Data analyses. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to determine which environmental factors. (independent variables) were significant predictors of number of clinid species, and clinid abundance and ... models to detect possible non-linear relations between dependent and independent variables. Sepkoski ...
Fishelson, Lev; Gon, Ofer; Holdengreber, Vered; Delarea, Yakob
This work comprises the first comparative study of the morphology and cytology of the sperm transmission organs in males of 14 species of viviparous clinid fishes (Clinidae, Blennioidei, Teleostei). The form and dimensions of these organs differ among the various species studied. The organs are composed of intra-abdominal ampullae, into which the sperm ducts and urinary bladder anchor, and an external protruding intromittent papilla used for insemination. The form of the ampullae differs among the various species, from pear-shaped to horseshoe-shaped. It increases in dimensions with increasing length of the male. In all the species this organ is covered by a connective-tissue tunic that encompasses both circular and longitudinal striated muscle bundles. The lumina of the ampullae harbor the epididymis, a strongly convoluted and plicated duct, which becomes filled with spermatozeugmata during reproduction. From here, the epididymis continues into the protruding intromittent papillae, where its folds gradually straighten at the apical part of the intromittent organ. The form and dimensions of this copulatory organ also differ in the various species. Papillae bearing taste buds are found on the apical parts of the intromittent organ, and it is probable that these, together with the difference in forms of the organ, help to prevent interspecific copulation. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Males produce sperm throughout the year and have an efficient sperm transmission system consisting of a muscular intra-abdominal ampulla and a prominent urogenital papilla. Paired ducts pass sperm from the testes to a highly coiled epididymus located within the ampulla. Gestation occurs within the ovarian follicles.
There was a positive relationship between female length and the standing stock of maturing eggs and between female length and the average number of young per brood. Keywords: Clinidae, maturation, oogenesis, spermatogenesis, sperm storage, superfetation, viviparity. African Journal of Marine Science 2007, 29(3): ...
Factors affecting species richness and abundance of clinid fish(Fam. Clinidae)in 19 intertidal rock pools near Muizenberg, South Africa, were investigated. Some measure of cover is the most important predictor of clinid species richness, abundance and biomass. Intraspecific partitioning of habitat by Clinus superciliosus ...
... Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A A ... Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...
Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus
but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present......Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...
This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...
White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul
The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…
ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...
Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2......) characterisation of potential immune functions of fibroblasts and the importance of this in relation to tissue regeneration; 3) creation of a model to study local, sterile tissue damage in the muscle tissue of rainbow trout and comparison of this to infection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by the bacterium...
Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.
Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;
Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik
Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...
Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M
Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
P.C. de Souza
Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.
This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical
Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra
Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.
Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.
The reproductive biology of six species of viviparous intertidal clinid fish was investigated. Fish were collected monthly from intertidal rock pools between May 1992 and May 1993. Sex ratios varied between 36% female in Clinus acuminatus to 53% female in C. superciliosus, although this was only significantly different from ...
Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C
Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.
Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...
Antonella Del Rosso
In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...
Høst, Jeppe Engset
There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...
Helfrich, Louis A. (Louis Anthony), 1942-; Libey, George S., 1942-
Provides lists of the most important factors to consider in determining whether you should begin a fish farming business, fish farming publications, fish farming books, and fish farming organizations.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to enhance environmental conditions in the McCormack Slough on Umatilla NWR, the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and...
This note gives advice on the handling and freezing of small pelagic fish, notably herring and mackerel, in quantity soon after capture, either on the fishing vessel or at the port processing plant...
Gulland, J. A
This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...
Sophie von der Heyden
Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated population genetic structuring in marine species, yet few have investigated the effect of vertical zonation on gene flow and population structure. Here we use three sympatric, closely related clinid species, Clinus cottoides, C. superciliosus and Muraenoclinus dorsalis, to test whether zonation on South African intertidal rocky shores affects phylogeographic patterns. We show that the high‐shore restricted species has reduced gene flow and considerably higher Fst values (Fst = 0.9 than the mid‐ and low‐shore species (Fst
Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.
We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.
With increasing emphasis in Nigeria on aquaculture as an alternative to dwindling artisanal fishing and scarce foreign exchange for fish import, cage fish culture, is a more profitable aquaculture practice than pond culture. It appears to be one of the most viable business ventures with minimum risks. It is a highly recommendable project
A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish
Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is a chemical intoxication associated with intake of fishes with high histamine content. Histamine is developed in fish tissue post mortem due to bacterial decarboxilation of free amino-acid histidine. This paper deals with causes of histamine development in fish meat and with histamine influence on human health. Prevention of histamine fish poisoning would also be discussed. The case histories of histamine food poisoning in our country and in the world would be described. Histamine levels used in Regulation would be presented.
Georgiana Melania COSTAICHE
Full Text Available Fishing is one of the oldest occupations, which over the years has gone through several stages. In the economic terms the increase in intensive industrial system of the fish is advantageous because the specific energy consumption is low, given that they not need to maintain body temperature at high temperatures. Having regard to demographic trends in continue increasing, and the tendency of decrease fisheries leads to increased the production of aquaculture fish by order to ensure enough quantity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the evolution of fish production worldwide and in particular to show the evolution of production of fish from fisheries and aquaculture. To highlight the evolution global fish production given two ways to get fish respectively from aquaculture and fisheries, that have used data from FAOSTAT for 2007-2012. Also we can see that approximately 90% of the fish production is fished in the sea and only 10% in the territorial waters. The fish production in Africa had an ascending trend in the period under review. Analyzing fish production the share of total world continents is noted that Asia has a share of 68% in 2007 and increase to 73% in 2012.
Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L
Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...
A shortfall exists between fish supply and fish demand in the country despite the introduction of improved technology to fish farmers. This led to huge wage bill on the importation of fish to meet the protein need of the ever increasing population. This prompted this study with focus on adoption of improved fish technologies ...
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.
Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels
Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower...... to the mechanisms of control of gene expression, impacting a broad range of biological processes. Thus far, >25, 000 miRNA sequences have been identified in 193 species, including fish. In fish, the interest on miRNAs started with the analysis of their expression and function during embryonic development. In our...... selection markers to identify disease-resistant fish....
Hamid Gholam Hosseini
Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a species list for mammals, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles found on or adjacent to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, as of October, 1996.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...
Giyatmi; Irianto, H E
Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey
Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a guide to newcomers and visitors, fishery biologists have compiled a list of some of the well-known fishing waters in Alaska. The list is merely a starting point...
by the larger fish. Animal prey items offer a high-energy food resource but, with the exception of fishes, crabs, molluscs, amphibia and some of the larger insects, the bulk of those available in the aquatic environment are small forms such as chironomid larvae, copepod, ostracod and cladoceran crustacea and oligochaetes.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421 of...
Present status of research activities in cryopreservation of fish gamete in aquaculture field was introduced. More than 59 fish species have been reported in the research histories and nearly half of them were studied during recent 10 years. This means that the research activities are increasing, though commercial profit have not obtained yet. Fish species of which sperm can successfully cryopreserved is still limited comparing to numerous species in telost. One of the major obstacle for improvement of the technique is existence of wide specie specific variance in the freezing tolerance of fish sperm. The varianc can possibly be explaind thorugh the informations obtained by the studies in comparative spermatology, which is recently activated field in fish biology.
Full Text Available Synchronized movements (schooling emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO of a predator. Moreover, prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators. The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling. The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey, possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal, but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish, resulting in size homogeneity and, accordingly, an increased capacity for moving in synchrony. Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming, such as neighbour body-size, speed, and location. When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex. Quiet intervals will be few. Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously, providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals. Besides, synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL. Turning preference bias, well-functioning sense organs, good health, and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors and aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery. Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formation, reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms, which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1: 116–128, 2012].
Teruyuki Nakanishi; Yasuhiro Shibasaki; Yuta Matsuura
Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-ho...
The importance of fish meal production as a means of reducing fish waste currently being experienced in the fisheries subsector is discussed. Cost estimate for Nigeria establishing a fish meal manufacturing plant and suggestions on rational execution of the project are presented. If properly located and well managed, the project will serve to convert fish waste to cash in the industrial fishery
Feeding fish with bread or other food is widely used by tour operators to enhance human-animal interactions in coral reefs. Little is known, however, about the effects of recreational fish feeding on fish community structure and fish behaviour. These two issues were examined in this study within three marine protected areas ...
Information on ways to develop local fish advisories, access national state and local fish advisories, obtain information on fish tissue contamination and fish tissue studies, and access information on fish consumption and human health.
Cole, Rebecca A.
The Asian fish tapeworm, an exotic parasite, has invaded the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) population from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Grand Canyon, Arizona. This parasite causes disease and death in carp in aquaculture settings and may retard growth in hatchery-reared roundtail chub (Gila robusta). Other consequences include destruction and dysfunction of the intestinal lining and adverse changes to certain blood parameters. Introduced into the U.S. in the 1970s with imported grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) was discovered in the Little Colorado River (LCR) by 1990. The LCR is the main tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is an important spawning area for humpback chub.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment meta-data...
Recently, new method of removing water from perishable food were developed using dehydration sheet with material having high osmotic pressure and absorbent polymer. Dehydration sheet consist of mixture of sugar dehydrolysate and absorbent polymer covered with sem-permeable membrane, and can remove water in liquid state by contact with perishable food. Dehydration rate of fish using with dehydration sheet varied depending on species, their shape, and ambient temperature etc. Fish were dehydrated with dehydration sheet at low temperature as 0 - 5 C and frozen in cold storage room. Dehydrofrozen fish were kept it's high quality and freshness after thawing, ATPase activity of fish muscle was kept at high level after dehydrofreezing in the case of cod and alaska pollack, and flesh color of farming salmon was kept after thawing.
Xu, HongYan; Li, MingYou; Gui, JianFang; Hong, YunHan
Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplantation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.
Chettri, Jiwan Kumar
significant losses in aquacultural enterprises but vaccination methods implemented since the 1990s have demonstrated their role as one of the most efficient disease control strategies. These have been particularly successful with regard to bacterial diseases in Norwegian salmon farming where multivalent...... vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Created as part of a 2012 BOEM study on OCS renewable energy space-use conflicts, this data contains the commercial and recreational fishing locations off the...
Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan
Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is th...
tinues to increase in length in relation to the rest of the gut and comes to cover the whole ventral surface of the visceral mass (Q) and to extend to the right side of the fish. In fish of more than 400 mm, when the gut length is about 1,75 times the fork length, a second loop begins to develop near the a~ of the primary loop, lying ...
Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta
Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4⁺ and CD8α⁺ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4⁺ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α⁺, CD4⁺ T-cells and sIgM⁺ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells.
A long-standing theory, that there is a fundamental difference in aging between fishes and higher vertebrates, is still alive in the minds of many. In 1932, Bidder proposed that aging was causatively related to the cessation of growth at sexual maturity. Fish, which continue to grow throughout their lives, would not age, and therefore were potentially immortal. His ideas were clearly disproven by Comfort, who established that the survival curves of a laboratory population of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were very similar to those of a small mammal population under laboratory conditions. Recent data from field and laboratory studies, including histological evidence, amply confirm the occurrence of senescence in fishes. Natural death in fish has been associated with reproduction. There is good evidence for a number of species which shows that, with increasing size, the gonad forms a greater proportion of total body weight. In older, larger fish, extensive energy depletion for reproduction is suggested as an important factor in mortality. Reproductive modifications in older fish are also noted.
Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen
Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.
This study investigated innovation in utilization of fish tanks for fish culture among fish farmers in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data for this study was obtained through the administration of questionnaire and scheduled interview to 120 sampled fish farmers randomly selected from the study ...
Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M
Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.
Prunet, P; Øverli, Ø; Douxfils, J; Bernardini, G; Kestemont, P; Baron, D
There is a considerable public and scientific debate concerning welfare of fish in aquaculture. In this review, we will consider fish welfare as an integration of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive/emotional responses, all of which are essentially adaptative responses to stressful situations. An overview of fish welfare in this context suggests that understanding will rely on knowledge of all components of allostatic responses to stress and environmental perturbations. The development of genomic technologies provides new approaches to this task, exemplified by how genome-wide analysis of genetic structures and corresponding expression patterns can lead to the discovery of new aspects of adaptative responses. We will illustrate how the genomic approach may give rise to new biomarkers for fish welfare and also increase our understanding of the interaction between physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses. In a first part, we present data on expression of candidate genes selected a priori. This is a common avenue to develop molecular biomarkers capable of diagnosing a stress condition at its earliest onset, in order to allow quick corrective intervention in an aquaculture setting. However, most of these studies address isolated physiological functions and stress responses that may not be truly indicative of animal welfare, and there is only rudimentary understanding of genes related to possible cognitive and emotional responses in fish. We also present an overview on transcriptomic analysis related to the effect of aquaculture stressors, environmental changes (temperature, salinity, hypoxia), or concerning specific behavioral patterns. These studies illustrate the potential of genomic approaches to characterize the complexity of the molecular mechanisms which underlies not only physiological but also behavioral responses in relation to fish welfare. Thirdly, we address proteomic studies on biological responses to stressors such as salinity change and
Patnaik, B K; Mahapatro, N; Jena, B S
Fishes show three types of senescence. Lampreys, eels and pacific salmon exhibit rapid senescence and sudden death at first spawning. The guppy, red panchax, medaka, platyfish, Indian murrel and many other teleosts undergo gradual senescence, as observed in most of the vertebrates. A number of fishes (e.g. sturgeons, paddlefish, female plaice, flatfish, rockfish) show indeterminate growth, the occurrence of senescence in them is supposed to be very slow or negligible. Neuroendocrine mechanisms are involved in rapid senescence. Most of the evidences in favour of the occurrence of senescence in fishes have been derived from studies in species showing gradual senescence. Age-related increases in mortality rate, accumulation of lipofuscin, lipid peroxidation, collagen cross-linking and decreases in growth rate, reproductive capacity and protein utilisation are clearly marked in such species. Anatomical changes in various organs during ageing also confirm increases in degenerative changes and pathological symptoms. Dietary restriction and lower environmental temperature retard the ageing processes in a few species showing gradual senescence. These results tentatively support the contention of commonality in mechanism of ageing processes in vertebrates. At present, anatomical, cellular, biochemical and genetic evidences in support or against the occurrence of slow senescence or negligible senescence in long-lived fish species are almost nonexistent. Extensive studies on ageing in fishes are needed to explain the multiple mechanisms which are not unexpected considering the number and variety of the existing species.
Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.
Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.
Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie
Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Weigt, Lee A; Driskell, Amy C; Baldwin, Carole C; Ormos, Andrea
This chapter is an overview of the techniques for DNA barcoding of fishes from field collection to DNA sequence analysis. Recommendations for modifications of field protocols and best tissue sampling practices are made. A variety of DNA extraction protocols is provided, including high-throughput robot-assisted methods. A pair of well-tested forward and reverse primers for PCR amplification and sequencing are presented. These primers have been successfully used for DNA barcode on a wide array of marine fish taxa and also work well in most freshwater and cartilaginous fishes. Recipes and cycling protocols for both PCR amplification and sequencing and cleanup methods for the reaction products are provided. A method for the consistent production of high-quality DNA barcodes from DNA sequence data is given and stringent guidelines for judging the quality of raw sequence data are laid out.
Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P
Teleost fishes are a large and diverse animal group that represent close to 50% of all described vertebrate species. This review consolidates what is known about the claudin (Cldn) family of tight junction (TJ) proteins in teleosts. Cldns are transmembrane proteins of the vertebrate epithelial/endothelial TJ complex that largely determine TJ permeability. Cldns achieve this by expressing barrier or pore forming properties and by exhibiting distinct tissue distribution patterns. So far, ~63 genes encoding for Cldn TJ proteins have been reported in 16 teleost species. Collectively, cldns (or Cldns) are found in a broad array of teleost fish tissues, but select genes exhibit restricted expression patterns. Evidence to date strongly supports the view that Cldns play a vital role in the embryonic development of teleost fishes and in the physiology of tissues and organ systems studied thus far.
Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan
Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer. PMID:21547056
Andrew K G Jones
Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.
Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan
Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.
Lekshmy Nair, A.; Gopakumar, K.
The method of preparation, composition, amino acid content, protein efficiency ratio and areas of possible application of water soluble protein isolates from low cost fish and fish wastes are discussed in detail in this communication.
summarized in Table 1). EPA estimated that mid-size fishing vessels, such as gill netters , and purse seiners found in Alaska, and shrimp boats in the Gulf...size fishing boats such as gill netters , fish holds are typically cleaned using a garden hose at a flow rate of approximately 10 to 12 gpm (USEPA...Small: salmon trollers and longliners 1,500 Daily when fishing 500 - 600 150 - 200 Mid-size: gill netters , purse seiners and shrimp boats
This study was undertaken to characterise the two main sub-sectors of this industry namely the fish producing and fish processing sectors. A survey ... The companies were also classified in terms of 'small', 'medium' and 'large' based on their annual turnover. ... Keywords: fish industry, characterisation, survey, seafood hub ...
The study was carried out for 12 months during which the fishermen catches were monitored and fishing activities were assessed in Eleiyele Lake, Ibadan. The fish species at landing sites on the lake were identified using morphometric and meristic features. Fish species composition recorded in Eleiyele reservor in this ...
Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...
The most notorious among these are the lampreys, some of the acanthocephalans, and the copepods. The alarm is raised in the paper that this combined scourge of fish farming, fish production and fish availability must be brought under control as part of the general food security strategy. The paper posits that the adoption ...
Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.
The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…
Fishing at sea. 15. Aquaculture (fresh water and at sea). 1. Fish processing. 10. Since there was only one company involved in aquaculture, there could be no protection of ... Pie and bar charts were generated using Microsoft Excel. RESULTS ... the chilled state and there are only 5 companies, which fish at sea, that.
A study was conducted to identify ornamental fish species and fishing methods employed for the purpose of developing the fishery for international markets. Catches were sampled from 102 landings in Ibiajegbende village in Epe Local Government area of Lagos State during the fishing season that spanned from January to ...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...
The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...
Potts, G. W; Wootton, R. J
This book comprises a much needed review of recent developments and new ideas in fish reproductive biology, with special reference to the adaptive significance of reproductive patterns observed in teleost fishes...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...
Presents an art activity that enables first-grade students to learn about color mixing by driving toys trucks through paint. Explains that the students created rainbow fish and drew the background with crayons. States that this activity demonstrates how to utilize nontraditional tools or objects when creating art. (CMK)
Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.
The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.
Høst, Jeppe Engset
In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...
Ling, Ka Ho; Nichols, Peter D; But, Paul Pui-Hay
Many deep-sea fishes store large amounts of wax esters in their body for buoyancy control. Some of them are frequently caught as by-catch of tuna and other fishes. The most noteworthy ones include escolar and oilfish. The accumulation of the indigestible wax esters in the rectum through consumption of these fish engenders discharges or leakage per rectum as orange or brownish green oil, but without noticeable loss of water. This physiological response is called keriorrhea, which is variously described as "oily diarrhea," "oily orange diarrhea," or "orange oily leakage" by the mass media and bloggers on the internet. Outbreaks of keriorrhea have been repeatedly reported across continents. Additional symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea were complained by the victims. They are probably due to anxiety or panic when suffering from keriorrhea. Escolar and oilfish are banned from import and sale in Italy, Japan, and South Korea. Rapid detection of the two fishes is imperative to ensure proper labeling and safeguarding of the public before and after any keriorrhea outbreak.
The work of Iverson (1990) supported the hypo- thesis that carnivorous fish (and squid) production is controlled by the quantity of new nitrogen (NO3-N) incorporated annually into phytoplankton biomass. (annual new production) and transferred through marine foodwebs. This hypothesis is tested here in the context of the ...
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377
Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed.
Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria
The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen
Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah
Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis
. Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...
Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller
Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate...
Yanong, Roy P E
Fungal diseases of fish have become increasingly important over the past 20 years. The traditional "fungi" are comprised of members from several different taxonomic kingdoms. Saprolegnia and other typical water molds are the "classic" secondary invaders, infecting more superficial areas of the body and requiring compromise of the exterior of the fish, poor water quality, or general immunosuppression. An increasing number of other environmental fungi are being reported from diseased fish, further testament to the opportunistic nature of many fungi. Common procedures such as air bladder deflation for many marine species collected at depth under nonsterile conditions may result in fungal infections of the swim bladder. Some fungi such as Aphanomyces and Fusarium can cause more invasive or systemic disease, often associated with changes in environmental factors such as temperature and salinity. Other fungi such as I. hoferi can be even more insidious and chronic, mimicking mycobacteriosis to a degree. Fungal diseases, in general, are very difficult to control or treat once they have taken hold. Prevention is, as always, the best medicine. Increased knowledge of basic biology will help guide treatment and control methods. Further research on general predisposing factors, species susceptibilities, immune system effects and other protective mechanisms in fish and more effective chemotherapeutics for external and systemic infections are needed.
Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.
Duijvestijn, YCM; Cobben, JM; Leegte, B; de Vries, TW
Fishing for a diagnosis; A family with primary infertility and two members with mental retardation and subtle facial dysmorphism is described. In the two retarded persons chromosomal rearrangements (partial monosomy of chromosome 5 and partial trisomy of chromosome 7) were detected. One member of
Full Text Available This article canvasses a broad range of fish representations across several disciplines. It asks what cultural studies can learn from scientific representation of fish, and argues that in turn cultural studies can be a nuanced understanding of the work of images. The objective of the article is to open debate about fish and their sustainability beyond discrete disciplines and/or ideologies. This, it is argued, is crucial if we are to go beyond a simplified cultural politics of fish.
Sources of wastes in fishing operations mainly include bycatch discards; processing wastes where catch is processed onboard; plastic wastes due to abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear; bilges and other wastes from the vessel operations. Fishing systems in general have an associated catch of nontargeted organisms known as bycatch. Non-selective fishing gear that is not modified or equipped to exclude non-targeted organisms, may take a significant quantity of by...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fish passage report was prepared for the Colorado Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office to inform them of possible fish passage issues on streams that provide...
Conceicao, L.E.C.; Aragao, C.; Dias, J.; Costas, B.; Terova, G.; Martins, C.I.; Tort, L.
Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when
Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.
To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard,
L. P. Buchatsky
Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.
Today the membership of the society has expanded cutting across all the related disciplines including fisheries scientists, fishing companies and professional industrial fishing/fish farming enthusiasts and entrepreneurs. The Nigerian Journal of Fisheries is aimed at encouraging needed research into multivariate fisheries ...
Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is
Conceição, Luis E C; Aragão, Cláudia; Dias, Jorge; Costas, Benjamín; Terova, Genciana; Martins, Catarina; Tort, Lluis
Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations are used to feed fish. In addition, it intends to evaluate the current possibilities, and future prospects, of using improved dietary nitrogen formulations to help fish coping with predictable stressful periods. Both metabolomic and genomic evidence show that stressful husbandry conditions affect AA metabolism in fish and may bring an increase in the requirement of indispensable AA. Supplementation in arginine and leucine, but also eventually in lysine, methionine, threonine and glutamine, may have an important role in enhancing the innate immune system. Tryptophan, as precursor for serotonin, modulates aggressive behaviour and feed intake in fish. Bioactive peptides may bring important advances in immunocompetence, disease control and other aspects of welfare of cultured fish. Fishmeal replacement may reduce immune competence, and the full nutritional potential of plant-protein ingredients is attained only after the removal or inactivation of some antinutritional factors. This review shows that AA metabolism is affected when fish are under stress, and this together with sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations may affect fish welfare. Furthermore, improved dietary nitrogen formulations may help fish coping with predictable stressful events.
Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.
Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions...... about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... that the Norwegian public is concerned about fish welfare and is willing to pay a price premium for products made from welfare-assured fish. Norwegian consumers do not, however, want to be the only ones paying for fish welfare, as the main responsibility for fish welfare lies with producers and the Government...
Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe
Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus).
Full Text Available Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae. Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus.
Adriana López-Arbarello; Oliver W. M. Rauhut; Katrin Moser
The Jurassic is an important period for understanding the origin of modern fish faunas, since it saw the first radiation - and in some cases the origin - of most modern groups. In chondrichthyans, neoselachian sharks and rays diversified during this time. In actinopterygians, the neopterygians, and among them the teleosts, experienced an important radiation, which led to the appearance of several of the modern teleosts groups. In the sarcopterygians, dipnoans and actinistians approached their...
i. SUMMARY This study sought to identify, summarise, and interpret published research which has addressed three areas of concern to the angling community: (a) Physiological stress. Prolonged activation of the physiological stress response can have harmful effects in animals. Do the procedures associated with the capture of fish by angling; hooking, playing, landing, unhooking, confinement within keepnets, weighing, cause a stress response? If so, is the response severe enough to caus...
Full Text Available Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific. Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.
Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka
Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Synucleins (syns are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2 isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.
Secombes, C J; Wang, T; Bird, S
Interleukins are a subgroup of cytokines, molecules involved in the intercellular regulation of the immune system. The term interleukin was first coined in 1979 to refer to molecules that signal between different leucocyte types, although not exclusively restricted to leucocyte communication. Whilst it is now known that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of cell types, nevertheless many are synthesised by CD4(+) T helper cells, macrophages/monocytes and endothelial cells. The nomenclature is relatively straightforward, with interleukin 1 the first discovered and interleukin 2 the second, etc. However, whilst 35 interleukins are currently described in mammals, several are in fact terms referring to subfamilies of more molecules, as with the IL-1 family where 11 members (IL-1F1-IL-1F11) are present, and the IL-17 family where 6 members (IL-17A-IL-17F) are present. So the total is much higher and splice variants and allelic variation increase this diversity further. This review will focus on what is known about interleukins in fish, and will refer to the major subfamilies rather than try to work through 35 descriptions in a row. It is clear that many direct homologues of molecules known in mammals are present in fish, but that not all are present and some novel interleukins exist that may have arisen from fish specific gene duplication events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robinson, James P W; Williams, Ivor D; Edwards, Andrew M; McPherson, Jana; Yeager, Lauren; Vigliola, Laurent; Brainard, Russell E; Baum, Julia K
Fishing pressure on coral reef ecosystems has been frequently linked to reductions of large fishes and reef fish biomass. Associated impacts on overall community structure are, however, less clear. In size-structured aquatic ecosystems, fishing impacts are commonly quantified using size spectra, which describe the distribution of individual body sizes within a community. We examined the size spectra and biomass of coral reef fish communities at 38 US-affiliated Pacific islands that ranged in human presence from near pristine to human population centers. Size spectra 'steepened' steadily with increasing human population and proximity to market due to a reduction in the relative biomass of large fishes and an increase in the dominance of small fishes. Reef fish biomass was substantially lower on inhabited islands than uninhabited ones, even at inhabited islands with the lowest levels of human presence. We found that on populated islands size spectra exponents decreased (analogous to size spectra steepening) linearly with declining biomass, whereas on uninhabited islands there was no relationship. Size spectra were steeper in regions of low sea surface temperature but were insensitive to variation in other environmental and geomorphic covariates. In contrast, reef fish biomass was highly sensitive to oceanographic conditions, being influenced by both oceanic productivity and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that community size structure may be a more robust indicator than fish biomass to increasing human presence and that size spectra are reliable indicators of exploitation impacts across regions of different fish community compositions, environmental drivers, and fisheries types. Size-based approaches that link directly to functional properties of fish communities, and are relatively insensitive to abiotic variation across biogeographic regions, offer great potential for developing our understanding of fishing impacts in coral reef ecosystems. © 2016
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National fish hatchery areas may be opened to sport fishing when such activity is not detrimental to the propagation and...
All metazoans possess innate immune defence system whereas parameters of the adaptive immune system make their first appearance in the gnathostomata, the jawed vertebrates. Fish are therefore the first animal phyla to possess both an innate and adaptive immune system making them very interesting as regards developmental studies of the immune system. The massive increase in aquaculture in recent decades has also put greater emphasis on studies of the fish immune system and defence against diseases commonly associated with intensive fish rearing. Some of the main components of the innate and adaptive immune system of fish are described. The innate parameters are at the forefront of immune defence in fish and are a crucial factor in disease resistance. The adaptive response of fish is commonly delayed but is essential for lasting immunity and a key factor in successful vaccination. Some of the inherent and external factors that can manipulate the immune system of fish are discussed, the main fish diseases are listed and the pathogenicity and host defence discussed. The main prophylactic measures are covered, including vaccination, probiotics and immunostimulation. A key element in the immunological control of fish diseases is the great variation in disease susceptibility and immune defence of different fish species, a reflection of the extended time the present day teleosts have been separated in evolution. Future research will probably make use of molecular and proteomic tools both to study important elements in immune defence and prophylactic measures and to assist with breeding programmes for disease resistance.
Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.
Satora, Leszek; Gawlikowski, Tomasz
Expositions to fish venoms should be treated as a separate group of intoxications because of their different diagnostic procedure. Until now, there are over 220 venomous fish species described, but skin excretions are potentially toxic for humans. Cases of fish envenomations (37), consulted by Poison Information Centres in Poland, as well as described in literature and contained in Micromedex database were analyzed. The course of envenomation, medical management during exposition to venomous of Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, freshwater and marine fishes were resolved. Injuries caused by venoms fishes were similarly treated, usually symptomatic. Specific antivenoms are available only for two fish species. Each patient exposed to sting or bite should be examined and observed. If characteristic sings and symptoms of envenomation are present, proper medical management should be proceed.
Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Agulleiro, Maria Josep; R, Raúl Guillot; Sánchez, Elisa; Ceinos, Rosa; Rotllant, Josep
Melanocortin signalling is mediated by binding to a family of G protein-coupled receptors that positively couple to adenylyl cyclase. Tetrapod species have five melanocortin (MC(1)-MC(5)) receptors. The number of receptors varies in fish, zebrafish, for example, having six melanocortin receptors, with two copies of the melanocortin MC(5) receptor, while pufferfish have 4 receptors with no melanocortin MC(3) receptor and one copy of melanocortin MC(5) receptor. Fish genomes also exhibit orthologue genes for agouti-signalling protein (ASP) and -related protein (AGRP). AGRP expression is confined to a small area in the hypothalamus but ASP is expressed in the skin. Fish melanocortin MC(2) receptor is specific for ACTH and requires the cooperation of accessory proteins (MRAP) to reach functional expression. The four other melanocortin MC receptors distinctively bind MSHs. The interaction of α-MSH and melanocortin MC(1) receptor plays a key point in the control of the pigmentation and mutations of melanocortin MC(1) receptor are responsible for reduced melanization. Both melanocortin MC(4) and MC(5) receptor are expressed in the hypothalamus, and central melanocortin MC(4) receptor expression is thought to regulate the energy balance through the modulation of feeding behaviour. In addition, the peripheral melanocortin system also regulates lipid metabolism by acting at hepatic melanocortin MC(2) and MC(5) receptors. Both sea bass melanocortin MC(1) and MC(4) receptors are constitutively expressed in vitro and both ASP and AGRP work as inverse agonists but only after inhibition of the phosphodiesterase system. Accordingly, the overexpression of AGRP and ASP transgenes promotes obesity and reduces melanization in zebrafish, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tierney, Keith B.
Swimming performance tests of fish have been integral to studies of muscle energetics, swimming mechanics, gas exchange, cardiac physiology, disease, pollution, hypoxia and temperature. This paper describes a flexible protocol to assess fish swimming performance using equipment in which water velocity can be controlled. The protocol involves one to several stepped increases in flow speed that are intended to cause fish to fatigue. Step speeds and their duration can be set to capture swimming ...
Silva,Adriana; Rodrigues, Andreia; Martins, Daniela; Fernandes, António; Ferro-Lebres, Vera
Fish is an important part of a healthy diet, the possibility of substituting meals with a higher content of saturated fat raising cardiovascular diseases risk, by meals with fish has innumerous health benefits. Objective This study aimed to study the consumption of fish in higher education students, and its socio demographic cofactors. Methods A sample of 238 Portuguese higher education students was used in a cross sectional study. A questionnaire regarding socio demographic and...
Fish are one of the most highly utilised vertebrate taxa by humans; they are harvested from wild stocks as part of global fishing industries, grown under intensive aquaculture conditions, are the most common pet and are widely used for scientific research. But fish are seldom afforded the same level of compassion or welfare as warm-blooded vertebrates. Part of the problem is the large gap between people's perception of fish intelligence and the scientific reality. This is an important issue because public perception guides government policy. The perception of an animal's intelligence often drives our decision whether or not to include them in our moral circle. From a welfare perspective, most researchers would suggest that if an animal is sentient, then it can most likely suffer and should therefore be offered some form of formal protection. There has been a debate about fish welfare for decades which centres on the question of whether they are sentient or conscious. The implications for affording the same level of protection to fish as other vertebrates are great, not least because of fishing-related industries. Here, I review the current state of knowledge of fish cognition starting with their sensory perception and moving on to cognition. The review reveals that fish perception and cognitive abilities often match or exceed other vertebrates. A review of the evidence for pain perception strongly suggests that fish experience pain in a manner similar to the rest of the vertebrates. Although scientists cannot provide a definitive answer on the level of consciousness for any non-human vertebrate, the extensive evidence of fish behavioural and cognitive sophistication and pain perception suggests that best practice would be to lend fish the same level of protection as any other vertebrate.
Full Text Available Production and catch of fish in Serbia increases from year to year, while in the world it reached its peak at the beginning of this century. Serbia has all the favorable natural and economic conditions for further development of fishing. Out of total production, that is, annual fish catch in Serbia, the greatest part is sold by organized purchase, lower part is exported, and the reminder goes to the market through retail. It is well known that food consumption, therefore fish consumption, depends on several factors such as the production level, retail price, consumers purchasing power and their eating habits. Therefore, when analyzing the tendency of production and consumption of fish in Serbia, it is important to investigate the influence of production, price and purchasing power of consumers on it. In order to investigate the set objective, there were used corresponding quantitative data obtained by Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. On the basis of the original data, there were determined certain parameters, which were used as variables for calculation of correlational-regressive and maginal analysis for determining the elasticity of demand and consummation of fish per capita in Serbia. Production and catch of fish in Serbia tended to increase during the observed period, with annual growth rate of 17.4%. Beside the fact that annual growth rate is 4.8%, fish consumption per capita in Serbia is still quite small (X=4.89kg, what is a consequence of population habit to consume predominantly meat. In our study we have found out that fish consumption in Serbia mostly depend on fish production per capita (rxy=0.6364, as well as on groos (rxy=0.6045 and net (rxy=0.5969 earnings. Also, it is determined that consumption elasticity has the highest growth in regard to fish production per capita. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31011
Belkin, Igor M.; Hunt, George L.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Schick, Robert S.; Prieto, Rui; Brodziak, Jon; Teo, Steven L. H.; Thorne, Lesley; Bailey, Helen; Itoh, Sachihiko; Munk, Peter; Musyl, Michael K.; Willis, Jay K.; Zhang, Wuchang
Ocean fronts play a key role in marine ecosystems. Fronts shape oceanic landscapes and affect every trophic level across a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, from meters to thousands of kilometers, and from days to millions of years. At some fronts, there is an elevated rate of primary production, whereas at others, plankton is aggregated by advection and by the behavior of organisms moving against gradients in temperature, salinity, light irradiance, hydrostatic pressure and other physico-chemical and biological factors. Lower trophic level organisms - phytoplankton and zooplankton - that are aggregated in sufficient densities, attract organisms from higher trophic levels, from planktivorous schooling fish to squid, large piscivorous fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Many species have critical portions of their life stages or behaviors closely associated with fronts, including spawning, feeding, ontogenetic development, migrations, and other activities cued to frontal dynamics. At different life stages, an individual species or population might be linked to different fronts. The nature and strength of associations between fronts and biota depend on numerous factors such as the physical nature and spatio-temporal scales of the front and the species and their life stages in question. In other words, fronts support many different niches and micro/macro-habitats over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.
Mauritius in view of its contribution in boosting the economic situation of the country. This study was undertaken to characterise the two main sub-sectors of this industry namely the fish producing and fish processing sectors. A survey was carried out in two phases: a desk review to identify the relevant companies and a.
appear that more studies on the parasitic worms from African freshwater fishes and amphibians might produce more evidence of their ancient zoogeography, particularly in relation to con- tinental drift. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The material described in this paper was obtained by Mr B. C. W. van der Waal from fishes.
Nsukka, Enugu State Nigeria. Abstract. A probe was carried out to ascertain fisherfolk ownership of physical assets for fisheries activities in fishing communities' vis-à-vis implication of climate change around Kainji Lake. Interview schedule was employed to generate primary data from 165 respondents in eleven fishing.
La Ode Huli
Full Text Available The skin of swangi fish is a potential fish skin to be produced for fish oil. The objectives of this research were aimed to determine the yield and the best quality of fish oil and also to compare fatty acid profile of the fish according to different extraction methods. Fish oil extractions were used by wet rendering method with extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100°C for 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemical oil characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, AV, anisidin, and TOTOX. Fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu. The results of the study showed that the highest fish oil yield in each treatment was obtained extraction temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes with percentage of 0.33, (70°C for 30 minutes 0.46, (80°C for 30 minutes 1.23, (90°C for 20 minutes 1.14 and (100°C for 20 minutes 0.84. These values were lower compare to Bligh & Dyer and Soxhlet methods. Then, the best fish oil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 60°C for 30 minutes with PV, FFA, anisidin, AV, and TOTOX were 9.17 meq/kg, 6.92%, 13,77 mg KOH/g, 0.86 meq/kg and 19.19 meq/kg, respectively. FUFA fatty acid compositions of swangi skin fish oil especially EPA and DHA in wet rendering method were gained 0.73% and 2.53%, respectively. These results were lower than Bligh & Dyer method which was consisted of 3.66% (EPA, and 13.29% (DHA and also Soxhlet extraction method with value of EPA was 2.78% and DHA was 9.62%.Keywords: EPA, extraction temperature, DHA, fish oil quality, fish skin
Elif Tuğçe AKSUN
Full Text Available Food packaging have three main roles during protection, preservation and storage are still involved better continuance of food quality. Evolution of civilization and improvement of new kind of food stuffs, packaging industry must created new possibilities for preventation of food quality during shelf-life. The quality and safety of perishable food is related to microbial quality has got a significance role. Fish is a very perishable food product. It is a very low acidic food and thus is very liable to the expansion of food poisoning bacteria. Also decomposition of fish can be by reason of enzymatic spoilage, oxidation and/or bacterial spoilage. Fish is an important resource of polyunsaturated fatty acids stated to have defensive effects in opposition to heartconnected diseases. Some smart packaging mechanisms liable to determine this break down incident thought storage. In this review, smart packaging technologies that could be used to detect breakdown compounds from packed fish and fish products.
Full Text Available Safety and efficiency of fishing fleet activity depend largely on the quality of management decisions. Cause-and-effect relationships of accidents involving fishing vessels were identified by means of an analysis of emergencies and fishing incidents. The suggested method of risks calculation is based on the use of statistical methods, fuzzy sets/expert estimations method and the probability theory. The following most common tasks are presented and solved: - there is an impact of two or more independent negative factors/events on the vessel such as failure of a sonar, a vessel operator error, another vessel operator error. - a transport vessel carries out loading and unloading of fishing vessels under different environmental conditions. The value of the risk of an emergency incident is determined. - the fishing vessel navigation performs under various meteorological conditions. A priori probability of incident-free operation is calculated according to expert estimations.
Andrew K. G. Jones
Full Text Available The publication of this group of three papers form part of the 1987 meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoologists Fish Remains Working Group which took place at the University of York, U. K. The papers illustrate an increased awareness of the significance of ichthyological research to archaeology and cover three areas of research: taphonomy; fishing artefacts; and fish remains recovered from an excavation. Jones sheds some light on the relative robustness of the bewildering array of elements in a fish skeleton by recording damage to a skeleton when it is trampled. His paper suggests an index of robustness which might be used to assess the degree of fragmentation in archaeological assemblages. Kemp reports on the excavation of a small medieval building located adjacent to medieval fish ponds created by Cistercian monks in North Yorkshire, England. In addition to the structural evidence, an impressive assemblage of weights, presumably net weights, found on or near the site is published. Perhaps most significant is a large lead weight which may have been used to weight catches of fish from the ponds. Fish remains recovered from two excavations at the quayside at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England are discussed by Nicholson. Around 6000 identified bones form the basis for the study, the majority of which were identified as Gadid (cod family or herring. While the main food fishes typify fish bone assemblages from most post-Roman urban archaeological sites, the identification of small fishes such as sandeels, smelt, gobies and buttefish may indicate the utilisation of fish not nowadays considered as food at all. Given the diversity of species (30 individual species identified it is suggested that the remains from the main bone-producing organic horizons, dated to the late twelfth to thirteenth centuries, may include discard from a nearby fishmarket.
Angelo Antonio Agostinho
Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for
... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction... FEIS on the proposed Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project. The...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...
Bhangle, Samir; Kolasinski, Sharon L
In current practice, dietary interventions and over-the-counter dietary supplements, including fish oil, vitamins, and others, comprise a significant proportion of alternate therapy use. The aim of this article is to clarify the appropriate place for the use of fish oil in rheumatologic practice amid the complexities of modern management. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish were collected from Neosho National Fish Hatchery (NNFH) to determine if metal or organic contaminants were elevated in the biota located on the hatchery. Whole...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Boundaries of the management Regions of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is organized into 8 geographic Regions.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Sport Fishing Plans covers the assesment and managment strategies for sport fishing in the Refuge. Focus is on bass, crappie,...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A previous paper titled THE FISHES OF ROSE ATOLL discusses the results of a fish survey conducted November 12-13, 1980 within the four lagoon habitats of Rose Atoll,...
Streambeds are important fish passageways in Oregon; they provide for the necessary habitats and spawning cycles of a healthy fish population. Oregon state law requires that hydraulic structures located in water properly provide fish passage. Increas...
Rossing, P; Hansen, B V; Nielsen, F S
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... oil in diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 1-year double-blind randomized controlled study comparing fish oil (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) with placebo (olive oil) was performed in an outpatient clinic in a tertiary referral center. Thirty-six normotensive IDDM patients with diabetic...... nephropathy were included; 18 were treated with fish oil. Seven patients dropped out (four received fish oil), and results for the remaining 29 are presented. Albuminuria (enzyme immunoassay), glomerular filtration rate (51Cr-labeled EDTA plasma clearance), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and lipid profile...
Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.
potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data......The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...
Ikeda, Mana; Kakizaki, Hiromi; Matsumiya, Masahiro
Fish are reported to exhibit chitinase activity in the stomach. Analyses of fish stomach chitinases have shown that these enzymes have the physiological function of degrading chitinous substances ingested as diets. Osteichthyes, a group that includes most of the fishes, have several chitinases in their stomachs. From a phylogenetic analysis of the chitinases of vertebrates, these particular molecules were classified into a fish-specific group and have different substrate specificities, suggesting that they can degrade ingested chitinous substances efficiently. On the other hand, it has been suggested that coelacanth (Sarcopterygii) and shark (Chondrichthyes) have a single chitinase enzyme in their stomachs, which shows multiple functions. This review focuses on recent research on the biochemistry of fish stomach chitinases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Betancur-R, Ricardo; Wiley, Edward O; Arratia, Gloria; Acero, Arturo; Bailly, Nicolas; Miya, Masaki; Lecointre, Guillaume; Ortí, Guillermo
Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings. Two leading sources in ichthyology frequently used for fish classifications (JS Nelson's volumes of Fishes of the World and W. Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes) fail to adopt a global phylogenetic framework despite much recent progress made towards the resolution of the fish Tree of Life. The first explicit phylogenetic classification of bony fishes was published in 2013, based on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny ( www.deepfin.org ). We here update the first version of that classification by incorporating the most recent phylogenetic results. The updated classification presented here is based on phylogenies inferred using molecular and genomic data for nearly 2000 fishes. A total of 72 orders (and 79 suborders) are recognized in this version, compared with 66 orders in version 1. The phylogeny resolves placement of 410 families, or ~80% of the total of 514 families of bony fishes currently recognized. The ordinal status of 30 percomorph families included in this study, however, remains uncertain (incertae sedis in the series Carangaria, Ovalentaria, or Eupercaria). Comments to support taxonomic decisions and comparisons with conflicting taxonomic groups proposed by others are presented. We also highlight cases were morphological support exist for the groups being classified. This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution
Hedgepeth, J (Tenera Environmental, LLC); Johnson, Gary E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J (BioSonics Inc.)
Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.
Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku
Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic
Full Text Available Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay; the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010. This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable
CONTENTS Page Introduction 5 Materials................... 6 The environment................. 7 Ichthyological literature of Singapore........... 9 Aquarium fishes................. io Pond culture fishes................ n Introduced species................. 12 Acknowledgements................ 13
Teng, Paul P. S.; Lassa, Jonatan; Caballero-Anthony, Mely
Human consumption of fish has been trending upwards in the past decades and this is projected to continue. The main sources of fish are from wild fisheries (marine and freshwater) and aquaculture. Climate change is anticipated to affect the availability of fish through its effect on these two sources as well as on supply chain processes such as storage, transport, processing and retail. Climate change is known to result in warmer and more acid oceans. Ocean acidification due to higher CO2 concentration levels at sea modifies the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton to affect wild, capture fisheries. Higher temperature causes warm-water coral reefs to respond with species replacement and bleaching, leading to coral cover loss and habitat loss. Global changes in climatic systems may also cause fish invasion, extinction and turnover. While this may be catastrophic for small scale fish farming in poor tropical communities, there are also potential effects on animal protein supply shifts at local and global scales with food security consequences. This paper discusses the potential impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture in the Asian Pacific region, with special emphasis on Southeast Asia. The key question to be addressed is “What are the impacts of global climate change on global fish harvests and what does it mean to the availability of fish?”
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...
MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.
The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s......, and concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic...... Sea was a sink for 260 kg of PCBs in the late 1980s to early 1990s and that the fishery removed as much or more PCB (31 kg yr(-1)) than other budget components (e.g., degradation in the water column). Accounting for fish and fisheries could increase our understanding of the fluxes of pollutants...
Pauly; Christensen; Dalsgaard; Froese; Torres
The mean trophic level of the species groups reported in Food and Agricultural Organization global fisheries statistics declined from 1950 to 1994. This reflects a gradual transition in landings from long-lived, high trophic level, piscivorous bottom fish toward short-lived, low trophic level invertebrates and planktivorous pelagic fish. This effect, also found to be occurring in inland fisheries, is most pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere. Fishing down food webs (that is, at lower trophic levels) leads at first to increasing catches, then to a phase transition associated with stagnating or declining catches. These results indicate that present exploitation patterns are unsustainable.
Honda, Shunichi; Ichimaru, Shunichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Tamao; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji
Puffer fish is prized as a Japanese traditional food and its fin is also used in the cuisine. However, whether the fin is edible or not is determined for convenience from the toxicity of skin, since little information is available about the toxicity of puffer fish fins. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of fins and skin of three toxic species, Takifugu vermicularis, T. snyderi, and T. porphyreus. The toxicity of T. vermicularis fins (puffer fish with toxic skin also have toxic fins.
Fish diseases have been used as pollution indicators in surface water for about 15 years. The complex interdependences between pathogens, fish, and a multitude of environmental parameters make data evaluation difficult and may lead to misinterpretations. The effects of the natural environment are found to be more important than pollutant effects. To give an example: In a number of fish species, disease rates were highest not in the strongly polluted stretch of river near Hamburg but in the estuarine region where pollutant concentrations are comparatively low but salt content fluctuations are high.
Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A
Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...
Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the causative agent of white spot disease (ichthyophthiriasis) is a major burden for fish farmers and aquarists globally. The parasite infects the skin and the gills of freshwater fish, which may acquire a protective adaptive immune response against this disease...... and recognition of carcinogenic and environmentally damaging effects the most efficient compounds are prohibited. A continuous search for novel substances, which are highly effective against the parasites and harmless for the fish is ongoing. These compounds should be environmentally friendly and cost...
Carlos Sérgio Agostinho
Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with
Yohei Nakamura; Feary, David A.; Masaru Kanda; Kosaku Yamaoka
Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring t...
Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Daan, N.; Dekker, W.
Effort management has been proposed as an alternative for quota management in mixed demersal fisheries. It requires a metric to estimate the fishing mortality imposed by a given quantity of nominal fishing effort. Here, we estimate the partial fishing mortality rate imposed by one unit of fishing
Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...
Rahmann, H.; Anken, R. H.
In vertebrates (including man), altered gravitational environments such as weightlessness can induce malfunctions of the inner ears, based on irregular movements of the semicircular cristae or on dislocations of the inner ear otoliths from the corresponding sensory epithelia. This will lead to illusionary tilts, since the vestibular inputs are not confirmed by the other sensory organs, which results in an intersensory conflict. Vertebrates in orbit therefore face severe orientation problems. In humans, the intersensory conflict may additionally lead to a malaise, commonly referred to as space motion sickness (SMS), a kinetosis. During the first days at weightlessness, the orientation problems (and SMS) disappear, since the brain develops a new compensatory interpretation of the available sensory data. The present review reports on the neurobiological responses - particularly of fish - observed at altered gravitational states, concerning behaviour and neuroplastic reactivities. Recent investigations employing microgravity (spaceflight, parabolic aircraft flights, clinostat) and hyper-gravity (laboratory centrifuges as ground based research tools) yielded clues and insights into the understanding of the respective basic phenomena
Full Text Available The results of numerous studies indicate that fish possess bacterial populations on or in their skin, gills, digestive tract, and light-emitting organs. In addition, the internal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen of healthy fish may contain bacteria, but there is debate on whether or not muscle is actually sterile. The numbers and taxonomic composition of the bacterial populations often reflect those of the surrounding water. The role of the bacteria includes the ability to degrade complex molecules (therefore exercising a potential benefit in nutrition, to produce vitamins and polymers, and to be responsible for the emission of light by the light-emitting organs of deep-sea fish. Taxa, including Pseudomonas, may contribute to spoilage by the production of histamines in fish tissue.
Potts, G. W; Wootton, R. J
... modelling, ecology, behaviour and experimental laboratory studies. The final section of the book deals with some of the more commercially important aspects of fish reproduction with respect to aquaculture and fisheries biology...
Sano, S; Eguchi, H
A series of experiments on interspecific hybridization among the salmonid fishes caught in the Chitose River, Lake Shikotsu and other places was carried out in order to know the developmental stages...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knowledge of the reproductive biology of fish and crab stocks is critical to stock assessment estimates of the reproductive potential (typically measured as spawning...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a long term data set collecting visual census transect data on reef fishes at staions located at Rileys Hump, Tortugas South Ecological Reservee.
R. J. G. Lester
A modification of Taylor's Power law was used to compare the degree of overdispersion in frequency distributions from 38 datasets of marine parasites, data that had originally been collected for fish...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stated preference choice experiment data were collected in 2012 from Massachuestts saltwater recreational fishermen. Saltwater anglers fishing in Massachusetts (MA)...
Partridge, Julian C; Cuthill, Innes C
New field-based behavioural experiments show that Ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis) use complex UV facial markings, which are invisible to most damselfish predators and to us, to distinguish conspecific and heterospecific fish.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream and anchialine pool fish species in coastal Hawaii. (Anchialine pools are small,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in 2014, the the halibut Catch Sharing Plan (CSP) authorizes annual transfers of commercial halibut IFQ as guided angler fish (GAF) to charter halibut...
Olafsdottir, G.; Nesvadba, P.; Di Natale, C.
The European fish industry is still reluctant to implement methods other than sensory to monitor freshness and quality of fish products, although general concensus exists about the importance of various quality attributes and the need for methods to monitor quality. The objective of the project...... FAIR CT98-4076 (MUSTEC) was to evaluate several physico-chemical techniques and to integrate their outputs into a more robust estimate of the freshness quality of fish. The techniques used for this multisensor approach were based on visible light spectroscopy, electrical properties, image analysis...... sensory score. The outcome provides a basis for the construction and industrial exploitation of multi-sensor-devices for defining the quality of fish....
Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Ediger, Vedat
Analyses of fish remains from sediment cores make it possible to detect not only commonly caught fish from prehistoric times, but also species without any economic importance, but with high value of paleaoecological reconstructions. In this study, fish bones from sediment cores reaching several...... thousand years back and taken in the Baltic and Black Seas were analysed. All fish remains dealt with postdate the last glaciations and are from the last marine/brackish stages of both seas. In the Baltic cores, 13+ species were found, the most abundant ones being sand-eel and clupeids (herring and sprat...... sand-eel and several (nearly) complete pipefish which could be identified to the endemic Syngnathus schmidti Popov, 1928. The results from the two seas exhibit common features. Thus, all species found are euryhaline, and species which are commercially important in our days were documented back in time...
A streptomycete and pseutdomonad were isolated from blueback salmon, Oncorhynchuis nerka (WValbaum), and shown to be pathogenic to fish. Trhese organisms were isolated from young blueback salmon taken from a gr'oup that developed an increasing mortality after feeding about a month at the United States Fishery Station, Leavenworth, Washington. A superficial examination revealed only the presence of fungus (probably Sap0olcynia parasitica), which wvas on the gills and was eliminated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt. Although the fungus infection was eliminated, the mortality continued. It was observed by the station biologist at the time that the majority of the fish in the hatchery troughs were healthy, but that there w-as alwzays present an apathetic group that hud(dled on the bottom, refused food, ancl eventually weakene(l and died. The bulk of the daily mortality was composedI of fish from this group. The apathetic group received constant recruitment from the more vigorous stock, and their number showed a gradual increase rather than clepletion. A more critical examination of the larger affected fish revealedl that thc kICidneys and spleens weIe disintegrating; mycelial masses w-ere sporadically observed in the body cavity; congestion wN-as present in the gastrointestinal tract; some hemorrhagic areas were present in the body musculature; an(l a few fish had a perforating ulceration of the body wall. Furi'unculosis was immediately suspected, and attempts were made to isolate from the diseaseti fish Bacteriim .salininicida Lehmann and Netumann, the etiological agent of furunculosis. B. salmornicida Awas not recovered, however, even after repeated attempts at isolation. Subsequently it was discovered that two other organisms, a streptomycete and a pseudomonad, were characteristically present in the diseased fish. Both organisms were found experimentally to be pathogenic to fish.
Ivančica Strunjak-Perović; Mato Hacmanjek; Rozelinda Čož-Rakovac; Emin Teskeredžić
Adequate knowledge on fish diseases caused by viruses is still lacking. Up until now, in fish which live their entire life cycle or part of it in the sea, some viral diseases have been determined (lymphoeytis, viral necrosis of crythrocytes, ciravosti cod syndrome, encephalitis, viral hemoragic septichemistry, viral hematopoetic necrosis, viral gusteraca necrosis, chum renviral infection, branchionephritis, rabdociral eel infection). Some of these diseases primarily occur in the freshwater ph...
for modelling the dynamics of a fish population is suggested. A new approach is introduced to analyse the sources of variation in age composition data, which is one of the most important sources of information in the cohort based models for estimation of stock abundancies and mortalities. The approach combines...... and it is argued that an approach utilising stochastic differential equations might be advantagous in fish stoch assessments....
Doug Duncan; Robert W. Clarkson
The Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program was established to conserve native fishes and manage against nonnative fishes in response to several Endangered Species Act biological opinions between the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Central Arizona Project (CAP) water transfers to the Gila River basin. Populations of some Gila...
... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico..., Quantico, VA, on any authorized fishing day. A Base Fishing Privilege Card is required for all persons aged 16 to 65. (b) Fishing is permitted on all waters within the boundaries of Marine Corps Base, Quantico...
New and alternative plant ingredients are increasingly incorporated in fish feed due to the scarcity of captured fish and increased fishmeal and fish oil prices. As a result, current fish feeds are characterized by a highly variable ingredients composition, leading to a similar variability in the
Tierney, Keith B
Swimming performance tests of fish have been integral to studies of muscle energetics, swimming mechanics, gas exchange, cardiac physiology, disease, pollution, hypoxia and temperature. This paper describes a flexible protocol to assess fish swimming performance using equipment in which water velocity can be controlled. The protocol involves one to several stepped increases in flow speed that are intended to cause fish to fatigue. Step speeds and their duration can be set to capture swimming abilities of different physiological and ecological relevance. Most frequently step size is set to determine critical swimming velocity (U(crit;)), which is intended to capture maximum sustained swimming ability. Traditionally this test has consisted of approximately ten steps each of 20 min duration. However, steps of shorter duration (e.g. 1 min) are increasingly being utilized to capture acceleration ability or burst swimming performance. Regardless of step size, swimming tests can be repeated over time to gauge individual variation and recovery ability. Endpoints related to swimming such as measures of metabolic rate, fin use, ventilation rate, and of behavior, such as the distance between schooling fish, are often included before, during and after swimming tests. Given the diversity of fish species, the number of unexplored research questions, and the importance of many species to global ecology and economic health, studies of fish swimming performance will remain popular and invaluable for the foreseeable future.
The Genome 10K project aims to sequence the genomes of 10,000 vertebrates, representing approximately one genome for each vertebrate genus. Since fishes (cartilaginous fishes, ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes) represent more than 50% of extant vertebrates, it is planned to target 4,000 fish genomes. At present, nearly 60 fish genomes are being sequenced at various public funded labs, and under a Genome 10K and BGI pilot project. An additional 100 fishes have been identified for sequencing in the next phase of Genome 10K project. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the fish consumption in Giresun by survey method. Fish meat was compared with other meat types according to education, level of income, consumption rate and quantity. In research carried out according to the random sampling method. Questions were asked face to face a total of 433 persons. A total 428 participants (98.9% stated that they consumed fish. However, the most consumed meat type is chicken, second is fish. A total 91% participant preferred marine fish. The most consumed fish species is anchovy with 34%. Fish consumption per person in Giresun is above Turkey’s average with 12.34 kg/year.
Full Text Available Co-extinctions have received trivial consideration in discussions about the global conservation crisis, even though recent studies have emphasised their importance. This situation is even more pronounced in freshwater ecosystems where this phenomenon is largely unrecognized. In this presentation we explore the role of fish for freshwater mussels’ conservation. Freshwater mussels’ need fish as a host to complete their life cycle and given this premise is expected that changes in the fish community due to species extinctions or additions may have great effects. We reviewed the published information and we found: 1 that most of the studies were published in the last few years; 2 that most of the studies were performed in North America (69%, which is probably due to the high number of endemic threatened species in this continent; 3 that most of the mussel species that are specialists in fish hosting are listed as vulnerable or endangered (55%; 4 most studies were performed in laboratory (83% and 5 that the majority of studies were focused on life cycle or on identifying suitable fish hosts of freshwater mussel species with few studies focusing on threats. Since the interaction between fish and freshwater mussels can be easily disrupted and serious threats to this interaction have arisen (e.g. loss and fragmentation of habitat, changes in river flow, climate change, introduction of invasive species, pollution a more holistic approach is needed to find the best management strategies to conserve these animals. In addition, more field studies are required and more information on African, South American and Asian species is essential. Neglect the possible fundamental role of fish in the decline or extinction of freshwater mussels may impair the success of any measure devoted to their conservation; therefore, this issue cannot be ignored.
Jeremić Svetlana; Radosavljević Vladimir; Jakić-Dimić Dobrila
From the beginning of fish cultivation, diseases have appeared as a serious problem in this branch of agriculture. In recent years, by the intensifying of production, fish diseases have become even more significant and complex field. Bacterial diseases are constant threat for fish farming, and because of rapid course and severity of clinical manifestations the represent significant part of fish pathology, and also have great economical importance. Harmful effects of bacterial diseases on fish...
Mustafa Türkmen; Aysun Türkmen; Köksal Duran
This study aimed to investigate the fish consumption in Giresun by survey method. Fish meat was compared with other meat types according to education, level of income, consumption rate and quantity. In research carried out according to the random sampling method. Questions were asked face to face a total of 433 persons. A total 428 participants (98.9%) stated that they consumed fish. However, the most consumed meat type is chicken, second is fish. A total 91% participant preferred marine fish...
Liehr, T; Starke, H.; Weise, A.; Lehrer, H.; Claussen, U
Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays are nowadays indispensable for a precise description of complex chromosomal rearrangements. Routine application of such techniques on human chromosomes started in 1996 with the simultaneous use of all 24 human whole chromosome painting probes in multiplex-FISH (M-FISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY). Since then different approaches for chromosomal differentiation based on multicolor-FISH (mFISH) as...
Full Text Available Today's population faces great difficulties in fish marketing, although it is very valuable food. The classic supply with fresh fish has little influence on its consumption, which is not remarkable anyhow. Therefore one shulud be reminded on the classic, almost forgotten, ways of fish processing that can substantially increase fish assortment and improve its distribution. After cleaning and cutting the fish (primary procedures in its processing, comes salting, after which the salted fish can become an end-product or it can be one of many semi-products in the fish production chain. The most common methods of fish salting are dry-salting, dry-wet-salting (Greek-Dalmatian and wet-salting (pickling. The aim of fish drying is its dehydratation. Our country has the experience of traditional drying, sun-drying and natural drying of fish. Each of these has its own special qualities, depending on the fish species and the drying temperature. Smoked fish gets a very distinctive and spicy aroma and a specific colour. There are two kinds of smoking - cold and warm - based on the smoke derived from burning some special trees or, lately, from smoke preparations. Marinades are old procedures of fish processing in acetic acid and specific spices which can be prepared cold, fried or cooked. Fish-roe of some specific fish species has a special value and is considered a delicacy. The most precious black caviar is derived from the sturgeon roe and some of its related species.
Nur Bambang Azis
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the marketing process of ribbon fish (Trichiurus sp., including the marketing margin, marketing agencies, traders and marketing channels The research was carried out for 3 mo in Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP, Palabuhanratu, Sukabumi, West Java. A case study was used in this research. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from 55 respondents of fish marketing, consisting of fishermen, agents, traders, and retailers, who were involved in the marketing of ribbon fish in NFP Palabuhanratu. The result of the research showed that ribbon fish production in Palabuhanratu fluctuated from year to year. There are two types of ribbon fish marketing, i.e. type one is from fishermen to retailers, and type two is indirect marketing from fisherman to consumers through intermediate traders (exporters. The greatest marketing margin was obtained from the first type, while the smallest marketing margin was obtained from type two. The form of the market was considered to be oligopsony market. Fisherman’s share is greatest in the collectors and the smallest share is on retailers. Marketing process in traders is efficient due to its lowest margin and highest fisherman’s share.
Campbell, Stuart J; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Soler, German; Bates, Amanda E
Strong empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing gear restrictions on non-selective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, very few studies have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. Here we test for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass, at the community and family level, at 1,396 underwater surveys conducted at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions representing five realms. We compare total biomass across local fish assemblages, and among 20 reef fish families inside marine protected areas (MPAs) with different fishing restrictions: no-take, hook and line fishing only, several fishing gears allowed, to sites open to all fishing gears. We include a further category representing remote sites where fishing pressure is low. As expected, full fishery closures, often referred to as 'no-take' zones, most benefit community and family level fish biomass in comparison with restrictions on fishing gears and openly fished sites. We further find that although biomass responses to fishery closures are highly variable across families, some fishery targets (e.g., Carcharhinidae, and Lutjanidae) respond positively to multiple restrictions on fishing gears (i.e., where gears other than hook and line fishing are not permitted). Remoteness also imparts a positive influence on the response of community level fish biomass and many fish families. Our findings provide strong support for the role of fishing restrictions in building recovery of fish biomass, and indicate important interactions among fishing gear types on removal of fish biomass among a range of reef fish families. This article is protected by
Full Text Available Two groups of six fish aggregating devices (FADs were deployed at two locations off the eastern coast of Majorca (Western Mediterranean. Samples were obtained fortnightly throughout a two-year period by means of hauls performed with an experimental purse seine. Two control areas were established to check the aggregation efficiency of the FADs. A total of 16 families and 26 species of fishes were recorded beneath FADs. Pelagic fishes, largely Trachurus picturatus, T. mediterraneus, T. trachurus, Naucrates ductor, Seriola dumerili and Coryphaena hippurus, dominated the fauna. The total fish abundance, number of species and length range of the species confirmed that the FAD community was significantly related to season (recruitment period, resulting in a sequential fish colonisation of the FADs during the study period. Some of the species were present only during a particular period, such as Trachurus spp. in spring and summer. Other species, although evident for a longer period, were more occasional in catches (Schedophilus ovalis, Balistes carolinensis and Polyprion americanus, and some others were also present in small quantities. Diversity and equitability of the fish community associated with FADs were higher in summer than in winter. Many species were more abundant around FADs than in open water controls. The species that showed the most distinct recruitment phase beneath the FADs were N. ductor, S. ovalis, Trachurus spp., P. americanus, S. dumerili, C. hippurus and B. carolinensis. FADs can be considered nursery structures for many pelagic and demersal species, thus having an effect on the redistribution of juveniles. In the deployment of artificial structures as aggregators for fishing purposes one should consider the patchiness and seasonal characteristics of these communities as well as the redistribution aspect for fishery management.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Warm Springs Indian...
Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.
Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.
Amiel, A.; Gaber, E.; Manor, Y. [Meir General Hospital, Kfar-Saba (Israel)] [and others
Trisomies 8 and 9 are the most common numerical abnormalities in polycythemia vera (PCV). However, their role in the pathogenesis of the disease is unclear as is their diagnostic or prognostic value. We evaluated the role of fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) as compared to chromosome analysis in the detection of trisomies 8 or 9 in peripheral blood cells of 14 PCV and 5 secondary PCV patients. Using FISH, we found trisomies 8 and 9 in 10 PCV patients above the cutoff levels of 5%. However, no patient with the secondary PCV reached the cutoff level. Out of 10 PCV patients in whom the trisomy was detected by FISH, only in 3 was this trisomy also detected by routine cytogenetics. The incidence of the finding of trisomy 9 correlates with the duration of the disease, suggesting that this is not the primary event in PCV. FISH is a sensitive, convenient and rapid method for diagnosis and follow-up of chromosome aberrations in PCV patients. Application of FISH to larger cohort of patients may provide valuable information regarding their role in initiation and progession of the disease.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish... for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to parts 17 or 23 of this subchapter, live farm-raised fish...
Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David
have been observed in fish exposed to herbicides, these have either been observed at large concentrations that would be rarely found in surface waters inhabited by fish or, as in the case of behavior and olfaction, have not been linked to ecologically relevant responses on survival, growth, development......Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... with cell division. Chronic and sublethal effects have been studied for some herbicides, but fewer data are available for these effects than for acute effects. The sublethal effects of herbicides that have been studied include reproduction, stress, olfaction, and behavior. Although some of these responses...
Evans, J C
The topic of fish welfare in the context of commercial fisheries is a difficult one. From traditionally anthropocentric or human-centred perspectives, fishes are simply objects for humans to use as they see fit. When it is argued that anthropocentrism is arbitrary, it may appear that a strong animal rights position is the only recourse, with the result that humans ought not to use animals in the first place, if it is at all possible. It can be argued that both positions fail to view human beings as part of the natural world. If human beings are viewed as part of the world from which they live, then it has to be asked what it means to be respectful of the animals which humans use and from which they live. From this perspective, concern for the welfare of the fishes humans eat is simply what should be expected from humans as good citizens in the community of living creatures.
Winton, J.R.; Ahne, Winfried; Kurstak, E.
The number of fish viruses isolated in cell culture or observed by electron microscopy continues to increase rapidly. Until recently, most viruses that were isolated from finfish and characterized were found to be members of the Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae, or Herpesviridae (Wolf and Mann 1980). In a comprehensive review of fish viruses published in 1984, there were no picornaviruses and only two reoviruses listed (Wolf 1984). The expansion of aquaculture into the rearing of new species at high density in different geographic areas, and the use of improved methods of detection that include newly developed cell lines and increased sampling effort, have led to the discovery of fish viruses representing nearly all families of animal viruses. Among the newest additions, are a member of the family Picornaviridae and several new viruses that belong within the Reoviridae.
Full Text Available Adequate knowledge on fish diseases caused by viruses is still lacking. Up until now, in fish which live their entire life cycle or part of it in the sea, some viral diseases have been determined (lymphoeytis, viral necrosis of crythrocytes, ciravosti cod syndrome, encephalitis, viral hemoragic septichemistry, viral hematopoetic necrosis, viral gusteraca necrosis, chum renviral infection, branchionephritis, rabdociral eel infection. Some of these diseases primarily occur in the freshwater phase of host development, although recordings exist that the virus is carried on in surving samples which succeed in making it to the sea. As the number of sea fish species increases in controlled culture a increasing number of pathological cases are observed, which is caused by viruses. Therefore, in this area it is necessary to emphasize future investigations.
Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Groff, Joseph M
The scientific literature contains a wealth of information concerning spontaneous fish neoplasms, although ornamental fish oncology is still in its infancy. The occurrence of fish neoplasms has often been associated with oncogenic viruses and environmental insults, making them useful markers for environmental contaminants. The use of fish, including zebrafish, as models of human carcinogenesis has been developed and knowledge gained from these models may also be applied to ornamental fish, although more studies are required. This review summarizes information available about fish oncology pertaining to veterinary clinicians. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Blackowicz, Michael; Liu, Yangyang; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A; Turyk, Mary
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U.S. Data on PFAS levels and self-reported fish consumption over the past 30 days were collected from the 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twelve different PFAS were measured in serum samples from participants. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with serum PFAS concentrations. Additional models were further adjusted for other potential exposures including military service and consumption of ready-to-eat and fast foods. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were examined in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, MPAH, PFNA, PFUA). The PFAS with the highest concentrations were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 8.3, 2.7, 1.5 and 1.0ng/mL). Fish consumption was generally low, with a median of 1.2 fish meals and 0.14 shellfish meals, reported over the past 30 days. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, total fish consumption was associated with reduced MPAH, and with elevated PFDE, PFNA and PFuDA. Shellfish consumption was associated with elevations of all PFAS examined except MPAH. Certain specific fish and shellfish types were also associated with specific PFAS. Adjustment for additional exposure variables resulted in little to no change in effect estimates for seafood variables. PFAS are emerging
Lester, R J G
A modification of Taylor's Power law was used to compare the degree of overdispersion in frequency distributions from 38 datasets of marine parasites, data that had originally been collected for fish stock discrimination. The results strongly indicate that the overriding factor contributing to overdispersion in these helminths and crustaceans is the number of hosts in the life cycle. This was particularly well shown by juveniles of Anisakis 1 from different fish species. Data on the cestode Otobothrium cysticum and the monogenean Pricea multae appear anomalous and lead to conclusions about their biology not at first evident from the literature.
Mann, David A.
While vocalization and chorusing behavior has been intensively studied in frogs and birds, little has been done with fishes. This paper presents patterns of sound production in damselfish, toadfish, and spotted seatrout on seasonal, daily, and subdaily time scales. Chorus behavior ranges from highly coordinated behavior between neighboring toadfish to uncoordinated behavior in spotted seatrout. Differences in coordination of sound production (i.e., the degree of overlap in calls) can be related to differences in territoriality and modes of reproduction. Toadfish and damselfish are territorial fishes in which males guard benthic eggs laid in nests. Sciaenids (croakers and drums) spawn planktonic eggs, and form temporary aggregations of calling males.
... be a consequence of the negative impact of climate change. This study concluded that there's a need for the active involvement of stakeholders in developing policies relating to climate change mitigation and beneficial response strategies to global warming. Keywords: Climate change, fish farming, impact and perception.
This study concluded that there's a need for the active involvement of stakeholders in developing policies relating to climate change mitigation and beneficial response strategies to global warming. Keywords: Climate change, fish farming, impact and perception. Introduction. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ...
climate change problems through deforestation thereby causing desertification, soil erosion ... change adaptation. In view of prevailing evidence, adaptation to climate change is subject to modification of solar net drier to meet fish smoking needs. In alternative is ... natural climate variability observed over comparable time ...
Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck
Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…
Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C; Riva-Murray, Karen; Knightes, Christopher D; Journey, Celeste A; Chasar, Lia C; Brigham, Mark E; Bradley, Paul M
Fish Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs; ratios of mercury (Hg) in fish (Hgfish) and water (Hgwater)) are used to develop total maximum daily load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Both applications require representative Hgfish estimates and, thus, are sensitive to sampling and data-treatment methods. Data collected by fixed protocol from 11 streams in 5 states distributed across the US were used to assess the effects of Hgfish normalization/standardization methods and fish-sample numbers on BAF estimates. Fish length, followed by weight, was most correlated to adult top-predator Hgfish. Site-specific BAFs based on length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates demonstrated up to 50% less variability than those based on non-normalized Hgfish. Permutation analysis indicated that length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates based on at least 8 trout or 5 bass resulted in mean Hgfish coefficients of variation less than 20%. These results are intended to support regulatory mercury monitoring and load-reduction program improvements. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Climate change, fish farming, impact and perception. Introduction ... to global warming. According to Raymond and Victoria (2008), climate change has the potential to affect all natural systems thereby becoming a threat to human ... decline and deal with emerging issues such as demand for renewable energy.
Jun 7, 2010 ... 42°C. Replacement of nutrient broth-starch with residual fish hydrolysate-starch led to the enzyme production to .... Total amino acids in terms of Glycine (gL-1). .... production. The order of amino acids correlated with increasing rate of the enzyme formation was cysteine = aspartic acid > arginine > alanine =.
Full Text Available One of the parasite diseases associated with the consumption of raw fish that occurs with some frequency is the anisakiasis, a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larval nematodes of the genus Anisakis, family Anisakidae. At the National Reference Centre for Anisakiasis (C.Re.N.A. from October 2012 to February 2013, a number of 231 bony fish (Trichiuridae, Engraulidae, Scombridae and Clupeidae were received from different fishing sites in Sicily. Anisakis pegreffii is the main species detected in fish, as identified by molecular analysis based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, while Anisakis simplex sensu stricto was found only in Scomber scombrus caught in the Mediterranean Sea (Fishing Areas 37, in the Spanish coast (Fishing Areas 37 and in the Atlantic Ocean (Fishing Areas 34. Larvae of the genus Pseudoterranova were found only in fish caught in the Norwegian Sea.
The 2005 Survey of Recreational Fishing in Canada collected information about recreational fishing activities to assess the economic and social importance of recreational fisheries to Canada's provinces and territories...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fishing Plan for Sherburne NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, information about conformance with statutory authorities, a statement of...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the action is to enhance environmental conditions in the McNary Slough by reducing the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus...
, their role in the biodeterioration process, traditional and modern preventive methods, their economics with suggestions for future work. This study becomes important in view of the fishing industry turning towards traditional fishing craft for low energy...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Problems, information needs, research facilities, current research, and documents related to long term planning of fish and wildlife research in Alaska. Appendices...
Menezes, M.R.; Qasim, S.Z.
similarities in their protein make up, whereas these taxonomically apart showed striking differences. Thus, the usefulness of employing this method was clearly demonstrated in fish taxonomy. The study of genetic struture of fish populations through the analysis...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This habitat map was created along with the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map of the refuge. Refuge...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Sport Fishing Plan for Meredosia NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, information about conformance with statutory authorities, a...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spawning aggregations are an important event in the life-history of many coral reef fish species. During short time periods (typically during full moons), fish will...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for 2010. A general background is presented on historical spring water...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Typically, commercial fishing businesses incur three major types of costs: fixed or annual costs; which are incurred annually irrespective of whether any fishing...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Intersex and abnormal vitellogenin in smallmouth bass from portions of the Potomac watershed pose a threat to fish resources. This fact sheet summarizes studies that...
Baker, R.C; Darfler, J.M
Meatballs in tomato sauce are a popular canned convenience product. Since small bite-sized portions of a fish mixture in a creamy sauce had been found to be an acceptable product (Creamy Fish Bites...
... news/fullstory_166848.html Fish Eaters Report Less Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain Study suggests most fish may play role ... significantly reduce the pain and swelling associated with rheumatoid arthritis, a new study says. Prior studies have shown ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent locations of fish streams....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of fish streams....
Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta
Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...
Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul
Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767
Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio
At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 1. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming - Lift-based Propulsion. Jaywant H Arakeri. General Article Volume 14 Issue 1 January 2009 pp 32-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Jensen, Frank; Frost, Hans Staby; Thøgersen, Thomas Talund
in 2010 and that the EU, Norway and the Faroe Islands reached a bargaining solution in 2014 cannot be explained by simple cooperative game theory. However, actual behavior during the mackerel crisis can be explained by opportunity costs, including alternative fishing possibilities and regulations, rather...
Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...
The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...
Kevin L. Pope; Steve E. Lochmann; Michael K. Young
Fisheries managers are likely to assess fish populations at some point during the fisheries management process. Managers that follow the fisheries management process (see Chapter 5) might find their knowledge base insufficient during the steps of problem identification or management action and must assess a population before appropriate actions can be taken. Managers...
Piazzon de Haro, M.C.; Leiro, J.M.; Lamas, J.
Some species of scuticociliates (Ciliophora) behave as facultative parasites and produce severe mortalities in cultured fish. Pathogenic scuticociliates can cause surface lesions and can also penetrate inside the body, where they feed on tissue and proliferate in the blood and most internal organs,
Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed fish products. Design/methodology/approach: Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category involvement,
shark). Redrawn from Review of Fish. Swimming Modes for Aquatic. Locomotion, IEEE Journal of. Oceanic Engineering, Vol.24,. No.2, pp. 237–252, 1999, D M. Lane, M Sfakiotakis and J B C. Davies, Heriot-Watt University. undulatory → oscillatory caudaltail¯n (B C F ) m otions are know n collectively as. B C F sw im m ers.
VATSOS N. Ioannis; ANGELIDIS Panagiotis
Until recently, most cases of humans been affected by fish pathogens, bacterial and parasitic, were limited in certain countries, either due to the inappropriate sanitary measures used in those areas, or due to the local habit of eating raw or undercooked fish. However, as new reliable methods to identify fish pathogens in samples collected from sick humans have been developed, the confirmed cases worldwide have increased. The most common fish bacterial pathogens that can affect humans belong...
Chan, Hing Man; Egeland, Grace M
There is increasing concern regarding methylmercury exposure in populations that consume large amounts of fish. This situation poses a dilemma for those who choose to consume fish for its beneficial effects on heart disease risk. Recent evidence suggests that high mercury content in fish may diminish the cardioprotective effect of fish intake. We explore the current knowledge of Hg toxicity on the heart and evaluate the epidemiologic evidence to date.
Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested
De Koning, AJ
Full Text Available The South African fishing industry converts pelagic fish unsuitable for human consumption into animal feed with high nutritional value. Nine factories along the west and southeast coasts of South Africa produce fish meal and fish oil. Fishermen...
Martins, C.I.; Galhardo, L.; Noble, C.; Damsgard, B.; Spedicato, M.T.; Zupa, W.; Beauchaud, M.; Kulczykowska, E.; Massabuau, J.C.; Carter, T.; Planellas, S.R.; Kristiansen, T.
Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons, electric...
Marchal, P.; Ulrich, Clara; Pastoors, M.
linear model (GLM) analysis of the index of fishing power. The fishing efficiency of Danish gill-netters and, to some extent, Danish seiners, has overall increased inside the 'plaice box', whilst remaining relatively stable outside. However, the fishing efficiency of the other exemption fleets has...
Full Text Available Development of cyanobacterial water bloom became a common issue all over the world. Cyanobacteria are the most important primary producers in aquatic ecosystems but in some abundant species their secondary metabolites called cyanotoxins seem to be harmful for many animal groups especially mammals but also fish. In fishes, adverse effects have been demonstrated in several studies applying cyanotoxins by unnatural injection. However, cyanobacteria and fish coevolved during ages and therefore the question arises whether cyanobacteria might be even used for fish via oral application (fish diet. The use of cyanobacteria for fish diets is varying including applications of pure cyanobacteria biomass as well as incorporation of cyanotoxin containing cyanobacteria biomass into commercial fish diet. The impacts of cyanobacteria in fish diets administered via the oral route revealed contradictory findings ranging from moderate negative to growth promoting impacts and it seems that any bioaccumulation of microcystins can become depurated by rearing fish in clean water for a short period. According to the results obtained from various experiments, cyanobacteria as primary producers might be used as a component of fish diets especially concerning partial replacement of fish meal. However, the determination of nutrition value and the bioavailibility of nutrients present in cyanobacteria for different fish species needs to be determined. Furthermore thorough research is needed to exclude any harmful problem for the final consumers – humans.
Dewees, Christopher M.
A list of materials needed and methodology for "gyotaku" (fish rubbing) are provided. Originally developed in Japan and China during the early 1800's, the technique of fish printing has become popular in the United States during the last 10 years. Because good printing results depend on an understanding of fish anatomy, a chart is…
Fish marketing has become an important trade in Ghana due to the increasing appreciation of the health benefits from consuming fish. This paper examines fish marketing and consumption in the. Tamale Metropolis of Ghana with specific reference to consumer preferences. It discusses the results of a survey research that ...
Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard; Stacey, Julia
Nowadays most consumers perceive fish as a healthy and nutritious meal and many are fully aware of the various nutritious values of fish. In spite of this, the consumption of fish has diminished or stagnated in many European countries in recent years....
Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; Philip J. Howell
Small, wadeable streams comprise the majority of habitats available to fishes in fluvial networks. Wadeable streams are generally less than 1 m deep, and fish can be sampled without the use of water craft. Cold waters are defined as having mean 7-d summer maximum water temperatures of less than 20Â°C and providing habitat for coldwater fishes.
of economically important fish, both from the wild and fish farms, thus making them difficult to market. In this study, copepod parasitic investigation was carried out in gills of 856 fish mugilidae (Mugil cephalus and Liza falcipinnis) in three stations (Ganvie, Djdje and Zogbo) of Lac Nokoue lagoon. In the three stations, three ...
Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels
a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...
Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels
a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...
Oct 2, 2006 ... Fish waste (viscera, backbones, heads and tails) was recovered fish merchants and ground. 50 kg of the ground fish was mixed with 10 kg of molasses and incubated in 200 kg barrels in closed plastic in a room where the ambient temperature varies between 30 and 33°C. Stumps of lactic bacteria and ...
Daan, N.; Gislason, Henrik; Pope, J.
, but such changes may simply reflect the cumulative, direct effects of fishing through selective removal of large individuals. If there is resilience in a fish community towards fishing, we may expect increases in specific components, for instance as a consequence of an associated reduction in predation and....... Taking average fishing mortality of assessed commercial species as an index of exploitation rate of the fish community, it appears that fishing effort reached its maximum in the mid-1980s and has declined slightly since. If the observed changes in the community are caused by indirect effects of fishing...
Carvajal-Vallejos, Fernando M.; Bigorne, Rémy; Zeballos Fernández, América J.; Sarmiento, Jaime; Barrera, Soraya; Yunoki, Takayuki; Pouilly, Marc; Zubieta, José; De La Barra, Evans; Jegú, Michel; Maldonado, Mabel; Van Damme, Paul; Céspedes,Ricardo; Oberdorff, Thierry
The Bolivian part of the Amazon Basin contains a mega diverse and well-preserved fish fauna. Since the last decade, this fish fauna has received an increasing attention from scientists and the national authorities as fishes represent one of the most important sources of proteins for local human communities. However, this fish fauna still remains poorly documented. Here, we present a database for fishes from the Bolivian Amazon. To build the database, we conducted an extensive literature surve...
Ababouch, Lahsen [United Nations, Food and Agricultural Organization, Chief, Fish Utilization and Marketing Services, FAO Headquarters, F-607 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
International trade in fishery commodities reached US$ 58.2 billion in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US$ 17.4 billion in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building.
This work reports on the microbial composition of stagnant fish ponds and mineral & metal composition of Clarias gariepinus from the fish ponds in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. The fishes apparently thrived well in the fish ponds. Microbiological analysis of the different fish ponds as well as the mineral composition of the fish ...
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
BPA's Division of Fish and Wildlife was created in 1982 to develop, coordinate and manage BPA's fish and wildlife program. Division activities protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife resources impacted by hydroelectric development and operation in the Columbia River Basin. At present the Division spends 95% of its budget on restoration projects. In 1983, 83 projects addressed all aspects of the anadromous fish life cycle, non-migratory fish problems and the status of wildlife living near reservoirs.
Stratakis, N.; Roumeliotaki, T.; Oken, E.
IMPORTANCE Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To examine whether fish intake in pregnancy is associated with offspring growth and the risk of childhood overweight...... among boys (aOR, 1.11 [95%CI, 0.92-1.34]; P = .02 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE High maternal fish intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of rapid growth in infancy and childhood obesity. Our findings are in line with the fish intake limit proposed by the US Food...
Fodor, Lucian; Bota, Ioan O; Abbas, Yusuf; Fodor, Marius; Ciuce, Constantin
The advent of fishing rods made of carbon fiber and graphite rods has greatly increased the risks of electrical injuries associated with fishing. The braided fishing lines and metal hooks put the fishermen at risk for electrical injuries. We review our burn center's experience with electrical injuries related to fishing activities during the last four years. We retrospectively collected data on patients with electrical burns related to fishing activities between January 2006, when our burns unit was established, and December 2009. Eight patients with electrical burns were admitted during this period of time, five who sustained the injury while fishing, due to contact of the fishing rod with overhead high-voltage cables and three who were injured during illegal fishing, using electricity to stun the fish. The total burn surface area ranged from 0.5% to 70%. Three of the patients sustained fourth degree burns, while the rest had second and third degree burns. One patient underwent scapulohumeral disarticulation and an above-knee amputation. Two patients had fingers and toes amputated. Latissimus dorsi and anterolateral thigh flaps were used to cover the defects in two cases. Local flaps were employed in other two cases to cover the tissue defects. Two patients died. Fishing-related burns and illegal fishing can lead to serious injuries and death. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.
Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.
evacuation. The average rate of food consumption and the functional response are derived from simple renewal theory and from obtaining the average of the gastric evacuation rates. Effects of meal size biased stomach sampling are introduced. As a primer on modelling the stomach content of piscivorous fish...... searching time and meal size as well as the average rate of food consumption decrease considerably in the more realistic case of variable meal sizes. The model is able to account for the high frequency of empty stomachs, which occurs simultaneously with a relatively high observed mean stomach content. Need...... and direction for further developments of fish stomach theory are discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Full Text Available In order to put cultured species on the market with high quality and few casualties, many important studies are carried out. Most of the researches are conducted in the development of feed and feed ingredients 30-60% of the production cost in farming. Therefore, in aquaculture, an interest in alternative feed ingredients is moving at a very fast rate. In this context, the use of enzymes, probiotics and prebiotics in animal feed has steadily increased in recent years with reasons such as effective control of fish diseases and prevention of infection, strengthening the immune system of fish, increase of the digestibility, reduction of the feed cost, reduction of larval-term mortality, provision of increase in growth, live weight gain, and getting rid of the negative effects of stress.
Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk
Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating...... back to the 1830s. It also incorporates results from DNA barcoding, used to complement morphological characters in evaluating problematic taxa and to assist in identification of specimens collected in recent expeditions. Barcoding results are depicted in a neighbor-joining tree of 880 CO1 (cytochrome c...... oxidase 1 gene) sequences distributed among 165 species from the arctic region and adjacent waters, and discussed in the family reviews. Using our definition of the arctic region, we count 242 species with documented presence, if 12 species that likely are synonyms are excluded. The 242 species...
Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...... viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies...
Oktener, Ahmet; Trilles, Jean Paul; Leonardos, Ioannis
Five ectoparasites were collected during the period of 2002-2005 from fish of Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea and inland waters of Turkey: Four crustaceans [Ergasilus mosulensis and Pennella instructa (Copepoda), Ceratothoa steindachneri (Isopoda) and Argulus foliaceus (Branchiura)] and one Annelida (Piscicola geometra) were found. The species, E. mosulensis, P. instructa and C. steindachneri have been reported for first time in Turkish waters, and A. foliaceus and P. geometra for the time from the Cavuşçu Lake.
Can you solve the following Problem? There are 200 fish in an aquarium, and 99 percent of them are guppies. How many guppies must be removed to reduce the tank's guppy population to 98 percent? The key to this problem is to work backward by using the data given in figure 2 to determine the surface area of the top of the aquarium; then determine…
Lu, Cao; Kania, Per W.; Buchmann, Kurt
Particles composed of inorganic, organic and/or biological materials occur in both natural water bodies and aquaculture facilities. They are expected to affect fish health through a direct chemical, mechanical and biological interaction with gills during ventilation but the nature of the reaction...... μm). In zebrafish gills down-regulation was found for the il8gene (0.2 and 20 μm). The effect of particle exposure is discussed with regard to shape and chemical/biological composition of particles in water and to abiotic parameters including temperature.......Particles composed of inorganic, organic and/or biological materials occur in both natural water bodies and aquaculture facilities. They are expected to affect fish health through a direct chemical, mechanical and biological interaction with gills during ventilation but the nature of the reactions...... and the relative importance of mechanical versus chemical and biological stimulation are unknown. The present work presents an immune gene expression method for evaluation of gill disturbance and sets a baseline for the mechanical influence on fish gills of chemically inert spherical particles. The method may...
Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Garin, Inazio; Alberdi, Antton
The long-fingered bat Myotis capaccinii is a European trawling bat reported to feed on fish in several Mediterranean locations, but the ecological circumstances of this behavior have not yet been studied. To elucidate the importance of fishing in this bat's diet, we evaluated the frequency...... that fish may be a locally or seasonally important trophic resource for this species. By capturing 15 bats and radio-tracking the four with the most fish remains in their droppings, we also identified fishing areas, including a single fishing ground comprising several ponds within a golf course. Ponds hold...... and seasonal variation of fish remains in 3,000 fecal pellets collected from M. capaccinii at a nursery roost in Dénia (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Fish consumption occurred evenly throughout the year. All otoliths found in feces were identified as belonging to the surface-feeding fish...
Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD
at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...
Full Text Available Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms(-1. The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts.
Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker
Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms(-1). The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts.
Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo; Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Duwoon; Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Kim, Jeong-Ho
Megalocytivirus was detected from paradise fish Macropodus opercularis imported from Indonesia. Four of 11 fish (36%) in 2006 and 40 of 117 fish (34%) in 2008 were found to be PCR-positive for megalocytivirus. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial major capsid protein (MCP) gene nucleotide sequences revealed that the sequences detected in paradise fish were classified as Genotype II, which includes freshwater fish isolates from Southeast Asian countries, closely related to infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), Murray cod iridovirus (MCIV), and dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV-2004). Paradise fish was added as a new host for megalocytivirus based on this study.
Lai, Maria Bonaria
One environmental event verified during the last years in the Mediterranean sea is that the presence of tropical fishes is causing death of the original fauna. This has attracted the attention of not only the fishermen, but also that of the European Community and all of the associations (public and private) which work to preserve the environment. There are several initiatives to preserve the environment, and the “fermo biologico” is one of these. It tries to solve the Mediterranean fish’s dep...
Madhuri Sharma; A.B. Shrivastav; Sahni, Y. P.; Govind Pandey
Similar to other animals, fish can also suffer from different diseases. All fish carry pathogens and parasites. Disease is a prime agent affecting fish mortality, especially when fish are young. Pathogens which can cause fish diseases comprise: viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, protozoan infections, water mould infection, etc. Fish are also exposed from different environmental pollutants, including drugs and chemicals. The most common fish diseases, particularly in f...
This report documents the progress of Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s fish health monitoring during the past five years and will serve as a completion report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. Anadromous fish at twelve IDFG facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed to anadromous fish prior to their release. A fish disease database has been developed and data is presently being entered. Alternate funding has been secured to continue fish health monitoring.
Vinther, Morten; Eero, Margit
Evaluations of the effects of management measures on fish populations are usually based on the analyses of population dynamics and estimates of fishing mortality from stock assessments. However, this approach may not be applicable in all cases, in particular for data-limited stocks, which may...... GAM analyses to predict local cod densities and combine this with spatio-temporal data of fishing effort based on VMS (Vessel Monitoring System). To quantify local fishing impact on the stock, retention probability of the gears is taken into account. The results indicate a substantial decline...
Full Text Available The research was undertaken to assess the health status of the fish eaters and non-fish eaters and assess the prevalence of nutritional and life style diseases among them. Totally 340 subjects, 173 fish eaters and 167 non fish eaters, in the age group of 20 to 40 years, both male and female subjects were selected. A sub sample of 10 fish eaters and 10 non - fish eaters were selected for the estimation of blood lipid profile. The demographic details, nutritional status, prevalence of nutritional and life style diseases and health status were evaluated. The results brought out the beneficial effects of consuming fish. Fish eaters had good nutritional status, normal blood lipid values and anthropometric measurements which were in the normal range. It was alarming to note that the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were more than the recommended values for the non-fish eating group. Prevalence of non communicable diseases showed that fish eaters had fewer incidences of these diseases while the prevalence of non communicable diseases was more among non-fish eaters. Consumption of fish was beneficial in protecting health and preventing degenerative diseases. The study brought out the beneficial effect of fish consumption.
Leonhard, Simon B.; Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne
moderately attractive to fish. Also investigations into the effects on fish and fish behaviour from electromagnetic fields were made at Nysted. Data documented some effects from the cable route on fish behaviour, with some species avoiding the cable, while other species were attracted. However, only flounder......The studies up until 2006 showed few effects on the fish fauna that could be attributed to the establishment and operation of the wind farms. Fish abundance and diversity were not higher inside the wind farms than in the areas outside the wind farms. One obvious reason for this could...... be that the studies and investigations were made during the early stages of colonisation of the turbine foundations at Horns Rev that constitute artificial reefs. At Nysted, the effect was weak, presumably because the benthic community consisted of a monoculture of large common mussels (Mytilus edulis) that are only...
Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Michael P. Wilkie,
The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.
Coquereau, Laura; Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent
Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity.
May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.
This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.
Petelina, Nina; Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra
HEXBUG AquaBotsTM are a commercially available small robot fish that come in a variety of ``species''. These models have varying caudal fin shapes and randomly-varied modes of swimming including forward locomotion, diving, and turning. In this study, we assess the repeatability and performance of the HEXBUG swimming behaviors and discuss the use of these toys to develop experimental techniques and analysis methods to study live fish swimming. In order to determine whether these simple, affordable model fish can be a valid representation for live fish movement, two models, an angelfish and a shark, were studied using 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV. In a series of experiments, the robotic fish were either allowed to swim freely or towed in one direction at a constant speed. The resultant measurements of the caudal fin wake are compared to data from previous studies of a real fish and simplified flapping propulsors.
Meyers, Theodore R; Batts, William N.; Kibenge, Frederick S. B.; Godoy, Marcos
The first fish paramyxovirus was isolated from normal adult Chinook salmon returning to a coastal hatchery in Oregon in the fall of 1982. Subsequently, the virus was isolated from other stocks of adult Chinook salmon and one stock of adult coho salmon in California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska, leading to its designation as the Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). The slow-growing virus can be isolated from tissues and ovarian fluids of healthy adult fish returning to spawn and apparently causes no clinical signs of disease or mortality. In 1995, a different and widely disseminated paramyxovirus was isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway and was designated as Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). Although this virus caused no disease or mortality when injected into juvenile Atlantic salmon, ASPV has been associated with proliferative gill inflammation in sea-reared yearling fish; however, additional infectious agents may be involved in the etiology of the condition. Sequence analysis of PSPV and ASPV isolates using the polymerase gene established their placement in the family Paramyxoviridaeand has shown the two viruses to be closely related but sufficiently different from each other and from other known paramyxoviruses to possibly represent new genera within the family. The viruses can be diagnosed by isolation in cell culture with final confirmation by molecular methods. Other paramyxovirus-like agents have been observed or isolated from rainbow trout in Germany, from seabream in Japan associated with epithelial necrosis, from turbot in Spain associated with erythrocytic inclusion bodies and buccal/opercular hemorrhaging and from koi and common carp associated with gill necrosis in the European Union.
Rosahl, K; Vokac, Z
Circulatory strain, energy output and urinary catecholamine excretion were determined in 24 coastal, 6 trawler, 5 bank and 3 capelin fishermen. From these studies it is evident that fishing may represent hard physical work. However, if properly organized with job rotation and adequate creq numbers, it may, in some respects, be comparable with many occupations ashore. The introduction of mechanization and automation has led to increased tempo and greater stress. Consequently, the older fishermen, due to declining physical work capacity, may find it difficult to keep up with their younger colleagues. Yet, the official Norwegian statistics show that the percentage of older fishermen is increasing.
Magalhães, MR; Müller, Michael; Rainger, G.E.; Steegenga, Wilma
Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains showed that fish oil can increase lifespan, affecting pathways like inflammation and oxidation thought to be involved in the regulation of aging. Could fish oil and its omega-3 fatty acids act as geroprot...
Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function are presented for 42 fish stocks belonging to 16 families, 22 genera and 27 species. The growth performance index, Phi '(= log K + 2logL sub( infinity )), was computed for each stock and was found to be highest in male Gymnarchus niloticus (Gymnarchidae) from Lake Chad and lowest in Chrysichthys auratus (Bagridae) from the Cross River. Mean Phi ' for major fish genera and families are also presented and was highest in brackishwater fishes, clo...
James Eales; Catherine Durham; Cathy R. Wessells
Given a relative lack of knowledge about Japanese consumer preferences for fish, Japanese fish demand is modeled using both Marshallian (ordinary) and inverse demand systems, each of which nests a number of competing specifications. Results indicate that the inverse demand systems dominate the ordinary demand systems in forecasting performance and in nonnested tests. The inverse system suggests that Japanese fish prices are less responsive to changes in consumption than found in previous stud...
VATSOS N. Ioannis
Full Text Available Until recently, most cases of humans been affected by fish pathogens, bacterial and parasitic, were limited in certain countries, either due to the inappropriate sanitary measures used in those areas, or due to the local habit of eating raw or undercooked fish. However, as new reliable methods to identify fish pathogens in samples collected from sick humans have been developed, the confirmed cases worldwide have increased. The most common fish bacterial pathogens that can affect humans belong to the genera: Mycobacterium spp. (mainly M. marinum, M. chelonei, M. fortuitum, Nocardia spp., Streptococcus spp (S. iniae, Vibrio spp. (mainly V. vulnificus, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas spp. (mainly A. hydrophila and rarely A. sorbia and A. caviae. Less often, infections of humans with Edwardsiella tarda and Photobacterium damselae sbsp. damselae have been reported. Fish usually act as intermediate hosts to many important parasites of human, as for example the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum. To fish, these parasites cause no or little damage, as they are usually found encysted in many fish tissues. Of particular interest are someanisakids (e.g. Anisakis simplex and Pseudoterranova decipiens which can produce some thermostable allergens. Most of the above pathogens can infect humans through skin wounds or after ingesting infected fish. Compromised immune system of the infected humans may result in extensive spread of the pathogens within the body, often causing death.There are no fish viruses or fungi that can affect humans. Fish can also act as carriers for human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Listeria spp. Recently, few human pathogens have also been isolated from the internal organs of fish, as for example Brucella melitensis. The effects of these human pathogens to fish are still not known.
Colwell, R. R.; Grimes, D. J.
Several Vibrio spp. cause disease in marine fish populations, both wild and cultured. The most common disease, vibriosis, is caused by V. anguillarum. However, increase in the intensity of mariculture, combined with continuing improvements in bacterial systematics, expands the list of Vibrio spp. that cause fish disease. The bacterial pathogens, species of fish affected, virulence mechanisms, and disease treatment and prevention are included as topics of emphasis in this review.
, İlhan Altinok; Kurt, İlknur
Molecular techniques are potentially faster and more sensitive than culture, serology, and histology methods that are traditionally used to identify fish pathogens. During the last 15 years or so, molecular techniques have been increasingly employed to diagnose fish diseases. These techniques include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction enzyme digestion, probe hybridization, in situ hybridization, and microarray. Pathogens can be detected from asymptomatic fish by molecular diagnostic...
Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen
Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study (GLHHFTS). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, PFC, PBDE and PCBs.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent studies have demonstrated that of various fish feeds contain significant concentrations of contaminants, many of which can bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate in...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a long-term contaminant-monitoring program of fish in Puget Sound and Georgia Basin, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and NWFSC have...
Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris; Brunsø, Karen
and urban residence, who feel not con- fident to evaluate fish quality, although they find quality very important. They display a strong interest in a fish quality label. The most relevant findings about Self-confident consumers, whose socio-demographic profile matches best with the overall sample......This paper focuses on consumer evaluation of fish quality and its association with fish consumption, risk and benefit beliefs and information processing variables. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 429 consumers in March 2003 in Belgium. Two dimensions shape fish quality...... evaluation: personal relevance attached to fish quality and self-confidence in fish quality evaluation, which allow segmenting the market in four fish consumer segments. The segments are typified as Uninvolved, Uncertain, Self-confident and Connoisseurs, and have distinctive behavioural, attitudinal...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine fish species in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent fish...
Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.
The Sensor Fish is an autonomous device developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Army Corps of Engineers (COE) to better understand the physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro-turbines and other dam bypass alternatives. Since its initial development in 1997, the Sensor Fish has undergone several design changes to improve its function and extend the range of its use. The most recent Sensor Fish design, the six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) device, has been deployed successfully to characterize the environment fish experience when they pass through several hydroelectric projects along main stem Columbia and Snake Rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Just as information gathered from crash test dummies can affect automobile design with the installation of protective designs to lessen or prevent human injury, having sensor fish data to quantify accelerations, rotations, and pressure changes, helps identify fish injury mechanisms such as strike, turbulent shear, pressure, and inertial effects, including non-lethal ones such as stunning or signs of vestibular disruption that expose fish to a higher risk of predation by birds and piscivorous fish downstream following passage.
Chen, Yaxin; Shi, Mijuan; Cheng, Yingyin; Zhang, Wanting; Tang, Qin; Xia, Xiao-Qin
With the expanding of marine and freshwater aquaculture, the outbreaks of aquatic animal diseases have increasingly become the major threats to the healthy development of aquaculture industries. Notably, viral infections lead to massive fish deaths and result in great economic loss every year across the world. Hence, it is meaningful to clarify the biodiversity, geographical distribution and host specificity of fish-associated viruses. In this study, viral sequences detected in fish samples were manually collected from public resources, along with the related metadata, such as sampling time, location, specimen type and fish species. Moreover, the information regarding the host fish, including aliases, diet type and geographic distribution were also integrated into a database (FVD). To date, FVD covers the information of 4860 fish-associated viruses belonging to 15 viral families, which were detected from 306 fish species in 57 countries. Meanwhile, sequence alignment, live data statistics and download function are available. Through the user-friendly interface, FVD provides a practical platform that would not only benefit virologists who want to disclose the spread of fish-associated viruses, but also zoologists who focus on the health of domestic and wild animals. Furthermore, it may facilitate the surveillance and prevention of fish viral diseases. Database URL: http://bioinfo.ihb.ac.cn/fvd. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Warren, James W.
The Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project (Project) had its origin, in the mid-1980's, in perceived differences or inconsistencies in fish disease detection, diagnosis and control capabilities between the five conservation agencies rearing and releasing anadromous salmonids for fishery resource management and mitigation purposes in the Columbia River basin. Agency fish health programs varied greatly. Some agencies had personnel, equipment and funding to frequently monitor the health status of both juvenile production fish and adult salmon or steelhead trout at the time of spawning. Other agencies had much smaller programs and limited resources. These differences became better understood when the Pacific Northwest Fish Health Protection Committee developed its Model Fish Health Protection Program including recommendations for standard fish disease detection procedures. Even though some agencies could not immediately attain the goals set by the Model Program it was unanimously adopted as a desirable objective. Shortly thereafter, a multi-party planning group was assembled to help the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) find ways to improve agency fish health programs and implement measures under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The planning group assessed existing agency fish health monitoring capabilities, agreed upon satisfactory levels of capability to detect and identify important fish pathogens, and designed a five-year project establishing comparable fish health monitoring capability in each agency. It was strongly believed that such a project would improve the health and quality of the millions of hatchery fish released annually in the Columbia River basin and improve interagency communications and disease control coordination. During 1986 and 1987 BPA individually negotiated five separate contracts with the fishery agencies to standardize fish health monitoring, develop a common data collection and reporting
Boltaña, Sebastián; Sanhueza, Nataly; Aguilar, Andrea; Gallardo‐Escarate, Cristian; Arriagada, Gabriel; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Soto, Doris; Quiñones, Renato A
.... Our research provides key evidence that fish ectotherms are highly influenced by thermal variability during development, which leads to important modifications at several metabolic levels (e.g...
Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O
..., and Pleistoscene glaciation. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes is a comprehensive treatment of the freshwater biogeography of North America, with implications for other disciplines...
Full Text Available Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish
Ilke Kosar Danisman
The data on fishing fleet play an important role in fisheries management. It is an effective method that collection of reliable and regular data on fleet, and these data into information that is needed in terms of fleet management. In this study, it is demonstrated that the segmentation of the Aegean fishing fleet and fishing port based spatial distribution of fishing capacities concerning each fleet segment at the Aegean coast to improve fisheries management.
D. T. Crisp
Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.
Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.
Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.
THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATES: The meeting will be... of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council.... App., we announce that Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a teleconference...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...), announce a public meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). A Federal... requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATES: The meeting will be... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATE(S... private sectors of the sport fishing, boating, and conservation communities and is organized to enhance...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...), announce a public meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). A Federal.... App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a meeting...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council.... The Council represents the interests of the public and private sectors of the sport fishing, boating...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATES: The meeting will be.... App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a meeting on...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATES: The meeting will be... announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a meeting. Background The Council...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference AGENCY: Fish... Wildlife Service (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership.... App., we announce that Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a teleconference...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council.... App., we announce that Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a teleconference...
A study of the mycoflora of six locally available and commonly consumed dried fish species namely; Ethmalosa fimbriata (bonga fish), Tilapia sp. (Banda mangala) Gadus morhua (stock fish), Pseudotolithus typhus (croaker), Arius hendeloti (cat fish) and Drepane africana (spade fish) was carried out in three sampling ...
Absolute contributions of fish were inevitably related directly to reservoir-specific fish stock abundance, both total-fish and coarse-fish biomass levels which increased with trophic status, generating parallel absolute increases in TP sinks and internal TP loading fluxes. On overall average, total fish stock sequestered 2.2 kg ...
Adesimi, A.A.; Aderinola, E.A.
The significance of the fishery industry in the Nigerian economy is examined, considering source of domestic fish production and government fish production programmes and also analysis Nigeria's fish imports during the period 1971-80. Suggestions are made regarding the regulation of fish imports to conserve foreign exchange and the removal of constraints in domestic fish production expansion
Fish is a major source of protein in human diets. Fish demand has been on the increase due to increase in human population which has resulted to wide gap between fish demand and supply. This study was carried out to elucidate the major fish species that are economically important in the study area. Assessment of fish ...
Benthic cover and fishing intensity appear to influence the biomass of herbivorous fish communities more on the reefs of Andavadoaka, highlighting the importance of Marine Protected Areas to protect both corals and fish. Keywords: Herbivorous fish, biomass, coral cover, algal turf, fishing, Marine Protected Areas.
assessment of fishing sites in this region for heavy metal contamination to ... fatty acids present in fish. ... crude oil and its derivatives can act as a mediator in free radical generation and can induce a variety of toxic symptoms in experimental animals (Achuba and Osakwe, ... of toxic metals in fish caught in Nigerian waters.
... Aquarium in the Classroom program; stocking actions to support scientific research; and stocking done under... Hatchery and Stocking Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability.... Under the Sport Fish Restoration Act (SFRA), FWS proposes to fund actions associated with the operation...
Kibenge, Frederick S B; Godoy, Marcos G; Fast, Mark; Workenhe, Samuel; Kibenge, Molly J T
Farmed fish provide an increasing fraction of the human food supply, and are of major economic importance in many countries. As in the case of terrestrial agriculture, bringing together large numbers of animals of a single species (i.e., monoculture) increases the risk of infectious disease outbreaks, including viral infections. Aquaculture, in which farmed fish are kept at high population densities in close proximity with wild fish reservoirs, is ideal for the emergence of wild-type pathogens that exist benignly in local wild fish and/or the spreading of aquatic pathogens to wild fish that enter into or come into close proximity with net cages and with fish escaping from them. This paper provides a general review for the nonspecialist of viral diseases of farmed fish and how they could be prevented or treated. It has five principal objectives: (1) to provide an update on the most important and emerging viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture; (2) to review general aspects of innate antiviral defense against virus infections in fish, including recent advances in antiviral signaling; (3) to discuss current principles and practices of vaccinating fish; (4) to review antiviral drugs that have activity against viruses of farmed fish, and current barriers to employing them in aquaculture; and (5) to discuss the growing use of "functional feeds" in salmonid aquaculture to mitigate viral diseases. In conclusion, despite the challenging aquatic environment, it is expected that well thought-out combinations of vaccination and immunostimulants and/or antiviral drugs could provide solid protection against viral diseases of farmed fish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F; Smith, Martin D; Guttormsen, Atle G; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania
World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability.
...-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act for imports of fish and fish products. NMFS is seeking advance... International Affairs, Attn: MMPA Fish Import Provisions, NMFS, F/IA, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD...
Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.
Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) can cause pathology in humans. Fish weight was reported as important risk factor for transmission from snail to fish. However, in fingerlings, the relation between fish weight and infection is unknown. Aim was quantifying the effect of fish weight on infection
... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project. The Washington State Department of Ecology is... project to reintroduce fish populations above the dam. The reintroduction plan would involve the...
Full Text Available The long-fingered bat Myotis capaccinii is a European trawling bat reported to feed on fish in several Mediterranean locations, but the ecological circumstances of this behavior have not yet been studied. To elucidate the importance of fishing in this bat's diet, we evaluated the frequency and seasonal variation of fish remains in 3,000 fecal pellets collected from M. capaccinii at a nursery roost in Dénia (Eastern Iberian Peninsula in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Fish consumption occurred evenly throughout the year. All otoliths found in feces were identified as belonging to the surface-feeding fish Gambusia holbrooki. Measuring otoliths, we estimated that the mean size of consumed fish was significantly smaller than the mean measured for available fish, suggesting that the long-fingered bat's relatively small body may constrain its handling of larger prey. Of note, one bat had eaten 15 fish, showing that fish may be a locally or seasonally important trophic resource for this species. By capturing 15 bats and radio-tracking the four with the most fish remains in their droppings, we also identified fishing areas, including a single fishing ground comprising several ponds within a golf course. Ponds hold a high density of G. holbrooki, suggesting that the amount of fish at the water surface may be the principal factor triggering fishing. The observed six-fold increase in percentage of consumed fish across the study period may be related to recent pond-building in the area. We discuss whether this quick behavioral response is a novel feature of M. capaccinii or an intrinsic feature that has erupted and faded locally along the species' history.
Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Garin, Inazio; Alberdi, Antton; Salsamendi, Egoitz; Baagøe, Hans; Aihartza, Joxerra
The long-fingered bat Myotis capaccinii is a European trawling bat reported to feed on fish in several Mediterranean locations, but the ecological circumstances of this behavior have not yet been studied. To elucidate the importance of fishing in this bat's diet, we evaluated the frequency and seasonal variation of fish remains in 3,000 fecal pellets collected from M. capaccinii at a nursery roost in Dénia (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Fish consumption occurred evenly throughout the year. All otoliths found in feces were identified as belonging to the surface-feeding fish Gambusia holbrooki. Measuring otoliths, we estimated that the mean size of consumed fish was significantly smaller than the mean measured for available fish, suggesting that the long-fingered bat's relatively small body may constrain its handling of larger prey. Of note, one bat had eaten 15 fish, showing that fish may be a locally or seasonally important trophic resource for this species. By capturing 15 bats and radio-tracking the four with the most fish remains in their droppings, we also identified fishing areas, including a single fishing ground comprising several ponds within a golf course. Ponds hold a high density of G. holbrooki, suggesting that the amount of fish at the water surface may be the principal factor triggering fishing. The observed six-fold increase in percentage of consumed fish across the study period may be related to recent pond-building in the area. We discuss whether this quick behavioral response is a novel feature of M. capaccinii or an intrinsic feature that has erupted and faded locally along the species' history.
Davie, P S; Kopf, R K
This review investigates how recreational fishing affects the physiology, behaviour, and welfare of fish. Sentience and the capacity of fish to experience pain, suffering and fear are discussed, and practical recommendations for improving the treatment of fish during recreational fishing are provided. Handling procedures used in recreational fishing should match the environment where the fish is caught and the size and strength of the fish. Minimising the number of hooks on lures and baits, and using barbless hooks and circle hooks generally reduce rates of injury and the severity of tissue trauma. Capture time, handling time, and exposure to air play significant roles in the stress responses of fish and should be minimised by anglers. Keep-nets, gaffs, landing-nets, live-wells and other restraining devices should only be used when necessary because each device can prolong or intensify the negative influences of catching fish by hook-and-line. The use of fish as bait is discouraged unless they have been euthanised. Euthanasia of fish used as bait or fish captured recreationally should include a stunning blow to the head, followed by bleeding-out, or pithing the brain and spinal cord. Fish should be euthanised if they are bleeding, injured, deeply-hooked, foul-hooked, or severely exhausted, but local fisheries' regulations must be obeyed. Fish that are released after being caught may be subjected to additional factors that influence their welfare, such as elevated stress, barotrauma, suppressed feeding and growth, impaired reproductive function, increased potential for disease, infection, and delayed mortality.
Burcher, Chris L.; McTammany, Matthew E.; Benfield, E. Fred; Helfman, Gene S.
We investigated whether fish assemblage structure in southern Appalachian streams differed with historical and contemporary forest cover. We compared fish assemblages in 2nd-4th order streams draining watersheds that had increased forest cover between 1950 and 1993 (i.e ., reforesting watersheds). We sampled fish in 50 m reaches during August 2001 and calculated catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) by taxonomic, distributional, trophic, reproductive, and thermal metrics. We assigned streams to reforestation categories based on cluster analysis of years 1950 and 1993 near-stream forest cover. The relationship between forest cover and assemblage structure was assessed using analysis of variance to identify differences in fish CPUE in five forest cover categories. Streams contained 23 fish species representing six families, and taxa richness ranged from 1 to 13 at 30 stream sites. Streams with relatively low near-stream forest cover were different from streams having moderate to high near-stream forest cover in 1950 and 1993. Fish assemblages in streams having the lowest amount of forest cover (53-75%) were characterized by higher cosmopolitan, brood hider, detritivore/herbivore, intermediate habitat breadths, run-pool dweller, and warm water tolerant fish CPUE compared to streams with higher riparian forest cover. Our results suggest that fish assemblage’s structural and functional diversity and/or richness may be lower in streams having lower recent or past riparian forest cover compared to assemblages in streams having a high degree of near-stream forest cover.
The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...
Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos, E-mail: email@example.com [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)
The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: > Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. > Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. > The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.
Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.
Antony Jesu Prabhu, P. (2015). Minerals in fish: does the source matter? PhD thesis. Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Minerals are a group of micro-nutrients essential to fish. Meta-analysis of literature data was performed to identify the appropriate response criterion to
Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd
In 2003 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2003, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a... implemented under this part only in or from those management areas for which the United States has received an...
In the United States, the phrase "goin' fishin'" is synonymous with taking a break and leaving everyday cares behind to go enjoy the outdoors, spend time with family or friends, and, if one is lucky, catch some tasty fish. According to the American Sportfishing Association, fishing is a hobby pursued by some 40 million Americans,…
Brungs, W. A.; And Others
Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)
Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H. [H.A. Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others
Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.
Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.
The techniques of histopathology have been used for many years in the study of human and animal diseases. Until very recent times, however, histology has been applied to fish studies only very infrequently. This brief discussion is intended to acquaint the reader with the techniques and principles involved and to explain how histological studies may help to overcome fish diseases and nutritional problems.
"Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach a man to fish and he will eat for the rest of his life." This popular Chinese proverb is an apt metaphor for the dilemma faced by principals and curriculum coordinators when deciding whether to purchase a scripted commercial reading program. Although a scripted reading program may solve…
Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish Communities on Selected Reefs in the Bazaruto Archipelago. ... the Bazaruto reef types to provide a basis for their sound management and conservation. Keywords: Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique, ichthyofauna, fish surveys, underwater visual census, coral reefs.
Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels
that for optimal economic exploitation, the forage fishery has to be adjusted according to the large fish fishery. With the present large fish fishery in the North Sea, the two fisheries are well adjusted; however, the present combined exploitation level is too high to achieve optimal economic rents....
Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta
Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerstens, Kristiaan; Vestergaard, Niels
Application of primal non-parametric approaches to estimation of fishing capacity provides useful disaggregated information about fishing firm’s capacities utilizations. A potentially serious issue is that the estimated capacity utilization rates can be relatively low. This may call for reduction...... these capacity measures on the Pacific albacore tuna fishery to document the impact of convexity....
Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)
There is a positive correlation between fish abundance and biomass for wet and dry seasons (r = 0.60 and 0.76 respectively). There was no significant difference between fish abundance in the two seasons. Variations occurred between physico-chemical parameters of water samples. Analysis of the lagoon waters showed ...
This issue examines research the Station has been conducting on how catastrophic disturbances affect fish habitat. Whereas our February issue discussed the physical dynamics of a flood on a landscape, here we expand to major disturbances in general while narrowing in a fish habitat still at a landscape scale.Our work in this area is unfolding new knowledge...
Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris
of information cues with regard to fish. Qualitative exploratory research was performed in May 2004 through focus group discussions in two European countries: Belgium and Spain. Personal sources are found as the most important information sources with regard to fish. Although a majority of consumers use...
to dry the fish in the close chamber with preventing product from dust, insect, larva, birds and animal (Figure. 1). By keeping importance of fish drying in region, low cost rotary solar dryer was developed to carry out solar drying study. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Construction of low cost dryer. The low cost solar dryer was ...
In Togo, fish farming is faced with several problems which oblige farmers to develop local production techniques that explain the low level of production. To assess the current situation, a survey was conducted to collect information on this activity in 91 Togolese fish farms located in the five regions of the country. The.
Beverton, R. J. H; Holt, Sidney J
...-brooding cichlids, and viviparity in many sharks and toothcarps. Moreover, fish are of considerable importance to the survival of the human species in the form of nutritious, delicious and diverse food. Rational exploitation and management of our global stocks of fishes must rely upon a detailed and precise insight of their biology. The...
Leeuwen, van J.L.
1983-01-01In this thesis hydrodynamic principles are used to quantify relations between form and function in the prey capture mechanism of actinopterygian fish. This work is closely related to the papers on the hydrodynamics of fish feeding by Muller et al. (1982) and Muller & Osse (in press).
Andersen, Todd; Olson, Jason
In 2002 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2002, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented in 2002.
Full Text Available The study examines the directions of expansion of the range of wafer snack products of high nutritional value by using fish & plant semifinished products. The study scientifically grounds the benefits of using the new fish & plant semifinished products in manufacturing waffle salty snack products. The data provided in the article prove that the use of the fish & plant semifinished products & herbal ingredients enable a range of the new wafer snack products «Fish krekis» with high content of proteins, organic calcium, fiber and vitamins, with improved consumer properties, as well as more efficient use of Ukrainian raw fish materials.
Louca, Vasilis; Lindsay, Steve W.; Lucas, Martyn C.
Emigration is a widespread phenomenon among fish species in seasonal habitats, but little is known about the factors which trigger this behaviour. In controlled experiments using Tilapia guineensis, a species widely occurring in the seasonal floodplains of West Africa, density of fish played a significant role in triggering fish migration, whereas a lack of food available caused an increase in exploratory behaviour but with no impact on successful emigration. The impact of fish density and subsequently interactions between individuals on emigration suggests that this may be an important causal factor of emigration in fish species exhibiting social interactions. PMID:20161114
Rathore, G; Sood, N; Swaminathan, R
A novel, cost effective and time saving technique for primary cell culture from gills and kidney using fish serum has been developed. Single cell suspension of gills and kidney of Clarias gariepinus was obtained by trypsinization. Minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% fish serum in place of 10% foetal calf serum and 20% fish muscle extract, yielded confluent monolayer on 6th and 8th day in gill and kidney tissue respectively at 28 degrees C. Fish serum can be successfully used as media supplement for cultivation and maintenance of primary cell culture from fishes.
Bos, A R; Gumanao, G S
During 139 visits between March 2009 and May 2011, it was found that the availability of reef fishes at a local fish market in the Philippines was highly affected by the lunar cycle. The number of vendors selling reef fishes was significantly lower (13.4%) during third lunar quarters (full moon periods) than during the first, second and fourth lunar quarters (40.2, 25.0 and 30.0%, respectively). It is recommended that the influence of the lunar cycle on fish availability is considered when designing sampling strategies for catch surveys. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Woo, P T
Parasitologists have not, in the past, exploited the immune system to protect fish against parasitic diseases. In the past few years, however, there has been an increased interest in adopting this strategy, and we have made steady and promising progress against a few parasites which are of economic importance. Amyloodinium ocellatum is an ectoparasitic dinoflagellate on brackish and marine fishes, which may also cause problems to aquarium fishes. Antiserum from fish inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with living dinospores of the parasite immobilizes and agglutinates living dinospores; it also reduces parasite infectivity in cell culture. Cryptobia salmositica is a pathogenic haemoflagellate of salmonids on the Pacific coast of North America, causing mortality in semi-natural and intensive salmon culture facilities. A live attenuated vaccine inoculated i.p. protects susceptible juvenile and adult fish for at least 24 months. The protection involves production of complement fixing antibodies, phagocytosis, and antibody-dependent and antibody-independent T-cell cytotoxicity. A monoclonal antibody against a surface membrane glycoprotein (199-200 kDa is therapeutic in that it significantly reduces parasitaemias when inoculated into fish with acute disease. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an ectoparasitic ciliate of freshwater fishes with world wide distribution, usually causing disease when fish are stressed and/or when environmental conditions are favourable for parasite multiplication. Live theronts injected into the body cavity protect fish, and monoclonal antibodies with immobilizing activity upon parasites have been developed. There is some evidence of passive transfer of protective immunity from immune to naive fish, and to eggs. Diplostomum spathaceum is an intestinal parasite of gulls; the metacercaria stage of the parasite encyst and causes disease and mortality in numerous species of freshwater fish in Europe and in North America. Fish injected i.p. with
Prasad, A G Devi; Venkataramana, G V; Thomas, Mathew
The paper highlights the fish diversity in major wetlands of Mysore district, Karnataka, India and its conservation status. Forty-five species of fishes belonging to 15 families, 31 genera have been identified. Fish species belonging to genus Puntius were more common in many of these lakes. However it was observed that the fish diversity was decreasing since last two years unprecedently mainly due to manifold human activities. Fish diversity in the lakes is becoming rare and about seven species were identified as endangered. Out of the 45 identified fishes, six fish species were identified as threatened species. Tork hudree, also known as Deccan mahseer and seven other species were identified as vulnerable fish species. Though there were 40 species of fish endemic to this region, their number decreased with introduction of more exotic species. Conservation of endemic fishes, propagation of endangered and threatened fishes should be therefore, undertaken to preserve and protect fish diversity in the wetlands of Mysore district.
CCWW was brownish in colour and slightly smelly and fishes were sighted. OYSFP ... BDJWW was clear, no odour, animal life forms including fish and surface ... in OYSFP and fish produced there may not be suitable for human consumption.
Analysis of Fish Demand in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto, Nigeria. ... that the higher the income level of the Respondents, the higher the expenditure on fish and fish demand also increases as household size and level of education increases.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish Springs Flat is a sediment-filled valley between two tilted mountain blocks, the Thomas Range and the Fish Springs Range, in the Basin and Range physiographic...
Full Text Available Skin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopy Skin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopySkin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopy Skin pr
. gariepinus. The prevalence and pathogenic significance of the parasites as causes of diseases to fish related to the diverse fish fauna of the lake is discussed. Key words/phrases: Cestodes, digeneans, fish parasites, Lake Tana, nematodes
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This packet is for the establishment of a fishing program on Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge. It contains the Fishing Plan, Section 7 Evaluation,...
.... Discussions include regulation of fish populations, the dispersal, or not, of larval reef fishes, the sensory and motor capabilities of reef fish larvae, and the complexities of management of reef...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents results of an archeological survey of two caves located in the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. It was concluded that the Fish Springs...
Greenstreet, S.P.R.; Robinson, L.; Piet, G.J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.M.; Callaway, R.
Current knowledge of the ecological disturbance caused by fishing to marine fish and benthic invertebrate communities is reviewed. This review considers the various components of mortality caused by fishing (eg landings, discards, trawl escapees, etc) and examines the information currently
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing excursion information, including summary tables of: Fishing/culling efforts, including date, islets, latitude/longitude, fishing method, soak times, culled...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal calls for the opening of Mathews Brake NWR to sport fishing. General regulations pertaining to licenses, creel limits, and methods of taking fish will...
Native fishes have become an increasingly important concern when designing fish passable culverts. Many operational culverts constrict waterways which increase velocities and prevent upstream passage of small fish species. The current method to ensur...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish management objectives for Clarence Cannon NWR listed in this report include: (1) manage the fish habitats/populations of the Gardner Division for optimum sport...
Full Text Available A checklist of the fishes of Kerala State is presented, along with their scientific and common names (English and Malayalam, endemism, IUCN Red List status, listing under different Schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act and in the Appendices of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES. Nine Hundred and five species of fishes are recorded from the inland and marine waters of Kerala comprising of 41 orders and 172 families. Close to 30% of the freshwater fish species found in Kerala are endemic to the State. Only 8% of the total fishes of Kerala are listed as threatened in the IUCN Red List, of which the majority are freshwater species. Several hundred fish species occurring in the marine waters of Kerala have not yet been assessed for their conservation status by IUCN.
Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and its derivative compounds have been parts of widespread pollutants of the aquatic environment. Since Hg is absorbed by fish and passed up the food chain to other fish-eating species, it does not only affect aquatic ecosystems but also humans through bioaccumulation. Thus, the knowledge of toxicological effects of Hg on fish has become one of the aims in research applied to fish aquaculture. Moreover, the use of alternative methods to animal testing has gained great interest in the field of Toxicology. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with Hg poisoning on fish. Such data are extremely useful to the scientific community and public officials involved in health risk assessment and management of environmental contaminants as a guide to the best course of action to restore ecosystems and, in turn, to preserve human health.
Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Davis, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn
Methylmercury is a global pollutant of aquatic ecosystems, and monitoring programs need tools to predict mercury exposure of wildlife. We developed equations to estimate methylmercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using mercury concentrations in prey fish. We collected original data on western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and summarized the published literature to generate predictive equations specific to grebes and a general equation for piscivorous birds. We measured mercury concentrations in 354 grebes (blood averaged 1.06 ± 0.08 μg/g ww), 101 grebe eggs, 230 sport fish (predominantly largemouth bass and rainbow trout), and 505 prey fish (14 species) at 25 lakes throughout California. Mercury concentrations in grebe blood, grebe eggs, and sport fish were strongly related to mercury concentrations in prey fish among lakes. Each 1.0 μg/g dw (∼0.24 μg/g ww) increase in prey fish resulted in an increase in mercury concentrations of 103% in grebe blood, 92% in grebe eggs, and 116% in sport fish. We also found strong correlations between mercury concentrations in grebes and sport fish among lakes. Our results indicate that prey fish monitoring can be used to estimate mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish when wildlife cannot be directly sampled.
Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Davis, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn
Methylmercury is a global pollutant of aquatic ecosystems, and monitoring programs need tools to predict mercury exposure of wildlife. We developed equations to estimate methylmercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using mercury concentrations in prey fish. We collected original data on western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark’s grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and summarized the published literature to generate predictive equations specific to grebes and a general equation for piscivorous birds. We measured mercury concentrations in 354 grebes (blood averaged 1.06 ± 0.08 μg/g ww), 101 grebe eggs, 230 sport fish (predominantly largemouth bass and rainbow trout), and 505 prey fish (14 species) at 25 lakes throughout California. Mercury concentrations in grebe blood, grebe eggs, and sport fish were strongly related to mercury concentrations in prey fish among lakes. Each 1.0 μg/g dw (∼0.24 μg/g ww) increase in prey fish resulted in an increase in mercury concentrations of 103% in grebe blood, 92% in grebe eggs, and 116% in sport fish. We also found strong correlations between mercury concentrations in grebes and sport fish among lakes. Our results indicate that prey fish monitoring can be used to estimate mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish when wildlife cannot be directly sampled.
The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.
Goerlich, Roland; Renn, Jörg; Aleström, Peter; Muller, Marc; Schartl, Manfred; Winkler, Christoph; Midtlyng, Paul; Eberius, Matthias; Slenzka, Klaus
Osteoporosis, characterised by a progressive loss of bone density, is one of the most important bone diseases of humans worldwide. During spaceflight, astronauts also suffer bone loss that strongly resembles osteoporosis in patients on Earth. In addition to these human disorders, skeletal malformations often cause problems in industrial animal production. Although the alterations of bone homeostasis that lead to osteoporosis are well-documented at the cellular level, the molecular events underlying this disease are still poorly understood. Moreover, most of our knowledge is derived from in vitro studies using cell culture systems. Recent findings indicate a remarkable conservation of key regulators of bone development and bone homeostasis between fish and mammals, both at the sequence and expression levels.
Novati, Guido; Alexeev, Dmitry; Rossinelli, Diego; van Rees, Wim M; Koumoutsakos, Petros
We study the fluid dynamics of two fish-like bodies with synchronised swimming patterns. Our studies are based on two-dimensional simulations of viscous incompressible flows. We distinguish between motion patterns that are externally imposed on the swimmers and self-propelled swimmers that learn manoeuvres to achieve certain goals. Simulations of two rigid bodies executing pre-specified motion indicate that flow-mediated interactions can lead to substantial drag reduction and may even generate thrust intermittently. In turn we examine two self-propelled swimmers arranged in a leader-follower configuration, with a-priori specified body-deformations. We find that the swimming of the leader remains largely unaffected, while the follower experiences either an increase or decrease in swimming speed, depending on the initial conditions. Finally, we consider a follower that synchronises its motion so as to minimise its lateral deviations from the leader's path. The leader employs a steady gait while the follower use...
Full Text Available In this study mercury was determined in canned tuna fish produced and distributed in Iran after digestion by the standard methods of AOAC. Mercury contents in fish and canned tuna fish were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metal contents expressed in mg/kg wet weight for mercury varied from 0.017 to 0.394 (average of 0. 089 and 0.023 to 0.529 (average of 0.146 in fish and canned tuna fish, respectively. The values were comparable and in the range of with the literature valves. The results of this study indicate that fish and tuna fish of produced and marketed in Iran have concentrations well below the standards FAO/WHO levels of these toxic metals and only one tuna samples exceeded the European dietary limit of 0.5 mg Hg/kg.
Zhu, Z Y; Sun, Y H
Fishes, the biggest and most diverse community in vertebrates are good experimental models for studies of cell and developmental biology by many favorable characteristics. Nuclear transplantation in fish has been thoroughly studied in China since 1960s. Fish nuclei of embryonic cells from different genera were transplanted into enucleated eggs generating nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrids of adults. Most importantly, nuclei of cultured goldfish kidney cells had been reprogrammed in enucleated eggs to support embryogenesis and ontogenesis of a fertile fish. This was the first case of cloned fish with somatic cells. Based on the technique of microinjection, recombinant MThGH gene has been transferred into fish eggs and the first batch of transgenic fish were produced in 1984. The behavior of foreign gene was characterized and the onset of the foreign gene replication occurred between the blastula to gastrula stages and random integration mainly occurred at later stages of embryogenesis. This eventually led to the transgenic mosaicism. The MThGH-transferred common carp enhanced growth rate by 2-4 times in the founder juveniles and doubled the body weight in the adults. The transgenic common carp were more efficient in utilizing dietary protein than the controls. An "all-fish" gene construct CAgcGH has been made by splicing the common carp beta-actin gene (CA) promoter onto the grass carp growth hormone gene (gcGH) coding sequence. The CAgcGH-transferred Yellow River Carp have also shown significantly fast-growth trait. Combination of techniques of fish cell culture, gene transformation with cultured cells and nuclear transplantation should be able to generate homogeneous strain of valuable transgenic fish to fulfil human requirement in 21st century.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Methyl mercury can carry out harmful effects on the reproductive, respiratory, and nervous system of human. Moreover, mercury is known as the most toxic heavy metal in nature. Fish and seafood consumption is the major MeHg exposure route for human. The present study tries to cover researches which have been conducted on mercury levels in 21 species of fish from Persian Gulf, Caspian Sea and Anzali Wetland during the past 6 years, and in addition to stating mercury level, it provides recommendations about the restriction of monthly fish consumption for each species separately. Material and methods: Fish samples were transferred to the laboratory and stored in refrigerator under -20oC until they were dissected. Afterwards, the muscle tissues were separated and dried. The dried samples were ground and changed into a homogenous powder and then the mercury concentration rate has been determined by advanced mercury analyzer, model 254. Results: In general, mercury contamination in fishes caught from Anzali Wetland was much more than fishes from Caspian Sea. Also, from among all studied fishes, oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis, caught from Persian Gulf, allocated the most mercury level to itself with the rate of 5.61ml per kg., therefore, it exercises a severe consumption restriction for pregnant women and vulnerable groups. Conclusion: Based on the calculations, about 50% of fishes, mostly with short food chain, can be easily consumed during the year. However, with regard to Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis and shark (Carcharhinus dussumieri, caught from Persian Gulf, special consideration should be taken in their consumption. On the other hand, careful planning should be made for the high rate of fish consumption among fishing community.
Olafsdottir, G.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Oehlenschläger, J.
methods for the assessment of fish freshness and to discuss the freshness criteria for fish commercialized within the European Union. The project's participants are working in subgroups studying sensory analysis, microbiology, volatile compounds, proteins, lipids, adenosine triphosphate and physical...... measurements with respect to fish freshness evaluation. In this article, the different subgroups have summarized changes that occur in fish and methods to evaluate fish freshness as a first step towards the definition of criteria for fish freshness...
Wilson, S K; Fisher, R; Pratchett, M S; Graham, N A J; Dulvy, N K; Turner, R A; Cakacaka, A; Polunin, N V C
Overfishing and habitat degradation through climate change pose the greatest threats to sustainability of marine resources on coral reefs. We examined how changes in fishing pressure and benthic habitat composition influenced the size spectra of island-scale reef fish communities in Lau, Fiji. Between 2000 and 2006 fishing pressure declined in the Lau Islands due to declining human populations and reduced demand for fresh fish. At the same time, coral cover declined and fine-scale architectural complexity eroded due to coral bleaching and outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci. We examined the size distribution of reef fish communities using size spectra analysis, the linearized relationship between abundance and body size class. Spatial variation in fishing pressure accounted for 31% of the variation in the slope of the size spectra in 2000, higher fishing pressure being associated with a steeper slope, which is indicative of fewer large-bodied fish and/or more small-bodied fish. Conversely, in 2006 spatial variation in habitat explained 53% of the variation in the size spectra slopes, and the relationship with fishing pressure was much weaker (approximately 12% of variation) than in 2000. Reduced cover of corals and lower structural complexity was associated with less steep size spectra slopes, primarily due to reduced abundance of fish < 20 cm. Habitat degradation will compound effects of fishing on coral reefs as increased fishing reduces large-bodied target species, while habitat loss results in fewer small-bodied juveniles and prey that replenish stocks and provide dietary resources for predatory target species. Effective management of reef resources therefore depends on both reducing fishing pressure and maintaining processes that encourage rapid recovery of coral habitat.
Shukla, Shubhra; Sharma, Rolee; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar
Mycobacteriosis is a progressive disease of a wide range of wild and captive, marine and freshwater fish species. Conventional detection of fish Mycobacteria is based on histopathology, culture, and biochemical characteristics. The present study analyzed the occurrence of Mycobacteria in clinically ill ornamental fish of different species, from different places of India. In first group, 60 fish were examined for presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria. Thirty-eight (63.34 %) fish were positive for granulomatous inflammations. Presences of acid-fast bacteria were detected in 27 (45 %) fish having granulomatous inflammation and in two (3.33 %) fish without granulomatous inflammation. In total, AFB were found in 29 (48.34 %) of the 60 fish examined. In second group, 20 fish having granulomatous inflammation, 12 (60 %) samples were positive using Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) staining and 11 (55 %) of them were culture positive. Eight (40 %) samples were Z-N negative but two (10 %) of them were culture positive. In total, 13 (65 %) of the 20 examined fish were culture positive. On the basis of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing, 13 isolates were identified: five as Mycobacterium fortuitum, five as Mycobacterium gordonae, and three as Mycobacterium chelonae. In comparison of two decontamination methods, 2 % HCl treatment was better than 4 % NaOH treatment. Mycobacteria recovery from decontaminated samples was significantly high on Lowenstein-Jensen medium compared to Middlebrook 7H11 agar and Stonebrink (SB) media. The disease is transmissible from fish to fish and also from fish to human, so the significance of Mycobacteria in ornamental fish should not be overlooked.
Semin; Alam Baheramsyah; Amiadji,; Abdul R. Ismail
Problem statement: This study presents the effect of dry ice application in the fish hold of fishing boat on the fish quality and fisherman income. Dry ice is made with compressed CO2 gas to produce hot, high-pressure gas. Hot gas then cooled to condense into liquid CO2, which is still high pressure. Dry ice can be used to cool a room and can reach temperatures under 0°C. Approach: Objectives of this study are to know the effect of the use of cooling applications by using dry ice as a coo...
Dezfuli, B S; Bosi, G; DePasquale, J A; Manera, M; Giari, L
Most individual fish in farmed and wild populations are infected with parasites. Upon dissection of fish, helminths from gut are often easily visible. Enteric helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, acanthocephalans and nematodes. Some insights into biology, morphology and histopathological effects of the main fish enteric helminths taxa will be described here. The immune system of fish, as that of other vertebrates, can be subdivided into specific and aspecific types, which in vivo act in concert with each other and indeed are interdependent in many ways. Beyond the small number of well-described models that exist, research focusing on innate immunity in fish against parasitic infections is lacking. Enteric helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract, resulting in a series of chemical and morphological changes in the affected tissues and inducing leukocyte migration to the site of infection. This review provides an overview on the aspecific defence mechanisms of fish intestine against helminths. Emphasis will be placed on the immune cellular response involving mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, rodlet cells and mucous cells against enteric helminths. Given the relative importance of innate immunity in fish, and the magnitude of economic loss in aquaculture as a consequence of disease, this area deserves considerable attention and support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Villazanakretzer, Diana L; Napolitano, Peter G; Cummings, Kelly F; Magann, Everett F
Intestinal parasitic worms affect more than 2 billion people worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Fish-borne parasitic infections are becoming more common with the increasing popularity of sushi, sashimi, Carpaccio, tartare, gefilte, and ceviche. The ingestion of these parasites can cause serve anemia, malabsorption, severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, strong allergic reactions, and gastric ulcers. Knowledge about fish parasites and pregnancy is limited. A literature search on PubMed and Web of Science used the search terms "fish parasites" OR "diphyllobothrium" OR "anisakiasis" OR "pseudoterranova" OR ("food borne parasites" AND "fish") AND "pregnancy" OR "maternal" OR "fetus" OR "fetal" OR "newborn" OR "neonatal" OR "childbirth." No limit was put on the number of years searched. There were 281 publications identified. The abstracts of all of these publications were read. After exclusion of the articles that were not relevant to pregnancy, pregnancy outcome, and fish parasites, there were 24 articles that became the basis of this review. The pathophysiology, altered maternal immunity related to the infection, limited information about fish-borne parasitic infections and pregnancy, and treatments are discussed. The main impact of a fish-borne parasitic infection on pregnant women is anemia and altered immunity, which may increase the risk of a maternal infection. The primary fetal effects include intrauterine growth restriction and preterm delivery.
Woo, P T K
The demand for and costs of producing land-based animal protein continues to escalate as the world population increases. Fish is an excellent protein, but the catch-fishery is stagnant or in decline. Intensive cage culture of fish is a viable option especially in countries with lakes/rivers and/or a long coastline; however, disease outbreaks will likely occur more frequently with cage culture. Hence protective strategies are needed, and one approach is to exploit the piscine immune system. This discussion highlights immunity (innate/natural and adaptive/acquired) in fish against three pathogenic protozoa (Amyloodinium ocellatum, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Cryptobia salmositica). Histone-like proteins in the mucus and skin of naturally resistant fish kill trophonts of A. ocellatum, and also may cause abnormal development of tomonts. Breeding of Cryptobia-resistant brook charrs is possible as resistance is controlled by a dominant Mendelian locus, and the parasite is lysed via the Alternative Pathway of Complement Activation. Production of transgenic Cryptobia-tolerant salmon is an option. Recovered fish are protected from the three diseases (acquired immunity). Live I. multifiliis theronts injected intraperitoneally into fish elicit protection. Also, a recombinant immoblizing-antigen vaccine against ichthyophthirosis has been developed but further evaluations are necessary. The live Cryptobia vaccine protects salmonids from infections while the DNA-vaccine stimulates production of antibodies to neutralize the disease causing factor (metalloprotease) in cryptobiosis; hence infected fish recover more rapidly.
Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.
Full Text Available At present, about 28 600 fish species are considered valid, whilst the total number is estimated at 30 000 to 35 000. For Africa, about 3 000 valid fresh- and brackish water species are currently recognized. Conserving the biodiversity of these fishes and at the same time managing their exploitation in a sustainable way is a difficult exercise. In sub-Saharan Africa, the importance of aquaculture is not very high. Nonetheless, 18 different species are used commercially, of which six have a non-African origin. Documenting and characterizing the ichthyodiversity is vital for conservation and sustainable development purposes. The presence of a large collection, a specialised library and a considerable know-how in the Africa Museum has led to various revisions, checklists, species (redescriptions and regional guides. All the information on African fishes is currently being entered in FishBase, a huge freely accessible database with information on the taxonomy, ecology and various other aspects of the biology of fishes, based on scientific publications and reviewed by specialists. FishBase also includes high quality tools for applied research on fishes, such as a disease wizard, biogeography tools, trophic pyramids, and the species invasiveness tool.
Since 1986 Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This interagency project was developed to provide a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. Agencies involved in the project are: WDF, Washington Department of Wildlife, Oregon Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its third year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1989. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989 and will compare sampling results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on stocks. 2 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.
Sohana Al Sanjee
Full Text Available The present study aims at the microbiological analysis of export oriented frozen fishes, namely, Jew fish, Tongue Sole fish, Cuttle fish, Ribbon fish, Queen fish, and fish processing water and ice from a view of public health safety and international trade. Microbiological analysis includes the determination of total viable aerobic count by standard plate count method and enumeration of total coliforms and fecal coliforms by most probable number method. The presence of specific fish pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae were also investigated. The TVAC of all the samples was estimated below 5×105 cfu/g whereas the total coliforms and fecal coliforms count were found below 100 MPN/g and 10 MPN/g, respectively, which meet the acceptable limit specified by International Commission of Microbiological Specification for Food. The microbiological analysis of water and ice also complies with the specifications having TVAC<20 cfu/mL, and total coliforms and fecal coliforms count were below the limit detection of the MPN method. Specific fish pathogens such as Salmonella sp. and V. cholerae were found absent in all the samples under the investigation. From this study, it can be concluded that the investigated frozen fishes were eligible for export purpose and also safe for human consumption.
Full Text Available Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1 isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens.New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings will be useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis but also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.
Abe, S.; Takagi, T.; Takehara, K.; Kimura, N.; Hiraishi, T.; Komeyama, K.; Torisawa, S.; Asaumi, S.
Because escape from a net cage and mortality are constant problems in fish farming, health control and management of facilities are important in aquaculture. In particular, the development of an accurate fish counting system has been strongly desired for the Pacific Bluefin tuna farming industry owing to the high market value of these fish. The current fish counting method, which involves human counting, results in poor accuracy; moreover, the method is cumbersome because the aquaculture net cage is so large that fish can only be counted when they move to another net cage. Therefore, we have developed an automated fish counting system by applying particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) analysis to a shoal of swimming fish inside a net cage. In essence, we treated the swimming fish as tracer particles and estimated the number of fish by analyzing the corresponding motion vectors. The proposed fish counting system comprises two main components: image processing and motion analysis, where the image-processing component abstracts the foreground and the motion analysis component traces the individual's motion. In this study, we developed a Region Extraction and Centroid Computation (RECC) method and a Kalman filter and Chi-square (KC) test for the two main components. To evaluate the efficiency of our method, we constructed a closed system, placed an underwater video camera with a spherical curved lens at the bottom of the tank, and recorded a 360° view of a swimming school of Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes). Our study showed that almost all fish could be abstracted by the RECC method and the motion vectors could be calculated by the KC test. The recognition rate was approximately 90% when more than 180 individuals were observed within the frame of the video camera. These results suggest that the presented method has potential application as a fish counting system for industrial aquaculture.
Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún
Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail
Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Goodwin, Nicholas B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A
We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic and northeast Pacific populations, marine fishes had declined by a median 65% in breeding biomass from known historic levels; 28 populations had declined by more than 80%. Most of these declines would be sufficient to warrant a status of threatened with extinction under international threat criteria. However, this interpretation is highly controversial, in part because of a perception that marine fishes have a suite of life history characteristics, including high fecundity and large geographical ranges, which might confer greater resilience than that shown by terrestrial vertebrates. We review 15 comparative analyses that have tested for these and other life history correlates of vulnerability in marine fishes. The empirical evidence suggests that large body size and late maturity are the best predictors of vulnerability to fishing, regardless of whether differences among taxa in fishing mortality are controlled; there is no evidence that high fecundity confers increased resilience. The evidence reviewed here is of direct relevance to the diverse criteria used at global and national levels by various bodies to assess threat status of fishes. Simple life history traits can be incorporated directly into quantitative assessment criteria, or used to modify the conclusions of quantitative assessments, or used as preliminary screening criteria for assessment of the approximately 95% of marine fish species whose status has yet to be evaluated either by conservationists or fisheries scientists.
Mehmet Ferit Can
Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.
Secher, Niels Jørgen
A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....
Christensen, T.E. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Bio-Resource Engineering; Bimbo, A.P. [Zapata Protein, Inc., Reedville, VA (United States). Menhaden Oil Refinery
A study initiated to find a non-toxic environmentally friendly fluid suitable for use in hydraulic systems, such as in marine and food processing operations, has resulted in a fish-oil-based fluid that appears promising. This paper describes the fluid testing and laboratory and field system tests used to evaluate the fish oil with additive packages. The fish oil with non-toxic additives was endurance tested for durability in complete hydraulic systems in the laboratory and introduced into a commercial system. The results indicate that the oil functioned very well in the systems and the components were compatible with the oil, giving no degradation, wear or performance problems. (author)
Gotesman, Michael; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; El-Matbouli, Mansour
In this chapter, we describe laboratory protocols for rearing fish and a simple and efficient method of extracting and identifying pathogen and host proteins that may be involved in entry and replication of commercially important fish viruses. We have used the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and goldfish (Cyprinus auratus) as a model system for studies of proteins involved in viral entry and replication. The chapter describes detailed protocols for maintenance of carp, cell culture, antibody purification of proteins, and use of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry analysis to screen and identify cytoskeleton and other proteins that may be involved in viral infection and propagation in fish.
Rice, Jake; Daan, Niels; Gislason, Henrik
Functional redundancy of species sharing a feeding strategy and/or maximum size has been hypothesized to contribute to increased resilience of marine fish communities (the “portfolio effect”). A consistent time-series of survey data of fish in the North Sea was used to examine if trophic functional...... in abundance or biomass could be accounted for by the Law of Large Numbers, providing no evidence that specific ecological processes or co-adaptations are necessary to produce this effect. This implies that successful conservation policies to maintain the resilience of a marine fish community could be based...
Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
This study evaluated the feasibility of two types of technologies to observe fish and near neutrally buoyant drogues as they move through hydropower turbines. Existing or reasonably modified light-emitting and ultrasonic technologies were used to observe flow patterns, the response of fish to flow, and interactions between fish and turbine structures with good spatial and temporal accuracy. This information can be used to assess the biological benefits of turbine design features such as reductions in gaps at the tips and hub of turbine runner blades, reshaping wicket gates and stay vanes, modifications to draft tube splitter piers, and design changes that enhance egress through the powerhouse and tailrace.
Dunham, J.B.; Young, M.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Rieman, B.
Our limited understanding of the short and long-term effects of fire on fish contributes to considerable uncertainty in assessments of the risks and benefits of fire management alternatives. A primary concern among the many potential effects of fire is the effects of fire and fire management on persistence of native fish populations. Limited evidence suggests vulnerability of fish to fire is contingent upon the quality of affected habitats, the amount and distribution of habitat (habitat fragmentation), and habitat specificity of the species in question. Species with narrow habitat requirements in highly degraded and fragmented systems are likely to be most vulnerable to fire and fire-related disturbance. In addition to effects of fire on native fish, there are growing concerns about the effects of fire on nonnative fish invasions. The role of fire in facilitating invasions by nonnative fishes is unknown, but experience with other species suggests some forms of disturbance associated with fire may facilitate invasion. Management efforts to promote persistence of fishes in fire-prone landscapes can take the form of four basic alternatives: (1) pre-fire management; (2) post-fire management; (3) managing fire itself (e.g. fire fighting); and (4) monitoring and adaptive management. Among these alternatives, pre-fire management is likely to be most effective. Effective pre-fire management activities will address factors that may render fish populations more vulnerable to the effects of fire (e.g. habitat degradation, fragmentation, and nonnative species). Post-fire management is also potentially important, but suffers from being a reactive approach that may not address threats in time to avert them. Managing fire itself can be important in some contexts, but negative consequences for fish populations are possible (e.g. toxicity of fire fighting chemicals to fish). Monitoring and adaptive management can provide important new information for evaluating alternatives, but
Bambang, Azis Nur
The objective of this research is to study the marketing process of ribbon fish (Trichiurus sp.), including the marketing margin, marketing agencies, traders and marketing channels The research was carried out for 3 mo in Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP), Palabuhanratu, Sukabumi, West Java. A case study was used in this research. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from 55 respondents of fish marketing, consisting of fishermen, agents, traders, and retailers, who were involved in the marketing of ribbon fish in NFP Palabuhanratu. The result of the research showed that ribbon fish production in Palabuhanratu fluctuated from year to year. There are two types of ribbon fish marketing, i.e. type one is from fishermen to retailers, and type two is indirect marketing from fisherman to consumers through intermediate traders (exporters). The greatest marketing margin was obtained from the first type, while the smallest marketing margin was obtained from type two. The form of the market was considered to be oligopsony market. Fisherman's share is greatest in the collectors and the smallest share is on retailers. Marketing process in traders is efficient due to its lowest margin and highest fisherman's share.
Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte
The oxidative stability during storage of fish pâté made from cod and enriched with 5% oil was investigated. Pâtés were produced with neat fish oil, pre-emulsified fish oil, microencapsulated fish oil, inert medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil or a fish/rapeseed oil mixture. Addition of fish...... oil decreased the oxidative stability. Fish pâté with microencapsulated fish oil or MCT oil did not oxidize, whereas oxidation was slower in fish pâté with pre-emulsified oil compared with fish pâté with neat oil. Packaging in vacuum did not decrease oxidation. Fish pâtés with emulsified oil...
Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of antibiotics in aquaculture caused the appearance and spreading of pathogens resistance to antibiotics, what consequently drove up to the necesity of finding new technologies for protecting aquatic organisms from pathogens. Probiotics are aimed to reduce antibiotics application, and furthermore they have an important role not only in disease prevention but also in efficiency of food utilization and improvement of production parameters. Carp fish species are economically most significant in Republic of Serbia, therefore this work summarizes the results of previous studies of antibiotics application in this kind in particular. There is also pointed out to numerous harmful side effects of antibiotics use in aquaculture, and described the previous results of investigations on mechanism of probiotics effects and specificity of their use in this field as well. Beside this, there are summarized the results that show positive influence of probiotics in cyprinides nutrition on production performance, haematological parameters, course of experimental infection, activity of digestive enzymes. Special attention is paid to criteria for proper selection of probiotics in cyprinides production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31011: Uticaj kvaliteta komponenata u ishrani ciprinida na kvalitet mesa, gubitke i ekonomičnost proizvodnje
Batts, William N.; Kibenge, Frederick S. B.; Godoy, Marcos
Originally reported from California, the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) has now been isolated from eight species of salmonids in North America. Early work focused on the replication and physical characteristics of the small, round virus, but not until 20 years later was it determined to be most closely related to viruses causing hepatitis E in humans or infecting avian and mammalian hosts. The genome of CTV consists of 7269 nucleotides of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA with a genome organization similar to other members of the family Hepeviridae, although the amino acid sequence identity appears low enough to support creation of a novel genus. While CTV has not been associated with acute disease in fish, the virus was able to form persistently infected cell cultures that may aid research in treatment of hepatitis E-like viruses affecting humans or other animals. Interestingly, trout exposed to CTV were protected for about a month against subsequent exposure to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Replicating agents suspected to be CTV can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing.
Full Text Available Sustainability in fisheries has over the past decades evolved from a single species maximization concept to covering ecosystem and biodiversity considerations. This expansion of the notion, together with increased evidence that the targeted removal of selected components of the fish community may have adverse ecological consequences, poses a serious dilemma to the conventional fisheries management approach of protecting juveniles and targeting adults. Recently, the idea of balanced harvest, i.e., harvesting all components in the ecosystem in proportion to their productivity, has been promoted as a unifying solution in accordance with the ecosystem approach to fisheries, but this will require a fundamental change to management. In this paper, we review the objectives, theoretical background, and practicalities of securing high yielding fisheries in inland waters, with empirical examples from tropical freshwater fisheries which satisfy the extended objectives of minimal impact on community and ecosystem structure. We propose a framework of ecological indicators to assess these objectives. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB ZH-CN HE
Although diseases, suffering and death have always been recognized as intrinsic parts of life as far as humans are concerned, it seems that many people tend to disregard these factors when it comes to animals. In particular, wild fish are generally assumed to be ‘healthy’, although the public concept of that term is unclear. In contrast, farmed fish are often popularly viewed as ‘unhealthy’. Present knowledge of the importance of epizootics among wild fish is clearly limited, especially re...
S. A. Titova
Full Text Available Developed the technology of obtaining a fish minced feed (cryo minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion using by the utility model extrusion of a piston-type cold working bodies for grinding the fish raw material in a frozen state. Justified the possibility of replacement in the standard technology of production the feed from the minced fish such technological operations as the defrosting and subsequent grinding of raw materials to the operation like a cold extrusion or cryoextrusion. Used the shape of the holes of the die for forcing the raw material in the form of “hourglass” with a diameter of 7 mm, the length of the process of pushing – 40 seconds. Determine the actual losses of raw material in the milling process meth of cryoextrusion ranging from 1% to 2.5%, including the losses when cutting block for the preparation of raw materials to piercing. It is established that the finished product – cryo minced fish feed, has a homogeneous grinding, juicy, crumbly texture, the temperature in the thickness of the product is not changed and equal to the temperature of raw materials before processing, that is minus 18 °C. Developed the principal technological scheme of obtaining the cryo minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion. The calculation of material balance in the production of beef has shown that the use of the new method will allow to increase the product yield up to 99%. Based on the studies of the chemical composition of fish and feed of mince obtained by traditional and developed methods established that the protein content in the cryo minced fish feed remains unchanged. Developed draft technical specifications for the production of cryo minced fish feed and technological instructions for the production of cryo minced fish feed for fodder purposes, and also prepared the application for the patent named “Obtaining cryo minced fish feed from the frozen fish by the method of cryoextrusion”.
Rusmilyansari; Rosadi, E.; Iriansyah
Sungkur fishing gear is operated actively on one the side of fishing boat, which requires technical suitability and fishing gear stability to ensure success in fish catching. This is a case study which aimed to analyze some technical issues related to the boat, boat’s hydrostatic parameters, and the boat’s stability. The data were collected though observation, measuring the boat to obtain the offset table. The data were analyzed numerically and descriptively. The data were processed with technical formula, Microsoft Office’s Excel software, graphic display, minitab, statistical data processing, and maxsurf program. The research results showed that: (1) the sungkur fishing boat dimensional ratio L/B (6.47 – 7.00); L/D (10.90 – 11.20) and B/D (1.60 – 1.668) is within the range value of Indonesian fishing boats suitable to operate the fishing gear by towing or dragging. However, during fish catching operation, there have been problems in a hydrodynamic force due to the fishing gear movement, which affect the fish catching efficiency. (2) The boat’s coefficient of fineness is in the fine type shape; the displacement on each waterline has increased; the loads of the boat are getting larger following the increase of waterline from one to five; this is also shown from the increasing midship area value. Ton per centimeter immersion to change wl 1 by 1 cm needs 0.04 tons of weight. (3) Sungkur fishing boat have a good static stability, which is proven by the positive value of angle of maximum GZ by 79.1 – 83.6. In other words, the boat has the ability to return to its original position after tilting; however, stability dynamics happens because fishing gear operation are located on just one side of boat.
Hansson, Sture; Bergström, Ulf; Bonsdorff, E.
Populations of fish eating mammals (primarily seals) and birds have increased in the Baltic Sea and there is concern that their consumption reduces fish stocks and has negative impact on the fishery. Based primarily on published data on fisheries’ landings and abundances, consumption and diets of...... to be addressed in basic ecosystem research, management and conservation. This requires improved quantitative data on wildlife diets, abundances and fish production...
Meta-analysis was applied to quantify the effect of replacement of fish meal by soyabean products in diets on fish growth. Measurement of growth in different units among studies required the use of a standardised effect size (Hedges' d). From a total of ninety-nine studies concentrating on fish meal replacement by defatted soyabean meal, 53 % were eliminated due to, among others, absence of a fish meal control diet (n 18), or no statistical differences or measurement of dispersion (n 6) indicated. Replacement of 4 to 40 % fish meal by soyabean meal (inclusion levels of 71-366 g/kg) resulted in a mean effect size of - 0.1142 (95 % CI - 0.4665, 0.2382) obtained in forty-eight comparisons evaluated with seventeen different fish species. However, at higher fish meal replacement levels the 95 % CI calculated for combined effect sizes did not overlap with zero. With soya protein concentrate replacing 25 to 100 % of fish meal in diets for seven fish species, methionine supplementation (mean - 2.4373 (95 % CI - 3.9004, - 0.9742); n 10) did not have a substantial influence on the magnitude of cumulative effect sizes relative to no supplementation (mean - 2.7306 (95 % CI - 3.7991, - 1.6620); n 16). Information on other soyabean products (full-fat soyabeans, soya flour) used as protein sources in fish diets was found as too limited for analysis and definite conclusions. The present study contributes by putting a numerical value to the magnitude of growth differences in fish when replacing dietary fish meal by soyabean products.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent species occurrences...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime across the United States that generates significant economic impacts to both local economies and to the nation. In...
Byard, Roger W
A 39-year-old fisherman is reported who was dragged into the water from a boat after he became entangled in fishing line. His death was attributed to salt water drowning. At autopsy the cause of death was confirmed and the mechanism of the lethal event elucidated. Specifically, a large fish hook attached to line was embedded in his right wrist. The hook had passed beneath flexor tendons and had firmly attached him to fishing line that was being dropped from the vessel. There were no other significant injuries or underlying diseases present. This case demonstrates another rare situation in the commercial fishing industry that may result in a victim being dragged from a boat and drowned. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Data sheets are provided for 28 threatened South African fish species, of which five are considered to be endangered (Barbus trevelyani, Klegethon, Treurensis, Oveodaimon quathlambae and Clarias cavernicola), one to be endangered in South Africa...
Seehausen, Ole; Terai, Yohey; Magalhaes, Isabel S.; Carleton, Karen L.; Mrosso, Hillary D. J.; Miyagi, Ryutaro; van der Sluijs, Inke; Schneider, Maria V.; Maan, Martine E.; Tachida, Hidenori; Imai, Hiroo; Okada, Norihiro
Theoretically, divergent selection on sensory systems can cause speciation through sensory drive. However, empirical evidence is rare and incomplete. Here we demonstrate sensory drive speciation within island populations of cichlid fish. We identify the ecological and molecular basis of divergent
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimates at Lower Russian Lake weir revealed the out-migration of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, smelts was 1,018,527. The peak of the migration (75% of the...
LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.
Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks
This manual has been prepared for Plant Owners and Managers engaged in the processing of fish and sea food products to emphasize the importance of producing a consistent quality product and to provide...
Discussions with biologists concerning electroseining methods for fish population density estimates led to the conduct of a series of comparisons between the Peterson Index type of estimate (mark and recapture...
Maekawa, S; Yoshida, T; Wang, P-C; Chen, S-C
Nocardia sp. is the causative agent of nocardiosis, a lethal granulomatous disease of the skin, muscle, and various inner tissues affecting various teleost and shellfish. Four species of Nocardia have been isolated from diseased fish and shellfish, namely Nocardia asteroides, Nocardia seriolae, Nocardia salmonicida and Nocardia crassostreae. Therefore, in fish aquaculture, nocardiosis has caused severe economic losses, especially in the Asian region. Considerable research has been performed, since the first report of identified Nocardia sp. in fish, to characterize Nocardia sp. and identify rapid detection techniques, immune response against infection and prophylactic approaches. In this review, the current state of knowledge about nocardiosis in fish has been presented, including the pathogenesis, diagnosis, host immune response and vaccine development. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the main Hawaiian Island Charter fishing fleet in 2012. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...
Jennifer M. Lincoln; George A. Conway
... (200/100 000/year in 1991–2) among Alaska's commercial fishermen. Methods—Comprehensive surveillance of deaths in commercial fishing was established by our office during 1991 and 1992 for Alaska...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data from 425 fisheries independent trawls ranging from 2-215...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of fish assemblages calculated from diver surveys in kelp forests in Southern California. Visual census data was combined for two separate...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...
Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra
Archer fish jump multiple body lengths out of the water for prey capture with impressive accuracy. Their remarkable aim is facilitated by jumping from a stationary position directly below the free surface. As a result of this starting position, rapid acceleration to a velocity sufficient for reaching the target occurs with only a body length to travel before the fish leaves the water. Three-dimensional measurements of jumping kinematics and volumetric velocimetry using Synthetic Aperture PIV highlight multiple strategies for such spatially constrained acceleration. Archer fish rapidly extend fins at jump onset to increase added mass forces and modulate their swimming kinematics to minimize wasted energy when the body is partially out of the water. Volumetric measurements also enable assessment of efficiency during a jump, which is crucial to understanding jumping's role as an energetically viable hunting strategy for the fish.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes the purposes of the hatchery and discusses hatchery goals and assessments for calendar year 2011. Topics include endangered species recovery...
Backiel, Tadeusz; Welcomme, R. L
The book is addressed mainly to Fishery Biologists but it is hoped that Fishing Gear Technologists also can acquire some basic knowledge of sampling problems and procedures which, in turn, can result...
Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week If you're unsure about whether it's safe to eat seafood during your pregnancy, ... 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/pregnancy-and-fish/ ...
Dias, M.S.; Tedesco, P.A.; Hugueny, B.; Jézéquel, C.; Beauchard, O.; Brosse, S.; Oberdorff, T.
Human activities are often implicated in the contemporary extinction of contemporary species. Concerningriverine fishes, the major biotic and abiotic threats widely cited include introduction of non-nativespecies, habitat fragmentation and homogenization in stream flow dynamics due to the damming
Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo
Individual differences in cognitive abilities have been thoroughly investigated in humans and to a lesser extent in other mammals. Despite the growing interest in studying cognition in other taxonomic groups, data on individual differences are scarce for non-mammalian species. Here, we review the literature on individual differences in cognitive abilities in teleost fishes. Relatively few studies have directly addressed this topic and have provided evidence of consistent and heritable individual variation in cognitive abilities in fish. We found much more evidence of individual cognitive differences in other research areas, namely sex differences, personality differences, cerebral lateralisation and comparison between populations. Altogether, these studies suggest that individual differences in cognition are as common in fish as in warm-blooded vertebrates. Based on the example of research on mammals, we suggest directions for future investigation in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a summarization of biological trend information for, and information applicable to, Valentine NWR. Specifically, the information addresses...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector lines in this data set...
Craig, John F; Craig, John
This book presents a definitive volume on perch and related fish. In the introduction an outline is given on the characteristics of the order Perciformes, the suborder Percoidea and the family Percidae...
. The various material and research results show that research on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to fish in Europe is fragmented, carried out at country-level, and that results are to difficult to compare. Despite of the fragmented nature of research and statistical material, a number of important......Based on input received from participants in the EU FAIR PL 98- 4174 Concerted Action programme "Fish Quality Labelling and Monitoring" (CA-FQLM), and on published research results, an overview is given of the recent findings on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to fish in Europe...... generic and cross-cultural conclusions on consumer behaviour and attitudes in relation to fish can be drawn....
The paper reviews problems of the post-harvest losses in cured fish. The importance of this commodity in the tropics and existing methods of its handling, processing, storage and distribution are discussed...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article highlighting a plan for future construction of the Seven Springs Ecoscape, a park designed to protect the endangered watercress darter and educate...
Steffensen, John Fleng
, i.e. nearest neighbour distance, water temperature, gill oxygen extraction, gill ventilation capacity, etc. Fish swimming in a school have been shown to have energetic advantages when trailing behind neighbours, resulting in up to 20% energy saving. The effect of this energy saving is that the fish......Soc for experimental Biol Annual Meeting - Salzburg 2012 John F. Steffensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) When a fish school swims through the water, every individual consumes a certain amount of oxygen, which means that less will be available for the trailing fish in the school. In 1967 Mc......Farland and Moss reported that the oxygen saturation decreased approximately 30% from the front to the rear of an approximately 150-m long school of mullets swimming in normoxic water. They also observed that the decline in oxygen saturation at the rear resulted in the school disintegrating into smaller separate...
Full Text Available The results of numerous studies indicate that fish possess bacterial populations on or in their skin, gills, digestive tract, and light-emitting organs. In addition, the internal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen of healthy fish may contain bacteria, but there is debate about whether or not muscle is actually sterile. Using traditional culture-dependent techniques, the numbers and taxonomic composition of the bacterial populations generally reflect those of the surrounding water. More modern culture-independent approaches have permitted the recognition of previously uncultured bacteria. The role of the organisms includes the ability to degrade complex molecules (therefore exercising a potential benefit in nutrition, to produce vitamins and polymers, and to be responsible for the emission of light by the light-emitting organs of deep-sea fish. Taxa, including Pseudomonas, may contribute to spoilage by the production of histamines in fish tissue.
... out. This study is primarily concerned with the design of a Fishing Vessel Technical Information System that will meet the requirements of the Department, and the determination of a schedule and means of data collection and management.
Full Text Available Human activities facilitate coastal habitat transformation and homogenization. The spread of marine invasive species is one example. This in turn may influence fish recruitment and the subsequent replenishment of adult assemblages. We tested habitat complexity effect on fish (Teleostei recruitment by experimentally manipulating meadows of the habitat-forming invasive macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta. Among the fourteen fish species recorded during the experiment, only two labrids (Coris julis and Symphodus ocellatus settled in abundance among these meadows. Patterns in the abundance of these juveniles suggested that reduced tri-dimensional meadow complexity may reduce habitat quality and result in altered habitat choices and / or differential mortality of juveniles, therefore reducing fish recruitment and likely the abundance of adults.
Martins, C.I.; Silva, P.I.M.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Costas, B.; Höglund, E.; Overli, O.; Schrama, J.W.
Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in
Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fish in the Wilderness National Park. Fish assemblages in the Touw and Duiwe rivers were sampled in 1997 and 1998, with a total of 327 fish from nine species recorded. Indigenous species included two freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Sandelia capensis, two catadromous species (Anguilla mossambicus, Myxus capensis, and two estuarine species (Monodactylusfalciformis, Caffrogobius multifasciatus. Three of the nine recorded species were alien (Micropterus dolomieu, Micropterus salmoides, Gambusia affinis, with the Micropterus spp., in particular, likely to have a substantial negative influence on indigenous species. A further one indigenous species, two translocated indigenous species, and five estuarine species could potentially be recorded in these rivers. River catchment management actions to restore perennial flow to the Duiwe River, to prevent the attenuation of floods, and to prevent further establishment and spread of alien and translocated biota are required to conserve indigenous fish assemblages.
Glover, James B; Domino, Marisa E; Altman, Kenneth C; Dillman, James W; Castleberry, William S; Eidson, Jeannie P; Mattocks, Micheal
The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control has collected, processed, and analyzed fish tissue total mercury (Hg) since 1976. For this study, skin-on-filet data from 1993 to 2007 were examined to determine biotic, spatial and temporal trends in tissue Hg levels for SC fishes. Because of the relatively high number of tissue Hg values below the analytical detection limits interval censored regression and censored least absolute deviations were used to construct several models to characterize trends. Large pelagic, piscivorous fish species, such as bowfin (Amia calva Linnaeus 1766), had higher levels of tissue Hg than smaller omnivorous species. Estuarine species had relatively low levels of tissue Hg compared to freshwater species, while two large open ocean species, king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla Cuvier 1829) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus 1758), had higher tissue Hg readings. For a given fish species, length was an important predictor of tissue Hg with larger individuals having higher levels than smaller individuals. The USEPA Level III ecoregion and water body type from where the fishes were collected were important in predicting the levels of tissue Hg. The Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain ecoregion had fishes with the highest levels of tissue Hg, while the Piedmont and Southern Coastal Plain ecoregions had the lowest. For a given ecoregion, large reservoirs and regulated rivers had fish with lower levels of tissue Hg than unregulated rivers. For reservoirs, the size of the impoundment was a significant predictor of tissue mercury with small reservoirs having higher levels of tissue mercury than large reservoirs. Landuse and water chemistry accounted for differences seen in fish of various ecoregions and waterbody types. Sampling locations associated with a high percentage of wetland area had fish with high levels of tissue Hg. Correlation analysis showed a strong positive relationship between tissue Hg levels and water column
Michael J. Kingsford
Full Text Available There is widespread use of fish attraction devices (FADs in commercial fisheries and research. Investigations on the utility of FADs to catch fishes, and factors influencing fishes associated with FADs, require careful consideration of experimental designs. The development of appropriate models, from observations and the literature, should be developed before hypotheses can be tested with robust sampling designs. Robust sampling designs may only be possible if investigators have some role in the planning stage of deploying FADs. If the objective of the study is to determine the influence of FADs on assemblages of fishes, then experimenters need to consider that a `FAD-effect´ (=impact cannot be demonstrated without controls. Some preliminary studies may be required to determine the spatial extent of a FAD-effect before suitable sites can be chosen for controls. Other controls may also be necessary, depending on the method used to estimate numbers of fishes (e.g. controls for disturbance. Recent advances in sampling designs that are applicable to impact studies are discussed. Beyond-BACI (Before After Control Impact and MBACI (Multiple BACI designs are recommended because they cater for temporal and spatial variation in the abundance of organisms, which is generally great for pelagic fishes. The utility of orthogonal sampling designs is emphasised as a means of elucidating the influence of multiple factors and, importantly, interactions between them. Further, nested analyses are suggested to deal with multiple temporal and/or spatial time scales in sampling designs. The independence of replicate FADs should also be considered. Problems of independence include: FADs that are connected, thus providing potential routes of movement of associated fishes; temporal dependence where the number of fish at a time influences the number at the next time due to fish becoming residents; and the fact that the proximity of other FADs may influence numbers of
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines – which may influence the formation of cancers – including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.
Lincoln, J M; Conway, G A
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the United States Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 in reducing the high occupational death rate (200/100,000/year in 1991-2) among Alaska's commercial fishermen. METHODS: Comprehensive surveillance of deaths in commercial fishing was established by our office during 1991 and 1992 for Alaska. Demographic data and data on risk factors and incidents were compiled and analysed for trend. RESULTS: During 1991-8, there was a s...
The results of numerous studies indicate that fish possess bacterial populations on or in their skin, gills, digestive tract, and light-emitting organs. In addition, the internal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen) of healthy fish may contain bacteria, but there is debate about whether or not muscle is actually sterile. Using traditional culture-dependent techniques, the numbers and taxonomic composition of the bacterial populations generally reflect those of the surrounding water. More modern...
incubation period (Penttila 2002, Rice 2006) (Figure 13). During the summer, incubation times are about two weeks, while during cold winter weather, it...Various present-day stres - sors on forage fish spawning habitats are reviewed in a fol- lowing section. With continued human population growth predicted...in microhabitats occupied by early life history stages of spawning fishes otherwise adapted to cold climates (Brennan and Culverwell 2004, Rice 2006
Charnov, E.L.; Gislason, Henrik; Pope, J.G.
history that maximizes Darwinian fitness in non-growing populations. We merge this M, W α power function with other power functions to produce general across-species scaling rules for yearly reproductive allocation, reproductive effort and age at first reproduction in fish. We then suggest a new way...... to classify habitats (or lifestyles) as to the life histories they should contain, and we contrast our scheme with the widely used Winemiller-Rose fish lifestyle classification...
Roberts, Helen E; Palmeiro, Brian; Weber, E Scott
Bacterial and parasitic diseases are very common problems in pet fish. Diagnostic testing for bacterial and parasitic diseases is simple to do; many tests can be done on ambulatory visits. When logical treatment strategies are initiated and supported by diagnostic testing, a successful outcome is possible. Identification of the correct pathogens also allows an educational opportunity for discussions on prevention and biosecurity practices with clients and although fish are poikilothermic, there are some bacterial and parasitic pathogens that are zoonotic.
Murakami, Taro; Masayama, Atsushi; Ki, Masami; Yamano, Tetsuo; Simizu, Mituru
A method for identification of fish species using three different mitochondrial DNA regions, 16S rRNA, cytochrome b and cytochrome c gene fragments, was investigated. The combined use of all three regions enabled reliable species identification in not only raw fish, but also dried, seasoned and boiled fish, products. Furthermore, the method was applicable even to vomitus from a patient involved in a puffer fish poisoning incident. However, further improvement is necessary to discriminate between closely related species such as Takifugu rubripes and T. chinensis, because they showed close similarity in the nucleotide sequences in the three gene fragments analyzed in this study.
The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and stored in the Reach Addressing Database (RAD). NHDPlus is a database that interconnects and uniquely identifies the millions of stream segments or reaches that comprise the Nations' surface water drainage system. NHDPlus provides a national framework for assigning reach addresses to water quality related entities, such as fish advisories locations. Reach addresses establish the locations of these entities relative to one another within the NHD surface water drainage network in a manner similar to street addresses. The assignment of reach addresses is accomplished through a process known as reach indexing. Fish consumption advisories and fish tissue sampling stations are reported to EPA by the states. Sampling stations are the locations where a state has collected fish tissue data for use in advisory determinations. Fish consumption advisory locations are coded onto NHDPlus flowline features to create point and linear events. Fish consumption advisory locations are also coded onto NHDPlus waterbody features to create area events. In addition to NHDPlus-reach indexed data, there may also be custom events (point, line, or area) that are not associated with NHDPlus. Although these Fish consumption advisories are not represented in NHDPlus, the data created for them are in an EPA standard format that is co
Wood, Chelsea L; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian; Guerra, Ana Sofía; Micheli, Fiorenza
Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected parasite species. Here, we assess the abundance of parasites of seven species of coral reef fishes collected from three fished and three unfished islands of the Line Islands archipelago in the central equatorial Pacific. Because we chose fish hosts that spanned different trophic levels, taxonomic groups, and body sizes, we were able to compare parasite responses across a broad cross section of the total parasite community in the presence and absence of fishing, a major human impact on marine ecosystems. We found that overall parasite species richness was substantially depressed on fished islands, but that the response of parasite abundance varied among parasite taxa: directly transmitted parasites were significantly more abundant on fished than on unfished islands, while the reverse was true for trophically transmitted parasites. This probably arises because trophically transmitted parasites require multiple host species, some of which are the top predators most sensitive to fishing impacts. The increase in directly transmitted parasites appeared to be due to fishing-driven compensatory increases in the abundance of their hosts. Together, these results provide support for the predictions of both heuristic models, and indicate that the direction of fishing's impact on parasite abundance is mediated by parasite traits, notably parasite transmission strategies.
Tanaka, Ryusuke; Shigeta, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Yoshimasa; Hatate, Hideo; Matsushita, Teruo
Hydroxy lipids (L-OH) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) levels as well as other parameters such as lipid level, lipid class, fatty acid composition, and other aldehydes levels in the liver of diseased fish were investigated. Although significant differences in lipid level, lipid class, fatty acid composition, and other aldehyde levels were not always observed between normal and diseased fish, L-OH and HHE levels were significantly higher in the liver of the diseased fish than in that of the normal fish cultured with the same feeds under the same conditions. In the liver of puffer fish (Fugu rubripes) infected with Trichodina, L-OH and HHE levels significantly increased from 25.29±5.04 to 47.70 ± 5.27 nmol/mg lipid and from 299.79±25.25 to 1,184.40±60.27 nmol/g tissue, respectively. When the levels of HHE and other aldehydes in the liver of the normal and diseased puffer fish were plotted, a linear relationship with a high correlation coefficient was observed between HHE and propanal (r2=0.9447). Increased L-OH and HHE levels in the liver of the diseased fish and a high correlation between HHE and propanal in the liver of the normal and diseased fish were also observed in flat fish (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with streptococcus, yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) infected with jaundice, and amberjack (S. purpurascens) infected with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.
...; FF09X60000-FVWF97920900000-XXX] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council... Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a...
...; FF09X60000-FVWF97920900000-XXX] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...), announce a public meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). A Federal... requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATES: The meeting will be... with the requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...), announce a public meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). A Federal... the requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport...
Sep 7, 2016 ... Bolivia has the lowest per-capita consumption of fish among South American nations, but that could soon change. Members the Amazon Fish for Food project are working to encourage the sustainable use of the country's fish resources through fishing and aquaculture. This article is part of an ongoing series ...