reduction in the stomach. • We examine in vivo reduction for mice, rats, and humans under varying conditions. • Species differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility. • We show that a simplified stomach reduction model is adequate for extrapolation. • Internal dose uncertainties still exist.

  2. In vivo impact of Dlx3 conditional inactivation in Neural Crest-Derived Craniofacial Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Isaac, Juliane; Zah, Angela; Hwang, Joonsung; Berdal, Ariane; Lian, Jane B.; Morasso, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in DLX3 in humans lead to defects in craniofacial and appendicular bones, yet the in vivo activity related to Dlx3 function during normal skeletal development have not been fully elucidated. Here we used a conditional knockout approach to analyze the effects of neural crest deletion of Dlx3 on craniofacial bones development. At birth, mutant mice exhibit a normal overall positioning of the skull bones, but a change in the shape of the calvaria was observed. Molecular analysis of the genes affected in the frontal bones and mandibles from these mice identified several bone markers known to affect bone development, with a strong prediction for increased bone formation and mineralization in vivo. Interestingly, while a subset of these genes were similarly affected in frontal bones and mandibles (Sost, Mepe, Bglap, Alp, Ibsp, Agt), several genes, including Lect1 and Calca, were specifically affected in frontal bones. Consistent with these molecular alterations, cells isolated from the frontal bone of mutant mice exhibited increased differentiation and mineralization capacities ex vivo, supporting cell autonomous defects in neural crest cells. However, adult mutant animals exhibited decreased bone mineral density in both mandibles and calvaria, as well as a significant increase in bone porosity. Together, these observations suggest that mature osteoblasts in the adult respond to signals that regulate adult bone mass and remodeling. This study provides new downstream targets for Dlx3 in craniofacial bone, and gives additional evidence of the complex regulation of bone formation and homeostasis in the adult skeleton. PMID:22886599

  3. Long-term persistence of functional thymic epithelial progenitor cells in vivo under conditions of low FOXN1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xin; Nowell, Craig S; Ulyanchenko, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    does not require FOXN1. Here, we have used a revertible severely hypomorphic allele of Foxn1, Foxn1R, to test the stability of the common TEPC in vivo. By reactivating Foxn1 expression postnatally in Foxn1R/- mice we demonstrate that functional TEPCs can persist in the thymic rudiment until at least 6...... months of age, and retain the potential to give rise to both cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs). These data demonstrate that the TEPC-state is remarkably stable in vivo under conditions of low Foxn1 expression, suggesting that manipulation of FOXN1 activity may prove...... a valuable method for long term maintenance of TEPC in vitro....

  4. In vivo and in vitro pollen maturation in Lilium: influence of carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Clement

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for in vitro conform pollen maturation, as a model to study the involvement of carbohydrates on pollen maturation in Lilium. In vivo and in vitro pollen maturations were followed and compared by transmission electron microscopy, and several in vitro parameters were tested in terms of carbohydrate physiology. In vivo, pollen maturation was initiated at the vacuolated microspore stage, and consisted of two successive phases. The first phase was characterized by reactivation of microspore organelles, followed by microspore mitosis, starch synthesis and vacuole breakdown. During the second phase, starch was progressively degraded whereas lipid and phytine reserves accumulated. In vivo, pollen maturation occured within 14 days and pollen germination rate was 73.6 ± 2.2%. We then attempted to realise in vitro pollen maturation starting from the vacuolated microspore stage. The best results were obtained with flower buds cultivated at 26oC, in 100 µmol/m2/s light, with a 16h/8h photoperiod on a modified Heller's medium supplemented with NAA (10-2 mg/l and sucrose (M/6. In these conditions, pollen maturation occured within 7 days only. In vitro matured pollen is cytologically comparable to in vivo developed pollen grains and the germination rate was 72.4 ± 3.7%. When flower buds were cultivated in the dark, the germination rate decreased, but this could be compensated by providing high sucrose concentrations (1M in the medium. Further, photosynthesis inhibitors had the same effect on pollen maturation than the darkness, strongly suggesting that photosynthesis occurs in the flower bud and is important for pollen maturation in Lilium.

  5. Cellular interactions via conditioned media induce in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells or mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiguchi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We have attempted in vivo nephron generation using conditioned media. •Vascular and tubular cells do cross-talks on cell proliferation and tubular changes. •Tubular cells suppress these changes in mesenchymal stem cells. •Tubular cells differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into tubular cells. •Nephrons can be created from implanted tubular cells or mesenchymal stem cells. -- Abstract: There are some successful reports of kidney generation by utilizing the natural course of kidney development, namely, the use of an artificially treated metanephros, blastocyst or ureteric bud. Under a novel concept of cellular interactions via conditioned media (CMs), we have attempted in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells (TECs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we used 10× CMs of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and TECs, which is the first to introduce a CM into the field of organ regeneration. We first present stimulative cross-talks induced by these CMs between VECs and TECs on cell proliferation and morphological changes. In MSCs, TEC-CM suppressed these changes, however, induced cytokeratin expression, indicating the differentiation of MSCs into TECs. As a result, glomerular and tubular structures were created following the implantation of TECs or MSCs with both CMs. Our findings suggest that the cellular interactions via CMs might induce in vivo nephron generation from TECs or MSCs. As a promoting factor, CMs could also be applied to the regeneration of other organs and tissues

  6. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo imaging of the microvasculature with 2-photon fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Joe; Koletar, Margaret; Stefanovic, Bojana; Sled, John G.

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluates 2-Photon fluorescence microscopy of in vivo and ex vivo cleared samples for visualizing cortical vasculature. Four mice brains were imaged with in vivo 2PFM. Mice were then perfused with a FITC gel and cleared in fructose. The same regions imaged in vivo were imaged ex vivo. Vessels were segmented automatically in both images using an in-house developed algorithm that accounts for the anisotropic and spatially varying PSF ex vivo. Through non-linear warping, the ex vivo image and tracing were aligned to the in vivo image. The corresponding vessels were identified through a local search algorithm. This enabled comparison of identical vessels in vivo/ex vivo. A similar process was conducted on the in vivo tracing to determine the percentage of vessels perfused. Of all the vessels identified over the four brains in vivo, 98% were present ex vivo. There was a trend towards reduced vessel diameter ex vivo by 12.7%, and the shrinkage varied between specimens (0% to 26%). Large diameter surface vessels, through a process termed 'shadowing', attenuated in vivo signal from deeper cortical vessels by 40% at 300 μm below the cortical surface, which does not occur ex vivo. In summary, though there is a mean diameter shrinkage ex vivo, ex vivo imaging has a reduced shadowing artifact. Additionally, since imaging depths are only limited by the working distance of the microscope objective, ex vivo imaging is more suitable for imaging large portions of the brain.

  7. Gold nanoparticle cellular uptake, toxicity and radiosensitisation in hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Suneil; Coulter, Jonathan A.; Butterworth, Karl T.; Hounsell, Alan R.; McMahon, Stephen J.; Hyland, Wendy B.; Muir, Mark F.; Dickson, Glenn R.; Prise, Kevin M.; Currell, Fred J.; Hirst, David G.; O’Sullivan, Joe M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are novel agents that have been shown to cause radiosensitisation in vitro and in vivo. Tumour hypoxia is associated with radiation resistance and reduced survival in cancer patients. The interaction of GNPs with cells in hypoxia is explored. Materials and methods: GNP uptake, localization, toxicity and radiosensitisation were assessed in vitro under oxic and hypoxic conditions. Results: GNP cellular uptake was significantly lower under hypoxic than oxic conditions. A significant reduction in cell proliferation in hypoxic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exposed to GNPs was observed. In these cells significant radiosensitisation occurred in normoxia and moderate hypoxia. However, in near anoxia no significant sensitisation occurred. Conclusions: GNP uptake occurred in hypoxic conditions, causing radiosensitisation in moderate, but not extreme hypoxia in a breast cancer cell line. These findings may be important for the development of GNPs for cancer therapy

  8. Effects of formulation variables on viability of L. casei loaded in whey protein-Ca alginate microparticles in simulated in vivo conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Smilkov, Katarina; Petrusevska Tozi, Lidija; Petreska Ivanovska, Tanja; Geskovski, Nikola; Petkovska, Rumenka; Glavas Dodov, Marija; Baceva, Katerina; Dimitrovski, Dejan; Mladenovska, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the influence of formulation variables of L. casei loaded whey protein-Ca-alginate microparticles on probiotic survival under different conditions, representing simulated in vivo environment.

  9. In vivo rapid field map measurement and shimming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Shoichi; Kassai, Yoshimori; Kondo, Masafumi; Kuhara, Shigehide; Satoh, Kozo; Seo, Yasutsugu.

    1992-01-01

    MR imaging and MR spectroscopy need a homogeneous static magnetic field. The static field characteristics are determined by the magnet's homogeneity, the set-up conditions, and the magnetic suspectibility of the subject itself. The field inhomogeneity is usually minimized only once when the apparatus is installed. However, field distortions arising from the magnetic susceptibility differ with each subject and region. To overcome this problem, in vivo shimming can be carried out to improve the homogeneity. The procedures are too lengthy when applying the conventional shimming techniques in vivo. We have developed a new field map measurement technique using a double gradient-recalled echo phase mapping. The values of the currents for the 13-channel shim coils are derived by least squares fitting to the field map and automatically applied to the shim coils. The proposed technique can rapidly and accurately measure the field map in vivo and correct the field inhomogeneity. The results show that this technique improves the homogeneity, especially in regions having a simple field distribution. However, local sharp field distortions which can not be practically corrected by shimming occur near the eyes, ears, heart, etc. due to abrupt susceptibility changes. (author)

  10. Asthma and lung cancer, after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases and allergic conditions: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Crellin, Elizabeth; Arvind, Ashwini; Quint, Jennifer

    2017-01-16

    Asthma is one of the most frequently diagnosed respiratory diseases in the UK, and commonly co-occurs with other respiratory and allergic diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and atopic dermatitis. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of lung cancer related to asthma, but the evidence is mixed when accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases and allergic conditions. A systematic review of published data that investigate the relationship between asthma and lung cancer, accounting for co-occurring respiratory and allergic diseases, will be conducted to investigate the independent association of asthma with lung cancer. A systematic review will be conducted, and include original reports of cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies of the association of asthma with lung cancer after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases. Articles published up to June 2016 will be included, and their selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A standardised data extraction form will be developed and pretested, and descriptive analyses will be used to summarise the available literature. If appropriate, pooled effect estimates of the association between asthma and lung cancer, given adjustment for a specific co-occurring condition will be estimated using random effects models. Potential sources of heterogeneity and between study heterogeneity will also be investigated. The study will be a review of published data and does not require ethical approval. Results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42016043341. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. In Vivo Dissolution and Systemic Absorption of Immediate Release Ibuprofen in Human Gastrointestinal Tract under Fed and Fasted Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsknecht, Mark J; Baker, Jason R; Wen, Bo; Frances, Ann; Zhang, Huixia; Yu, Alex; Zhao, Ting; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Pai, Manjunath P; Bleske, Barry E; Zhang, Xinyuan; Lionberger, Robert; Lee, Allen; Amidon, Gordon L; Hasler, William L; Sun, Duxin

    2017-12-04

    In vivo drug dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is largely unmeasured. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the in vivo drug dissolution and systemic absorption of the BCS class IIa drug ibuprofen under fed and fasted conditions by direct sampling of stomach and small intestinal luminal content. Expanding current knowledge of drug dissolution in vivo will help to establish physiologically relevant in vitro models predictive of drug dissolution. A multilumen GI catheter was orally inserted into the GI tract of healthy human subjects. Subjects received a single oral dose of ibuprofen (800 mg tablet) with 250 mL of water under fasting and fed conditions. The GI catheter facilitated collection of GI fluid from the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Ibuprofen concentration in GI fluid supernatant and plasma was determined by LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 subjects completed the study, with 11 subjects returning for an additional study visit (a total of 34 completed study visits). The subjects were primarily white (61%) and male (65%) with an average age of 30 years. The subjects had a median [min, max] weight of 79 [52, 123] kg and body mass index of 25.7 [19.4, 37.7] kg/m 2 . Ibuprofen plasma levels were higher under fasted conditions and remained detectable for 28 h under both conditions. The AUC 0-24 and C max were lower in fed subjects vs fasted subjects, and T max was delayed in fed subjects vs fasted subjects. Ibuprofen was detected immediately after ingestion in the stomach under fasting and fed conditions until 7 h after dosing. Higher levels of ibuprofen were detected in the small intestine soon after dosing in fasted subjects compared to fed. In contrast to plasma drug concentration, overall gastric concentrations remained higher under fed conditions due to increased gastric pH vs fasting condition. The gastric pH increased to near neutrality after feedingbefore decreasing to acidic levels after 7 h. Induction of the fed state reduced systemic

  12. In vivo MRS metabolite quantification using genetic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, G. A.; Karras, D. A.; Mertzios, B. G.; van Ormondt, D.; Graveron-Demilly, D.

    2011-11-01

    The in vivo quantification of metabolites' concentrations, revealed in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) spectra, constitutes the main subject under investigation in this work. Significant contributions based on artificial intelligence tools, such as neural networks (NNs), with good results have been presented lately but have shown several drawbacks, regarding their quantification accuracy under difficult conditions. A general framework that encounters the quantification procedure as an optimization problem, which is solved using a genetic algorithm (GA), is proposed in this paper. Two different lineshape models are examined, while two GA configurations are applied on artificial data. Moreover, the introduced quantification technique deals with metabolite peaks' overlapping, a considerably difficult situation occurring under real conditions. Appropriate experiments have proved the efficiency of the introduced methodology, in artificial MRS data, by establishing it as a generic metabolite quantification procedure.

  13. In vivo MRS metabolite quantification using genetic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakostas, G A; Mertzios, B G; Karras, D A; Van Ormondt, D; Graveron-Demilly, D

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo quantification of metabolites' concentrations, revealed in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) spectra, constitutes the main subject under investigation in this work. Significant contributions based on artificial intelligence tools, such as neural networks (NNs), with good results have been presented lately but have shown several drawbacks, regarding their quantification accuracy under difficult conditions. A general framework that encounters the quantification procedure as an optimization problem, which is solved using a genetic algorithm (GA), is proposed in this paper. Two different lineshape models are examined, while two GA configurations are applied on artificial data. Moreover, the introduced quantification technique deals with metabolite peaks' overlapping, a considerably difficult situation occurring under real conditions. Appropriate experiments have proved the efficiency of the introduced methodology, in artificial MRS data, by establishing it as a generic metabolite quantification procedure

  14. Determination of the in vivo NAD:NADH ratio in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic conditions, using alcohol dehydrogenase as sensor reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekers, K M; Heijnen, J J; van Gulik, W M

    2015-08-01

    With the current quantitative metabolomics techniques, only whole-cell concentrations of NAD and NADH can be quantified. These measurements cannot provide information on the in vivo redox state of the cells, which is determined by the ratio of the free forms only. In this work we quantified free NAD:NADH ratios in yeast under anaerobic conditions, using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the lumped reaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase as sensor reactions. We showed that, with an alternative accurate acetaldehyde determination method, based on rapid sampling, instantaneous derivatization with 2,4 diaminophenol hydrazine (DNPH) and quantification with HPLC, the ADH-catalysed oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde can be applied as a relatively fast and simple sensor reaction to quantify the free NAD:NADH ratio under anaerobic conditions. We evaluated the applicability of ADH as a sensor reaction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown in anaerobic glucose-limited chemostats under steady-state and dynamic conditions. The results found in this study showed that the cytosolic redox status (NAD:NADH ratio) of yeast is at least one order of magnitude lower, and is thus much more reduced, under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic glucose-limited steady-state conditions. The more reduced state of the cytosol under anaerobic conditions has major implications for (central) metabolism. Accurate determination of the free NAD:NADH ratio is therefore of importance for the unravelling of in vivo enzyme kinetics and to judge accurately the thermodynamic reversibility of each redox reaction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. In vivo measurement of uranium in the human chest under high background conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, P.J.; Feather, J.I.

    1981-08-01

    The use of a low-background counting room was considered essential for in vivo gamma counting of uranium in the human chest. When such measurements were, however, carried out under relatively high background conditions, this necessitated a new method of analysis. It was found that a linear relationship between LnN and E exists for each individual where N is the count rate per keV and E the energy in keV, for gamma energies between 90 keV and 300 keV. The displacements from this straight line at the energy values of 90 and 186 keV then represent the contribution of the uranium present. These displacements were calibrated for natural uranium. It was possible to detect contamination levels of lower than half MPLB [af

  16. In vivo dosimetry study of semi-conductors EPD-20 in total body irradiation technique; Etude de la dosimetrie in vivo par semi-conducteurs EPD-20 dans les conditions de l'irradiation corporelle totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besbes, M.; Kochbati, L.; Ben Abdennabi, A.; Abdessaied, S.; Salem, L.; Frikha, H.; Nasr Ben Ammar, C.; Hentati, D.; Gargouri, W.; Messai, T.; Benna, F.; Maalej, M. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de radiotherapie oncologique, Tunis (Tunisia); Mahjoubi, H. [Institut superieur des technologies medicales de Tunis, Dept. de biophysique, Tunis (Tunisia); Farhat, L. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service de radiotherapie oncologique, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work was the study of in vivo dosimetry performed in a series of 54 patients receiving total body irradiation (T.B.I.) at the Salah-Azaiz Institute of Tunis since 2004. In vivo dosimetry measurements were compared to analytically calculated doses from monitor units delivered. Patients and method: The irradiation was conducted by a linear accelerator (Clinac 1800, Varian, Palo Alto, USA) using nominal X-rays energies of 6 MV and 18 MV, depending on the thickness of the patient at the abdomen. The dose was measured by semi-conductors p-type E.P.D.-20. These diodes were calibrated in advance with an ionization chamber 'P.T.W. Farmer' type of 0.6 cm{sup 3} and were placed on the surface of plexiglas phantom in the same T.B.I. conditions. A study of dosimetric characteristics of semi-conductors E.P.D.-20 was carried out as a function of beam direction and temperature. Afterwards, we conducted a comparative analysis of doses measured using these detectors during irradiation to those calculated retrospectively from monitor units delivered to each patient conditioned by T.B.I.. Results: Experience showed that semi-conductors are sensitive to the angle of beam radiation (0-90 degrees) and the temperature (22-40 Celsius degrees). The maximum variation is respectively 5 and 7%, but in our irradiation conditions these correction factors are less than 1%. The analysis of the results of the in vivo dosimetry had shown that the ratio of the average measured doses and analytically calculated doses at the abdomen, mediastinum, right lung and head are 1.005, 1.007, 1.0135 and 1.008 with a standard deviation 'type A' respectively of 3.04, 2.37, 7.09 et 4.15%. Conclusion: In vivo dosimetry by semi-conductors is in perfect agreement with dosimetry by calculation. However, in vivo dosimetry using semiconductors is the only technique that can reflect the dose actually received instantly by the patient during T.B.I. given the many factors

  17. Invited commentary: co-occurring health conditions among women living with profound life challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2011-09-01

    People challenged by homelessness are living with several losses including the loss of a home, employment, economic security, health or well-being, and personal security. Assistance programs for people who are homeless consist of housing, emergency shelter, food services, employment assistance, peer support, medical care, and mental health services. An article by Riley et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;175(5):515-522) appearing in this issue of the Journal examines the relation between basic subsistence needs and health outcomes in a cohort of 129 human immunodeficiency virus-infected women who were recruited from a probability sample of low-income hotels, homeless shelters, and free food programs in San Francisco, California. The results of their study underscore the importance of addressing subsistence needs and providing access to medical and psychological treatment for homeless and unstably housed women. In addition to subsistence needs, more attention should be given to comorbid psychiatric and medical conditions that occur among homeless women, including trauma-related disorders.

  18. Conditional ablation of CD205+ conventional dendritic cells impacts the regulation of T-cell immunity and homeostasis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Tomohiro; Murakami, Ryuichi; Takagi, Hideaki; Sato, Kaori; Sato, Yumiko; Otsuka, Haruna; Ohno, Michiko; Hijikata, Atsushi; Ohara, Osamu; Hikida, Masaki; Malissen, Bernard; Sato, Katsuaki

    2012-07-10

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are composed of multiple subsets that play a dual role in inducing immunity and tolerance. However, it is unclear how CD205(+) conventional DCs (cDCs) control immune responses in vivo. Here we generated knock-in mice with the selective conditional ablation of CD205(+) cDCs. CD205(+) cDCs contributed to antigen-specific priming of CD4(+) T cells under steady-state conditions, whereas they were dispensable for antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses under inflammatory conditions. In contrast, CD205(+) cDCs were required for antigen-specific priming of CD8(+) T cells to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) mediated through cross-presentation. Although CD205(+) cDCs were involved in the thymic generation of CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), they maintained the homeostasis of CD4(+) Tregs and CD4(+) effector T cells in peripheral and mucosal tissues. On the other hand, CD205(+) cDCs were involved in the inflammation triggered by Toll-like receptor ligand as well as bacterial and viral infections. Upon microbial infections, CD205(+) cDCs contributed to the cross-priming of CD8(+) T cells for generating antimicrobial CTLs to efficiently eliminate pathogens, whereas they suppressed antimicrobial CD4(+) T-cell responses. Thus, these findings reveal a critical role for CD205(+) cDCs in the regulation of T-cell immunity and homeostasis in vivo.

  19. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into an examination incubator to facilitate in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos under stable physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars; Thommes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging of higher vertebrate embryos over short or long time periods under constant physiological conditions is a technically challenging task for researchers working on cardiovascular development. In chick embryos, for example, various studies have shown that without...... significance, should be documented under physiological conditions. However, previous studies were mostly carried out outside of an incubator or under suboptimal environmental conditions. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first detailed description of an optical coherence tomography (OCT......) system integrated into an examination incubator to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development under physiological environmental conditions. We demonstrate the suitability of this OCT examination incubator unit for use in cardiovascular development studies by examples of proof...

  20. In vivo relevance of intercellular calcium signaling in Drosophila wing development

    OpenAIRE

    Brodskiy, Pavel; Brito-Robinson, Teresa; Levis, Megan; Narciso, Cody; Jangula, Jamison; Huizar, Francisco; Wu, Qinfeng; Zartman, Jeremiah

    2017-01-01

    Recently, organ-scale intercellular Ca2+ transients (ICTs) were reported in the Drosophila wing disc. However, the functional in vivo significance of ICTs remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the in vivo relevance of intercellular Ca2+ signaling and its impact on wing development. We report that Ca2+ signaling in vivo decreases as wing discs mature. Ca2+ signaling ex vivo responds to fly extract in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests ICTs occur in vivo due to chemical stimulus that...

  1. Mechanical properties of porcine brain tissue in vivo and ex vivo estimated by MR elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Charlotte A; Okamoto, Ruth J; Schmidt, John L; Badachhape, Andrew A; Johnson, Curtis L; Bayly, Philip V

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical properties of brain tissue in vivo determine the response of the brain to rapid skull acceleration. These properties are thus of great interest to the developers of mathematical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) or neurosurgical simulations. Animal models provide valuable insight that can improve TBI modeling. In this study we compare estimates of mechanical properties of the Yucatan mini-pig brain in vivo and ex vivo using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at multiple frequencies. MRE allows estimations of properties in soft tissue, either in vivo or ex vivo, by imaging harmonic shear wave propagation. Most direct measurements of brain mechanical properties have been performed using samples of brain tissue ex vivo. It has been observed that direct estimates of brain mechanical properties depend on the frequency and amplitude of loading, as well as the time post-mortem and condition of the sample. Using MRE in the same animals at overlapping frequencies, we observe that porcine brain tissue in vivo appears stiffer than porcine brain tissue samples ex vivo at frequencies of 100 Hz and 125 Hz, but measurements show closer agreement at lower frequencies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vivo NMR analysis of incorporation of [2-13C] glycine into silk fibroin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Tetsuo; Nagashima, Mariko; Demura, Makoto; Osanai, Minoru.

    1990-01-01

    The biosynthetic mechanism of silk fibroin in silkworms, Bombyx mori, is unique because this fibrous protein composed mainly of glycine, alanine and serine is produced very rapidly in large quantity in the posterior silk glands. It is very meaningful to investigate into the biosynthesis of silk protein under nondestructive condition by in vivo NMR and C-13 labeling techniques. The sugar metabolism related to the production of silk fibroin was analyzed by monitoring the change in the C-13 labeled peaks in the NMR spectra for silkworms. In this paper, the monitoring of the 2-(C-13) glycine metabolism in Bombyx mori by the C-13 NMR in vivo is reported. In particular, the in vivo transport of glycine from the midgut to the posterior silk gland was measured, and the rate constants were determined with the course of the peak intensity in the C-13 NMR spectra. It is possible to discuss quantitatively the in vivo production of silk fibroin with these rate constants. The experiment and the results are reported. The in vivo C-13 NMR spectra of a 5 day old, 5th instar larva of Bombyx mori after the oral administration of 2-(C-13) glycine are shown. The significant increase of the peak intensity occurred. (K.I.)

  3. Ecto-ATPase inhibition: ATP and adenosine release under physiological and ischemic in vivo conditions in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Alessia; Corti, Francesca; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E; Donati, Chiara; Bruni, Paola; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana; Pedata, Felicita

    2012-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) ATP and adenosine act as transmitters and neuromodulators on their own receptors but it is still unknown which part of extracellular adenosine derives per se from cells and which part is formed from the hydrolysis of released ATP. In this study extracellular concentrations of adenosine and ATP from the rat striatum were estimated by the microdialysis technique under in vivo physiological conditions and after focal ischemia induced by medial cerebral artery occlusion. Under physiological conditions, adenosine and ATP concentrations were in the range of 130 nmol/L and 40 nmol/L, respectively. In the presence of the novel ecto-ATPase inhibitor, PV4 (100 nmol/L), the extracellular concentration of ATP increased 12-fold to ~360 nmol/L but the adenosine concentration was not altered. This demonstrates that, under physiological conditions, adenosine is not a product of extracellular ATP. In the first 4h after ischemia, adenosine increased to ~690 nmol/L and ATP to ~50 nmol/L. In the presence of PV4 the extracellular concentration of ATP was in the range of 450 nmol/L and a significant decrease in extracellular adenosine (to ~270 nmol/L) was measured. The contribution of extracellular ATP to extracellular adenosine was maximal in the first 20 min after ischemia onset. Furthermore we demonstrated, by immunoelectron microscopy, the presence of the concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT2 on plasma and vesicle membranes isolated from the rat striatum. These results are in favor that adenosine is transported in vesicles and is released in an excitation-secretion manner under in vivo physiological conditions. Early after ischemia, extracellular ATP is hydrolyzed by ecto-nucleotidases which significantly contribute to the increase in extracellular adenosine. To establish the contribution of extracellular ATP to adenosine might constitute the basis for devising a correct putative purinergic strategy aimed at protection from ischemic damage

  4. Calpain-Mediated Degradation of Drebrin by Excitotoxicity In vitro and In vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Chimura

    Full Text Available The level of drebrin, an evolutionarily conserved f-actin-binding protein that regulates synaptic structure and function, is reduced in the brains of patients with chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Down's syndrome (DS. It was suggested that excitotoxic neuronal death caused by overactivation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs occurs in AD and DS; however, the relationship between excitotoxicity and drebrin loss is unknown. Here, we show that drebrin is a novel target of calpain-mediated proteolysis under excitotoxic conditions induced by the overactivation of NMDARs. In cultured rodent neurons, degradation of drebrin was confirmed by the detection of proteolytic fragments, as well as a reduction in the amount of full-length drebrin. Notably, the NMDA-induced degradation of drebrin in mature neurons occurred concomitantly with a loss of f-actin. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of f-actin loss facilitated the drebrin degradation, suggesting a functional linkage between f-actin and drebrin degradation. Biochemical analyses using purified drebrin and calpain revealed that calpain degraded drebrin directly in vitro. Furthermore, cerebral ischemia also induced the degradation of drebrin in vivo. These findings suggest that calpain-mediated degradation of drebrin is a fundamental pathology of neurodegenerative diseases mediated by excitotoxicity, regardless of whether they are acute or chronic. Drebrin regulates the synaptic clustering of NMDARs; therefore, degradation of drebrin under excitotoxic conditions may modulate NMDAR-mediated signal transductions, including pro-survival signaling. Overall, the results presented here provide novel insights into the molecular basis of cellular responses to excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Muscle-Driven In Vivo Nanogenerator

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhou

    2010-05-05

    (Figure Presented) A nanogenerator based on a single piezoelectric fine wire producing an alternating current (AC) is successfully used for the harvesting of biomechanical energy under in vivo conditions. We demonstrate the implanting and working of such a nanogenerator in a live rat where it harvests energy generated by its breathing or heart beating. This study shows the potential of applying these nanogenerators for driving in vivo nanodevices. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KCaA, Weinheim.

  6. In vivo and ex vivo characterization of a novel Er fiber laser system for fractional treatment of soft oral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatilova, Ksenia; Aloian, Georgii; Karabut, Maria; Ryabova, Valentina; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Altshuler, Gregory

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present the first histological in vivo and ex vivo study of effects of fractional Er fiber laser (wavelength 1550 nm, peak power 25 W) on keratinized gum and alveolar mucosa for gum regeneration. Biopsy with subsequent NBTC staining was used as primary evaluation technique. Ex vivo, porcine tissue model was used. Effects of pulse energy, beam diameter, and beam divergence were investigated in detail. It has been demonstrated that under optimal conditions columns up to 800 μm in depth could be reliably produced with 130 mJ pulses. Clinically, 2 subjects were treated and 4 punch biopsies were collected. The results were compared with ex vivo data. Both ex vivo and in vivo datasets suggest feasibility of a dental fractional system intended for gum regeneration.

  7. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative...

  8. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric pathology: insights from in vivo and ex vivo models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Burkitt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastric colonization with Helicobacter pylori induces diverse human pathological conditions, including superficial gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma and its precursors. The treatment of these conditions often relies on the eradication of H. pylori, an intervention that is increasingly difficult to achieve and that does not prevent disease progression in some contexts. There is, therefore, a pressing need to develop new experimental models of H. pylori-associated gastric pathology to support novel drug development in this field. Here, we review the current status of in vivo and ex vivo models of gastric H. pylori colonization, and of Helicobacter-induced gastric pathology, focusing on models of gastric pathology induced by H. pylori, Helicobacter felis and Helicobacter suis in rodents and large animals. We also discuss the more recent development of gastric organoid cultures from murine and human gastric tissue, as well as from human pluripotent stem cells, and the outcomes of H. pylori infection in these systems.

  9. Classification of heart valve condition using acoustic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Prosthetic heart valves and the many great strides in valve design have been responsible for extending the life spans of many people with serious heart conditions. Even though the prosthetic valves are extremely reliable, they are eventually susceptible to long-term fatigue and structural failure effects expected from mechanical devices operating over long periods of time. The purpose of our work is to classify the condition of in vivo Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) heart valves by processing acoustic measurements of heart valve sounds. The structural failures of interest for Bscc valves is called single leg separation (SLS). SLS can occur if the outlet strut cracks and separates from the main structure of the valve. We measure acoustic opening and closing sounds (waveforms) using high sensitivity contact microphones on the patient`s thorax. For our analysis, we focus our processing and classification efforts on the opening sounds because they yield direct information about outlet strut condition with minimal distortion caused by energy radiated from the valve disc.

  10. Intermuscular force transmission between human plantarflexor muscles in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Schwartz, Sidse; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2010-01-01

    of the present study was to investigate if intermuscular force transmission occurs within and between human plantarflexor muscles in vivo. Seven subjects performed four types of either active contractile tasks or passive joint manipulations: passive knee extension, voluntary isometric plantarflexion, voluntary...... surae muscles was seen during passive hallux extension. Large interindividual differences with respect to deep plantarflexor activation during voluntary contractions were observed. The present results suggest that force may be transmitted between the triceps surae muscles in vivo, while only limited...

  11. Benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo with (/sup 3/)-Ro 15-1788

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeders, N.E.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1985-07-29

    In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding has generally been studied by ex vivo techniques. In this investigation, the authors identify the conditions where (/sup 3/H)-Ro 15-1788 labels benzodiazepine receptors by true in vivo binding, i.e. where workable specific to nonspecific ratios are obtained in intact tissues without homogenization or washing. (/sup 3/H)-Flunitrazepam and (/sup 3/H)-clonazepam did not exhibit useful in vivo receptor binding. 39 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  12. In vivo gluten challenge in coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HJ Ellis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo gluten challenge has been used since the early 1950s to study the role of cereal fractions in celiac disease. While early studies relied on crude indicators of celiac toxicity, the advent of jejunal biopsy and sophisticated immunohistochemical techniques has allowed accurate studies to be performed. Studies to determine the nature of the cereal component that is toxic to patients with celiac disease have concentrated on wheat because of its nutritional importance. A number of in vitro studies indicated the presence of one or more celiac-activating epitopes with the N-terminus of the A-gliadin molecule. In vivo challenge with three synthetic peptides subsequently indicated the toxicity of a peptide corresponding to amino acids 31 to 49 of A-gliadin. In vivo gluten challenge is the gold standard for the assessment of celiac toxicity; however, jejunal biopsy is a relatively invasive procedure, thus, other methods have been investigated. Direct infusion of the rectum with gluten has been shown to result in an increase in mucosal intraepithelial lymphocytes, occurring only in celiac patients. This method has been used to study the celiac toxicity of gliadin subfractions. The in vitro technique of small intestinal biopsy organ culture is also a useful tool and appears to give the same results as in vivo challenge. The importance of tiny amounts of gliadin in the diet, such as that which occurs in wheat starch, has been studied by in vivo challenge; this technique has clarified the position of oats in the gluten-free diet. Several studies suggest that this cereal may be included in the diet of most adult celiac patients. Studies of the transport of gliadin across the enterocyte following ingestion or challenge suggest that gliadin may be metabolized by a different pathway in celiac disease. This could result in an abnormal presentation to the immune system, triggering a pathogenic rather than a tolerogenic response.

  13. Evidence that Autophosphorylation of the Major Sporulation Kinase in Bacillus subtilis Is Able To Occur in trans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Seram Nganbiton; Kiehler, Brittany; Haggett, Lindsey; Fujita, Masaya

    2015-08-01

    . Autophosphorylation of histidine kinases is known to occur by either the cis (one subunit of kinase phosphorylating itself within the multimer) or the trans (one subunit of the multimer phosphorylates the other subunit) mechanism. The present study provided direct in vivo and in vitro evidence that autophosphorylation of the major sporulation histidine kinase (KinA) is able to occur in trans within the homotetramer complex. While the physiological and mechanistic significance of the trans autophosphorylation reaction remains obscure, understanding the detailed reaction mechanism of the sporulation kinase is the first step toward gaining insight into the molecular mechanisms of the initiation of sporulation, which is believed to be triggered by unknown factors produced under conditions of nutrient depletion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Sex Differences in Co-Occurring Conditions of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Maria E.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Yarger, Heather A.; Zimmerman, Andrew; Makia, Barraw; Lee, Li-Ching

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated differences in co-occurring diagnoses made in females compared to males with autism spectrum disorders in 913 children (746 males and 167 females) living in the United States with a current autism spectrum disorder diagnosis identified via caregiver-reported data from the National Survey of Children's Health 2007. The…

  15. X-linked gene transcription patterns in female and male in vivo, in vitro and cloned porcine individual blastocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hun Park

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of sexual dimorphic transcription and how in vitro culture environments influence X-linked gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, we analyzed mRNA expression levels in in vivo-derived, in vitro-fertilized (IVF, and cloned porcine blastocysts. Our results clearly show that sex-biased expression occurred between female and male in vivo blastocysts in X-linked genes. The expression levels of XIST, G6PD, HPRT1, PGK1, and BEX1 were significantly higher in female than in male blastocysts, but ZXDA displayed higher levels in male than in female blastocysts. Although we found aberrant expression patterns for several genes in IVF and cloned blastocysts, similar sex-biased expression patterns (on average were observed between the sexes. The transcript levels of BEX1 and XIST were upregulated and PGK1 was downregulated in both IVF and cloned blastocysts compared with in vivo counterparts. Moreover, a remarkable degree of expression heterogeneity was observed among individual cloned embryos (the level of heterogeneity was similar in both sexes but only a small proportion of female IVF embryos exhibited variability, indicating that this phenomenon may be primarily caused by faulty reprogramming by the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT process rather than in vitro conditions. Aberrant expression patterns in cloned embryos of both sexes were not ameliorated by treatment with Scriptaid as a potent HDACi, although the blastocyst rate increased remarkably after this treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that female and male porcine blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro transcriptional sexual dimorphisms in the selected X-linked genes and compensation of X-linked gene dosage may not occur at the blastocyst stage. Moreover, altered X-linked gene expression frequently occurred in porcine IVF and cloned embryos, indicating that X-linked gene regulation is susceptible to in vitro culture and the SCNT process

  16. Infestation of transgenic powdery mildew-resistant wheat by naturally occurring insect herbivores under different environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available A concern associated with the growing of genetically modified (GM crops is that they could adversely affect non-target organisms. We assessed the impact of several transgenic powdery mildew-resistant spring wheat lines on insect herbivores. The GM lines carried either the Pm3b gene from hexaploid wheat, which confers race-specific resistance to powdery mildew, or the less specific anti-fungal barley seed chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. In addition to the non-transformed control lines, several conventional spring wheat varieties and barley and triticale were included for comparison. During two consecutive growing seasons, powdery mildew infection and the abundance of and damage by naturally occurring herbivores were estimated under semi-field conditions in a convertible glasshouse and in the field. Mildew was reduced on the Pm3b-transgenic lines but not on the chitinase/glucanase-expressing lines. Abundance of aphids was negatively correlated with powdery mildew in the convertible glasshouse, with Pm3b wheat plants hosting significantly more aphids than their mildew-susceptible controls. In contrast, aphid densities did not differ between GM plants and their non-transformed controls in the field, probably because of low mildew and aphid pressure at this location. Likewise, the GM wheat lines did not affect the abundance of or damage by the herbivores Oulema melanopus (L. and Chlorops pumilionis Bjerk. Although a previous study has revealed that some of the GM wheat lines show pleiotropic effects under field conditions, their effect on herbivorous insects appears to be low.

  17. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of cervix cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubina, S.; Sathe, Priyanka; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Cervix-cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide. It is the leading cancer among Indian females with more than million new diagnosed cases and 50% mortality, annually. The high mortality rates can be attributed to late diagnosis. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and pathological conditions in cervix cancers on diverse populations has already been demonstrated. Our earlier ex vivo studies have shown the feasibility of classifying normal and cancer cervix tissues as well as responders/non-responders to Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The present study was carried out to explore feasibility of in vivo Raman spectroscopic methods in classifying normal and cancerous conditions in Indian population. A total of 182 normal and 132 tumor in vivo Raman spectra, from 63 subjects, were recorded using a fiberoptic probe coupled HE-785 spectrometer, under clinical supervision. Spectra were acquired for 5 s and averaged over 3 times at 80 mW laser power. Spectra of normal conditions suggest strong collagenous features and abundance of non-collagenous proteins and DNA in case of tumors. Preprocessed spectra were subjected to Principal Component-Linear Discrimination Analysis (PCLDA) followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Classification efficiency of ~96.7% and 100% for normal and cancerous conditions respectively, were observed. Findings of the study corroborates earlier studies and suggest applicability of Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis of cervical cancers in Indian population. In view of encouraging results, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

  18. Dexmedetomidine Increases Tau Phosphorylation Under Normothermic Conditions In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Robert A.; Virág, László; Gratuze, Maud; Petry, Franck R.; Noël, Anastasia; Poitras, Isabelle; Truchetti, Geoffrey; Marcouiller, François; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Khoury, Noura El; Wong, Kevin; Bretteville, Alexis; Morin, Françoise; Planel, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    There is developing interest in the potential association between anesthesia and the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Several anesthetics have thus been demonstrated to induce tau hyperphosphorylation, an effect mostly mediated by anesthesia-induced hypothermia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that acute normothermic administration of dexmedetomidine, an intravenous sedative used in intensive care units, would result in tau hyperphosphorylation in vivo and in vitro. When administered to non-transgenic mice, dexmedetomidine induced tau hyperphosphorylation persisting up to 6h in the hippocampus for the AT8 epitope. Pretreatment with atipamezole, a highly specific α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) antagonist, blocked dexmedetomidine-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, dexmedetomidine dose-dependently increased tau phosphorylation at AT8 in SH-SY5Y cells, impaired mice spatial memory in the Barnes maze, and promoted tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation in transgenic hTau mice. These findings suggest that dexmedetomidine: i) increases tau phosphorylation, in vivo and in vitro, in the absence of anesthetic-induced hypothermia and through α2-AR activation, ii) promotes tau aggregation in a mouse model of tauopathy, and iii) impacts spatial reference memory. PMID:26058840

  19. Ex Vivo Reconstruction and Autotransplantation for Hilar Renal Artery Aneurysms in Patients with Congenital Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Jaiyeola; Johnson, Jacob; Rits, Yevgeniy; Akingba, A George; Rubin, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    Renal artery aneurysms (RAAs) are an uncommon finding but are more often associated with other congenital disorders. The complex (hilar) RAAs constitute a subset of RAAs that present a therapeutic dilemma for the vascular surgeon because of their anatomic location. This dilemma worsens when hilar RAAs occur with a solitary kidney where organ preservation is vital. Ex vivo reconstruction with autotransplantation is especially suitable for hilar RAAs, even when they are associated with a solitary kidney. We report 2 of such cases of RAAs with a solitary kidney in patients with pertinent congenital anomalies. In 1 case, the hilar RAA was associated with a significant accessory renal artery, whereas in the other case, the hilar RAA was associated with a significant connective tissue disorder. Ex vivo reconstruction and autotransplantation was successful in both cases; however, treatment modalities had to be adapted to the patient's unique conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aeromonas salmonicida - Epidemiology, whole genome sequencing, detection and in vivo imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Simona

    causes problems in sea reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) production. Outbreaks occur repeatedly during stressful conditions such as elevated temperatures, in spite of commercial vaccines being applied. Besides seemingly lacking adequate protection, the vaccines also produce undesirable side...... of the concerns regarding A. salmonicida. First, we focused on investigation of the route of entry and initial dissemination of A. salmonicida in fish. This was done by tracing the bacterium using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. A Danish strain was transformed with a plasmid vector containing a green...... was subsequently turned to finding a sensitive method for detecting A. salmonicida in infected and possible carrier fish. For this, a previously developed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) targeting the aopP gene located on A. salmonicida plasmid pAsal1 was assessed. The real...

  1. Medicinal properties of fungi occurring on Betula sp. trees. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Smolibowska Joanna; Szymański Marcin; Szymański Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the chemical costituents and pharmacological properties of polyporoid fungi found on birch, namely Piptoporus betulinus, Inonotus obliquus, Lenzites betulina, Fomes fomentarius, and Trametes versicolor. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of different extracts from above-mentioned fungi on the human organism shown anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulant activity, conditioned by the presence of such compounds as polysaccharid...

  2. Isolation of 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid as a Pigmentation Inhibitor Occurring in Artemisia capillaris Thunberg and Its Validation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes. Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders.

  3. Isolation of 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid as a Pigmentation Inhibitor Occurring in Artemisia capillaris Thunberg and Its Validation In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Nadia; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Yim, Soon-Ho; Batkhuu, Galzad Javzan; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R

    2016-01-01

    There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood) was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes). Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders.

  4. Administration of exercise-conditioned plasma alters muscle catalase kinetics in rat: An argument for in vivo-like Km instead of in vitro-like Vmax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristidis S. Veskoukis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maximal velocity (Vmax is a well established biomarker for the assessment of tissue redox status. There is scarce evidence, though, that it does not probably reflect sufficiently in vivo tissue redox profile. Instead, the Michaelis constant (Km could more adequately image tissue oxidative stress and, thus, be a more physiologically relevant redox biomarker. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to side-by-side compare Vmax and Km of an antioxidant enzyme after implementing an in vivo set up that induces alterations in tissue redox status. Forty rats were divided into two groups including rats injected with blood plasma originating from rats that had previously swam until exhaustion and rats injected with blood plasma originating from sedentary rats. Tail-vein injections were performed daily for 21 days. Catalase Vmax and Km measured in gastrocnemius muscle were increased after administration of the exercise-conditioned plasma, denoting enhancement of the enzyme activity but impairment of its affinity for the substrate, respectively. These alterations are potential adaptations stimulated by the administered plasma pointing out that blood is an active fluid capable of regulating tissue homeostasis. Our findings suggest that Km adequately reflects in vivo modifications of skeletal muscle catalase and seems to surpass Vmax regarding its physiological relevance and biological interpretation. In conclusion, Km can be regarded as an in vivo-like biomarker that satisfactorily images the intracellular environment, as compared to Vmax that could be aptly parallelized with a biomarker that describes tissue oxidative stress in an in vitro manner.

  5. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Is Required to Maintain Visual Conditioning-Induced Behavioral Plasticity by Limiting Local Protein Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Hsuan; Cline, Hollis T

    2016-07-06

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to regulate neuronal plasticity by limiting dendritic protein synthesis, but direct demonstration of a requirement for FMRP control of local protein synthesis during behavioral plasticity is lacking. Here we tested whether FMRP knockdown in Xenopus optic tectum affects local protein synthesis in vivo and whether FMRP knockdown affects protein synthesis-dependent visual avoidance behavioral plasticity. We tagged newly synthesized proteins by incorporation of the noncanonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and visualized them with fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT). Visual conditioning and FMRP knockdown produce similar increases in FUNCAT in tectal neuropil. Induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally in FMRP knockdown animals, but plasticity degrades over 24 h. These results indicate that FMRP affects visual conditioning-induced local protein synthesis and is required to maintain the visual conditioning-induced behavioral plasticity. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Exaggerated dendritic protein synthesis resulting from loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to underlie cognitive deficits in FXS, but no direct evidence has demonstrated that FMRP-regulated dendritic protein synthesis affects behavioral plasticity in intact animals. Xenopus tadpoles exhibit a visual avoidance behavior that improves with visual conditioning in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. We showed that FMRP knockdown and visual conditioning dramatically increase protein synthesis in neuronal processes. Furthermore, induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally after FMRP knockdown, but performance rapidly deteriorated in the absence of FMRP. These studies show that FMRP negatively regulates local protein synthesis and is required to maintain visual conditioning

  6. Acylation of proteins with myristic acid occurs cotranslationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, C.; Hu, J.S.; Olson, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    Several proteins of viral and cellular origin are acylated with myristic acid early during their biogenesis. To investigate the possibility that myristylation occurred cotranslationally, the BC 3 H1 muscle cell line, which contains a broad array of myristylated proteins, was pulse-labeled with [ 3 H]myristic acid. Nascent polypeptide chains covalently associated with transfer RNA were isolated subsequently by ion-exchange chromatography. [ 3 H]Myristate was attached to nascent chains through an amide linkage and was identified by thin-layer chromatography after its release from nascent chains by acid methanolysis. Inhibition of cellular protein synthesis with puromycin resulted in cessation of [ 3 H]myristate-labeling of nascent chains, in agreement with the dependence of this modification on protein synthesis in vivo. These data represent a direct demonstration that myristylation of proteins is a cotranslational modification

  7. Endothelial cell migration during murine yolk sac vascular remodeling occurs by means of a Rac1 and FAK activation pathway in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular mechanism(s) controlling cell migration during vascular morphogenesis in vivo remain largely undefined. To address this within a physiological context, we used retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (Raldh2) null mouse embryos and demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) deficiency results in abnorm...

  8. Administration of exercise-conditioned plasma alters muscle catalase kinetics in rat: An argument for in vivo-like Km instead of in vitro-like Vmax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2018-05-01

    Maximal velocity (V max ) is a well established biomarker for the assessment of tissue redox status. There is scarce evidence, though, that it does not probably reflect sufficiently in vivo tissue redox profile. Instead, the Michaelis constant (K m ) could more adequately image tissue oxidative stress and, thus, be a more physiologically relevant redox biomarker. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to side-by-side compare V max and K m of an antioxidant enzyme after implementing an in vivo set up that induces alterations in tissue redox status. Forty rats were divided into two groups including rats injected with blood plasma originating from rats that had previously swam until exhaustion and rats injected with blood plasma originating from sedentary rats. Tail-vein injections were performed daily for 21 days. Catalase V max and K m measured in gastrocnemius muscle were increased after administration of the exercise-conditioned plasma, denoting enhancement of the enzyme activity but impairment of its affinity for the substrate, respectively. These alterations are potential adaptations stimulated by the administered plasma pointing out that blood is an active fluid capable of regulating tissue homeostasis. Our findings suggest that K m adequately reflects in vivo modifications of skeletal muscle catalase and seems to surpass V max regarding its physiological relevance and biological interpretation. In conclusion, K m can be regarded as an in vivo-like biomarker that satisfactorily images the intracellular environment, as compared to V max that could be aptly parallelized with a biomarker that describes tissue oxidative stress in an in vitro manner. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil acidification occurs under ambient conditions but is retarded by repeated drought: Results of a field-scale climate manipulation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, G.R.; Tietema, A., E-mail: A.Tietema@uva.nl; Verstraten, J.M.

    2012-11-15

    Acid atmospheric emissions within Europe and North America have decreased strongly since 1985 and most recent acidification studies have focused on the changes occurring within ecosystems as a result of this decreased deposition. This current study documents a soil acidification trend under ambient N deposition conditions over a 13 year period, suggesting that acidification continues to be a process of concern at this Calluna vulgaris dominated heathland with an acidic sandy soil. The annual manipulation of climatic conditions on this heathland simulated the predicted summer rainfall reduction (drought) and resulted in a long term retardation of the soil acidification trend. The pH of the soil solution significantly decreased over the course of the trial for both treatments, however, in the final 2 years the decline continued only in the Control treatment. This retardation is primarily associated with the reduction in rainfall leading to lower drainage rates, reduced loss of cations and therefore reduced lowering of the soil acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). However, a change in the underlying mechanisms also indicated that N transformations became less important in the Drought treatment. This change corresponded to an increase in groundcover of an air-pollution tolerant moss species and it is hypothesized that this increasing moss cover filtered an increasing quantity of deposited N, thus reducing the N available for transformation. A soil acidification lag time is expected to increase between the two treatments due to the cumulative disparity in cation retention and rates of proton formation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in which such acidification trends have been demonstrated in a field-scale climate manipulation experiment. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A unique investigation of acidification on a field-scale climate manipulation trial. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil acidification occurred over 13 years of ambient N

  10. Implications of treadmilling for the stability and polarity of actin and tubulin polymers in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, M W

    1980-07-01

    In this report, we examine how the cell can selectively stabilize anchored filaments and suppress spontaneous filament assembly. Because microtubules and actin filaments have an organized distribution in cells, the cell must have a mechanism for suppressing spontaneous and random polymerization. Though the mechanism for suppressing spontaneous polymerization is unknown, an unusual property of these filaments has been demonstrated recently, i.e., under steady-stae conditions, in vitro actin filaments and microtubules can exhibit a flux of subunits through the polymers called "treadmilling." In vivo, however, most, if not all, of these polymers are attached at one end to specific structures and treadmilling should not occur. The function of treadmilling in vivo is, therefore, unclear at present. However, as shown here, the same physicochemical property of coupling assembly to ATP or GTP hydrolysis that leads to treadmilling in vitro can act to selectively stabilize anchored polymers in vivo. I show here that the theory of treadmilling implies that the concentration of subunits necessary for assembly of the nonanchored polymer will in general be higher than the concentration necessary for the assembly of polymers anchored with a specific polarity. This disparity in the monomer concentrations required for assembly can lead to a selective stabilization of anchored polymers and complete suppression of spontaneous polymerization at apparent equilibrium in vivo. It is possible, therefore, that the phenomenon of treadmilling is an in vitro manifestation of a mechanism designed to use ATP or GTP hydrolysis to control the spatial organization of filaments in the cell.

  11. Dynamic Architecture of Eukaryotic DNA Replication Forks In Vivo, Visualized by Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Ralph; Lopes, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The DNA replication process can be heavily perturbed by several different conditions of genotoxic stress, particularly relevant for cancer onset and therapy. The combination of psoralen crosslinking and electron microscopy has proven instrumental to reveal the fine architecture of in vivo DNA replication intermediates and to uncover their remodeling upon specific conditions of genotoxic stress. The replication structures are stabilized in vivo (by psoralen crosslinking) prior to extraction and enrichment procedures, allowing their visualization at the transmission electron microscope. This chapter outlines the procedures required to visualize and interpret in vivo replication intermediates of eukaryotic genomic DNA, and includes an improved method for enrichment of replication intermediates, compared to previously used BND-cellulose columns.

  12. Down Syndrome: Co-Occuring Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Toggle navigation Home Our Story Mission Say Hello to Our Team Financial Information NDSS History About ... Events Shop NDSS Home Our Story Mission Say Hello to Our Team Financial Information NDSS History About ...

  13. In vivo Real-Time Mass Spectrometry for Guided Surgery Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatou, Benoit; Saudemont, Philippe; Leblanc, Eric; Vinatier, Denis; Mesdag, Violette; Wisztorski, Maxence; Focsa, Cristian; Salzet, Michel; Ziskind, Michael; Fournier, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe a new instrument (SpiderMass) designed for in vivo and real-time analysis. In this instrument ion production is performed remotely from the MS instrument and the generated ions are transported in real-time to the MS analyzer. Ion production is promoted by Resonant Infrared Laser Ablation (RIR-LA) based on the highly effective excitation of O-H bonds in water molecules naturally present in most biological samples. The retrieved molecular patterns are specific to the cell phenotypes and benign versus cancer regions of patient biopsies can be easily differentiated. We also demonstrate by analysis of human skin that SpiderMass can be used under in vivo conditions with minimal damage and pain. Furthermore SpiderMass can also be used for real-time drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) analysis or food safety topics. SpiderMass is thus the first MS based system designed for in vivo real-time analysis under minimally invasive conditions.

  14. NPACT: Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Manu; Sagar, Parul; Singh, Harinder; Raghava, Gajendra P S; Agarwal, Subhash M

    2013-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules have been highly valued by biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies for developing drugs, as they are thought to be optimized during evolution. Therefore, we have collected and compiled a central resource Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/) that gathers the information related to experimentally validated plant-derived natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancerous activity (in vitro and in vivo), to complement the other databases. It currently contains 1574 compound entries, and each record provides information on their structure, manually curated published data on in vitro and in vivo experiments along with reference for users referral, inhibitory values (IC(50)/ED(50)/EC(50)/GI(50)), properties (physical, elemental and topological), cancer types, cell lines, protein targets, commercial suppliers and drug likeness of compounds. NPACT can easily be browsed or queried using various options, and an online similarity tool has also been made available. Further, to facilitate retrieval of existing data, each record is hyperlinked to similar databases like SuperNatural, Herbal Ingredients' Targets, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, PubChem and NCI-60 GI(50) data.

  15. NPACT: Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Manu; Sagar, Parul; Singh, Harinder; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.; Agarwal, Subhash M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules have been highly valued by biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies for developing drugs, as they are thought to be optimized during evolution. Therefore, we have collected and compiled a central resource Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/) that gathers the information related to experimentally validated plant-derived natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancerous activity (in vitro and in vivo), to complement the other databases. It currently contains 1574 compound entries, and each record provides information on their structure, manually curated published data on in vitro and in vivo experiments along with reference for users referral, inhibitory values (IC50/ED50/EC50/GI50), properties (physical, elemental and topological), cancer types, cell lines, protein targets, commercial suppliers and drug likeness of compounds. NPACT can easily be browsed or queried using various options, and an online similarity tool has also been made available. Further, to facilitate retrieval of existing data, each record is hyperlinked to similar databases like SuperNatural, Herbal Ingredients’ Targets, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, PubChem and NCI-60 GI50 data. PMID:23203877

  16. Leachability of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are present in the environment and can be concentrated by technical activities, particularly those involving natural resources. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under environmental conditions at the earth's surface. However, reducing or oxidant conditions or pH changes may enable a fraction of naturally occurring radionuclides to eventually be released to the environment. Leachability of 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined in three samples coming from a refractories production plant (dust, sludge, finished product), in one dust sample from a steelwork and in one ash sample coming from an electric power station. A sequential extraction method consisting of five operationally-defined fractions was used. The average leaching potential observed in the samples from the refractory industry is very low (mean values: 5.8% for 210 Pb and 1.7% for 210 Po). The 210 Pb and 210 Po leachability increases for the ash sample coming from an electric power plant using carbon (17.8% for 210 Pb and 10.0% for 210 Po); for the dust sample coming from a steelwork, the percent soluble fraction is 41.1% for 210 Pb and 8.5% for 210 Po. For all samples the results obtained show that 210 Pb is slightly more soluble than 210 Po. (author)

  17. RECOVERY IN VIVO OF NONCULTURABLE SUBPOPULATION OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudin I.P.

    2015-12-01

    / ml of nonculturable population; 3 103 inactivated cells (pasteurization at 60 °C in 70 % ethanol, 30 min. Mice were observed daily for 14 days to register the death and extraction of internal organs. Liver and spleen of dead mice were removed and homogenized in 1.0 ml of FBS to detect restored Salmonella cells by seeding on selective medium bismuth sulfite agar (BSA. Results and discussion. In this study S. enterica cells in the exponential growth phase, exposed to ethanol (final concentration 20 % lost culturability within 60 minutes. After 50 minutes of exposure with ethanol culturability of bacterial suspensions was outside evaluation cup method. At the same time, the integrity of cell membranes was determined at 4 log10 cells/ml. Bacteria that become VNC state can restore culturability. Thus, the state is reversible. Importantly, the resuscitation of VNC in vitro, which is achieved by simply eliminating or VNC induction factor (increasing the growth temperature, availability of nutrients or more complex conditions such as a combination of environmental and chemical stimuli, does not reveal the full pathogenic potential of resuscitated bacteria. Therefore, the process of Salmonella resuscitation in vivo, we studied on infection model in mice. In experiments in vivo S. enterica resuscitation death of test animals was observed in 13.3% (p < 0.05 during the observation period, with 100% mortality in the group of animals infected with a suspension of living culturable cells Salmonella and 100% survival of the animals in the control group (who received injections of inactivated bacteria. From the dead mice from homogenates of internal organs plated recovered salmonella, which was confirmed by their growth on BSA. Conclusions. Under conditions in vivo recovery process VNC S. enterica cells can occur, but with low intensity in healthy mice (at 13.3%, p <0.05. However, these cells retain pathogenic potential and can represent a danger if their underestimation. We can

  18. In vivo neuro MR spectroscopy: a non-invasive insight into cerebral metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.; De Zubicaray, G.; Wang, D.; Galloway, G.; Doddrell, D.; Chalk, J.; University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD; Eagle, S.; Semple, J.

    1999-01-01

    In addition to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for examining anatomical structure, in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is currently being used as a non-invasive clinical tool for monitoring altered brain metabolism. Conditions such as head injury, dementia, multiple sclerosis, tumour, stroke, epilepsy and inborn errors of metabolism are all presently being investigated with MRS. At the Centre for Magnetic Resonance, we are currently undertaking a longitudinal study of dementia progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) utilising both MRS and volumetric MRI techniques. The aim is to identify metabolic differences between this patient group and normal older adults and to correlate these measures with cognitive function. Cerebral artrophy, or loss of brain matter, together with ventricular enlargement , or enlargement of normally occuring cavities, is clearly present on MRI exams in patients with moderate and severe AD

  19. In vivo cartilage contact deformation in the healthy human tibiofemoral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, J T; Papannagari, R; Van de Velde, S K; Gross, C; Gill, T J; Felson, D T; Rubash, H E; Li, G

    2008-11-01

    In vivo cartilage contact deformation is instrumental for understanding human joint function and degeneration. This study measured the total deformation of contacting articular cartilage in the human tibiofemoral joint during in vivo weight-bearing flexion. Eleven healthy knees were magnetic resonance (MR) scanned and imaged with a dual fluoroscopic system while the subject performed a weight-bearing single-leg lunge. The tibia, femur and associated articulating cartilage were constructed from the MR images and combined with the dual fluoroscopic images to determine in vivo cartilage contact deformation from full extension to 120 degrees of flexion. In both compartments, minimum peak compartmental contact deformation occurred at 30 degrees of flexion (24 +/- 6% medial, 17 +/- 7% lateral) and maximum peak compartmental deformation occurred at 120 degrees of flexion (30 +/- 13% medial, 30 +/- 10% lateral) during the weight-bearing flexion from full extension to 120 degrees. Average medial contact areas and peak contact deformations were significantly greater than lateral compartment values (P In addition, cartilage thickness in regions of contact was on average 1.4- and 1.1-times thicker than the average thickness of the tibial and femoral cartilage surfaces, respectively (P line knowledge for investigating the effects of various knee injuries on joint contact biomechanics and the aetiology of cartilage degeneration.

  20. In vivo and in vitro testing for selenium and selenium compounds bioavailability assessment in foodstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2017-03-04

    The assessment of selenium and selenium species bioavailability in foodstuff is of special concern on the context of human nutrition. In vivo (human and animal), and in vitro tests are important approaches for estimating the bioavailability of toxic and essential compounds to humans. An overview on in vivo and in vitro bioavailability assays for releasing selenium and selenium species in foodstuffs is summarized. Se and Se species content in a foodstuff critically influence Se bioavailability and bioactivity to humans and animals. Se bioavailability is affected by foodstuff-matrix major composition and minor components. Foodstuffs processing and/or treatments could enhancement or decrease Se bioavailability. Experimental conditions such as the selection of healthy status of examined people (in in vivo humans approaches), the selection of animal model (in vivo animals approaches), or the selection of GI conditions (in in vitro tests) could determines the results. Thus, international standardized protocol for in vivo and in vitro approaches assessment is mandatory.

  1. Application of unfolding transformation in the random matrix theory to analyze in vivo neuronal spike firing during awake and anesthetized conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Kato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available General anesthetics decrease the frequency and density of spike firing. This effect makes it difficult to detect spike regularity. To overcome this problem, we developed a method utilizing the unfolding transformation which analyzes the energy level statistics in the random matrix theory. We regarded the energy axis as time axis of neuron spike and analyzed the time series of cortical neural firing in vivo. Unfolding transformation detected regularities of neural firing while changes in firing densities were associated with pentobarbital. We found that unfolding transformation enables us to compare firing regularity between awake and anesthetic conditions on a universal scale. Keywords: Unfolding transformation, Spike-timing, Regularity

  2. Lessons learned from vivo-morpholinos: How to avoid vivo-morpholino toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David P.; Dangott, Lawrence J.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Vivo-morpholinos are a promising tool for gene silencing. These oligonucleotide analogs transiently silence genes by blocking either translation or pre-mRNA splicing. Little to no toxicity has been reported for vivo-morpholino treatment. However, in a recent study conducted in our lab, treatment of mice with vivo-morpholinos resulted in high mortality rates. We hypothesized that the deaths were the result of oligonucleotide hybridization, causing an increased cationic charge associated with the dendrimer delivery moiety of the vivo-morpholino. The cationic charge increased blood clot formation in whole blood treated with vivo-morpholinos, suggesting that clotting could have caused cardiac arrest in the deceased mice. Therefore, we investigate the mechanism by which some vivo-morpholinos increase mortality rates and propose techniques to alleviate vivo-morpholino toxicity. PMID:24806225

  3. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  4. Development and analysis of an in vivo-compatible metabolic network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifman Jaques

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis confronts a generally hostile and nutrient-poor in vivo host environment. Existing models and analyses of M. tuberculosis metabolic networks are able to reproduce experimentally measured cellular growth rates and identify genes required for growth in a range of different in vitro media. However, these models, under in vitro conditions, do not provide an adequate description of the metabolic processes required by the pathogen to infect and persist in a host. Results To better account for the metabolic activity of M. tuberculosis in the host environment, we developed a set of procedures to systematically modify an existing in vitro metabolic network by enhancing the agreement between calculated and in vivo-measured gene essentiality data. After our modifications, the new in vivo network contained 663 genes, 838 metabolites, and 1,049 reactions and had a significantly increased sensitivity (0.81 in predicted gene essentiality than the in vitro network (0.31. We verified the modifications generated from the purely computational analysis through a review of the literature and found, for example, that, as the analysis suggested, lipids are used as the main source for carbon metabolism and oxygen must be available for the pathogen under in vivo conditions. Moreover, we used the developed in vivo network to predict the effects of double-gene deletions on M. tuberculosis growth in the host environment, explore metabolic adaptations to life in an acidic environment, highlight the importance of different enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid-cycle under different limiting nutrient conditions, investigate the effects of inhibiting multiple reactions, and look at the importance of both aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration during infection. Conclusions The network modifications we implemented suggest a distinctive set of metabolic conditions and requirements faced by M. tuberculosis during

  5. Carnosine retards tumor growth in vivo in an NIH3T3-HER2/neu mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Christof; Zemitzsch, Nadine; Fuchs, Beate; Geiger, Kathrin D; Hermes, Matthias; Hengstler, Jan; Gebhardt, Rolf; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Gaunitz, Frank

    2010-01-06

    It was previously demonstrated that the dipeptide carnosine inhibits growth of cultured cells isolated from patients with malignant glioma. In the present work we investigated whether carnosine also affects tumor growth in vivo and may therefore be considered for human cancer therapy. A mouse model was used to investigate whether tumor growth in vivo can be inhibited by carnosine. Therefore, NIH3T3 fibroblasts, conditionally expressing the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), were implanted into the dorsal skin of nude mice, and tumor growth in treated animals was compared to control mice. In two independent experiments nude mice that received tumor cells received a daily intra peritoneal injection of 500 microl of 1 M carnosine solution. Measurable tumors were detected 12 days after injection. Aggressive tumor growth in control animals, that received a daily intra peritoneal injection of NaCl solution started at day 16 whereas aggressive growth in mice treated with carnosine was delayed, starting around day 19. A significant effect of carnosine on tumor growth was observed up to day 24. Although carnosine was not able to completely prevent tumor growth, a microscopic examination of tumors revealed that those from carnosine treated animals had a significant lower number of mitosis (p < 0.0003) than untreated animals, confirming that carnosine affects proliferation in vivo. As a naturally occurring substance with a high potential to inhibit growth of malignant cells in vivo, carnosine should be considered as a potential anti-cancer drug. Further experiments should be performed in order to understand how carnosine acts at the molecular level.

  6. Large-Animal Biventricular Working Heart Perfusion System with Low Priming Volume-Comparison between in vivo and ex vivo Cardiac Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Jan-Michael; Mayr, Tanja Axinja Jelena; Jauch, Judith; Guethoff, Sonja; Buchholz, Stefan; Reichart, Bruno; Bauer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Existing large-animal, ex vivo, cardiac perfusion models are restricted in their ability to establish an ischemia/reperfusion condition as seen in cardiac surgery or transplantation. Other working heart systems only challenge one ventricle or require a substantially larger priming volume. We describe a novel biventricular cardiac perfusion system with reduced priming volume. Juvenile pig hearts were cardiopleged, explanted, and reperfused ex vivo after 150 minutes of cold ischemia. Autologous whole blood was used as perfusate (minimal priming volume 350 mL). After 15 minutes of Langendorff perfusion (LM), the system was switched into a biventricular working mode (WM) and studied for 3 hours. During reperfusion, complete unloading of both ventricles and constant-pressure coronary perfusion was achieved. During working mode perfusion, the preload and afterload pressure of both ventricles was controlled within the targeted physiologic range. Functional parameters such as left ventricular work index were reduced in ex vivo working mode (in vivo: 787 ± 186 vs. 1 h WM 498 ± 66 mm Hg·mL/g·min; p  hours while functional and blood parameters are easily accessible. Moreover, because of the minimal priming volume, the novel ex vivo cardiac perfusion circuit allows for autologous perfusion, using the limited amount of blood available from the organ donating animal. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Botella

    Full Text Available Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31 versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32 in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  8. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  9. Studies on the red absorption band of chlorophyll a in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Kleinen Hammans, J.W.; Arnolds, W.J.

    1965-01-01

    It was studied whether certain earlier observed weak shoulders on the red absorption band of chlorophyll a in vivo might represent anomalies due to overlap of absorption bands. The results are suggested of the fact that no such anomalies occur. It is therefore concluded that the present study

  10. Formation of secondary minerals and uptake of various anions under naturally-occurring hyper-alkaline conditions in Oman - 16344

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anraku, Sohtaro; Sato, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Tetsuro; Morimoto, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    In Japanese transuranic (TRU) waste disposal facilities, 129 I is the most important key nuclide for the long-term safety assessment. Thus, the K d values of I to natural minerals are important factor in the safety assessment. However, the degradation of cement materials in the repositories can produce high pH pore fluid which can affect the anion transport behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of anions such as I- under the hyper-alkaline conditions. The natural hyper-alkaline spring water (pH>11) in the Oman ophiolite is known to be generated from the partly serpentinized peridotites. The spring water is characteristically hyper-alkaline, reducing, low-Mg, Si and HCO 3 - , and high-Ca, while the river water is moderately alkaline, oxidizing, high-Mg and HCO 3 - . The mixing of these spring and river water resulted in the formation of secondary minerals. In the present study, the naturally occurring hyper-alkaline conditions near the springs in Oman were used as natural analogue for the interaction between cement pore fluid and natural Mg-HCO 3 - groundwater. The present aim of this paper is to examine the conditions of secondary mineral formation and the anion uptake capacity of these mineral in this system. Water and precipitate samples were collected from the different locations around the spring vent to identify the effect of mixing ratios between spring and river water on mineral composition and water-mineral distribution coefficient of various anions. On-site synthesis was also carried out to support these data quantitatively. Aragonite was observed in all precipitates, while calcite, brucite and Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) were also determined in some samples. Calcite was observed only closed to the springs. At locations far from the springs, calcite formation was inhibited due to high-Mg fluid from river water. Brucite was observed from the springs with relatively low-Al concentration and HTlc was the opposite. During

  11. Cavitation behavior observed in three monoleaflet mechanical heart valves under accelerated testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Liu, Jia-Shing; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien; Hwang, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated testing provides a substantial amount of data on mechanical heart valve durability in a short period of time, but such conditions may not accurately reflect in vivo performance. Cavitation, which occurs during mechanical heart valve closure when local flow field pressure decreases below vapor pressure, is thought to play a role in valve damage under accelerated conditions. The underlying flow dynamics and mechanisms behind cavitation bubble formation are poorly understood. Under physiologic conditions, random perivalvular cavitation is difficult to capture. We applied accelerated testing at a pulse rate of 600 bpm and transvalvular pressure of 120 mm Hg, with synchronized videographs and high-frequency pressure measurements, to study cavitation of the Medtronic Hall Standard (MHS), Medtronic Hall D-16 (MHD), and Omni Carbon (OC) valves. Results showed cavitation bubbles between 340 and 360 micros after leaflet/housing impact of the MHS, MHD, and OC valves, intensified by significant leaflet rebound. Squeeze flow, Venturi, and water hammer effects each contributed to cavitation, depending on valve design.

  12. Cells in Dengue Virus Infection In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansanee Noisakran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has been recognized as one of the most important vector-borne emerging infectious diseases globally. Though dengue normally causes a self-limiting infection, some patients may develop a life-threatening illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS. The reason why DHF/DSS occurs in certain individuals is unclear. Studies in the endemic regions suggest that the preexisting antibodies are a risk factor for DHF/DSS. Viremia and thrombocytopenia are the key clinical features of dengue virus infection in patients. The amounts of virus circulating in patients are highly correlated with severe dengue disease, DHF/DSS. Also, the disturbance, mainly a transient depression, of hematological cells is a critical clinical finding in acute dengue patients. However, the cells responsible for the dengue viremia are unresolved in spite of the intensive efforts been made. Dengue virus appears to replicate and proliferate in many adapted cell lines, but these in vitro properties are extremely difficult to be reproduced in primary cells or in vivo. This paper summarizes reports on the permissive cells in vitro and in vivo and suggests a hematological cell lineage for dengue virus infection in vivo, with the hope that a new focus will shed light on further understanding of the complexities of dengue disease.

  13. In-vivo quantitative measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    So far by positron CT, the quantitative analyses of oxygen consumption rate, blood flow distribution, glucose metabolic rate and so on have been carried out. The largest merit of using the positron CT is the observation and verification of mankind have become easy. Recently, accompanying the rapid development of the mapping tracers for central nervous receptors, the observation of many central nervous receptors by the positron CT has become feasible, and must expectation has been placed on the elucidation of brain functions. The conditions required for in vitro processes cannot be realized in strict sense in vivo. The quantitative measurement of in vivo tracer method is carried out by measuring the accumulation and movement of a tracer after its administration. The movement model of the mapping tracer for central nervous receptors is discussed. The quantitative analysis using a steady movement model, the measurement of dopamine receptors by reference method, the measurement of D 2 receptors using 11C-Racloprode by direct method, and the possibility of measuring dynamics bio-reaction are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Measuring in-vivo and in-situ ex-vivo the 3D deformation of the lamina cribrosa microstructure under elevated intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junchao; Yang, Bin; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Tran, Huong; Brazile, Bryn; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel; Smith, Matthew A.; Wollstein, Gadi; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-02-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) deforms the lamina cribrosa (LC), a structure within the optic nerve head (ONH) in the back of the eye. Evidence suggests that these deformations trigger events that eventually cause irreversible blindness, and have therefore been studied in-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ex-vivo using OCT and a diversity of techniques. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no in-situ ex-vivo studies of LC mechanics. Our goal was two-fold: to introduce a technique for measuring 3D LC deformations from OCT, and to determine whether deformations of the LC induced by elevated IOP differ between in-vivo and in-situ ex-vivo conditions. A healthy adult rhesus macaque monkey was anesthetized and IOP was controlled by inserting a 27- gauge needle into the anterior chamber of the eye. Spectral domain OCT was used to obtain volumetric scans of the ONH at normal and elevated IOPs. To improve the visibility of the LC microstructure the scans were first processed using a novel denoising technique. Zero-normalized cross-correlation was used to find paired corresponding locations between images. For each location pair, the components of the 3D strain tensor were determined using non-rigid image registration. A mild IOP elevation from 10 to 15mmHg caused LC effective strains as large as 3%, and about 50% larger in-vivo than in-situ ex-vivo. The deformations were highly heterogeneous, with substantial 3D components, suggesting that accurate measurement of LC microstructure deformation requires high-resolution volumes. This technique will help improve understanding of LC biomechanics and how IOP contributes to glaucoma.

  15. Importance of in vitro dissolution conditions for the in vivo predictability of an amorphous solid dispersion containing a pH-sensitive carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendelboe, Johan; Knopp, Matthias Manne; Khan, Fauzan

    2017-01-01

    as a carrier in amorphous solid dispersions of CCX. In vitro-in vivo correlation demonstrated that the in vitro data obtained in FaSSIF pH 7.4 was more predictive for the in vivo performance than that obtained in FaSSIF pH 6.5. Consequently, the findings of this study underline that when predicting the in vivo...

  16. In Vivo Measurement of Glenohumeral Joint Contact Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey MichaelJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to describe a technique for measuring in-vivo glenohumeral joint contact patterns during dynamic activities and to demonstrate application of this technique. The experimental technique calculated joint contact patterns by combining CT-based 3D bone models with joint motion data that were accurately measured from biplane x-ray images. Joint contact patterns were calculated for the repaired and contralateral shoulders of 20 patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair. Significant differences in joint contact patterns were detected due to abduction angle and shoulder condition (i.e., repaired versus contralateral. Abduction angle had a significant effect on the superior/inferior contact center position, with the average joint contact center of the repaired shoulder 12.1% higher on the glenoid than the contralateral shoulder. This technique provides clinically relevant information by calculating in-vivo joint contact patterns during dynamic conditions and overcomes many limitations associated with conventional techniques for quantifying joint mechanics.

  17. In-vivo degradation mechanism of Ti-6Al-4V hip joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In-vivo exposed Ti-6Al-4V implants were investigated to determine the degradation mechanism occurring during the articulating movements of the hip joint in the human body. Failed implants were compared to Ti-6Al-4V samples, which were tested in the laboratory for their tribocorrosion performance....... The results strongly indicate that degradation of Ti-6Al-4V has occurred with the same mechanism for both the implants and the laboratory tested samples and, hence, block-on-ring tribocorrosion testing was found to be a useful tool for mimicking the degradation occurring in the body.The degradation mechanism...

  18. Pathways of the Maillard reaction under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Christian; Glomb, Marcus A

    2016-08-01

    Initially investigated as a color formation process in thermally treated foods, nowadays, the relevance of the Maillard reaction in vivo is generally accepted. Many chronic and age-related diseases such as diabetes, uremia, atherosclerosis, cataractogenesis and Alzheimer's disease are associated with Maillard derived advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and α-dicarbonyl compounds as their most important precursors in terms of reactivity and abundance. However, the situation in vivo is very challenging, because Maillard chemistry is paralleled by enzymatic reactions which can lead to both, increases and decreases in certain AGEs. In addition, mechanistic findings established under the harsh conditions of food processing might not be valid under physiological conditions. The present review critically discusses the relevant α-dicarbonyl compounds as central intermediates of AGE formation in vivo with a special focus on fragmentation pathways leading to formation of amide-AGEs.

  19. Fluorescence based molecular in vivo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imaging represents a modern research area that allows the in vivo study of molecular biological process kinetics using appropriate probes and visualization methods. This methodology may be defined- apart from the contrast media injection - as non-abrasive. In order to reach an in vivo molecular process imaging as accurate as possible the effects of the used probes on the biological should not be too large. The contrast media as important part of the molecular imaging can significantly contribute to the understanding of molecular processes and to the development of tailored diagnostics and therapy. Since more than 15 years PTB is developing optic imaging systems that may be used for fluorescence based visualization of tissue phantoms, small animal models and the localization of tumors and their predecessors, and for the early recognition of inflammatory processes in clinical trials. Cellular changes occur during many diseases, thus the molecular imaging might be of importance for the early diagnosis of chronic inflammatory diseases. Fluorescent dyes can be used as unspecific or also as specific contrast media, which allow enhanced detection sensitivity

  20. Membrane protein profiling of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae under various growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ge, Mengyu; Wang, Yanli; Mannan, Shazia; Asif, Muhammad; Sun, Guochang

    2015-06-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) of plant pathogenic bacteria have been reported to be able to regulate many essential cellular processes associated with plant disease. The aim of the current study was to examine and compare the expression of MPs of the rice bacterial pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 under Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, M9 medium, in vivo rice plant conditions and leaf extract (LE) medium mimicking in vivo plant condition. Proteomic analysis identified 95, 72, 75, and 87 MPs under LB, in vivo, M9 and LE conditions, respectively. Among them, six proteins were shared under all tested growth conditions designated as abundant class of proteins. Twenty-six and 21 proteins were expressed uniquely under in vivo versus LB medium and LE versus M9 medium, respectively, with 17 proteins common among these uniquely induced proteins. Moreover, most of the shared proteins are mainly related to energy metabolism, transport of small molecules, protein synthesis and secretion as well as virulence such as NADH, OmpA, secretion proteins. Therefore, the result of this study not only suggests that it may be an alternate method to analyze the in vivo expression of proteins by using LE medium to mimic plant conditions, but also reveals that the two sets of differentially expressed MPs, in particular the common MPs between them, might be important in energy metabolism, stress response and virulence of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1.

  1. An Update on in Vivo Imaging of Extracellular Vesicles as Drug Delivery Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gangadaran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are currently being considered as promising drug delivery vehicles. EVs are naturally occurring vesicles that exhibit many characteristics favorable to serve as drug delivery vehicles. In addition, EVs have inherent properties for treatment of cancers and other diseases. For research and clinical translation of use of EVs as drug delivery vehicles, in vivo tracking of EVs is essential. The latest molecular imaging techniques enable the tracking of EVs in living animals. However, each molecular imaging technique has its certain advantages and limitations for the in vivo imaging of EVs; therefore, understanding the molecular imaging techniques is essential to select the most appropriate imaging technology to achieve the desired imaging goal. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of EVs as drug delivery vehicles and the molecular imaging techniques used in visualizing and monitoring EVs in in vivo environments. Furthermore, we provide a perceptual vision of EVs as drug delivery vehicles and in vivo monitoring of EVs using molecular imaging technologies.

  2. In vivo myograph measurement of muscle contraction at optimal length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Aminul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current devices for measuring muscle contraction in vivo have limited accuracy in establishing and re-establishing the optimum muscle length. They are variable in the reproducibility to determine the muscle contraction at this length, and often do not maintain precise conditions during the examination. Consequently, for clinical testing only semi-quantitative methods have been used. Methods We present a newly developed myograph, an accurate measuring device for muscle contraction, consisting of three elements. Firstly, an element for adjusting the axle of the device and the physiological axis of muscle contraction; secondly, an element to accurately position and reposition the extremity of the muscle; and thirdly, an element for the progressive pre-stretching and isometric locking of the target muscle. Thus it is possible to examine individual in vivo muscles in every pre-stretched, specified position, to maintain constant muscle-length conditions, and to accurately re-establish the conditions of the measurement process at later sessions. Results In a sequence of experiments the force of contraction of the muscle at differing stretching lengths were recorded and the forces determined. The optimum muscle length for maximal force of contraction was established. In a following sequence of experiments with smaller graduations around this optimal stretching length an increasingly accurate optimum muscle length for maximal force of contraction was determined. This optimum length was also accurately re-established at later sessions. Conclusion We have introduced a new technical solution for valid, reproducible in vivo force measurements on every possible point of the stretching curve. Thus it should be possible to study the muscle contraction in vivo to the same level of accuracy as is achieved in tests with in vitro organ preparations.

  3. In vivo dosimetry during breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, M.A.; Herbert, C.E.; Joseph, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In vivo dosimetry during breast irradiation can be difficult due to frequent use of wedged fields, and the contour of the breast. In vivo measurements of central-axis entrance dose were made on 62 breast patients for two consecutive fractions. Discrepancies from expected doses of up to 13.4 % were found for lateral tangential fields (mean 4.31 %). It was proposed that large discrepancies were due to i) dosimetric I and setup errors, and ii) diode misplacement errors. An investigation of the effect of diode misplacement error was undertaken by reviewing possible measurement errors for 20 randomly selected breast treatments. A Monte Carlo study was used to examine the expected measurement error as a function of the standard deviation (SD) in diode placement error (see figure). A strong relationship was found between breast contour and wedge angle. Diode misplacement in the presence of a large wedge angle was identified as a major possible source of measurement error. For the sample of treatments considered, the Monte Carlo study showed that, ignoring general dosimetric errors, mean errors of 4 % are feasible for setup errors of the order of 1 cm (the width of the diode). This study has shown that accurate in vivo dosimetry requires separating measurements errors out from diode readings in order not to overestimate the actual dosimetric errors occurring at treatment time. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  4. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuyuki; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding cellular fusion and nuclear reprogramming may aid in cell therapy strategies for skeletal muscle diseases. An issue with cell therapy approaches to restore dystrophin expression in muscular dystrophy is obtaining a sufficient quantity of cells that normally fuse with muscle. Here we conferred fusogenic activity without transdifferentiation to multiple non-muscle cell types and tested dystrophin restoration in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. We previously demonstrated that myomaker, a skeletal muscle-specific transmembrane protein necessary for myoblast fusion, is sufficient to fuse 10T 1/2 fibroblasts to myoblasts in vitro. Whether myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion is functional in vivo and whether the newly introduced nonmuscle nuclei undergoes nuclear reprogramming has not been investigated. We showed that mesenchymal stromal cells, cortical bone stem cells, and tail-tip fibroblasts fuse to skeletal muscle when they express myomaker. These cells restored dystrophin expression in a fraction of dystrophin-deficient myotubes after fusion in vitro. However, dystrophin restoration was not detected in vivo although nuclear reprogramming of the muscle-specific myosin light chain promoter did occur. Despite the lack of detectable dystrophin reprogramming by immunostaining, this study indicated that myomaker could be used in nonmuscle cells to induce fusion with muscle in vivo, thereby providing a platform to deliver therapeutic material.-Mitani, Y., Vagnozzi, R. J., Millay, D. P. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming. © FASEB.

  5. In vivo predictive dissolution: transport analysis of the CO2 , bicarbonate in vivo buffer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Development of an oral in vivo predictive dissolution medium for acid drugs with a pKa in the physiological range (e.g., Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class IIa) requires transport analysis of the complex in vivo CO2 /bicarbonate buffering system. In this report, we analyze this buffer system using hydrodynamically defined rotating disk dissolution. Transport analysis of drug flux was predicted using the film model approach of Mooney et al based on equilibrium assumptions as well as accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . The accuracy of the models was compared with experimentally determined results using the rotating disk dissolution of ibuprofen, indomethacin, and ketoprofen. The equilibrium and slow hydration reaction rate models predict significantly different dissolution rates. The experimental results are more accurately predicted by accounting for the slow hydration reaction under a variety of pH and hydrodynamic conditions. Although the complex bicarbonate buffering system requires further consideration given its dynamic nature in vivo, a simplifying irreversible reaction (IRR) transport analysis accurately predicts in vitro rotating disk dissolution rates of several carboxylic acid drugs. This IRR transport model provides further insight into bicarbonate buffer and can be useful in developing more physiologically relevant buffer systems for dissolution testing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. PGE2 suppresses NK activity in vivo directly and through adrenal hormones: Effects that cannot be reflected by ex-vivo assessment of NK cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, G.; Tishler, Y.; Shaashua, L.; Rosenne, E.; Levi, B.; Melamed, R.; Gotlieb, N.; Matzner, P.; Sorski, L.; Ben-Eliyahu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Surgery can suppress in vivo levels of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) through various mechanisms, including catecholamine-, glucocorticoid (CORT)-, and prostaglandin (PG)-mediated responses. However, PGs are synthesized locally following tissue damage, driving proinflammatory and CORT responses, while their systemic levels are often unaffected. Thus, we herein studied the role of adrenal factors in mediating in vivo effects of PGs on NKCC, using adrenalectomized and sham-operated F344 rats subjected to surgery or PGE2 administration. In vivo and ex-vivo approaches were employed, based on intravenous administration of the NK-sensitive MADB106 tumor line, and based on ex-vivo assessment of YAC-1 and MADB106 target-line lysis. Additionally, in vitro studies assessed the kinetics of the impact of epinephrine, CORT, and PGE2 on NKCC. The results indicated that suppression of NKCC by epinephrine and PGE2 are short lasting, and cannot be evident when these compounds are removed from the in vitro assay milieu, or in the context of ex-vivo assessment of NKCC. In contrast, the effects of CORT are long-lasting and are reflected in both conditions even after its removal. Marginating-pulmonary NKCC was less susceptible to suppression than circulating NKCC, when tested against the xenogeneic YAC-1 target line, but not against the syngeneic MADB106 line, which seems to involve different cytotoxicity mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that elevated systemic PG levels can directly suppress NKCC in vivo, but following laparotomy adrenal hormones mediate most of the effects of endogenously-released PGs. Additionally, the ex-vivo approach seems limited in reflecting the short-lasting NK-suppressive effects of catecholamines and PGs. PMID:23153554

  7. PGE2 suppresses NK activity in vivo directly and through adrenal hormones: effects that cannot be reflected by ex vivo assessment of NK cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, G; Tishler, Y; Shaashua, L; Rosenne, E; Levi, B; Melamed, R; Gotlieb, N; Matzner, P; Sorski, L; Ben-Eliyahu, S

    2013-02-01

    Surgery can suppress in vivo levels of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) through various mechanisms, including catecholamine-, glucocorticoid (CORT)-, and prostaglandin (PG)-mediated responses. However, PGs are synthesized locally following tissue damage, driving proinflammatory and CORT responses, while their systemic levels are often unaffected. Thus, we herein studied the role of adrenal factors in mediating in vivo effects of PGs on NKCC, using adrenalectomized and sham-operated F344 rats subjected to surgery or PGE(2) administration. In vivo and ex vivo approaches were employed, based on intravenous administration of the NK-sensitive MADB106 tumor line, and based on ex vivo assessment of YAC-1 and MADB106 target-line lysis. Additionally, in vitro studies assessed the kinetics of the impact of epinephrine, CORT, and PGE(2) on NKCC. The results indicated that suppression of NKCC by epinephrine and PGE(2) are short lasting, and cannot be evident when these compounds are removed from the in vitro assay milieu, or in the context of ex vivo assessment of NKCC. In contrast, the effects of CORT are long-lasting and are reflected in both conditions even after its removal. Marginating-pulmonary NKCC was less susceptible to suppression than circulating NKCC, when tested against the xenogeneic YAC-1 target line, but not against the syngeneic MADB106 line, which seems to involve different cytotoxicity mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that elevated systemic PG levels can directly suppress NKCC in vivo, but following laparotomy adrenal hormones mediate most of the effects of endogenously-released PGs. Additionally, the ex vivo approach seems limited in reflecting the short-lasting NK-suppressive effects of catecholamines and PGs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PKMζ inhibition prevents the metaplastic change induced by conditioned taste aversion on insular cortex long-term potentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-Durán, Sandybel; Ramos-Languren, Laura E; Escobar, Martha L

    2012-01-01

    The activity history of a given neuron or pathway has been suggested to influence its future responses to synaptic inputs. In particular, training in several learning tasks produces a metaplastic change, that is, a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity. Experimental evidence shows that the maintenance of long term memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) requires the persistent action of the atypical protein kinase Cisoform, protein kinase M ζ (PKM ζ ). Recent work has demonstrated that the inactivation of PKM ζ in the insular cortex (IC) abolishes conditioned taste aversion (CTA) long term memory. Our previous studies in the IC have demonstrated that the induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC projection previous to CTA training enhances the retention of this task. Moreover, recently, we have observed that CTA training blocks the subsequent induction of LTP in the Bla-IC projection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the participation of PKM ζon the CTA-dependent modification of the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in vivo . Thus, we have delivered high-frequency stimulation in the Bla-IC projection in order to induce in vivo IC-LTP in the rats that underwent or did not have an impairment of CTA retention due to the intracortical administration of the selective PKM ζ pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptide, ZIP. Our results show that the microinfusion of ZIP into the IC of the behaving rats impairs long-term memory of CTA and prevents its effects on IC-LTP. These results indicate that PKM ζ is a key component of the cellular mechanisms necessary for the persistence of lasting memory traces as well as for those underlying metaplastic changes in neocortex, contributing to the persistence of aversive memories.

  9. Engineering Cell Fate for Tissue Regeneration by In Vivo Transdifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lázaro, I; Kostarelos, K

    2016-02-01

    Changes in cell identity occur in adult mammalian organisms but are rare and often linked to disease. Research in the last few decades has thrown light on how to manipulate cell fate, but the conversion of a particular cell type into another within a living organism (also termed in vivo transdifferentiation) has only been recently achieved in a limited number of tissues. Although the therapeutic promise of this strategy for tissue regeneration and repair is exciting, important efficacy and safety concerns will need to be addressed before it becomes a reality in the clinical practice. Here, we review the most relevant in vivo transdifferentiation studies in adult mammalian animal models, offering a critical assessment of this potentially powerful strategy for regenerative medicine.

  10. Does conflict control occur without awareness? Evidence from an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoxi; Xiang, Ling; Li, Juan

    2013-01-15

    The relationship between conflict control and awareness has attracted extensive interest. Although researchers have investigated the relationship between response conflict and awareness, it still remains unclear whether stimulus conflict can occur outside of awareness. In addition, previous studies on the role of awareness in conflict control have ignored the fact that conflict control includes both conflict detection and resolution. A modified version of the flanker task was used to manipulate stimulus and response conflicts under both masked and unmasked conditions. The masked condition elicited a sequence of distinct event-related potential components that were also observed in the unmasked condition. N2 amplitudes presented the following pattern: incongruent-eligible>incongruent-ineligible>congruent, they did not show any difference under the masked and unmasked conditions, suggesting that detection of stimulus-related conflict revealed by the comparison between incongruent-ineligible and congruent trials, and response-related conflict revealed by the comparison between incongruent-eligible and incongruent-ineligible trials can occur in the absence of awareness, and unconscious conflict detection might involve the same neural network employed for conscious conflict detection. Late positive component (LPC) amplitudes also presented as incongruent-eligible>incongruent-ineligible>congruent at CPz and Pz, irrespective of conscious awareness. However, LPC amplitudes under the masked condition were markedly reduced compared to unmasked trials. These LPC findings suggest that stimulus- and response-related conflict resolution can occur in the absence of awareness; furthermore, unconscious conflict resolution might involve a weaker cognitive control network compared to conscious conflict resolution. These findings have important implications for the theories concerning the relationship between cognitive control and awareness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. An evaluation of preference for video and in vivo modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Kaneen B; Leblanc, Linda A; Dillon, Courtney M; Bates, Stephanie L

    2010-01-01

    We assessed preference for video or in vivo modeling using a concurrent-chains arrangement with 3 children with autism. The two modeling conditions produced similar acquisition rates and no differential selection (i.e., preference) for all 3 participants.

  12. Identification of factors promoting ex vivo maintenance of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by long-term single-cell quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D; Drew, Erin; Endele, Max; Loeffler, Dirk; Hoppe, Philipp S; Hilsenbeck, Oliver; Schauberger, Bernhard; Hinzen, Christoph; Skylaki, Stavroula; Theodorou, Marina; Kieslinger, Matthias; Lemischka, Ihor; Moore, Kateri; Schroeder, Timm

    2016-09-01

    The maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during ex vivo culture is an important prerequisite for their therapeutic manipulation. However, despite intense research, culture conditions for robust maintenance of HSCs are still missing. Cultured HSCs are quickly lost, preventing their improved analysis and manipulation. Identification of novel factors supporting HSC ex vivo maintenance is therefore necessary. Coculture with the AFT024 stroma cell line is capable of maintaining HSCs ex vivo long-term, but the responsible molecular players remain unknown. Here, we use continuous long-term single-cell observation to identify the HSC behavioral signature under supportive or nonsupportive stroma cocultures. We report early HSC survival as a major characteristic of HSC-maintaining conditions. Behavioral screening after manipulation of candidate molecules revealed that the extracellular matrix protein dermatopontin (Dpt) is involved in HSC maintenance. DPT knockdown in supportive stroma impaired HSC survival, whereas ectopic expression of the Dpt gene or protein in nonsupportive conditions restored HSC survival. Supplementing defined stroma- and serum-free culture conditions with recombinant DPT protein improved HSC clonogenicity. These findings illustrate a previously uncharacterized role of Dpt in maintaining HSCs ex vivo. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Medicinal properties of fungi occurring on Betula sp. trees. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolibowska Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the chemical costituents and pharmacological properties of polyporoid fungi found on birch, namely Piptoporus betulinus, Inonotus obliquus, Lenzites betulina, Fomes fomentarius, and Trametes versicolor. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of different extracts from above-mentioned fungi on the human organism shown anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulant activity, conditioned by the presence of such compounds as polysaccharides, polyphenols or terpenes. These fungi are commonly found in Poland and may superbly compete with Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Lentinula edodes (Shitake used in Asia for medicinal purposes.

  14. In vivo and in vitro protein ligation by naturally occurring and engineered split DnaE inteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sesilja Aranko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein trans-splicing by naturally occurring split DnaE inteins is used for protein ligation of foreign peptide fragments. In order to widen biotechnological applications of protein trans-splicing, it is highly desirable to have split inteins with shorter C-terminal fragments, which can be chemically synthesized. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the identification of new functional split sites in DnaE inteins from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and from Nostoc punctiforme. One of the newly engineered split intein bearing C-terminal 15 residues showed more robust protein trans-splicing activity than naturally occurring split DnaE inteins in a foreign context. During the course of our experiments, we found that protein ligation by protein trans-splicing depended not only on the splicing junction sequences, but also on the foreign extein sequences. Furthermore, we could classify the protein trans-splicing reactions in foreign contexts with a simple kinetic model into three groups according to their kinetic parameters in the presence of various reducing agents. CONCLUSION: The shorter C-intein of the newly engineered split intein could be a useful tool for biotechnological applications including protein modification, incorporation of chemical probes, and segmental isotopic labelling. Based on kinetic analysis of the protein splicing reactions, we propose a general strategy to improve ligation yields by protein trans-splicing, which could significantly enhance the applications of protein ligation by protein trans-splicing.

  15. Oxide nano crystals for in vivo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, E.

    2005-01-01

    For small animal, fluorescence imaging is complementary with other techniques such as nuclear imaging (PET, SPECT). In vivo imaging studies imply the development of new luminescent probes, with a better sensitivity and a better biological targeting. These markers must filled biological and optical conditions. Our goal is to study new doped lanthanides oxide nano-crystals, their properties, their functionalization and their ability to target biological molecules. Characterizations of Y 2 O 3 :Eu and Y 2 SiO 5 :Eu nano-crystals (light diffusion, spectrometry, microscopy) allowed the determination of their size, their fluorescence properties but also their photo-bleaching. Means of stabilization of the nanoparticles were also studied in order to decrease their aggregation. Gd 2 O 3 :Eu nano-crystals were as well excited by X rays. Nano-crystals of Y 2 SiO 5 :Eu were functionalized, and organic ligands grafting evidenced by fluorescence and NMR. The functionalized nano-crystals could then recognized biological targets (streptavidin-biotin) and be incubated in the presence of HeLa cells. This report deals with the properties of these nano-crystals and their ability to meet the optical and biological conditions required for the application of in vivo imaging. (author)

  16. In vivo and ex vivo EPR detection of spin-labelled ovalbumin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramović, Zrinka; Brgles, Marija; Habjanec, Lidija; Tomasić, Jelka; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Frkanec, Ruza

    2010-10-01

    In this study, spin-labelled ovalbumin (SL-OVA), free or entrapped in liposomes, was administered to mice subcutaneously (s.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with the aim to determine the conditions for pharmacokinetic studies of spin-labelled proteins by EPR and to measure the time course of SL-OVA distribution in vivo in live mice and ex vivo in isolated organs. Upon s.c. administration, the decay of the EPR signal was followed for 60min at the site of application using an L-band EPR spectrometer. Within this time period, the signal of free SL-OVA was diminished by about 70%. It was estimated with the help of the oxidizing agent K(3)[(FeCN)(6)] that approximately 30% was a consequence of the spin label reduction to EPR non-visible hydroxylamine and about 40% was due to the SL-OVA elimination from the site of measurement. For liposome encapsulated SL-OVA, the intensity diminished only by approx. 40% in the same period, indicating that liposomes successfully protect the protein from reduction. EPR signal could not be detected directly over live mouse organs within 60min after s.c. application of SL-OVA. With the available L-band EPR spectrometer, the measurements at the site of s.c. application are possible if the amount of SL-OVA applied to a mouse is more than 3mg. For the pharmacokinetic studies of the protein distribution in organs after s.c. or i.v. injection the concentration of the spin-labelled protein should be more than 0.5mmol/kg. After i.v. administration, only ex vivo measurements were possible using an X-band EPR spectrometer, since the total amount of SL-OVA was not sufficient for in vivo detection and also because of rapid reduction of nitroxide. After 2min, the protein was preferentially distributed to liver and, to a smaller extent, to spleen.

  17. Assessment of in vitro and in vivo anthelminthic potential of extracts of Allium sativum bulb against naturally occurring ovine gastrointestinal nematodiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelminthic resistance has limited the success of traditional control programmes, thereby forcing researchers to search for ethno-veterinary alternatives. The objective is to assess the anthelminthic potential of various extracts of the bulb of Allium sativum in naturally infected sheep. In vitro anthelminthic activities of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the bulb of A. sativum were investigated against the egg (500 eggs/ml) and larvae of naturally infected sheep. The aqueous extract of A. sativum was also investigated for in vivo anthelminthic activity in three groups (n = 15 each) of naturally infected Chokla sheep with a negative control group receiving no treatment, a positive control group was given a single oral dose of albendazole at 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight, and a group administered a single oral dose of an aqueous extract at 5 g/animal. Data were analysed using the general linear model. Aqueous extract showed better efficacy in egg hatch assay and larval development test. However, in larval paralysis test, reverse trend was seen as methanolic extract was more potent than the aqueous counterpart. A significant amount of 57% faecal egg count reduction was observed in in vivo trail using the aqueous extract on day 21 post-treatment, although in initial stages it showed 30% and 83% effectiveness on days 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the haematological and biochemical parameters. Bulb of A. sativum possesses good anthelminthic efficacy and further research is thereby warranted before recommending it for nematode control programme in ovines.

  18. Modifying the affective behavior of preschoolers with autism using in-vivo or video modeling and reinforcement contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gena, Angeliki; Couloura, Sophia; Kymissis, Effie

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to modify the affective behavior of three preschoolers with autism in home settings and in the context of play activities, and to compare the effects of video modeling to the effects of in-vivo modeling in teaching these children contextually appropriate affective responses. A multiple-baseline design across subjects, with a return to baseline condition, was used to assess the effects of treatment that consisted of reinforcement, video modeling, in-vivo modeling, and prompting. During training trials, reinforcement in the form of verbal praise and tokens was delivered contingent upon appropriate affective responding. Error correction procedures differed for each treatment condition. In the in-vivo modeling condition, the therapist used modeling and verbal prompting. In the video modeling condition, video segments of a peer modeling the correct response and verbal prompting by the therapist were used as corrective procedures. Participants received treatment in three categories of affective behavior--sympathy, appreciation, and disapproval--and were presented with a total of 140 different scenarios. The study demonstrated that both treatments--video modeling and in-vivo modeling--systematically increased appropriate affective responding in all response categories for the three participants. Additionally, treatment effects generalized across responses to untrained scenarios, the child's mother, new therapists, and time.

  19. Prototype to measure bracket debonding force in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssika Lagni Tonus

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Material biodegradation that occurs in the mouth may interfere in the bonding strength between the bracket and the enamel, causing lower bond strength values in vivo, in comparison with in vitro studies. Objective: To develop a prototype to measure bracket debonding force in vivo and to evaluate, in vitro, the bond strength obtained with the prototype. Methods: A original plier (3M Unitek was modified by adding one strain gauge directly connected to its claw. An electronic circuit performed the reading of the strain gauge, and the software installed in a computer recorded the values of the bracket debonding force, in kgf. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the facial surface of 30 bovine incisors with adhesive materials. In Group 1 (n = 15, debonding was carried out with the prototype, while tensile bond strength testing was performed in Group 2 (n = 15. A universal testing machine was used for the second group. The adhesive remnant index (ARI was recorded. Results: According to Student’s t test (α = 0.05, Group 1 (2.96 MPa and Group 2 (3.08 MPa were not significantly different. ARI score of 3 was predominant in the two groups. Conclusion: The prototype proved to be reliable for obtaining in vivo bond strength values for orthodontic brackets.

  20. Prototype to measure bracket debonding force in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonus, Jéssika Lagni; Manfroi, Fernanda Borguetti; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Grigolo, Eduardo Correa; Helegda, Sérgio; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Material biodegradation that occurs in the mouth may interfere in the bonding strength between the bracket and the enamel, causing lower bond strength values in vivo, in comparison with in vitro studies. Objective: To develop a prototype to measure bracket debonding force in vivo and to evaluate, in vitro, the bond strength obtained with the prototype. Methods: A original plier (3M Unitek) was modified by adding one strain gauge directly connected to its claw. An electronic circuit performed the reading of the strain gauge, and the software installed in a computer recorded the values of the bracket debonding force, in kgf. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the facial surface of 30 bovine incisors with adhesive materials. In Group 1 (n = 15), debonding was carried out with the prototype, while tensile bond strength testing was performed in Group 2 (n = 15). A universal testing machine was used for the second group. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was recorded. Results: According to Student’s t test (α = 0.05), Group 1 (2.96 MPa) and Group 2 (3.08 MPa) were not significantly different. ARI score of 3 was predominant in the two groups. Conclusion: The prototype proved to be reliable for obtaining in vivo bond strength values for orthodontic brackets. PMID:28444011

  1. Renovascular BK(Ca) channels are not activated in vivo under resting conditions and during agonist stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Linda; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the role of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels for the basal renal vascular tone in vivo. Furthermore, the possible buffering by BK(Ca) of the vasoconstriction elicited by angiotensin II (ANG II) or norepinephrine (NE) was investigated. The possible activation.......3 nmol/min) did not have any effect. Renal injection of ANG II (1-4 ng) or NE (10-40 ng) produced a transient decrease in RBF. These responses were not affected by preinfusion of TEA or IBT. Renal infusion of the BK(Ca) opener NS-1619 (90.0 nmol/min) did not affect basal RBF or the response to NE......, there is no indication for a major role for BK(Ca) channels in the control of basal renal tone in vivo. Furthermore, BK(Ca) channels do not have a buffering effect on the rat renal vascular responses to ANG II and NE. The fact that NS-1619 attenuates the ANG II response indicates that the renal vascular BK(Ca) channels...

  2. Dose and Spatial Effects in Long-Distance Radiation Signaling In Vivo: Implications for Abscopal Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, Mariateresa; Giardullo, Paola; Leonardi, Simona; Pasquali, Emanuela; Casciati, Arianna; De Stefano, Ilaria; Tanori, Mirella; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dose and spatial dependence of abscopal radiation effects occurring in vivo in the mouse, along with their tumorigenic potential in the central nervous system (CNS) of a radiosensitive mouse model. Methods and Materials: Patched1 (Ptch1) +/− mice, carrying a germ-line heterozygous inactivating mutation in the Ptch1 gene and uniquely susceptible to radiation damage in neonatal cerebellum, were exposed directly to ionizing radiation (1, 2, or 3 Gy of x-rays) or treated in a variety of partial-body irradiation protocols, in which the animals' head was fully protected by suitable lead cylinders while the rest of the body was exposed to x-rays in full or in part. Apoptotic cell death was measured in directly irradiated and shielded cerebellum shortly after irradiation, and tumor development was monitored in lifetime groups. The same endpoints were measured using different shielding geometries in mice irradiated with 3 or 10 Gy of x-rays. Results: Although dose-dependent cell death was observed in off-target cerebellum for all doses and shielding conditions tested, a conspicuous lack of abscopal response for CNS tumorigenesis was evident at the lowest dose of 1 Gy. By changing the amount of exposed body volume, the shielding geometry could also significantly modulate tumorigenesis depending on dose. Conclusions: We conclude that interplay between radiation dose and exposed tissue volume plays a critical role in nontargeted effects occurring in mouse CNS under conditions relevant to humans. These findings may help understanding the mechanisms of long-range radiation signaling in harmful effects, including carcinogenesis, occurring in off-target tissues

  3. 211 At-labeled agents for alpha-immunotherapy: On the in vivo stability of astatine-agent bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed , Tahra ,; Pilmé , Julien; Tézé , David; Bassal , Fadel ,; Barbet , Jacques ,; Chérel , Michel; Champion , Julie ,; Maurice , Rémi; Montavon , Gilles ,; Galland , Nicolas ,

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The application of 211 At to targeted cancer therapy is currently hindered by the rapid deastatination that occurs in vivo. As the deastatination mechanism is unknown, we tackled this issue from the viewpoint of the intrinsic properties of At-involving chemical bonds. An apparent correlation has been evidenced between in vivo stability of 211 At-labeled compounds and the AtÀR (R ¼ C, B) bond enthalpies obtained from relativistic quantum mechanical calculations. Further...

  4. Characterisation of mechanical behaviour of human skin in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, L.F.A.; Meijer, R.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization of the biomechanical properties of human skin in vivo is studied both experimentally and by numerical modeling. These properties can be important in the evaluation of skin condition (e.g. aging) as well as skin disorders. In this study the authors focus on the static behavior of the

  5. Estimating Likelihood of Fetal In Vivo Interactions Using In Vitro HTS Data (Teratology meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tox21/ToxCast efforts provide in vitro concentration-response data for thousands of compounds. Predicting whether chemical-biological interactions observed in vitro will occur in vivo is challenging. We hypothesize that using a modified model from the FDA guidance for drug intera...

  6. Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring Disorders and ... 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 820 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone (703) 684.7722 Toll Free (800) 969.6642 ...

  7. Racial/ethnic disparities in service utilization for individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders in the general population: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M; Narrow, William E; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-07-01

    This study sought to determine whether black/white disparities in service utilization for mental health and substance use disorders persist or are diminished among individuals with psychiatric comorbidity in the general population. The 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was used to identify individuals with lifetime co-occurring substance use disorders and mood/anxiety disorders (N = 4250; whites, N = 3597; blacks, N = 653). Lifetime service utilization for problems with mood, anxiety, alcohol, and drugs was assessed. Compared to whites, blacks with co-occurring mood or anxiety and substance use disorders were significantly less likely to receive services for mood or anxiety disorders, equally likely to receive services for alcohol use disorders, and more likely to receive some types of services for drug use disorders. Regardless of race/ethnicity, individuals with these co-occurring disorders were almost twice as likely to use services for mood/anxiety disorders than for substance use disorders. Despite the fact that comorbidity generally increases the likelihood of service use, black/white disparities in service utilization among an all-comorbid sample were found, although these disparities differed by type of disorder. Further research is warranted to understand the factors underlying these differences. Prevention and intervention strategies are needed to address the specific mental health needs of blacks with co-occurring disorders, as well as the overall lack of service use for substance use disorders among individuals with co-occurring psychiatric conditions.

  8. On the interplay of basis smoothness and specific range conditions occurring in sparsity regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzengruber, Stephan W; Hofmann, Bernd; Ramlau, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    The convergence rates results in ℓ 1 -regularization when the sparsity assumption is narrowly missed, presented by Burger et al (2013 Inverse Problems 29 025013), are based on a crucial condition which requires that all basis elements belong to the range of the adjoint of the forward operator. Partly it was conjectured that such a condition is very restrictive. In this context, we study sparsity-promoting varieties of Tikhonov regularization for linear ill-posed problems with respect to an orthonormal basis in a separable Hilbert space using ℓ 1 and sublinear penalty terms. In particular, we show that the corresponding range condition is always satisfied for all basis elements if the problems are well-posed in a certain weaker topology and the basis elements are chosen appropriately related to an associated Gelfand triple. The Radon transform, Symm’s integral equation and linear integral operators of Volterra type are examples for such behaviour, which allows us to apply convergence rates results for non-sparse solutions, and we further extend these results also to the case of non-convex ℓ q -regularization with 0 < q < 1. (paper)

  9. Vascular endothelial dysfunction in β-thalassemia occurs despite increased eNOS expression and preserved vascular smooth muscle cell reactivity to NO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekatherina Stoyanova

    Full Text Available The hereditary β-thalassemia major condition requires regular lifelong blood transfusions. Transfusion-related iron overloading has been associated with the onset of cardiovascular complications, including cardiac dysfunction and vascular anomalies. By using an untransfused murine model of β-thalassemia major, we tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial dysfunction, alterations of arterial structure and of its mechanical properties would occur despite the absence of treatments.Vascular function and structure were evaluated ex vivo. Compared to the controls, endothelium-dependent vasodilation with acetylcholine was blunted in mesenteric resistance arteries of β-thalassemic mice while the endothelium-independent vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside produced comparable vessel dilation, indicating endothelial cell impairment with preserved smooth muscle cell reactivity to nitric oxide (NO. While these findings suggest a decrease in NO bioavailability, Western blotting showed heightened expression of aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in β-thalassemia. Vascular remodeling of the common carotid arteries revealed increased medial elastin content. Under isobaric conditions, the carotid arteries of β-thalassemic mice exhibited decreased wall stress and softening due to structural changes of the vessel wall.A complex vasculopathy was identified in untransfused β-thalassemic mice characterized by altered carotid artery structure and endothelial dysfunction of resistance arterioles, likely attributable to reduced NO bioavailability despite enhanced vascular eNOS expression.

  10. Organ specific mapping of in vivo redox state in control and cigarette smoke-exposed mice using EPR/NMR co-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caia, George L.; Efimova, Olga V.; Velayutham, Murugesan; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A.; Abdelghany, Tamer M.; Kesselring, Eric; Petryakov, Sergey; Sun, Ziqi; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo mapping of alterations in redox status is important for understanding organ specific pathology and disease. While electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) enables spatial mapping of free radicals, it does not provide anatomic visualization of the body. Proton MRI is well suited to provide anatomical visualization. We applied EPR/NMR co-imaging instrumentation to map and monitor the redox state of living mice under normal or oxidative stress conditions induced by secondhand cigarette smoke (SHS) exposure. A hybrid co-imaging instrument, EPRI (1.2 GHz) / proton MRI (16.18 MHz), suitable for whole-body co-imaging of mice was utilized with common magnet and gradients along with dual EPR/NMR resonators that enable co-imaging without sample movement. The metabolism of the nitroxide probe, 3–carbamoyl–proxyl (3-CP), was used to map the redox state of control and SHS-exposed mice. Co-imaging allowed precise 3D mapping of radical distribution and reduction in major organs such as the heart, lungs, liver, bladder and kidneys. Reductive metabolism was markedly decreased in SHS-exposed mice and EPR/NMR co-imaging allowed quantitative assessment of this throughout the body. Thus, in vivo EPR/NMR co-imaging enables in vivo organ specific mapping of free radical metabolism and redox stress and the alterations that occur in the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:22296801

  11. Natural Transformation of Campylobacter jejuni Occurs Beyond Limits of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska-Marzęta, Małgorzata; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni. PMID:23049803

  12. Enterococcus faecalis Sex Pheromone cCF10 Enhances Conjugative Plasmid Transfer In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Hirt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell communication mediated by peptide pheromones (cCF10 [CF] is essential for high-frequency plasmid transfer in vitro in Enterococcus faecalis. To examine the role of pheromone signaling in vivo, we established either a CF-producing (CF+ recipient or a recipient producing a biologically inactive variant of CF (CF− recipient in a germfree mouse model 3 days before donor inoculation and determined transfer frequencies of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10. Plasmid transfer was detected in the upper and middle sections of the intestinal tract 5 h after donor inoculation and was highly efficient in the absence of antibiotic selection. The transconjugant/donor ratio reached a maximum level approaching 1 on day 4 in the upper intestinal tract. Plasmid transfer was significantly lower with the CF− recipient. While rescue of the CF− mating defect by coculture with CF+ recipients is easily accomplished in vitro, no extracellular complementation occurred in vivo. This suggests that most pheromone signaling in the gut occurs between recipient and donor cells in very close proximity. Plasmid-bearing cells (donors plus transconjugants steadily increased in the population from 0.1% after donor inoculation to about 10% at the conclusion of the experiments. This suggests a selective advantage of pCF10 carriage distinct from antibiotic resistance or bacteriocin production. Our results demonstrate that pheromone signaling is required for efficient pCF10 transfer in vivo. In the absence of CF+ recipients, a low level of transfer to CF− recipients occurred in the gut. This may result from low-level host-mediated induction of the donors in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, similar to that previously observed in serum.

  13. Evaluation of Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as an In Vivo Delivery Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nicholas O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Weilhammer, Dina R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Dunkle, Alexis [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Thomas, Cynthia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Hwang, Mona [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Corzett, Michele [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Lychak, Cheri [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Mayer, Wasima [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Urbin, Salustra [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Collette, Nicole [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Chiun Chang, Jiun [Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Loots, Gabriela G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Rasley, Amy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Blanchette, Craig D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Biosciences and Biotechnology Division; Ceña, Valentin [Univ. of Castilla-La Mancha, Real (Spain)

    2014-03-27

    Nanoparticles hold great promise for the delivery of therapeutics, yet limitations remain with regards to the use of these nanosystems for efficient long-lasting targeted delivery of therapeutics, including imparting functionality to the platform, in vivo stability, drug entrapment efficiency and toxicity. In order to begin to address these limitations, we evaluated the functionality, stability, cytotoxicity, toxicity, immunogenicity and in vivo biodistribution of nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs), which are mimetics of naturally occurring high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). We also found that a wide range of molecules could be reliably conjugated to the NLP, including proteins, single-stranded DNA, and small molecules. The NLP was also found to be relatively stable in complex biological fluids and displayed no cytotoxicity in vitro at doses as high as 320 µg/ml. In addition, we observed that in vivo administration of the NLP daily for 14 consecutive days did not induce significant weight loss or result in lesions on excised organs. Furthermore, the NLPs did not display overt immunogenicity with respect to antibody generation. Finally, the biodistribution of the NLP in vivo was found to be highly dependent on the route of administration, where intranasal administration resulted in prolonged retention in the lung tissue. Though only a select number of NLP compositions were evaluated, the findings of this study suggest that the NLP platform holds promise for use as both a targeted and non-targeted in vivo delivery vehicle for a range of therapeutics.

  14. In Vivo Human Somitogenesis Guides Somite Development from hPSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Xi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Somites form during embryonic development and give rise to unique cell and tissue types, such as skeletal muscles and bones and cartilage of the vertebrae. Using somitogenesis-stage human embryos, we performed transcriptomic profiling of human presomitic mesoderm as well as nascent and developed somites. In addition to conserved pathways such as WNT-β-catenin, we also identified BMP and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling as major regulators unique to human somitogenesis. This information enabled us to develop an efficient protocol to derive somite cells in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs. Importantly, the in-vitro-differentiating cells progressively expressed markers of the distinct developmental stages that are known to occur during in vivo somitogenesis. Furthermore, when subjected to lineage-specific differentiation conditions, the hPSC-derived somite cells were multipotent in generating somite derivatives, including skeletal myocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. This work improves our understanding of human somitogenesis and may enhance our ability to treat diseases affecting somite derivatives.

  15. Ex vivo instability of glycated albumin: A role for autoxidative glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Joshua W; Ferdosi, Shadi; Yassine, Hussein N; Borges, Chad R

    2017-09-01

    Ex vivo protein modifications occur within plasma and serum (P/S) samples due to prolonged exposure to the thawed state-which includes temperatures above -30 °C. Herein, the ex vivo glycation of human serum albumin from healthy and diabetic subjects was monitored in P/S samples stored for hours to months at -80 °C, -20 °C, and room temperature, as well as in samples subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles, incubated at different surface area-to-volume ratios or under different atmospheric compositions. A simple dilute-and-shoot method utilizing trap-and-elute LC-ESI-MS was employed to determine the relative abundances of the glycated forms of albumin-including forms of albumin bearing more than one glucose molecule. Significant increases in glycated albumin were found to occur within hours at room temperature, and within days at -20 °C. These increases continued over a period of 1-2 weeks at room temperature and over 200 days at -20 °C, ultimately resulting in a doubling of glycated albumin in both healthy and diabetic patients. It was also shown that samples stored at lower surface area-to-volume ratios or incubated under a nitrogen atmosphere experienced less rapid glucose adduction of albumin-suggesting a role for oxidative glycation in the ex vivo glycation of albumin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Commissioning optically stimulated luminescence in vivo dosimeters for fast neutron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Lori A., E-mail: layoung@uw.edu; Sandison, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98115 (United States); Yang, Fei [Sylvester comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33124 (United States); Woodworth, Davis [Department of Physics, University of Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); McCormick, Zephyr [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Clinical in vivo dosimeters intended for use with photon and electron therapies have not been utilized for fast neutron therapy because they are highly susceptible to neutron damage. The objective of this work was to determine if a commercial optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in vivo dosimetry system could be adapted for use in fast neutron therapy. Methods: A 50.5 MeV fast neutron beam generated by a clinical neutron therapy cyclotron was used to irradiate carbon doped aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) optically simulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) in a solid water phantom under standard calibration conditions, 150 cm SAD, 1.7 cm depth, and 10.3 × 10.0 cm field size. OSLD fading and electron trap depletion studies were performed with the OSLDs irradiated with 20 and 50 cGy and monitored over a 24-h period to determine the optimal time for reading the dosimeters during calibration. Four OSLDs per group were calibrated over a clinical dose range of 0–150 cGy. Results: OSLD measurement uncertainties were lowered to within ±2%–3% of the expected dose by minimizing the effect of transient fading that occurs with neutron irradiation and maintaining individual calibration factors for each dosimeter. Dose dependent luminescence fading extended beyond the manufacturer’s recommended 10 min period for irradiation with photon or electron beams. To minimize OSL variances caused by inconsistent fading among dosimeters, the observed optimal time for reading the OSLDs postirradiation was between 30 and 90 min. No field size, wedge factor, or gantry angle dependencies were observed in the OSLDs irradiated by the studied fast neutron beam. Conclusions: Measurements demonstrated that uncertainties less than ±3% were attainable in OSLDs irradiated with fast neutrons under clinical conditions. Accuracy and precision comparable to clinical OSL measurements observed with photons can be achieved by maintaining individual OSLD calibration factors and

  17. Evaluation of the in vivo and ex vivo optical properties in a mouse ear model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomatina, E; Yaroslavsky, A N [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, 40 Blossom Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)], E-mail: Yaroslav@helix.mgh.harvard.edu

    2008-06-07

    Determination of in vivo optical properties is a challenging problem. Absorption and scattering measured ex vivo are often used for in vivo applications. To investigate the validity of this approach, we have obtained and compared the optical properties of mouse ears in vivo and ex vivo in the spectral range from 370 to 1650 nm. Integrating sphere spectrophotometry in combination with the inverse Monte Carlo technique was employed to determine absorption coefficients, {mu}{sub a}, scattering coefficients, {mu}{sub s}, and anisotropy factors, g. Two groups of mice were used for the study. The first group was measured in vivo and ex vivo within 5-10 min post mortem. The second group was measured in vivo and ex vivo every 24 h for up to 72 h after sacrifice. Between the measurements the tissues were kept at 4 deg. C wrapped in a gauze moistened with saline solution. Then the specimens were frozen at -25 deg. C for 40 min, thawed and measured again. The results indicate that the absorption coefficients determined in vivo and ex vivo within 5-10 min post mortem differed considerably only in the spectral range dominated by hemoglobin. These changes can be attributed to rapid deoxygenation of tissue and blood post mortem. Absorption coefficients determined ex vivo up to 72 h post mortem decreased gradually with time in the spectral regions dominated by hemoglobin and water, which can be explained by the continuing loss of blood. Absorption properties of the frozen-thawed ex vivo tissues showed increase in oxygenation, which is likely caused by the release of hemoglobin from hemolyzed erythrocytes. Scattering of the ex vivo tissues decreased gradually with time in the entire spectral range due to the continuing loss of blood and partial cell damage. Anisotropy factors did not change considerably.

  18. The effect of radiofrequency ablation on different organs: Ex vivo and in vivo comparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Na [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyunchul, E-mail: rhimhc@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil; Kim, Young-sun; Lee, Min Woo; Chang, Ilsoo; Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Hyo K. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purposes of this study are to evaluate the ex vivo and in vivo efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on different porcine tissues by the ablation of three different sites simultaneously. Materials and methods: A multichannel RFA system, enables three separate tumors to be ablated simultaneously, was used. RFA procedures were applied to normal porcine liver, kidney, and muscle together ex vivo (n = 12) and in vivo (n = 17). Pre-impedances, defined as baseline systemic impedances of tissues before beginning RFA, and the areas of ablation zones were measured and compared. Results: The areas of ablation zones among three organs had a significant difference in decreasing order as follows: liver, muscle, and kidney in the ex vivo study (p = 0.001); muscle, liver, and kidney in the in vivo study (p < 0.0001). The areas of ablation zones between ex vivo and in vivo had a significant difference in the liver and muscle (each p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the areas of ablation zones and pre-impedances in both studies. Conclusions: Renal RFA produced the smallest ablation zone in both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Muscular RFA demonstrated the largest ablation zone in the in vivo study, and hepatic RFA showed the largest ablation zone in the ex vivo study. This variability in the tissues should be considered for performing an optimized RFA for each organ site.

  19. Compartmentalized Regulation of Parkin-Mediated Mitochondrial Quality Control in the Drosophila Nervous System In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyun; Tandarich, Lauren C.; Nguyen, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    In neurons, the normal distribution and selective removal of mitochondria are considered essential for maintaining the functions of the large asymmetric cell and its diverse compartments. Parkin, a E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with familial Parkinson's disease, has been implicated in mitochondrial dynamics and removal in cells including neurons. However, it is not clear how Parkin functions in mitochondrial turnover in vivo, or whether Parkin-dependent events of the mitochondrial life cycle occur in all neuronal compartments. Here, using the live Drosophila nervous system, we investigated the involvement of Parkin in mitochondrial dynamics, distribution, morphology, and removal. Contrary to our expectations, we found that Parkin-deficient animals do not accumulate senescent mitochondria in their motor axons or neuromuscular junctions; instead, they contain far fewer axonal mitochondria, and these displayed normal motility behavior, morphology, and metabolic state. However, the loss of Parkin did produce abnormal tubular and reticular mitochondria restricted to the motor cell bodies. In addition, in contrast to drug-treated, immortalized cells in vitro, mature motor neurons rarely displayed Parkin-dependent mitophagy. These data indicate that the cell body is the focus of Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control in neurons, and argue that a selection process allows only healthy mitochondria to pass from cell bodies to axons, perhaps to limit the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkin has been proposed to police mitochondrial fidelity by binding to dysfunctional mitochondria via PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and targeting them for autophagic degradation. However, it is unknown whether and how the PINK1/Parkin pathway regulates the mitochondrial life cycle in neurons in vivo. Using Drosophila motor neurons, we show that parkin disruption generates an abnormal mitochondrial network in cell

  20. Analysis of the interaction of phytoestrogens and synthetic chemicals: An in vitro/in vivo comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Grantley D.; Gennings, Chris; Tornesi, Belen; Kan, H. Lynn; Zacharewski, Timothy R.; Bhaskar Gollapudi, B.; Carney, Edward W.

    2007-01-01

    In the evaluation of chemical mixture toxicity, it is desirable to develop an evaluation paradigm which incorporates some critical attributes of real world exposures, particularly low dose levels, larger numbers of chemicals, and chemicals from synthetic and natural sources. This study evaluated the impact of low level exposure to a mixture of six synthetic chemicals (SC) under conditions of co-exposure to various levels of plant-derived phytoestrogen (PE) compounds. Estrogenic activity was evaluated using an in vitro human estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional activation assay and an in vivo immature rat uterotrophic assay. Initially, dose-response curves were characterized for each of the six SCs (methoxyclor, o,p-DDT, octylphenol, bisphenol A, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile) in each of the assays. The six SCs were then combined at equipotent ratios and tested at 5-6 dose levels spanning from very low, sub-threshold levels, to a dose in which every chemical in the mixture was at its individual estrogenic response threshold. The SC mixtures also were tested in the absence or presence of 5-6 different levels of PEs, for a total of 36 (in vitro) or 25 (in vivo) treatment groups. Both in vitro and in vivo, low concentrations of the SC mixture failed to increase estrogenic responses relative to those induced by PEs alone. However, significant increases in response occurred when each chemical in the SC mixture was near or above its individual response threshold. In vitro, interactions between high-doses of SCs and PEs were greater than additive, whereas mixtures of SCs in the absence of PEs interacted in a less than additive fashion. In vivo, the SC and PE mixture responses were consistent with additivity. These data illustrate a novel approach for incorporating key attributes of real world exposures in chemical mixture toxicity assessments, and suggest that chemical mixture toxicity is likely to be of concern only when the mixture

  1. Optimization of reaction conditions for the radiolabeling of DOTA and DOTA-peptide with (44m/44)Sc and experimental evidence of the feasibility of an in vivo PET generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huclier-Markai, S; Kerdjoudj, R; Alliot, C; Bonraisin, A C; Michel, N; Haddad, F; Barbet, J

    2014-05-01

    Among the number of generator systems providing radionuclides with decay parameters promising for imaging and treatment applications, there is the (44)Ti (T1/2=60 years)/(44)Sc (T1/2=3.97 h) generator. This generator provides a longer-lived daughter for extended PET/CT measurements compared to the chemically similar system (68)Ge/(68)Ga. Scandium also exists as (47)Sc, a potential therapeutic radionuclide. It is possible to produce (44)Sc in a cyclotron using, for example, the (44)Ca (d, n) (44)Sc nuclear reaction. In that case, the isomeric state (44 m)Sc (T1/2=58.6h) is co-produced and may be used as an in vivo(44 m)Sc/(44)Sc generator. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of this in vivo(44 m)Sc/(44)Sc generator and to demonstrate that the daughter radionuclide stays inside the chelator after decay of the parent radionuclide. Indeed, the physico-chemical process occurring after the primary radioactive decay (EC, IT, Auger electron …) has prevented in many cases the use of in-vivo generator, because of the post-effect as described in the literature. The DOTA macrocyclic ligand forms stable complexes with many cations and has been shown to be the most suitable chelating moiety for scandium. Initially, the radiolabeling of DOTA and a DOTA-peptide (DOTATATE) with Sc was performed and optimized as a function of time, pH, metal-to-ligand ratio and temperature. Next, the physico-chemical processes that could occur after the decay (post-effect) were studied. (44 m)Sc(III)-labeled DOTA-peptide was quantitatively adsorbed on a solid phase matrix through a hydrophobic interaction. Elutions were then performed at regular time intervals using a DTPA solution at various concentrations. Finally, the radiolabelled complex stability was studied in serum. Radiolabeling yields ranged from 90% to 99% for metal-to-ligand ratio ranging from 1:10 to 1:500 for DOTA or DOTATATE respectively. The optimum physico-chemical parameters were pH=4-6, t=20 min, T=70°C. Then

  2. Oxidation of PTH: in vivo feature or effect of preanalytical conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, Stan R.; Vervloet, Marc G.; Hillebrand, Jacquelien J. G.; de Jongh, Renate T.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Posttranslational oxidation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) modifies its biological activity. Measurement of non-oxidized PTH (n-oxPTH) could be an improvement in assessing PTH status, as intact PTH may rather reflect oxidative stress. However, it is debated whether oxidation of PTH occurs

  3. Gamma-ray mutagenesis of cultured mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Norio; Okada, Shigefumi

    1977-01-01

    The in vitro assay system used to study the reversion of L5178Y-Ala32 cells from an alanine requiring state to a non-requiring state, has been modified in order to be of use in selected in vivo systems. Gamma-ray induced mutations were compared between cells cultured in vitro and those grown in vivo in the intraperitoneal cavity of mice. The expression time was chosen to be 2 days for cells grown in vitro and 5 days for those grown in vivo. The dose-response curve can be described as cumulative for cells grown in vitro and linear for those grown in vivo. A doserate effect was observed in both systems. The cells grown in vivo were less sensitive to γ-rays with respect to both mutation rate per rad and cell killing as compared to cells grown in vitro. The delayed expression and reduced sensitivity of cells in vivo with respect to induced mutation may be due to factors such as hypoxia and/or reduced availability of essential nutrients. Sensitization in vitro by BUdR was detectable at a concentration as low as 10 -6 M, using an exposure time of 15 h. Under these conditions, BUdR alone did not induce any observable mutations

  4. In vivo [3H]spiperone binding: evidence for accumulation in corpus striatum by agonist-mediated receptor internalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugani, D.C.; Ackermann, R.F.; Phelps, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The processes of receptor internalization and recycling have been well-documented for receptors for hormones, growth factors, lysosomal enzymes, and cellular substrates. Evidence also exists that these processes also occur for beta-adrenergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and delta-opiate receptors in frog erythrocytes or cultured nervous tissue. In this study, evidence is presented that agonist-mediated receptor internalization and recycling occurs at the dopamine receptor in rat corpus striatum. First, the in vivo binding of the dopamine antagonist [3H]spiperone was increased by both electrical stimulation and pharmacologically induced increases of dopamine release. Conversely, depletion of dopamine with reserpine decreased in vivo [3H]spiperone binding, but the same reserpine treatment did not alter its in vitro binding. Second, the rate of dissociation of [3H]spiperone from microsomal membranes prepared from rat striatum following in vivo binding was fivefold slower than its dissociation following in vitro equilibrium binding. Mild detergent treatment, employed to disrupt endocytic vesicle membranes, increased the rate of dissociation of in vivo bound [3H]spiperone from microsomal membranes to values not significantly different from its in vitro bound dissociation rate. Third, treatment of rats with chloroquine, a drug that prevents receptor recycling but not internalization, prior to [3H]spiperone injection resulted in a selective increase of in vivo [3H]spiperone binding in the light microsome membranes. The existence of mechanisms that rapidly alter the number of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses provides dynamic regulation of receptors in response to varied acute stimulation states

  5. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Patterson, Courtney M; Classen, Aimée T; Simberloff, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    To maximize limited conservation funds and prioritize management projects that are likely to succeed, accurate assessment of invasive nonnative species impacts is essential. A common challenge to prioritization is a limited knowledge of the difference between the impacts of a single nonnative species compared to the impacts of nonnative species when they co-occur, and in particular predicting when impacts of co-occurring nonnative species will be non-additive. Understanding non-additivity is important for management decisions because the management of only one co-occurring invader will not necessarily lead to a predictable reduction in the impact or growth of the other nonnative plant. Nonnative plants are frequently associated with changes in soil biotic and abiotic characteristics, which lead to plant-soil interactions that influence the performance of other species grown in those soils. Whether co-occurring nonnative plants alter soil properties additively or non-additively relative to their effects on soils when they grow in monoculture is rarely addressed. We use a greenhouse plant-soil feedback experiment to test for non-additive soil impacts of two common invasive nonnative woody shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense, in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. We measured the performance of each nonnative shrub, a native herbaceous community, and a nonnative woody vine in soils conditioned by each shrub singly or together in polyculture. Soils conditioned by both nonnative shrubs had non-additive impacts on native and nonnative performance. Root mass of the native herbaceous community was 1.5 times lower and the root mass of the nonnative L. sinense was 1.8 times higher in soils conditioned by both L. maackii and L. sinense than expected based upon growth in soils conditioned by either shrub singly. This result indicates that when these two nonnative shrubs co-occur, their influence on soils disproportionally favors persistence

  6. Carnosine retards tumor growth in vivo in an NIH3T3-HER2/neu mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixensberger Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was previously demonstrated that the dipeptide carnosine inhibits growth of cultured cells isolated from patients with malignant glioma. In the present work we investigated whether carnosine also affects tumor growth in vivo and may therefore be considered for human cancer therapy. Results A mouse model was used to investigate whether tumor growth in vivo can be inhibited by carnosine. Therefore, NIH3T3 fibroblasts, conditionally expressing the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu, were implanted into the dorsal skin of nude mice, and tumor growth in treated animals was compared to control mice. In two independent experiments nude mice that received tumor cells received a daily intra peritoneal injection of 500 μl of 1 M carnosine solution. Measurable tumors were detected 12 days after injection. Aggressive tumor growth in control animals, that received a daily intra peritoneal injection of NaCl solution started at day 16 whereas aggressive growth in mice treated with carnosine was delayed, starting around day 19. A significant effect of carnosine on tumor growth was observed up to day 24. Although carnosine was not able to completely prevent tumor growth, a microscopic examination of tumors revealed that those from carnosine treated animals had a significant lower number of mitosis (p Conclusion As a naturally occurring substance with a high potential to inhibit growth of malignant cells in vivo, carnosine should be considered as a potential anti-cancer drug. Further experiments should be performed in order to understand how carnosine acts at the molecular level.

  7. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation of the Norepinephrine Transporter Ligand [11C]MRB for Brown Adipose Tissue Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shufei; Fan Xiaoning; Yeckel, Catherine Weikart; Weinzimmer, David; Mulnix, Tim; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Carson, Richard E.; Sherwin, Robert S.; Ding Yushin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: It has been suggested that brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans may play a role in energy balance and obesity. We conducted ex vivo and in vivo evaluation using [ 11 C]MRB, a highly selective NET (norepinephrine transporter) ligand for BAT imaging at room temperature, which is not achievable with [ 18 F]FDG. Methods: PET images of male Sprague–Dawley rats with [ 18 F]FDG and [ 11 C]MRB were compared. Relative [ 18 F]FDG or [ 11 C]MRB retention at 20, 40 and 60 min post-injection was quantified on awake rats after exposing to cold (4 °C for 4 h) or remaining at room temperature. Rats pretreated with unlabeled MRB or nisoxetine 30 min before [ 11 C]MRB injection were also assessed. The [ 11 C]MRB metabolite profile in BAT was evaluated. Results: PET imaging demonstrated intense [ 11 C]MRB uptake (SUV of 2.9 to 3.3) in the interscapular BAT of both room temperature and cold-exposed rats and this uptake was significantly diminished by pretreatment with unlabeled MRB; in contrast, [ 18 F]FDG in BAT was only detected in rats treated with cold. Ex vivo results were concordant with the imaging findings; i.e. the uptake of [ 11 C]MRB in BAT was 3 times higher than that of [ 18 F]FDG at room temperature (P = 0.009), and the significant cold-stimulated uptake in BAT with [ 18 F]FDG (10-fold, P = 0.001) was not observed with [ 11 C]MRB (P = 0.082). HPLC analysis revealed 94%–99% of total radioactivity in BAT represented unchanged [ 11 C]MRB. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that BAT could be specifically labeled with [ 11 C]MRB at room temperature and under cold conditions, supporting a NET-PET strategy for imaging BAT in humans under basal conditions.

  8. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  9. Degradation of dynorphin A in brain tissue in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, E.A.; Walker, J.M.; Houghten, R.; Akil, H.

    1987-07-01

    The demonstration of analgesia following in vivo administration of dynorphin A (Dyn A) has been difficult. In contrast, a number of electrophysiological and behavioral effects reported with in vivo injection of Dyn A can be produced by des-tyrosine dynorphin A (Dyn A 2-17). This suggested the extremely rapid amino terminal degradation of dynorphin A. To test this hypothesis, we examined the degradation of dynorphin A following in vivo injection into the periaqueductal gray (PAG) as well as in vitro using rat brain membranes under receptor binding conditions. In vivo, we observed the rapid amino terminal cleavage of tyrosine to yield the relatively more stable destyrosine dynorphin A. This same cleavage after tyrosine was observed in vitro. Inhibition of this aminopeptidase activity in vitro was observed by the addition of dynorphin A 2-17 or dynorphin A 7-17 but not after the addition of dynorphin A 1-13, dynorphin A 1-8, dynorphin B or alpha-neo-endorphin suggesting a specific enzyme may be responsible. The detection of the behaviorally active des-tyrosine dynorphin A following in vivo injection of dynorphin A suggests that this peptide may play an important physiological role.

  10. Iris ultrastructure in patients with synechiae as revealed by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy : In vivo iris ultrastructure in patients with Synechiae by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Cheng, Hongbo; Guo, Ping; Zhang, Chun; Tang, Song; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-04-26

    Iris plays important roles in ocular physiology and disease pathogenesis. Currently it is technically challenging to noninvasively examine the human iris ultrastructure in vivo. The purpose of the current study is to reveal human iris ultrastructure in patients with synechiae by using noninvasive in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The ultrastructure of iris in thirty one patients, each with synechiae but transparent cornea, was examined by in vivo LSCM. Five characteristic iris ultrastructures was revealed in patients with synechiae by in vivo LSCM, which include: 1. tree trunk-like structure; 2. tree branch/bush-like structure; 3. Fruit-like structure; 4. Epithelioid-like structure; 5. deep structure. Pigment granules can be observed as a loose structure on the top of the arborization structure. In iris-associated diseases with Tyndall's Phenomenon and keratic precipitates, the pigment particles are more likely to fall off from the arborization structure. The ultrastructure of iris in patients with synechiae has been visualized using in vivo LSCM. Five iris ultrastructures can be clearly observed, with some of the structures maybe disease-associated. The fall-off of the pigment particles may cause the Tyndall's Phenomenon positive. In vivo LSCM provides a non-invasive approach to observe the human iris ultrastructure under certain eye disease conditions, which sets up a foundation to visualize certain iris-associated diseases in the future.

  11. Highly Effective Gene Transfection In Vivo by Alkylated Polyethylenimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Fortune

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We mechanistically explored the effect of increased hydrophobicity of the polycation on the efficacy and specificity of gene delivery in mice. N-Alkylated linear PEIs with varying alkyl chain lengths and extent of substitution were synthesized and characterized by biophysical methods. Their in vivo transfection efficiency, specificity, and biodistribution were investigated. N-Ethylation improves the in vivo efficacy of gene expression in the mouse lung 26-fold relative to the parent polycation and more than quadruples the ratio of expression in the lung to that in all other organs. N-Propyl-PEI was the best performer in the liver and heart (581- and 3.5-fold enhancements, resp. while N-octyl-PEI improved expression in the kidneys over the parent polymer 221-fold. As these enhancements in gene expression occur without changing the plasmid biodistribution, alkylation does not alter the cellular uptake but rather enhances transfection subsequent to cellular uptake.

  12. Biological evaluation of dental materials, in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, H.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, the correlation between the user of tissue culture for in vitro tests and the tissue irritability and pupal response observed in in vitro tests, will be discussed. It would produce confusion if dental materials were standardised with the unreliable parameter of the living system in dynamic balance. Biological tests, both in vitro and in vivo, should be used for pre-standards testing, without any political control to establish physicochemical standards. As a first step, corrosion tests and the dissolution dosje of toxic components from the material in the tissue culture medium and/or artificial salvia should be standardised under conditions simulating the oral environment. The CNC method and photo-pattern analysis are used for the interpretation of cytotoxicity. The need for biological testing, both in vitro and in vivo, definitely exists in order to obtain physicochemical standards, with a biological simulation depending upon the feedback obtained from the results of in vitro and in vivo tests

  13. Limitations of predicting in vivo biostability of multiphase polyurethane elastomers using temperature-accelerated degradation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padsalgikar, Ajay; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Genevieve; Touchet, Tyler; Iacob, Ciprian; Mellin, Lisa; Norlin-Weissenrieder, Anna; Runt, James

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane biostability has been the subject of intense research since the failure of polyether polyurethane pacemaker leads in the 1980s. Accelerated in vitro testing has been used to isolate degradation mechanisms and predict clinical performance of biomaterials. However, validation that in vitro methods reproduce in vivo degradation is critical to the selection of appropriate tests. High temperature has been proposed as a method to accelerate degradation. However, correlation of such data to in vivo performance is poor for polyurethanes due to the impact of temperature on microstructure. In this study, we characterize the lack of correlation between hydrolytic degradation predicted using a high temperature aging model of a polydimethylsiloxane-based polyurethane and its in vivo performance. Most notably, the predicted molecular weight and tensile property changes from the accelerated aging study did not correlate with clinical explants subjected to human biological stresses in real time through 5 years. Further, DMTA, ATR-FTIR, and SAXS experiments on samples aged for 2 weeks in PBS indicated greater phase separation in samples aged at 85°C compared to those aged at 37°C and unaged controls. These results confirm that microstructural changes occur at high temperatures that do not occur at in vivo temperatures. In addition, water absorption studies demonstrated that water saturation levels increased significantly with temperature. This study highlights that the multiphase morphology of polyurethane precludes the use of temperature accelerated biodegradation for the prediction of clinical performance and provides critical information in designing appropriate in vitro tests for this class of materials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of exercise training on in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric) and in subcuta......Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric...

  15. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  16. CO oxidation on PtSn nanoparticle catalysts occurs at the interface of Pt and Sn oxide domains formed under reaction conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Michalak, William D.

    2014-04-01

    The barrier to CO oxidation on Pt catalysts is the strongly bound adsorbed CO, which inhibits O2 adsorption and hinders CO2 formation. Using reaction studies and in situ X-ray spectroscopy with colloidally prepared, monodisperse ∼2 nm Pt and PtSn nanoparticle catalysts, we show that the addition of Sn to Pt provides distinctly different reaction sites and a more efficient reaction mechanism for CO oxidation compared to pure Pt catalysts. To probe the influence of Sn, we intentionally poisoned the Pt component of the nanoparticle catalysts using a CO-rich atmosphere. With a reaction environment comprised of 100 Torr CO and 40 Torr O2 and a temperature range between 200 and 300 C, Pt and PtSn catalysts exhibited activation barriers for CO2 formation of 133 kJ/mol and 35 kJ/mol, respectively. While pure Sn is readily oxidized and is not active for CO oxidation, the addition of Sn to Pt provides an active site for O2 adsorption that is important when Pt is covered with CO. Sn oxide was identified as the active Sn species under reaction conditions by in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. While chemical signatures of Pt and Sn indicated intermixed metallic components under reducing conditions, Pt and Sn were found to reversibly separate into isolated domains of Pt and oxidic Sn on the nanoparticle surface under reaction conditions of 100 mTorr CO and 40 mTorr O2 between temperatures of 200-275 C. Under these conditions, PtSn catalysts exhibited apparent reaction orders in O2 for CO 2 production that were 0.5 and lower with increasing partial pressures. These reaction orders contrast the first-order dependence in O 2 known for pure Pt. The differences in activation barriers, non-first-order dependence in O2, and the presence of a partially oxidized Sn indicate that the enhanced activity is due to a reaction mechanism that occurs at a Pt/Sn oxide interface present at the nanoparticle surface. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Ex vivo analysis identifies effective HIV-1 latency–reversing drug combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Gregory M.; Bullen, C. Korin; Rosenbloom, Daniel I.S.; Martin, Alyssa R.; Hill, Alison L.; Durand, Christine M.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Reversal of HIV-1 latency by small molecules is a potential cure strategy. This approach will likely require effective drug combinations to achieve high levels of latency reversal. Using resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4s) from infected individuals, we developed an experimental and theoretical framework to identify effective latency-reversing agent (LRA) combinations. Utilizing ex vivo assays for intracellular HIV-1 mRNA and virion production, we compared 2-drug combinations of leading candidate LRAs and identified multiple combinations that effectively reverse latency. We showed that protein kinase C agonists in combination with bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 or histone deacetylase inhibitors robustly induce HIV-1 transcription and virus production when directly compared with maximum reactivation by T cell activation. Using the Bliss independence model to quantitate combined drug effects, we demonstrated that these combinations synergize to induce HIV-1 transcription. This robust latency reversal occurred without release of proinflammatory cytokines by rCD4s. To extend the clinical utility of our findings, we applied a mathematical model that estimates in vivo changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA from ex vivo measurements of virus production. Our study reconciles diverse findings from previous studies, establishes a quantitative experimental approach to evaluate combinatorial LRA efficacy, and presents a model to predict in vivo responses to LRAs. PMID:25822022

  18. Repair of potentially lethal damage following irradiation with x rays or cyclotron neutrons: response of the EMT-6/UW tumor system treated under various growth conditions in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasey, J.S.; Nelson, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    Postirradiation potentially lethal damage (PLD) repair was examined in the EMT-6/UW tumor system under a variety of in vitro and in vivo growth conditions. Following x irradiation, surviving fraction increased in fed and unfed plateau cultures if subculture and plating were delayed; in exponentially growing cultures if they were covered with depleted medium for the first 6 h postirradiation; and in tumors in vivo if excision for preparation of a cell suspension was delayed. Following irradiation with 21.5 meV (d + → Be) neutrons, PLD repair was measurable only in unfed plateau cultures when subculture was delayed and in exponentially growing cells exposed to depleted culture medium immediately after irradiation. In x-irradiated EMT-6/UW cells, the greatest repair capacity and the highest surviving fraction ratios were measured in unfed plateau cultures; the least repair was observed in exponentially growing cells exposed to depleted medium. Thus post-neutron repair was not limited to situations where the amount of repair of photon PLD is large. The demonstration of PLD repair in tumors irradiated in vivo with X rays and the absence of such repair after neutrons could have important implications in radiotherapy if this is a general phenomenon

  19. Mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon, in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M; Nielsen, C H; Hegnsvad, S

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been widely applied for in vivo measurements of tendon mechanical properties. Assessments of human Achilles tendon mechanical properties have received great interest. Achilles tendon injuries predominantly occur in the tendon region between the Achilles-soleus myotendinous...... junction and Achilles-calcaneus osteotendinous junction i.e. in the free Achilles tendon. However, there has been no adequate ultrasound based method for quantifying the mechanical properties of the free human Achilles tendon. This study aimed to: 1) examine the mechanical properties of the free human...

  20. Beta-lactam antibiotic-induced platelet dysfunction: Evidence for irreversible inhibition of platelet activation in vitro and in vivo after prolonged exposure to penicillin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burroughs, S.F.; Johnson, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    beta-Lactam antibiotics cause platelet dysfunction with bleeding complications. Previous in vitro studies documented reversible inhibition of agonist-receptor interaction. This mechanism is inadequate to explain the effect of beta-lactam antibiotics in vivo. Platelet function does not return to normal immediately after drug treatment, implying irreversible inhibition of platelet function. We report here evidence of irreversible platelet functional and biochemical abnormalities after in vitro and in vivo exposure to beta-lactam antibiotics. Irreversible binding of [14C]-penicillin (Pen) occurred in vitro. After 24 hours' in vitro incubation with 10 to 20 mmol/L Pen, or ex vivo after antibiotic treatment, irreversible functional impairment occurred; but no irreversible inhibition of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, measured with [3H]-yohimbine, or high-affinity thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptors, measured with agonist [3H]-U46619 and antagonist [3H]-SQ29548, occurred. However, low-affinity platelet TXA2/PGH2 receptors were decreased 40% after Pen exposure in vitro or in vivo, indicating irreversible membrane alteration. Two postreceptor biochemical events were irreversibly inhibited in platelets incubated with Pen for 24 hours in vitro or ex vivo after antibiotic treatment. Thromboxane synthesis was inhibited 28.3% to 81.7%. Agonist-induced rises in cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) were inhibited 40.1% to 67.5% in vitro and 26.6% to 52.2% ex vivo. Therefore, Pen binds to platelets after prolonged exposure, resulting in irreversible dysfunction attributable to inhibition of TXA2 synthesis and impairment of the rise in [Ca2+]i. The loss of low-affinity TXA2/PGH2 receptors suggests that the primary site of action of these drugs is on the platelet membrane

  1. Soft tissue influence on ex vivo mobility in the hip of Iguana: comparison with in vivo movement and its bearing on joint motion of fossil sprawling tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Fischer, Martin S; Nyakatura, John A

    2014-07-01

    The reconstruction of a joint's maximum range of mobility (ROM) often is a first step when trying to understand the locomotion of fossil tetrapods. But previous studies suggest that the ROM of a joint is restricted by soft tissues surrounding the joint. To expand the limited informative value of ROM studies for the reconstruction of a fossil species' locomotor characteristics, it is moreover necessary to better understand the relationship of ex vivo ROM with the actual in vivo joint movement. To gain insight into the relationship between ex vivo mobility and in vivo movement, we systematically tested for the influence of soft tissues on joint ROM in the hip of the modern lizard Iguana iguana. Then, we compared the ex vivo mobility to in vivo kinematics of the hip joint in the same specimens using X-ray sequences of steady-state treadmill locomotion previously recorded. With stepwise removal of soft tissues and a repeated-measurement protocol, we show that soft tissues surrounding the hip joint considerably limit ROM, highlighting the problems when joint ROM is deduced from bare bones only. We found the integument to have the largest effect on the range of long-axis rotation, pro- and retraction. Importantly, during locomotion the iguana used only a fragment of the ROM that was measured in our least restrictive dissection situation (i.e. pelvis and femur only conjoined by ligaments), demonstrating the discrepancy between hip joint ROM and actual in vivo movement. Our study emphasizes the necessity for caution when attempting to reconstruct joint ROM or even locomotor kinematics from fossil bones only, as actual in vivo movement cannot be deduced directly from any condition of cadaver mobility in Iguana and likely in other tetrapods. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  2. 15N studies on the in-vivo assay of nitrate reductase in leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate and nitrite in the leaf disks of seven di- and two mono-cotyledonous species under the in-vivo assay conditions of nitrate reductase was studied using N-15 labeled substrates. The significant reduction of both nitrate and nitrite into ammonia and amino acids was detected in the atmosphere of air. In the atmosphere of N 2 gas, anaerobic incubation enhanced the accumulation of nitrite, but the subsequent reduction to the basic nitrogen compounds was from 40 to 180 % of the aerobic rate. The present examination indicated that the in-vivo assay of nitrate reductase under aerobic condition may give greatly underestimated results due to nitrite reduction, and that the exclusion of oxygen from the in-vivo assay mixture is desirable. The addition of n- propanol may be desirable for the assay under aerobic condition. Significant difference was not observed in the reduction of nitrate supplied as sodium and potassium salts on the nitrite formation and on the incorporation of nitrate-N into basic fractions. The N-15 experiment on the dark assimilation of nitrate, nitrite and ammonia into amino acids in wheat leaves showed that these three nitrogen sources were assimilated through the same route, and that the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthetase pathway was the main route. By anaerobic treatment, the incorporation of nitrogen into alanine and serine was relatively high. (Kako, I.)

  3. Real-Time Amperometric Recording of Extracellular H2O2 in the Brain of Immunocompromised Mice: An In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Characterisation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Caroline H.; Finnerty, Niall J.

    2017-01-01

    We detail an extensive characterisation study on a previously described dual amperometric H2O2 biosensor consisting of H2O2 detection (blank) and degradation (catalase) electrodes. In vitro investigations demonstrated excellent H2O2 sensitivity and selectivity against the interferent, ascorbic acid. Ex vivo studies were performed to mimic physiological conditions prior to in vivo deployment. Exposure to brain tissue homogenate identified reliable sensitivity and selectivity recordings up to seven days for both blank and catalase electrodes. Furthermore, there was no compromise in pre- and post-implanted catalase electrode sensitivity in ex vivo mouse brain. In vivo investigations performed in anaesthetised mice confirmed the ability of the H2O2 biosensor to detect increases in amperometric current following locally perfused/infused H2O2 and antioxidant inhibitors mercaptosuccinic acid and sodium azide. Subsequent recordings in freely moving mice identified negligible effects of control saline and sodium ascorbate interference injections on amperometric H2O2 current. Furthermore, the stability of the amperometric current was confirmed over a five-day period and analysis of 24-h signal recordings identified the absence of diurnal variations in amperometric current. Collectively, these findings confirm the biosensor current responds in vivo to increasing exogenous and endogenous H2O2 and tentatively supports measurement of H2O2 dynamics in freely moving NOD SCID mice. PMID:28698470

  4. Intralipid minimizes hepatocytes injury after anoxia-reoxygenation in an ex vivo rat liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Michaela; Nuyens, Vincent; Boogaerts, Jean G

    2007-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a determinant in liver injury occurring during surgical procedures, ischemic states, and multiple organ failure. The pre-existing nutritional status of the liver, i.e., fasting, might contribute to the extent of tissue injury. This study investigated whether Intralipid, a solution containing soybean oil, egg phospholipids, and glycerol, could protect ex vivo perfused livers of fasting rats from anoxia-reoxygenation injury. The portal vein was cannulated, and the liver was removed and perfused in a closed ex vivo system. Isolated livers were perfused with glucose 5.5 and 15 mM, and two different concentrations of Intralipid, i.e., 0.5:100 and 1:100 (v/v) Intralipid 10%:medium (n = 5 in each group). The experiment consisted of perfusion for 15 min, warm anoxia for 60 min, and reoxygenation during 60 min. Hepatic enzymes, potassium, glucose, lactate, bilirubin, dienes, trienes, and cytochrome-c were analyzed in perfusate samples. The proportion of glycogen in hepatocytes was determined in biopsies. Intralipid attenuated transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, diene, and triene release in the perfusate (dose-dependant) during the reoxygenation phase when compared with glucose-treated groups. The concentration of cytochrome-c in the medium was the highest in the 5.5-mM glucose group. The glycogen content was low in all livers at the start of the experiment. Intralipid presents, under the present experimental conditions, a better protective effect than glucose in anoxia-reoxygenation injury of the rat liver.

  5. In vivo gene transfer using pDNA/chitosan/chondroitin sulfate ternary complexes: influence of chondroitin sulfate on the stability of freeze-dried complexes and transgene expression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kenji; Kishimoto, Satoko; Ishihara, Masayuki; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Mazda, Osam; Sato, Toshinori

    2013-02-01

    Chitosan has been investigated as a promising nonviral vector. However, several problems still remain, such as a relatively low transfection efficiency and instability under physiological conditions. We previously demonstrated that a chondroitin sulfate (CS) coating enhanced the transfection efficiency and physicochemical stability of plasmid DNA (pDNA)/chitosan complexes in vitro. In the present study, the effects of coating pDNA/chitosan complexes with CS on the stability in freeze-dry rehydration processes and gene expression in vivo were investigated. Freeze-drying storage at -20 °C, 4 °C, or room temperature, freezing storage at -20 °C, or liquid storage at 4 °C or room temperature, were examined for preservation conditions of pDNA/chitosan/CS ternary complexes by a gel retardation assay, measurements of sizes and zeta potentials, and a luciferase assay. Moreover, to determine the transfection efficiency of the ternary complexes in vivo, suicide gene therapy was carried out in Huh-7-implanted mice using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase coding pDNA and ganciclovir. The freeze-dried pDNA/chitosan/CS ternary complexes showed sufficient cell transfection ability in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ternary complexes were associated with a significant suppression of tumor growth and a histopathologically high anti-tumor effect by intratumoral injection to tumor-bearing mice. The CS coating enhanced the preservation stability of the pDNA/chitosan complexes after freeze-drying-rehydration and their transgene expression in vivo. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of single injection of local anesthetic agents on intervertebral disc degeneration: ex vivo and long-term in vivo experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Analgesic discography (discoblock can be used to diagnose or treat discogenic low back pain by injecting a small amount of local anesthetics. However, recent in vitro studies have revealed cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on intervertebral disc (IVD cells. Here we aimed to investigate the deteriorative effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on rabbit IVDs using an organotypic culture model and an in vivo long-term follow-up model.For the organotypic culture model, rabbit IVDs were harvested and cultured for 3 or 7 days after intradiscal injection of local anesthetics (1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Nucleus pulposus (NP cell death was measured using confocal microscopy. Histological and TUNEL assays were performed. For in vivo study, each local anesthetic was injected into rabbit lumbar IVDs under a fluoroscope. Six or 12 months after the injection, each IVD was prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analysis.In the organotypic culture model, both anesthetic agents induced time-dependent NP cell death; when compared with injected saline solution, significant effects were detected within 7 days. Compared with the saline group, TUNEL-positive NP cells were significantly increased in the bupivacaine group. In the in vivo study, MRI analysis did not show any significant difference. Histological analysis revealed that IVD degeneration occurred to a significantly level in the saline- and local anesthetics-injected groups compared with the untreated control or puncture-only groups. However, there was no significant difference between the saline and anesthetic agents groups.In the in vivo model using healthy IVDs, there was no strong evidence to suggest that discoblock with local anesthetics has the potential of inducing IVD degeneration other than the initial mechanical damage of the pressurized injection. Further studies should be performed to investigate the deteriorative effects of the local injection of analgesic agents

  7. 3D morphological analysis of the mouse cerebral vasculature: Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Steinman

    Full Text Available Ex vivo 2-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM with optical clearing enables vascular imaging deep into tissue. However, optical clearing may also produce spherical aberrations if the objective lens is not index-matched to the clearing material, while the perfusion, clearing, and fixation procedure may alter vascular morphology. We compared in vivo and ex vivo 2PFM in mice, focusing on apparent differences in microvascular signal and morphology. Following in vivo imaging, the mice (four total were perfused with a fluorescent gel and their brains fructose-cleared. The brain regions imaged in vivo were imaged ex vivo. Vessels were segmented in both images using an automated tracing algorithm that accounts for the spatially varying PSF in the ex vivo images. This spatial variance is induced by spherical aberrations caused by imaging fructose-cleared tissue with a water-immersion objective. Alignment of the ex vivo image to the in vivo image through a non-linear warping algorithm enabled comparison of apparent vessel diameter, as well as differences in signal. Shrinkage varied as a function of diameter, with capillaries rendered smaller ex vivo by 13%, while penetrating vessels shrunk by 34%. The pial vasculature attenuated in vivo microvascular signal by 40% 300 μm below the tissue surface, but this effect was absent ex vivo. On the whole, ex vivo imaging was found to be valuable for studying deep cortical vasculature.

  8. Bioproduction of conjugated linoleic acid by probiotic bacteria occurs in vitro and in vivo in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaschuk, Julia B; Walker, John W; Diaz, Hugo; Madsen, Karen L

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics have been shown to reduce the incidence of colon cancer in animal models. The mechanisms responsible for this activity are poorly defined. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of isomers of linoleic acid (LA) possessing anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties, which can be produced from LA by certain bacterial strains. In this study, the ability of probiotic bacteria to exert anticarcinogenic effects through the production of CLA was assessed. Incubation of probiotic bacteria (VSL3, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. plantarum, Bifidobacterium breve, B. infantis, B. longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus) in the presence of LA yielded CLA production as measured by gas chromatography. Conditioned medium, containing probiotic-produced CLA, reduced viability and induced apoptosis of HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, as assessed by MTT assay and DNA laddering, respectively. Western blotting demonstrated an increased expression of PPARgamma in cells treated with conditioned medium compared with LA alone. Incubation of murine feces with LA after administering VSL3 yielded 100-fold more CLA than feces collected prior to VSL3 feeding. This study supports a role for supplemental probiotics as a strategy both for attenuating inflammation and for preventing colon cancer.

  9. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela; Venâncio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, João Vitor; Merlini, Aline; Streck, Emílio L.; Marques da Silva, Paula; Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5–45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  10. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil); Venancio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, Joao Vitor; Merlini, Aline [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Streck, Emilio L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Unidade Academica de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Fisiopatologia Experimental (Brazil); Marques da Silva, Paula [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa, E-mail: vmoraesdeandrade@yahoo.com.br [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5-45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  11. Alterations in collagen structure in hypermobility and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes detected by Raman spectroscopy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Carina K.; Gniadecka, Monika; Ullman, Susanne; Halberg, Poul; Kobayasi, Takasi; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2000-11-01

    Patients with hypermobility syndrome (HS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) were investigated by means of in vivo near- infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy. HS is a benign and common condition (up to 5 percent of the population of the Western World). EDS is a rare, inherited connective tissue disease characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and other, occasionally serious, organ changes. EDS and HS may be related disorders. We investigated 13 patients with HS, 8 patients with EDS, and 24 healthy volunteers by means of in vivo Raman spectroscopy. The patients were classified according to Beighton and Holzberg et al. No difference in age between the three groups was found (HS 41 (33-49), EDS 36 (25-47), controls 37 (31-42); mean, 95% confidence intervals, respectively). Spectral differences were found in the intensity of the amide-III bands around 1245 and 1270 cm-1 in HS and EDS compared with healthy skin (Kruskal-Wallis, p equals 0,02 for intensity ratios (I1245/I1270) between the investigated groups). To elucidate the character of the alterations in the amide-III bands a curve fitting procedure was applied. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy may aid in the diagnosis of HS and EDS. Moreover the technique may be useful for analyzing the molecular changes occurring in these syndromes.

  12. Single-cell and subcellular pharmacokinetic imaging allows insight into drug action in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M; Yang, Katy S; Reiner, Thomas; Kohler, Rainer H; Sorger, Peter; Mitchison, Tim; Weissleder, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic analysis at the organ level provides insight into how drugs distribute throughout the body, but cannot explain how drugs work at the cellular level. Here we demonstrate in vivo single-cell pharmacokinetic imaging of PARP-1 inhibitors and model drug behaviour under varying conditions. We visualize intracellular kinetics of the PARP-1 inhibitor distribution in real time, showing that PARP-1 inhibitors reach their cellular target compartment, the nucleus, within minutes in vivo both in cancer and normal cells in various cancer models. We also use these data to validate predictive finite element modelling. Our theoretical and experimental data indicate that tumour cells are exposed to sufficiently high PARP-1 inhibitor concentrations in vivo and suggest that drug inefficiency is likely related to proteomic heterogeneity or insensitivity of cancer cells to DNA-repair inhibition. This suggests that single-cell pharmacokinetic imaging and derived modelling improve our understanding of drug action at single-cell resolution in vivo.

  13. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.K. de; Salles, L.P.; Rosa e Silva, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract

  14. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract.

  15. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.K. de [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade da Ceilândia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Salles, L.P. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Rosa e Silva, A.A.M. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2015-01-23

    Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract.

  16. Conditioned taste aversion modifies persistently the subsequent induction of neocortical long-term potentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Castillo, Diana V; Moguel-González, Minerva; Escobar, Martha L

    2011-05-01

    The ability of neurons to modify their synaptic strength in an activity-dependent manner has a crucial role in learning and memory processes. It has been proposed that homeostatic forms of plasticity might provide the global regulation necessary to maintain synaptic strength and plasticity within a functional dynamic range. Similarly, it is considered that the capacity of synapses to express plastic changes is itself subject to variation dependent on previous experience. In particular, training in several behavioral tasks modifies the possibility to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Our previous studies in the insular cortex (IC) have shown that induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC projection previous to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training enhances the retention of this task. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether CTA training modifies the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in vivo. Thus, CTA trained rats received high frequency stimulation in the Bla-IC projection in order to induce LTP 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after the aversion test. Our results show that CTA training prevents the subsequent induction of LTP in the Bla-IC projection, for at least 120 h after CTA training. We also showed that pharmacological inhibition of CTA consolidation with anisomycin (1 μl/side; 100 μg/μl) prevents the CTA effect on IC-LTP. These findings reveal that CTA training produces a persistent change in the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in a protein-synthesis dependent manner, suggesting that changes in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity contribute to the formation and persistence of aversive memories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics associated with clinical severity and inflammatory phenotype of naturally occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Poulsen, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In experimental studies viral infections have been shown to induce type 2 inflammation in asthmatics, but whether this is a feature of naturally occurring virus-induced asthma exacerbations is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) released from the airway epithelium in response...... occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma and whether TSLP is associated with this type 2 inflammation. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with acute asthma were examined during the exacerbation, and after 4 weeks recovery. The assessments included spirometry, FeNO and induced sputum...... in patients during virus-induced asthma exacerbations, to the same degree as non-viral exacerbations, and correlate negatively with FEV1. However, in virus-positive patients, high TSLP expression during exacerbation was associated with low sputum eosinophils, suggesting that the effect of TSLP in vivo...

  18. Visualization of inflammatory processes using 'in vitro' and in vivo' labelled leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Milanov, S.; Kovacheva, S.

    1993-01-01

    The labelled leucocytes have become a means of choice for the diagnosis of a variety of active inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate 'in vivo' and 'in vitro' methods for labelling of leucocytes. A total of 146 patients, suspected of having various inflammatory lesions were examined. In 95 of them 'in vitro' method with 99m Tc-HMPAO or 111 In-oxine was used, in 29 'in vivo' method with 99m Tc-MAB (BW 250/183) and in 22 both methods. The obtained results of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 87,3%, 96,5%, 89,5% for 'in vitro' method and 83,3%, 93,8%, 86,2% for 'in vivo' method. Taking into consideration the received data and comparable results, we think that in seriously ill patients and in cases of urgency, the use of easier 'in vivo' method is more suitable, while in chronic processes or in such with unclear localisation, 'in vitro' method is recommended, which sometimes gives images with better quality. (orig.) [de

  19. In vivo and ex vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary and secondary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, Roger M.; Stanwell, Peter; Stretch, Jonathan R.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Thompson, John F.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Lean, Cynthia L

    2005-03-01

    In vivo magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 1.5T was performed on a large polypoid cutaneous melanoma, and two enlarged lymph nodes containing metastatic melanoma, from three patients. Spectra were acquired in vivo from voxels wholly within the primary tumour or secondary lymph node and were thus uncontaminated by signals from adjacent tissue. Tissue biopsies taken after resection of primary tumours and secondary lymph nodes were examined by 8.5T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the results compared with the in vivo spectra, and with spectra from normal skin and a benign skin lesion. There was good agreement between the dominant features of 1.5T spectra acquired in vivo and 8.5T spectra acquired from resected tissue. However, less intense resonances observed at 8.5T in malignant biopsy tissue were not consistently observed at 1.5T in vivo. In vivo spectra from primary and metastatic melanoma showed high levels of choline metabolites. An intense lactate resonance was also present in the in vivo spectrum of primary melanoma. All 8.5T spectra of biopsies from primary and secondary melanoma showed high levels of choline metabolites and lactate, and additional resonances consistent with elevated levels of taurine, alanine, lysine, and glutamate/glutamine relative to normal and benign tissue. Elevated levels of choline, lactate, taurine, and amino acids appear to be clinically useful markers for identifying the pathology of primary and metastatic melanoma.

  20. In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral cavity: Current state of the field and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, N G; Collgros, H; Uribe, P; Ch'ng, S; Rajadhyaksha, M; Guitera, P

    2016-03-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) has been shown to correlate with oral mucosal histopathology in vivo. The purposes of this review are to summarize what we know so far about in vivo CM applications for oral mucosal pathologies, to highlight some current developments with CM devices relevant for oral applications, and to formulate where in vivo CM could hold further application for oral mucosal diagnosis and management. Ovid Medline® and/or Google® searches were performed using the terms 'microscopy, confocal', 'mouth neoplasms', 'mouth mucosa', 'leukoplakia, oral', 'oral lichen planus', 'gingiva', 'cheilitis', 'taste', 'inflammatory oral confocal', 'mucosal confocal' and 'confocal squamous cell oral'. In summary, inclusion criteria were in vivo use of any type of CM for the human oral mucosa and studies on normal or pathological oral mucosa. Experimental studies attempting to identify proteins of interest and microorganisms were excluded. In total 25 relevant articles were found, covering 8 main topics, including normal oral mucosal features (n=15), oral dysplasia or neoplasia (n=7), inflamed oral mucosa (n=3), taste impairment (n=3), oral autoimmune conditions (n=2), pigmented oral pathology/melanoma (n=1), delayed type hypersensitivity (n=1), and cheilitis glandularis (n=1). The evidence for using in vivo CM in these conditions is poor, as it is limited to mainly small descriptive studies. Current device developments for oral CM include improved probe design. The authors propose that future applications for in vivo oral CM may include burning mouth syndrome, intra-operative mapping for cancer surgery, and monitoring and targeted biopsies within field cancerization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo 31P MR spectroscopy of breast tumors: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Bo Young; Kim, Hak Hee; Suh, Tae Suk; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Jung, Sang Seol

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the various phosphorus metabolism of breast tumors with use of in vivo phosphorus-31 ( 31 P) MR spectroscopy (MRS). Five patients with breast tumor (benign in two, malignant in three) and three normal healthy volunteers participated in this study. All in vivo 31 P MRS examinations were performed on 1.5T whole-body MRI/MRS system by using a Free Induction Decay (FID) pulse sequence. T1-weighted MR images were used for localization of tumors. Peak areas for each phosphorus metabolite were measured using a Marquart algorithm. Breast carcinoma had a substantially larger phosphomonoester (PME) and a smaller phosphocreatine (PCr) peak intensity than normal breast tissue. This was reflected in the relatively higher PME/PCr ratio of breast carcinomas as well as phosphodiester (PDE)/PCr, inorganic phosphate (Pi)/PCr, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)/PCr ratios, compared with normal controls. The mean pH value of breast tumor demonstrating the alkaline nature was higher than that of normal controls. Spectral patterns between benign breast disease and normal breast tissue were quite similar, and differentiation was not established. Our preliminary study suggests that in vivo 31 P MRS is a noninvasive examination which may be useful in the early differentiation of malignant breast tumors from normal and benign conditions. However, normal control and benign conditions could not be characterized on the basis of the phosphorus metabolite ratios

  2. Effect of whey protein on the In Vivo Release of Aldehydes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Claassen, N.E.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Retention of aldehydes by whey proteins in solutions buffered at a range of pH values was studied under static and dynamic headspace conditions and in vivo in exhaled air. Static headspace measurements showed a clear increase in retention in the presence of whey proteins for aldehydes with longer

  3. Effect of exercise training on in vivo lipolysis in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and physical training has been suggested to alleviate these conditions. We compared epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs: retroperitonea...... be beneficial in alleviating intra-abdominal obesity by enhancing lipolysis in intra-abdominal fat depots.......Intra-abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and physical training has been suggested to alleviate these conditions. We compared epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs: retroperitoneal......: 73 +/- 12 (trained) vs. 14 +/- 4 (sedentary) ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1), P abdominal than in subcutaneous AT in both trained...

  4. Novel ex vivo culture method for human monocytes uses shear flow to prevent total loss of transendothelial diapedesis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Yoshiaki; Frey, Jeremy M; Raines, Elaine W

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte recruitment to inflammatory sites and their transendothelial migration into tissues are critical to homeostasis and pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. However, even short-term suspension culture of primary human monocytes leads to phenotypic changes. In this study, we characterize the functional effects of ex vivo monocyte culture on the steps involved in monocyte transendothelial migration. Our data demonstrate that monocyte diapedesis is impaired by as little as 4 h culture, and the locomotion step is subsequently compromised. After 16 h in culture, monocyte diapedesis is irreversibly reduced by ∼90%. However, maintenance of monocytes under conditions mimicking physiological flow (5-7.5 dyn/cm²) is sufficient to reduce diapedesis impairment significantly. Thus, through the application of shear during ex vivo culture of monocytes, our study establishes a novel protocol, allowing functional analyses of monocytes not currently possible under static culture conditions. These data further suggest that monocyte-based therapeutic applications may be measurably improved by alteration of ex vivo conditions before their use in patients.

  5. In vivo radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghian, Alphonse; Freeman, Jill; Suit, Herman; DuBois, Willem; Budach, Wilfried; Baumann, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Human glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most resistant tumors to radiation. In previous reports, we have demonstrated a wide range of radiation sensitivity of GBM in vitro; that is, SF 2 values of 0.2 to 0.8. The great sensitivity of some of the cell lines is not in accord with the almost invariably fatal clinical outcome of patients with GBM. The sensitivity of cells in vitro pertains to cells cultured in optimal nutritional conditions. The TCD 50 (the radiation dose necessary to control 50% of the tumors locally) determined in lab animals is analogous to the use of radiation with curative intent in clinical radiation oncology. The aim of the present study was (a) to evaluate the sensitivity of GBM in vivo relative to that of other tumor types and (b) assess the relationship between the single dose TCD 50 of the xenografts and the sensitivity of the corresponding cell lines in vitro. Methods and Materials: The TCD 50 assay was used to study twelve human tumor lines. Four previously published values were added. A total of 10 GBM, 4 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 1 soft tissue sarcoma (STS), and 1 cancer colon (CC) are included in the analysis. For further suppression of the residual immune system, all the animals received 6 Gy whole-body irradiation 1 day before transplantation. Local tumor irradiations were given as a single dose, under conditions of clamp hypoxia using a Cs irradiator. Results: The TCD 50 values for the 10 GBM xenografts varied between 32.5 and 75.2 Gy, with an average of 47.2 ± 13.1 Gy. The TCD 50 values for the SCC were similar to those of the GBM and ranged from 40.7 and 54.4 Gy, with a mean of 46.8 ± 6.4. The difference between the average TCD 50 of GBM and SCC was not significant. The STS and CC xenografts had TCD 50 values of 46.0 and 49.2 Gy, respectively. No correlation was found between the TCD 50 in vivo and the SF 2 or D 0 in vitro. Conclusions: Our data on GBM xenografts showed a wide range of sensitivities to single dose

  6. In vivo radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghian, Alphonse; Freeman, Jill; Suit, Herman; DuBois, Willem; Budach, Wilfried; Baumann, Michael

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: Human glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most resistant tumors to radiation. In previous reports, we have demonstrated a wide range of radiation sensitivity of GBM in vitro; that is, SF{sub 2} values of 0.2 to 0.8. The great sensitivity of some of the cell lines is not in accord with the almost invariably fatal clinical outcome of patients with GBM. The sensitivity of cells in vitro pertains to cells cultured in optimal nutritional conditions. The TCD{sub 50} (the radiation dose necessary to control 50% of the tumors locally) determined in lab animals is analogous to the use of radiation with curative intent in clinical radiation oncology. The aim of the present study was (a) to evaluate the sensitivity of GBM in vivo relative to that of other tumor types and (b) assess the relationship between the single dose TCD{sub 50} of the xenografts and the sensitivity of the corresponding cell lines in vitro. Methods and Materials: The TCD{sub 50} assay was used to study twelve human tumor lines. Four previously published values were added. A total of 10 GBM, 4 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 1 soft tissue sarcoma (STS), and 1 cancer colon (CC) are included in the analysis. For further suppression of the residual immune system, all the animals received 6 Gy whole-body irradiation 1 day before transplantation. Local tumor irradiations were given as a single dose, under conditions of clamp hypoxia using a Cs irradiator. Results: The TCD{sub 50} values for the 10 GBM xenografts varied between 32.5 and 75.2 Gy, with an average of 47.2 {+-} 13.1 Gy. The TCD{sub 50} values for the SCC were similar to those of the GBM and ranged from 40.7 and 54.4 Gy, with a mean of 46.8 {+-} 6.4. The difference between the average TCD{sub 50} of GBM and SCC was not significant. The STS and CC xenografts had TCD{sub 50} values of 46.0 and 49.2 Gy, respectively. No correlation was found between the TCD{sub 50} in vivo and the SF{sub 2} or D{sub 0} in vitro. Conclusions: Our data on GBM

  7. Immediate in vivo target-specific cancer cell death after near infrared photoimmunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunaga Makoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near infrared (NIR photoimmunotherapy (PIT is a new type of cancer treatment based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb-NIR phthalocyanine dye, (IR700 conjugate. In vitro cancer-specific cell death occurs during NIR light exposure in cells previously incubated with mAb-IR700 conjugates. However, documenting rapid cell death in vivo is more difficult. Methods A luciferase-transfected breast cancer cell (epidermal growth factor receptor+, MDA-MB-468luc cells was produced and used for both in vitro and in vivo experiments for monitoring the cell killing effect of PIT. After validation of cytotoxicity with NIR exposure up to 8 J/cm2in vitro, we employed an orthotopic breast cancer model of bilateral MDA-MB-468luc tumors in female athymic mice, which subsequently received a panitumumab-IR700 conjugate in vivo. One side was used as a control, while the other was treated with NIR light of dose ranging from 50 to 150 J/cm2. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI was performed before and after PIT. Results Dose-dependent cell killing and regrowth was successfully monitored by the BLI signal in vitro. Although tumor sizes were unchanged, BLI signals decreased by >95% immediately after PIT in vivo when light intensity was high (>100 J/cm2, however, in mice receiving lower intensity NIR (50 J/cm2, tumors recurred with gradually increasing BLI signal. Conclusion PIT induced massive cell death of targeted tumor cells immediately after exposure of NIR light that was demonstrated with BLI in vivo.

  8. Cannabidiol Does Not Convert to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in an In Vivo Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Louise; Stott, Colin; Jones, Nicholas; Wright, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD) can convert to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vitro with prolonged exposure to simulated gastric fluid; however, in vitro conditions may not be representative of the in vivo gut environment. Using the minipig, we investigated whether enteral CBD converts to THC in vivo. Materials and Methods: Synthetic CBD (100 mg/mL) was administered orally in a sesame oil formulation twice daily to minipigs (N=3) in 15 mg/kg doses for 5 consecutive days. Blood samp...

  9. Quantification of fibronectin as a method to assess ex vivo extracellular matrix remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Cecilie Liv; Gudmann, N.; Willumsen, N.

    2016-01-01

    Altered architecture, composition and quality of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are pathological hallmarks of several inflammatory and fibro-proliferative pathological processes such as osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fibrosis and cancer. One of the most important components...... of the ECM is fibronectin. Fibronectin serves as an adhesion molecule anchoring cells to the underlying basement membrane through direct interaction with integrin receptors. Fibronectin hereby modulates the properties of the ECM and affects cellular processes. Quantification of fibronectin remodeling could...... therefore be used to assess the changes in the ECM that occur during progression of fibro-proliferative pathologies. Ex vivo models are becoming state-of-the-art tools to study ECM remodeling as the cellular composition and the organization of the ECM are preserved. Ex vivo models may therefore...

  10. The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlestedt Claes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. Results Herein we characterize a novel splice variant of PINK1 (svPINK1 that is homologous to the C-terminus regulatory domain of the protein kinase. Naturally occurring non-coding antisense provides sophisticated mechanisms for diversifying genomes and we describe a human specific non-coding antisense expressed at the PINK1 locus (naPINK1. We further demonstrate that PINK1 varies in vivo when human skeletal muscle mitochondrial content is enhanced, supporting the idea that PINK1 has a physiological role in mitochondrion. The observation of concordant regulation of svPINK1 and naPINK1 during in vivo mitochondrial biogenesis was confirmed using RNAi, where selective targeting of naPINK1 results in loss of the PINK1 splice variant in neuronal cell lines. Conclusion Our data presents the first direct observation that a mammalian non-coding antisense molecule can positively influence the abundance of a cis-transcribed mRNA under physiological abundance conditions. While our analysis implies a possible human specific and dsRNA-mediated mechanism for stabilizing the expression of svPINK1, it also points to a broader genomic strategy for regulating a human disease locus and increases the complexity through which alterations in the regulation of the PINK1 locus could occur.

  11. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 μCi of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 μCi Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 μCi In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 μCi of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 μCi is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results

  12. Chick embryo partial ischemia model: a new approach to study ischemia ex vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamantak Majumder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ischemia is a pathophysiological condition due to blockade in blood supply to a specific tissue thus damaging the physiological activity of the tissue. Different in vivo models are presently available to study ischemia in heart and other tissues. However, no ex vivo ischemia model has been available to date for routine ischemia research and for faster screening of anti-ischemia drugs. In the present study, we took the opportunity to develop an ex vivo model of partial ischemia using the vascular bed of 4(th day incubated chick embryo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ischemia was created in chick embryo by ligating the right vitelline artery using sterile surgical suture. Hypoxia inducible factor- 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha, creatine phospho kinase-MB and reactive oxygen species in animal tissues and cells were measured to confirm ischemia in chick embryo. Additionally, ranolazine, N-acetyl cysteine and trimetazidine were administered as an anti-ischemic drug to validate the present model. Results from the present study depicted that blocking blood flow elevates HIF-1alpha, lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite level in ischemic vessels while ranolazine administration partially attenuates ischemia driven HIF-1alpha expression. Endothelial cell incubated on ischemic blood vessels elucidated a higher level of HIF-1alpha expression with time while ranolazine treatment reduced HIF-1alpha in ischemic cells. Incubation of caprine heart strip on chick embryo ischemia model depicted an elevated creatine phospho kinase-MB activity under ischemic condition while histology of the treated heart sections evoked edema and disruption of myofibril structures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study concluded that chick embryo partial ischemia model can be used as a novel ex vivo model of ischemia. Therefore, the present model can be used parallel with the known in vivo ischemia models in understanding the mechanistic insight of ischemia development and in

  13. Evaluation of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) performance in phantoms and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James; Tomaszewski, Michal; Morgan, Fiona J. E.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2015-03-01

    MultiSpectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) is an emerging modality that combines the high contrast of optical imaging with the spatial resolution and penetration depth of ultrasound, to provide detailed images of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation. To facilitate accurate determination of changes in the vascularity and oxygenation of a biological tissue over time, a tumor in response to cancer therapy for example, an extensive study of stability and reproducibility of a small animal MSOT system has been performed. Investigations were first made with a stable phantom imaged repeatedly over time scales of hours, days and months to evaluate the reproducibility of the system over time. We found that the small animal MSOT system exhibited excellent reproducibility with a coefficient of variation (COV) in the measured MSOT signals of less than 8% over the course of 30 days and within 1.5% over a single day. Experiments performed in vivo demonstrated the potential for measurement of oxyhemoglobin over time in a realistic experimental setting. The effect of breathing medical air or oxygen under conditions of fixed respiration rate and body temperature within normal organs, including the spleen and kidneys, were investigated. The COV for oxyhemoglobin signals retrieved from spectral unmixing was assessed within both biological (different mouse) and imaging (different scan) replicates. As expected, biological replicates produced a large COV (up to 40% within the spleen) compared to imaging replicates within a single mouse (up to 10% within the spleen). Furthermore, no significant difference was found between data acquired by different operators. The data presented here suggest that MSOT is highly reproducible for both phantom and in vivo imaging, hence could reliably detect changes in oxygenation occurring in living subjects.

  14. In vivo metabolite-specific imaging in tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, R.E.; Freeman, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have developed a practical method using proton MR imaging to map the level and distribution of metabolites in vivo. Of particular interest to the biochemist and the clinician is the presence of excess lactic acid in tissues, indicating hypoxia such as is found in certain solid tumors, or in ischemia that would occur during cardiac infarct or stroke. A two-dimensional double quantum coherence technique has been optimized to greatly reduce signal intensity from biologic water and to provide unambiguous editing of the lactic acid resonance from interfering lipid resonances. The method was tested using a General Electric 2.0-T CSI instrument fitted with actively shielded gradients. Two-dimensional double quantum coherence lactic acid edited images were obtained from an implanted RIF-1 tumor in C3H mice, showing heterogeneous distribution of lactic acid within the tumor. Very little lipid signal with respect to the lactic acid methyl resonance was observed. The lactic acid concentration of the tumor was determined to be 10 μmol/g wet by enzymatic assay. Metabolite-specific imaging using double quantum coherence transfer promises to yield noninvasive information about lactic acid levels and distribution in vivo at low field, relatively quickly, with low radio frequency power disposition and without the need for complex presaturation pulses

  15. Super-low dose endotoxin pre-conditioning exacerbates sepsis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keqiang; Geng, Shuo; Yuan, Ruoxi; Diao, Na; Upchurch, Zachary; Li, Liwu

    2015-04-01

    Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditionings with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). This is in opposite to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks.

  16. Super-low Dose Endotoxin Pre-conditioning Exacerbates Sepsis Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqiang Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditioning with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP. This is in contrast to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks.

  17. In vivo and in vitro degradation comparison of pure Mg, Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag: a short term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Marco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare short term in vitro and in vivo biodegradation studies with low purity Mg (> 99.94 %, Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag designed for biodegradable implant applications. Three in vitro testing conditions were applied, using (i phosphate buffered saline (PBS, (ii Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS and (iii Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM in 5 % CO2 under sterile conditions. Gas evolution and mass loss (ML were assessed, as well as the degradation layer, by elemental mapping and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In vivo, implantations were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats evaluating both, gas cavity volume and implant volume reduction by micro-computed tomography (µCT, 7 d after implantation. Samples were produced by casting, solution heat treatment and extrusion in disc and pin shape for the in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively. Results showed that when the processing of the Mg sample varied, differences were found not only in the alloy impurity content and the grain size, but also in the corrosion behaviour. An increase of Fe and Ni or a large grain size seemed to play a major role in the degradation process, while the influence of alloying elements, such as Gd and Ag, played a secondary role. Results also indicated that cell culture conditions induced degradation rates and degradation layer elemental composition comparable to in vivo conditions. These in vitro and in vivo degradation layers consisted of Mg hydroxide, Mg-Ca carbonate and Ca phosphate.

  18. Resveratrol and cancer: focus on in vivo evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lindsay G; D'Orazio, John A; Pearson, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol that provides a number of anti-aging health benefits including improved metabolism, cardioprotection, and cancer prevention. Much of the work on resveratrol and cancer comes from in vitro studies looking at resveratrol actions on cancer cells and pathways. There are, however, comparatively fewer studies that have investigated resveratrol treatment and cancer outcomes in vivo, perhaps limited by its poor bioavailability when taken orally. Although research in cell culture has shown promising and positive effects of resveratrol, evidence from rodents and humans is inconsistent. This review highlights the in vivo effects of resveratrol treatment on breast, colorectal, liver, pancreatic, and prostate cancers. Resveratrol supplementation in animal models of cancer has shown positive, neutral as well as negative outcomes depending on resveratrol route of administration, dose, tumor model, species, and other factors. Within a specific cancer type, there is variability between studies with respect to strain, age, and sex of animal used, timing and method of resveratrol supplementation, and dose of resveratrol used to study cancer endpoints. Together, the data suggest that many factors need to be considered before resveratrol can be used for human cancer prevention or therapy. PMID:24500760

  19. Evaluation of adriamycin nephropathy by an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteki, Takaaki; Nagase, Sohji; Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Ohya, Hiroaki; Akatsuka, Takao; Tada, Mika; Ueda, Atsushi; Hirayama, Aki; koyama, Akio

    2005-01-01

    A rat model for human minimal change nephropathy was obtained by the intravenous injection of adriamycin (ADR) at 5 mg/kg. By using an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 700 MHz, the temporal changes in signal intensities of a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), in the kidneys of rats with ADR nephropathy were investigated. The decay rate of the EPR signal intensity obtained in the kidney is indicative of the renal reducing ability. It was found that the reducing ability in the kidney declined on the 7th day after ADR administration and recovered after the 14th day. Impairment of the reducing ability occurred before the appearance of continuous urinary protein. The in vitro EPR study showed that this impairment of in vivo renal reducing ability is related to impairment of the reducing ability in the mitochondria

  20. Rocking media over ex vivo corneas improves this model and allows the study of the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Pallavi; Ortega, Ílida; Sefat, Farshid; Sangwan, Virender S; Green, Nicola; Claeyssens, Frederik; MacNeil, Sheila

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro cornea model to study the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on wound healing. Initial studies investigated how to maintain the ex vivo models for up to 4 weeks without loss of epithelium. To study the effect of cytokines, corneas were cultured with the interleukins IL-17A, IL-22, or a combination of IL-17A and IL-22, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effect of IL-17A on wound healing was then examined. With static culture conditions, organ cultures deteriorated within 2 weeks. With gentle rocking of media over the corneas and carbon dioxide perfusion, the ex vivo models survived for up to 4 weeks without loss of epithelium. The cytokine that caused the most damage to the cornea was IL-17A. Under static conditions, wound healing of the central corneal epithelium occurred within 9 days, but only a single-layered epithelium formed whether the cornea was exposed to IL-17A or not. With rocking of media gently over the corneas, a multilayered epithelium was achieved 9 days after wounding. In the presence of IL-17A, however, there was no wound healing evident. Characterization of the cells showed that wherever epithelium was present, both differentiated cells and highly proliferative cells were present. We propose that introducing rocking to extend the effective working life of this model and the introduction of IL-17A to this model to induce aspects of inflammation extend its usefulness to study the effects of agents that influence corneal regeneration under normal and inflamed conditions. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Optimization of in-vivo monitoring program for radiation emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Wi Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In case of radiation emergencies, internal exposure monitoring for the members of public will be required to confirm internal contamination of each individual. In-vivo monitoring technique using portable gamma spectrometer can be easily applied for internal exposure monitoring in the vicinity of the on-site area. In this study, minimum detectable doses (MDDs) for '1'3'4Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 131}I were calculated adjusting minimum detectable activities (MDAs) from 50 to 1,000 Bq to find out the optimal in-vivo counting condition. DCAL software was used to derive retention fraction of Cs and I isotopes in the whole body and thyroid, respectively. A minimum detectable level was determined to set committed effective dose of 0.1 mSv for emergency response. We found that MDDs at each MDA increased along with the elapsed time. 1,000 Bq for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, and 100 Bq for {sup 131}I were suggested as optimal MDAs to provide in-vivo monitoring service in case of radiation emergencies. In-vivo monitoring program for emergency response should be designed to achieve the optimal MDA suggested from the present work. We expect that a reduction of counting time compared with routine monitoring program can achieve the high throughput system in case of radiation emergencies.

  2. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy......Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered...... to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency...

  3. Miscellaneous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Hoffman, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on numerous conditions (systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, etc.) that may also affect the foot and ankle. In many cases, imaging of the foot and ankle is not performed for primary diagnostic purposes. However, radiographic changes do occur with these conditions. Therefore, it is important to be aware of radiographic abnormalities that these diseases may cause in the foot and ankle

  4. The in vivo biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Maria; Alhede, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria can grow and proliferate either as single, independent cells or organized in aggregates commonly referred to as biofilms. When bacteria succeed in forming a biofilm within the human host, the infection often becomes very resistant to treatment and can develop into a chronic state. Biofilms...... have been studied for decades using various in vitro models, but it remains debatable whether such in vitro biofilms actually resemble in vivo biofilms in chronic infections. In vivo biofilms share several structural characteristics that differ from most in vitro biofilms. Additionally, the in vivo...... experimental time span and presence of host defenses differ from chronic infections and the chemical microenvironment of both in vivo and in vitro biofilms is seldom taken into account. In this review, we discuss why the current in vitro models of biofilms might be limited for describing infectious biofilms...

  5. Optimization of Pre-transplantation Conditions to Enhance the Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Nazmul; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered a potential tool for cell based regenerative therapy due to their immunomodulatory property, differentiation potentials, trophic activity as well as large donor pool. Poor engraftment and short term survival of transplanted MSCs are recognized as major limitations which were linked to early cellular ageing, loss of chemokine markers during ex vivo expansion, and hyper-immunogenicity to xeno-contaminated MSCs. These problems can be minimized by ex vivo expansion of MSCs in hypoxic culture condition using well defined or xeno-free media i.e., media supplemented with growth factors, human serum or platelet lysate. In addition to ex vivo expansion in hypoxic culture condition using well defined media, this review article describes the potentials of transient adaptation of expanded MSCs in autologous serum supplemented medium prior to transplantation for long term regenerative benefits. Such transient adaptation in autologous serum supplemented medium may help to increase chemokine receptor expression and tissue specific differentiation of ex vivo expanded MSCs, thus would provide long term regenerative benefits. PMID:25678851

  6. In-vivo analysis of ankle joint movement for patient-specific kinematic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Carlo; De Benedictis, Carlo; Franco, Walter; Maffiodo, Daniela; Leardini, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    In this article, a method for the experimental in-vivo characterization of the ankle kinematics is proposed. The method is meant to improve personalization of various ankle joint treatments, such as surgical decision-making or design and application of an orthosis, possibly to increase their effectiveness. This characterization in fact would make the treatments more compatible with the specific patient's joint physiological conditions. This article describes the experimental procedure and the analytical method adopted, based on the instantaneous and mean helical axis theories. The results obtained in this experimental analysis reveal that more accurate techniques are necessary for a robust in-vivo assessment of the tibio-talar axis of rotation.

  7. Drought occurence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Is Drought Important? Drought is an important forest disturbance that occurs regularly in the Western United States and irregularly in the Eastern United States (Dale and others 2001). Moderate drought stress tends to slow plant growth while severedrought stress can also reduce photosynthesis (Kareiva and others 1993). Drought can also interact with...

  8. The long-term in vivo behavior of polymethyl methacrylate bone cement in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Koji; Yamamuro, Takao; Oonishi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    The long-term success of cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been well established. Improved outcomes, both radiographically and clinically, have resulted mainly from advances in stem design and improvements in operating techniques. However, there is concern about the durability of bone cement in vivo. We evaluated the physical and chemical properties of CMW1 bone cements retrieved from patients undergoing revision THA. CMW1 cements were retrieved from 14 patients who underwent acetabular revision because of aseptic loosening. The time in vivo before revision was 7-30 years. The bending properties of the retrieved bone cement were assessed using the three-point bending method. The molecular weight and chemical structure were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The porosity of the bone cements was evaluated by 3-D microcomputer tomography. The bending strength decreased with increasing time in vivo and depended on the density of the bone cement, which we assume to be determined by the porosity. There was no correlation between molecular weight and time in vivo. The infrared spectra were similar in the retrieved cements and in the control CMW1 cements. Our results indicate that polymer chain scission and significant hydrolysis do not occur in CMW1 cement after implantation in vivo, even in the long term. CMW1 cement was stable through long-term implantation and functional loading.

  9. Proteome analysis of in vitro and in vivo root tissue of Withania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied this technique to investigate the protein changes under in vitro and in vivo conditions, since in vitro cultures is considered to be an alternative approach to traditional agriculture in the industrial production of the biomolecules. To better understand the proteins and enzymes involved in withanolide biosynthetic ...

  10. In vivo Host-Pathogen Interaction as Revealed by Global Proteomic Profiling of Zebrafish Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Díaz-Pascual

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of a host-pathogen interaction is determined by the conditions of the host, the pathogen, and the environment. Although numerous proteomic studies of in vitro-grown microbial pathogens have been performed, in vivo proteomic approaches are still rare. In addition, increasing evidence supports that in vitro studies inadequately reflect in vivo conditions. Choosing the proper host is essential to detect the expression of proteins from the pathogen in vivo. Numerous studies have demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos as a model to in vivo studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. In most zebrafish-pathogen studies, infection is achieved by microinjection of bacteria into the larvae. However, few reports using static immersion of bacterial pathogens have been published. In this study we infected 3 days post-fertilization (DPF zebrafish larvae with P. aeruginosa PAO1 by immersion and injection and tracked the in vivo immune response by the zebrafish. Additionally, by using non-isotopic (Q-exactive metaproteomics we simultaneously evaluated the proteomic response of the pathogen (P. aeruginosa PAO1 and the host (zebrafish. We found some zebrafish metabolic pathways, such as hypoxia response via HIF activation pathway, were exclusively enriched in the larvae exposed by static immersion. In contrast, we found that inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways was exclusively enriched in the larvae exposed by injection, while the integrin signaling pathway and angiogenesis were solely enriched in the larvae exposed by immersion. We also found important virulence factors from P. aeruginosa that were enriched only after exposure by injection, such as the Type-III secretion system and flagella-associated proteins. On the other hand, P. aeruginosa proteins involved in processes like biofilm formation, and cellular responses to antibiotic and starvation were enriched exclusively after exposure by

  11. Monitoring of implanted stem cell migration in vivo: A highly resolved in vivo magnetic resonance imaging investigation of experimental stroke in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Mathias; Küstermann, Ekkehard; Blunk, James; Wiedermann, Dirk; Trapp, Thorsten; Wecker, Stefan; Föcking, Melanie; Arnold, Heinz; Hescheler, Jürgen; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Schwindt, Wolfram; Bührle, Christian

    2002-01-01

    In vivo monitoring of stem cells after grafting is essential for a better understanding of their migrational dynamics and differentiation processes and of their regeneration potential. Migration of endogenous or grafted stem cells and neurons has been described in vertebrate brain, both under normal conditions from the subventricular zone along the rostral migratory stream and under pathophysiological conditions, such as degeneration or focal cerebral ischemia. Those studies, however, relied on invasive analysis of brain sections in combination with appropriate staining techniques. Here, we demonstrate the observation of cell migration under in vivo conditions, allowing the monitoring of the cell dynamics within individual animals, and for a prolonged time. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, constitutively expressing the GFP, were labeled by a lipofection procedure with a MRI contrast agent and implanted into rat brains. Focal cerebral ischemia had been induced 2 weeks before implantation of ES cells into the healthy, contralateral hemisphere. MRI at 78-μm isotropic spatial resolution permitted the observation of the implanted cells with high contrast against the host tissue, and was confirmed by GFP registration. During 3 weeks, cells migrated along the corpus callosum to the ventricular walls, and massively populated the borderzone of the damaged brain tissue on the hemisphere opposite to the implantation sites. Our results indicate that ES cells have high migrational dynamics, targeted to the cerebral lesion area. The imaging approach is ideally suited for the noninvasive observation of cell migration, engraftment, and morphological differentiation at high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:12444255

  12. Application of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I-modified liposomes for oral vaccine: Ex Vivo bioadhesion and in Vivo immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, KeXin; Zhao, Xiuli; Xu, Shiyi; Pang, DaHai; Yang, ChunRong; Chen, DaWei

    2011-01-01

    The conjugation of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI) onto surface of liposomes has been demonstrated to effectively improve the intestinal absorption of antigen, subsequently induced strong mucosal and systemic immune responses. In this context, we prepared bovine serum albumin (BSA)-encapsulating UEAI-modified liposomes (UEAI-LIP) and unmodified ones (LIP). The specific bioadhesion on mice gastro-intestinal mucosa was studied ex vivo. An important increase of interaction between UEAI-conjugated liposomes and the intestinal segments with Peyer's Patches (PPs) was observed compared with the unconjugated one (p<0.01). However, under the presence of α-L-fucose, which is the reported specific sugar for UEAI, specifically inhibited the activity of these conjugates. The immune-stimulating activity in vivo was studied by measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in serum and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in intestinal mucosal secretions following oral administration of BSA solution, LIP and UEAI-LIP in mice. Results indicate that antigen encapsulated in liposomes, especially the UEAI-modified ones, was favorable for inducing immune response. At 42 d after the first immunization, the highest IgG and IgA antibody levels produced by UEAI-LIP occurred, respectively showing 4.4-fold and 5-fold higher levels compared to those of the groups receiving BSA alone. This data demonstrated high potential of UEAI-modified liposomes for their use as carrier for oral vaccines.

  13. GENERAL ASPECTS OF BODY MEASURES, WEIGHT AND SCORE CONDITION FEMALE NELORE BREED (Bos taurus indicus ON THE PERIOD OF 12 MONTHS ESTUDIO DE MEDIDAS CORPORALES, PESO VIVO Y CONDICIÓN CORPORAL DE BOVINOS HEMBRAS DE LA RAZA NELORE (Bos taurus indicus POR 12 MESES ESTUDO DE MEDIDAS CORPORAIS, PESO VIVO E CONDIÇÃO CORPORAL DE FÊMEAS DA RAÇA NELORE (Bos taurus indicus AO LONGO DE 12 MESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcádio de Los Reys Borjas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and eighty cattle were used to verify alterations and correlations among corporal measures in Nelore zebu herd with cows and heifers. Body weight and length, corporal condition, heart girth, withers height and hip measures were evaluated. Eight collections were accomplished along the months of October of 2002 and October of 2003. In heifers there was increase of the averages of corporal measures with significant difference (p <0,05 among collections only the heart girth was different (p <0,05 in cows. The relationship between the body weight and body condition with the time were quadratic parallel curves (p <0,001. There were correlations among lineal measures body with hip measures (p<0,001 except for heart girth with hip length. The correlations of body weight and body condition among body measures were significant (p<0,001 except body condition with hip length in cows. It could be concluded that there was a growing variation of the body measures in heifers in the experimental period. The body weight, the body condition and heart girth were related with different periods of the year that the evaluation was accomplished. In cows the variations along the year were of 14,79%, 31,53% and 6,74%, respectively. The isquiun – iliun external measures, as height and width were correlated with size measures and weight. The body weight and body condition in heifers behave in way similar to cows. Further researches in relationship among body measures, body weight and body condition with productive and reproductive aspect are necessary. Con el objetivo de verificar alteraciones y correlaciones entre medidas corporales en un rebaño bovino de vaquillonas y vacas de la raza Nelore. Evaluaron-se 487 hembras en peso vivo, condición corporal, perímetro toráxico, largura corporal, altura de la cruz y medidas da anca. Fueron realizadas ocho coletas a lo largo de los meses de octubre de 2002 y octubre de 2003. En las vaquillonas hubo un aumento de

  14. A clinical implementation of in vivo dosimetry with n-type Isorad semiconductor diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutonjski Laza M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to check the radiotherapy treatment accuracy and definition of action levels during implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of quality assurance program. The calibration and correction factors for in vivo entrance dose measurements for six n-type Isorad semiconductor diodes were determined as recommended by the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology Booklet No. 5. The patients for in vivo measurements have been divided in groups, according to the treatment site/techique, in order to investigate and detect the groups where the uncertainty was larger or where a systematic error occurred. The tolerance/action levels for all groups were also defined and checked. In this study, the entrance dose measurements were performed for total of 451 treatment fields, and 338 patients over one year period. The mean value and the standard deviation for different groups were: breast +1.0% ± 2.89%(1 SD, brain, and head and neck - +0.74% ± 2.04%(1 SD, and isocentric pelvis and abdomen - +0.1% ± 2.86%(1 SD. All measurements - +0.72% ± 2.64%(1 SD. In our experience, systematic in vivo dosimetry proved to be a very useful tool for quality assurance of patient's plan and treatment, both in detecting systematic errors and for estimating the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment delivery.

  15. DNA moves sequentially towards the nuclear matrix during DNA replication in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda-Anzaldo Armando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the interphase nucleus of metazoan cells DNA is organized in supercoiled loops anchored to a nuclear matrix (NM. There is varied evidence indicating that DNA replication occurs in replication factories organized upon the NM and that DNA loops may correspond to the actual replicons in vivo. In normal rat liver the hepatocytes are arrested in G0 but they synchronously re-enter the cell cycle after partial-hepatectomy leading to liver regeneration in vivo. We have previously determined in quiescent rat hepatocytes that a 162 kbp genomic region containing members of the albumin gene family is organized into five structural DNA loops. Results In the present work we tracked down the movement relative to the NM of DNA sequences located at different points within such five structural DNA loops during the S phase and after the return to cellular quiescence during liver regeneration. Our results indicate that looped DNA moves sequentially towards the NM during replication and then returns to its original position in newly quiescent cells, once the liver regeneration has been achieved. Conclusions Looped DNA moves in a sequential fashion, as if reeled in, towards the NM during DNA replication in vivo thus supporting the notion that the DNA template is pulled progressively towards the replication factories on the NM so as to be replicated. These results provide further evidence that the structural DNA loops correspond to the actual replicons in vivo.

  16. In vivo dose evaluation during gynaecological radiotherapy using L-alanine/ESR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burg Rech, Amanda; Baffa, Oswaldo; Barbi, Gustavo Lazzaro; Almeida Ventura, Luiz Henrique; Silva Guimaraes, Flavio; Oliveira, Harley Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The dose delivered by in vivo 3-D external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was verified with L-alanine/electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry for patients diagnosed with gynaecological cancer. Measurements were performed with an X-band ESR spectrometer. Dosemeters were positioned inside the vaginal cavity with the assistance of an apparatus specially designed for this study. Previous phantom studies were performed using the same conditions as in the in vivo treatment. Four patients participated in this study during 20-irradiation sessions, giving 220 dosemeters to be analysed. The doses were determined with the treatment planning system, providing dose confirmation. The phantom study resulted in a deviation between -2.5 and 2.1 %, and for the in vivo study a deviation between -9.2 and 14.2 % was observed. In all cases, the use of alanine with ESR was effective for dose assessment, yielding results consistent with the values set forth in the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) reports. (authors)

  17. In vivo evaluation of different alterations of redox status by studying pharmacokinetics of nitroxides using magnetic resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačić, Goran; Pavićević, Aleksandra; Peyrot, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS), are involved in various pathologies, injuries related to radiation, ischemia-reperfusion or ageing. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to directly detect free radicals in vivo, but the redox status of the whole organism or particular organ can be studied in vivo by using magnetic resonance techniques (EPR and MRI) and paramagnetic stable free radicals – nitroxides. Here we review results obtained in vivo following the pharmacokinetics of nitroxides on experimental animals (and a few in humans) under various conditions. The focus was on conditions where the redox status has been altered by induced diseases or harmful agents, clearly demonstrating that various EPR/MRI/nitroxide combinations can reliably detect metabolically induced changes in the redox status of organs. These findings can improve our understanding of oxidative stress and provide a basis for studying the effectiveness of interventions aimed to modulate oxidative stress. Also, we anticipate that the in vivo EPR/MRI approach in studying the redox status can play a vital role in the clinical management of various pathologies in the years to come providing the development of adequate equipment and probes. PMID:26827126

  18. In vivo evaluation of different alterations of redox status by studying pharmacokinetics of nitroxides using magnetic resonance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bačić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS, are involved in various pathologies, injuries related to radiation, ischemia-reperfusion or ageing. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to directly detect free radicals in vivo, but the redox status of the whole organism or particular organ can be studied in vivo by using magnetic resonance techniques (EPR and MRI and paramagnetic stable free radicals – nitroxides. Here we review results obtained in vivo following the pharmacokinetics of nitroxides on experimental animals (and a few in humans under various conditions. The focus was on conditions where the redox status has been altered by induced diseases or harmful agents, clearly demonstrating that various EPR/MRI/nitroxide combinations can reliably detect metabolically induced changes in the redox status of organs. These findings can improve our understanding of oxidative stress and provide a basis for studying the effectiveness of interventions aimed to modulate oxidative stress. Also, we anticipate that the in vivo EPR/MRI approach in studying the redox status can play a vital role in the clinical management of various pathologies in the years to come providing the development of adequate equipment and probes.

  19. Population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Jeon, Tina; Yu, Qiaowen; Ouyang, Minhui; Peng, Qinmu; Mishra, Virendra; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sestan, Nenad; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu; Hsiao, Steven; Liu, Shuwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Animal models of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), the most widely used nonhuman primate, have been irreplaceable in neurobiological studies. However, a population-averaged macaque brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) atlas, including comprehensive gray and white matter labeling as well as bony and facial landmarks guiding invasive experimental procedures, is not available. The macaque white matter tract pathways and microstructures have been rarely recorded. Here, we established a population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space incorporating bony and facial landmarks, and delineated microstructures and three-dimensional pathways of major white matter tracts in vivo MRI/DTI and ex vivo (postmortem) DTI of ten rhesus macaque brains were acquired. Single-subject macaque brain DTI template was obtained by transforming the postmortem high-resolution DTI data into in vivo space. Ex vivo DTI of ten macaque brains was then averaged in the in vivo single-subject template space to generate population-averaged macaque brain DTI atlas. The white matter tracts were traced with DTI-based tractography. One hundred and eighteen neural structures including all cortical gyri, white matter tracts and subcortical nuclei, were labeled manually on population-averaged DTI-derived maps. The in vivo microstructural metrics of fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivity of the traced white matter tracts were measured. Population-averaged digital atlas integrated into in vivo space can be used to label the experimental macaque brain automatically. Bony and facial landmarks will be available for guiding invasive procedures. The DTI metric measurements offer unique insights into heterogeneous microstructural profiles of different white matter tracts.

  20. Ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A; Dawe, Robert J; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work were to (a) develop an approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, (b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and (c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in vivo and ex vivo. An approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex vivo was assessed. The relationship between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both antemortem and postmortem. This approach for ex vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than intersubject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements. Regional brain volumes measured with this approach for ex vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in vivo and ex vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that this approach captures information linked to antemortem macrostructural brain characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The in vivo mechanism of action of CD20 monoclonal antibodies depends on local tumor burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boross, Peter; Jansen, J.H. Marco; de Haij, Simone; Beurskens, Frank J.; van der Poel, Cees E.; Bevaart, Lisette; Nederend, Maaike; Golay, Josée; van de Winkel, Jan G.J.; Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Leusen, Jeanette H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background CD20 monoclonal antibodies are widely used in clinical practice. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement-dependent cytotoxicity and direct cell death have been suggested to be important effector functions for CD20 antibodies. However, their specific contributions to the in vivo mechanism of action of CD20 immunotherapy have not been well defined. Design and Methods Here we studied the in vivo mechanism of action of type I (rituximab and ofatumumab) and type II (HuMab-11B8) CD20 antibodies in a peritoneal, syngeneic, mouse model with EL4-CD20 cells using low and high tumor burden. Results Interestingly, we observed striking differences in the in vivo mechanism of action of CD20 antibodies dependent on tumor load. In conditions of low tumor burden, complement was sufficient for tumor killing both for type I and type II CD20 antibodies. In contrast, in conditions of high tumor burden, activating FcγR (specifically FcγRIII), active complement and complement receptor 3 were all essential for tumor killing. Our data suggest that complement-enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity may critically affect tumor killing by CD20 antibodies in vivo. The type II CD20 antibody 11B8, which is a poor inducer of complement activation, was ineffective against high tumor burden. Conclusions Tumor burden affects the in vivo mechanism of action of CD20 antibodies. Low tumor load can be eliminated by complement alone, whereas elimination of high tumor load requires multiple effector mechanisms. PMID:21880632

  2. OpenVIVO: Transparency in Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ilik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available OpenVIVO is a free and open-hosted semantic web platform that anyone can join and that gathers and shares open data about scholarship in the world. OpenVIVO, based on the VIVO open-source platform, provides transparent access to data about the scholarly work of its participants. OpenVIVO demonstrates the use of persistent identifiers, the automatic real-time ingest of scholarly ecosystem metadata, the use of VIVO-ISF and related ontologies, the attribution of work, and the publication and reuse of data—all critical components of presenting, preserving, and tracking scholarship. The system was created by a cross-institutional team over the course of 3 months. The team created and used RDF models for research organizations in the world based on Digital Science GRID data, for academic journals based on data from CrossRef and the US National Library of Medicine, and created a new model for attribution of scholarly work. All models, data, and software are available in open repositories.

  3. Towards characterization of DNA structure under physiological conditions in vivo at the single-molecule level using single-pair FRET

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fessl, Tomáš; Adamec, František; Polívka, Tomáš; Foldynová-Trantírková, Silvie; Vácha, František; Trantírek, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 16 (2012), s. 10 ISSN 0305-1048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : in-cell FRET * fluorescence * DNA * nucleic acid * ATTO * in vivo Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 8.278, year: 2012

  4. Ex vivo sentinel lymph node investigation in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Hilário Alves Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, about 26,000 cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed per year. Pa- tients considered at the early stage of disease (without lymph node evolve with tumor relapse or recurrence in up to a quarter of cases, probably due to understaging. Objective: Research on ex vivo sentinel lymph node in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: We studied 37 patients who underwent curative surgical resection. The marker used to identify lymph nodes was patent blue dye injected into the peritu- moral submucosa of the open surgical specimen immediately after its removal from the abdominal cavity. Results: Ex vivo identification of sentinel lymph node with marker occurred in 13 (35.1% patients. The sensitivity was 40% and 60% false negative. The detailed histological examina- tion of sentinel lymph nodes with multilevel section and immunohistochemistry showed metastasis in one (4.3% individual, considered ultra-staging. Conclusion: The ex vivo identification of sentinel lymph node had questionable benefits, and worse results when include patients with rectal cancer. Restaging of one patient was possible after multilevel section and immunohistochemistry of the sentinel lymph node, but more research is needed to evaluate the role of micrometastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Resumo: Introdução: No Brasil, a cada ano são diagnosticados cerca de 26.000 casos de câncer colorre- tal. Pacientes com estadiamento considerado inicial, sem linfonodo metastático, evoluem com recorrência ou recidiva do tumor em até um quarto dos casos, por provável subesta- diamento. Objetivo: pesquisar sobre linfonodo-sentinela ex vivo em pacientes com adeno- carcinoma colorretal. Objetivo: Foram estudados 37 pacientes, submetidos à cirurgia oncológica com ressecção caráter curativo. O marcador de linfonodos utilizado foi o corante azul patente, injetado na submucosa peritumoral da peça cirúrgica aberta imediatamente

  5. Ex-vivo α-galactosylceramide activation of NKT cells in humans and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Cameron, Garth; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2012-08-31

    NKT cells are key mediators of antiviral and anticancer immunity. Experiments in mice have demonstrated that activation of NKT cells in vivo induces the expression of multiple effector molecules critical to successful immunity. Human clinical trials have shown similar responses, although in vivo activation of NKT cells in humans or primate models are far more limited in number and scope. Measuring ex vivo activation of NKT cells by the CD1d-restricted glycolipid ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) through cytokine expression profiles is a useful marker of NKT cell function, but for reasons that are unclear, this approach does not appear to work as well in humans and non-human primate macaque models in comparison to mice. We performed a series of experiments on human and macaque (Macaca nemestrina) fresh whole blood samples to define optimal conditions to detect NKT cell cytokine (TNF, IFNγ, IL-2) and degranulation marker (CD107a) expression by flow cytometry. We found that conditions previously described for mouse splenocyte NKT cell activation were suboptimal on human or macaque blood NKT cells. In contrast, a 6h incubation with brefeldin A added for the last 4h, in a 96-well plate based assay, and using an α-GalCer concentration of 1 μg/ml were optimal methods to stimulate NKT cells in fresh blood from both humans and macaques. Unexpectedly, we noted that blood NKT cells from macaques infected with SIV were more readily activated by α-GalCer than NKT cells from uninfected macaques, suggesting that SIV infection may have primed the NKT cells. In conclusion, we describe optimized methods for the ex vivo antigen-specific activation of human and macaque blood NKT cells. These assays should be useful in monitoring NKT cells in disease and in immunotherapy studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ex-vivo MR Volumetry of Human Brain Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Dawe, Robert J.; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E.; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this work were to: a) develop an approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in-vivo and ex-vivo. Methods An approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex-vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex-vivo was assessed. The relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both ante-mortem and postmortem. Results The presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than inter-subject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements. Conclusion Regional brain volumes measured with the presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that the presented approach captures information linked to ante-mortem macrostructural brain characteristics. PMID:23440751

  7. Microtubule depolymerization normalizes in vivo myocardial contractile function in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Narishige, T.; Sato, H.; Nemoto, S.; DeFreyte, G.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper G, I. V.; Carabello, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because initially compensatory myocardial hypertrophy in response to pressure overloading may eventually decompensate to myocardial failure, mechanisms responsible for this transition have long been sought. One such mechanism established in vitro is densification of the cellular microtubule network, which imposes a viscous load that inhibits cardiocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we extended this in vitro finding to the in vivo level and tested the hypothesis that this cytoskeletal abnormality is important in the in vivo contractile dysfunction that occurs in experimental aortic stenosis in the adult dog. In 8 dogs in which gradual stenosis of the ascending aorta had caused severe left ventricular (LV) pressure overloading (gradient, 152+/-16 mm Hg) with contractile dysfunction, LV function was measured at baseline and 1 hour after the intravenous administration of colchicine. Cardiocytes obtained by biopsy before and after in vivo colchicine administration were examined in tandem. Microtubule depolymerization restored LV contractile function both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These and additional corroborative data show that increased cardiocyte microtubule network density is an important mechanism for the ventricular contractile dysfunction that develops in large mammals with adult-onset pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  8. In vivo target bio-imaging of Alzheimer's disease by fluorescent zinc oxide nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lanmei; Zhao, Chunqiu; Su, Meina; Li, Xiaoqi; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Hui; Amatore, Christian; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-07-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease which is difficult to cure. When Alzheimer's disease occurs, the level of zinc ions in the brain changes, and the relevant amount of zinc ions continue decreasing in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of Alzheimer's patients with disease exacerbation. In view of these considerations, we have explored a new strategy for the in vivo rapid fluorescence imaging of Alzheimer's disease through target bio-labeling of zinc oxide nanoclusters which were biosynthesized in vivo in the Alzheimer's brain via intravenous injection of zinc gluconate solution. By using three-month-old and six-month-old Alzheimer's model mice as models, our observations demonstrate that biocompatible zinc ions could pass through the blood-brain barrier of the Alzheimer's disease mice and generate fluorescent zinc oxide nanoclusters (ZnO NCs) through biosynthesis, and then the bio-synthesized ZnO NCs could readily accumulate in situ on the hippocampus specific region for the in vivo fluorescent labeling of the affected sites. This study provides a new way for the rapid diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and may have promising prospects in the effective diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. White blood cell-based detection of asymptomatic scrapie infection by ex vivo assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Halliez

    Full Text Available Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods--in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays--to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages. However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease.

  10. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane

    1998-08-01

    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa

  11. Digital Radiography for Determination of Primary Tooth Length: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Basso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Methods for determining the root canal length of the primary tooth should yield accurate and reproducible results. In vitro studies show some limitations, which do not allow their findings to be directly transferred to a clinical situation. Aim. To compare the accuracy of radiographic tooth length obtained from in vivo digital radiograph with that obtained from ex vivo digital radiograph. Method. Direct digital radiographs of 20 upper primary incisors were performed in teeth (2/3 radicular resorption that were radiographed by an intraoral sensor, according to the long-cone technique. Teeth were extracted, measured, and mounted in a resin block, and then radiographic template was used to standardise the sensor-target distance (30 cm. The apparent tooth length (APTL was obtained from the computer screen by means of an electronic ruler accompanying the digital radiography software (CDR 2.0, whereas the actual tooth length (ACTL was obtained by means of a digital calliper following extraction. Data were compared to the ACTL by variance analysis and Pearson’s correlation test. Results. The values for APTL obtained from in vivo radiography were slightly underestimated, whereas those values obtained from ex vivo were slightly overestimated. No significance was observed (P≤0.48 between APTL and ACTL. Conclusion. The length of primary teeth estimated by in vivo and ex vivo comparisons using digital radiography was found to be similar to the actual tooth length.

  12. Electromagnetic tracking for CT-guided spine interventions: phantom, ex-vivo and in-vivo results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruners, Philipp; Penzkofer, Tobias; Nagel, Markus; Elfring, Robert; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Gronloh, Nina; Guenther, Rolf W.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2009-01-01

    An electromagnetic-based tracking and navigation system was evaluated for interventional radiology. The electromagnetic tracking system (CAPPA IRAD EMT, CASinnovations, Erlangen, Germany) was used for real-time monitoring of punctures of the lumbar facet joints and intervertebral disks in a spine phantom, three pig cadavers and three anaesthesized pigs. Therefore, pre-interventional computed tomography (CT) datasets were transferred to the navigation system and puncture trajectories were planned. A coaxial needle was advanced along the trajectories while the position of the needle tip was monitored in real time. After puncture tracts were marked with pieces of wire another CT examination was performed and distances between wires and anatomical targets were measured. Performing punctures of the facet joints mean needle positioning errors were 0.4 ± 0.8 mm in the spine phantom, 2.8 ± 2.1 mm ex vivo and 3.0 ± 2.0 mm in vivo with mean length of the puncture tract of 54.0 ± 10.4 mm (phantom), 51.6 ± 12.6 mm (ex vivo) and 50.9 ± 17.6 mm (in vivo). At first attempt, intervertebral discs were successfully punctured in 15/15 in the phantom study, in 12/15 in the ex-vivo study and 14/15 in the in-vivo study, respectively. Immobilization of the patient and optimal positioning of the field generator are essential to achieve a high accuracy of needle placement in a clinical CT setting. (orig.)

  13. SV40 Assembly In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariella Oppenheim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Simian virus 40 (SV40 capsid is a T = 7d icosahedral lattice ∼45 nm in diameter surrounding the ∼5 kb circular minichromosome. The outer shell is composed of 360 monomers of the major capsid protein VP1, tightly bound in 72 pentamers. VP1 is a jellyroll β-barrel, with extending N- and C-terminal arms. The N-terminal arms bind DNA and face the interior of the capsid. The flexible C-arms tie together the 72 pentamers in three distinct kinds of interactions, thus facilitating the formation of a T = 7 icosahedron from identical pentameric building blocks. Assembly in vivo was shown to occur by addition of capsomers around the DNA. We apply a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches to study SV40 assembly. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest the following model: one or two capsomers bind at a high affinity to ses, the viral DNA encapsidation signal, forming the nucleation centre for assembly. Next, multiple capsomers attach concomitantly, at lower affinity, around the minichromosome. This increases their local concentration facilitating rapid, cooperative assembly reaction. Formation of the icosahedron proceeds either by gradual addition of single pentamers to the growing shell or by concerted assembly of pentamer clusters.

  14. Dissociating Contingency Awareness and Conditioned Attitudes: Evidence of Contingency-Unaware Evaluative Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven; Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Whether human evaluative conditioning can occur without contingency awareness has been the subject of an intense and ongoing debate for decades, troubled by a wide array of methodological difficulties. Following recent methodological innovations, the available evidence currently points to the conclusion that evaluative conditioning effects do not…

  15. Microencapsulated bio-markers for assessment of stress conditions in aquatic organisms in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadovoy, A; Teh, C; Korzh, V; Escobar, M; Meglinski, I

    2012-01-01

    Bio-compatible polyelectrolyte sub-micron micro-capsules have been developed and applied to deliver fluorescent dyes into zebrafish larvae heart via direct injection in pericardium in vivo. The capsules shell performed as a membrane is impermeable for florescence dyes suspended within the capsules and is permeable for the external environment. Thus, the direct contact of fluorescence dyes with cells/tissues is excluded and the issues associated with the toxicity of fluorescence dyes and their bio-compatibility can be omitted. The hybrid laser-scanning imaging system combined with the fluorescent microscope has been used to monitor the paths of micro-capsules within zebrafish circulation system. We demonstrate that micro-capsules circulate in tissues, including brain and trunk, with no blood flow disruptions or any other deleterious effect on its cardiac function. The developed approach has a great potential to use of encapsulated bio-markers as a diagnostic tool in vascular biology and medicine as well as for monitoring of aquatic pollution and ecological risk assessment in eco-toxicological studies

  16. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of the pulp of Jatobá-do-cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Granja ARAKAKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxygen metabolism in cells causes the production of free radicals, which produce damage, including changes in cell structure and function. Antioxidants are substances that, at low concentrations, slow down or prevent oxidation. Fruits and vegetables contribute to the dietary supply of these compounds. The flora of the Cerrado in Brazil has shown to have high levels of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant activity of the pulp of jatobá-do-cerrado in vitro and in vivo.In vitro antioxidant activity of the aqueous, ethanol and aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by the DPPH method. We determined total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins by the Folin-Denis method.In vivo antioxidant potential of the aqueous acetone extract was evaluated by the TBARS technique. The aqueous acetone extract had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the aqueous and ethanol extracts. The same pattern occurred in the extraction of phenols and in the extraction of tannins. In vivo administration of the aqueous acetone extract inhibited lipid peroxidation compared to the control group. The inhibition of peroxidation has increased by elevating the dosage concentration of the extracts, demonstrating a significant antioxidant potential in vivo as well as in vitro.

  17. Real-time in vivo micromorphology and histopathology of choroidal osteoma using enhanced depth imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal osteoma is a usually unilateral benign tumor of the choroid composed of mature bone. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used to image osteoma for several years. With the advent of enhanced depth imaging (EDI feature of spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT, better visualization of the morphology of choroidal lesions has been possible. Herein we present a case of choroidal osteoma in a 45-year-old woman, wherein in vivo morphology of the choroidal osteoma had been visualized using EDI technique of SD-OCT before and after performing photodynamic therapy. EDI OCT has proven to be a valuable noninvasive imaging modality, almost comparable to histopathological examination, for diagnosing choroidal osteomas and for providing an insight into the in vivo micromorphological changes occurring during the course of the disease.

  18. Electrosensitization Increases Antitumor Effectiveness of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Claudia; Pakhomov, Andrei G; Heller, Loree; Casciola, Maura; Gianulis, Elena; Grigoryev, Sergey; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, O N

    2017-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields are emerging as a new modality for tissue and tumor ablation. We previously reported that cells exposed to pulsed electric fields develop hypersensitivity to subsequent pulsed electric field applications. This phenomenon, named electrosensitization, is evoked by splitting the pulsed electric field treatment in fractions (split-dose treatments) and causes in vitro a 2- to 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to show the benefit of split-dose treatments for in vivo tumor ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field. KLN 205 squamous carcinoma cells were embedded in an agarose gel or grown subcutaneously as tumors in mice. Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablations were produced using a 2-needle probe with a 6.5-mm interelectrode distance. In agarose gel, splitting a pulsed electric field dose of 300, 300-ns pulses (20 Hz, 4.4-6.4 kV) in 2 equal fractions increased cell death up to 3-fold compared to single-train treatments. We then compared the antitumor effectiveness of these treatments in vivo. At 24 hours after treatment, sensitizing tumors by a split-dose pulsed electric field exposure (150 + 150, 300-ns pulses, 20 Hz, 6.4 kV) caused a 4- and 2-fold tumor volume reduction as compared to sham and single-train treatments, respectively. Tumor volume reduction that exceeds 75% was 43% for split-dose-treated animals compared to only 12% for single-dose treatments. The difference between the 2 experimental groups remained statistically significant for at least 1 week after the treatment. The results show that electrosensitization occurs in vivo and can be exploited to assist in vivo cancer ablation.

  19. A re-examination of Hebbian-covariance rules and spike timing-dependent plasticity in cat visual cortex in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Frégnac

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP is considered as an ubiquitous rule for associative plasticity in cortical networks in vitro. However, limited supporting evidence for its functional role has been provided in vivo. In particular, there are very few studies demonstrating the co-occurence of synaptic efficiency changes and alteration of sensory responses in adult cortex during Hebbian or STDP protocols. We addressed this issue by reviewing and comparing the functional effects of two types of cellular conditioning in cat visual cortex. The first one, referred to as the covariance protocol, obeys a generalized Hebbian framework, by imposing, for different stimuli, supervised positive and negative changes in covariance between postsynaptic and presynaptic activity rates. The second protocol, based on intracellular recordings, replicated in vivo variants of the theta-burst paradigm (TBS, proven successful in inducing long-term potentiation (LTP in vitro. Since it was shown to impose a precise correlation delay between the electrically activated thalamic input and the TBS-induced postsynaptic spike, this protocol can be seen as a probe of causal (pre-before-post STDP. By choosing a thalamic region where the visual field representation was in retinotopic overlap with the intracellularly recorded cortical receptive field as the afferent site for supervised electrical stimulation, this protocol allowed to look for possible correlates between STDP and functional reorganization of the conditioned cortical receptive field. The rate-based covariance protocol induced significant and large amplitude changes in receptive field properties, in both kitten and adult V1 cortex. The TBS STDP-like protocol produced in the adult significant changes in the synaptic gain of the electrically activated thalamic pathway, but the statistical significance of the functional correlates was detectable mostly at the population level. Comparison of our observations with the

  20. Bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 containing lumbrokinase isolated from Lumbricus rubellus: ex vivo, in vivo, and pharmaceutic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandrawinata RR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Raymond R Tjandrawinata,1 Jessica Trisina,1 Puji Rahayu,1 Lorentius Agung Prasetya,1 Aang Hanafiah,2 Heni Rachmawati3 1Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Dexa Medica, Cikarang, Indonesia; 2National Nuclear Energy Agency, Bandung, Indonesia; 3School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia Abstract: DLBS1033 is a bioactive protein fraction isolated from Lumbricus rubellus that tends to be unstable when exposed to the gastrointestinal environment. Accordingly, appropriate pharmaceutical development is needed to maximize absorption of the protein fraction in the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo stability assays were performed to study the stability of the bioactive protein fraction in gastric conditions. The bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 was found to be unstable at low pH and in gastric fluid. The “enteric coating” formulation showed no leakage in gastric fluid–like medium and possessed a good release profile in simulated intestinal medium. DLBS1033 was absorbed through the small intestine in an intact protein form, confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE analysis. This result confirmed that an enteric coating formula using methacrylic acid copolymer could protect DLBS1033 from the acidic condition of the stomach by preventing the release of DLBS1033 in the stomach, while promoting its release when reaching the intestine. From the blood concentration–versus-time curve, 99mTc-DLBS1033 showed a circulation half-life of 70 minutes. This relatively long biological half-life supports its function as a thrombolytic protein. Thus, an enteric delivery system is considered the best approach for DLBS1033 as an oral thrombolytic agent. Keywords: bioactive protein fraction, enteric coated tablet, pharmacodynamic

  1. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuebbing, Sara E.; Patterson, Courtney M.; Classen, Aimee Taylor

    2016-01-01

    shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense, in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. We measured the performance of each nonnative shrub, a native herbaceous community, and a nonnative woody vine in soils conditioned by each shrub singly or together in polyculture. Soils conditioned...... by both nonnative shrubs had non-additive impacts on native and nonnative performance. Root mass of the native herbaceous community was 1.5 times lower and the root mass of the nonnative L. sinense was 1.8 times higher in soils conditioned by both L. maackii and L. sinense than expected based upon growth...... in soils conditioned by either shrub singly. This result indicates that when these two nonnative shrubs co-occur, their influence on soils disproportionally favors persistence of the nonnative L. sinense relative to this native herbaceous community, and could provide an explanation of why native species...

  2. An ovine in vivo framework for tracheobronchial stent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Donnacha J; Thiebes, Anja Lena; Cornelissen, Christian G; O'Shea, Mary B; O'Brien, Barry; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Bruzzi, Mark; McHugh, Peter E

    2017-10-01

    Tracheobronchial stents are most commonly used to restore patency to airways stenosed by tumour growth. Currently all tracheobronchial stents are associated with complications such as stent migration, granulation tissue formation, mucous plugging and stent strut fracture. The present work develops a computational framework to evaluate tracheobronchial stent designs in vivo. Pressurised computed tomography is used to create a biomechanical lung model which takes into account the in vivo stress state, global lung deformation and local loading from pressure variation. Stent interaction with the airway is then evaluated for a number of loading conditions including normal breathing, coughing and ventilation. Results of the analysis indicate that three of the major complications associated with tracheobronchial stents can potentially be analysed with this framework, which can be readily applied to the human case. Airway deformation caused by lung motion is shown to have a significant effect on stent mechanical performance, including implications for stent migration, granulation formation and stent fracture.

  3. Aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesildal, F; Aydin, F N; Deveci, S; Tekin, S; Aydin, I; Mammadov, R; Fermanli, O; Avcu, F; Acikel, C H; Ozgurtas, T

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aspartame on angiogenesis in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and wound-healing models as well as in vitro 2,3-bis-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and tube formation assays. In CAM assay, aspartame increased angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, aspartame has significantly increased vessel proliferation (p aspartame group had better healing than control group, and this was statistically significant at p aspartame on human umbilical vein endothelial cells on XTT assay in vitro, but it was not statistically significant; and there was no antiangiogenic effect of aspartame on tube formation assay in vitro. These results provide evidence that aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo; so regular use may have undesirable effect on susceptible cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Structural imprints in vivo decode RNA regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitale, Robert C; Flynn, Ryan A; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Crisalli, Pete; Lee, Byron; Jung, Jong-Wha; Kuchelmeister, Hannes Y; Batista, Pedro J; Torre, Eduardo A; Kool, Eric T; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-03-26

    Visualizing the physical basis for molecular behaviour inside living cells is a great challenge for biology. RNAs are central to biological regulation, and the ability of RNA to adopt specific structures intimately controls every step of the gene expression program. However, our understanding of physiological RNA structures is limited; current in vivo RNA structure profiles include only two of the four nucleotides that make up RNA. Here we present a novel biochemical approach, in vivo click selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and profiling experiment (icSHAPE), which enables the first global view, to our knowledge, of RNA secondary structures in living cells for all four bases. icSHAPE of the mouse embryonic stem cell transcriptome versus purified RNA folded in vitro shows that the structural dynamics of RNA in the cellular environment distinguish different classes of RNAs and regulatory elements. Structural signatures at translational start sites and ribosome pause sites are conserved from in vitro conditions, suggesting that these RNA elements are programmed by sequence. In contrast, focal structural rearrangements in vivo reveal precise interfaces of RNA with RNA-binding proteins or RNA-modification sites that are consistent with atomic-resolution structural data. Such dynamic structural footprints enable accurate prediction of RNA-protein interactions and N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modification genome wide. These results open the door for structural genomics of RNA in living cells and reveal key physiological structures controlling gene expression.

  5. Pioneer round of translation occurs during serum starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Nara; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Choe, Junho; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2007-01-01

    The pioneer round of translation plays a role in translation initiation of newly spliced and exon junction complex (EJC)-bound mRNAs. Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 binds to those mRNAs at the 5'-end, recruiting translation initiation complex. As a consequence of the pioneer round of translation, the bound EJCs are dissociated from mRNAs and CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. Steady-state translation directed by eIF4E allows for an immediate and rapid response to changes in physiological conditions. Here, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which restricts only to the pioneer round of translation but not to steady-state translation, efficiently occurs even during serum starvation, in which steady-state translation is drastically abolished. Accordingly, CBP80 remains in the nucleus and processing bodies are unaffected in their abundance and number in serum-starved conditions. These results suggest that mRNAs enter the pioneer round of translation during serum starvation and are targeted for NMD if they contain premature termination codons

  6. PASSIVE CAVITATION DETECTION DURING PULSED HIFU EXPOSURES OF EX VIVO TISSUES AND IN VIVO MOUSE PANCREATIC TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Chen, Hong; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Wang, Yak-Nam; Kreider, Wayne; He, Xuemei; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has been demonstrated to enhance vascular permeability, disrupt tumor barriers and enhance drug penetration into tumor tissue through acoustic cavitation. Monitoring of cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments and knowing the ultrasound pressure levels sufficient to reliably induce cavitation in a given tissue are therefore very important. Here, three metrics of cavitation activity induced by pHIFU and evaluated by confocal passive cavitation detection were introduced: cavitation probability, cavitation persistence and the level of the broadband acoustic emissions. These metrics were used to characterize cavitation activity in several ex vivo tissue types (bovine tongue and liver and porcine adipose tissue and kidney) and gel phantoms (polyacrylamide and agarose) at varying peak-rarefactional focal pressures (1–12 MPa) during the following pHIFU protocol: frequency 1.1 MHz, pulse duration 1 ms, pulse repetition frequency 1 Hz. To evaluate the relevance of the measurements in ex vivo tissue, cavitation metrics were also investigated and compared in the ex vivo and in vivo murine pancreatic tumors that develop spontaneously in transgenic KPC mice and closely recapitulate human disease in their morphology. The cavitation threshold, defined at 50 % cavitation probability, was found to vary broadly among the investigated tissues (within 2.5–10 MPa), depending mostly on the water-lipid ratio that characterizes the tissue composition. Cavitation persistence and the intensity of broadband emissions depended both on tissue structure and lipid concentration. Both the cavitation threshold and broadband noise emission level were similar between ex vivo and in vivo pancreatic tumor tissue. The largest difference between in vivo and ex vivo settings was found in the pattern of cavitation occurrence throughout pHIFU exposure: it was sporadic in vivo, but ex vivo it decreased rapidly and stopped over the first few pulses

  7. Passive cavitation detection during pulsed HIFU exposures of ex vivo tissues and in vivo mouse pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Chen, Hong; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Wang, Yak-Nam; Kreider, Wayne; He, Xuemei; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2014-07-01

    Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has been shown to enhance vascular permeability, disrupt tumor barriers and enhance drug penetration into tumor tissue through acoustic cavitation. Monitoring of cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments and knowing the ultrasound pressure levels sufficient to reliably induce cavitation in a given tissue are therefore very important. Here, three metrics of cavitation activity induced by pHIFU and evaluated by confocal passive cavitation detection were introduced: cavitation probability, cavitation persistence and the level of the broadband acoustic emissions. These metrics were used to characterize cavitation activity in several ex vivo tissue types (bovine tongue and liver and porcine adipose tissue and kidney) and gel phantoms (polyacrylamide and agarose) at varying peak-rare factional focal pressures (1-12 MPa) during the following pHIFU protocol: frequency 1.1 MHz, pulse duration 1 ms and pulse repetition frequency 1 Hz. To evaluate the relevance of the measurements in ex vivo tissue, cavitation metrics were also investigated and compared in the ex vivo and in vivo murine pancreatic tumors that develop spontaneously in transgenic KrasLSL.G12 D/+; p53 R172 H/+; PdxCretg/+ (KPC) mice and closely re-capitulate human disease in their morphology. The cavitation threshold, defined at 50% cavitation probability, was found to vary broadly among the investigated tissues (within 2.5-10 MPa), depending mostly on the water-lipid ratio that characterizes the tissue composition. Cavitation persistence and the intensity of broadband emissions depended both on tissue structure and lipid concentration. Both the cavitation threshold and broadband noise emission level were similar between ex vivo and in vivo pancreatic tumor tissue. The largest difference between in vivo and ex vivo settings was found in the pattern of cavitation occurrence throughout pHIFU exposure: it was sporadic in vivo, but it decreased rapidly and stopped

  8. Testicular cells exhibit similar molecular responses to cigarette smoke condensate ex vivo and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakky, Prabagaran; Hansen, Deborah A; Drury, Andrea M; Felder, Paul; Cusumano, Andrew; Moley, Kelle H

    2018-01-01

    Male exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with seminal defects and with congenital anomalies and childhood cancers in offspring. In mice, paternal exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) causes molecular defects in germ cells and phenotypic effects in their offspring. Here we used an ex vivo testicular explant model and in vivo exposure to determine the concentration at which CSC impairs spermatogenesis and offspring development. We explanted testis tissue at postnatal day (P)5.5 and cultured it until P11.5. Assessment of growth parameters by analyzing expression of cell-specific markers revealed that the explant system maintained structural and functional integrity. We exposed the P5.5 to -11.5 explants to various concentrations (40-160 µg/ml) of CSC and confirmed that nicotine in the CSC was metabolized to cotinine. We assessed various growth and differentiation parameters, as well as testosterone production, and observed that many spermatogenesis features were impaired at 160 µg/ml CSC. The same parameters were impaired by a similar CSC concentration in vivo Finally, females mated to males that were exposed to 160 µg/ml CSC neonatally had increased rates of pup resorption. We conclude that male exposure to CSC impairs offspring development and that the concentration at which CSC impairs spermatogenesis is similar in vivo and ex vivo. Given that the concentrations of CSC we used contained similar doses of nicotine as human smokers are exposed to, we argue that our model mimics human male reproductive effects of smoking.-Esakky, P., Hansen, D. A., Drury, A. M., Felder, P., Cusumano, A., Moley, K. H. Testicular cells exhibit similar molecular responses to cigarette smoke condensate ex vivo and in vivo . © FASEB.

  9. Plant Regeneration and Cellular Behaviour Studies in Celosia cristata Grown In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Rosna Mat; Wafa, Sharifah Nurashikin

    2012-01-01

    Tissue culture studies of Celosia cristata were established from various explants and the effects of various hormones on morphogenesis of this species were examined. It was found that complete plant regeneration occurred at highest percentage on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L BAP, with the best response showed by shoot explants. In vitro flowering was observed on MS basal medium after six weeks. The occurrence of somaclonal variation and changes in cellular behavior from in vivo and in vitro grown plants were investigated through cytological studies and image analysis. It was observed that Mitotic Index (MI), mean chromosome numbers, and mean nuclear to cell area ratio of in vitro root meristem cells were slightly higher compared to in vivo values. However, in vitro plants produced lower mean cell areas but higher nuclear areas when compared to in vivo plants. Thus, no occurrence of somaclonal variation was detected, and this was supported by morphological features of the in vitro plants. PMID:22593677

  10. Whole-body profile scanner for in vivo quantitative activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    A whole-body profile scanner has been developed by fitting parallel slit collimators to a shadow shield whole-body counter. Sensitivity, uniformity and resolution measurements were performed using a number of different counting conditions. It is shown that improved accuracy of activity measurements is obtained by using a wide window counting technique for low and medium energy gamma emitters (99m Tc, 131 I), whereas a photopeak window should be used for high energy gamma emitters (47 Ca). Due to the finite spatial resolution of the system a systematic error in evaluating regional activities from the counting rate profile occurs which is characterized by a spatial spillover factor. The spatial spillover factor is measured and is subsequently used to calculate the error on basis of a simple model. It is shown that only small errors are caused by spatial spillover when the length of a region is at least three times the full width half maximum of the point spread function. Applying the above mentioned simple rules it is concluded that profile scanning is a sensitive and accurate technique for activity measurements in vivo. Two examples of clinical applications (measurement of bone accretion rates of calcium and Tc-pyrophosphate, regional radioiodine retention in patients with thyroid carcinoma) and a review of the papers on profile scanning demonstrate the types of investigations in which profile scanning is superior to alternative techniques. (author)

  11. In Vivo Force Decay of Niti Closed Coil Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Crystal; Nguyen, Tung; Koroluk, Lorne; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nickel-titanium (NiTi) closed coil springs are purported to deliver constant forces over extended ranges of activation and working times. In vivo studies supporting this claim are limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate changes in force decay properties of NiTi closed coil springs after clinical use. Methods Pseudoelastic force-deflection curves for 30 NiTi coil springs (used intra-orally) and 15 matched laboratory control springs (simulated intra-oral conditions - artificial saliva, 37°C) were tested pre- and post-retrieval via Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and the Instron machine, respectively, to evaluate amount of force loss and hysteresis change following 4, 8, or 12 weeks of working time (n=10 per group). Effect of the oral environment and clinical use on force properties were evaluated by comparing in vivo and in vitro data. Results The springs studied showed a statistically significant decrease in force (~12%) following 4 weeks of clinical use (pspace closure at an average rate of 0.91mm per month was still observed despite this decrease in force. In vivo and in vitro force loss data were not statistically different. Conclusions NiTi closed coil springs do not deliver constant forces when used intra-orally, but they still allow for space closure rates of ~1mm/month. PMID:24703289

  12. Do saw palmetto extracts block human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes in vivo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepel, M; Dinh, L; Mitchell, A; Schäfers, R F; Rübben, H; Michel, M C

    2001-02-15

    To test whether saw palmetto extracts, which act as alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in vitro, also do so in vivo in man. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, four-way cross-over study 12 healthy young men were treated with three different saw palmetto extract preparations (320 mg o.d.) for 8 days each. On the last day, before and 2, 4 and 6 hr after drug intake blood pressure and heart rate were determined and blood samples obtained, which were used in an ex vivo radioreceptor assay with cloned human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. Saw palmetto extract treatment did not result in alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype occupancy in the radioreceptor assay. Although the saw palmetto extracts caused minor reductions of supine blood pressure, they did not affect blood pressure during orthostatic stress testing and did not alter heart rate under either condition. Moreover, plasma catecholamines remained largely unaltered. Despite their alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist effects in vitro, therapeutically used doses of saw palmetto extracts do not cause alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism in man in vivo. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain: education or exposure in vivo as mediator to fear reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jeroen R; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Onghena, Patrick; Goossens, Mariëlle E J B; Geilen, Mario; Mulder, Herman

    2005-01-01

    Clinical research of graded exposure in vivo with behavioral experiments in patients with chronic low back pain who reported fear of movement/(re)injury shows abrupt changes in self-reported pain-related fears and cognitions. The abrupt changes are more characteristics of insight learning rather than the usual gradual progression of trial and error learning. The educational session at the start of the exposure might have contributed to this insight. The current study examines the contribution of education and graded exposure versus graded activity in the reduction of pain-related fear and associated disability and physical activity. Six consecutive patients with chronic low back pain who reported substantial fear of movement/(re)injury were included in the study. After a no-treatment baseline measurement period, all the patients received a single educational session, followed again by a no-treatment period. Patients were then randomly assigned to either a graded exposure with behavioral experiments or an operant graded activity program. A diary was used to assess daily changes in pain intensity, pain-related fear, pain catastrophizing, and activity goal achievement. Standardized questionnaires of pain-related fear, pain vigilance, pain intensity, and pain disability were administered before and after each intervention and at the 6-month follow-up. An activity monitor was carried at baseline, during the interventions, and 1 week at 6-month follow-up. Randomization tests of the daily measures showed that improvements in pain-related fear and catastrophizing occurred after the education was introduced. The results also showed a further improvement when exposure in vivo followed the no-treatment period after the education and not during the operant graded activity program. Performance of relevant daily activities, however, were not affected by the educational session and improved significantly only in the exposure in vivo condition. All improvements remained at half

  14. Vaginal Lactobacillus Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Human Tissues Ex Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers A. Ñahui Palomino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus species, which dominate vaginal microbiota of healthy reproductive-age women, lower the risks of sexually transmitted infections, including the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV acquisition. The exact mechanisms of this protection remain to be understood. Here, we investigated these mechanisms in the context of human cervico-vaginal and lymphoid tissues ex vivo. We found that all six Lactobacillus strains tested in these systems significantly suppressed HIV type-1 (HIV-1 infection. We identified at least three factors that mediated this suppression: (i Acidification of the medium. The pH of the undiluted medium conditioned by lactobacilli was between 3.8 and 4.6. Acidification of the culture medium with hydrochloric acid (HCl to this pH in control experiments was sufficient to abrogate HIV-1 replication. However, the pH of the Lactobacillus-conditioned medium (CM diluted fivefold, which reached ∼6.9, was also suppressive for HIV-1 infection, while in control experiments HIV-1 infection was not abrogated when the pH of the medium was brought to 6.9 through the use of HCl. This suggested the existence of other factors responsible for HIV-1 inhibition by lactobacilli. (ii Lactic acid. There was a correlation between the concentration of lactic acid in the Lactobacillus-CM and its ability to suppress HIV-1 infection in human tissues ex vivo. Addition of lactic acid isomers D and L to tissue culture medium at the concentration that corresponded to their amount released by lactobacilli resulted in HIV-1 inhibition. Isomer L was produced in higher quantities than isomer D and was mostly responsible for HIV-1 inhibition. These results indicate that lactic acid, in particular its L-isomer, inhibits HIV-1 independently of lowering of the pH. (iii Virucidal effect. Incubation of HIV-1 in Lactobacillus-CM significantly suppressed viral infectivity for human tissues ex vivo. Finally, lactobacilli adsorb HIV-1, serving as a sink

  15. In vitro and in vivo Development of Cloned Ovine Embryos using in vitro and in vivo Matured Oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P; Nagashima, H; Sun, F-J

    1995-01-01

    Cloning of sheep embryos by nucleus transplantation can be achieved by using in vivo matured (oviductal) oocytes and in vivo culture. However, these steps involve cumbersome procedures. Therefore, the effects of in vivo vs. the equivalent in vitro procedures on the pre-implantation development of...

  16. In vivo measurement of urethral dose profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toye, W.C.; Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology,; Duchesne, G.M.; Das, K.R.; Cee, A.; Mameghan, H.; Johnston, P.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Quality assurance becomes a critical requirement when radiographs are routinely used in planning of treatments. In HDR prostate brachytherapy, the surrounding organs at risk of complications are the bladder and the rectum. However, of particular concern is the urethra that runs centrally through the prostate gland, as an unavoidably high dose can occur in the central region in order to achieve a minimum peripheral dose to a small target volume. Although high urethral doses have previously been related to increased urinary symptoms, some recent studies have not found such a correlation. The aim of this study was firstly, to identify dosimetric indicators of urethral morbidity following HDR prostate brachytherapy (4F x of 5.0 Gy), and secondly, to test the validity of calculated dose values. The in vivo measurements utilised a TLD (LiF:Mg,Ti) train formed by loading eight TLD rods alternating with 1,0 cm brass spacers into a fine plastic flexible tube. The length and diameter of plastic tubing was approximately 45cm and 0.15cm respectively, while the train length was 11.8 cm from the tip of the tube. The TLD train was placed into the central lumen of an 18 F three-way urethral catheter prior to its insertion. Significant urinary morbidity was defined prospectively as a score of a total of 3 or more points for severity from 5 symptoms categories. The five symptoms evaluated were hesitancy, frequency/nocturia, dysuria, haematuria and incontinence. The introduction of in vivo measurements to enhance the existing dosimetric analysis may be required to fully test the quantitative relationships (e.g. dose-volume ratios). Placement of TLDs within the urethra results in measurements whose accuracy is unaffected by internal organ motion as the hollow urethra must move with the prostate. The dose recorded by the TLDs is determined independently of the predictive algorithm used by the treatment planning system, and prostate location errors (e.g. due to image

  17. In vivo dosimetry in radiation therapy in Sweden; In vivo-dosimetri inom straalbehandling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Jacob; Blomquist, Michael (Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeaa (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    A prerequisite for achieving high radiation safety for patients receiving external beam radiation therapy is that the hospitals have a quality assurance program. The program should include include monitoring of the radiation dose given to the patient. Control measurements are performed both at the system level and at the individual level. Control measurement is normally performed using in vivo dosimetry, e.g. a method to measure the radiation dose at the individual level during the actual radiation treatment time. In vivo dosimetry has proven to be an important tool to detect and prevent serious errors in patient treatment. The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent to which vivo dosimetry is used and the methods available for this at Swedish radiation therapy clinics. The authority also wanted to get an overall picture of how hospitals manage results of in vivo dosimetry, and how clinics control radiation dose when using modern treatment techniques. The report reflects the situation in Swedish radiotherapy clinics 2007. The report shows that all hospitals use some form of in vivo dosimetry. The instruments used are mainly diodes and termoluminiscence dosimeters

  18. A Novel Ex Vivo Model to Investigate the Underlying Mechanisms in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Brai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is no widely accepted animal model reproducing the full pathological profile of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, since the basic mechanisms of neurodegeneration are still poorly understood. We have proposed that the interaction between the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR and a recently discovered toxic peptide, cleaved from the acetylcholinesterase (AChE C-terminus, could account for the aberrant processes occurring in AD. In this article we describe a new application on ex vivo model procedure, which combines the advantages of both in vivo and in vitro preparations, to study the effects of the AChE-derived peptide on the rat basal forebrain (BF. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of α7-nAChR, p-Tau and Aβ are differentially expressed upon the AChE-peptide administration, in a selective site-dependent manner. In conclusion, this methodology demonstrates the action of a novel peptide in triggering an AD-like phenotype and proposes a new ex vivo approach for manipulating and monitoring neurochemical processes contributing to neurodegeneration, in a time-dependent and site-specific manner.

  19. Acute vs. chronic conditions (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack. A chronic condition, by contrast is a long- ... a broken bone, an acute condition. An acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease ...

  20. Quantification of in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy signals with baseline and lineshape estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio-Garcia, M I; Sima, D M; Van Huffel, S; Nielsen, F U; Dresselaers, T; Himmelreich, U; Van Leuven, F

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo quantification of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) signals is a method to estimate metabolite concentrations of living tissue. Obtaining reliable concentrations is still a challenge due to the experimental conditions affecting spectral quality. Additionally, lipids and macromolecules overlap with the metabolites of interest, affecting their reliable estimation. In this study, we propose to combine the self-deconvolution lineshape estimation method, which accounts for spectral shape distortions, with two different approaches for taking into account the macromolecular baseline contribution: (a) based on macromolecules and lipids measured in vivo using an inversion recovery technique, and (b) based on the simulation of macromolecular resonances using prior knowledge from a database of inversion recovery signals. The ultimate goal is to measure macromolecular and lipid data only once as described in (a) to create macromolecular and lipid profiles. These profiles then can be used as described in (b) for data measured under the same conditions. The method is evaluated on in vivo 1 H MRS signals at 9.4 T from mouse hippocampus. Results show that better metabolite fits are obtained when lineshape and baseline estimations are simultaneously performed and that baseline estimation based on prior knowledge from macromolecular measured signals can be reliably used to replace time-consuming individual macromolecular and lipid acquisitions

  1. Gastro-retentive drug delivery systems and their in vivo success: A recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar Mandal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-retentive drug delivery system (GRDDS has gained immense popularity in the field of oral drug delivery recently. It is a widely employed approach to retain the dosage form in the stomach for an extended period of time and release the drug slowly that can address many challenges associated with conventional oral delivery, including poor bioavailability. Different innovative approaches like magnetic field assisted gastro-retention, plug type swelling system, muco-adhesion technique, floating system with or without effervescence are being applied to fabricate GRDDS. Apart from in vitro characterization, successful GRDDS development demands well designed in vivo study to establish enhanced gastro-retention and prolonged drug release. Gama scintigraphy and MRI are popular techniques to evaluate in vivo gastric residence time. However, checking of their overall in-vivo efficacy still remains a major challenge for this kind of dosage form, especially in small animals like mice or rat. Reported in vivo studies with beagle dogs, rabbits, and human subjects are only a handful in spite of a large number of encouraging in vitro results. In spite of the many advantages, high subject variations in gastrointestinal physiological condition, effect of food, and variable rate of gastric emptying time are the challenges that limit the number of available GRDDS in the market. This review article highlights the in vivo works of GRDDS carried out in the recent past, including their limitations and challenges that need to be overcome in the near future.

  2. In Vivo Imaging of Molecularly Targeted Phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Kelly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of in vivo affinity ligands would have far-reaching applications for imaging specific molecular targets, in vivo systems imaging, and medical use. We have developed a high-throughput method for identifying and optimizing ligands to map and image biologic targets of interest in vivo. We directly labeled viable phage clones with far-red fluorochromes and comparatively imaged them in vivo by multichannel fluorescence ratio imaging. Using Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (osteonectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as model targets, we show that: 1 fluorescently labeled phage retains target specificity on labeling; 2 in vivo distribution can be quantitated (detection thresholds of ~ 300 phage/mm3 tissue throughout the entire depth of the tumor using fluorescent tomographic imaging; and 3 fluorescently labeled phage itself can serve as a replenishable molecular imaging agent. The described method should find widespread application in the rapid in vivo discovery and validation of affinity ligands and, importantly, in the use of fluorochrome-labeled phage clones as in vivo imaging agents.

  3. Predicting the conditions under which vibroacoustic resonances with external periodic loads occur in the primary coolant circuits of VVER-based NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakov, K. N.; Fedorov, A. I.; Zaporozhets, M. V.

    2015-08-01

    The accident at the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) caused by an earthquake showed the need of taking further efforts aimed at improving the design and engineering solutions for ensuring seismic resistance of NPPs with due regard to mutual influence of the dynamic processes occurring in the NPP building structures and process systems. Resonance interaction between the vibrations of NPP equipment and coolant pressure pulsations leads to an abnormal growth of dynamic stresses in structural materials, accelerated exhaustion of equipment service life, and increased number of sudden equipment failures. The article presents the results from a combined calculation-theoretical and experimental substantiation of mutual amplification of two kinds of external periodic loads caused by rotation of the reactor coolant pump (RCP) rotor and an earthquake. The data of vibration measurements at an NPP are presented, which confirm the predicted multiple amplification of vibrations in the steam generator and RCP at a certain combination of coolant thermal-hydraulic parameters. It is shown that the vibration frequencies of the main equipment may fall in the frequency band corresponding to the maximal values in the envelope response spectra constructed on the basis of floor accelerograms. The article presents the results from prediction of conditions under which vibroacoustic resonances with external periodic loads take place, which confirm the occurrence of additional earthquake-induced multiple growth of pressure pulsation intensity in the steam generator at the 8.3 Hz frequency and additional multiple growth of vibrations of the RCP and the steam generator cold header at the 16.6 Hz frequency. It is shown that at the elastic wave frequency equal to 8.3 Hz in the coolant, resonance occurs with the frequency of forced vibrations caused by the rotation of the RCP rotor. A conclusion is drawn about the possibility of exceeding the design level of equipment vibrations

  4. Thrombolytic effects of Douchi Fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, thrombosis is one of the most widely occurring diseases in modern life. Drugs with thrombolytic functions are the most effective methods in the treatment of thrombosis. Among them, Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme (DFE is a promising agent. DFE was isolated from Douchi, a typical and popular soybean-fermented food in China, and it can dissolve fibrin directly and efficiently. A strain, Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 produced DFE with high fibrinolytic activity has been isolated in our lab previously. Results In the study, thrombolytic effect of DFE from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 was studied in vitro and in vivo systematically. The results showed that DFE played a significant role in thrombolysis and anticoagulation in vitro. And the thrombolytic effects correlated with DFE in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, the acute toxicity assay showed that DFE had no obvious acute toxicity to mice. Test of carrageenan-induced thrombosis in mice indicated that the DFE significantly prevented tail thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis model test indicated that Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme DFE had thrombolytic effect on carotid thrombosis of rabbits in vivo. Other results in vivo indicated that DFE could increase bleeding and clotting time obviously. Conclusions The DFE isolated from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 has obvious thrombolytic effects in vitro and in vivo. This function demonstrates that this enzyme can be a useful tool for preventing and treating clinical thrombus.

  5. In vivo protein-DNA interactions at the β-globin gene locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohru Ikuta; Yuet Wai Kan

    1991-01-01

    The authors have investigated in vivo protein-DNA interactions in the β-globin gene locus by dimethyl sulfate (DMS) footprinting in K562 cells, which express var-epsilon- and γ-globin but not β-globin. In the locus control region, hypersensitive site 2 (HS-2) exhibited footprints in several putative protein binding motifs. HS-3 was not footprinted. The β promoter was also not footprinted, while extensive footprints were observed in the promoter of the active γ-globin gene. No footprints were seen in the A γ and β3' enhancers. With several motifs, additional protein interactions and alterations in binding patterns occurred with hemin induction. In HeLa cells, some footprints were observed in some of the motifs in HS-2, compatible with the finding that HS-2 has some enhancer function in HeLa cells, albeit much weaker than its activity in K562 cells. No footprint was seen in B lymphocytes. In vivo footprinting is a useful method for studying relevant protein-DNA interactions in erythroid cells

  6. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Outer membrane (OM proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  7. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shi, Yu; Qiu, Hui; Li, Bin; Jabeen, Amara; Li, Liping; Liu, He; Kube, Michael; Xie, Guanlin; Wang, Yanli; Blondel, Carlos; Santiviago, Carlos A; Contreras, Ines; Sun, Guochang

    2012-01-01

    Outer membrane (OM) proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  8. In Vivo Anti-estrogenic Effects of Menadione on Hepatic Estrogen-responsive Gene Expression in Male Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Kohra, Shinya; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Arizono, Koji; Tominaga, Nobuaki

    2008-01-01

    Menadione, a synthetic vitamin K3, exhibits anti-estrogenic activity on in vitro assay. However, the in vivo anti-estrogenic effects of menadione have not been determined, while correlations between biological effects and structural changes are unclear. Thus, we investigated the in vivo anti-estrogenic activity of menadione under fluorescent light and dark conditions. Suppression of the hepatic estrogen response genes vitellogenin1 (VTG1), VTG2 and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) was used as an in...

  9. Comparative assessment of fluorescent proteins for in vivo imaging in an animal model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppert, Jennifer K; Dickinson, Daniel J; Pani, Ariel M; Higgins, Christopher D; Steward, Annette; Ahringer, Julie; Kuhn, Jeffrey R; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-11-07

    Fluorescent protein tags are fundamental tools used to visualize gene products and analyze their dynamics in vivo. Recent advances in genome editing have expedited the precise insertion of fluorescent protein tags into the genomes of diverse organisms. These advances expand the potential of in vivo imaging experiments and facilitate experimentation with new, bright, photostable fluorescent proteins. Most quantitative comparisons of the brightness and photostability of different fluorescent proteins have been made in vitro, removed from biological variables that govern their performance in cells or organisms. To address the gap, we quantitatively assessed fluorescent protein properties in vivo in an animal model system. We generated transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains expressing green, yellow, or red fluorescent proteins in embryos and imaged embryos expressing different fluorescent proteins under the same conditions for direct comparison. We found that mNeonGreen was not as bright in vivo as predicted based on in vitro data but is a better tag than GFP for specific kinds of experiments, and we report on optimal red fluorescent proteins. These results identify ideal fluorescent proteins for imaging in vivo in C. elegans embryos and suggest good candidate fluorescent proteins to test in other animal model systems for in vivo imaging experiments. © 2016 Heppert et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. In vivo toxicity assessment of non-cadmium quantum dots in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guimiao; Ouyang, Qingling; Hu, Rui; Ding, Zhangchi; Tian, Jinglin; Yin, Feng; Xu, Gaixia; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Xiaomei; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2015-02-01

    Along with widespread usage of QDs in electronic and biomedical industries, the likelihood of QDs exposure to the environment and humans is deemed to occur when the QD products are degraded or handled as waste for processing. To date, there are very few toxicological reports available in the literature for non-cadmium QDs in animal models. In this work, we studied the long term in vivo toxicity of InP/ZnS QDs in BALB/c mice. The biodistribution, body weight, hematology, blood biochemistry, and organ histology were determined at a very high dosage (25 mg/kg) of InP/ZnS QDs over 84 days period. Our results manifested that the QDs formulation did not result in observable toxicity in vivo within the evaluation period, thereby suggesting that the InP/ZnS QDs can be utilized as optical probes or nanocarrier for selected in vivo biological applications when an optimized dosage is employed. This study investigated the toxicity of quantum dots in BALB/c mice, and concluded that no organotoxicity was detectable despite of using high concentration of InP/ZnS quantum dots with prolonged exposure of 3 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacological Modulation of Hemodynamics in Adult Zebrafish In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brönnimann

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic parameters in zebrafish receive increasing attention because of their important role in cardiovascular processes such as atherosclerosis, hematopoiesis, sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. To study underlying mechanisms, the precise modulation of parameters like blood flow velocity or shear stress is centrally important. Questions related to blood flow have been addressed in the past in either embryonic or ex vivo-zebrafish models but little information is available for adult animals. Here we describe a pharmacological approach to modulate cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish in vivo.Adult zebrafish were paralyzed and orally perfused with salt water. The drugs isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside were directly applied with the perfusate, thus closely resembling the preferred method for drug delivery in zebrafish, namely within the water. Drug effects on the heart and on blood flow in the submental vein were studied using electrocardiograms, in vivo-microscopy and mathematical flow simulations.Under control conditions, heart rate, blood flow velocity and shear stress varied less than ± 5%. Maximal chronotropic effects of isoprenaline were achieved at a concentration of 50 μmol/L, where it increased the heart rate by 22.6 ± 1.3% (n = 4; p < 0.0001. Blood flow velocity and shear stress in the submental vein were not significantly increased. Sodium nitroprusside at 1 mmol/L did not alter the heart rate but increased blood flow velocity by 110.46 ± 19.64% (p = 0.01 and shear stress by 117.96 ± 23.65% (n = 9; p = 0.03.In this study, we demonstrate that cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish can be efficiently modulated by isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside. Together with the suitability of the zebrafish for in vivo-microscopy and genetic modifications, the methodology described permits studying biological processes that are dependent on hemodynamic alterations.

  12. Ex vivo expansion of human umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kusadasi (Nuray)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe goal of this thesis research is to establish ex vivo expansion conditions for HSCs derived from UCB. To realize the expansion of HSCs, CD34+ or ACJ33+ UCB cells were cultured in the absence or presence of various cocktails of early acting cytokines including Flt3-L, Tpo, SCF or IL6

  13. Safety Assessment for transient event occurred during the ASTS test of Hanbit Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Changkeun; Kim, Yohan; Ha, Sangjun

    2014-01-01

    Safety Injection has been actuated during the ASTS (Automatic Seismic Trip System) test of Hanbit Unit 2 on Feb. 28, 2014. It could be bad effect on system integrity. KHNP has been performed safety assessment of system for effect of Safety Injection (SI) actuation occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. Stable state of nuclear power plant system has been confirmed according to Safety Injection and reactor trip event occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. In the result of system safety assessment, major variables of nuclear power plant are located in optimal range and not exceed safety limit. It remains nuclear fuel and the integrity of the power plant is in a safe condition were conformed. After ASTS action, thermal elimination has been processed throughout the turbine until turbine signal occurrence because ASTS is connected to M-G set in the present hanbit Unit 2. Therefore, Safety Injection signal has been actuated by rapid reduction of Steam Generator pressure. In this paper, it is concluded that consideration of equipment and setpoint is needed for that Safety Injection has been not occurred under the unnecessary situation. Stable state of nuclear power plant system has been confirmed for Safety Injection and reactor trip event occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. In the result of system safety assessment, major variables of nuclear power plant are located in optimal range and not exceed safety limit. It remains nuclear fuel and the integrity of the plant is in a safe condition were conformed. It is concluded that consideration of equipment and setpoint is needed for that Safety Injection has been not occurred under the unnecessary situation

  14. In vitro and in vivo Development of Cloned Ovine Embryos using in vitro and in vivo Matured Oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P; Nagashima, H; Sun, F-J

    1995-01-01

    Cloning of sheep embryos by nucleus transplantation can be achieved by using in vivo matured (oviductal) oocytes and in vivo culture. However, these steps involve cumbersome procedures. Therefore, the effects of in vivo vs. the equivalent in vitro procedures on the pre-implantation development...... matured oocytes were enucleated and fused with inserted blastomeres from donor embryos. In vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and allowed to age prior to blastomere insertion and electrofusion. Fused embryos were cultured for approximately 132 h either in vivo in ligated sheep oviducts or in vitro...

  15. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  16. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented

  17. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented.

  18. Qualification of conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.

    1989-01-01

    A conditioning process is qualified by the PTB if the execution of pre-treatment and conditioning occurs so that a safe and orderly final storage of the products and waste containers produced can be assumed. All the relevant operating conditions for the plant are laid down by the producer/conditioner of the waste in a handbook. The elements of product inspection by process qualification are shown in tabular form. (DG) [de

  19. Force degradation of orthodontic latex elastics: An in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qodcieh, Sadeq M Adel; Al-Khateeb, Susan N; Jaradat, Ziad W; Abu Alhaija, Elham S J

    2017-03-01

    Our objectives were to assess the force degradation of orthodontic latex elastics over 48 hours in vivo and to study the relationship between the amount of mouth opening and the degree of force decay. Fifty-two orthodontic patients wearing fixed appliances using Class II elastics were asked to wear premeasured-force 3/16-in heavy and medium intermaxillary elastics. The force amounts were measured and compared at different time intervals. Fifty percent of the force was lost after 3.9 hours for the medium elastics and after 4.9 hours for the heavy elastics. A continuous significant force drop in all elastics was seen at all time intervals (P elastics compared with the medium elastics in vivo at all time intervals (P degradation occurred in the first 4 to 5 hours. Because of breakage and for oral hygiene purposes, orthodontic elastics should be changed daily; otherwise, elastics can be used for 48 hours. Force decay of the elastics was correlated to the lateral distance between the maxillary canine and the mandibular first molar in occlusion. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced detection threshold for in vivo cortical stimulation produced by Hebbian conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebesco, James M.; Miller, Lee E.

    2011-02-01

    Normal brain function requires constant adaptation, as an organism learns to associate important sensory stimuli with the appropriate motor actions. Neurological disorders may disrupt these learned associations and require the nervous system to reorganize itself. As a consequence, neural plasticity is a crucial component of normal brain function and a critical mechanism for recovery from injury. Associative, or Hebbian, pairing of pre- and post-synaptic activity has been shown to alter stimulus-evoked responses in vivo; however, to date, such protocols have not been shown to affect the animal's subsequent behavior. We paired stimulus trains separated by a brief time delay to two electrodes in rat sensorimotor cortex, which changed the statistical pattern of spikes during subsequent behavior. These changes were consistent with strengthened functional connections from the leading electrode to the lagging electrode. We then trained rats to respond to a microstimulation cue, and repeated the paradigm using the cue electrode as the leading electrode. This pairing lowered the rat's ICMS-detection threshold, with the same dependence on intra-electrode time lag that we found for the functional connectivity changes. The timecourse of the behavioral effects was very similar to that of the connectivity changes. We propose that the behavioral changes were a consequence of strengthened functional connections from the cue electrode to other regions of sensorimotor cortex. Such paradigms might be used to augment recovery from a stroke, or to promote adaptation in a bidirectional brain-machine interface.

  1. A radiopaque electrospun scaffold for engineering fibrous musculoskeletal tissues: Scaffold characterization and in vivo applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John T; Milby, Andrew H; Ikuta, Kensuke; Poudel, Subash; Pfeifer, Christian G; Elliott, Dawn M; Smith, Harvey E; Mauck, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Tissue engineering strategies have emerged in response to the growing prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, with many of these regenerative methods currently being evaluated in translational animal models. Engineered replacements for fibrous tissues such as the meniscus, annulus fibrosus, tendons, and ligaments are subjected to challenging physiologic loads, and are difficult to track in vivo using standard techniques. The diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions depends heavily on radiographic assessment, and a number of currently available implants utilize radiopaque markers to facilitate in vivo imaging. In this study, we developed a nanofibrous scaffold in which individual fibers included radiopaque nanoparticles. Inclusion of radiopaque particles increased the tensile modulus of the scaffold and imparted radiation attenuation within the range of cortical bone. When scaffolds were seeded with bovine mesenchymal stem cells in vitro, there was no change in cell proliferation and no evidence of promiscuous conversion to an osteogenic phenotype. Scaffolds were implanted ex vivo in a model of a meniscal tear in a bovine joint and in vivo in a model of total disc replacement in the rat coccygeal spine (tail), and were visualized via fluoroscopy and microcomputed tomography. In the disc replacement model, histological analysis at 4 weeks showed that the scaffold was biocompatible and supported the deposition of fibrous tissue in vivo. Nanofibrous scaffolds that include radiopaque nanoparticles provide a biocompatible template with sufficient radiopacity for in vivo visualization in both small and large animal models. This radiopacity may facilitate image-guided implantation and non-invasive long-term evaluation of scaffold location and performance. The healing capacity of fibrous musculoskeletal tissues is limited, and injury or degeneration of these tissues compromises the standard of living of millions in the US. Tissue engineering repair

  2. In vivo radiosensitizing effect of nitroimidazole derivative KIN-804

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Takuhito; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto; Murayama, Chieko; Mori, Yomoyuki; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi; Inayama, Seiichi

    1994-01-01

    In vivo characteristics of 2-nitroimidazole-1-methylacetohydroxamate (KIN-804), which is a newly developed hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, are presented. The toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and radiosensitizing effect of KIN-804 were studied by in vivo experiments using C3H/He mice bearing the SCCVII tumor. Results were compared with misonidazole (MISO). LD 50 7 of KIN-804 and MISO were 3200 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg, respectively. The peak concentration of KIN-804 in the tumor occurred 20 min after intraperitoneal injection and reached about 62% of the maximum concentration in the blood. The concentrations in brain and sciatic nerve were very low and clearance from sciatic nerve was rapid. Enhancement ratios of KIN-804 calculated using the growth delay method were 1.22, 1.50, and 1.71 at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively, compared with 1.36 for MISO at a dose of 100 mg/kg. In the TCD 50 assay, enhancement ratios at a dose of 200 mg/kg were 1.69 for KIN-804 and 1.52 for MISO, respectively. KIN-804 is a promising radiosensitizer since it shows less toxicity and higher radiosensitizing activity than MISO. 10 refs., 5 figs

  3. Thinking of a Blockchain for VIVO

    OpenAIRE

    garcia, alexander; Lopez, Federico; Conlon, Michael

    2017-01-01

    VIVO is an example of a decentralized system; institutions publish VIVO data just by adhering to a simple data structure in the form of an ontology. Similar to a distributed ledger, VIVO is a decentralized database that is used to maintain a continuously growing list of records. These records aim to include a comprehensive list of scholarly outputs. Although outputs are often described in a single narrative, the published reviewed paper, the research has generat...

  4. Enterococcus faecalis Sex Pheromone cCF10 Enhances Conjugative Plasmid Transfer In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Helmut; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Karau, Melissa J; Till, Lisa M; Kashyap, Purna C; Patel, Robin; Dunny, Gary M

    2018-02-13

    Cell-cell communication mediated by peptide pheromones (cCF10 [CF]) is essential for high-frequency plasmid transfer in vitro in Enterococcus faecalis To examine the role of pheromone signaling in vivo , we established either a CF-producing (CF+) recipient or a recipient producing a biologically inactive variant of CF (CF- recipient) in a germfree mouse model 3 days before donor inoculation and determined transfer frequencies of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10. Plasmid transfer was detected in the upper and middle sections of the intestinal tract 5 h after donor inoculation and was highly efficient in the absence of antibiotic selection. The transconjugant/donor ratio reached a maximum level approaching 1 on day 4 in the upper intestinal tract. Plasmid transfer was significantly lower with the CF- recipient. While rescue of the CF- mating defect by coculture with CF+ recipients is easily accomplished in vitro , no extracellular complementation occurred in vivo This suggests that most pheromone signaling in the gut occurs between recipient and donor cells in very close proximity. Plasmid-bearing cells (donors plus transconjugants) steadily increased in the population from 0.1% after donor inoculation to about 10% at the conclusion of the experiments. This suggests a selective advantage of pCF10 carriage distinct from antibiotic resistance or bacteriocin production. Our results demonstrate that pheromone signaling is required for efficient pCF10 transfer in vivo In the absence of CF+ recipients, a low level of transfer to CF- recipients occurred in the gut. This may result from low-level host-mediated induction of the donors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, similar to that previously observed in serum. IMPORTANCE Horizontal gene transfer is a major factor in the biology of Enterococcus faecalis , an important nosocomial pathogen. Previous studies showing efficient conjugative plasmid transfer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of experimental animals did

  5. In vivo and ex vivo inflammatory markers of common metabolic phenotypes in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Frøkiær, Hanne; Stenbæk, Marie Grøntved

    2018-01-01

    fasting serum markers of LGSI and leukocyte counts associated best with measures of MS-associated LGSI, whereas ex vivo cytokine production was only associated with prevailing glycemia and dyslipidemia. Taken together, this indicates that the relationship between in vivo and ex vivo inflammatory markers...

  6. In vitro and in vivo approaches to study osteocyte biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalajzic, Ivo; Matthews, Brya G; Torreggiani, Elena; Harris, Marie A; Divieti Pajevic, Paola; Harris, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    Osteocytes, the most abundant cell population of the bone lineage, have been a major focus in the bone research field in recent years. This population of cells that resides within mineralized matrix is now thought to be the mechanosensory cell in bone and plays major roles in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. Studies of osteocytes had been impaired by their location, resulting in numerous attempts to isolate primary osteocytes and to generate cell lines representative of the osteocytic phenotype. Progress has been achieved in recent years by utilizing in vivo genetic technology and generation of osteocyte directed transgenic and gene deficiency mouse models. We will provide an overview of the current in vitro and in vivo models utilized to study osteocyte biology. We discuss generation of osteocyte-like cell lines and isolation of primary osteocytes and summarize studies that have utilized these cellular models to understand the functional role of osteocytes. Approaches that attempt to selectively identify and isolate osteocytes using fluorescent protein reporters driven by regulatory elements of genes that are highly expressed in osteocytes will be discussed. In addition, recent in vivo studies utilizing overexpression or conditional deletion of various genes using dentin matrix protein (Dmp1) directed Cre recombinase are outlined. In conclusion, evaluation of the benefits and deficiencies of currently used cell lines/genetic models in understanding osteocyte biology underlines the current progress in this field. The future efforts will be directed towards developing novel in vitro and in vivo models that would additionally facilitate in understanding the multiple roles of osteocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Comparative mutagenesis of human cells in vivo and in vitro]. Progress report, January 1-December 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Annual progress report is made on project focusing on the comparative mutagenesis of human cells in vivo and in vitro. The study employs the HGPRT gene to explore the changes in nucleotide sequence which has occurred in spontaneous mutations or mutations induced by MNNG or ICR191. Reports on the individual projects have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  8. The effect of different methods and image analyzers on the results of the in vivo comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoya, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Rika; Shimanura, Yuko; Terada, Megumi; Masuda, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    The in vivo comet assay is a widely used genotoxicity test that can detect DNA damage in a range of organs. It is included in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. However, various protocols are still used for this assay, and several different image analyzers are used routinely to evaluate the results. Here, we verified a protocol that largely contributes to the equivalence of results, and we assessed the effect on the results when slides made from the same sample were analyzed using two different image analyzers (Comet Assay IV vs Comet Analyzer). Standardizing the agarose concentrations and DNA unwinding and electrophoresis times had a large impact on the equivalence of the results between the different methods used for the in vivo comet assay. In addition, there was some variation in the sensitivity of the two different image analyzers tested; however this variation was considered to be minor and became negligible when the test conditions were standardized between the two different methods. By standardizing the concentrations of low melting agarose and DNA unwinding and electrophoresis times between both methods used in the current study, the sensitivity to detect the genotoxicity of a positive control substance in the in vivo comet assay became generally comparable, independently of the image analyzer used. However, there may still be the possibility that other conditions, except for the three described here, could affect the reproducibility of the in vivo comet assay.

  9. Marking and quantifying IL-17A-producing cells in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April E Price

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-17A plays an important role in host defense against a variety of pathogens and may also contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, precise identification and quantification of the cells that produce this cytokine in vivo have not been performed. We generated novel IL-17A reporter mice to investigate expression of IL-17A during Klebsiella pneumoniae infection and during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, conditions previously demonstrated to potently induce IL-17A production. In both settings, the majority of IL-17A was produced by non-CD4(+ T cells, particularly γδ T cells, but also invariant NKT cells and other CD4(-CD3ε(+ cells. As measured in dual-reporter mice, IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells greatly outnumbered IL-17A-producing Th17 cells throughout both challenges. Production of IL-17A by cells from unchallenged mice or by non-T cells under any condition was not evident. Administration of IL-1β and/or IL-23 elicited rapid production of IL-17A by γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells and other CD4(-CD3ε(+ cells in vivo, demonstrating that these cells are poised for rapid cytokine production and likely comprise the major sources of this cytokine during acute immunologic challenges.

  10. Automated Segmentation of in Vivo and Ex Vivo Mouse Brain Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alize E.H. Scheenstra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data is required for many applications, such as the comparison of different structures or time points, and for annotation purposes. Currently, the gold standard for automated image segmentation is nonlinear atlas-based segmentation. However, these methods are either not sufficient or highly time consuming for mouse brains, owing to the low signal to noise ratio and low contrast between structures compared with other applications. We present a novel generic approach to reduce processing time for segmentation of various structures of mouse brains, in vivo and ex vivo. The segmentation consists of a rough affine registration to a template followed by a clustering approach to refine the rough segmentation near the edges. Compared with manual segmentations, the presented segmentation method has an average kappa index of 0.7 for 7 of 12 structures in in vivo MRI and 11 of 12 structures in ex vivo MRI. Furthermore, we found that these results were equal to the performance of a nonlinear segmentation method, but with the advantage of being 8 times faster. The presented automatic segmentation method is quick and intuitive and can be used for image registration, volume quantification of structures, and annotation.

  11. The relevance of cell transformation to carcinogenesis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Despite the caveats concerning rodent as opposed to human cell transformation systems, the author concludes there are several areas in which cell transformation studies with rodent cells have shown clear relevance to carcinogenesis in vivo, especially studies of carcinogenic effects of high LET radiation, particularly dependence on dose rate. In vitro studies firmly established the generality of promotion by phorbol esters tumour promotors. Initial studies on suppression of transformation, notably by protease inhibitors, has led to the confirmation of this phenomenon in in vivo carcinogenesis; development of inhibitor preparations from natural sources suitable for long-term supplementation in human diet, is under investigation. The potential importance of these modifiers is further emphasized by mechanistic studies suggesting that radiation may initiate a large fraction of exposed cell population, and expression of transformation may be controlled to a large extent by environmental conditions including the presence of promoting or suppressing agents. Finally, cell transformation systems offer the opportunity for mechanistic studies of the initial stages of carcinogenesis. Provocative results have arisen in several areas consistent with findings in experimental animals. (author)

  12. Behavioral and biochemical effects of the antidepressant bupropion (Wellbutrin): evidence for selective blockade of dopamine uptake in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B R; Hester, T J; Maxwell, R A

    1980-10-01

    Bupropion (BW 323U; Wellbutrin), a novel compound with antidepressant effects in man, was found to reduce immobility in an "experimental helplessness" forced swimming antidepressant test in rats as did imipramine and amitriptyline. Higher doses produced elevated locomotor activity in an automated open field and produced stereotyped sniffing which was contrasted with apomorphine. When bupropion or desmethylimipramine was given before intracisternal injections of 6-hydroxydopamine, bupropion produced a dose-related selective antagonism of the destruction of dopamine neurons, while under the same conditions, desmethylimipramine produced a dose-related selective antagonism of the destruction of noradrenergic neurons. Studies in which the dose of bupropion and the dose of 6-hydroxydopamine were varied revealed that a dose-related selective antagonism of dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine occurred when doses up to and including 50 mg/kg i.p. to bupropion were administered. Some antagonism of norepinephrine depletion also occurred at 100 mg/kg of bupropion i.p. Bupropion also selectively reversed the dopamine depletion produced by alpha-methyl-m-tyrosine, a finding which is consistent with the view that bupropion is a dopamine uptake inhibitor in vivo. The importance of dopamine systems for the behavioral effects of bupropion were also studied. When the locomotor stimulant effects of bupropion were tested in rats with chronic destruction of dopamine neurons produced by 6-hydroxydopamine, bupropion failed to elevate locomotor activity. Rats treated with procedures using 6-hydroxydopamine to produce relatively selective norepinephrine depletions responded to bupropion with locomotor activity stimulation like controls. Rats with similar depletions of either dopamine or norepinephrine were also tested for the ability of low doses of bupropion to reduce immobility in the "experimental helplessness" forced swim antidepressant test. Prior destruction of dopamine neurons

  13. Modeling of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia : An Overview of In Vivo Murine and Human Xenograft Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sontakke, Pallavi; Jaques, Jenny; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, a wide variety of in vivo mouse models have been generated in order to unravel the molecular pathology of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and to develop and improve therapeutic approaches. These models range from (conditional) transgenic models, knock-in models, and murine bone

  14. Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative stress in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Siegel

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function are at the core of many degenerative conditions. However, the interaction between oxidative stress and in vivo mitochondrial function is unclear. We used both pharmacological (2 week paraquat (PQ treatment of wild type mice and transgenic (mice lacking Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1(-/- models to test the effect of oxidative stress on in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy were used to measure mitochondrial ATP and oxygen fluxes and cell energetic state. In both models of oxidative stress, coupling of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly lower (lower P/O at rest in vivo in skeletal muscle and was dose-dependent in the PQ model. Despite this reduction in efficiency, in vivo mitochondrial phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax was maintained in both models, and ex vivo mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers was unchanged following PQ treatment. In association with the reduced P/O, PQ treatment led to a dose-dependent reduction in PCr/ATP ratio and increased phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicate that oxidative stress uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and results in energetic stress in the absence of defects in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

  15. Comparison of In-Vitro and Ex-Vivo Wound Healing Assays for the Investigation of Diabetic Wound Healing and Demonstration of a Beneficial Effect of a Triterpene Extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ueck

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a frequent cause for chronic, difficult-to-treat wounds. New therapies for diabetic wounds are urgently needed and in-vitro or ex-vivo test systems are essential for the initial identification of new active molecules. The aim of this study is to compare in-vitro and ex-vivo test systems for their usability for early drug screening and to investigate the efficacy of a birch bark triterpene extract (TE that has been proven ex-vivo and clinically to accelerate non-diabetic wound healing (WH, in a diabetic context. We investigated in-vitro models for diabetic WH, i.e. scratch assays with human keratinocytes from diabetic donors or cultured under hyperglycaemic conditions and a newly developed porcine ex-vivo hyperglycaemic WH model for their potential to mimic delayed diabetic WH and for the influence of TE in these test systems. We show that keratinocytes from diabetic donors often fail to exhibit significantly delayed WH. For cells under hyperglycaemic conditions significant decrease is observed but is influenced by choice of medium and presence of supplements. Also, donor age plays a role. Interestingly, hyperglycaemic effects are mainly hyperosmolaric effects in scratch assays. Ex-vivo models under hyperglycaemic conditions show a clear and substantial decrease of WH, and here both glucose and hyperosmolarity effects are involved. Finally, we provide evidence that TE is also beneficial for ex-vivo hyperglycaemic WH, resulting in significantly increased length of regenerated epidermis to 188±16% and 183±11% (SEM; p<0.05 compared to controls when using two different TE formulations. In conclusion, our results suggest that microenvironmental influences are important in WH test systems and that therefore the more complex hyperglycaemic ex-vivo model is more suitable for early drug screening. Limitations of the in-vitro and ex-vivo models are discussed. Furthermore our data recommend TE as a promising candidate for in-vivo

  16. An Ex Vivo Imaging Pipeline for Producing High- Quality and High-Resolution Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim Bjørn; Baaré, William F.C.; Alexander, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and related multifiber reconstruction algorithms allow the study of in vivo microstructure and, by means of tractography, structural connectivity. Although reconstruction algorithms are promising imaging tools, high‐quality diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI) datasets...... complexity, to establish an ex vivo imaging pipeline for generating high‐quality DWI datasets. Perfusion fixation ensured that tissue characteristics were comparable to in vivo conditions. There were three main results: (i) heat conduction and unstable tissue mechanics accounted for time‐varying artefacts...... in the DWI dataset, which were present for up to 15 h after positioning brain tissue in the scanner; (ii) using fitted DT, q‐ball, and persistent angular structure magnetic resonance imaging algorithms, any b‐value between ∼2,000 and ∼8,000 s/mm2, with an optimal value around 4,000 s/mm2, allowed...

  17. pH-Responsive Fe(III)-Gallic Acid Nanoparticles for In Vivo Photoacoustic-Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianfeng; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wen, Ling; Chen, Ling; Li, Zhen; Wu, Yongyou; Gao, Mingyuan; Chai, Zhifang

    2016-04-06

    pH-responsive biocompatible Fe(III)-gallic acid nanoparticles with strong near-infrared absorbance are very stable in mild acidic conditions, but easily decomposed in neutral conditions, which enables the nanoparticles to be stable in a tumor and easily metabolized in other organs, thus providing a safe nanoplatform for in vivo photoacoustic imaging/photothermal therapy theranostic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. In-vivo and ex-vivo assessment of the accuracy of the computer-aided volumetry of porcine kidney in CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, W.; Harris, G.; Holalkere, N.; Sahani, D.; Yoshida, H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Measurement of kidney volume by computed tomography (CT), called renal volumetry, is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related diseases. Computer-aided volumetry (CAV) of kidney relies on an efficient and accurate segmentation method of the kidney. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of our CAV of kidney scheme using dynamic-threshold (DT) level set method, based on in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards. Eight Yorkshire breed anesthetized pigs were scanned on a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens) after an injection of iodinated (300 mgl/ml) contrast agent through an IV cannula. The kidneys of the pigs were then surgically resected and scanned on CT in the same manner. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo CT images were subjected to our volumetry scheme. The resulting volumes of the kidneys were compared with the in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards: the former was established by manual contouring of the kidneys on the CT images by an experienced radiologist, and the latter was established as the water displacement volume of the resected kidney. Our CAV of kidney scheme demonstrated accurate in-vivo and ex-vivo measurement of kidney volume, despite a large difference between the two reference standards. (orig.)

  19. In-vivo and ex-vivo assessment of the accuracy of the computer-aided volumetry of porcine kidney in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.; Harris, G.; Holalkere, N.; Sahani, D.; Yoshida, H.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of kidney volume by computed tomography (CT), called renal volumetry, is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related diseases. Computer-aided volumetry (CAV) of kidney relies on an efficient and accurate segmentation method of the kidney. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of our CAV of kidney scheme using dynamic-threshold (DT) level set method, based on in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards. Eight Yorkshire breed anesthetized pigs were scanned on a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens) after an injection of iodinated (300 mgl/ml) contrast agent through an IV cannula. The kidneys of the pigs were then surgically resected and scanned on CT in the same manner. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo CT images were subjected to our volumetry scheme. The resulting volumes of the kidneys were compared with the in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards: the former was established by manual contouring of the kidneys on the CT images by an experienced radiologist, and the latter was established as the water displacement volume of the resected kidney. Our CAV of kidney scheme demonstrated accurate in-vivo and ex-vivo measurement of kidney volume, despite a large difference between the two reference standards. (orig.)

  20. The Deletion of Endothelial Sodium Channel α (αENaC Impairs Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation and Endothelial Barrier Integrity in Endotoxemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sternak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC activity in the regulation of endothelial function is not clear. Here, we analyze the role of ENaC in the regulation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation and endothelial permeability in vivo in mice with conditional αENaC subunit gene inactivation in the endothelium (endo-αENaCKO mice using unique MRI-based analysis of acetylcholine-, flow-mediated dilation and vascular permeability. Mice were challenged or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, from Salmonella typhosa, 10 mg/kg, i.p.. In addition, changes in vascular permeability in ex vivo organs were analyzed by Evans Blue assay, while changes in vascular permeability in perfused mesenteric artery were determined by a FITC-dextran-based assay. In basal conditions, Ach-induced response was completely lost, flow-induced vasodilation was inhibited approximately by half but endothelial permeability was not changed in endo-αENaCKO vs. control mice. In LPS-treated mice, both Ach- and flow-induced vasodilation was more severely impaired in endo-αENaCKO vs. control mice. There was also a dramatic increase in permeability in lungs, brain and isolated vessels as evidenced by in vivo and ex vivo analysis in endotoxemic endo-αENaCKO vs. control mice. The impaired endothelial function in endotoxemia in endo-αENaCKO was associated with a decrease of lectin and CD31 endothelial staining in the lung as compared with control mice. In conclusion, the activity of endothelial ENaC in vivo contributes to endothelial-dependent vasodilation in the physiological conditions and the preservation of endothelial barrier integrity in endotoxemia.

  1. Physiological strategies of co-occurring oaks in a water- and nutrient-limited ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schafer

    2014-01-01

    Oak species are well suited to water-limited conditions by either avoiding water stress through deep rooting or tolerating water stress through tight stomatal control. In co-occurring species where resources are limited, species may either partition resources in space and/or time or exhibit differing efficiencies in the use of limited resources. Therefore, this study...

  2. Accuracy and Precision of Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging for Laminar and Complex Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Traberg, Marie Sand; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a comparison between velocity fields for a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is made. VFI estimates are obtained from the scan of a flow phantom, which mimics the complex flow conditions in the carotid artery....... Furthermore, the precision of the VFI method is investigated under laminar and complex flow conditions in vivo. The carotid bifurcation of a healthy volunteer was scanned using both fast plane wave ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The acquired MRI geometry of the bifurcation was used...... difference within 15 %, however, it was 23 % in the external branch. For the in vivo scan, the precision in terms of mean standard deviation (SD) of estimates aligned to the cardiac cycle was highest in the center of the common carotid artery (SD 4.7◦ for angles) and lowest in the external branch and close...

  3. In vivo analysis of NH4+ transport and central N-metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic N-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Rojas, H F; Maleki Seifar, R; Ten Pierick, A; van Helmond, W; Pieterse M, M; Heijnen, J J; Wahl, S A

    2016-09-16

    Ammonium is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations. Although, its transport and assimilation mechanisms are well documented, there have been only few attempts to measure the in vivo intracellular concentration of ammonium and assess its impact on gene expression. Using an isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-based method we were able to measure the intracellular ammonium concentration in N-limited aerobic chemostat cultivations using three different N-sources (ammonium, urea and glutamate) at the same growth rate (0.05 h -1 ). The experimental results suggest that, at this growth rate, a similar concentration of intracellular ammonium, about 3.6 mmol NH 4 + /L IC , is required to supply the reactions in the central N-metabolism independent of the N-source. Based on the experimental results and different assumptions, the vacuolar and cytosolic ammonium concentrations were estimated. Furthermore, we identified a futile cycle caused by NH 3 leakage to the extracellular space, which can cost up to 30% of the ATP production of the cell under N-limited conditions, and a futile redox cycle between reactions Gdh1 and Gdh2. Finally, using shotgun proteomics with labeled reference-relative protein expression, differences between the various environmental conditions were identified and correlated with previously identified N-compound sensing mechanisms. In our work, we study central N-metabolism using quantitative approaches. First, intracellular ammonium was measured under different N-sources. The results suggest that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells keep a constant NH 4 + concentration (around 3 mmol NH 4 + /L IC ), independent of the applied nitrogen source. We hypothesize that this amount of intracellular ammonium is required to obtain sufficient thermodynamic driving force.Furthermore, our calculations based on thermodynamic analysis of the transport mechanisms of ammonium suggest that ammonium is not equally distributed, indicating a high degree of

  4. Carlecortemcel-l: an ex vivo expanded umbilical cord blood cell graft for allogeneic transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Demetrios; Chan, Ka Wah

    2009-11-01

    Success of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is mostly affected by the cell dose infused and its application is limited by the size of the recipient. For most adults and older children it is not possible to find a single UCB unit large enough for reliable engraftment. One strategy to increase the number of progenitor cells available is ex vivo expansion of the unit. The main challenge of ex vivo expansion systems is how not to deplete the self-renewing cell population by driving them into differentiation into committed progenitors. Copper modulates basic cell functions, such as survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Reduction of cellular copper in ex vivo culture conditions enabled preferential proliferation of early progenitors and increased engraftment capabilities. The result of a Phase I study of carlecortemcel-l, a product derived from ex vivo expansion of UCB progenitors in the presence of a copper chelator and early-acting cytokines, and the study design for the current pivotal study are presented. A literature review using PubMed and the investigator's brochure from the manufacturer. Early results suggest that carlecortemcel-l infusion is safe and may be associated with favorable non-relapse mortality rates. A pivotal global study is currently being conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy of this product from centralized manufacturing facilities.

  5. A method for measuring three-dimensional mandibular kinematics in vivo using single-plane fluoroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-C; Lin, C-C; Chen, Y-J; Hong, S-W; Lu, T-W

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Accurate measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) motion of the mandible in vivo is essential for relevant clinical applications. Existing techniques are either of limited accuracy or require the use of transoral devices that interfere with jaw movements. This study aimed to develop further an existing method for measuring 3D, in vivo mandibular kinematics using single-plane fluoroscopy; to determine the accuracy of the method; and to demonstrate its clinical applicability via measurements on a healthy subject during opening/closing and chewing movements. Methods The proposed method was based on the registration of single-plane fluoroscopy images and 3D low-radiation cone beam CT data. It was validated using roentgen single-plane photogrammetric analysis at static positions and during opening/closing and chewing movements. Results The method was found to have measurement errors of 0.1 ± 0.9 mm for all translations and 0.2° ± 0.6° for all rotations in static conditions, and of 1.0 ± 1.4 mm for all translations and 0.2° ± 0.7° for all rotations in dynamic conditions. Conclusions The proposed method is considered an accurate method for quantifying the 3D mandibular motion in vivo. Without relying on transoral devices, the method has advantages over existing methods, especially in the assessment of patients with missing or unstable teeth, making it useful for the research and clinical assessment of the temporomandibular joint and chewing function. PMID:22842637

  6. Sex differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to endotoxin unfold in vivo but not ex vivo in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Alexander; Benson, Sven; Rebernik, Laura; Spreitzer, Ingo; Jäger, Marcus; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Engler, Harald

    2017-07-01

    Clinical data indicate that inflammatory responses differ across sexes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we assessed in vivo and ex vivo cytokine responses to bacterial endotoxin in healthy men and women to elucidate the role of systemic and cellular factors underlying sex differences in inflammatory responses. Participants received an i.v. injection of low-dose endotoxin (0.4 ng/kg body mass), and plasma TNF-α and IL-6 responses were analyzed over a period of 6 h. In parallel, ex vivo cytokine production was measured in endotoxin-stimulated blood samples obtained immediately before in vivo endotoxin administration. As glucocorticoids (GCs) play an important role in the negative feedback regulation of the inflammatory response, we additionally analyzed plasma cortisol concentrations and ex vivo GC sensitivity of cytokine production. Results revealed greater in vivo pro-inflammatory responses in women compared with men, with significantly higher increases in plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations. In addition, the endotoxin-induced rise in plasma cortisol was more pronounced in women. In contrast, no sex differences in ex vivo cytokine production and GC sensitivity were observed. Together, these findings demonstrate major differences in in vivo and ex vivo responses to endotoxin and underscore the importance of systemic factors underlying sex differences in the inflammatory response.

  7. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  8. Interleukin-7 facilitates HIV-1 transmission to cervico-vaginal tissue ex vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Introini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The majority of HIV-1 infections in women occur through vaginal intercourse, in which virus-containing semen is deposited on the cervico-vaginal mucosa. Semen is more than a mere carrier of HIV-1, since it contains many biological factors, in particular cytokines, that may affect HIV-1 transmission. The concentration of interleukin (IL-7, one of the most prominent cytokines in semen of healthy individuals, is further increased in semen of HIV-1-infected men. Here, we investigated the potential role of IL-7 in HIV-1 vaginal transmission in an ex vivo system of human cervico-vaginal tissue. We simulated an in vivo situation by depositing HIV-1 on cervico-vaginal tissue in combination with IL-7 at concentrations comparable with those measured in semen of HIV-1-infected individuals. We found that IL-7 significantly enhanced virus replication in ex vivo infected cervico-vaginal tissue. Similarly, we observed an enhancement of HIV-1 replication in lymphoid tissue explants. Analysis of T cells isolated from infected tissues showed that IL-7 reduced CD4⁺ T cell depletion preventing apoptosis, as shown by the decrease in the number of cells expressing the apoptotic marker APO2.7 and the increase in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2. Also, IL-7 increased the fraction of cycling CD4⁺ T cells, as evidenced by staining for the nuclear factor Ki-67. High levels of seminal IL-7 in vivo may be relevant to the survival of the founder pool of HIV-1-infected cells in the cervico-vaginal mucosa at the initial stage of infection, promoting local expansion and dissemination of HIV infection.

  9. The impact of supersaturation level for oral absorption of BCS class IIb drugs, dipyridamole and ketoconazole, using in vivo predictive dissolution system: Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Kazuki; Searls, Amanda L; Takeuchi, Susumu; Amidon, Gregory E; Sun, Duxin; Amidon, Gordon L

    2017-05-01

    The development of formulations and the assessment of oral drug absorption for Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class IIb drugs is often a difficult issue due to the potential for supersaturation and precipitation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The physiological environment in the GI tract largely influences in vivo drug dissolution rates of those drugs. Thus, those physiological factors should be incorporated into the in vitro system to better assess in vivo performance of BCS class IIb drugs. In order to predict oral bioperformance, an in vitro dissolution system with multiple compartments incorporating physiologically relevant factors would be expected to more accurately predict in vivo phenomena than a one-compartment dissolution system like USP Apparatus 2 because, for example, the pH change occurring in the human GI tract can be better replicated in a multi-compartmental platform. The Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS) consists of three compartments, the gastric, duodenal and jejunal chambers, and is a practical in vitro dissolution apparatus to predict in vivo dissolution for oral dosage forms. This system can demonstrate supersaturation and precipitation and, therefore, has the potential to predict in vivo bioperformance of oral dosage forms where this phenomenon may occur. In this report, in vitro studies were performed with dipyridamole and ketoconazole to evaluate the precipitation rates and the relationship between the supersaturation levels and oral absorption of BCS class II weak base drugs. To evaluate the impact of observed supersaturation levels on oral absorption, a study utilizing the GIS in combination with mouse intestinal infusion was conducted. Supersaturation levels observed in the GIS enhanced dipyridamole and ketoconazole absorption in mouse, and a good correlation between their supersaturation levels and their concentration in plasma was observed. The GIS, therefore, appears to represent in vivo dissolution phenomena and

  10. In vitro and in vivo corrosion evaluation of nickel-chromium- and copper-aluminum-based alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, O F; Miranda, W G; Muench, A

    2000-09-01

    The low resistance to corrosion is the major problem related to the use of copper-aluminum alloys. This in vitro and in vivo study evaluated the corrosion of 2 copper-aluminum alloys (Cu-Al and Cu-Al-Zn) compared with a nickel-chromium alloy. For the in vitro test, specimens were immersed in the following 3 corrosion solutions: artificial saliva, 0.9% sodium chloride, and 1.0% sodium sulfide. For the in vivo test, specimens were embedded in complete dentures, so that one surface was left exposed. The 3 testing sites were (1) close to the oral mucosa (partial self-cleaning site), (2) surface exposed to the oral cavity (self-cleaning site), and (3) specimen bottom surface exposed to the saliva by means of a tunnel-shaped perforation (non-self-cleaning site). Almost no corrosion occurred with the nickel-chromium alloy, for either the in vitro or in vivo test. On the other hand, the 2 copper-aluminum-based alloys exhibited high corrosion in the sulfide solution. These same alloys also underwent high corrosion in non-self-cleaning sites for the in vivo test, although minimal attack was observed in self-cleaning sites. The nickel-chromium alloy presented high resistance to corrosion. Both copper-aluminum alloys showed considerable corrosion in the sulfide solution and clinically in the non-self-cleaning site. However, in self-cleaning sites these 2 alloys did not show substantial corrosion.

  11. Complexes of actinides with naturally occuring organic substances - Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, U.; Allard, B.

    1983-02-01

    Properties of naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids and their formation of actinide complexes are reviewed. Actinides in all the oxdation states III, IV, V and VI would form complexes with many humic and fulvic acids, comparable in strength to the hydroxide and carbonate complexes. Preliminary experiments have shown, that the presence of predominantly humic acid complexes would significantly reduce the sorption of americium on geologic media. This does not, however, necessarily lead to a potentially enhanced mobility under environmental conditions, since humic and fulvic acids carrying trace metals also would be strongly bound to e.g. clayish material. (author)

  12. Mediator independently orchestrates multiple steps of preinitiation complex assembly in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Eyboulet, Fanny; Wydau-Dematteis, Sandra; Eychenne, Thomas; Alibert, Olivier; Neil, Helen; Boschiero, Claire; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Volland, Herv?; Cornu, David; Redeker, Virginie; Werner, Michel; Soutourina, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Mediator is a large multiprotein complex conserved in all eukaryotes, which has a crucial coregulator function in transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). However, the molecular mechanisms of its action in vivo remain to be understood. Med17 is an essential and central component of the Mediator head module. In this work, we utilised our large collection of conditional temperature-sensitive med17 mutants to investigate Mediator's role in coordinating preinitiation complex (PIC) formation i...

  13. Uranium occurence in nature: Geophysical prospecting, and its occurence in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj Rasheed, Zaki

    1985-01-01

    A general idea about naturaly occured uranium minerals such as uranite, pechblende, carnotite, coffinit, and bronnerit is given. At the same time, different geophysical methods and detecting devices applied for uranium exploration have been demonstrated. Investigations and studies carried out in Syria point to a uranium content of 100 ppm in the exploited Syrian phosphorite. 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Development and implementation of In-vivo dosimetry with OSL in special techniques (IMRT, TBI, TSE); Desarrollo e implementacion de dosimetria In-vivo con OSL en tecnicas especiales (IMRT, TBI, TSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourel, V., E-mail: vbourel@favaloro.edu.ar [Universidad Favaloro, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Special techniques of radiation treatments generally require a quality control very thorough because in general tend to be high-risk techniques of complications due to imparting high doses in a small volume or involve a very large volume of the patient are the techniques of total body irradiation either photons or electrons. In these techniques a moderate error in the given dose can mean a very significant variation in tumor control probability (Tcp) or the likelihood of complications in normal tissues has happened in known published accidents and can be deduced from the typical sigmoid curve of response vs. dose. The technique In-vivo dosimetry has proved useful a final tool to detect any possible error in the chain of procedures to which is subjected prior to radiation treatment. This chain of procedures includes initial imaging, treatment planning involving the calibration of the equipment s, location and immobilization of the patient. The In-vivo dosimetry involves a measurement of the dose delivered to the patient in the treatment conditions to detect a possible deviation between the prescribed and the delivered dose. The experience so far has been done mainly with semiconductor elements (diodes) or thermoluminescent dosimetry. The advent of the optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD), particularly in the nano Dots form, is a very appropriate tool for its size, ease of handling, accurate and fast reading. With these dosimeters has been developed and implemented the In-vivo dosimetry in three techniques in which the accuracy of the dose delivered is extremely important. These techniques are the treatment of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that seeks to impart a very high dose in the tumor tissues protecting organs in risk around the target and the techniques of total body irradiation with photons, whose function is to generate immune suppression in patients before being transplanted, or with electrons for the treatment of

  15. Hexokinase 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: regulation of oligomeric structure by in vivo phosphorylation at serine-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlke, J; Heidrich, K; Naumann, M; Müller, E C; Otto, A; Reuter, R; Kriegel, T

    1998-08-25

    Homodimeric hexokinase 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to have two sites of phosphorylation: for serine-14 the modification in vivo increases with glucose exhaustion [Kriegel et al. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 148-152], while for serine-157 it occurs in vitro with ATP in the presence of nonphosphorylateable five-carbon analogues of glucose [Heidrich et al. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 1960-1964]. We show now by site-directed mutagenesis and sedimentation analysis that serine-14 phosphorylation affects the oligomeric state of hexokinase, its substitution by glutamate causing complete dissociation; glutamate exchange for serine-157 does not. Phosphorylation of wild-type hexokinase at serine-14 likewise causes dissociation in vitro. In view of the higher glucose affinity of monomeric hexokinase and the high hexokinase concentration in yeast [Womack, F., and Colowick, S. P. (1978) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 191, 742-747; Mayes, E. L., Hoggett, J. G., and Kellett, G. L. (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 127-134], we speculate that the in vivo phosphorylation at serine-14 as transiently occurring in glucose derepression might provide a mechanism to improve glucose utilization from low level and/or that nuclear localization of the monomer might be involved in the signal transduction whereby glucose causes catabolite repression.

  16. An in vitro-identified high-affinity nucleosome-positioning signal is capable of transiently positioning a nucleosome in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracey Lia E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological function of eukaryotic DNA occurs in the context of nucleosomal arrays that can expose or obscure defined segments of the genome. Certain DNA sequences are capable of strongly positioning a nucleosome in vitro, suggesting the possibility that favorable intrinsic signals might reproducibly structure chromatin segments. As high-throughput sequencing analyses of nucleosome coverage in vitro and in vivo have become possible, a vigorous debate has arisen over the degree to which intrinsic DNA:nucleosome affinities orchestrate the in vivo positions of nucleosomes, thereby controlling physical accessibility of specific sequences in DNA. Results We describe here the in vivo consequences of placing a synthetic high-affinity nucleosome-positioning signal, the 601 sequence, into a DNA plasmid vector in mice. Strikingly, the 601 sequence was sufficient to position nucleosomes during an early phase after introduction of the DNA into the mice (when the plasmid vector transgene was active. This positioning capability was transient, with a loss of strong positioning at a later time point when the transgenes had become silent. Conclusions These results demonstrate an ability of DNA sequences selected solely for nucleosome affinity to organize chromatin in vivo, and the ability of other mechanisms to overcome these interactions in a dynamic nuclear environment.

  17. In vivo self-bio-imaging of tumors through in situ biosynthesized fluorescent gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianling; Zhang, Gen; Li, Qiwei; Jiang, Hui; Liu, Chongyang; Amatore, Christian; Wang, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in vivo allows non-invasive tumor diagnostic thus permitting a direct monitoring of cancer therapies progresses. It is established herein that fluorescent gold nanoclusters are spontaneously biosynthesized by cancerous cell (i.e., HepG2, human hepatocarcinoma cell line; K562, leukemia cell line) incubated with micromolar chloroauric acid solutions, a biocompatible molecular Au(III) species. Gold nanoparticles form by Au(III) reduction inside cells cytoplasms and ultimately concentrate around their nucleoli, thus affording precise cell imaging. Importantly, this does not occur in non-cancerous cells, as evidenced with human embryo liver cells (L02) used as controls. This dichotomy is exploited for a new strategy for in vivo self-bio-imaging of tumors. Subcutaneous injections of millimolar chloroauric acid solution near xenograft tumors of the nude mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma or chronic myeloid leukemia led to efficient biosynthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters without significant dissemination to the surrounding normal tissues, hence allowing specific fluorescent self-bio-marking of the tumors.

  18. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  19. Role of connexin43 and ATP in long-range bystander radiation damage and oncogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, M; Pasquali, E; Leonardi, S; Rebessi, S; Tanori, M; Giardullo, P; Borra, F; Pazzaglia, S; Naus, C C; Di Majo, V; Saran, A

    2011-11-10

    Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic agent and human carcinogen. Recent work has questioned long-held dogmas by showing that cancer-associated genetic alterations occur in cells and tissues not directly exposed to radiation, questioning the robustness of the current system of radiation risk assessment. In vitro, diverse mechanisms involving secreted soluble factors, gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and oxidative metabolism are proposed to mediate these indirect effects. In vivo, the mechanisms behind long-range 'bystander' responses remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of GJIC in propagating radiation stress signals in vivo, and in mediating radiation-associated bystander tumorigenesis in mouse central nervous system using a mouse model in which intercellular communication is downregulated by targeted deletion of the connexin43 (Cx43) gene. We show that GJIC is critical for transmission of oncogenic radiation damage to the non-targeted cerebellum, and that a mechanism involving adenosine triphosphate release and upregulation of Cx43, the major GJIC constituent, regulates transduction of oncogenic damage to unirradiated tissues in vivo. Our data provide a novel hypothesis for transduction of distant bystander effects and suggest that the highly branched nervous system, similar to the vascular network, has an important role.

  20. In Vivo Imaging of Prostate Cancer Tumors and Metastasis Using Non-Specific Fluorescent Nanoparticles in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Genevois

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growing interest in the use of nanoparticles (NPs in nanomedicine, there is a crucial need for imaging and targeted therapies to determine NP distribution in the body after systemic administration, and to achieve strong accumulation in tumors with low background in other tissues. Accumulation of NPs in tumors results from different mechanisms, and appears extremely heterogeneous in mice models and rather limited in humans. Developing new tumor models in mice, with their low spontaneous NP accumulation, is thus necessary for screening imaging probes and for testing new targeting strategies. In the present work, accumulation of LipImageTM 815, a non-specific nanosized fluorescent imaging agent, was compared in subcutaneous, orthotopic and metastatic tumors of RM1 cells (murine prostate cancer cell line by in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging techniques. LipImageTM 815 mainly accumulated in liver at 24 h but also in orthotopic tumors. Limited accumulation occurred in subcutaneous tumors, and very low fluorescence was detected in metastasis. Altogether, these different tumor models in mice offered a wide range of NP accumulation levels, and a panel of in vivo models that may be useful to further challenge NP targeting properties.

  1. Introducción a la correlación in vivo-in vitro: Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí Carrión Recio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se relacionaron los pasos generales para obtener una correlación in vivo-in vitro. Se profundizó en las ventajas que tiene la obtención de una correlación de nivel A sobre las de niveles B y C. Se explicó detalladamente cómo establecer correlaciones a cada uno de los niveles y en el caso del nivel A, cuando la velocidad de disolución es dependiente e independiente de las condiciones de prueba. Se ejemplificaron las áreas de aplicación de la correlación in vivo- in vitro y su introducción en el proceso de escalado, para productos de liberación modificada. Se concluye que el trabajo adecuado con las variables de manufactura, la optimización de la metodología de disolución y el estudio in vivo, son las herramientas esenciales para establecer una correlación a cualquiera de sus niveles.The general steps taken to obtain an in vivo-in vitro correlation are reported in this paper. The advantages of obtaining an A level correlation over those of B and C levels are deeply explained. Details are given about how to establish correlations at each level and, specifically, in the case of A level when the dissolution speed depends or not on the test conditions. The areas of application of the in vivo and in vitro correlation, as well as its introduction in the scale-up process for products of modified release are illustrated. it is concluded that and adequate work with the manufacture variables, the optimization of the dissolution methodolody and the in vivo study are the essential toools to establish a correlations at any level.

  2. Size-Dependent Axonal Bouton Dynamics following Visual Deprivation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna P. Sammons

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent synapses are thought to underpin the storage of sensory experience, yet little is known about their structural plasticity in vivo. We investigated how persistent presynaptic structures respond to the loss of primary sensory input. Using in vivo two-photon (2P imaging, we measured fluctuations in the size of excitatory axonal boutons in L2/3 of adult mouse visual cortex after monocular enucleation. The average size of boutons did not change after deprivation, but the range of bouton sizes was reduced. Large boutons decreased, and small boutons increased. Reduced bouton variance was accompanied by a reduced range of correlated calcium-mediated neural activity in L2/3 of awake animals. Network simulations predicted that size-dependent plasticity may promote conditions of greater bidirectional plasticity. These predictions were supported by electrophysiological measures of short- and long-term plasticity. We propose size-dependent dynamics facilitate cortical reorganization by maximizing the potential for bidirectional plasticity.

  3. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-04-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative in vitro and in vivo evaluation of three tablet formulations of amiodarone in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Emami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study:The relative in vivo bioavailability and in vitro dissolution studies of three chemically equivalent amiodarone generic products in healthy volunteers was evaluated in three separate occasions. The possibility of a correlation between in vitro and in vivo performances of these tablet formulations was also evaluated. "nMethods: The bioequivalence studies were conducted based on a single dose, two-sequence, cross over randomized design. The bioavailability was compared using AUC0-72, AUC0-∞, Cmax and Tmax. Similarity factor, dissolution efficiency (DE, and mean dissolution time (MDT was used to compare the dissolution profiles. Polynomial linear correlation models were tested using either MDT vs mean residence time (MRT or fraction of the drug dissolved (FRD vs fraction of the drug absorbed (FRA. "nResults: Significant differences were found in the dissolution performances of the tested formulations and therefore they were included in the development of the correlation. The 90% confidence intervals of the log-transformed AUC0-72, AUC0-∞, and Cmax of each two formulations in each bioequivalence studies were within the acceptable range of 80-125%. Differences were not observed between the untransformed Tmax values. Poor correlation was found between MRT and MDT of the products. A point-to-point correlation which is essential for a reliable correlation was not obtained between pooled FRD and FRA. The dissolution condition which was used for amiodarone tablets failed for formulations which were bioequivalent in vivo and significant difference between the dissolution characteristics of products (f2<50 did not reflect their in vivo properties. Major conclusions: Bioequivalence studies should be considered as the only acceptable way to ensure the interchangeability and in vivo equivalence of amiodarone generic drug products. The dissolution conditions used of the present study could be used for routine and in

  5. Lymphotoxin prevention of diethylnitrosamine carcinogenesis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, J.H.; Evans, C.H.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Development of intervention measures to control cancer would be facilitated by being able to monitor in vivo carcinogenesis by in vitro quantitation of early indices of neoplastic transformation to assess the in vivo effectiveness of preventive-therapeutic measures. Pregnant Syrian golden hamsters were used in an in vivo-in vitro transplacental model of carcinogenesis to determine the extent that in vivo administration of immunologic hormone preparations along with chemical carcinogen would prevent morphologic transformation assessed in vitro. Pregnant hamsters at 10-11 days of gestation were given injections ip of 3 mg diethylnitrosamine (DENA)/100 g body weight and were killed 2 days later when fetal cells were seeded for colony formation. The frequency of morphologically transformed colonies was assessed after 7 days of growth. Cloning efficiency and mean transformation frequency after DENA exposure were 3.6% and 1 X 10(-4) per cell seeded, respectively. The ip injection of an immunologic hormone preparation reduced the transformation frequency by 46%. The hormone preparation, containing 10,000 U of lymphotoxin but no detectable interferon, was the ultrafiltered lymphokines (greater than 10,000 mol wt) from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated hamster peritoneal leukocytes. The effect of lymphotoxin on cocarcinogenic exposure of fetal cells to DENA in vivo followed by X-irradiation in vitro was also determined. Cells exposed to 250 rad in vitro had a cloning efficiency of 0.5% and a transformation frequency of 0.4 X 10(-4) per cell seeded. After DENA injection and X-irradiation, the transformation frequency increased to 1 X 10(-4) and was inhibited 64% by lymphotoxin in vivo. Thus immunologic hormones (e.g., lymphotoxin) can prevent carcinogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro quantitation of transformation is a rapid means for evaluating therapeutic and autochthonous effector mechanisms for their ability to prevent or otherwise modulate carcinogenesis in vivo

  6. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  7. Endocannabinergic modulation of interleukin-1β in mouse hippocampus under basal conditions and after in vivo systemic lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csölle, Cecília; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoids play an important role in the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production in the periphery and brain. In this study, we explored whether endogenous activation of cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptors (CB1Rs) affects interleukin (IL)-1β levels in the mouse hippocampus under basal conditions and following stimulation with in vivo bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250 μg/kg i.p.). IL-1β levels were determined in the hippocampi of wild-type (WT), CB1R-/- and P2X₇ receptor (P2X₇R)-/- mice using an ELISA kit. Basal but not LPS-induced IL-1β levels were downregulated when CB1R function was abrogated by genetic deletion, suggesting that endocannabinoids contributed to basal IL-1β content in the mouse hippocampus. AM251 (3 mg/kg i.p.), an antagonist of CB1Rs, also inhibited basal IL-1β protein in WT but not in CB1R-/- mice. In the absence of P2X₇R, LPS-induced IL-1β production was lower, while the inhibitory effect of CB1R antagonists on basal IL-1β was significantly attenuated. The LPS-induced elevation in IL-1β production was decreased in the presence of AM251 and AM281, with no significant difference between WT and P2X₇R-/- mice. CB1Rs are responsible for the modulation of basal IL-1β levels in the hippocampus, while the effects of CB1 antagonists on systemic LPS-induced IL-1β concentrations are independent of CB1Rs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Association between in vivo bone formation and ex vivo migratory capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K.; Zaher, Walid; Larsen, Kenneth Hauberg

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a clinical need for developing systemic transplantation protocols for use of human skeletal stem cells (also known bone marrow stromal stem cells) (hBMSC) in tissue regeneration. In systemic transplantation studies, only a limited number of hBMSC home to injured tissues...... populations derived from telomerized hBMSC (hBMSC-TERT) with variable ability to form heterotopic bone when implanted subcutaneously in immune deficient mice. In vitro transwell migration assay was used and the in vivo homing ability of transplanted hBMSC to bone fractures in mice was visualized...... suggesting that only a subpopulation of hBMSC possesses "homing" capacity. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a subpopulation of hBMSC defined by ability to form heterotopic bone in vivo, is capable of homing to injured bone. METHODS: We tested ex vivo and in vivo homing capacity of a number of clonal cell...

  9. Preparation of Mental Health Clinicians to Work with Children with Co-Occurring Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…

  10. Role of classical conditioning in learning gastrointestinal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2007-01-01

    Nausea and/or vomiting are aversive gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Nausea and vomiting manifest unconditionally after a nauseogenic experience. However, there is correlative, quasiexperimental and experimental evidence that nausea and vomiting can also be learned via classical (Pavlovian) conditioning and might occur in anticipation of the nauseogenic event. Classical conditioning of nausea can develop with chemotherapy in cancer patients. Initially, nausea and vomiting occur during and afte...

  11. A non-invasive acoustic and vibration analysis technique for evaluation of hip joint conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Diana; Komistek, Richard D; Cates, Harold E; Mahfouz, Mohamed R

    2010-02-10

    The performance evaluation of THA outcome is difficult and surgeons often use invasive methods to investigate effectiveness. A non-invasive acoustic and vibration analysis technique has recently been developed for more-in-depth evaluation of in vivo hip conditions. Gait kinematics, corresponding vibration and sound measurement of five THA subjects were analyzed post-operatively using video-fluoroscopy, sound and accelerometer measurements while walking on a treadmill. The sound sensor and a pair of tri-axial accelerometers, externally attached to the pelvic and femoral bone prominences, detected frequencies that are propagated through the femoral head and acetabular cup interactions. A data acquisition system was used to amplify the signal and filter out noise generated by undesired frequencies. In vivo kinematics and femoral head sliding quantified using video fluoroscopy were correlated to the sound and acceleration measurements. Distinct variations between the different subjects were identified. A correlation of sound and acceleration impulses with separation has been achieved. Although, in vivo sounds are quite variable in nature and all correlated well with the visual images. This is the first study to document and correlate visual and audible effects of THA under in-vivo conditions. This study has shown that the development of the acoustic and vibration technique provides a practical method and generates new possibilities for a better understanding of THA performance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On the noble gas isotopic fractionation in naturally occurring gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, B.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic composition of neon in the mantle is an important geochemical constraint on the formation of the earth and subsequent degassing. Some deviation of neon isotopic composition in natural gas and rock samples from the atmospheric value which can not be accounted for by the known nuclear process has been reported, and Nagao et al. interpreted the deviation as the result of mass fractionation in natural gas in Japan. The possible cause of such fractionation was investigated. Gaseous diffusion, such as (a) free-molecule diffusion, (b) mutual diffusion and (c) thermal diffusion, is able to cause isotopic fractionation. After the detailed consideration on these three diffusion processes, conclusion that free-molecule diffusion occurs only in very particular condition, and it is questionable that thermal diffusion occurs in nature, were obtained. (b) which means the interaction of two or more gases, is supposed to occur in nature, and is able to confirm experimentally. In mutual diffusion only, gas transfer is concerned, but other form of fractionation should not be neglected. In solid diffusion, gas is trapped by fine grained sedimentary rocks, and may be fractionated by adsorption and communication to exterior through minute channels. Underground water also works as noble gas reservoir. For example, when gas stream is in contact with water, continuous exchange is possible to take place at the interface of gas and liquid, which contributes to the fractionation. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  13. Rose Bengal Photothrombosis by Confocal Optical Imaging In Vivo: A Model of Single Vessel Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley Watts, Lora; Zheng, Wei; Garling, R Justin; Frohlich, Victoria C; Lechleiter, James Donald

    2015-06-23

    In vivo imaging techniques have increased in utilization due to recent advances in imaging dyes and optical technologies, allowing for the ability to image cellular events in an intact animal. Additionally, the ability to induce physiological disease states such as stroke in vivo increases its utility. The technique described herein allows for physiological assessment of cellular responses within the CNS following a stroke and can be adapted for other pathological conditions being studied. The technique presented uses laser excitation of the photosensitive dye Rose Bengal in vivo to induce a focal ischemic event in a single blood vessel. The video protocol demonstrates the preparation of a thin-skulled cranial window over the somatosensory cortex in a mouse for the induction of a Rose Bengal photothrombotic event keeping injury to the underlying dura matter and brain at a minimum. Surgical preparation is initially performed under a dissecting microscope with a custom-made surgical/imaging platform, which is then transferred to a confocal microscope equipped with an inverted objective adaptor. Representative images acquired utilizing this protocol are presented as well as time-lapse sequences of stroke induction. This technique is powerful in that the same area can be imaged repeatedly on subsequent days facilitating longitudinal in vivo studies of pathological processes following stroke.

  14. Longevity in vivo of primary cell wall cellulose synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joseph Lee; Josephs, Cooper; Barnes, William J; Anderson, Charles T; Tien, Ming

    2018-02-01

    Our work focuses on understanding the lifetime and thus stability of the three main cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins involved in primary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis. It had long been thought that a major means of CESA regulation was via their rapid degradation. However, our studies here have uncovered that AtCESA proteins are not rapidly degraded. Rather, they persist for an extended time in the plant cell. Plant cellulose is synthesized by membrane-embedded cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). The CSC is composed of cellulose synthases (CESAs), of which three distinct isozymes form the primary cell wall CSC and another set of three isozymes form the secondary cell wall CSC. We determined the stability over time of primary cell wall (PCW) CESAs in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, using immunoblotting after inhibiting protein synthesis with cycloheximide treatment. Our work reveals very slow turnover for the Arabidopsis PCW CESAs in vivo. Additionally, we show that the stability of all three CESAs within the PCW CSC is altered by mutations in individual CESAs, elevated temperature, and light conditions. Together, these results suggest that CESA proteins are very stable in vivo, but that their lifetimes can be modulated by intrinsic and environmental cues.

  15. Not nanocarbon but dispersant induced abnormality in lysosome in macrophages in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudasaka, Masako; Zhang, Minfang; Matsumura, Sachiko; Yuge, Ryota; Ichihashi, Toshinari; Irie, Hiroshi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Iijima, Sumio

    2015-05-01

    The properties of nanocarbons change from hydrophobic to hydrophilic as a result of coating them with dispersants, typically phospholipid polyethylene glycols, for biological studies. It has been shown that the dispersants remain attached to the nanocarbons when they are injected in mice and influence the nanocarbons’ biodistribution in vivo. We show in this report that the effects of dispersants also appear at the subcellular level in vivo. Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), a type of nanocarbon, were dispersed with ceramide polyethylene glycol (CPEG) and intravenously injected in mice. Histological observations and electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis revealed that, in liver and spleen, the lysosome membranes were damaged, and the nanohorns formed a complex with hemosiderin in the lysosomes of the macrophages. It is inferred that the lysosomal membrane was damaged by sphigosine generated as a result of CPEG decomposition, which changed the intra lysosomal conditions, inducing the formation of the CPEG-CNH and hemosiderin complex. For comparison, when glucose was used instead of CPEG, neither the nanohorn-hemosiderin complex nor lysosomal membrane damage was found. Our results suggest that surface functionalization can control the behavior of nancarbons in cells in vivo and thereby improve their suitability for medical applications.

  16. Not nanocarbon but dispersant induced abnormality in lysosome in macrophages in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudasaka, Masako; Zhang, Minfang; Iijima, Sumio; Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Yuge, Ryota; Ichihashi, Toshinari; Irie, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The properties of nanocarbons change from hydrophobic to hydrophilic as a result of coating them with dispersants, typically phospholipid polyethylene glycols, for biological studies. It has been shown that the dispersants remain attached to the nanocarbons when they are injected in mice and influence the nanocarbons’ biodistribution in vivo. We show in this report that the effects of dispersants also appear at the subcellular level in vivo. Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), a type of nanocarbon, were dispersed with ceramide polyethylene glycol (CPEG) and intravenously injected in mice. Histological observations and electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis revealed that, in liver and spleen, the lysosome membranes were damaged, and the nanohorns formed a complex with hemosiderin in the lysosomes of the macrophages. It is inferred that the lysosomal membrane was damaged by sphigosine generated as a result of CPEG decomposition, which changed the intra lysosomal conditions, inducing the formation of the CPEG-CNH and hemosiderin complex. For comparison, when glucose was used instead of CPEG, neither the nanohorn–hemosiderin complex nor lysosomal membrane damage was found. Our results suggest that surface functionalization can control the behavior of nancarbons in cells in vivo and thereby improve their suitability for medical applications. (paper)

  17. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA/G-quadruplex-forming sequences cause genome-wide alteration of gene expression in human cancer cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Kyotaro; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-27

    Telomere erosion causes cell mortality, suggesting that longer telomeres enable more cell divisions. In telomerase-positive human cancer cells, however, telomeres are often kept shorter than those of surrounding normal tissues. Recently, we showed that cancer cell telomere elongation represses innate immune genes and promotes their differentiation in vivo. This implies that short telomeres contribute to cancer malignancy, but it is unclear how such genetic repression is caused by elongated telomeres. Here, we report that telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) induces a genome-wide alteration of gene expression in telomere-elongated cancer cells. Using three different cell lines, we found that telomere elongation up-regulates TERRA signal and down-regulates innate immune genes such as STAT1, ISG15 and OAS3 in vivo. Ectopic TERRA oligonucleotides repressed these genes even in cells with short telomeres under three-dimensional culture conditions. This appeared to occur from the action of G-quadruplexes (G4) in TERRA, because control oligonucleotides had no effect and a nontelomeric G4-forming oligonucleotide phenocopied the TERRA oligonucleotide. Telomere elongation and G4-forming oligonucleotides showed similar gene expression signatures. Most of the commonly suppressed genes were involved in the innate immune system and were up-regulated in various cancers. We propose that TERRA G4 counteracts cancer malignancy by suppressing innate immune genes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Cre recombinase activity is inhibited in vivo but not ex vivo by a mutation in the asymmetric spacer region of the distal loxP site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, Tania; Moraes, Carlos T

    2015-11-01

    The cre/loxP recombination system is a valuable tool used to generate tissue specific genomic rearrangements in mouse models. The deletion of a region of interest flanked by two loxP sites is accomplished by the recombinase (cre) enzyme, which binds to the inverted repeat segments of two loxP sites and recognition of a conserved TA sequence in the asymmetric central spacer region "ATAACTTCGTATA -NNNTANNN-TATACGAAGTTAT. In vivo, we found that a single T to C mutation at position 4 of the central spacer region in the distal (3') loxP site, completely inhibited the recombination reaction in two conditional mouse models. These mice were generated using a mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (Mtfmt) gene targeted construct and cre transgene under the control of tissue-specific promoters: calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II alpha (Camk2a-cre) and myosin light polypeptide 1 (Myl1-cre). Surprisingly, transient transfection of a plasmid expressing cre in dermal fibroblasts derived from the same mutant floxed Mtfmt((loxP/loxP)) mice line, successfully deleted the region of interest. This study demonstrates the sequence specificity required in vivo, the possibility of bypassing this limitation by expressing high levels of cre recombinase ex vivo and raises concerns related to the quality control of large scale production of gene targeted constructs and mice. genesis 53:695-700, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Zirconium phosphatidylcholine-based nanocapsules as an in vivo degradable drug delivery system of MAP30, a momordica anti-HIV protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caizhen, Guo; Yan, Gao; Ronron, Chang; Lirong, Yang; Panpan, Chu; Xuemei, Hu; Yuanbiao, Qiao; Qingshan, Li

    2015-04-10

    An essential in vivo drug delivery system of a momordica anti-HIV protein, MAP30, was developed through encapsulating in chemically synthesized matrices of zirconium egg- and soy-phosphatidylcholines, abbreviated to Zr/EPC and Zr/SPC, respectively. Matrices were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry studies. Zr/EPC granule at an approximate diameter of 69.43±7.78 nm was a less efficient encapsulator than the granule of Zr/SPC. Interlayer spacing of the matrices encapsulating MAP30 increased from 8.8 and 9.7 Å to 7.4 and 7.9 nm, respectively. In vivo kinetics on degradation and protein release was performed by analyzing the serum sampling of intravenously injected SPF chickens. The first order and biphasic variations were obtained for in vivo kinetics using equilibrium dialysis. Antimicrobial and anti-HIV assays yielded greatly decreased MIC50 and EC50 values of nanoformulated MAP30. An acute toxicity of MAP30 encapsulated in Zr/EPC occurred at a single intravenous dose above 14.24 mg/kg bw in NIH/KM/ICR mice. The folding of MAP30 from Zr/EPC sustained in vivo chickens for more than 8 days in high performance liquid chromatography assays. These matrices could protect MAP30 efficiently with strong structure retention, lowered toxicity and prolonged in vivo life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal Transcriptome of Mouse ATDC5 Chondroprogenitors Differentiating under Hypoxic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Ebbesen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The formation of cartilage takes place in vivo in an environment of reduced oxygen tension. To study the effect of hypoxia on the process of chondrogenesis, ATDC5 mouse chondroprogenitor cells were induced to differentiate by the addition of insulin and cultured under ambient and hypoxic conditions...

  1. Time- and temperature-dependent autolysis of urinary bladder epithelium during ex vivo preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Andreja; Veranič, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Morphological and functional preservation of urinary bladder epithelium-urothelium after extirpation from an organism enables physiological studies of that tissue and provides the basis for successful organ transplantations. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal temperature for maintaining urothelium in ex vivo conditions. Mouse urinary bladders were kept at the three temperatures usually used for maintaining tissue during transportation: at the temperature of melting ice (1°C), at room temperature (22-24°C), and at the body temperature of most mammals (37°C). Autolytic structural changes were followed with electron microscopy, while destruction of cytoskeleton and intercellular junctions was observed by immunolabeling. The first ultrastructural changes, swelling of mitochondria and necrosis of individual cells, became evident 30 min after extirpation if the tissue was kept at 1°C. After 60 and 120 min in ex vivo conditions, the most severe changes with increasing plasma membrane ruptures were detected at 1°C, while at room temperature only mild changes were detected. At 37°C, the extent of ultrastructural changes was between those of the other two experimental temperatures. Autolytic destruction of cytoskeleton and intercellular junctions was not observed before 2 h after extirpation. After 4 h, severe degradation of cytokeratin 20 and microtubules were found at 1°C and 37°C, while being almost undisturbed at room temperature. On the other hand, the reduction of desmoplakin and ZO-1 labeling was more evident at 37°C than at 1°C and room temperature. These findings provide evidence that room temperature is most appropriate for short ex vivo preservation of urothelial tissue.

  2. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Sasaki

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0 of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005. In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC. The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95. Regression analysis showed that V(0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2 = 0.52, P<0.001. By contrast, V(0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R(2<0.001, P = 0.98 among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  3. A non-covalent peptide-based strategy for ex vivo and in vivo oligonucleotide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombez, Laurence; Morris, May C; Heitz, Frederic; Divita, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic acceleration in identification of new nucleic acid-based therapeutic molecules such as short interfering RNA (siRNA) and peptide-nucleic acid (PNA) analogues has provided new perspectives for therapeutic targeting of specific genes responsible for pathological disorders. However, the poor cellular uptake of nucleic acids together with the low permeability of the cell membrane to negatively charged molecules remain major obstacles to their clinical development. Several non-viral strategies have been proposed to improve the delivery of synthetic short oligonucleotides both in cultured cells and in vivo. Cell-penetrating peptides constitute very promising tools for non-invasive cellular import of oligonucleotides and analogs. We recently described a non-covalent strategy based on short amphiphatic peptides (MPG8/PEP3) that have been successfully applied ex vivo and in vivo for the delivery of therapeutic siRNA and PNA molecules. PEP3 and MPG8 form stable nanoparticles with PNA analogues and siRNA, respectively, and promote their efficient cellular uptake, independently of the endosomal pathway, into a wide variety of cell lines, including primary and suspension lines, without any associated cytotoxicity. This chapter describes easy-to-handle protocols for the use of MPG-8 or PEP-3-nanoparticle technologies for PNA and siRNA delivery into adherent and suspension cell lines as well as in vivo into cancer mouse models.

  4. Synoptic-scale fire weather conditions in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi L.; Bieniek, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent concurrent widespread fires in Alaska are evaluated to assess their associated synoptic-scale weather conditions. Several periods of high fire activity from 2003 to 2015 were identified using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) hotspot data by considering the number of daily hotspots and their continuity. Fire weather conditions during the top six periods of high fire activity in the fire years of 2004, 2005, 2009, and 2015 were analyzed using upper level (500 hPa) and near surface level (1000 hPa) atmospheric reanalysis data. The top four fire-periods occurred under similar unique high-pressure fire weather conditions related to Rossby wave breaking (RWB). Following the ignition of wildfires, fire weather conditions related to RWB events typically result in two hotspot peaks occurring before and after high-pressure systems move from south to north across Alaska. A ridge in the Gulf of Alaska resulted in southwesterly wind during the first hotspot peak. After the high-pressure system moved north under RWB conditions, the Beaufort Sea High developed and resulted in relatively strong easterly wind in Interior Alaska and a second (largest) hotspot peak during each fire period. Low-pressure-related fire weather conditions occurring under cyclogenesis in the Arctic also resulted in high fire activity under southwesterly wind with a single large hot-spot peak.

  5. Celiac Disease-Specific TG2-Targeted Autoantibodies Inhibit Angiogenesis Ex Vivo and In Vivo in Mice by Interfering with Endothelial Cell Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Kalliokoski

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of celiac disease is the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2, reputed to have a function in angiogenesis. In this study we investigated whether TG2-specific autoantibodies derived from celiac patients inhibit angiogenesis in both ex vivo and in vivo models and sought to clarify the mechanism behind this phenomenon. We used the ex vivo murine aorta-ring and the in vivo mouse matrigel-plug assays to address aforementioned issues. We found angiogenesis to be impaired as a result of celiac disease antibody supplementation in both systems. Our results also showed the dynamics of endothelial cells was affected in the presence of celiac antibodies. In the in vivo angiogenesis assays, the vessels formed were able to transport blood despite impairment of functionality after treatment with celiac autoantibodies, as revealed by positron emission tomography. We conclude that celiac autoantibodies inhibit angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo and impair vascular functionality. Our data suggest that the anti-angiogenic mechanism of the celiac disease-specific autoantibodies involves extracellular TG2 and inhibited endothelial cell mobility.

  6. Celiac Disease–Specific TG2-Targeted Autoantibodies Inhibit Angiogenesis Ex Vivo and In Vivo in Mice by Interfering with Endothelial Cell Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Suvi; Sulic, Ana-Marija; Korponay-Szabó, Ilma R.; Szondy, Zsuzsa; Frias, Rafael; Perez, Mileidys Alea; Martucciello, Stefania; Roivainen, Anne; Pelliniemi, Lauri J.; Esposito, Carla; Griffin, Martin; Sblattero, Daniele; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri; Caja, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    A characteristic feature of celiac disease is the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2), reputed to have a function in angiogenesis. In this study we investigated whether TG2-specific autoantibodies derived from celiac patients inhibit angiogenesis in both ex vivo and in vivo models and sought to clarify the mechanism behind this phenomenon. We used the ex vivo murine aorta-ring and the in vivo mouse matrigel-plug assays to address aforementioned issues. We found angiogenesis to be impaired as a result of celiac disease antibody supplementation in both systems. Our results also showed the dynamics of endothelial cells was affected in the presence of celiac antibodies. In the in vivo angiogenesis assays, the vessels formed were able to transport blood despite impairment of functionality after treatment with celiac autoantibodies, as revealed by positron emission tomography. We conclude that celiac autoantibodies inhibit angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo and impair vascular functionality. Our data suggest that the anti-angiogenic mechanism of the celiac disease-specific autoantibodies involves extracellular TG2 and inhibited endothelial cell mobility. PMID:23824706

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of trabecular and cortical bone in mice: comparison of high resolution in vivo and ex vivo MR images with corresponding histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Michael H.; Sharp, Jonathan C.; Latta, Peter; Sramek, Milos; Hassard, H. Thomas; Orr, F. William

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of bone morphometry and remodeling have been shown to reflect bone strength and can be used to diagnose degenerative bone disease. In this study, in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to assess trabecular and cortical bone properties have been compared to each other and to histology as a novel means for the quantification of bone. Femurs of C57Bl/6 mice were examined both in vivo and ex vivo on an 11.7 T MRI scanner, followed by histologic processing and morphometry. A thresholding analysis technique was applied to the MRI images to generate contour lines and to delineate the boundaries between bone and marrow. Using MRI, an optimal correlation with histology was obtained with an in vivo longitudinal sectioned short echo time gradient-echo versus an in vivo long echo time spin-echo sequence or an ex vivo pulse sequence. Gradient-echo images were acquired with a maximum in-plane resolution of 35 μm. Our results demonstrated that in both the in vivo and ex vivo data sets, the percent area of marrow increases and percent area of trabecular bone and cortical bone thickness decreases moving from the epiphyseal growth plate to the diaphysis. These changes, observed with MRI, correlate with the histological data. Investigations using in vivo MRI gradient-echo sequences consistently gave the best correlation with histology. Our quantitative evaluation using both ex vivo and in vivo MRI was found to be an effective means to visualize non-invasively the normal variation in trabecular and cortical bone as compared to a histological 'gold standard' The experiments validated in vivo MRI as a potential high resolution technique for investigating both soft tissue, such as marrow, and bone without radiation exposure

  8. In vitro dissolution methodology, mini-Gastrointestinal Simulator (mGIS), predicts better in vivo dissolution of a weak base drug, dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Susumu; Matsui, Kazuki; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-08-30

    USP apparatus I and II are gold standard methodologies for determining the in vitro dissolution profiles of test drugs. However, it is difficult to use in vitro dissolution results to predict in vivo dissolution, particularly the pH-dependent solubility of weak acid and base drugs, because the USP apparatus contains one vessel with a fixed pH for the test drug, limiting insight into in vivo drug dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs. This discrepancy underscores the need to develop new in vitro dissolution methodology that better predicts in vivo response to assure the therapeutic efficacy and safety of oral drug products. Thus, the development of the in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology is necessitated. The major goals of in vitro dissolution are to ensure the performance of oral drug products and the support of drug formulation design, including bioequivalence (BE). Orally administered anticancer drugs, such as dasatinib and erlotinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), are used to treat various types of cancer. These drugs are weak bases that exhibit pH-dependent and high solubility in the acidic stomach and low solubility in the small intestine (>pH 6.0). Therefore, these drugs supersaturate and/or precipitate when they move from the stomach to the small intestine. Also of importance, gastric acidity for cancer patients may be altered with aging (reduction of gastric fluid secretion) and/or co-administration of acid-reducing agents. These may result in changes to the dissolution profiles of weak base and the reduction of drug absorption and efficacy. In vitro dissolution methodologies that assess the impact of these physiological changes in the GI condition are expected to better predict in vivo dissolution of oral medications for patients and, hence, better assess efficacy, toxicity and safety concerns. The objective of this present study is to determine the initial conditions for a mini-Gastrointestinal Simulator (mGIS) to assess in vivo

  9. Long-term corrosion/oxidation studies under controlled humidity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    Independent of thermal loading scenarios, the waste packages at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will be exposed to environmental conditions where there is the possibility of significant water film formation occurring on the waste packages. Water films can cause aggressive aqueous film electrochemical corrosion on susceptible metals or alloys. Water film formation will be facilitated when relative humidities are high, when hygroscopic salts are present on the surfaces, when corrosion products are hygroscopic, and when particles form crevices with the surfaces (capillary effect). Also certain gaseous contaminants, such as, NO x and SO 2 , can facilitate water film formation. It should be noted that water film formation can occur at isolated spots (e.g. surface defects and salt particles) and need not cover the entire surface for electrochemical corrosion to occur. This activity will characterize the long term corrosion of metal specimens at two nominal relative humidities (50 and 85%) and at 80 C. Under the low relative humidity (50%) condition, water film formation is expected to be limited and therefore aqueous film electrochemical corrosion is expected also to be limited. Under the high relative humidity (85%) condition, significant water film formation is expected to occur under some test conditions, and subsequently aqueous film electrochemical corrosion will occur on susceptible materials

  10. Electromagnetized gold nanoparticles mediate direct lineage reprogramming into induced dopamine neurons in vivo for Parkinson's disease therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Junsang; Lee, Euiyeon; Kim, Hee Young; Youn, Dong-Ho; Jung, Junghyun; Kim, Hongwon; Chang, Yujung; Lee, Wonwoong; Shin, Jaein; Baek, Soonbong; Jang, Wonhee; Jun, Won; Kim, Soochan; Hong, Jongki; Park, Hi-Joon; Lengner, Christopher J.; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Youngeun; Kim, Jongpil

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are physical energy fields generated by electrically charged objects, and specific ranges of EMF can influence numerous biological processes, which include the control of cell fate and plasticity. In this study, we show that electromagnetized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the presence of specific EMF conditions facilitate an efficient direct lineage reprogramming to induced dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, electromagnetic stimulation leads to a specific activation of the histone acetyltransferase Brd2, which results in histone H3K27 acetylation and a robust activation of neuron-specific genes. In vivo dopaminergic neuron reprogramming by EMF stimulation of AuNPs efficiently and non-invasively alleviated symptoms in mouse Parkinson's disease models. This study provides a proof of principle for EMF-based in vivo lineage conversion as a potentially viable and safe therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Culture conditions defining glioblastoma cells behavior: what is the impact for novel discoveries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledur, Pítia Flores; Onzi, Giovana Ravizzoni; Zong, Hui; Lenz, Guido

    2017-09-15

    In cancer research, the use of established cell lines has gradually been replaced by primary cell cultures due to their better representation of in vivo cancer cell behaviors. However, a major challenge with primary culture involves the finding of growth conditions that minimize alterations in the biological state of the cells. To ensure reproducibility and translational potentials for research findings, culture conditions need to be chosen so that the cell population in culture best mimics tumor cells in vivo . Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous tumor types and the GBM research field would certainly benefit from culture conditions that could maintain the original plethora of phenotype of the cells. Here, we review culture media and supplementation options for GBM cultures, the rationale behind their use, and how much those choices affect drug-screening outcomes. We provide an overview of 120 papers that use primary GBM cultures and discuss the current predominant conditions. We also show important primary research data indicating that "mis-cultured" glioma cells can acquire unnatural drug sensitivity, which would have devastating effects for clinical translations. Finally, we propose the concurrent test of four culture conditions to minimize the loss of cell coverage in culture.

  12. Fault isolatability conditions for linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...... the faults have occurred. The last step is a fault isolation (FI) of the faults occurring in a specific fault set, i.e. equivalent with the standard FI step. A simple example demonstrates how to turn the algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions into explicit algorithms for designing filter banks, which...

  13. SU-F-T-322: A Comparison of Two Si Detectors for in Vivo Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarico, O [National Research Nuclear University “Mephi“, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krylova, T; Lebedenko, I [Russian Research Cancer Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare two types of semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry by their dependence from various parameters in different conditions. Methods: QED yellow (Sun Nuclear) and EDP (Scanditronix) Si detectors were radiated by a Varian Clinac 2300 ix with 6 and 18 MV energies. 10 cm thickness water equivalent phantom consisted of 30×30 cm{sup 2} squared plates was used for experiments. Dose dependencies for different beam angles (0 – 180°), field size (3–40 cm), dose (50 – 300 MU), and dose rates (50 – 300 MU/min) were obtained and calibrated with Standard Farmer chamber (PTW). Results: Reproducibility, linearity, dose rate, angular dependence, and field size dependence were obtained for QED and EDP. They show no dose-rate dependence in available clinical dose rate range (100–600 MU/min). Both diodes have linear dependence with increasing the dose. Therefore even in case of high radiation therapy (including total body irradiation) it is not necessary to apply an additional correction during in vivo dosimetry. The diodes have different behavior for angular and field size dependencies. QED diode showed that dose value is stable for beam angles from 0 to 60°, for 60–180° correction factor has to be applied for each beam angle during in vivo measurements. For EDP diode dose value is sensitive to beam angle in whole range of angles. Conclusion: The study shows that QED diode is more suitable for in vivo dosimetry due to dose value independence from incident beam angle in the range 0–60°. There is no need in correction factors for increasing of dose and dose rate for both diodes. The next step will be to carry out measurements in non-standard conditions of total body irradiation. After this modeling of these experiments with Monte Carlo simulation for comparison calculated and obtained data is planned.

  14. Fusing in vivo and ex vivo NMR sources of information for brain tumor classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitor-Sava, A R; Laudadio, T; Sima, D M; Van Huffel, S; Martinez-Bisbal, M C; Celda, B; Piquer, J; Heerschap, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study we classify short echo-time brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data by applying a model-based canonical correlation analyses algorithm and by using, as prior knowledge, multimodal sources of information coming from high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS), MRSI and magnetic resonance imaging. The potential and limitations of fusing in vivo and ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance sources to detect brain tumors is investigated. We present various modalities for multimodal data fusion, study the effect and the impact of using multimodal information for classifying MRSI brain glial tumors data and analyze which parameters influence the classification results by means of extensive simulation and in vivo studies. Special attention is drawn to the possibility of considering HR-MAS data as a complementary dataset when dealing with a lack of MRSI data needed to build a classifier. Results show that HR-MAS information can have added value in the process of classifying MRSI data

  15. Bioassay of naturally occurring allelochemicals for phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leather, G R; Einhellig, F A

    1988-10-01

    The bioassay has been one of the most widely used tests to demonstrate allelopathic activity. Often, claims that a particular plant species inhibits the growth of another are based entirely on the seed germination response to solvent extracts of the suspected allelopathic plant; few of these tests are of value in demonstrating allelopathy under natural conditions. The veracity of the bioassay for evaluating naturally occurring compounds for phytotoxicity depends upon the physiological and biochemical response capacity of the bioassay organism and the mechanism(s) of action of the allelochemicals. The possibility that more than one allelochemical, acting in concert at very low concentrations, may be responsible for an observed allelopathic effect makes it imperative that bioassays be extremely sensitive to chemical growth perturbation agents. Among the many measures of phytotoxicity of allelochemicals, the inhibition (or stimulation) of seed germination, radicle elongation, and/or seedling growth have been the parameters of choice for most investigations. Few of these assays have been selected with the view towards the possible mechanism of the allelopathic effect.

  16. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative for the European Union member countries were considered. For AD, biogas utilisation with a biogas engine was considered and two potential situations investigated - biogas combustion with (1) combined heat and power production (CHP) and (2) electricity production only. For incineration, four technology options currently available in Europe were covered: (1) an average incinerator with CHP production, (2) an average incinerator with mainly electricity production, (3) an average incinerator with mainly heat production and (4) a state-of-the art incinerator with CHP working at high energy recovery efficiencies. The study was performed using a life cycle assessment in its consequential approach. Furthermore, the role of waste-sorting guidelines (defined by the material fractions allowed for SSOHW) in relation to GWP of treating overall SSOHW with AD was investigated. A case-study of treating 1tonne of SSOHW under framework conditions in Denmark was conducted. Under the given assumptions, vegetable food waste was the only material fraction which was always better for AD compared to incineration. For animal food waste, kitchen tissue, vegetation waste and dirty paper, AD utilisation was better unless it was compared to a highly efficient incinerator. Material fractions such as moulded fibres and dirty cardboard were attractive for AD, albeit only when AD with CHP and incineration with mainly heat production were compared. Animal straw, in contrast, was always better to incinerate. Considering the total amounts of individual material fractions in waste generated within households in Denmark, food waste (both animal and vegetable derived) and kitchen tissue are the main material

  17. Translational step inhibited in vivo by aflatoxin B1 in rat-liver polysomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasin, A.; Moule, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 strongly inhibits protein synthesis in rat liver cells. This paper confirms the foregoing results and represents an attempt to localize the translational step inhibited in vivo by aflatoxin B 1 . We used the simulation study developed by Li, Kisilevsky, Wasan and Hammond, 1972 (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 272, 451-462) to determine precisely the site inhibited in vivo after drug intoxication. This analysis is based on two parameters: the kinetics of polysome labeling to follow the nascent peptide synthesis, and the kinetics of supernatant labeling to follow the completed protein synthesis. Up to 5 h after dosing, aflatoxin specifically inhibits the elongation and/or termination steps during protein synthesis; after longer periods of time inhibition occurs essentially at the initiation step. When the intracellular concentration of aflatoxin is too high, particularly 2 h after dosing, each step of protein synthesis is blocked. Polypeptide synthesis by the postmitochondrial supernatants isolated from aflatoxin-treated animals is impaired in the same proportion as protein synthesis in vivo. The damage caused by aflatoxin is mostly observed on microsomes. However, purified polysomes isolated from aflatoxin-treated rats synthesize proteins in vitro to the same extent as those from controls. These results suggest that aflatoxin metabolite(s) are bound to polysomes with noncovalent bonds. These active metabolites are probably lost during polysome isolation procedures. Finally, relationships between protein metabolism and aflatoxin carcinogenesis are discussed. (orig./BSC) [de

  18. Critical exploration of co-occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, mood disorder and Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnart, Judith; Truter, Ilse; Meyer, Anneke

    2017-06-01

    Co-occurring disorders (CODs) describe a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) accompanied by a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders are common CODs with high prevalence rates in SUD populations. It is proposed that literature on a tri-condition presentation of ADHD, mood disorder and SUD is limited. Areas covered: A literature search was conducted using a keyword search on EBSCOhost. Initially 2 799 records were identified, however, only two articles included all three conditions occurring concurrently in individuals. CODs constitute a major concern due to their overarching burden on society as a whole. Diagnosis and treatment of such patients is challenging. There is evidence that dysfunction of dopamine in the brain reward circuitry impacts the development or symptomology of all three disorders. Disparity exists regarding whether ADHD or mood disorders are greater modifiers for increased SUD severity. However, it has been reported that poor functional capacity may have a greater influence than comorbidities on SUD development. Expert commentary: Challenges exist which confound the clear distinction of CODs, however, with greater emergence of adult ADHD its screening in SUD populations should become standard practice to establish data on multi-condition presentations with the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes.

  19. Where are patients who have co-occurring mental and physical diseases located?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Kristian L; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgreen; Uwakwe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with a psychiatric illness have a higher prevalence of physical diseases and thus a higher morbidity and mortality. AIM: The main aim was to investigate where patients with co-occurring physical diseases and mental disorders (psychotic spectrum or mood) in the health and social...... sought by patients in Europe and Japan, while in Nigeria about 80% of patients with mental disorders had contacted this type of service. CONCLUSION: Promoting prophylactic work between psychiatry and the general practice sector may be beneficial in diminishing physical conditions such as cardiovascular......). METHODOLOGY: On admission to a psychiatric service, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizotypal or delusional disorders (International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) group F2) or mood (affective) disorders (ICD-10 group F3) and a co-morbid physical condition (cardiovascular disease, diabetes...

  20. Acute and chronic glucocorticoid treatments regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in multiple brain regions in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S. Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have primarily interpreted gene expression regulation by glucocorticoids in the brain in terms of impact on neurons; however, less is known about the corresponding impact of glucocorticoids on glia and specifically astrocytes in vivo. Recent microarray experiments have identified glucocorticoid-sensitive mRNAs in primary astrocyte cell culture, including a number of mRNAs that have reported astrocyte-enriched expression patterns relative to other brain cell types. Here, we have tested whether elevations of glucocorticoids regulate a subset of these mRNAs in vivo following acute and chronic corticosterone exposure in adult mice. Acute corticosterone exposure was achieved by a single injection of 10 mg/kg corticosterone, and tissue samples were harvested two hours post-injection. Chronic corticosterone exposure was achieved by administering 10 mg/mL corticosterone via drinking water for two weeks. Gene expression was then assessed in two brain regions associated with glucocorticoid action (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus by qPCR and by in situ hybridization. The majority of measured mRNAs regulated by glucocorticoids in astrocytes in vitro were similarly regulated by acute and/or chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vivo. In addition, the expression levels for mRNAs regulated in at least one corticosterone exposure condition (acute/chronic demonstrated moderate positive correlation between the two conditions by brain region. In situ hybridization analyses suggest that select mRNAs are regulated by chronic corticosterone exposure specifically in astroctyes based on (1 similar general expression patterns between corticosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals and (2 similar expression patterns to the pan-astrocyte marker Aldh1l1. Our findings demonstrate that glucocorticoids regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in vivo and suggest that glucocorticoids regulate gene expression in the brain in a cell type-dependent fashion.

  1. Spatial heterogeneity of metabolism in skeletal muscle in vivo studied by 31P-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challiss, R.A.J.; Blackledge, M.J.; Radda, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Phase modulated rotating-frame imaging, a localization technique for phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, has been applied to obtain information on heterogeneity of phosphorus-containing metabolites in skeletal muscle of the rat in vivo. The distal muscles of the rat hindlimb have been studied at rest and during steady-state isometric twitch contraction; the use of a transmitter surface coil and an electrically isolated, orthogonal receiver Helmholtz coil ensure accurate spatial assignment (1 mm resolution). At rest, intracellular pH was higher and PCr/(PCr + P i ) was lower in deeper muscle compared with superficial muscle of the distal hindlimb. Upon steady-state stimulation, the relatively more alkaline pH of deep muscle was maintained, whereas greater changes in PCr/(PCr + P i ) and P i /ATP occurred in the superficial muscle layer. This method allows rapid (75 min for each spectral image) acquisition of quantitative information on metabolic heterogeneity in vivo

  2. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornblower, V D M; Yu, E; Fenster, A; Battista, J J; Malthaner, R A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo

  3. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornblower, V D M [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Yu, E [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Fenster, A [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Battista, J J [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Malthaner, R A [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-01-07

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo.

  4. Effects of pathological conditions on ocular pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kayoko; Ohtori, Akira; Tojo, Kakuji

    2010-10-01

    A diffusion model of ocular pharmacokinetics was used to estimate the effects of pathological conditions on ocular pharmacokinetics. In vivo rabbit data after topical instillation of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were compared with the simulated concentrations in the aqueous and vitreous humors. The barrier capacity of the surrounding membranes such as the retina/choroid/sclera (RCS) membrane and the cornea was characterized by dimensionless Sherwood number derived by the pseudo-steady state approach (PSSA). We assumed the barrier capacity decreased by inflammation; when the barrier capacity of the RCS membrane and the cornea was assumed to be one-tenth for the RCS membrane and a half for the cornea respectively, the in vivo data agreed with the simulated profile without contradiction. The drug concentration gradient simulated in the vitreous body near the RCS membrane was more significant in the inflamed eyes than in the normal eyes, suggesting that the elimination of the drugs from the RCS membrane was enhanced by inflammation. The present diffusion model can better describe the ocular pharmacokinetics in both normal and diseased conditions.

  5. Regulation of Ghrelin Receptor by Periodontal Bacteria In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Damanaki, Anna; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Eick, Sigrun; Memmert, Svenja; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Götz, Werner; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jäger, Andreas; Deschner, James

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin plays a major role in obesity-related diseases which have been shown to be associated with periodontitis. This study sought to analyze the expression of the functional receptor for ghrelin (GHS-R1a) in periodontal cells and tissues under microbial conditions in vitro and in vivo. The GHS-R1a expression in human periodontal cells challenged with the periodontopathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum, in gingival biopsies from periodontally healthy and diseased individuals, and from rats with a...

  6. Advanced cell culture technology for generation of in vivo-like tissue models

    OpenAIRE

    Przyborski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Human tissues are mostly composed of different cell types, that are often highly organised in relation to each other. Often cells are arranged in distinct layers that enable signalling and cell-to-cell interactions. Here we describe the application of scaffold-based technology, that can be used to create advanced organotypic 3D models of various tissue types that more closely resemble in vivo-like conditions (Knight et al., 2011). The scaffold comprises a highly porous polystyrene material, e...

  7. Formulation Optimization and Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation of Celecoxib Microemulsion-Based Gel for Transdermal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengyuan; Ren, Lili; Chen, Guoguang

    2017-08-01

    Celecoxib (CXB) is a poorly aqueous solubility sulfonamide non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Hence, the formulation of CXB was selected for solubilization and bioavailability. To find out suitable formulation for microemulsion, the solubility of CXB in triacetin (oil phase), Tween 80 (surfactant), and Transcutol-P (co-surfactant) was screened respectively and optimized by using orthogonal experimental design. The Km value and concentration of oil, S mix , and water were confirmed by pseudo-ternary phase diagram studies and central composite design. One percent carbopol 934 was added to form CXB microemulsion-based gel. The final formulation was evaluated for its appearance, pH, viscosity, stability, drug content determination, globule size, and zeta potential. Its ex vivo drug permeation and the in vivo pharmacokinetic was investigated. Further research was performed to ensure the safety and validity by skin irritation study and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity study. Ex vivo permeation study in mice was designed to compare permeation and transdermal ability between microemulsion formulation and conventional gel. The results revealed that optimized microemulsion-based gel gained higher permeation based on smaller globule size and high drug loading of microemulsion. Transdermal ability was also greatly improved. Bioavailability was compared to market Celebrex® by the in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits. The results indicated that CXB microemulsion-based gel had better bioavailability than Celebrex®.

  8. Bioequivalencia: Introducción a la correlación in vivo-in vitro. Parte I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí Carrión Recio

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available El control de calidad sugerido por la farmacopea, para formas de dosificación oral, no asegura en muchos casos la bioequivalencia de todos los lotes que salen al mercado, por lo que se discutieron las causas que provocan esta deficiencia, entre las que se encuentran: la selección inadecuada de las especificaciones y condiciones de disolución y subestimar la influencia de las variables de manufactura críticas en el comportamiento de las formulaciones. Además, se estimuló el establecimiento de las correlaciones in vivo-in vitro, como la solución más aceptada internacionalmente para garantizar la calidad lote a lote. Se expusieron también las definiciones de correlación in vivo-in vitro y niveles de correlación propuestos. En las conclusiones se enfatizó la importancia que tiene el establecimiento, ajuste y control de las variables críticas y la obtención de una correlación in vivo-in vitro para determinar las especificaciones de disolución in vitro adecuadas.The quality control suggested by Pharmacopeta for oral donage forms does not assure in many cases the bioequivalence of products going to the market, therefore, causes of this defficiency such as poor selection of dissolution specifications and conditions, and underestimation of the influence of critical manufacturing variable over the performance of formulations were discussed. In vivo - in vitro correlations were encouraged to be set since this is the most acceptable solution worldwide for guaranteeing batch per batch quality. Also, the definitions of in vivo in vitro correlations and proposed correlation levels were presents. The importance of setting, adjustment and control of critical variables together with the obtained in vivo - in vitro correlation to determine adequate in - vitro dissolution specifications were underlined in the conclusions.

  9. In vivo versus in vitro produced bovine ova: similarities and differences relevant for practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter; Callesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    - Abstract This present review describes some differences and similarities between bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro. The first part outlines the respective environments during maturation, fertilisation and early embryonic development of the two types of embryos and compares their mor...... differences between in vitro and in vivo produced embryos are also well documented. How- ever, improved culture conditions have been reported to minimise the differences. The second part focuses on the practical consequences of the differences in relation to embryo selection, cryo- preservation, sanitary...... risks and pregnancy following transfer as well as normality of calves. Lower viability following transfer and increased susceptibility to cryopreservation of in vitro produced embryos is discussed. Finally and most importantly, reported evidence of increased sanitary risks and abnormal foetal...

  10. Arduino Due based tool to facilitate in vivo two-photon excitation microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Pietro; Landi, Silvia; Sato, Sebastian Sulis; Luin, Stefano; Ratto, Gian Michele

    2016-04-01

    Two-photon excitation spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the characterization of the optical properties of genetically encoded and synthetic fluorescent molecules. Excitation spectroscopy requires tuning the wavelength of the Ti:sapphire laser while carefully monitoring the delivered power. To assist laser tuning and the control of delivered power, we developed an Arduino Due based tool for the automatic acquisition of high quality spectra. This tool is portable, fast, affordable and precise. It allowed studying the impact of scattering and of blood absorption on two-photon excitation light. In this way, we determined the wavelength-dependent deformation of excitation spectra occurring in deep tissues in vivo.

  11. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  12. Clinical application of sentinel lymph node mapping in colon cancer: in vivo vs. ex vivo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Yeop; Kim, Do Yoon; Kim, Young Bae; Suh, Kwang Wook

    2014-09-01

    Clinical usefulness of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in colorectal cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the SLN mapping technique using serial sectioning, and to compare the results between ex vivo and in vivo techniques. From February 2011 to October 2012, 34 colon cancer patients underwent SLN mapping during surgical resection. Eleven patients were analyzed with the in vivo method, and 23 patients with the ex vivo method. Patient characteristics and results of SLN mapping were evaluated. The SLN mapping was performed in 34 patients. Mean age was 67.3 years (range, 44-81 years). Primary tumors were located in the following sites: 13 in the right colon (38.2%) and 21 in the left colon (61.8%). SLN mapping was performed successfully in 88.2% of the patients. There was no significant difference in the identification rate between the two methods (90.9% vs. 87.0%, P = 1.000). Both the mapping methods showed a low sensitivity and high rate of skip metastasis. This study showed that SLN evaluation using serial sectioning could not predict the nodal status with clinically acceptable accuracy despite the high detection rate.

  13. Fibril growth kinetics link buffer conditions and topology of 3D collagen I networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbitzer, Liv; Pompe, Tilo

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional fibrillar networks reconstituted from collagen I are widely used as biomimetic scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo cell studies. Various physicochemical parameters of buffer conditions for in vitro fibril formation are well known, including pH-value, ion concentrations and temperature. However, there is a lack of a detailed understanding of reconstituting well-defined 3D network topologies, which is required to mimic specific properties of the native extracellular matrix. We screened a wide range of relevant physicochemical buffer conditions and characterized the topology of the reconstituted 3D networks in terms of mean pore size and fibril diameter. A congruent analysis of fibril formation kinetics by turbidimetry revealed the adjustment of the lateral growth phase of fibrils by buffer conditions to be key in the determination of pore size and fibril diameter of the networks. Although the kinetics of nucleation and linear growth phase were affected by buffer conditions as well, network topology was independent of those two growth phases. Overall, the results of our study provide necessary insights into how to engineer 3D collagen matrices with an independent control over topology parameters, in order to mimic in vivo tissues in in vitro experiments and tissue engineering applications. The study reports a comprehensive analysis of physicochemical conditions of buffer solutions to reconstitute defined 3D collagen I matrices. By a combined analysis of network topology, i.e., pore size and fibril diameter, and the kinetics of fibril formation we can reveal the dependence of 3D network topology on buffer conditions, such as pH-value, phosphate concentration and sodium chloride content. With those results we are now able to provide engineering strategies to independently tune the topology parameters of widely used 3D collagen scaffolds based on the buffer conditions. By that, we enable the straightforward mimicking of extracellular matrices of in vivo

  14. Modification of in vitro and in vivo BCG cell wall-induced immunosuppression by treatment with chemotherapeutic agents or indomethacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSilva, M.A.; Wepsic, H.T.; Mizushima, Y.; Nikcevich, D.A.; Larson, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro inhibition of spleen cell blastogenesis response and the in vivo enhancement of tumor growth are phenomena associated with BCG cell wall (BCGcw) immunization. What effect treatment with chemotherapeutic agents and the prostaglandin inhibitor indomethacin would have on the in vitro and in vivo responses to BCGcw immunization was evaluated. In vitro blastogenesis studies showed that chemotherapy pretreatment prior to immunization with BCGcw resulted in a restoration of the spleen cell blastogenesis response. In blastogenesis addback studies, where BCGcw-induced irradiated splenic suppressor cells were admixed with normal cells, less inhibition of blastogenesis occurred when spleen cells were obtained from rats that had received the combined treatment of chemotherapy and BCGcw immunization versus only BCGcw immunization. The cocultivation of spleen cells from BCGcw-immunized rats with indomethacin resulted in a 30-40% restoration of the blastogenesis response. In vivo studies showed that BCGcw-mediated enhancement of intramuscular tumor growth of the 3924a ACI rat tumor could be abrogated by either pretreatment with busulfan or mitomycin or by the feeding of indomethacin

  15. How Often Do Thermally Excited 630.0 nm Emissions Occur in the Polar Ionosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwagala, Norah Kaggwa; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Lorentzen, Dag A.; Johnsen, Magnar G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies thermally excited emissions in the polar ionosphere derived from European Incoherent Scatter Svalbard radar measurements from the years 2000-2015. The peak occurrence is found around magnetic noon, where the radar observations show cusp-like characteristics. The ionospheric, interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind conditions favor dayside magnetic reconnection as the dominant driving process. The thermal emissions occur 10 times more frequently on the dayside than on the nightside, with an average intensity of 1-5 kR. For typical electron densities in the polar ionosphere (2 × 1011 m-3), we find the peak occurrence rate to occur for extreme electron temperatures (>3000 K), which is consistent with assumptions in literature. However, for extreme electron densities (>5 × 1011 m-3), we can now report on a completely new population of thermal emissions that may occur at much lower electron temperatures (˜2300 K). The empirical atmospheric model (NRLMSISE-00) suggests that the latter population is associated with enhanced neutral atomic oxygen densities.

  16. Tendon Contraction After Cyclic Elongation Is an Age-Dependent Phenomenon: In Vitro and In Vivo Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Michael; Bedi, Asheesh; Walsh, Christopher P; Sibilsky Enselman, Elizabeth R; Sheibani-Rad, Shahin; Arnoczky, Steven P

    2014-06-01

    Tendons are viscoelastic tissues that deform (elongate) in response to cyclic loading. However, the ability of a tendon to recover this elongation is unknown. Tendon length significantly increases after in vivo or in vitro cyclic loading, and the ability to return to its original length through a cell-mediated contraction mechanism is an age-dependent phenomenon. Controlled laboratory study. In vitro, rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs) from Sprague-Dawley rats of 3 age groups (1, 3, and 12 months) underwent 2% cyclic strain at 0.17 Hz for 2 hours, and the percentages of elongation were determined. After loading, the RTTfs were suspended for 3 days under tissue culture conditions and photographed daily to determine the amount of length contraction. In vivo, healthy male participants (n = 29; age, 19-49 years) had lateral, single-legged weightbearing radiographs taken of the knee at 60° of flexion immediately before, immediately after, and 24 hours after completing eccentric quadriceps loading exercises on the dominant leg to fatigue. Measurements of patellar tendon length were taken from the radiographs, and the percentages of tendon elongation and subsequent contraction were calculated. In vitro, cyclic loading increased the length of all RTTfs, with specimens from younger (1 and 3 months) rats demonstrating significantly greater elongation than those from older (12 months) rats (P = .009). The RTTfs contracted to their original length significantly faster (P fashion, with younger animals contracting faster. In vivo, repetitive eccentric loading exercises significantly increased patellar tendon length (P 30 years). Cyclic tendon loading results in a significant increase in tendon elongation under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Tendons in both conditions demonstrated an incomplete return to their original length after 24 hours, and the extent of this return was age dependent. The age- and time-dependent contraction of tendons, elongated after repetitive

  17. In vivo somatostatin, vasopressin, and oxytocin synthesis in diabetic rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernstrom, J.D.; Fernstrom, M.H.; Kwok, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo labeling of somatostatin-14, somatostatin-28, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin was studied in rat hypothalamus after third ventricular administration of [35S]cysteine to streptozotocin-diabetic and normal rats. Immunoreactive somatostatin levels in hypothalamus were unaffected by diabetes, as was the incorporation of [35S]cysteine into hypothalamic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. In contrast, immunoreactive vasopressin levels in hypothalamus and posterior pituitary (and oxytocin levels in posterior pituitary) were below normal in diabetic rats. Moreover, [35S]cysteine incorporation into hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin (probably mainly in the paraventricular nucleus because of its proximity to the third ventricular site of label injection) was significantly above normal. The increments in vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were reversed by insulin administration. In vivo cysteine specific activity and the labeling of acid-precipitable protein did not differ between normal and diabetic animals; effects of diabetes on vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were therefore not caused by simple differences in cysteine specific activity. These results suggest that diabetes (1) does not influence the production of somatostatin peptides in hypothalamus but (2) stimulates the synthesis of vasopressin and oxytocin. For vasopressin at least, the increase in synthesis may be a compensatory response to the known increase in its secretion that occurs in uncontrolled diabetes

  18. Mental Health Service Use for Patients with Co-occurring Mental and Physical Chronic Health Care Needs in Primary Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Roberts, Megan C.; Dusetzina, Stacie B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with mental illness experience poor health and may die prematurely from chronic illness. Understanding whether the presence of co-occurring chronic physical health conditions complicates mental health treatment is important, particularly among patients seeking treatment in primary care settings. Objectives Examine (1) whether the presence of chronic physical conditions is associated with mental health service use for individuals with depression who visit a primary care physician, and (2) whether race modifies this relationship. Research Design Secondary analysis of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a survey of patient-visits collected annually from a random sample of 3,000 physicians in office-based settings. Subjects Office visits from 2007–2010 were pooled for adults ages 35–85 with a depression diagnosis at the time of visit (N=3,659 visits). Measures Mental health services were measured using a dichotomous variable indicating whether mental health services were provided during the office visit or a referral made for: (1) counseling, including psychotherapy and other mental health counseling and/or (2) prescribing of psychotropic medications. Results Most patient office visits (70%) where a depression diagnosis was recorded also had co-occurring chronic physical conditions recorded. The presence of at least one physical chronic condition was associated with a 6% decrease in the probability of receiving any mental health services (pneeded on medical care delivery among patients with co-occurring health conditions, particularly as the health care system moves towards an integrated care model. PMID:26147863

  19. In-vivo optical investigation of psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. The average size of dot vessels in Psoriasis was measured to be 974 μm2 which is much higher compared to healthy skin. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  20. Motor sequence learning occurs despite disrupted visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has demonstrated the importance of proprioception for the development of internal representations of the forces encountered during a task. Evidence also exists for a significant role for proprioception in the execution of sequential movements. However, little work has explored the role of proprioceptive sensation during the learning of continuous movement sequences. Here, we report that the repeated segment of a continuous tracking task can be learned despite peripherally altered arm proprioception and severely restricted visual feedback regarding motor output. Methods Healthy adults practiced a continuous tracking task over 2 days. Half of the participants experienced vibration that altered proprioception of shoulder flexion/extension of the active tracking arm (experimental condition and half experienced vibration of the passive resting arm (control condition. Visual feedback was restricted for all participants. Retention testing was conducted on a separate day to assess motor learning. Results Regardless of vibration condition, participants learned the repeated segment demonstrated by significant improvements in accuracy for tracking repeated as compared to random continuous movement sequences. Conclusion These results suggest that with practice, participants were able to use residual afferent information to overcome initial interference of tracking ability related to altered proprioception and restricted visual feedback to learn a continuous motor sequence. Motor learning occurred despite an initial interference of tracking noted during acquisition practice.

  1. Passive in vivo elastography from skeletal muscle noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Conti, Stephane; Roux, Philippe; Kuperman, W. A.

    2007-01-01

    Measuring the in vivo elastic properties of muscles (e.g., stiffness) provides a means for diagnosing and monitoring muscular activity. The authors demonstrated a passive in vivo elastography technique without an active external radiation source. This technique instead uses cross correlations of contracting skeletal muscle noise recorded with skin-mounted sensors. Each passive sensor becomes a virtual in vivo shear wave source. The results point to a low-cost, noninvasive technique for monitoring biomechanical in vivo muscle properties. The efficacy of the passive elastography technique originates from the high density of cross paths between all sensor pairs, potentially achieving the same sensitivity obtained from active elastography methods

  2. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System: subclasses for in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology and IVIVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Mudie, Deanna M; Langguth, Peter; Amidon, Greg E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-06-16

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has found widespread utility in drug discovery, product development and drug product regulatory sciences. The classification scheme captures the two most significant factors influencing oral drug absorption; solubility and intestinal permeability and it has proven to be a very useful and a widely accepted starting point for drug product development and drug product regulation. The mechanistic base of the BCS approach has, no doubt, contributed to its wide spread acceptance and utility. Nevertheless, underneath the simplicity of BCS are many detailed complexities, both in vitro and in vivo which must be evaluated and investigated for any given drug and drug product. In this manuscript we propose a simple extension of the BCS classes to include sub-specification of acid (a), base (b) and neutral (c) for classes II and IV. Sub-classification for Classes I and III (high solubility drugs as currently defined) is generally not needed except perhaps in border line solubility cases. It is well known that the , pKa physical property of a drug (API) has a significant impact on the aqueous solubility dissolution of drug from the drug product both in vitro and in vivo for BCS Class II and IV acids and bases, and is the basis, we propose for a sub-classification extension of the original BCS classification. This BCS sub-classification is particularly important for in vivo predictive dissolution methodology development due to the complex and variable in vivo environment in the gastrointestinal tract, with its changing pH, buffer capacity, luminal volume, surfactant luminal conditions, permeability profile along the gastrointestinal tract and variable transit and fasted and fed states. We believe this sub-classification is a step toward developing a more science-based mechanistic in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology. Such a dissolution methodology can be used by development scientists to assess the likelihood of a

  3. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Sudarshana Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerakoon Achchige Selvi Saroja Weerakoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudarshana powder (SP is one of the most effective Ayurveda powder preparations for paediatric febrile conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of SP. The in vitro antioxidant effects were evaluated using ABTS radical cation decolourization assay where the TROLOX equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC was determined. The in vivo antioxidant activity of SP was determined in Wistar rats using the Lipid Peroxidation (LPO assay in serum. The in vitro assay was referred to as the TROLOX equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay. For the in vivo assay, animals were dosed for 21 consecutive days and blood was drawn to evaluate the MDA level. The in vitro antioxidant activity of 0.5 μg of SP was equivalent to 14.45 μg of standard TROLOX. The percentage inhibition against the radical formation was 50.93±0.53%. The SP showed a statistically significant (p<0.01 decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance in the test rats when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the SP possesses potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported bioactivities.

  4. Attentional responses to stimuli associated with a reward can occur in the absence of knowledge of their predictive values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leganes-Fonteneau, Mateo; Scott, Ryan; Duka, Theodora

    2018-04-02

    Classical conditioning theories of addiction suggest that stimuli associated with rewards acquire incentive salience, inducing emotional and attentional conditioned responses. It is not clear whether those responses occur without contingency awareness (CA), i.e. are based on explicit or implicit learning processes. Examining implicit aspects of stimulus-reward associations can improve our understanding of addictive behaviours, supporting treatment and prevention strategies. However, the acquisition of conditioned responses without CA has yet to be rigorously demonstrated, as the existing literature shows a lack of methodological agreement regarding the measurement of implicit and explicit processes. The purpose of two experiments presented here was to study the emotional value acquired by CS through implicit emotional and attentional processes, trying to overcome critical methodological issues. Experiment 1 (n = 48) paired two stimuli categories (houses/buildings) with high (HR) or low (LR) probabilities of monetary reward. An Emotional Attentional Blink revealed preferential attention for HR over LR regardless of CA; while pleasantness ratings were unaffected, probably due to the intrinsic nature of CS. Experiment 2 (n = 60) replicated the effect of conditioning on the Emotional Attentional Blink utilising abstract CS (octagons/squares). In addition increased pleasantness for HR over LR was found significant overall, and marginally significant for Aware but not for Unaware participants. Here CA was rigorously determined using a signal-detection analysis and metacognitive-awareness measurements. Bayesian analyses verified the unconscious nature of the learning. These findings demonstrate that attentional conditioned responses can occur without CA and advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which implicit conditioning can occur and becomes observable. Furthermore, these results can highlight how addictive behaviours might develop. Copyright © 2017

  5. In vivo generation of a mature and functional artificial skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Claudia; Rizzi, Roberto; Biondo, Antonella; Longa, Emanuela; Mascaro, Anna; Shapira-Schweitzer, Keren; Kossovar, Olga; Benedetti, Sara; Salvatori, Maria L; Santoleri, Sabrina; Testa, Stefano; Bernardini, Sergio; Bottinelli, Roberto; Bearzi, Claudia; Cannata, Stefano M; Seliktar, Dror; Cossu, Giulio; Gargioli, Cesare

    2015-04-01

    Extensive loss of skeletal muscle tissue results in mutilations and severe loss of function. In vitro-generated artificial muscles undergo necrosis when transplanted in vivo before host angiogenesis may provide oxygen for fibre survival. Here, we report a novel strategy based upon the use of mouse or human mesoangioblasts encapsulated inside PEG-fibrinogen hydrogel. Once engineered to express placental-derived growth factor, mesoangioblasts attract host vessels and nerves, contributing to in vivo survival and maturation of newly formed myofibres. When the graft was implanted underneath the skin on the surface of the tibialis anterior, mature and aligned myofibres formed within several weeks as a complete and functional extra muscle. Moreover, replacing the ablated tibialis anterior with PEG-fibrinogen-embedded mesoangioblasts also resulted in an artificial muscle very similar to a normal tibialis anterior. This strategy opens the possibility for patient-specific muscle creation for a large number of pathological conditions involving muscle tissue wasting. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. Nanodiamonds for Medical Applications: Interaction with Blood in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Lin-Wei; Lin, Yu-Chung; Perevedentseva, Elena; Lugovtsov, Andrei; Priezzhev, Alexander; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2016-07-12

    Nanodiamonds (ND) have emerged to be a widely-discussed nanomaterial for their applications in biological studies and for medical diagnostics and treatment. The potentials have been successfully demonstrated in cellular and tissue models in vitro. For medical applications, further in vivo studies on various applications become important. One of the most challenging possibilities of ND biomedical application is controllable drug delivery and tracing. That usually assumes ND interaction with the blood system. In this work, we study ND interaction with rat blood and analyze how the ND surface modification and coating can optimize the ND interaction with the blood. It was found that adsorption of a low concentration of ND does not affect the oxygenation state of red blood cells (RBC). The obtained in vivo results are compared to the results of in vitro studies of nanodiamond interaction with rat and human blood and blood components, such as red blood cells and blood plasma. An in vivo animal model shows ND injected in blood attach to the RBC membrane and circulate with blood for more than 30 min; and ND do not stimulate an immune response by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α with ND injected into mice via the caudal vein. The results further confirm nanodiamonds' safety in organisms, as well as the possibility of their application without complicating the blood's physiological conditions.

  7. Nanodiamonds for Medical Applications: Interaction with Blood in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Wei Tsai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanodiamonds (ND have emerged to be a widely-discussed nanomaterial for their applications in biological studies and for medical diagnostics and treatment. The potentials have been successfully demonstrated in cellular and tissue models in vitro. For medical applications, further in vivo studies on various applications become important. One of the most challenging possibilities of ND biomedical application is controllable drug delivery and tracing. That usually assumes ND interaction with the blood system. In this work, we study ND interaction with rat blood and analyze how the ND surface modification and coating can optimize the ND interaction with the blood. It was found that adsorption of a low concentration of ND does not affect the oxygenation state of red blood cells (RBC. The obtained in vivo results are compared to the results of in vitro studies of nanodiamond interaction with rat and human blood and blood components, such as red blood cells and blood plasma. An in vivo animal model shows ND injected in blood attach to the RBC membrane and circulate with blood for more than 30 min; and ND do not stimulate an immune response by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α with ND injected into mice via the caudal vein. The results further confirm nanodiamonds’ safety in organisms, as well as the possibility of their application without complicating the blood’s physiological conditions.

  8. Fluorescence-based monitoring of in vivo neural activity using a circuit-tracing pseudorabies virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Granstedt

    Full Text Available The study of coordinated activity in neuronal circuits has been challenging without a method to simultaneously report activity and connectivity. Here we present the first use of pseudorabies virus (PRV, which spreads through synaptically connected neurons, to express a fluorescent calcium indicator protein and monitor neuronal activity in a living animal. Fluorescence signals were proportional to action potential number and could reliably detect single action potentials in vitro. With two-photon imaging in vivo, we observed both spontaneous and stimulated activity in neurons of infected murine peripheral autonomic submandibular ganglia (SMG. We optically recorded the SMG response in the salivary circuit to direct electrical stimulation of the presynaptic axons and to physiologically relevant sensory stimulation of the oral cavity. During a time window of 48 hours after inoculation, few spontaneous transients occurred. By 72 hours, we identified more frequent and prolonged spontaneous calcium transients, suggestive of neuronal or tissue responses to infection that influence calcium signaling. Our work establishes in vivo investigation of physiological neuronal circuit activity and subsequent effects of infection with single cell resolution.

  9. Physiological and Molecular Effects of in vivo and ex vivo Mild Skin Barrier Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannes, Eva K B; Weiss, Lina; Hadam, Sabrina; Gonnet, Jessica; Combardière, Béhazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2018-01-01

    The success of topically applied treatments on skin relies on the efficacy of skin penetration. In order to increase particle or product penetration, mild skin barrier disruption methods can be used. We previously described cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping as an efficient method to open hair follicles, enhance particle penetration, and activate Langerhans cells. We conducted ex vivo and in vivo measurements on human skin to characterize the biological effect and quantify barrier disruption-related inflammation on a molecular level. Despite the known immunostimulatory effects, this barrier disruption and hair follicle opening method was well accepted and did not result in lasting changes of skin physiological parameters, cytokine production, or clinical side effects. Only in ex vivo human skin did we find a discrete increase in IP-10, TGF-β, IL-8, and GM-CSF mRNA. The data underline the safety profile of this method and demonstrate that the procedure per se does not cause substantial inflammation or skin damage, which is also of interest when applied to non-invasive sampling of biomarkers in clinical trials. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Propagação de pteridófitas in vitro e in vivo através de esporos Fern propagation in vitro and in vivo from spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Próspero Borelli

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Sujeitas ao processo de extinção, em decorrência do extrativismo, as samambaias arbóreas Dicksonia sellowana (Presl. Hook e Cyathea schanschin Mart, das quais se obtémo xaxim, são espécies ainda pouco estudadas quanto à propagação. Com o objetivo de desenvolver um método adequado à propagação destas espécies, através de esporos, realizaram-se experimentos in vitro e in vivo. Para a desinfecção dos esporos, utilizaram-se soluções de hipoclorito de cálcio, em diferentes concentrações, ou de sódio, comparando-se sua eficiência. Para o cultivo in vitro, empregaram-se os meios nutritivos de Murashige e Skoog modificado e de Jones e a solução de Knop modificada. Na cultura in vivo utilizaram-se xaxim, estagno, terriço ou tijolo fragmentado. Como condições de cultivo, manteve-se a temperatura a 25 ±1°C e o fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Apesar da elevada contaminação durante o processo de germinação in vitro e in vivo, a desinfecção com hipoclorito de cálcio a 2% foi mais eficiente. Os esporos germinaram em 4 a 8 semanas e os prótalos formaram-se após 30 a 40 dias. Obteve-se maior percentagem de germinação e formação de prótalos com os meios de Jones e Knop, bem como xaxim e esfagno, e a germinação de esporos ocorreu mais rapidamente na ausência de esporângios.The objective of this experiment was to study the fern propagation from spores of Cyathea schanschin Mart and Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl. Hook. The spores were decontaminated in calcium or sodium hypochlorite solutions. The in vitro experiments were performed with the media: MS modified, Jones or Knop's solution modified. Tree-fern fibre, sphagnum moss, loam soil or brick peaces were, used for the in vivo experiments. The temperature was mantained at 25 ± 1°C and 16 hours of photoperiod for both treatments (In vivo and in vitro cultures. Besides the high percentage of contamination during the germination process, in vitro and in vivo, the best

  11. Scaling of interfacial jump conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada G, S.; Vazquez R, A.; Espinosa P, G.

    2015-09-01

    To model the behavior of a nuclear reactor accurately is needed to have balance models that take into account the different phenomena occurring in the reactor. These balances have to be coupled together through boundary conditions. The boundary conditions have been studied and different treatments have been given to the interface. In this paper is a brief description of some of the interfacial jump conditions that have been proposed in recent years. Also, the scaling of an interfacial jump condition is proposed, for coupling the different materials that are in contact within a nuclear reactor. (Author)

  12. Interventional therapy of hepatic arterial hemorrhage occurred after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Songnian; Feng Bo; Su Hongying; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the causes and clinical manifestations of hepatic arterial hemorrhage which occurred after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and to summarize the practical experience in its diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease its incidence and mortality. Methods: During the period from June 2007 to June 2010, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was carried out in 622 cases, of which DSA-proved postoperative hepatic arterial hemorrhage occurred in 11, including bile duct hemorrhage (n=6), abdominal cavity bleeding (n=3) and combination of bile duct and abdominal cavity (n=2). Interventional embolization of the bleeding branches of hepatic artery with Gelfoam and coils was carried out in all 11 patients. The clinical data such as clinical manifestations and therapeutic results were retrospectively analyzed. Results: After interventional embolization therapy for postoperative hepatic arterial hemorrhage the bleeding stopped in ten patients, who were discharged from hospital when the clinical conditions were alleviated. The remaining one patient died of sustained deterioration in hepatic and renal functions although the bleeding was ceased. Conclusion: Though hepatic arterial hemorrhage occurred after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a rare complication, it is dangerous and fatal. Hepatic arterial angiography together with interventional embolization is a sate and effective therapy for hepatic arterial hemorrhage. (authors)

  13. [Exposure to addictogenic substances, conditioned response and treatment of the exposure with response prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Y; Frésard, E; Zullino, D

    2007-01-01

    his/her natural environment. The difficulties encountered in the development of EPR treatments, despite the appealing reasoning behind them, could be explained by the tendency of conditional stimuli to re-occur spontaneously. However, it is clear from the studies reviewed that by selecting EPR conditions more rigorously, more efficient procedures might be developed at least for some patients. It seems that the place and the conditions of exposure are factors essential to the success of these therapeutic procedures. Exposure in vivo is better than exposure in imagination. Prolonged exposure over an hour is more effective than exposure lasting 10 minutes. Exposures in close succession are also associated with a better extinction of conditioned responses. The moment that the stimulus occurs, how appropriate it is and its proximity with potential reinforcement are also essential elements for the conditioning procedures. Improving the conditions in which EPR is applied could then enhance the therapeutic potential of this approach.

  14. Defining human mesenchymal stem cell efficacy in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennon Donald P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can suppress graft versus host disease (GvHD and have profound anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity in stroke, infarct, spinal cord injury, meniscus regeneration, tendinitis, acute renal failure, and heart disease in human and animal models of disease. There is significant clinical hMSC variability in efficacy and the ultimate response in vivo. The challenge in hMSC based therapy is defining the efficacy of hMSC in vivo. Models which may provide insight into hMSC bioactivity in vivo would provide a means to distinguish hMSCs for clinical utility. hMSC function has been described as both regenerative and trophic through the production of bioactive factors. The regenerative component involves the multi-potentiality of hMSC progenitor differentiation. The secreted factors generated by the hMSCs are milieu and injury specific providing unique niches for responses in vivo. These bioactive factors are anti-scarring, angiogenic, anti-apoptotic as well as regenerative. Further, from an immunological standpoint, hMSC's can avoid host immune response, providing xenographic applications. To study the in vivo immuno-regulatory effectiveness of hMSCs, we used the ovalbumin challenge model of acute asthma. This is a quick 3 week in vivo pulmonary inflammation model with readily accessible ways of measuring effectiveness of hMSCs. Our data show that there is a direct correlation between the traditional ceramic cube score to hMSCs attenuation of cellular recruitment due to ovalbumin challenge. The results from these studies verify the in vivo immuno-modulator effectiveness of hMSCs and support the potential use of the ovalbumin model as an in vivo model of hMSC potency and efficacy. Our data also support future directions toward exploring hMSCs as an alternative therapeutic for the treatment of airway inflammation associated with asthma.

  15. Alkylation induced cerebellar degeneration dependent on Aag and Parp1 does not occur via previously established cell death mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M Margulies

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are ubiquitous in our internal and external environments, causing DNA damage that contributes to mutations and cell death that can result in aging, tissue degeneration and cancer. Repair of methylated DNA bases occurs primarily through the base excision repair (BER pathway, a multi-enzyme pathway initiated by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag, also known as Mpg. Previous work demonstrated that mice treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS undergo cerebellar degeneration in an Aag-dependent manner, whereby increased BER initiation by Aag causes increased tissue damage that is dependent on activation of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (Parp1. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism of cerebellar granule neuron (CGN sensitivity to MMS using primary ex vivo neuronal cultures. We first established a high-throughput fluorescent imaging method to assess primary neuron sensitivity to treatment with DNA damaging agents. Next, we verified that the alkylation sensitivity of CGNs is an intrinsic phenotype that accurately recapitulates the in vivo dependency of alkylation-induced CGN cell death on Aag and Parp1 activity. Finally, we show that MMS-induced CGN toxicity is independent of all the cellular events that have previously been associated with Parp-mediated toxicity, including mitochondrial depolarization, AIF translocation, calcium fluxes, and NAD+ consumption. We therefore believe that further investigation is needed to adequately describe all varieties of Parp-mediated cell death.

  16. Alkylation induced cerebellar degeneration dependent on Aag and Parp1 does not occur via previously established cell death mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, Carrie M; Chaim, Isaac Alexander; Mazumder, Aprotim; Criscione, June; Samson, Leona D

    2017-01-01

    Alkylating agents are ubiquitous in our internal and external environments, causing DNA damage that contributes to mutations and cell death that can result in aging, tissue degeneration and cancer. Repair of methylated DNA bases occurs primarily through the base excision repair (BER) pathway, a multi-enzyme pathway initiated by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag, also known as Mpg). Previous work demonstrated that mice treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) undergo cerebellar degeneration in an Aag-dependent manner, whereby increased BER initiation by Aag causes increased tissue damage that is dependent on activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (Parp1). Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism of cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) sensitivity to MMS using primary ex vivo neuronal cultures. We first established a high-throughput fluorescent imaging method to assess primary neuron sensitivity to treatment with DNA damaging agents. Next, we verified that the alkylation sensitivity of CGNs is an intrinsic phenotype that accurately recapitulates the in vivo dependency of alkylation-induced CGN cell death on Aag and Parp1 activity. Finally, we show that MMS-induced CGN toxicity is independent of all the cellular events that have previously been associated with Parp-mediated toxicity, including mitochondrial depolarization, AIF translocation, calcium fluxes, and NAD+ consumption. We therefore believe that further investigation is needed to adequately describe all varieties of Parp-mediated cell death.

  17. Computational design of in vivo biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, Bálint; Gali, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) are very promising agents for bioimaging applications because their optical properties are superior compared to those of conventional organic dyes. However, not all the properties of these quantum dots suit the stringent criteria of in vivo applications, i.e. their employment in living organisms that might be of importance in therapy and medicine. In our review, we first summarize the properties of an ‘ideal’ biomarker needed for in vivo applications. Despite recent efforts, no such hand-made fluorescent quantum dot exists that may be considered as ‘ideal’ in this respect. We propose that ab initio atomistic simulations with predictive power can be used to design ‘ideal’ in vivo fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles. We briefly review such ab initio methods that can be applied to calculate the electronic and optical properties of very small nanocrystals, with extra emphasis on density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT which are the most suitable approaches for the description of these systems. Finally, we present our recent results on this topic where we investigated the applicability of nanodiamonds and silicon carbide nanocrystals for in vivo bioimaging. (topical review)

  18. In vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlgren, L.

    1980-02-01

    Measurements on five occupationally exposed persons have shown that it is possible to use X-ray fluorescence analysis for in vivo measurements of lead in the skeleton. The technique for calibrating in vivo X-ray fluorescence measurements of lead in bone tissue has been studied in detail and a two-component phantom simulating the bone and the soft tissue parts of the finger constructed. The technique has been used for in vivo measurements on 22 occupationally exposed persons. The minimum detectable concentration of lead in fingerbones was found to be around 20 μg x g -1 . The lead concentrations in their skeletons and blood were compared: the correlation was poor. The variations in lead concentrations in the skeleton have been studied in occupationally exposed persons and in samples from archaeological skeletons. The sensitivity and the minimum detectable concentration of cadmium in the kidney cortex in in vivo measurements has been studied by measurements on kidney models. The minimum detectable concentration was 20 μg x g -1 at a skin-kidney distance of 30 mm and 40 μg x g -1 at 40 mm. Five persons occupationally exposed were studied. (Author)

  19. Dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of Glioblastoma neurosphere dispersal in an ex vivo organotypic neural assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleis, Ahmed M.; Mahtabfar, Aria; Danish, Shabbar

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is highly aggressive. Early dispersal of the primary tumor renders localized therapy ineffective. Recurrence always occurs and leads to patient death. Prior studies have shown that dispersal of Glioblastoma can be significantly reduced by Dexamethasone (Dex), a drug currently used to control brain tumor related edema. However, due to high doses and significant side effects, treatment is tapered and discontinued as soon as edema has resolved. Prior analyses of the dispersal inhibitory effects of Dex were performed on tissue culture plastic, or polystyrene filters seeded with normal human astrocytes, conditions which inherently differ from the parenchymal architecture of neuronal tissue. The aim of this study was to utilize an ex-vivo model to examine Dex-mediated inhibition of tumor cell migration from low-passage, human Glioblastoma neurospheres on multiple substrates including mouse retina, and slices of mouse, pig, and human brain. We also determined the lowest possible Dex dose that can inhibit dispersal. Analysis by Two-Factor ANOVA shows that for GBM-2 and GBM-3, Dex treatment significantly reduces dispersal on all tissue types. However, the magnitude of the effect appears to be tissue-type specific. Moreover, there does not appear to be a difference in Dex-mediated inhibition of dispersal between mouse retina, mouse brain and human brain. To estimate the lowest possible dose at which Dex can inhibit dispersal, LogEC50 values were compared by Extra Sum-of-Squares F-test. We show that it is possible to achieve 50% reduction in dispersal with Dex doses ranging from 3.8 x10-8M to 8.0x10-9M for GBM-2, and 4.3x10-8M to 1.8x10-9M for GBM-3, on mouse retina and brain slices, respectively. These doses are 3-30-fold lower than those used to control edema. This study extends our previous in vitro data and identifies the mouse retina as a potential substrate for in vivo studies of GBM dispersal. PMID:29040322

  20. Dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of Glioblastoma neurosphere dispersal in an ex vivo organotypic neural assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Meleis

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is highly aggressive. Early dispersal of the primary tumor renders localized therapy ineffective. Recurrence always occurs and leads to patient death. Prior studies have shown that dispersal of Glioblastoma can be significantly reduced by Dexamethasone (Dex, a drug currently used to control brain tumor related edema. However, due to high doses and significant side effects, treatment is tapered and discontinued as soon as edema has resolved. Prior analyses of the dispersal inhibitory effects of Dex were performed on tissue culture plastic, or polystyrene filters seeded with normal human astrocytes, conditions which inherently differ from the parenchymal architecture of neuronal tissue. The aim of this study was to utilize an ex-vivo model to examine Dex-mediated inhibition of tumor cell migration from low-passage, human Glioblastoma neurospheres on multiple substrates including mouse retina, and slices of mouse, pig, and human brain. We also determined the lowest possible Dex dose that can inhibit dispersal. Analysis by Two-Factor ANOVA shows that for GBM-2 and GBM-3, Dex treatment significantly reduces dispersal on all tissue types. However, the magnitude of the effect appears to be tissue-type specific. Moreover, there does not appear to be a difference in Dex-mediated inhibition of dispersal between mouse retina, mouse brain and human brain. To estimate the lowest possible dose at which Dex can inhibit dispersal, LogEC50 values were compared by Extra Sum-of-Squares F-test. We show that it is possible to achieve 50% reduction in dispersal with Dex doses ranging from 3.8 x10-8M to 8.0x10-9M for GBM-2, and 4.3x10-8M to 1.8x10-9M for GBM-3, on mouse retina and brain slices, respectively. These doses are 3-30-fold lower than those used to control edema. This study extends our previous in vitro data and identifies the mouse retina as a potential substrate for in vivo studies of GBM dispersal.

  1. In Vivo Observation of Structural Changes in Neocortical Catecholaminergic Projections in Response to Drugs of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Mai M; Tanaka, Shinji; Mizutani, Shunsuke; Urata, Shinji; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Okabe, Shigeo

    2018-01-01

    Catecholaminergic (dopamine and norepinephrine) projections to the cortex play an important role in cognitive functions and dysfunctions including learning, addiction, and mental disorders. While dynamics of glutamatergic synapses have been well studied in such contexts, little is known regarding catecholaminergic projections, owing to lack of robust methods. Here we report a system to monitor catecholaminergic projections in vivo over the timeframes that such events occur. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by tyrosine hydroxylase promoter in a transgenic mouse line enabled us to perform two-photon imaging of cortical catecholaminergic projections through a cranial window. Repetitive imaging of the same axons over 24 h revealed the highly dynamic nature of catecholaminergic boutons. Surprisingly, administration of single high dose methamphetamine (MAP) induced a transient increase in bouton volumes. This new method opens avenues for longitudinal in vivo evaluation of structural changes at single release sites of catecholamines in association with physiology and pathology of cortical functions.

  2. [In Vitro and In Vivo Biocompatibility of a Novel, 3-Dimensional Cellulose Matrix Structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunda, S E; Ranker, M; Pallua, N; Machens, H-G; Ravichandran, A; Schantz, J-T

    2015-12-01

    Biological and physical characteristics of matrices are one essential factor in creating bioartificial tissue. In this study, a new 3-dimensional cellulose matrix (Xellulin(®)) was tested in terms of biocompatibility and applicability for tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo. The tested matrix Xellulin(®) is a natural hydrological gel-matrix containing bacterial cellulose and water. To evaluate the cell biocompatibilty, cell adherence and proliferation characteristics in vitro, the matrix was cultured with human fibroblasts. Further in vivo studies were carried out by transplanting preadipocytes of 4- to 6-week-old Wistar rats with 3 different conditions: a) Xellulin(®) including 500 000 preadipocytes subcutaneous, b) Xellulin(®) including 500 000 preadipocytes within an in vivo bioreactor chamber, c) Xellulin(®) without cells subcutaneous as control. After explantation on day 14 histomorphological and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed. In vitro study revealed an excellent biocompatibility with good cell adherence of the fibroblasts on the matrix and evidence of cell proliferation and creation of a 3-dimensional cell network. In vivo neocapillarisation could be shown in all groups with evidence of erythrocytes (H/E staining) and endothelial vascular cells (RECA-1-staining). A significantly higher vascular density was shown in vascularised bioreactor group (18.4 vessels/100 000 µm(2) (group b) vs. 8.1 (group a), pmatrix was noticed. The promising in vitro results concerning cell adherence and proliferation on the tested matrix could be confirmed in vivo with an evidence of 3-dimensional neocapillarisation. Cell survival was higher in the vascularised group, but without significance. Long-term tests (28-42 days) need to be carried out to evaluate long-term cell survival and the matrix stability. Furthermore, studies concerning the implementation of the matrix within anatomic structures as well as long-term biocompatibility are needed.

  3. Imaging of prostate cancer: a platform for 3D co-registration of in-vivo MRI ex-vivo MRI and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczyk, Clément; Mikheev, Artem; Rosenkrantz, Andrew; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Rusinek, Henry

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: Multi-parametric MRI is emerging as a promising method for prostate cancer diagnosis. prognosis and treatment planning. However, the localization of in-vivo detected lesions and pathologic sites of cancer remains a significant challenge. To overcome this limitation we have developed and tested a system for co-registration of in-vivo MRI, ex-vivo MRI and histology. Materials and Methods: Three men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (ages 54-72, PSA levels 5.1-7.7 ng/ml) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients underwent 3T multi-parametric MRI that included T2W, DCEMRI, and DWI prior to robotic-assisted prostatectomy. Ex-vivo multi-parametric MRI was performed on fresh prostate specimen. Excised prostates were then sliced at regular intervals and photographed both before and after fixation. Slices were perpendicular to the main axis of the posterior capsule, i.e., along the direction of the rectal wall. Guided by the location of the urethra, 2D digital images were assembled into 3D models. Cancer foci, extra-capsular extensions and zonal margins were delineated by the pathologist and included in 3D histology data. A locally-developed software was applied to register in-vivo, ex-vivo and histology using an over-determined set of anatomical landmarks placed in anterior fibro-muscular stroma, central. transition and peripheral zones. The mean root square distance across corresponding control points was used to assess co-registration error. Results: Two specimens were pT3a and one pT2b (negative margin) at pathology. The software successfully fused invivo MRI. ex-vivo MRI fresh specimen and histology using appropriate (rigid and affine) transformation models with mean square error of 1.59 mm. Coregistration accuracy was confirmed by multi-modality viewing using operator-guided variable transparency. Conclusion: The method enables successful co-registration of pre-operative MRI, ex-vivo MRI and pathology and it provides initial evidence

  4. In vivo imaging of free radicals produced by multivitamin-mineral supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Garry R.; Fink, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background Redox active minerals in dietary supplements can catalyze unwanted and potentially harmful oxidations. Methods To determine if this occurs in vivo we employed electron paramagnetic (EPR) imaging. We used 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CPH) as a reporter for one-electron oxidations, e.g. free radical-mediated oxidations; the one-electron oxidation product of CPH, 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (CP•), is a nitroxide free radical that is relatively persistent in vivo and detectable by EPR. As model systems, we used research formulations of vitamin mineral supplements (RVM) that are typical of commercial products. Results In in vitro experiments, upon suspension of RVM in aqueous solution, we observed: (1) the uptake of oxygen in the solution, consistent with oxidation of the components in the RVM; (2) the ascorbate free radical, a real-time indicator of ongoing oxidations; and (3) when amino acid/oligosaccharide (AAOS; glycinate or aspartate with non-digestible oligofructose) served as the matrix in the RVM, the rate of oxidation was significantly slowed. In a murine model, EPR imaging showed that the ingestion of RVM along with CPH results in the one-electron oxidation of CPH by RVM in the digestive system. The resulting CP• distributes throughout the body. Inclusion of AAOS in the RVM formulation diminished the oxidation of CPH to CP• in vivo. Conclusions These data demonstrate that typical formulations of multivitamin/multimineral dietary supplements can initiate the oxidation of bystander substances and that AAOS-complexes of essential redox active metals, e.g. copper and iron, have reduced ability to catalyze free radical formation and associated detrimental oxidations when a part of a multivitamin/multimineral formulation. PMID:26705481

  5. In vivo XRF measurements of heavy elements: Summary of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ryon, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the first workshop of open-quotes In Vivo XRF Measurements of Heavy Elements,close quotes at the Denver Conference on Applications of X-Ray Analysis. In vivo x-ray fluorescence has been applied to medical applications since the 1960's, with much of the pioneering work being done in Sweden (1). First measurements were of iodine in the thyroid. Elements from iron ID uranium have now been measured, at natural and elevated levels. Elevated levels occur either unintentionally through occupational or environmental exposure, or intentionally through medical administration. Examples of measurements are cadmium in kidney and liver, platinum in kidneys and tumors, mercury in the wrists and skulls of dentists, lead in various near-surface bones, copper in the eye and iron in skin. Nearly all measurements make use of either silicon or germanium detectors; radioisotopes and less frequently x-ray tubes are used for excitation. One question that those who work in an analytical chemistry laboratory often ask concerns radiation doses. Concern for x-ray safety ordinarily precludes putting living subjects into the x-ray beam. It turns out that radiation exposure due to in vivo x-ray fluorescence is quite low. The effective dose values for measurement of tibia lead concentration using a 109 Cd source (30 minute exposure) ranges from 0.036 uSv for adults to 1.1 uSv for infants (less than one tenth of a single dental x-ray) (2). Lower effective doses were reported when an x-ray machine was Used to measure L x-rays (3). These values are far below proposed limits of negligibility (10 USv) and average annual U.S. natural background radiation (3000 uSv). 17 refs

  6. Processing of nuclear viroids in vivo: an interplay between RNA conformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Eugenia Gas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Replication of viroids, small non-protein-coding plant pathogenic RNAs, entails reiterative transcription of their incoming single-stranded circular genomes, to which the (+ polarity is arbitrarily assigned, cleavage of the oligomeric strands of one or both polarities to unit-length, and ligation to circular RNAs. While cleavage in chloroplastic viroids (family Avsunviroidae is mediated by hammerhead ribozymes, where and how cleavage of oligomeric (+ RNAs of nuclear viroids (family Pospiviroidae occurs in vivo remains controversial. Previous in vitro data indicated that a hairpin capped by a GAAA tetraloop is the RNA motif directing cleavage and a loop E motif ligation. Here we have re-examined this question in vivo, taking advantage of earlier findings showing that dimeric viroid (+ RNAs of the family Pospiviroidae transgenically expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana are processed correctly. Using this methodology, we have mapped the processing site of three members of this family at equivalent positions of the hairpin I/double-stranded structure that the upper strand and flanking nucleotides of the central conserved region (CCR can form. More specifically, from the effects of 16 mutations on Citrus exocortis viroid expressed transgenically in A. thaliana, we conclude that the substrate for in vivo cleavage is the conserved double-stranded structure, with hairpin I potentially facilitating the adoption of this structure, whereas ligation is determined by loop E and flanking nucleotides of the two CCR strands. These results have deep implications on the underlying mechanism of both processing reactions, which are most likely catalyzed by enzymes different from those generally assumed: cleavage by a member of the RNase III family, and ligation by an RNA ligase distinct from the only one characterized so far in plants, thus predicting the existence of at least a second plant RNA ligase.

  7. Modelling and numerical simulation of the in vivo mechanical response of the ascending aortic aneurysm in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrera, Claudio M; Celentano, Diego J; Herrera, Emilio A

    2017-03-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder that affects connective tissue, impairing cardiovascular structures and function, such as heart valves and aorta. Thus, patients with Marfan disease have a higher risk of developing circulatory problems associated with mitral and aortic valves prolapse, manifested as dilated aorta and aortic aneurysm. However, little is known about the biomechanical characteristics of these structures affected with MFS. This study presents the modelling and simulation of the mechanical response of human ascending aortic aneurysms in MFS under in vivo conditions with intraluminal pressures within normotensive and hypertensive ranges. We obtained ascending aortic segments from five adults with MFS subjected to a vascular prosthesis implantation replacing an aortic aneurysm. We characterised the arterial samples via ex vivo tensile test measurements that enable fitting the material parameters of a hyperelastic isotropic constitutive model. Then, these material parameters were used in a numerical simulation of an ascending aortic aneurysm subjected to in vivo normotensive and hypertensive conditions. In addition, we assessed different constraints related to the movement of the aortic root. Overall, our results provide not only a realistic description of the mechanical behaviour of the vessel, but also useful data about stress/stretch-based criteria to predict vascular rupture. This knowledge may be included in the clinical assessment to determine risk and indicate surgical intervention.

  8. In vitro-in vivo correlation in skin permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, D; Matts, P J; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2014-02-01

    In vitro skin permeation studies have been used extensively in the development and optimisation of delivery of actives in vivo. However, there are few reported correlations of such in vitro studies with in vivo data. The aim of this study was to investigate the skin permeation of a model active, niacinamide, both in vitro and in vivo. Conventional diffusion cell studies were conducted in human skin to determine niacinamide permeation from a range of vehicles which included dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML), N-methyl 2-pyrrolidone (NMP), Miglyol 812N® (MG), and mineral oil (MO). Single, binary or ternary systems were examined. The same vehicles were subsequently examined to investigate niacinamide delivery in vivo. For this proof-of-concept study one donor was used for the in vitro studies and one volunteer for the in vivo investigations to minimise biovariability. Analysis of in vitro samples was conducted using HPLC and in vivo uptake of niacinamide was evaluated using Confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS). The amount of niacinamide permeated through skin in vitro was linearly proportional to the intensity of the niacinamide signal determined in the stratum corneum in vivo. A good correlation was observed between the signal intensities of selected vehicles and niacinamide signal intensity. The findings provide further support for the use of CRS to monitor drug delivery into and across the skin. In addition, the results highlight the critical role of the vehicle and its disposition in skin for effective dermal delivery.

  9. Effect of flexing and massage on in vivo human skin penetration and toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Silva, Vânia R; Liu, David C; Sanchez, Washington Y; Studier, Hauke; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Holmes, Amy; Becker, Wolfgang; Grice, Jeffrey E; Benson, Heather Ae; Roberts, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the effects of flexing and massage on human skin penetration and toxicity of topically applied coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles (˜75 nm) in vivo. Noninvasive multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging was used to evaluate the penetration of nanoparticles through the skin barrier and cellular apoptosis in the viable epidermis. All nanoparticles applied to skin with flexing and massage were retained in the stratum corneum or skin furrows. No significant penetration into the viable epidermis was seen and no cellular toxicity was detected. Exposure of normal in vivo human skin to these nanoparticles under common in-use conditions of flexing or massage is not associated with significant adverse events.

  10. The Role of Endogenous D2 Receptor Levels in Morphine Addiction: A Correlative Study of Morphine Place Conditioning and In Vivo [3H]-Raclopride Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, N.; Gatley, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has a wide array of effects on an individual’s mental state. It is vital in the regulation of motor skills and in generating the effects of substance abuse. This study examined the dopamine D2 receptors found in the striatum of the brain. The impetus for investigating this receptor lies in the perception that it plays an influential role in drug addiction. It has been conjectured on the basis of human PET studies that possession of low levels of D2 receptors will heighten an individual’s susceptibility to drug addiction. However, an alternative explanation of low D2 receptor levels in drug dependent individuals is that these levels are a consequence of drug abuse. To understand this phenomenon, the present study employed the paradigm of conditioned place preference (CPP). In CPP, individuals of an out-bred mouse strain are observed to spend time in environments where they had previously been exposed to a drug that is abused by humans. The drug chosen for our studies was morphine because it has been previously shown to generate a robust place preference in mice and is a prototypic abused drug in humans. D2 receptor levels were quantified using an in vivo binding study involving [3H]raclopride, a radioactive compound that binds to D2 receptors. The results showed a significant place preference for morphine following the conditioning procedure. Additionally, data from the binding analysis agreed with previous studies that the striatum contains high levels of D2 receptors. However, there was no consistent relationship between the extent of morphine CPP and D2 receptor levels as revealed by [3H]-RAC binding. This finding does not support the hypothesis that low levels of D2 receptors predispose a mouse to easy morphine conditioning. Further experiments are required to determine the ability to generalize our findings to other species and other drugs of abuse.

  11. Extending the spectrum of α-dicarbonyl compounds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Christian; Liehr, Kristin; Girndt, Matthias; Ulrich, Christof; Glomb, Marcus A

    2014-10-10

    Maillard α-dicarbonyl compounds are known as central intermediates in advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the human body, whereas l-threo-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an essential nutrient, involved in a variety of enzymatic reactions. Thus, the Maillard degradation of glucose and ascorbic acid is of major importance in vivo. To understand the complex mechanistic pathways of AGE formation, it is crucial to extend the knowledge on plasma concentrations of reactive key α-dicarbonyl compounds (e.g. 1-deoxyglucosone). With the present work, we introduce a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS multimethod for human blood plasma based on derivatization with o-phenylenediamine under acidic conditions. The impact of workup and reaction conditions, particularly of pH, was thoroughly evaluated. A comprehensive validation provided the limit of detection, limit of quantitation, coefficients of variation, and recovery rates. The method includes the α-dicarbonyls 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, Lederer's glucosone, dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, 1-deoxypentosone, 3-deoxypentosone, 3,4-dideoxypentosone, pentosone, 1-deoxythreosone, 3-deoxythreosone, threosone, methylglyoxal, glyoxal; the α-keto-carboxylic acids pyruvic acid and glyoxylic acid; and the dicarboxylic acid oxalic acid. The method was then applied to the analyses of 15 healthy subjects and 24 uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis. The comparison of the results revealed a clear shift in the product spectrum. In most cases, the plasma levels of target analytes were significantly higher. Thus, this is the first time that a complete spectrum of α-dicarbonyl compounds relevant in vivo has been established. The results provide further insights into the chemistry of AGE formation and will be helpful to find specific markers to differentiate between the various precursors of glycation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  12. In vivo immune signatures of healthy human pregnancy: Inherently inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    Full Text Available Changes in maternal innate immunity during healthy human pregnancy are not well understood. Whether basal immune status in vivo is largely unaffected by pregnancy, is constitutively biased towards an inflammatory phenotype (transiently enhancing host defense or exhibits anti-inflammatory bias (reducing potential responsiveness to the fetus is unclear. Here, in a longitudinal study of healthy women who gave birth to healthy infants following uncomplicated pregnancies within the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD cohort, we test the hypothesis that a progressively altered bias in resting innate immune status develops. Women were examined during pregnancy and again, one and/or three years postpartum. Most pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, including CCL2, CXCL10, IL-18 and TNFα, was reduced in vivo during pregnancy (20-57%, p<0.0001. Anti-inflammatory biomarkers (sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, and IL-1Ra were elevated by ~50-100% (p<0.0001. Systemic IL-10 levels were unaltered during vs. post-pregnancy. Kinetic studies demonstrate that while decreased pro-inflammatory biomarker expression (CCL2, CXCL10, IL-18, and TNFα was constant, anti-inflammatory expression increased progressively with increasing gestational age (p<0.0001. We conclude that healthy resting maternal immune status is characterized by an increasingly pronounced bias towards a systemic anti-inflammatory innate phenotype during the last two trimesters of pregnancy. This is resolved by one year postpartum in the absence of repeat pregnancy. The findings provide enhanced understanding of immunological changes that occur in vivo during healthy human pregnancy.

  13. Controls of growth phenology vary in seedlings of three, co-occurring ecologically distinct northern conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D Scott

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature and seed-source elevation on height-growth phenology of three co-occurring and ecologically distinct northern conifers (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia (lodgepole pine), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm. (interior spruce) and Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. (subalpine fir)). Seed from populations of the three indigenous and co-occurring species was collected across an elevational transect on the southwestern slope of McBride Peak, near Prince George, BC. Collection sites were at elevations of 750 to 1850 m, the latter being close to the tree line. In 2003, seeds were germinated and seedlings raised under favorable growing conditions in a temperature-controlled glasshouse. In 2004, seedlings of each population were grown in natural daylengths at a location within 50 km of the seed collection site both in a temperature-controlled glasshouse and at a nearby field site, and height growth was recorded twice a week throughout the growing season. Species differed in both the date and the accumulated heat sum above 5 degrees C for the initiation and cessation of shoot extension. Growth durations (which integrate growth initiation and growth cessation) were more similar among species in the field than in the glasshouse. This suggests that different mechanisms of phenological control among co-occurring species can result in adaptive "equivalence" under a particular set of climatic conditions.

  14. A Resource for the Conditional Ablation of microRNAs in the Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Yon Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of miRNAs during development and disease processes is well established. However, most studies have been done in cells or with patient tissues, and therefore the physiological roles of miRNAs are not well understood. To unravel in vivo functions of miRNAs, we have generated conditional, reporter-tagged knockout-first mice for numerous evolutionarily conserved miRNAs. Here, we report the generation of 162 miRNA targeting vectors, 64 targeted ES cell lines, and 46 germline-transmitted miRNA knockout mice. In vivo lacZ reporter analysis in 18 lines revealed highly tissue-specific expression patterns and their miRNA expression profiling matched closely with published expression data. Most miRNA knockout mice tested were viable, supporting a mechanism by which miRNAs act redundantly with other miRNAs or other pathways. These data and collection of resources will be of value for the in vivo dissection of miRNA functions in mouse models.

  15. Behavioral predictors of alcohol drinking in a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia and co-occurring alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Jibran Y; Todd, Travis P

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and contributes greatly to its morbidity. Unfortunately, the neural and behavioral underpinnings of alcohol drinking in these patients are not well understood. In order to begin to understand the cognitive and reward-related changes that may contribute to alcohol drinking, this study was designed to address: 1) latent inhibition; 2) conditioning; and 3) extinction of autoshaping in a neurodevelopmental rat model with relevance to co-occurring schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders, the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesioned (NVHL) rat. NVHL lesions (or sham surgeries) were performed on post-natal day 7 (PND7) and animals were given brief exposure to alcohol during adolescent (PND 28-42). Latent inhibition of autoshaping, conditioning and extinction were assessed between PND 72-90. On PND90 animals were given alcohol again and allowed to establish stable drinking. Latent inhibition of autoshaping was found to be prolonged in the NVHL rats; the NVHL rats pre-exposed to the lever stimulus were slower to acquire autoshaping than sham pre-exposed rats. NVHL rats that were not pre-exposed to the lever stimulus did not differ during conditioning, but were slower to extinguish conditioned responding compared to sham controls. Finally, the NVHL rats from both groups drank significantly more alcohol than sham rats, and the extent of latent inhibition predicted future alcohol intake in the pre-exposed animals. These findings suggest that the latent inhibition of autoshaping procedure can be used to model cognitive- and reward-related dysfunctions in schizophrenia, and these dysfunctions may contribute to the development of co-occurring alcohol use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Geological structure of strata and the occurence of gas outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koewing, K

    1977-10-20

    Geological conditions which may have an influence on gas outbursts are depth, rank, type of formation, tectonic stresses, and the petrological form of the neighboring rock. The risk of outbursts is greater if there are dirt bands in the seam, since the coal can slide on these. Tectonically disturbed zones in seams containing more than 9 cu m of gas per ton are especially dangerous. Tectonic stress is not necessarily an indication of the severity of outbursts. Gas and sandstone outbursts do not depend on tectonic disturbance; outburst-prone sandstones have a greater pore volume and lower strength than normal. Almost all outbursts from the floor occur where the strata immediately below are impervious to gas and sandstone is present lower down. (In German)

  17. Near-Infrared Squaraine Dye Encapsulated Micelles for in Vivo Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bimodal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Joseph, James; Lin, Manjing; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Borah, Parijat; Ng, Hao Jun; Loong, Yun Xian; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-06-23

    Combined near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging techniques present promising capabilities for noninvasive visualization of biological structures. Development of bimodal noninvasive optical imaging approaches by combining NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography demands suitable NIR-active exogenous contrast agents. If the aggregation and photobleaching are prevented, squaraine dyes are ideal candidates for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. Herein, we report rational selection, preparation, and micelle encapsulation of an NIR-absorbing squaraine dye (D1) for in vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging. D1 was encapsulated inside micelles constructed from a biocompatible nonionic surfactant (Pluoronic F-127) to obtain D1-encapsulated micelles (D1(micelle)) in aqueous conditions. The micelle encapsulation retains both the photophysical features and chemical stability of D1. D1(micelle) exhibits high photostability and low cytotoxicity in biological conditions. Unique properties of D1(micelle) in the NIR window of 800-900 nm enable the development of a squaraine-based exogenous contrast agent for fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging above 820 nm. In vivo imaging using D1(micelle), as demonstrated by fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography experiments in live mice, shows contrast-enhanced deep tissue imaging capability. The usage of D1(micelle) proven by preclinical experiments in rodents reveals its excellent applicability for NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging.

  18. Combined in vivo and ex vivo analysis of mesh mechanics in a porcine hernia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Lindsey G; Lake, Spencer P; McAllister, Jared M; Tan, Wen Hui; Yu, Jennifer; Thompson, Dominic; Brunt, L Michael; Blatnik, Jeffrey A

    2018-02-01

    Hernia meshes exhibit variability in mechanical properties, and their mechanical match to tissue has not been comprehensively studied. We used an innovative imaging model of in vivo strain tracking and ex vivo mechanical analysis to assess effects of mesh properties on repaired abdominal walls in a porcine model. We hypothesized that meshes with dissimilar mechanical properties compared to native tissue would alter abdominal wall mechanics more than better-matched meshes. Seven mini-pigs underwent ventral hernia creation and subsequent open repair with one of two heavyweight polypropylene meshes. Following mesh implantation with attached radio-opaque beads, fluoroscopic images were taken at insufflation pressures from 5 to 30 mmHg on postoperative days 0, 7, and 28. At 28 days, animals were euthanized and ex vivo mechanical testing performed on full-thickness samples across repaired abdominal walls. Testing was conducted on 13 mini-pig controls, and on meshes separately. Stiffness and anisotropy (the ratio of stiffness in the transverse versus craniocaudal directions) were assessed. 3D reconstructions of repaired abdominal walls showed stretch patterns. As pressure increased, both meshes expanded, with no differences between groups. Over time, meshes contracted 17.65% (Mesh A) and 0.12% (Mesh B; p = 0.06). Mesh mechanics showed that Mesh A deviated from anisotropic native tissue more than Mesh B. Compared to native tissue, Mesh A was stiffer both transversely and craniocaudally. Explanted repaired abdominal walls of both treatment groups were stiffer than native tissue. Repaired tissue became less anisotropic over time, as mesh properties prevailed over native abdominal wall properties. This technique assessed 3D stretch at the mesh level in vivo in a porcine model. While the abdominal wall expanded, mesh-ingrown areas contracted, potentially indicating stresses at mesh edges. Ex vivo mechanics demonstrate that repaired tissue adopts mesh properties, suggesting

  19. Ex vivo and in vivo coherent Raman imaging of the peripheral and central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Terry Brandon

    A hallmark of nervous system disorders is damage or degradation of the myelin sheath. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying myelin degeneration and repair represent one of the great challenges in medicine. This thesis work details the development and utilization of advanced optical imaging methods to gain insight into the structure and function of myelin in both healthy and diseased states in the in vivo environment. This first part of this thesis discusses ex vivo studies of the effects of high-frequency stimulation of spinal tissues on the structure of the node of Ranvier as investigated by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging (manuscript submitted to Journal of Neurosciece). Reversible paranodal myelin retraction at the nodes of Ranvier was observed during 200 Hz electrical stimulation, beginning minutes after the onset and continuing for up to 10 min after stimulation was ceased. A mechanistic study revealed a Ca2+ dependent pathway: high-frequency stimulation induced paranodal myelin retraction via pathologic calcium influx into axons, calpain activation, and cytoskeleton degradation through spectrin break-down. Also, the construction of dual-scanning CARS microscope for large area mapping of CNS tissues is detailed (Optics Express, 2008, 16:19396-193409). A confocal scanning head equipped with a rotating polygon mirror provides high speed, high resolution imaging and is coupled with a motorized sample stage to generate high-resolution large-area images of mouse brain coronal section and guinea pig spinal cord cross section. The polygon mirror decreases the mosaic acquisition time significantly without reducing the resolution of individual images. The ex vivo studies are then extended to in vivo imaging of mouse sciatic nerve tissue by CARS and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging (Journal of Microscopy, 2007, 225: 175-182). Following a minimally invasive surgery to open the skin, CARS imaging of myelinated axons and SHG imaging of the

  20. Avaliação e recondicionamento pulmonar ex vivo Ex vivo lung evaluation and reconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apenas 15% dos pulmões doados são aproveitados para transplante. Um novo método de Perfusão Pulmonar Ex Vivo (PPEV foi desenvolvido e pode ser usado para avaliação e recondicionamento de pulmões "marginais" e rejeitados para o transplante. Esse trabalho relata nossa experiência com a avaliação funcional da PPEV. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados pulmões de 12 doadores considerados inapropriados para transplante pulmonar. Após a captação, os pulmões são perfundidos ex vivo com Steen Solution, uma solução de composição eletrolítica extracelular com alta pressão coloidosmótica. Um oxigenador de membrana ligado ao circuito recebe uma mistura gasosa (nitrogênio e dióxido de carbono e "desoxigena" o perfusato, mantendo uma concentração de gases semelhante a do sangue venoso. Os pulmões são gradualmente aquecidos, perfundidos e ventilados. A avaliação dos órgãos é feita por gasometrias e medidas como a resistência vascular pulmonar (RVP e complacência pulmonar (CP. RESULTADOS: A PaO2 (FiO2 100% passou de um valor médio de 193,3 mmHg no doador para 495,3 mmHg durante a PPEV. Após uma hora de PPEV, a RVP média era de 737,3 dinas/seg/ cm5 e a CP era de 42,2 ml/cmH2O. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo de avaliação pulmonar ex vivo pode melhorar a capacidade de oxigenação de pulmões "marginais" inicialmente rejeitados para transplante. Isso denota um grande potencial do método para aumentar a disponibilidade de pulmões para transplante e, possivelmente, reduzir o tempo de espera nas filas.OBJECTIVE: Only about 15% of the potential candidates for lung donation are considered suitable for transplantation. A new method for ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP has been developed and can be used for evaluation and reconditioning of "marginal" and unacceptable lungs. This is a report of functional evaluation experience with ex vivo perfusion of twelve donor lungs deemed unacceptable in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: After harvesting, the

  1. A Multimodal, SU-8 - Platinum - Polyimide Microelectrode Array for Chronic In Vivo Neurophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Márton

    Full Text Available Utilization of polymers as insulator and bulk materials of microelectrode arrays (MEAs makes the realization of flexible, biocompatible sensors possible, which are suitable for various neurophysiological experiments such as in vivo detection of local field potential changes on the surface of the neocortex or unit activities within the brain tissue. In this paper the microfabrication of a novel, all-flexible, polymer-based MEA is presented. The device consists of a three dimensional sensor configuration with an implantable depth electrode array and brain surface electrodes, allowing the recording of electrocorticographic (ECoG signals with laminar ones, simultaneously. In vivo recordings were performed in anesthetized rat brain to test the functionality of the device under both acute and chronic conditions. The ECoG electrodes recorded slow-wave thalamocortical oscillations, while the implanted component provided high quality depth recordings. The implants remained viable for detecting action potentials of individual neurons for at least 15 weeks.

  2. Ex-vivo expansion of red blood cells: how real for transfusion in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Masselli, Elena; Varricchio, Lilian; Whitsett, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    Blood transfusion is indispensable for modern medicine. In developed countries, the blood supply is adequate and safe but blood for alloimmunized patients is often unavailable. Concerns are increasing that donations may become inadequate in the future as the population ages prompting a search for alternative transfusion products. Improvements in culture conditions and proof-of-principle studies in animal models have suggested that ex-vivo expanded red cells may represent such a product. Compared to other cell therapies transfusion poses the unique challenge of requiring great cell doses (2.5×10(12) cells vs 10(7) cells). Although production of such cell numbers is theoretically possible, current technologies generate red cells in numbers sufficient only for safety studies. It is conceived that by the time these studies will be completed, technical barriers to mass cell production will have been eliminated making transfusion with ex-vivo generated red cells a reality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Multi-layered Quantitative In Vivo Expression Atlas of the Podocyte Unravels Kidney Disease Candidate Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinschen, Markus M; Gödel, Markus; Grahammer, Florian; Zschiedrich, Stefan; Helmstädter, Martin; Kretz, Oliver; Zarei, Mostafa; Braun, Daniela A; Dittrich, Sebastian; Pahmeyer, Caroline; Schroder, Patricia; Teetzen, Carolin; Gee, HeonYung; Daouk, Ghaleb; Pohl, Martin; Kuhn, Elisa; Schermer, Bernhard; Küttner, Victoria; Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; Schiffer, Mario; Bergmann, Carsten; Krüger, Marcus; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Dengjel, Joern; Benzing, Thomas; Huber, Tobias B

    2018-05-22

    Damage to and loss of glomerular podocytes has been identified as the culprit lesion in progressive kidney diseases. Here, we combine mass spectrometry-based proteomics with mRNA sequencing, bioinformatics, and hypothesis-driven studies to provide a comprehensive and quantitative map of mammalian podocytes that identifies unanticipated signaling pathways. Comparison of the in vivo datasets with proteomics data from podocyte cell cultures showed a limited value of available cell culture models. Moreover, in vivo stable isotope labeling by amino acids uncovered surprisingly rapid synthesis of mitochondrial proteins under steady-state conditions that was perturbed under autophagy-deficient, disease-susceptible conditions. Integration of acquired omics dimensions suggested FARP1 as a candidate essential for podocyte function, which could be substantiated by genetic analysis in humans and knockdown experiments in zebrafish. This work exemplifies how the integration of multi-omics datasets can identify a framework of cell-type-specific features relevant for organ health and disease. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxygen restriction increases the infective potential of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro in Caco-2 cells and in vivo in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licht Tine

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in several food borne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases of disease. Increased understanding of the biology of this organism is important in the prevention of food borne listeriosis. The infectivity of Listeria monocytogenes ScottA, cultivated with and without oxygen restriction, was compared in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent protein labels were applied to allow certain identification of Listeria cells from untagged bacteria in in vivo samples, and to distinguish between cells grown under different conditions in mixed infection experiments. Results Infection of Caco-2 cells revealed that Listeria cultivated under oxygen-restricted conditions were approximately 100 fold more invasive than similar cultures grown without oxygen restriction. This was observed for exponentially growing bacteria, as well as for stationary-phase cultures. Oral dosage of guinea pigs with Listeria resulted in a significantly higher prevalence (p Listeria in fecal samples was observed after dosage with oxygen-restricted bacteria. These differences were seen after challenge with single Listeria cultures, as well as with a mixture of two cultures grown with and without oxygen restriction. Conclusion Our results show for the first time that the environmental conditions to which L. monocytogenes is exposed prior to ingestion are decisive for its in vivo infective potential in the gastrointestinal tract after passage of the gastric barrier. This is highly relevant for safety assessment of this organism in food.

  5. Imaging of oxygen gradients in giant umbrella cells: an ex vivo PLIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, A V; Golubeva, A V; Okkelman, I A; Cryan, J F; Papkovsky, D B

    2015-10-01

    O2 plays a pivotal role in aerobic metabolism and regulation of cell and tissue function. Local differences and fluctuations in tissue O2 levels are well documented; however, the physiological significance of O2 microgradients, particularly at the subcellular level, remains poorly understood. Using the cell-penetrating phosphorescent O2 probe Pt-Glc and confocal fluorescence microscopy, we visualized O2 distribution in individual giant (>100-μm) umbrella cells located superficially in the urinary bladder epithelium. We optimized conditions for in vivo phosphorescent staining of the inner surface of the mouse bladder and subsequent ex vivo analysis of excised live tissue. Imaging experiments revealed significant (≤85 μM) and heterogeneous deoxygenation within respiring umbrella cells, with radial O2 gradients of up to 40 μM across the cell, or ∼0.6 μM/μm. Deeply deoxygenated (5-15 μM O2) regions were seen to correspond to the areas enriched with polarized mitochondria. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial respiration decreased oxygenation and O2 gradients in umbrella cells, while inhibition with antimycin A dissipated the gradients and caused gradual reoxygenation of the tissue to ambient levels. Detailed three-dimensional maps of O2 distribution potentially can be used for the modeling of intracellular O2-dependent enzymatic reactions and downstream processes, such as hypoxia-inducible factor signaling. Further ex vivo and in vivo studies on intracellular and tissue O2 gradients using confocal imaging can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating O2-dependent (patho)physiological processes in the bladder and other tissues. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. 5-HT4 receptors mediating enhancement of contractility in canine stomach; an in vitro and in vivo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, NH; van der Grijn, A; Lefebvre, RA; Akkermans, LMA; Schuurkes, JAJ

    1 We aimed to study 5-HT4 receptors in canine stomach contractility both in vivo and in vitro. 2 In anaesthetized Beagle dogs, the selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist prucalopride (i.v.) induced dose-dependent tonic stomach contractions under isobaric conditions, an effect that was antagonized by the

  7. In vitro and in vivo safety evaluation of Dipteryx alata Vogel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteves-Pedro Natália

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dipteryx alata Vogel popularly known as "baru" is an important commercial leguminous tree species from the Brazilian Cerrado, which possess medicinal properties, besides its fruits consumption by animals and humans. The use of the "naturally occurring plants" as herbal remedies and foods mainly from leaves, seeds, flowers and roots of plants or extracts require precautions before ensuring these are safe and efficacious. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of D. alata barks extract. Methods Vegetal drugs of D. alata barks were submitted to quality control assays and further to the safety assays under 1 in vitro parameter by Salmonella (Ames mutagenicity, and 2 in vivo parameter on the pregnancy of rats. Results The extract was non-mutagenic to any of the assessed strains TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 even after metabolic activation (+S9. All in vivo parameters (reproductive ability evaluation, physical development of rat offsprings, and neurobehavioral development assays showed no changes related to control group. Conclusion D. alata barks extract is neither mutagenic by the Ames test nor toxic in the pregnancy of rats, with no physical-neurobehavioral consequences on the rat offsprings development.

  8. A Probabilistic Approach to Conditional Reasoning Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, In-mao; Chou, Ting-hsi

    2015-01-01

    How likely is the glass to break, given that it is heated? The present study asks questions such as this with or without the premise "if the glass is heated, it breaks." A reduced problem (question without premise) measures the statistical dependency (conditional probability) of an event to occur, given that another has occurred. Such…

  9. In Vivo Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    In nature, entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate parasites of insects. The nematodes are used widely as biopesticides for suppression of insect pests. More than a dozen entomopathogenic nematode species have been commercialized for use in biological control. Most nematodes intended for commercial application are produced in artificial media via solid or liquid fermentation. However, for laboratory research and small greenhouse or field trials, in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes is the common method of propagation. Additionally, small companies continue to produce nematodes using in vivo methods for application in niche markets. Advances in mechanization and alternative production routes (e.g., production geared toward application of nematodes in infected host cadavers) can improve efficiency and economy of scale. The objective of this chapter is to describe basic and advanced procedures for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes.

  10. Radio-marking and in vivo imagery of oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnast, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis is part of activities aimed at the development of new molecules like oligonucleotides. Its first objective was the development and validation of a marking method with fluorine-18 of oligonucleotides for their in-vivo pharmacological assessment with positron emission tomography (PET). Further investigations addressed the use of iodine-125 for oligonucleotide marking purpose. This radio-marking, and in vivo and ex vivo imagery techniques are described, and their potential is highlighted for the pharmacological assessment of different oligonucleotides

  11. In Vivo Monitoring Program Manual, PNL-MA-574

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Timothy P.

    2010-07-01

    An overview of the administration for the In Vivo Monitoring Program (IVMP) for Hanford. This includes organizational structure and program responsibilities; coordination of in vivo measurements; scheduling measurements; performing measurements; reporting results; and quality assurance. Overall responsibility for the management of the IVMP rests with the Program Manager (PM). The PM is responsible for providing the required in vivo counting services for Hanford Site contractor employees in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and the specific statements of work.

  12. Comparison of five in vitro digestion models to in vivo experimental results: Lead bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Oomen, A.G.; Wragg, J.; Cave, M.; Minekus, M.; Hack, A.; Cornelis, C.; Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Zwart, L.L. de; Klinck, B.; Wijnen, J. van; Verstraete, W.; Sips, A.J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-laboratory comparison study of in vitro models assessing bioaccessibility of soil-bound lead in the human gastrointestinal tract under simulated fasted and fed conditions. Oral bioavailability data from a previous human in vivo study on the same soil served as a reference

  13. The tumble occurred after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization: an investigation and analysis of its causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shuping; Li Xiaofang; Zheng Chuansheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and analyze the cause of the tumble which occurs after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), and to discuss its related factors. Methods: During the period from January 2003 to February 2010 in the Department of Interventional Radiology of Union Hospital (Wuhan city), post-TACE tumble occurred in 28 patients. The causes of the tumble were investigated and analyzed. Results: (1) The total number of the tumble occurrence after TACE was declining with the year. (2) Certain relationship existed between the occurrence of post-TACE tumble and the patient's age, drugs used in surgery, unit environment, nurse's shift, etc. Conclusion: Based on the patient's individual condition, intentionally enhancing the perioperative nursing care and adjusting the nurse's shift are very important measures to prevent the occurrence of post-TACE tumble. (authors)

  14. Remote in vivo stress assessment of aquatic animals with microencapsulated biomarkers for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkov, Anton; Shchapova, Ekaterina; Bedulina, Daria; Baduev, Boris; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Meglinski, Igor; Timofeyev, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Remote in vivo scanning of physiological parameters is a major trend in the development of new tools for the fields of medicine and animal physiology. For this purpose, a variety of implantable optical micro- and nanosensors have been designed for potential medical applications. At the same time, the important area of environmental sciences has been neglected in the development of techniques for remote physiological measurements. In the field of environmental monitoring and related research, there is a constant demand for new effective and quick techniques for the stress assessment of aquatic animals, and the development of proper methods for remote physiological measurements in vivo may significantly increase the precision and throughput of analyses in this field. In the present study, we apply pH-sensitive microencapsulated biomarkers to remotely monitor the pH of haemolymph in vivo in endemic amphipods from Lake Baikal, and we compare the suitability of this technique for stress assessment with that of common biochemical methods. For the first time, we demonstrate the possibility of remotely detecting a change in a physiological parameter in an aquatic organism under ecologically relevant stressful conditions and show the applicability of techniques using microencapsulated biomarkers for remote physiological measurements in environmental monitoring.

  15. In vivo and in vitro binding assay of 153Sm-EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daming; Wang Yuqing; Jin Xiaohai; Fan Hongqiang; Bai Hongsheng; Jia Bin; Zhang Jingming

    1999-01-01

    With the waters ultra hydrogel TM 120 μm hplc column (7.7 mm x 300 mm), several experiments have been finished, including the in vitro binding assay of 153 Sm-EDTMP, 153 SmCl 3 with the Cys, BSA, mouse plasma; HPLC analysis of the urine and the extracting solution of liver homogenate after having injected the 153 Sm-EDTMP and 153 SmCl 3 2h; HPLC analysis of the production ( 153 Sm-EDTMP) radiation self-decomposition with large dose. For the HPLC analysis, the condition is the mobile phase of 0.85 mol/mL PBS (pH7.5), flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, sampling of 15 μL. The results are following: (1) The 153 SmCl 3 not only is able to bind with the mouse plasma in vitro, but also is able to be absorbed by liver in vivo; (2) 153 Sm-EDTMP is not bind with the mouse plasma, the Cys and BSA in vitro and vivo; 153 Sm-EDTMP is not found in the extracted solution of liver homogenate at n(EDTMP): n(Sm) ≥ 5:1; 153 Sm-EDTMP is not decomposed in the urine, 1 53 Sm-EDTMP is stable in vivo; (3) 153 Sm-EDTMP radiation self-decomposition is not detected with large dose in the term of validity (6 d), but two small degradation peaks have been found in the production solution after 60 d, the radiochemistry purity of production is always great than 98% during the period

  16. Endoscopic Cerenkov luminescence imaging: in vivo small animal tumor model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianming; Bao, Chengpeng; Hu, Zhenhua; Wang, Kun; Liu, Xia; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Background: Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) provides a great potential for clinical translation of optical molecular imaging techniques through using clinical approved radiotracers. However, it is difficult to obtain the Cerenkov luminescence signal of deeper biological tissues due to the small magnitude of the signal. To efficiently acquire the weak Cerenkov luminescence, we developed an endoscopic Cerenkov luminescence imaging (ECLI) system to reduce the in vivo imaging depth with minimum invasion, and validated the system on small animal tumor models. Methods: For the ECLI system, the laparoscope was connected to a high sensitive charge-couple device (CCD) camera (DU888+, Andor, UK) by a custom made adapter. We conducted a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments by use of the system. In the in vitro experiment, the endoscopic luminescence images of the 18F-FDG with various activities in EP tubes were acquired using ECLI system, and the sensitivity was compared with conventional CLI system. In the in vivo tumor experiment, 18F-FDG with the activity of 200μCi were intravenously injected into 3 tumor mice. Then the ECLI system was used to acquire the optical images for both non-invasive and invasive conditions. Conclusion: Experimental data showed the ECLI system could detect the 18F-FDG with the activity as low as 1μCi. Furthermore, our preliminary results indicated the possibility of ECLI technique for detecting Cerenkov signals inside the tumor tissue with deeper depth and guiding the surgical operation of tumor excision. We believe that this technique can help to accelerate the clinical translation of CLI.

  17. Transparent soil microcosms allow 3D spatial quantification of soil microbiological processes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Helen F; Valentine, Tracy A; Otten, Wilfred; Spiers, Andrew J; Dupuy, Lionel X

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed transparent soil consists of particles of Nafion, a polymer with a low refractive index (RI), which is prepared by milling and chemical treatment for use as a soil analog. After the addition of a RI-matched solution, confocal imaging can be carried out in vivo and without destructive sampling. In a previous study, we showed that the new substrate provides a good approximation of plant growth conditions found in natural soils. In this paper, we present further development of the techniques for detailed quantitative analysis of images of root-microbe interactions in situ. Using this system it was possible for the first time to analyze bacterial distribution along the roots and in the bulk substrate in vivo. These findings indicate that the coupling of transparent soil with light microscopy is an important advance toward the discovery of the mechanisms of microbial colonisation of the rhizosphere.

  18. Energy conditions and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, a number of theorems are proven which collectively show that singularities will occur in spacetime under weaker energy conditions than the strong energy condition. In particular, the Penrose theorem, which uses only the weak energy condition but which applies only to open universes, is extended to all closed universes which have a Cauchy surface whose universal covering manifold is not a three-sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the strong energy condition in the Hawking-Penrose theorem can be replaced by the weak energy condition and the assumption that the strong energy condition holds only on the average. In addition, it is demonstrated that if the Universe is closed, then the existence of singularities follows from the averaged strong energy condition alone. It is argued that any globally hyperbolic spacetime which satisfies the weak energy condition and which contains a black hole must be null geodesically incomplete

  19. The correlation of in vivo and ex vivo tissue dielectric properties to validate electromagnetic breast imaging: initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, Ryan J; Zhou, Tian; Meaney, Paul M; Hartov, Alex; Barth, Richard J Jr; Rosenkranz, Kari M; Wells, Wendy A; Kogel, Christine A; Borsic, Andrea; Rizzo, Elizabeth J; Paulsen, Keith D

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) breast imaging provides low-cost, safe and potentially a more specific modality for cancer detection than conventional imaging systems. A primary difficulty in validating these EM imaging modalities is that the true dielectric property values of the particular breast being imaged are not readily available on an individual subject basis. Here, we describe our initial experience in seeking to correlate tomographic EM imaging studies with discrete point spectroscopy measurements of the dielectric properties of breast tissue. The protocol we have developed involves measurement of in vivo tissue properties during partial and full mastectomy procedures in the operating room (OR) followed by ex vivo tissue property recordings in the same locations in the excised tissue specimens in the pathology laboratory immediately after resection. We have successfully applied all of the elements of this validation protocol in a series of six women with cancer diagnoses. Conductivity and permittivity gauged from ex vivo samples over the frequency range 100 Hz–8.5 GHz are found to be similar to those reported in the literature. A decrease in both conductivity and permittivity is observed when these properties are gauged from ex vivo samples instead of in vivo. We present these results in addition to a case study demonstrating how discrete point spectroscopy measurements of the tissue can be correlated and used to validate EM imaging studies

  20. Isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast from lung tissue during murine infection for in vivo transcriptional profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Amber J; Wüthrich, Marcel; Carmen, John C; Sullivan, Thomas D; Klein, Bruce S; Cuomo, Christina A; Gauthier, Gregory M

    2013-07-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis belongs to a group of thermally dimorphic fungi that grow as sporulating mold in the soil and convert to pathogenic yeast in the lung following inhalation of spores. Knowledge about the molecular events important for fungal adaptation and survival in the host remains limited. The development of high-throughput analytic tools such as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has potential to provide novel insight on fungal pathogenesis especially if applied in vivo during infection. However, in vivo transcriptional profiling is hindered by the low abundance of fungal cells relative to mammalian tissue and difficulty in isolating fungal cells from the tissues they infect. For the purpose of obtaining B. dermatitidis RNA for in vivo transcriptional analysis by RNA-Seq, we developed a simple technique for isolating yeast from murine lung tissue. Using a two-step approach of filtration and centrifugation following lysis of murine lung cells, 91% of yeast cells causing infection were isolated from lung tissue. B. dermatitidis recovered from the lung yielded high-quality RNA with minimal murine contamination and was suitable for RNA-Seq. Approximately 87% of the sequencing reads obtained from the recovered yeast aligned with the B. dermatitidis genome. This was similar to 93% alignment for yeast grown in vitro. The use of near-freezing temperature along with short ex vivo time minimized transcriptional changes that would have otherwise occurred with higher temperature or longer processing time. In conclusion, we have developed a technique that recovers the majority of yeast causing pulmonary infection and yields high-quality fungal RNA with minimal contamination by mammalian RNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Response of RIF-1 Fibrosarcomas to the Vascular-Disrupting Agent ZD6126 Assessed by In Vivo and Ex Vivo1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basetti Madhu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma1 (RIF-1 tumors treated with the vascular-disrupting agent (VDA ZD6126 was assessed by in vivo and ex vivo1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS methods. Tumors treated with 200 mg/kg ZD6126 showed a significant reduction in total choline (tCho in vivo 24 hours after treatment, whereas control tumors showed a significant increase in tCho. This response was investigated further within both ex vivo unprocessed tumor tissues and tumor tissue metabolite extracts. Ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS and 1H MRS of metabolite extracts revealed a significant reduction in phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine in biopsies of ZD6126-treated tumors, confirming in vivo tCho response. ZD6126-induced reduction in choline compounds is consistent with a reduction in cell membrane turnover associated with necrosis and cell death following disruption of the tumor vasculature. In vivo tumor tissue water diffusion and lactate measurements showed no significant changes in response to ZD6126. Spin-spin relaxation times (T2 of water and metabolites also remained unchanged. Noninvasive 1H MRS measurement of tCho in vivo provides a potential biomarker of tumor response to VDAs in RIF-1 tumors.

  2. Intracellular trafficking of the free cholesterol derived from LDL cholesteryl ester is defective in vivo in Niemann-Pick C disease: insights on normal metabolism of HDL and LDL gained from the NP-C mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamburek, R D; Pentchev, P G; Zech, L A; Blanchette-Mackie, J; Carstea, E D; VandenBroek, J M; Cooper, P S; Neufeld, E B; Phair, R D; Brewer, H B; Brady, R O; Schwartz, C C

    1997-12-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NP-C) is a rare inborn error of metabolism with hepatic involvement and neurological sequelae that usually manifest in childhood. Although in vitro studies have shown that the lysosomal distribution of LDL-derived cholesterol is defective in cultured cells of NP-C subjects, no unusual characteristics mark the plasma lipoprotein profiles. We set out to determine whether anomalies exist in vivo in the cellular distribution of newly synthesized, HDL-derived or LDL-derived cholesterol under physiologic conditions in NP-C subjects. Three affected and three normal male subjects were administered [14C]mevalonate as a tracer of newly synthesized cholesterol and [3H]cholesteryl linoleate in either HDL or LDL to trace the distribution of lipoprotein-derived free cholesterol. The rate of appearance of free [14C]- and free [3H]cholesterol in the plasma membrane was detected indirectly by monitoring their appearance in plasma and bile. The plasma disappearance of [3H]cholesteryl linoleate was slightly faster in NP-C subjects regardless of its lipoprotein origin. Appearance of free [14C] cholesterol ill the plasma (and in bile) was essentially identical in normal and affected individuals as was the initial appearance of free [3H]cholesterol derived from HDL, observed before extensive exchange occurred of the [3H]cholesteryl linoleate among lipoproteins. In contrast, the rate of appearance of LDL-derived free [3H]cholesterol in the plasma membrane of NP-C subjects, as detected in plasma and bile, was retarded to a similar extent that LDL cholesterol metabolism was defective in cultured fibroblasts of these affected subjects. These findings show that intracellular distribution of both newly synthesized and HDL-derived cholesterol are essentially unperturbed by the NP-C mutation, and therefore occur by lysosomal-independent paths. In contrast, in NP-C there is defective trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol to the plasma membrane in vivo as well as in vitro

  3. Transcriptomal profiling of bovine ovarian granulosa and theca interna cells in primary culture in comparison with their in vivo counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Hatzirodos

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of ovarian granulosa cells and theca cells has been very important for our understanding of their function and regulation. One of the most eagerly sought attributes of cell culture is the use of chemically-defined conditions. However, even under such in vitro conditions cell behaviour could differ from the in vivo situation because of differences in oxygen tension, nutrients, adhesion matrix and other factors. To examine this further we compared the transcriptomes of both granulosa cells and cells from the theca interna that were cultured in what are arguably the best in vitro conditions for maintaining the 'follicular' phenotypes of both tissue types, as displayed by their respective freshly-isolated counterparts. The array data analysed are from recently published data and use the same sizes of bovine follicles (small antral 3-6 mm and the same Affymetrix arrays. We conducted analysis using Partek, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and GOEAST. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering clearly separated the in vivo from the in vitro groups for both cells types and transcriptomes were more homogeneous upon culture. In both cell cultures behaviours associated with cell adhesion, migration and interaction with matrix or substrate were more abundant. However, the pathways involved generally differed between the two cell types. With the thecal cultures a gene expression signature of an immune response was more abundant, probably by leukocytes amongst the cells cultured from the theca interna. These results indicate differences between in vivo and in vitro that should be considered when interpreting in vitro data.

  4. In vivo thermoluminescent dosimetry on the radiotherapy of limphomas, esophageal and uterine tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study between dose distribution in pre-selected tumoral plans was established through measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters and calculations based on 'scatter-air-ratios' properties, isodose curves and collected data. Clinic dosimetry was performed 'in vivo' with LiF dosimeters (TLD-100) and LiF Teflon (1 mm theta, 6 mm lenght). Patients with Hodgkin's disease, carcinoma of the esophagus and of the uterine cervix were selected. Telecobaltherapy was used for these groups of neoplasic conditions. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. 210Pb in bone in vivo - a biodosimeter for assessing uranium miner radon progeny exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Hoover, M.D.; Leggett, R.W.; Laurer, G.R.; Lambert, W.E.; Coons, T.A.; Gilliland, F.D.

    2002-01-01

    A joint analysis of the results of 11 epidemiological studies of lung cancer among uranium miners has shown a significant level of variability in the relative risk per unit of exposure - in the range of a factor of 30 (Lubin et al., 1994). A significant fraction of the uncertainty associated with these risk coefficients may be due to differences in the methods and quality of data used in calculating cumulative exposures, in WLM, for the various miner populations. We hypothesize that in vivo measurement of 210 Pb, a long-lived radon decay product that is retained in bone, will provide an improved measure of Rn progeny exposures received by individual miners during their mining careers. To accomplish such in vivo measurements, the lovelace in vivo bioassay facility (LIVBF) was modified to obtain an optimized counting geometry for measuring 210 Pb in the skull. Six 12.7 cm diameter phoswich detectors were positioned about the head of a reclining subject (one in the posterior, and one in the anterior position, and four about the mid-sagittal plane), and photon emission from the skull was measured using anticoincidence multichannel analysis electronics. We analyzed the in vivo data from about 90 former uranium miners from the grants mining district, and compared the recorded WLM exposures for each uranium miner (data from the UNM epidemiological data base) with a WLM exposure calculated using a model developed specifically for this study. This model couples a Pb biokinetic model with the ICRP publication 66 respiratory tract dosimetry model. The analyses show that the independent measurements of exposure are statistically correlated, but with a large degree of variability occurring among individual values, and that a major source of uncertainty in mining exposure estimation is the uncertainty involved in accounting for non-mining sources of 210 Pb. (orig.)

  6. Differences in the Electrophysiological Properties of Mouse Somatosensory Layer 2/3 Neurons In Vivo and Slice Stem from Intrinsic Sources Rather than a Network-Generated High Conductance State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Synaptic activity in vivo can potentially alter the integration properties of neurons. Using recordings in awake mice, we targeted somatosensory layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons and compared neuronal properties with those from slices. Pyramidal cells in vivo had lower resistance and gain values, as well as broader spikes and increased spike frequency adaptation compared to the same cells in slices. Increasing conductance in neurons using dynamic clamp to levels observed in vivo, however, did not lessen the differences between in vivo and slice conditions. Further, local application of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in vivo blocked synaptic-mediated membrane voltage fluctuations but had little impact on pyramidal cell membrane input resistance and time constant values. Differences in electrophysiological properties of layer 2/3 neurons in mouse somatosensory cortex, therefore, stem from intrinsic sources separate from synaptic-mediated membrane voltage fluctuations. PMID:29662946

  7. Ex-Vivo Cow Skin Viscoelastic Effect for Tribological Aspects in Endoprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhi, K. A.; Tudor, A.; Hussein, E. K.; Wahad, H.; Chisiu, G.

    2018-01-01

    The viscoelastic behavior of ex-vivo cow skin was experimentally studied by applied load from different indenter types (circle, square and triangle, all types have the same area) for different times (10 sec, 30 sec, and 60 sec). The viscoelastic tests were carried out using a UMT series (UMT-II, CETR Corporation). The experimental results collected at different operating conditions showed that the cow skin has a higher reaction against the triangle indenter compared to the other shapes. Whereas the hysteresis of cow skin was lower at low applied load time and it's increased when the time increased.

  8. UV induced DNA-protein cross links in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornhauser, A.

    1976-01-01

    The review was not intended to cover all the past year's literature in this field; only selective material published in 1974 and 1975 has been surveyed. Covalent linkage of DNA and RNA to proteins induced by UV is considered, but DNA-membrade attachment, amino acids covalently bound to DNA as functions of growth conditions and protein non-covalently bound to DNA involved in cell regulation are excluded. Studies of DNA-protein cross-links upon UV irradiation in chemical model systems, bacteria and tissue culture systems, and an in vivo mammalian system are all surveyed. (U.K.)

  9. In vivo multiphoton imaging of bile duct ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Feng-Chieh; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Chang, Po-shou; Yang, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    Bile is the exocrine secretion of liver and synthesized by hepatocytes. It is drained into duodenum for the function of digestion or drained into gallbladder for of storage. Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. However, Bile duct ligation results in the changes of bile acids in serum, liver, urine, and feces1, 2. In this work, we demonstrate a novel technique to image this pathological condition by using a newly developed in vivo imaging system, which includes multiphoton microscopy and intravital hepatic imaging chamber. The images we acquired demonstrate the uptake, processing of 6-CFDA in hepatocytes and excretion of CF in the bile canaliculi. In addition to imaging, we can also measure kinetics of the green fluorescence intensity.

  10. Nanodiamond for biolabelling and toxicity evaluation in the zebrafish embryo in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-C; Wu, K-T; Lin, Z-R; Perevedentseva, E; Karmenyan, A; Lin, M-D; Cheng, C-L

    2016-08-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) has been proposed for various biomedical applications, including bioimaging, biosensing and drug delivery, owing to its physical-chemical properties and biocompatibility. Particularly, ND has been demonstrated as fluorescence- and Raman-detectable labels in many cellular models. Different surface functionalization methods have been developed, varying the ND's surface properties and rendering the possibility to attach biomolecules to provide interaction with biological targets. For this, toxicity is of major concern in animal models. Aside from cellular models, a cost-effective animal test will greatly facilitate the development of applications. In this study, we use the rapid, sensitive and reproducible zebrafish embryo model for in vivo nanotoxicity test. We optimize the conditions for using this animal model and analyze the zebrafish embryonic development in the presence of ND. ND is observed in the embryo in vivo using laser confocal fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Using the zebrafish model for a safety evaluation of ND-based nanolabel is discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ex vivo rabbit cornea diffusion studies with a soluble insert of moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Morelló, María; Calatayud-Pascual, María Aracely; Rodilla, Vicent; Balaguer-Fernández, Cristina; López-Castellano, Alicia

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate an ocular insert for the controlled drug delivery of moxifloxacin which could perhaps be used in the treatment of corneal keratitis or even bacterial endophthalmitis. We have evaluated the ex vivo ocular diffusion of moxifloxacin through rabbit cornea, both fresh and preserved under different conditions. Histological studies were also carried out. Subsequently, drug matrix inserts were prepared using bioadhesive polymers. The inserts were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters. Ophthalmic ex vivo permeation of moxifloxacin was carried out with the most promising insert. The formulate insert was thin and provided higher ocular diffusion than commercial formulations. Ocular diffusion studies revealed significant differences between fresh and frozen corneas. Histological examinations also showed differences in the thickness of stroma between fresh and frozen corneas. The ophthalmic insert we have developed allows a larger quantity of moxifloxacin to permeate through the cornea than existing commercial formulations of the drug. Ocular delivery of moxifloxacin with this insert could be a new approach for the treatment of eye diseases.

  12. Ex-vivo machine perfusion for kidney preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Matyas; Selzner, Markus

    2018-06-01

    Machine perfusion is a novel strategy to decrease preservation injury, improve graft assessment, and increase organ acceptance for transplantation. This review summarizes the current advances in ex-vivo machine-based kidney preservation technologies over the last year. Ex-vivo perfusion technologies, such as hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion and controlled oxygenated rewarming, have gained high interest in the field of organ preservation. Keeping kidney grafts functionally and metabolically active during the preservation period offers a unique chance for viability assessment, reconditioning, and organ repair. Normothermic ex-vivo kidney perfusion has been recently translated into clinical practice. Preclinical results suggest that prolonged warm perfusion appears superior than a brief end-ischemic reconditioning in terms of renal function and injury. An established standardized protocol for continuous warm perfusion is still not available for human grafts. Ex-vivo machine perfusion represents a superior organ preservation method over static cold storage. There is still an urgent need for the optimization of the perfusion fluid and machine technology and to identify the optimal indication in kidney transplantation. Recent research is focusing on graft assessment and therapeutic strategies.

  13. Methods of in-vivo mouse lung micro-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Nixon, Earl; Thiesse, Jacqueline; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ross, Alan; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Micro-CT will have a profound influence on the accumulation of anatomical and physiological phenotypic changes in natural and transgenetic mouse models. Longitudinal studies will be greatly facilitated, allowing for a more complete and accurate description of events if in-vivo studies are accomplished. The purpose of the ongoing project is to establish a feasible and reproducible setup for in-vivo mouse lung micro-computed tomography (μCT). We seek to use in-vivo respiratory-gated μCT to follow mouse models of lung disease with subsequent recovery of the mouse. Methodologies for optimizing scanning parameters and gating for the in-vivo mouse lung are presented. A Scireq flexiVent ventilated the gas-anesthetized mice at 60 breaths/minute, 30 cm H20 PEEP, 30 ml/kg tidal volume and provided a respiratory signal to gate a Skyscan 1076 μCT. Physiologic monitoring allowed the control of vital functions and quality of anesthesia, e.g. via ECG monitoring. In contrary to longer exposure times with ex-vivo scans, scan times for in-vivo were reduced using 35μm pixel size, 158ms exposure time and 18μm pixel size, 316ms exposure time to reduce motion artifacts. Gating via spontaneous breathing was also tested. Optimal contrast resolution was achieved at 50kVp, 200μA, applying an aluminum filter (0.5mm). There were minimal non-cardiac related motion artifacts. Both 35μm and 1μm voxel size images were suitable for evaluation of the airway lumen and parenchymal density. Total scan times were 30 and 65 minutes respectively. The mice recovered following scanning protocols. In-vivo lung scanning with recovery of the mouse delivered reasonable image quality for longitudinal studies, e.g. mouse asthma models. After examining 10 mice, we conclude μCT is a feasible tool evaluating mouse models of lung pathology in longitudinal studies with increasing anatomic detail available for evaluation as one moves from in-vivo to ex-vivo studies. Further developments include automated

  14. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  15. In vitro⿿in vivo performance of bare and drug loaded silica gel synthesized via optimized process parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suparna; Biswas, Supratim

    2016-01-01

    Silica xerogel as a potential drug carrier system for the in vivo as well as in vitro delivery of andrographolide was tested. The present study aims to optimize the effective experimental parameters; volume of ethanol, volume of water and drying temperature by applying response surface methodology coupled with Box⿿Behnken experimental design. The in vitro drug release in simulated body fluid at 37 οC from the selected formulation was significantly highest (44.83 ± 0.9%) among rest of the formulations. Results indicate that sol⿿gel method is useful for entrapping andrographolide in the silica gel and for releasing the same via diffusion through the porous matrix under the in vitro/in vivo conditions. Silica gel exhibited slow matrix degradation as well as sustained release of andrographolide within the experimental time frame of 168 h. In vivo study was performed with three increasing doses [2 mg (S1), 8 mg (S2), and 16 mg (S3)] of silica. Histological fates of different organs were executed with those doses.

  16. DNA damage in lens epithelium of cataract patients in vivo and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øsnes-Ringen, Oyvind; Azqueta, Amaia O; Moe, Morten C; Zetterström, Charlotta; Røger, Magnus; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Collins, Andrew R

    2013-11-01

    DNA damage has been described in the human cataractous lens epithelium, and oxidative stress generated by UV radiation and endogenous metabolic processes has been suggested to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of cataract. In this study, the aim was to explore the quality and relative quantity of DNA damage in lens epithelium of cataract patients in vivo and after incubation in a cell culture system. Capsulotomy specimens were analysed, before and after 1 week of ex vivo cultivation, using the comet assay to measure DNA strand breaks, oxidized purine and pyrimidine bases and UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. DNA strand breaks were barely detectable, oxidized pyrimidines and pyrimidine dimers were present at low levels, whereas there was a relatively high level of oxidized purines, which further increased after cultivation. The observed levels of oxidized purines in cataractous lens epithelium may support a theory consistent with light damage and oxidative stress as mediators of molecular damage to the human lens epithelium. Damage commonly associated with UV-B irradiation was relatively low. The levels of oxidized purines increased further in a commonly used culture system. This is of interest considering the importance and versatility of ex vivo systems in studies exploring the pathogenesis of cataract. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  17. Vivo-morpholinos induced transient knockdown of physical activity related proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Ferguson

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with disease prevention and overall wellbeing. Additionally there has been evidence that physical activity level is a result of genetic influence. However, there has not been a reliable method to silence candidate genes in vivo to determine causal mechanisms of physical activity regulation. Vivo-morpholinos are a potential method to transiently silence specific genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to validate the use of Vivo-morpholinos in a mouse model for voluntary physical activity with several sub-objectives. We observed that Vivo-morpholinos achieved between 60-97% knockdown of Drd1-, Vmat2-, and Glut4-protein in skeletal muscle, the delivery moiety of Vivo-morpholinos (scramble did not influence physical activity and that a cocktail of multiple Vivo-morpholinos can be given in a single treatment to achieve protein knockdown of two different targeted proteins in skeletal muscle simultaneously. Knocking down Drd1, Vmat2, or Glut4 protein in skeletal muscle did not affect physical activity. Vivo-morpholinos injected intravenously alone did not significantly knockdown Vmat2-protein expression in the brain (p = 0.28. However, the use of a bradykinin analog to increase blood-brain-barrier permeability in conjunction with the Vivo-morpholinos significantly (p = 0.0001 decreased Vmat2-protein in the brain with a corresponding later over-expression of Vmat2 coincident with a significant (p = 0.0016 increase in physical activity. We conclude that Vivo-morpholinos can be a valuable tool in determining causal gene-phenotype relationships in whole animal models.

  18. Gadolinium-enhanced 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging assessment of the aqueous inflow in rat eyes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Yuan, Yuxiang; Chen, Liwen; Li, Mu; Ji, Pingting; Gong, Jieling; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Hong

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to calculate the anterior chamber volume and assess aqueous inflow in rat eyes in vivo, under anesthetic condition. Gadolinium-contrast agent (Gd-DTPA, 234.5 mg/ml) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rat eyes via anterior chamber injection or instillation of 234.5 or 117.25 mg/ml Gd-DTPA in 0.2% azone as eye drops, and changes of Gd signal visualized by 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The safety of local application of Gd-DTPA and azone were performed after MRI scanning. The anterior chamber injection of Gd-DTPA (234.5 mg/ml) group was used for anterior chamber volume and aqueous inflow calculating. Serial changes in Gd-DTPA relative concentration in the anterior chamber was determined based on the initial Gd signal gray values and the initial relative concentration of Gd-DTPA after anterior chamber Gd-DTPA injection. The mean aqueous inflow in rat eyes in vivo was assessed based on changes in Gd-DTPA relative concentration and the anterior chamber volume. Eye drops of Gd-DTPA (234.5 mg/ml) in 0.2% azone readily allowed safe assessment of the aqueous inflow by 7.0 T MRI. Under anesthetic condition in vivo, the mean anterior chamber volume (ACV) in rats was 8493.6 ± 657.4 μm 3 , no differences were observed in the aqueous inflow measured by topical instillation of 234.5 mg/ml Gd-DTPA in 0.2% azone (0.182 ± 0.011 μl/min) between that measured by anterior chamber injection (0.165 ± 0.041 μl/min, P > 0.05), Timolol reduced aqueous inflow to 0.124 ± 0.020 μl/min (P DTPA can be assessed by the variability of relative concentration of Gd-DTPA in anterior chamber and ACV in vivo, under anesthetic condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vivo dosimetry in radiation therapy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jacob; Blomquist, Michael

    2010-07-01

    A prerequisite for achieving high radiation safety for patients receiving external beam radiation therapy is that the hospitals have a quality assurance program. The program should include include monitoring of the radiation dose given to the patient. Control measurements are performed both at the system level and at the individual level. Control measurement is normally performed using in vivo dosimetry, e.g. a method to measure the radiation dose at the individual level during the actual radiation treatment time. In vivo dosimetry has proven to be an important tool to detect and prevent serious errors in patient treatment. The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent to which vivo dosimetry is used and the methods available for this at Swedish radiation therapy clinics. The authority also wanted to get an overall picture of how hospitals manage results of in vivo dosimetry, and how clinics control radiation dose when using modern treatment techniques. The report reflects the situation in Swedish radiotherapy clinics 2007. The report shows that all hospitals use some form of in vivo dosimetry. The instruments used are mainly diodes and termoluminiscence dosimeters

  1. In vivo endoscopic multi-beam optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standish, Beau A; Mariampillai, Adrian; Munce, Nigel R; Leung, Michael K K; Vitkin, I Alex [Deptartment of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Lee, Kenneth K C; Yang, Victor X D [Ontario Cancer Institute/University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)], E-mail: standish@ee.ryerson.ca

    2010-02-07

    A multichannel optical coherence tomography (multi-beam OCT) system and an in vivo endoscopic imaging probe were developed using a swept-source OCT system. The distal optics were micro-machined to produce a high numerical aperture, multi-focus fibre optic array. This combination resulted in a transverse design resolution of <10 {mu}m full width half maximum (FWHM) throughout the entire imaging range, while also increasing the signal intensity within the focus of the individual channels. The system was used in a pre-clinical rabbit study to acquire in vivo structural images of the colon and ex vivo images of the oesophagus and trachea. A good correlation between the structural multi-beam OCT images and H and E histology was achieved, demonstrating the feasibility of this high-resolution system and its potential for in vivo human endoscopic imaging.

  2. In vivo endoscopic multi-beam optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standish, Beau A; Mariampillai, Adrian; Munce, Nigel R; Leung, Michael K K; Vitkin, I Alex; Lee, Kenneth K C; Yang, Victor X D

    2010-01-01

    A multichannel optical coherence tomography (multi-beam OCT) system and an in vivo endoscopic imaging probe were developed using a swept-source OCT system. The distal optics were micro-machined to produce a high numerical aperture, multi-focus fibre optic array. This combination resulted in a transverse design resolution of <10 μm full width half maximum (FWHM) throughout the entire imaging range, while also increasing the signal intensity within the focus of the individual channels. The system was used in a pre-clinical rabbit study to acquire in vivo structural images of the colon and ex vivo images of the oesophagus and trachea. A good correlation between the structural multi-beam OCT images and H and E histology was achieved, demonstrating the feasibility of this high-resolution system and its potential for in vivo human endoscopic imaging.

  3. Using Dual Fluorescence Reporting Genes to Establish an In Vivo Imaging Model of Orthotopic Lung Adenocarcinoma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Yen, Chih-Ching; Wang, Jiun-Long; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2016-12-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma is characterized by a poor prognosis and high mortality worldwide. In this study, we purposed to use the live imaging techniques and a reporter gene that generates highly penetrative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence to establish a preclinical animal model that allows in vivo monitoring of lung cancer development and provides a non-invasive tool for the research on lung cancer pathogenesis and therapeutic efficacy. A human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549), which stably expressed the dual fluorescence reporting gene (pCAG-iRFP-2A-Venus), was used to generate subcutaneous or orthotopic lung cancer in nude mice. Cancer development was evaluated by live imaging via the NIR fluorescent signals from iRFP, and the signals were verified ex vivo by the green fluorescence of Venus from the gross lung. The tumor-bearing mice received miR-16 nucleic acid therapy by intranasal administration to demonstrate therapeutic efficacy in this live imaging system. For the subcutaneous xenografts, the detection of iRFP fluorescent signals revealed delicate changes occurring during tumor growth that are not distinguishable by conventional methods of tumor measurement. For the orthotopic xenografts, the positive correlation between the in vivo iRFP signal from mice chests and the ex vivo green fluorescent signal from gross lung tumors and the results of the suppressed tumorigenesis by miR-16 treatment indicated that lung tumor size can be accurately quantified by the emission of NIR fluorescence. In addition, orthotopic lung tumor localization can be accurately visualized using iRFP fluorescence tomography in vivo, thus revealing the trafficking of lung tumor cells. We introduced a novel dual fluorescence lung cancer model that provides a non-invasive option for preclinical research via the use of NIR fluorescence in live imaging of lung.

  4. Formulation and in Vitro, ex Vivo and in Vivo Evaluation of Elastic Liposomes for Transdermal Delivery of Ketorolac Tromethamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Mendoza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to formulate ketorolac tromethamine-loaded elastic liposomes and evaluate their in vitro drug release and their ex vivo and in vivo transdermal delivery. Ketorolac tromethamine (KT, which is a potent analgesic, was formulated in elastic liposomes using Tween 80 as an edge activator. The elastic vesicles were prepared by film hydration after optimizing the sonication time and number of extrusions. The vesicles exhibited an entrapment efficiency of 73 ± 11%, vesicle size of 127.8 ± 3.4 nm and a zeta potential of −12 mV. In vitro drug release was analyzed from liposomes and an aqueous solution, using Franz diffusion cells and a cellophane dialysis membrane with molecular weight cut-off of 8000 Da. Ex vivo permeation of KT across pig ear skin was studied using a Franz diffusion cell, with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 at 32 °C as receptor solution. An in vivo drug permeation study was conducted on healthy human volunteers using a tape-stripping technique. The in vitro results showed (i a delayed release when KT was included in elastic liposomes, compared to an aqueous solution of the drug; (ii a flux of 0.278 mg/cm2h and a lag time of about 10 h for ex vivo permeation studies, which may indicate that KT remains in the skin (with the possibility of exerting a local effect before reaching the receptor medium; (iii a good correlation between the total amount permeated, the penetration distance (both determined by tape stripping and transepidermal water loss (TEWL measured during the in vivo permeation studies. Elastic liposomes have the potential to transport the drug through the skin, keep their size and drug charge, and release the drug into deep skin layers. Therefore, elastic liposomes hold promise for the effective topical delivery of KT.