Shadman, Niloofar; Kandi, Saeideh Gorji; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Shoul, Maryam Azizi
... (IvoclarVivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) restoration required to mask discolored tooth. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum thickness of a multilayer porcelain restoration required for masking severe tooth discoloration...
Al-Agha, Ebaa I; Alagha, Mustafa I
Background: This study was carried out to evaluate the nanoleakage of two types of nanofilled adhesive systems in Class V composite resin restorations. Materials and Methods: Totally 60 human premolars were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 30). Standardized round Class V cavities (enamel and dentin margins) were prepared. A total-etch (N-Bond total etch) (Ivoclar Vivadent) and self-etching (N-Bond self-etch) (Ivoclar Vivadent) adhesive system were evaluated. The cavities were restored inc...
Durán Ojeda, Gerardo; Henríquez Gutiérrez, Ismael; Guzmán Marusic, Álvaro; Báez Rosales, Abelardo; Tisi Lanchares, José Pablo
The use of CAD/CAM technology has allowed the fabrication of ceramic restorations efficiently and with predictable results. Lithium disilicate is a type of glass ceramic material that can be used for the elaboration of laminate veneers, being monolithic restorations which require characterization through a covering ceramic in order to achieve acceptable esthetic results. The next case report shows a predictable clinical protocol for the rehabilitation of the anterior teeth through the preparation of CAD/CAM veneers (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) which have been characterized by a nanofluorapatite ceramic (e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) through the layering technique.
Gerardo Durán Ojeda
Full Text Available The use of CAD/CAM technology has allowed the fabrication of ceramic restorations efficiently and with predictable results. Lithium disilicate is a type of glass ceramic material that can be used for the elaboration of laminate veneers, being monolithic restorations which require characterization through a covering ceramic in order to achieve acceptable esthetic results. The next case report shows a predictable clinical protocol for the rehabilitation of the anterior teeth through the preparation of CAD/CAM veneers (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein which have been characterized by a nanofluorapatite ceramic (e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein through the layering technique.
Luana Menezes de Mendonça
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a microdureza do cimento resinoso Variolink II ( Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) empregado na cimentação de coroas totais de cerâmica (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) em preparos com 3 substratos (dentina, metal e resina composta). Foram utilizados 30 molares distribuídos em 3 grupos de acordo com o tipo de substrato. No grupo com substrato em dentina (D), as coroas foram cimentadas em dentes preparados em dentina. Nos gru...
Henríquez Gutiérrez, Ismael; Guzmán Marusic, Álvaro; Báez Rosales, Abelardo; Tisi Lanchares, José Pablo
The use of CAD/CAM technology has allowed the fabrication of ceramic restorations efficiently and with predictable results. Lithium disilicate is a type of glass ceramic material that can be used for the elaboration of laminate veneers, being monolithic restorations which require characterization through a covering ceramic in order to achieve acceptable esthetic results. The next case report shows a predictable clinical protocol for the rehabilitation of the anterior teeth through the preparation of CAD/CAM veneers (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) which have been characterized by a nanofluorapatite ceramic (e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) through the layering technique. PMID:28884029
Hamburger, J.T.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.
OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study investigated static failure risk related to restoration layer thickness for different indirect materials and compare them to direct composites. METHODS: Two ceramics (IPS e-max CAD, EmpressCAD (Ivoclar Vivadent)), two indirect composites (Estenia (Kuraray), Sinfony
Tellez, Marisol; Zuluaga Valencia, Alba Lucia; Sebastian Lara, Juan; Quintero, Ingrid Katherine; Usuga, Margarita; Huertas Diaz, Maria Cristina; Lucia Zarta, Olga; Martignon, Stefania
.... El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar in vitro el grado de penetracion de tres adhesivos: Excite (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply) y Single Bond (3M-ESPE), en el sellado de lesiones interproximales no cavitacionales de mancha blanca...
Bluephase G2, Ivoclar-Vivadent) whose irradiance were verified (1000 4 mW/cm2) using a laboratory-grade laser power meter (10A-V1, Ophir-Spiricon... caries . Lander and Dietschi described in a clinical report that endocrowns could provide a suitable restoration in compromised situations with
Busemann, I.; Lipke, C.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Willershausen, B.; Ernst, C.P.
PURPOSE: To investigate the shortest exposure time of different light emitting diode (LED)-curing devices for different resin composites in a clinically relevant laboratory model. METHODS: Nine LED curing devices (Bluephase, Bluephase 16i, Bluephase G2, Bluephase 20i/Ivoclar Vivadent, DEMI/sds Kerr,
Goracci, Ceclia; Sadek, Fernanda Tranchesi; Fabianelli, Andrea; Tay, Franklin R; Ferrari, Marco
...). The tested adhesive cements were Variolink II (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Panavia 21 (Kuraray Co) and RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE). In each group, seven posted roots were used for push-out tests and two were processed for TEM observations...
Cadenaro, M.; Marchesi, G.; Antoniolli, F.; Davidson, C.; Dorigo, E.D.; Breschi, L.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure the contraction stress development of three flowable resin-composite materials (Grandio Flow, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany; Tetric Flow, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein; Filtek Supreme XT Flowable Restorative, 3 M ESPE, ST. Paul, MN, USA)
of retention, chipping of the veneering material, and abutment screw loosening. With a cement retained prosthesis, inter- occlusal space available...prosthesis results in poor aesthetics as well as increased fracture of veneering porcelain and has been proposed to compromise occlusion stability. For...used for all indirect applications, including veneers Multilink® Implant Ivoclar Vivadent Permanent cementing of implant-retained restorations
Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, E; Peutzfeldt, A
This study determined whether the strength with which resin composite bonds to dentin is influenced by variations in the curing rate of resin composites. Resin composites were bonded to the dentin of extracted human molars. Adhesive (AdheSE, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied and cured (10 seconds...... @ 1000 mW/cm2) for all groups. A split Teflon mold was clamped to the treated dentin surface and filled with resin composite. The rate of cure was varied, using one of four LED-curing units of different power densities. The rate of cure was also varied using the continuous or pulse-delay mode...... of the four power densities was followed by a one-minute interval, after which light cure was completed (14, 29, 27 or 78 seconds), likewise, giving a total energy density of 16 J/cm2. The specimens produced for each of the eight curing protocols and two resin composites (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent...
12. REPORT TYPE 22/03/2018 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effect of High-Speed Sintering on the Properties ofZirconia-Oxide Materials 6. AUTHOR(S...zirconia materials typically requires several hours of sintering. A new sintering furnace is available that reportedly sinters zirconia in...zirconia were also compared to a lithium- disilicate material , IPS e.max CAD (lvoclar Vivadent). IPS e.max CAD beams were crystallized in the CEREC
Rigolin, Fernando J; Miranda, Milton E; Flório, Flávia M; Basting, Roberta T
The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of two heat-pressed ceramics (leucite-based--IPS Empress Esthetic/Ivoclar Vivadent, and lithium disilicate-based --IPS e.max Press/Ivoclar Vivadent) to dentin with the use of conventional and self-adhesive resin cements. The occlusal surface of 60 intact human molars was removed and the dentin was exposed. Ceramic blocks were cemented randomly with regard to the cementation systems (n = 10): conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II/Ivoclar Vivadent), conventional self-polymerizing resin cement (Multilink/Ivoclar Vivadent), and dual self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100/3M ESPE). The dual cementation systems were photoactivated with a LED light device (Radii Cal, SDI) for 40 seconds. The specimens were sectioned to obtain sticks of approximately 1 mm2 for microtensile tests on a universal testing machine (EMIC). The type of fracture was analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05) showed that there was no difference between types of ceramic. Average microtensile bond strength was higher for the conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II) and the self-adhesive dual resin cement (RelyX U100), despite greater prevalence of premature loss of the sticks with the latter. Average bond strength was lower when the conventional self-polymerizing resin cement (Multilink) was used. Leucite-based and lithium disilicate-based cements present similar bond strength to the dentin with conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II) and a dual self-adhesive cement (RelyX U100).
Skyllouriotis, Andreas L; Yamamoto, Hideo L; Nathanson, Dan
The translucency and opacity of ceramics play a significant role in emulating the natural color of teeth, but studies of the masking properties and limitations of dental ceramics when used as monolayer restorations are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the translucency of 6 materials used for veneer restorations by assessing their translucency parameters (TPs), contrast ratios (CRs), and potential to mask dark tooth colors. Ten square- or disk-shaped specimens (0.5-mm thickness, shade A2) were fabricated from Vitablocks Mark II (VMII; Vita Zahnfabrik), IPS e.max CAD LT (EMXC LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max CAD HT (EMXC HT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS Empress CAD LT (EMP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max Press LT (EMXP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), and CZR (CZR; Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc). Their luminance (Y) values over black and over white tiles were measured, followed by their color (CIELab) over black tiles and white tiles and shaded A2 (control group), A3.5, A4, and B4 acrylic resin blocks. All measurements were performed using a spectrophotometer in 2 different areas on each specimen. Then CRs, TPs, and color differences (over shaded backgrounds) were determined. Data were subjected to 1-way and 2-way ANOVA (α=.05) for analysis. Mean CR values of EMXP LT were significantly higher than those of the other tested materials, whereas VMII and EMXC HT had the lowest values (Pceramic materials, whereas shade B4 demonstrated the lowest mean background effect (Ptranslucency among the tested ceramics were revealed (Ptranslucent under the conditions of this study (Pceramics exhibited poor masking properties against the A4 background. The color differences of most tested ceramics were more acceptable when tested against the B4 background (ΔE*≤3.3). Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schmitter, M; Schweiger, M; Mueller, D; Rues, S
This in vitro study should assess the fracture resistance of veneered zirconia-based crowns with either luted or fused veneer. Thirty-two identical zirconia frameworks (IPS e.max ZirCAD; Ivoclar/Vivadent), were constructed (inLab 3.80; Sirona Dental Systems). All frameworks were veneered with CAD/CAM-fabricated lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max CAD; Ivoclar/Vivadent). For half the crowns (n=16) the veneer was luted to the framework (Multilink Implant; Ivoclar/Vivadent); for the other it was fused (IPS e.max Crystall./Connect; Ivoclar/Vivadent). Half of the specimens were then loaded until failure without artificial aging; the other half underwent artificial aging before assessment of the ultimate load. To compare the two techniques further, finite element analysis (FEA) and fractographic assessment using SEM and EDX analysis were conducted. Statistical assessment was performed by use of non-parametric tests. Initial fracture forces were higher in the fusion group (mean: 1388±190 N versus 1211±158 N). All specimens were insensitive to artificial aging. FEA showed that tensile stresses in the veneer at the frame-veneer interface were much higher for crowns with luted veneer; this may be the reason for their lower fracture resistance. Fractographic analysis revealed that both fused and luted specimens had cohesive and adhesive fracture patterns which resulted in partial delamination of the veneer. Fused crowns are superior to luted crowns. Comparison of fracture resistance with the maximum loads which may occur clinically (Fmax=600 N on one tooth) suggests both techniques might be used clinically, however. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ebert, Thomas; Elsner, Laura; Hirschfelder, Ursula; Hanke, Sebastian
The purpose of this work was to analyze surfaces consisting of different restorative materials for shear bond strength (SBS) and failure patterns of metal and ceramic brackets. Bonding involved the use of a universal primer (Monobond® Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent). Six restorative materials were tested, including one composite resin (Clearfil Majesty™ Posterior, Kuraray Noritake Dental), one glass-ceramic material (IPS Empress® Esthetic, Ivoclar Vivadent), one oxide-ceramic material (CORiTEC Zr transpa Disc, imes-icore), two base-metal alloys (remanium® star, Dentaurum; Colado® CC, Ivoclar Vivadent), and one palladium-based alloy (Callisto® 75 Pd, Ivoclar Vivadent). Bovine incisors served as controls. Both metal and ceramic brackets (discovery®/discovery® pearl; Dentaurum) were bonded to the restorative surfaces after sandblasting and pretreatment with Monobond® Plus. A setup modified from DIN 13990-2 was used for SBS testing and adhesive remnant index (ARI)-based analysis of failure patterns. The metal brackets showed the highest mean SBS values on the glass-ceramic material (68.61 N/mm(2)) and the composite resin (67.58 N/mm(2)) and the lowest mean SBS on one of the base-metal alloys (Colado® CC; 14.01 N/mm(2)). The ceramic brackets showed the highest mean SBS on the glass-ceramic material (63.36 N/mm(2)) and the lowest mean SBS on the palladium-based alloy (38.48 N/mm(2)). Significant differences between the metal and ceramic brackets were observed in terms of both SBS values and ARI scores (p cases of surface avulsion) of the composite-resin and the glass-ceramic samples, we recommend against using these material combinations in clinical practice.
Fiket, Danijel; Ćatović, Adnan; Franz, Mladen; Seifert, Davor
The demands of patients for high aesthetics during reconstructive prosthetic procedures accelerated the development of new materials and technology. Forces acting in the post-canine part of the dental arch amount to ≥ 500 N, and thus the material used for fabrication of the restoration must withstand such forces. The aim of this investigation was to study the resistance to fracture of three non-metal materials: 1. ceromer (Targis, Ivoclar-Vivadent), 2. ceromer reinforced with fibre reinforced...
Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli; Linda Wang; Fernanda Cristina Pimentel Garcia; Anuradha Prakki; José Mondelli; Eduardo Batista Franco; Aquira Ishikiriama
This study aimed at analyzing the compomers wear by an "in vitro" toothbrushing abrasion test. The null hypotheses tested were that there would be no differences in weight loss and no significant changes in surface roughness of the compomers after this test. The utilized commercial brands were Dyract (Dentsply), Dyract AP (Dentsply), Compoglass F (Vivadent), Freedom (SDI), F2000 (3M ESPE), which were compared to the two resin composites Z100 (3M ESPE) and Silux Plus (3M ESPE). Ten cylindrical...
Lopes, Guilherme Carpena; Ballarin, Andressa; Baratieri, Luiz N
The aim of this research is to evaluate bond strength between translucent fibre posts (White Post DC, FGM or FRC Postec Plus, Ivoclar/Vivadent) and intraradicular dentin at three different levels (cervical, middle and apical) using a dual-cure (AllCem, FGM) or self-curing (Multilink, Ivoclar/Vivadent) resin cement. Also, the fracture type after push-out test was analysed under SEM. Thirty-two extracted single-root teeth were selected. After undergoing endodontic therapy, they were randomly divided into four groups according to their post type and resin cement. Root canals were etched using 37% phosphoric acid, and Excite DSC adhesive (Ivoclar/Vivadent) was applied in all groups. The root was sectioned to obtain nine 1-mm-thick slices (three per third: coronal, middle, apical). All slices were subjected to push-out tests. Data were analysed using two-way anova. The mean bond strengths vary from 6.6 (4.6) MPa [apical] to 11.9 (5.9) MPa [cervical]. There were no significant differences between groups. Pearson χ(2)-test revealed significant differences in fracture types for all groups (P < 0.0001). The apical third had the lowest bond strengths and it was also shown to be the most critical region for luting fibre posts. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.
SHERFUDHIN, Haneef; HOBEICH, Joseph; CARVALHO, Carlos Augusto; N. ABOUSHELIB, Moustafa; SADIG, Walid; SALAMEH, Ziad
Objective This study investigated the effect of different ferrule heights on endodontically treated premolars. Materials and Methods Fifty sound mandibular first premolars were endodontically treated and then restored with 7-mm fiber post (FRC Postec Plus #1 Ivoclar-Vivadent) luted with self-polymerized resin cement (Multilink, Ivoclar Vivadent) while the coronal section was restored with hybrid composite core build-up material (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar-Vivadent), which received all-ceramic crown. Different ferrule heights were investigated: 1-mm circumferential ferrule without post and core (group 1 used as control), a circumferential 1-mm ferrule (group 2), non-uniform ferrule 2-mm buccally and 1-mm lingually (group 3), non-uniform ferrule 3-mm buccally and 2-mm lingually (group 4), and finally no ferrule preparation (group 5). The fracture load and failure pattern of the tested groups were investigated by applying axial load to the ceramic crowns (n=10). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for pair-wise comparisons (α=0.05). Results There were no significant differences among the failure load of all tested groups (Pglass ceramic crowns. Insertion of a fiber post could reduce the percentage of catastrophic failure of these restorations under function. PMID:21437466
Adriana Postiglione Bührer Samra
Full Text Available Color match is one of the most important characteristics of aesthetic restorative materials. Maintenance of color throughout the functional lifetime of restorations is important for the durability of treatment. This characteristic is not constant among dental materials. The purpose of this research was to assess the color stability of five aesthetic restorative materials when immersed in a coffee solution. Seventy-one 17 mm x 1 mm specimens, divided into five groups, were made using one direct composite resin (Tetric Ceram®, Ivoclar/Vivadent - G1, three indirect composite resins (Targis, Ivoclar/Vivadent - G2; Resilab Master, Wilcos - G3; belleGlassTM HP, Kerr - G4 and one porcelain (IPS Empress® 2, Ivoclar/Vivadent - G5. The specimens were immersed in a coffee staining media for 15 days and stored under a controlled temperature of 37°C ± 1°C in the dark. The evaluations were made after 1, 7 and 15 days by means of reflectance spectrophotometry. The data was submitted to two-way ANOVA (p < 0.005 and post hoc tests. Statistical difference was observed between G1 / G3 and the other groups; G2 / G4 and the other groups; and G5 and all the other groups. It was concluded that G1 and G3 showed significantly higher discoloration than the other groups. G2 and G4 showed intermediary pigmentation, while G5 showed the smallest changes.
Schmidlin, Patrick R; Klück, Ilja; Zimmermann, Jörg; Roulet, Jean-François; Seemann, Rainer
To assess the enamel-protective potential of a newly devised adhesive patch for smooth enamel sealing. Approximal surfaces of 30 extracted molars were divided into three areas: the buccal thirds were treated with a flowable composite (Tetric Flow, Ivoclar Vivadent) and served as negative control sites, the lingual thirds were left untreated and served as positive control sites, and the middle thirds served as the test areas. This was sealed with either 1. a twofold application of an unfilled resin (Heliobond, Ivoclar Vivadent), 2. an adhesive prototype patch (Ivoclar Vivadent), or 3. an adhesive patch in combination with a flowable composite. After thermomechanical loading and demineralization in a microbial-based artificial caries chamber, demineralization depth was assessed using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Negative control sites treated with the flowable composite showed no signs of demineralization. Areas treated with the patch showed no signs of demineralization, irrespective of whether it was used in combination with a flowable composite or directly bonded to the enamel. Caries-like lesions in untreated sites showed a mean depth of 134.3 +/- 35.9 microm. Demineralization depth at sites treated with the unfilled resin was 76.2 +/- 26.5 microm (p = 0.023). Under the conditions of the present study, the adhesive patch under investigation completely protected the underlying enamel from demineralization. This merits further study to assess its potential as an interproximal sealant.
Strasser, Thomas; Preis, Verena; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of surface pre-treatment on CAD/CAM materials including ceramics, zirconia, resin-infiltrated ceramic, and resin-based composite. Specimens were made of ten CAD/CAM materials (Celtra Duo, Degudent, D; Vita Suprinity, Vita, D; E.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL; E.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL; Vita Enamic, Vita, D; Cerasmart, GC, B; LAVA Ultimate, 3M, D; SHOFU Block HC, SHOFU, US; Grandio Blocs, VOCO, D; BRILLIANT Crios, Coltene, CH) and pretreated to represent clinical procedures (Hf 20 s/5%; phosphoric acid 20 s/37%; Monobond etch and prime (Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL); water-cooled diamond bur (80 μm; 4 μm); Al 2 O 3 -blasting (50 μm/1 bar, 50 μm/2 bar, 120 μm/1 bar, 120 μm/2 bar); untreated; manufacturer's instructions). SEM-analysis (Phenom, FEI, NL) of the surfaces was performed (magnifications ≤ 10,000×). Roughness values R a , R z (KJ 3D, Keyence, J), and surface energy SE (OCA15 plus, SCA20, DataPhysics, D) were determined (statistics: non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test/Kruskal-Wallis test for independent specimen, α = 0.05). Kruskal-Wallis revealed significant (p CAD/CAM materials require individual pre-treatment for optimized and protective surface activation. Cementation is a key factor for clinical success. Given the variety of available CAD/CAM materials, specific procedures are needed.
Belli, Renan; Wendler, Michael; de Ligny, Dominique; Cicconi, Maria Rita; Petschelt, Anselm; Peterlik, Herwig; Lohbauer, Ulrich
A deeper understanding of the mechanical behavior of dental restorative materials requires an insight into the materials elastic constants and microstructure. Here we aim to use complementary methodologies to thoroughly characterize chairside CAD/CAM materials and discuss the benefits and limitations of different analytical strategies. Eight commercial CAM/CAM materials, ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Elastic constants were evaluated using three methods: Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), Resonant Beam Technique (RBT) and Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo (PE). The microstructures were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Young's modulus (E), Shear modulus (G), Bulk modulus (B) and Poisson's ratio (ν) were obtained for each material. E and ν reached values ranging from 10.9 (Lava Ultimate) to 201.4 (e.max ZirCAD) and 0.173 (Empress CAD) to 0.47 (Lava Ultimate), respectively. RUS showed to be the most complex and reliable method, while the PE method the easiest to perform but most unreliable. All dynamic methods have shown limitations in measuring the elastic constants of materials showing high damping behavior (hybrid materials). SEM images, Raman spectra and XRD patterns were made available for each material, showing to be complementary tools in the characterization of their crystal phases. Here different methodologies are compared for the measurement of elastic constants and microstructural characterization of CAD/CAM restorative materials. The elastic properties and crystal phases of eight materials are herein fully characterized. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials
Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Mevec, Daniel; Harrer, Walter; Lube, Tanja; Danzer, Robert; Lohbauer, Ulrich
Strength is one of the preferred parameters used in dentistry for determining clinical indication of dental restoratives. However, small dimensions of CAD/CAM blocks limit reliable measurements with standardized uniaxial bending tests. The objective of this study was to introduce the ball-on-three-ball (B3B) biaxial strength test for dental for small CAD/CAM block in the context of the size effect on strength predicted by the Weibull theory. Eight representative chairside CAD/CAM materials ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Specimens were prepared with highly polished surfaces in rectangular plate (12×12×1.2mm 3 ) or round disc (Ø=12mm, thickness=1.2mm) geometries. Specimens were tested using the B3B assembly and the biaxial strength was determined using calculations derived from finite element analyses of the respective stress fields. Size effects on strength were determined based on results from 4-point-bending specimens. A good agreement was found between the biaxial strength results for the different geometries (plates vs. discs) using the B3B test. Strength values ranged from 110.9MPa (Vitablocs Mark II) to 1303.21MPa (e.max ZirCAD). The strength dependency on specimen size was demonstrated through the calculated effective volume/surface. The B3B test has shown to be a reliable and simple method for determining the biaxial strength restorative materials supplied as small CAD/CAM blocks. A flexible solution was made available for the B3B test in the rectangular plate geometry. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bozogullari, Nalan; Inan, Ozgur; Usumez, Aslihan
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strengths of resin, glass-ionomer, and ceramic-based core materials to all ceramic discs. Five core materials (Core max, Sankin; Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray; Empress Cosmo, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Photocore, Kuraray; Dyract Extra, Dentsply) were prepared as discs 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height according to the manufacturer's instructions. Ten disc specimens per group were prepared, and dentin served as the control. All resin specimens were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin, with one surface facing up. All ceramic discs (IPS Empress I, Ivoclar-Vivadent) 3 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height were prepared and bonded to core specimens with a dual-curing luting resin cement (Variolink II, Vivadent). Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Shear bond strength of each sample was measured after 24 h using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests (alpha = 0.05). Shear bond strength varied significantly depending on the core material used (p strength value while Empress Cosmo provided the lowest (p Core-Max (p > 0.05). And also there were no statistically significant differences between Dyract Extra and the control group (p > 0.05). In vitro shear bond strengths of ceramic discs bonded to resin-based core materials showed higher bond strength values than ceramic-based core material.
Dozic, Alma; Tsagkari, Maria; Khashayar, Ghazal; Aboushelib, Moustafa
Porcelain veneers have become an interesting treatment option to correct the shape and color of anterior teeth. Because of their limited thickness and high translucency, achieving a good color match is influenced by several variables. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of natural dentin and resin cement colors on final color match of porcelain veneers. A preselected shade tab (A1) was chosen as the target color for a maxillary central incisor, and its color parameters (L*a*b*) were measured using a digital spectrophotometer (SpectroShade, MHT). Nine natural dentin colors (Natural Die Material, Ivoclar Vivadent) representing a wide range of tooth colors were used to prepare resin replicas of the maxillary central incisor with a standard preparation for porcelain veneers. The prepared porcelain veneers (IPS Empress Esthetic, A1, 0.6 mm thick, Ivoclar Vivadent) were cemented on the resin dies (nine groups of natural dentin colors) using seven shades of resin cement (Variolink Veneers, Ivoclar Vivadent). The L*a*b* values of the cemented veneers were measured, and DE values were calculated against the preselected target color (A1). DE greater than 3.3 was considered as a significant color mismatch detectable by the human eye. The seven shades of resin cement had no significant influence on the final color of the veneers, as the measured DE values were almost identical for every test group. On the other hand, the color of natural dentin was a significant factor that influenced final color match. None of the 63 tested combinations (nine natural dentin colors and seven resin cement colors) produced an acceptable color match. Thin porcelain veneers cannot mask underlying tooth color even when different shades of resin cement are used. Incorporation of opaque porcelain (high chroma) may improve final color match.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of different ferrule heights on endodontically treated premolars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty sound mandibular first premolars were endodontically treated and then restored with 7-mm fiber post (FRC Postec Plus #1 Ivoclar-Vivadent luted with self-polymerized resin cement (Multilink, Ivoclar Vivadent while the coronal section was restored with hybrid composite core build-up material (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar-Vivadent, which received all-ceramic crown. Different ferrule heights were investigated: 1-mm circumferential ferrule without post and core (group 1 used as control, a circumferential 1-mm ferrule (group 2, non-uniform ferrule 2-mm buccally and 1-mm lingually (group 3, non-uniform ferrule 3-mm buccally and 2-mm lingually (group 4, and finally no ferrule preparation (group 5. The fracture load and failure pattern of the tested groups were investigated by applying axial load to the ceramic crowns (n=10. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test was used for pair-wise comparisons (α=0.05. RESULTS: There were no significant differences among the failure load of all tested groups (P<0.780. The control group had the lowest fracture resistance (891.43±202.22 N and the highest catastrophic failure rate (P<0.05. Compared to the control group, the use of fiber post reduced the percentage of catastrophic failure while increasing the ferrule height did not influence the fracture resistance of the restored specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, increasing the ferrule length did not influence the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass ceramic crowns. Insertion of a fiber post could reduce the percentage of catastrophic failure of these restorations under function.
Santini, Ario; Miletic, Vesna; Swift, Michael D; Bradley, Mark
To determine the degree of conversion (DC) and Knoop microhardness (KHN) of resin-based composites (RBCs) containing trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) cured by polywave or monowave LED light-curing units (LCUs). Three groups (each n = 5) of Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent), Vit-l-escence (Ultradent) and Herculite XRV Ultra (Kerr) were prepared in Teflon moulds (5mm in diameter and 2mm thick) and cured with polywave Bluephase(®) G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), polywave Valo (Ultradent) or monowave Bluephase(®) (Ivoclar Vivadent; control) resulting in 9 groups. DC and KHN were determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy and Knoop microhardness, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to confirm the presence or absence of TPO in the three uncured materials. Data were statistically analysed using two-way and one-way ANOVA and DC and KHN were correlated using Pearson's correlation (α = 0.05). TPO was confirmed in Tetric EvoCeram and Vit-l-escence but not in Herculite XRV Ultra. All three LCUs produced comparable KHN for Tetric EvoCeram and Herculite XRV Ultra (p > 0.05). Both polywave LCUs resulted in significantly higher KHN for Vit-l-escence and higher DC in Tetric EvoCeram and Vit-l-escence than the monowave Bluephase(®) (p TPO-containing RBCs, but not in Herculite XRV Ultra. DC and KHN were linearly correlated in all three RBCs. Vit-l-escence showed the highest DC and KHN of the three materials tested. The use of polywave LEDs significantly improves both the DC and KHN of materials which contain TPO. This should be taken into account when curing bleached shades of RBCs even if the manufacturers do not indicate the presence of TPO in their materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
AlShaafi, Maan M; AlQahtani, Mohammed Q; Price, Richard B
This study measured the effects of using three different exposure times to cure one resin cement through two types of ceramic. One light-curing resin cement (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent) was exposed for 20 s, 40 s, or 60 s with a BluePhase G2 light (Ivoclar Vivadent) on the high power setting through 1.0 mm of either ZirPress (ZR) or Empress Esthetic (EST) ceramic (Ivoclar Vivadent). The degree of conversion (DC) of the resin was measured 100 s after light exposure. The Knoop microhardness (KHN) was measured 5 min after light exposure and again after 24 h. The DC and KHN results were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Scheffe's post-hoc multiple comparison tests at α = 0.05. Increasing exposure time had a significant effect on the KHN and DC values for the resins exposed through both ceramics. As exposure times increased, the influence of the ceramic was reduced; however, the microhardness values were greater for the cement exposed through EST ceramic. When the exposure time was increased from 20 s to 40 s, microhardness values for the resin increased by 39.6% through the EST ceramic. When exposed for 60 s, there were no differences between the 100-s DC values or 5-min KHN values using either ceramic (p > 0.05). There was an excellent correlation between the DC at 100 s and the microhardness values measured at 5 min. Resin polymerization was greater through EST than ZR ceramic. At least 40 s to 60 s from the Blue- Phase G2 on high power mode is required to cure this resin cement through 1.0 mm of ceramic.
Cal, E; Celik, E U; Turkun, M
To assess the microleakage of three self-adhesive and one etch-and-rinse resin cements when luting IPS Empress 2 (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) all-ceramic inlay restorations to the prepared cavities in extracted human molars. The cylindrical Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars using diamond burs. The IPS Empress 2 ceramic inlays were placed with Multilink Sprint (Ivoclar Vivadent), RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE, USA), G-Cem (GC, Japan), or Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent) as the control group. After storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, samples were subjected to 1000 thermal cycles between baths of 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 30 seconds. The microleakage scores were examined on the occlusal and gingival margins at 30× magnification after each sample was stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin and sectioned into three parts using a thin diamond blade (Isomet, Buehler, USA) (n=40). The extent of microleakage on both occlusal and gingival margins of the restorations was scored and recorded. The microleakage data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in both margins according to the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (pVariolink II Variolink II = RelyX Unicem adhesive resin cements displayed higher microleakage scores on the occlusal margins, whereas on the gingival margins RelyX Unicem showed comparable microleakage results with the control samples.
del Urquía, Morales María C; Brasca, N; Girardi, M; Bonnin, C; Ríos, M
The purpose of this work was to evaluate microleakeage of a sealant after using three different techniques for conditioning the surface to be sealed. Twenty-four caries-free upper and lower premolars were used, which were preserved in distilled water at room temperature. The structural faults were enlarged using a cylindrical conical diamond (ISO 007). Teeth were randomly assigned into three groups of eight. Group I (control) was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid (Vivadent) for 15 seconds after which the sealant Helioseal F (Vivadent) was applied and cured for 40 seconds. Group II was conditioned in the same way, after which one-step adhesive Te-econom (Vivadent) and the sealant were applied. Group III was conditioned using a self-etching adhesive, Go (SDI), after which the sealant was applied. Adhesive was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. The samples were thermocycled for 300 cycles between 5 degrees and 55 degreesC and immersed in a 2% methylene blue solution for 48 hs. at standardized temperature of 37 degreesC +/- 1 degree. Then they were rinsed with tap water and ground longitudinally in V-P direction with silica carbide rotatory disks of decreasing grit. The amount of leakage was evaluated under stereoscopic microscope at 40X magnification. The longitudinal penetration of dye into the tooth-sealant interface was scored on a scale of 0 to 3. The results were analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. In Group II, 100% of the samples showed low (50%) or no (50%) leakage. Both the other groups had a higher percentage of specimens with high leakage (scores 2 and 3) (P = 0.000). Group II had the best performance, with significant differences (P = 0.0028) compared to the other experimental groups. Marginal leakage was lowest when the tooth was conditioned with phosphoric acid and subsequent application of an adhesive, prior to sealant.
Vashisth, Pallavi; Mittal, Mudit; Goswami, Mousumi; Chaudhary, Seema; Dwivedi, Swati
Objective: To evaluate the interfacial morphology and the bond strength produced by the three-step, two-step and single-step bonding systems in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 72 extracted human deciduous teeth were ground to expose the dentin. The teeth were divided into four groups: (a) Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M, ESPE), (b) Adh Se (Vivadent), (d) OptiBond All-in-One (Kerr) and (e)Futurabond NR (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). The adhesives were applied to each group f...
Pires, Luiz Antonio Gaieski
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar as propriedades mecânicas selecionadas (resistência à tração diametral, microdureza Knoop) e conteúdo de carga em peso pela análise termogravimétrica (TGA) de cinco marcas comerciais de resina composta diferentes em matriz orgânica e carga nas cores A2 esmalte e dentina: 4Seasons (4S), Ivoclar Vivadent; Esthet-X improved (EX), Dentsply; Filtek Supreme (SU), 3MESPE; Grandio (GR), Voco e Palfique Estelite (PE), Tokuyama Dental Corp. Para cada grupo...
Orellana Jaimes, Noé
El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el comportamiento de los sistemas adhesivos de grabado total XP Bond (Caulk- Dentsply), Prime & Bond NT (Caulk-Dentsply) y Excite (Ivoclar/Vivadent), en las pruebas de monitoreo in Vitro de microtensión pre y post envejecido, micro-filtración, evaluación de la zona de interdifusiòn y simulación de interacción química de elementos básicos. Materiales y Métodos: Con el propósito de valorar el desempeño de los sistemas adhesivos de grabado tot...
Magnani, Cristina [UNESP
O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar, comparativamente, in vitro, a resistência de união ao cisalhamento de uma resina composta à dentina humana e à dentina bovina, submetidas ao tratamento com dois sistemas adesivos convencionais simplificados (Prime Bond NT®, Dentsply e Single Bond®/3M) e dois sistemas adesivos autocondicionantes (AdheSE®/Ivoclar-Vivadent e Adpper Prompt-L-Pop®/ 3M). Para a confecção dos corpos-de-prova, foram utilizadas as superfícies vestibulares de 40 dentes mol...
Koch, Angela; Kroeger, Mareike; Hartung, Martin; Manetsberger, Iris; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Friedl, Karl-Heinz
The aim of the study was to examine the influence of dental ceramic translucency under different exposure conditions upon the polymerization rate of a dual-curing composite resin by measuring the depth of cure (DOC) and the Vickers microhardness (VHN). Three hundred twenty ceramic specimens (160 Empress 2, Ivoclar Vivadent, color 300, and 160 ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, 300, 114; diameter 4 mm, height 1 mm or 2 mm) were inserted into steel molds and overlayed using a composite resin (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent) with and without a self-curing catalyst. Specimens were cured either in contact with or at a 5-mm distance from a conventional halogen curing light (Elipar TriLight, 3M ESPE, exposure duration 40 s, standard mode) and a light-emitting diode (LED: Bluephase 16i, Ivoclar-Vivadent, exposure duration 20 s, high-power mode). DOC under the ceramic specimen was measured following ISO 4049:2000. The VHN of the resin composite was determined at 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm distance from the ceramic using a Vickers hardness tester. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (alpha = 0.05) and the error-rates method (ERM). Higher translucency of the ceramic restoration resulted in higher DOC and VHN values, which were statistically significant for the halogen light source and in most cases for the LED groups. The use of a self-curing catalyst generally produced an increase in DOC and VHN data, with the exception of DOC data for the highly translucent ceramic and direct contact of the tip of the light source with the ceramic. No significant differences between VHN data of the highly translucent ceramic without catalyst and the opaque ceramic with catalyst were observed in 3 out of 4 pairwise comparisons and according to the ERM. Thus, there are indications that for a highly translucent ceramic with the LED unit tested the catalyst may be waived for a ceramic thickness up to 2 mm. There are indications that for a highly translucent ceramic with the LED unit
Mohan Thomas Nainan; Ashok Kalappurakkal Balan; Roshni Sharma; Sabeena Susan Thomas; Deveerappa, Santhosh B
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the micro hardness of a nanohybrid composite resin after brushing with two herbal and one non-herbal whitening toothpastes. Materials and Methods: We divided Eighty disk-shaped specimens of a nanohybrid composite (Tetric N Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Asia) into 4 groups of 20 specimens each: Groups A, B, C, and D. Group A was control, Group B was brushed with Colgate total advanced whitening (Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited), Group C with Salt and ...
Esclassan Noirrit, Emmanuelle; Grégoire, Geneviève; Cournot, Maxime
Morphological study of fiber post/bonding system/root dentin interface by evaluation of two bonding systems. The aim of the study was to analyze the interfaces, and thus the seal, between root dentin and bonded fiber-reinforced posts. The interfaces were obtained by applying two enamel-dentin adhesive systems, a one-bottle system used after application of phosphoric acid and a self-etch system, both used with an adhesive cement. The interface was evaluated by SEM observation of the continuity of the hybrid layer and the morphology of the resin tags, in terms of length, density and presence of side branches, at the interface between the fiber-reinforced post, the bonding system and the root dentin. Twenty-six anterior single-rooted teeth extracted for periodontal reasons were treated endodontically and then randomly separated into two groups of 13 teeth each: group 1: Excite DSC (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein); group 2: AdheSE DC (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). After preparation of the root canal and application of the adhesive, each specimen received a Postec translucent FRC post (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) that was cemented in with Variolink II dual-curing luting composite (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). The specimens were then prepared for SEM observation of the continuity of the hybrid layer and scoring of the morphology of the resin tags in each third of the root (at 1, 4.5 and 8mm from the coronal surface). There was no significant difference (at p<0.05) between the two groups in terms of continuity of the hybrid layer or morphology of the resin tags. The hybrid layer was present, unbroken and uniform in both the group where adhesive was used with a phosphoric acid total etch and the self-etch system group. Whatever the bonding system, the resin tags had side branches, and greater length and density in the cervical third than in the middle or apical thirds. Bubbles were found in the cement layer in most of the specimens
Liebenberg, W H
The objectives of an ideal direct restoration include pulpal health, biocompatibility, occlusal stability, anatomical restitution, marginal perfection, and interproximal integrity. While tooth-colored composites have replaced amalgam as the restorative material of choice for many dental professionals, the utilization of composite materials of two different viscosities has proven effective in increasing strength and adaptation, and facilitating placement of anterior and posterior restorations. Several newly enhanced composite combinations have begun to allay reservations about directly placed tooth-colored restorations. This article classifies the ideal handling characteristics and benefits of a recently introduced, direct Ceromer system (Tetric Flow and Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY.)
Composite resin materials have become the basic restorative materials of the modern aesthetics-oriented practice. However, the application of composite resin in posterior teeth remains a challenge as a result of its handling characteristics and chairside stratification. New ceramic optimized polymers (ceromers), such as Tetric Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), now offer versatility and improved handling properties in response to increasing clinical demand for producing high-quality natural restorations. With a well-designed instrumentation, the work of the clinician may be greatly facilitated. This article evaluates the selection and utilization of a direct ceromer material for posterior restorations and presents a predictable method to achieve aesthetic restorations.
Begum, Zubeda; Chheda, Pratik; Shruthi, C. S.; Sonika, Radhika
The main objective of the study was to recognize the effect of ceramic thickness and luting agent on the extent to which the restoration masks color variations that may be present in the underlying dental structure. Two pressable ceramics were used: Lithium disilicate reinforced (IPS e.max- Ivoclar Vivadent) and Leucite reinforced (Cergo- Dentsply). Fifteen ceramic discs were manufactured from each ceramic and divided into three groups, according to the thickness (0.5, 1, 1.5 mm). To simulate...
Mejía Bravo, Richard Milton; Caparroso Pérez, Carlos Bernardo; Ruiz Restrepo, Xiomara Cristina; Espitia Mesa, José Fernando; Moreno Castillo, Jenny Alexandra; Montoya Sepúlveda, Andrés Felipe
Introducción: en tanto no se encuentra en la literatura un protocolo fundamentado de cementación para restauraciones elaboradas en zirconia-ytria, el propósito de este estudio fue evaluar ex vivo la retención por resistencia friccional de structuras de zirconia-ytria, Procera® ,cementadas con cuatro materiales como el Ketac cem (3M ESPE), el Multilink Automix (Ivoclar Vivadent), el Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray) y el RelyX U100 (3M ESPE), sobre dientes naturales. Métodos: se obtuvieron 40 terceros m...
Suzuki, Thais Yumi Umeda; Santos, PH; de Munck, Jan; Van Meerbeek, Bart
To evaluate bonding effectiveness of a new experimental composite cement to dentin in terms of microtensile bond strength (μTBS) after 1week (‘immediate’) and 6month (‘aged’) artificial aging. Flat ground dentin of 32 human molars was prepared using 600-grit SiC paper. Selfmade composite blocks (Clearfil AP-X,Kuraray Noritake) were bonded to flat dentin surfaces using 4 composite cements: Exp. HPC100 (Kuraray Noritake), Multilink (Ivoclar Vivadent), RelyX Unicem 2 and RelyX Ultimate ...
Kopperud, Hilde M; Johnsen, Gaute F; Lamolle, Sébastien; Kleven, Inger S; Wellendorf, Hanne; Haugen, Håvard J
The latest LED dental curing devices claim sufficient curing of restorative materials with short curing times. This study evaluates mechanical and chemical properties as a function of curing time of two commercial composite filling materials cured with three different LED lamps. The composites were Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent) and the LED curing devices were bluephase 16i (Ivoclar Vivadent), L.E.Demetron II (Kerr) and Mini L.E.D. (Satelec). Control samples were cured with a QTH-lamp (VCL 400, Kerr). The wear resistance after simulated tooth brushing, degree of conversion, curing depth, and amounts of residual monomers were measured after different curing times. The results of this study show that short curing time with high-intensity LEDs may influence the bulk properties of the materials, resulting in lower curing depth and increased residual monomer content. The measured surface properties of the materials, degree of conversion and wear resistance, were not affected by short curing times to the same extent. This study demonstrates that reduced exposure time with high intensity LEDs can result in composite restorations with inferior curing depth and increased leaching of monomers. Dentists are recommended to use sufficient curing times even with high intensity LEDs to ensure adequate curing and minimize the risk of monomer leaching. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maccari, Paulo C A; Conceição, Ewerton N; Nunes, Mauro F
This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of composition of prefabricated esthetic posts in fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth in vitro. Thirty human, single-rooted teeth (maxillary central incisors and canines) with similar root dimensions, extracted for therapeutic reasons, were used in this study. The crowns were removed below the cementoenamel junction to obtain a standard root length of 17 mm. The roots were endodontically treated following the conventional manual technique and randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10) according to the post used: Aestheti-Post, Bisco, Schaumberg, Illinois; FibreKor Post, Jeneric/Pentron, Wallingford, Connecticut; and CosmoPost, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein. The root canals were rendered patent, and the root preparations were standardized through flaring with the manufacturers' drills included in the respective kits. The posts were cemented with an adhesive system and a resin cement (All-Bond 2 and C&B, Bisco, respectively), according to the manufacturers' directions. Composite resin (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent) crowns were built up using a preformed polyester matrix, and the specimens were mounted in metallic rings with cold-cure acrylic resin and kept in saline solution at 4 degrees C for 24 hours. Fracture resistance was then determined using an EMIC DL-2000 universal testing machine. The crosshead speed was 0.5 mm/min with the 45-degree compressing load at the middle third of the crown. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p crowns.
Al-Agha, Ebaa I; Alagha, Mustafa I
Background: This study was carried out to evaluate the nanoleakage of two types of nanofilled adhesive systems in Class V composite resin restorations. Materials and Methods: Totally 60 human premolars were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 30). Standardized round Class V cavities (enamel and dentin margins) were prepared. A total-etch (N-Bond total etch) (Ivoclar Vivadent) and self-etching (N-Bond self-etch) (Ivoclar Vivadent) adhesive system were evaluated. The cavities were restored incrementally with nanohybird composite resin (Tetric N-Ceram). The teeth were sectioned into a series of 1 mm thick beams then they were immersed in the prepared ammoniacal silver nitrate tracer solution for 24 h in a black photo-film container to ensure total darkness. The beams were then rinsed with distilled water, and immersed in photo-developing solution for eight hours then they were subjected to the nanoleakage evaluation. The specimens were analyzed in the environmental scanning electron operated with backscattered electron mode at ×1000 magnification. Results: Self-etch adhesive recorded higher nanoleakage % mean value than the total-etch adhesive. The difference in nanoleakage % mean values between total and self-etch adhesive was statistically significant. Conclusion: The self-etch adhesive had statistically significant higher nanoleakage mean values than the total-etch adhesive. PMID:26229363
ALShaafi, Maan M; Haenel, Thomas; Sullivan, Braden; Labrie, Daniel; Alqahtani, Mohammed Q; Price, Richard B
To measure the Knoop microhardness at the bottom of four posterior resin-based composites (RBCs): Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent), SureFil SDR flow (DENTSPLY), SonicFill (Kerr), and x-tra fil (Voco). The RBCs were expressed into metal rings that were 2, 4, or 6-mm thick with a 4-mm internal diameter at 30°C. The uncured specimens were covered by a Mylar strip and a Bluephase 20i (Ivoclar Vivadent) polywave(®) LED light-curing unit was used in high power setting for 20s. The specimens were then removed and placed immediately on a Knoop microhardness-testing device and the microhardness was measured at 9 points across top and bottom surfaces of each specimen. Five specimens were made for each condition. As expected, for each RBC there was no significant difference in the microhardness values at the top of the 2, 4 and 6-mm thick specimens. SureFil SDR Flow was the softest resin, but was the only resin that had no significant difference between the KHN values at the bottom of the 2 and 4-mm (Mixed Model ANOVA pmaterial and, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions, this RBC should be overlaid with a conventional resin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sabatini, C; Campillo, M; Hoelz, S; Davis, E L; Munoz, C A
To compare dentin shear bond strength (SBS) of four combinations of light-activated one-bottle adhesives and composites to determine if cross-compatibility exists, and to determine if the use of the same manufacturer's adhesive and composite results in higher SBS than systems that combine different manufacturers' products. One hundred sixty human third molars were used for bonding (n=10). Specimens were treated with 37% phosphoric acid and one of four etch-and-rinse adhesives. Specimens were placed in a bonding jig, which was filled with one of four composites. Adhesives PQ1 (Ultradent), Excite (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr), and Single Bond (3M-ESPE) and composites Vit-l-Escence (Ultradent), Four Seasons (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Premise (Kerr), and Filtek Supreme Plus (3M-ESPE) were tested. SBS was measured at 24 hours and three months with a testing machine at a speed of 1 mm/min and expressed in MPa. A three-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests were used for data analysis. Significant differences were evidenced among composites for each adhesive system (padhesives for each composite system (petch-and-rinse one-bottle adhesive systems can be safely used with composites from different manufacturers without a compromise to the bond strength. Moreover, even higher mean SBS values were demonstrated for selective combinations of different manufacturers' products
Sozzi, Michele; Fornaini, Carlo; Lagori, Giuseppe; Merigo, Elisabetta; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Vescovi, Paolo; Selleri, Stefano
The introduction of photo-activators, with absorption spectra in the violet region, in composite resins raised interest in the use of 405 nm diode lasers for polymerization. The purpose of this research is the evaluation of the resins polymerization by means of violet diode laser compared to traditional lamps. Two different resins have been used for the experiments: Filtek Supreme XT flow (3M ESPE, USA) and Tetric Evo flow (Ivoclar, Vivadent). The photo-activator used is Camphoroquinone, alone, or in combination with Lucirin TPO. The resins have been cured with an halogen lamp (Heliolux DXL, Vivadent Ivoclar, Austria), a broadband LED curing light (Valo Ultradent, USA) and a 405 nm laser (Euphoton, Italy). The measure of cure depth, of the volumetric shrinkage, and the conversion degree (DC%) of the double bond during the curing process have been evaluated. A composite layer of 3 mm was cured in Filtek Supreme resin (Camphoroquinone activator), lower if compared to the use of the other two light sources. Tests on Tetric Evo (Camphoroquinone + Lucirin) didn't show any improvement of the use of laser compared to the halogen lamp and the broadband LED. By measuring the volumetric shrinkage the laser induced the lower change with both the composites. In terms of DC% the lower performance was obtained with the laser. Considering that the polymerization process strongly depends on the kind of composite used the effectiveness of 405 nm laser proved to be lower than halogen lamps and broadband LEDs.
Moretto, G; Pupo, Y M; Bueno, A L N; Araujo, F O
Tooth wear is a multifactorial process that is a growing concern in dentistry. This phenomenon can be caused by mechanical (attrition, abrasion, or abfraction) or chemical (erosion) processes. Etiologic factors in dental erosion can be due to changes in behavior, an unbalanced diet, or gastrointestinal disorders such as acid regurgitation, which may influence the salivary flow rate and buffering capacity of saliva. This case report describes an esthetic rehabilitation of a patient with gastroesophageal reflux and dental erosion, with a treatment rationale that includes the use of a diagnostic template and five-year follow-up. This technique, presented here in a clinical case with moderate enamel loss, integrates an additive wax-up and a direct intraoral bis-acryl resin mock-up. Lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) laminate veneers were fabricated with the heatpress technique. They were veneered with a layering ceramic (IPS e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent) to improve the appearance of the incisal edge. The case demonstrated the success of veneers as an effective, conservative, and esthetic treatment for patients with this pathology.
Al-Agha, Ebaa I; Alagha, Mustafa I
This study was carried out to evaluate the nanoleakage of two types of nanofilled adhesive systems in Class V composite resin restorations. Totally 60 human premolars were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 30). Standardized round Class V cavities (enamel and dentin margins) were prepared. A total-etch (N-Bond total etch) (Ivoclar Vivadent) and self-etching (N-Bond self-etch) (Ivoclar Vivadent) adhesive system were evaluated. The cavities were restored incrementally with nanohybird composite resin (Tetric N-Ceram). The teeth were sectioned into a series of 1 mm thick beams then they were immersed in the prepared ammoniacal silver nitrate tracer solution for 24 h in a black photo-film container to ensure total darkness. The beams were then rinsed with distilled water, and immersed in photo-developing solution for eight hours then they were subjected to the nanoleakage evaluation. The specimens were analyzed in the environmental scanning electron operated with backscattered electron mode at ×1000 magnification. Self-etch adhesive recorded higher nanoleakage % mean value than the total-etch adhesive. The difference in nanoleakage % mean values between total and self-etch adhesive was statistically significant. The self-etch adhesive had statistically significant higher nanoleakage mean values than the total-etch adhesive.
Wassell, R W; McCabe, J F; Walls, A W
A previous report compared spherical steatite (ceramic enamel substitute) abraders with those of natural enamel in a two-body wear test. The wear rates and coefficients of friction of the two abraders against various composites and an amalgam were well correlated although the wear rates were slightly higher with steatite. This report investigates the characteristics of the worn abrader and specimen surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy and laser profilometry were used. Similar wear characteristics were found for the two types of abraders. Adhesive wear was evident for the amalgam, Dispersalloy (Johnson & Johnson), and the heat/pressure-cured microfill composite, Isosit (Ivoclar-Vivadent). Abrasion was seen with the hybrid composite, Occlusin (ICI), and, to a lesser extent, the microfill composite, Heliomolar (Ivoclar-Vivadent). The appearance of the worn small particle hybrid composite, Brilliant Dentin (Coltène), suggested that fatigue and delamination were involved. Laser profilometry showed that the hybrid composites caused much greater wear to the abraders than either the microfill composites or amalgam. The Ra values of the worn abraders and specimens were similar, suggesting conformal contact between them and endorsing the well controlled conditions of the wear test. The results of this and other publications suggest that steatite can be used as an alternative to enamel in performing two-body wear tests on dental composites. This should help significantly in materials evaluation and development.
FARIAS Débora Gonçalves de
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento laboratorial de adesivos dentinários, cimentos ionoméricos modificados por resina e resinas compostas modificadas por poliácidos, no selamento das margens gengivais de cavidades de classe V preparadas na junção amelocementária. Quarenta cavidades foram executadas nas faces vestibular e palatina/lingual de 20 terceiros molares humanos extraídos, e restauradas com os seguintes materiais: grupo 1 (G1- Vitremer (3M; grupo 2 (G2- Vitremer (3M e Syntac Sprint/Tetric Ceram (Vivadent; grupo 3 (G3- Syntac Sprint/Tetric Ceram (Vivadent; grupo 4 (G4- Prime & Bond 2.1/Variglass (Dentsply. Após termociclagem em corante azul de metileno, os espécimes foram seccionados longitudinalmente e analisados em lupa estereoscópica para avaliação do grau de infiltração marginal. Os resultados após teste estatístico de Mann-Whitney revelaram melhor vedamento marginal para o grupo 1, quando comparado com o grupo 4 (p = 0,05, mas não foram demonstradas diferenças significantes entre os demais grupos. Nas condições desse experimento, o material Vitremer ofereceu melhor vedamento marginal que o sistema Prime & Bond 2.1/Variglass.
Nair, Veena S; Sainudeen, Shan; Padmanabhan, Prabeesh; Vijayashankar, L V; Sujathan, Unu; Pillai, Rajesh
This study aims to investigate the effects of finishing and polishing procedures on four novel resin composites using three-dimensional optical profilometer. Four composites classified according to their filler size, were selected: Filtek™ Z350 XT/Nanofill (3M™ ESPE™), Esthet-X HD/Hybrid (Dentsply Caulk), Te Econom/Microfill (Ivoclar Vivadent(®)), Tetric EvoCeram(®) /Nanohybrid (Ivoclar Vivadent(®)). Composite specimens were made in Plexiglass mold and polished with Soflex (3M ESPE), Enhance + Pogo (Dentsply Caulk). Both the systems were used according to the manufacturers' instructions, and the polished surfaces were assessed with an optical profilometer. Kruskal-Wallis test and further pairwise comparison were performed by Mann-Whitney test. The smoothest surfaces for all the resin composites tested were obtained from the Mylar strip; statistically significant differences were observed among them (P = 0.001). The order of composites was ranked from the lowest to highest surface roughness; Filtek Z350 XT Econom < Tetric EvoCeram < Esthet XHD. Pairwise multiple comparison with Mann-Whitney test showed Filtek Z350 to have the smoothest surface and the least with Teric EvoCeram. Among the polishing systems, Soflex showed the smoothest surface and was significantly different from Pogo (P = 0.046). The effectiveness of the polishing systems seems to be dependent on the material used, treatment modality and also on the filler particle size.
Kim, Eun-Ha; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Son, Sung-Ae; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Kil
This study evaluated the effects of the resin thickness on the microhardness and optical properties of bulk-fill resin composites. Four bulk-fill (Venus Bulk Fill, Heraeus Kulzer; SDR, Dentsply Caulk; Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar vivadent; SonicFill, Kerr) and two regular resin composites (Charisma flow, Heraeus Kulzer; Tetric N-Ceram, Ivoclar vivadent) were used. Sixty acrylic cylindrical molds were prepared for each thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm). The molds were divided into six groups for resin composites. The microhardness was measured on the top and bottom surfaces, and the colors were measured using Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L (*) a (*) b (*) system. Color differences according to the thickness and translucency parameters and the correlations between the microhardness and translucency parameter were analyzed. The microhardness and color differences were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test, and a student t-test, respectively. The level of significance was set to α = 0.05. The microhardness decreased with increasing resin thickness. The bulk-fill resin composites showed a bottom/top hardness ratio of almost 80% or more in 4 mm thick specimens. The highest translucency parameter was observed in Venus Bulk Fill. All resin composites used in this study except for Venus Bulk Fill showed linear correlations between the microhardness and translucency parameter according to the thickness. Within the limitations of this study, the bulk-fill resin composites used in this study can be placed and cured properly in the 4 mm bulk.
Baena, E; Fuentes, M V; Garrido, M A; Rodríguez, J; Ceballos, L
To compare the microhardness of several dual-cure, self-adhesive resin cements used to lute fiber posts at 24 hours and seven days after cementation. Bovine incisors were selected to lute 15 fiber posts that were 12 mm long (FRC Postec Plus size 3, Ivoclar-Vivadent). Five resin cements were tested: Multilink Automix (Ivoclar-Vivadent), without light-curing, and the self-adhesive resin cements Maxcem Elite (Kerr), RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE), G-Cem (GC), and Smartcem 2 (Dentsply), which were light-cured for 40 seconds (LED Bluephase, Ivoclar-Vivadent). Each root was embedded in chemically cured acrylic resin and stored at 37°C for 24 hours. The roots were transversally sectioned into nine specimens that were each 1 mm thick, with three specimens corresponding to each root third. Indentations (100g, 30 seconds) were performed on each section in the resin cement, at 24 hours and seven days after cementation, using a Vickers digital microdurometer (Buehler). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, Student-Newman-Keuls test, and paired t-test (pcement evaluated, the root third, and their interactions on microhardness values at 24 hours and seven days after post cementation. RelyX Unicem and G-Cem exhibited the highest microhardness values, whereas Multilink Automix presented the lowest. All resin cements suffered a decrease in microhardness according to root canal depth, with the exception of G-Cem and Multilink Automix at 24 hours and Smartcem 2 after seven days. After seven days, the evaluated resin cements showed a significant increase in microhardness values, with the exception of Maxcem Elite and Smartcem 2 at the coronal third. Microhardness of the self-adhesive resin cements when used to lute fiber posts was material-dependent and higher values were obtained in the coronal third, revealing their sensitivity to light irradiation. More information regarding the polymerization reaction of these cements is warranted. According to the current results
Lührs, Anne-Katrin; De Munck, Jan; Geurtsen, Werner; Van Meerbeek, Bart
To investigate the effect of curing of composite cements and a new ceramic silanization pre-treatment on the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS). Feldspathic ceramic blocks were luted onto dentin using either Optibond XTR/Nexus 3 (XTR/NX3; Kerr), the silane-incorporated 'universal' adhesive Scotchbond Universal/RelyX Ultimate (SBU/RXU; 3M ESPE), or ED Primer II/Panavia F2.0 (ED/PAF; Kuraray Noritake). Besides 'composite cement', experimental variables were 'curing mode' ('AA': complete auto-cure at 21°C; 'AA*': complete auto-cure at 37°C; 'LA': light-curing of adhesive and auto-cure of cement; 'LL': complete light-curing) and 'ceramic surface pre-treatment' ('HF/S/HB': hydrofluoric acid ('HF': IPS Ceramic Etching Gel, Ivoclar-Vivadent), silanization ('S': Monobond Plus, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and application of an adhesive resin ('HB': Heliobond, Ivoclar-Vivadent); 'HF/SBU': 'HF' and application of the 'universal' adhesive Scotchbond Universal ('SBU'; 3M ESPE, only for SBU/RXU)). After water storage (7 days at 37°C), ceramic-dentin sticks were subjected to μTBS testing. Regarding the 'composite cement', the significantly lowest μTBSs were measured for ED/PAF. Regarding 'curing mode', the significantly highest μTBS was recorded when at least the adhesive was light-cured ('LA' and 'LL'). Complete auto-cure ('AA') revealed the significantly lowest μTBS. The higher auto-curing temperature ('AA*') increased the μTBS only for ED/PAF. Regarding 'ceramic surface pre-treatment', only for 'LA' the μTBS was significantly higher for 'HF/S/HB' than for 'HF/SBU'. Complete auto-cure led to inferior μTBS than when either the adhesive (on dentin) or both adhesive and composite cement were light-cured. The use of a silane-incorporated adhesive did not decrease luting effectiveness when also the composite cement was light-cured. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The study aims to characterise the curing behaviour of a light-curing luting composite (Variolink® Aesthetic LC, Ivoclar Vivadent) polymerised at different exposure times (10 s, 20 s) through different ceramics (IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) and ceramic thicknesses (no ceramic, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mm). Curing units' (Bluephase Style, Ivoclar Vivadent) variation in irradiance delivered up to 10-mm exposure distance as well as the incident and transmitted irradiance and radiant exposure up to 6-mm ceramic thickness were assessed on a laboratory-grade spectrometer. A total of 216 (18 groups, n = 12) thin and flat luting composite specimens of 500-μm thickness were prepared and stored after curing in a saturated vapour atmosphere for 24 h at 37 °C. Micro-mechanical properties (Vickers hardness, HV and indentation modulus, YHU) were determined by means of an automatic micro-hardness indenter. Within the study design, the radiant exposure received by the luting composite varied from 2.56 to 24.75 J/cm(2), showing a high impact on the measured properties. Comparing the effect of the parameters exposure time, ceramic thickness and type, the highest influence on the micro-mechanical parameters was identified for exposure time, while this influence was stronger on HV (p ceramic type was significant but low (η P(2) = 0.161 on HV and 0.113 on YHU), while the influence of ceramic thickness was the lowest (η P(2) = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). Slightly higher irradiance values were transmitted through Empress CAD up to a ceramic thickness of 3 mm (p translucency between ceramics were reflected in the micro-mechanical properties of the luting composite. The radiant exposure reaching the luting composite is determined by the incident irradiance, exposure time, ceramic type and ceramic thickness. At the analysed incident irradiance, exposure time was the most consistent parameter affecting the micro-mechanical properties of the luting
Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F; Clark, Arthur E; Shuster, Jonathan J; Anusavice, Kenneth J
The aim of this study was to determine the survival rates over time of implant-supported ceramic-ceramic and metal-ceramic prostheses as a function of core-veneer thickness ratio, gingival connector embrasure design, and connector height. An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study involving 55 patients missing three teeth in either one or two posterior areas. These patients (34 women; 21 men; age range 52-75 years) were recruited for the study to receive a three-unit implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Two implants were placed for each of the 72 FDPs in the study. The implants (Osseospeed, Astra Tech), which were made of titanium, were grit blasted. A gold-shaded, custom-milled titanium abutment (Atlantis, Astra Tech), was secured to each implant body. Each of the 72 FDPs in 55 patients were randomly assigned based on one of the following options: (1) A. ceramic-ceramic (Yttria-stabilized zirconia core, pressable fluorapatite glass-ceramic, IPS e.max ZirCAD, and ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent) B. metal-ceramic (palladium-based noble alloy, Capricorn, Ivoclar Vivadent, with press-on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic veneer, IPS InLine POM, Ivoclar Vivadent); (2) occlusal veneer thickness (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm); (3) curvature of gingival embrasure (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mm diameter); and (4) connector height (3, 4, and 5 mm). FDPs were fabricated and cemented with dual-cure resin cement (RelyX, Universal Cement, 3M ESPE). Patients were recalled at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. FDPs were examined for cracks, fracture, and general surface quality. Recall exams of 72 prostheses revealed 10 chipping fractures. No fractures occurred within the connector or embrasure areas. Two-sided Fisher's exact tests showed no significant correlation between fractures and type of material system (p = 0.51), veneer thickness (p = 0.75), radius of curvature of gingival embrasure (p = 0.68), and connector height (p = 0
Souza, Evelise M; De Munck, Jan; Pongprueksa, Pong; Van Ende, Annelies; Van Meerbeek, Bart
To determine the interfacial fracture toughness (iFT) and micro-tensile strength (μTBS) of composite cements bonded to dentin. Fifty feldspar ceramic blocks (Vita Mark II, Vita Zahnfabrik) were luted onto dentin using two self-adhesive (G-CEM LinkAce, GC; SpeedCEM, Ivoclar Vivadent), two self-etch (Multilink Primer & Multilink Automix, Ivoclar Vivadent; Scotchbond Universal & RelyX Ultimate, 3 M ESPE), and one etch-and-rinse (Excite F DSC & Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent) composite cement (n=10). After 48h in 100% relative humidity at 37°C, one half of each tooth was sectioned in sticks with a chevron notch at the cement-dentin interface and tested in a 4-point bending test setup (iFT). The remaining half of the tooth was sectioned in micro-specimens and stressed in tension until failure (μTBS). The mode of failure was determined with a stereomicroscope at 50× magnification. Data were submitted to Weibull analysis and Pearson's correlation (α=0.05). At 10% probability of failure, no significant differences could be found using iFT, while the etch-and-rinse composite cement Variolink II presented a significantly higher μTBS at this level. At 63.2% probability of failure, the self-adhesive composite cement G-CEM LinkAce revealed a significantly lower μTBS and iFT, and the self-etch cement Multilink Automix also revealed a significantly lower μTBS than all other cements. The correlation found between iFT and μTBS was moderate and not significant (r(2)=0.618, p=0.11). Overall, the etch-and-rinse and 'universal' self-etch composite cements performed best. The micro-tensile bond strength and interfacial fracture toughness tests did not correlate well. Copyright Â© 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stevens, Clinton D
The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the immediate shear bond strength of different categories of resin cements on sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)-treated dentin and to evaluate if the bond was improved by a subsequent treatment with 10% sodium ascorbate before adhesive procedures. This study tested immediate shear bond strengths to human dentin of 5 resin cements: Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Multilink (Ivoclar Vivadent), Clearfil Esthetic Cement EX (Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan), SpeedCEM (Ivoclar Vivadent), and Clearfil SA Cement (Kuraray). All cements were tested with no NaOCl pretreatment of the dentin (negative control) and with a 20-minute exposure of the dentin to 6% NaOCl before bonding procedures. The cements found to have decreased bond strengths to NaOCl-treated dentin were tested with the dentin exposed to 10% sodium ascorbate after NaOCl exposure. The sodium ascorbate exposure times tested were 5 seconds and 1 minute. The mean and standard deviation values for immediate shear bond strength (MPa) for the negative control group were as follows: Variolink II, 18.8 ± 4.2; Multilink, 29.1 ± 7.1; Clearfil Esthetic Cement EX, 20.7 ± 4.9; SpeedCEM, 17.8 ± 4.2; and Clearfil SA Cement, 7.2 ± 2.8. The results for the NaOCl exposure group were as follows: Variolink II, 24.0 ± 6.7; Multilink, 34.1 ± 6.1; Clearfil Esthetic Cement EX, 20.7 ± 6.8; SpeedCEM, 0.0 ± 0.0; and Clearfil SA Cement, 0.1 ± 0.1. The results for the 5-second sodium ascorbate group were the following: SpeedCEM, 8.5 ± 2.6, and Clearfil SA Cement, 4.3 ± 2.0. The following results were found for the 1-minute sodium ascorbate group: SpeedCEM, 12.2 ± 3.2, and Clearfil SA Cement, 4.8 ± 1.0. The resin cements tested varied in their capacity to adhere to NaOCl-treated dentin. Some resin cements exhibited equal or improved bond strengths (P cements, a rinse of 10% sodium ascorbate provided an immediate restoration of at least 50% of the original bond strength
Madani, Dalia A.
Objectives. To compare fracture strength and fatigue resistance of ceramic (ProCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) (C) and resin composite (Paradigm MZ100, 3M/ ESPE) (R) crowns made with CEREC-3D. Methods. A prepared ivorine molar tooth was duplicated to produce 40 identical prepared specimens made of epoxy resin (Viade). Twenty (C) crowns and 20 (R) were cemented to their dies using resin cement. Ten of each group were subjected to compressive loading to fracture. The remaining 10 of each group were subjected to mechanical cyclic loading for 500,000 cycles. The survivors were subjected to compressive loading to fracture. Results. No significant difference in mean fracture load was found between the two materials. However, only 30% of the (C) crowns vs. 100% of the (R) crowns survived the cyclic loading test. Conclusions. (R) crowns demonstrated higher fatigue Resistance than (C) crowns in-vitro and might better resist cracking in-vivo.
VIEIRA Alexandre Rezende
Full Text Available We evaluated the surface of composite resins and glass-ionomer cements in a situation of high cariogenic challenge. Based on seventy-five standard test specimens of one glass-ionomer cement (Chelon Fil - ESPE, one resin-modified glass-ionomer (Vitremer - 3M, two polyacid-modified composite (VariGlass and Dyract - Dentsply and one composite resin (Heliomolar - Vivadent, submitted to fourteen days of demineralization and remineralization cycling to simulate a high cariogenic challenge, the erosive aspects of the surface of the materials were assessed. All of the samples were evaluated by scanning electronic microscope and compared with another five test specimens of each material, prepared in the same way and serving as control. All of the materials studied suffered erosive action by the media, with different characteristics due to the different compositions, after being submitted to in vitro simulation of a high cariogenic challenge.
Yılmaz, Kerem; Ozturk, Caner
PURPOSE The color of the ceramic restorations is affected by various factors such as brand, thickness of the layered the ceramic, condensation techniques, smoothness of surface, number of firings, firing temperature and thickness of dentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color change and surface roughness in dental porcelain with different thicknesses during repeated firings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disc-shaped (N=21) metal-ceramic samples (IPS Classic; Ivoclar Vivadent; Shaar, Liechtenstein) with different thickness were exposed to repeated firings. Color measurement of the samples was made using a colorimeter and profilometer was used to determine surface roughness. ANOVA and Tukey tests with repeated measurements were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS The total thickness of the ceramics which is less than 2 mm significantly have detrimental effect on the surface properties and color of porcelains during firings (Pdental ceramics and should be avoided. PMID:25177475
Rojas-Morales, Thais; Lugo, Zulecnys; Santana, Yrma; Navas, Rita; Zambrano, Olga; Viera, Ninoska; García, Isaura
To determine the variations in the levels of capacity buffer of the saliva in children and adolescents with cancer that receiving Metotrexate or cyclophosphamide. A clinical, random-controlled assay was carried out. The sample was composed by 24 children, ages between 2 and 16 years, with diagnostic of Leukemia and Lymphomas attending to The Autonomous Service of University Hospital of Maracaibo and Hospital of Pediatric Specialties. Two groups were conformed to which a sample of saliva was taken before and after the chemotherapy; twelve patients were randomly placed in the G1: patient receiving Metotrexate and twelve in the G2: patient receiving cyclophosphamide. In order to determine the capacity buffer, the CRT Buffer IVOCLAR VIVADENT was used. The capacity salivary buffer did not show significant differences before and after the administration of the cytostatic agents studied. In this study, the Metotrexate or cyclophosphamide administration does not modify the salivary buffer capacity in pediatric patient with cancer.
Sonmez, Nesrin; Gultekin, Pinar; Turp, Volkan; Akgungor, Gokhan; Sen, Deniz; Mijiritsky, Eitan
Polymer infiltrated ceramics and nano-ceramic resins are the new restorative materials which have been developed in order to enhance the adverse properties of glass-matrix ceramics and resin composites. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the characteristics of various CAD/CAM materials through mechanical, microstructural, and SEM analysis. Five test groups (n = 22) were formed by using the indicated CAD/CAM blocks: VITA Enamic (VITA Zahnfabrik), Lava Ultimate (3 M ESPE), IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent), IPS Empress CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent), and VITA Mark II (VITA Zahnfabrik). Two specimens from each test group were used for XRD and EDS analysis. Remaining samples were divided into two subgroups (n = 10). One subgroup specimens were thermocycled (5 °C to 55 °C, 30s, 10,000 cycles) whereas the other were not. All of the specimens were evaluated in terms of flexural strength, Vickers hardness, and fracture toughness. Results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD, and Student's t tests (α = .05). Fractured specimens were evaluated using SEM. The highest Vickers microhardness value was found for VITA Mark II (p CAD was found to have the highest flexural strength (p CAD was also higher than other tested block materials (p CAD groups. It should be realised that simulated aging process seem to affect ceramic-polymer composite materials more significantly than glass ceramics.
Mendonça, Luana Menezes de; Pegoraro, Luiz Fernando; Lanza, Marcos Daniel Septímio; Pegoraro, Thiago Amadei; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins de
Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin), after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line in the cervical, medium and occlusal thirds on the buccal and lingual aspects, and on the occlusal surface. Thirty molars were distributed in three groups (N=10) according to the type of coronal substrate: Group D- the prepared surfaces were kept in dentin; Groups M (metal) and R (resin)- the crowns were sectioned at the level of the cementoenamel junction and restored with metallic cast posts or resin build-up cores, respectively. The crowns were fabricated in ceramic IPS e.max® Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and luted with Variolink II. After 7 days of water storage, 5 specimens of each group were sectioned in buccolingual direction for microhardness measurements. The other specimens (N=5) were kept stored in deionized water at 37ºC for three months, followed by sectioning and microhardness measurements. Data were first analyzed by three-way ANOVA that did not reveal significant differences between thirds and occlusal surface (p=0.231). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of substrates (pcrowns were cemented on resin cores and tested after 7 days of water storage (p=0.007). The type of material employed for coronal reconstruction of preparations for prosthetic purposes may influence the cement properties.
Tsitrou, Effrosyni A; Helvatjoglu-Antoniades, Maria; van Noort, Richard
This study was a preliminary evaluation of two minimal preparation designs proposed for ceramic and composite resin bonded CAD/CAM crowns. It compared the structural integrity and fracture mode of teeth restored with traditionally and minimally prepared resin bonded CAD/CAM crowns fabricated from the same material hypothesizing that teeth restored with minimal resin bonded crowns would demonstrate the same fracture strength to teeth restored with traditional resin bonded crowns. Forty intact maxillary molar teeth were used and divided in four groups. Two groups were prepared according to a traditional crown preparation design and two groups were prepared according to minimal preparation designs. A resin composite (Paradigm MZ100, 3M ESPE) and a leucite glass-ceramic (ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were used for the fabrication of the crowns using CEREC Scan. Crowns of ceramic were cemented using Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent) and crowns of composite with Rely X Unicem Aplicap (3M ESPE) and loaded until fracture. Load data was analysed using ANOVA comparing crowns of the same restorative material. The mode of fracture was also recorded and analysed (Kruskal-Wallis). For the composite system the mean fracture load and SD was 1682N (+/-315) for the traditional and 1751N (+/-338) for the minimal crowns. For the ceramic system the mean fracture load and SD was 1512N (+/-373) for the traditional and 1837 (+/-356) for the minimal crowns. No statistically significant difference was found between the two designs for each system. Nonparametric analysis (Kruskal-Wallis) of the fracture mode showed no statistical significant difference between designs for either material (p>.05). Within the limitations of this experimental design, it was found that minimally prepared resin bonded CEREC crowns demonstrated equal fracture resistance and mode of fracture to that of crowns bonded to traditionally prepared teeth.
Luana Menezes de MENDONÇA
Full Text Available Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. Objectives: To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein, used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin, after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line in the cervical, medium and occlusal thirds on the buccal and lingual aspects, and on the occlusal surface. Material and Methods: Thirty molars were distributed in three groups (N=10 according to the type of coronal substrate: Group D- the prepared surfaces were kept in dentin; Groups M (metal and R (resin- the crowns were sectioned at the level of the cementoenamel junction and restored with metallic cast posts or resin build-up cores, respectively. The crowns were fabricated in ceramic IPS e.max® Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein and luted with Variolink II. After 7 days of water storage, 5 specimens of each group were sectioned in buccolingual direction for microhardness measurements. The other specimens (N=5 were kept stored in deionized water at 37ºC for three months, followed by sectioning and microhardness measurements. Results: Data were first analyzed by three-way ANOVA that did not reveal significant differences between thirds and occlusal surface (p=0.231. Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of substrates (p<0.001 and the Tukey test revealed that microhardness was significantly lower when crowns were cemented on resin cores and tested after 7 days of water storage (p=0.007. Conclusion: The type of material employed for coronal reconstruction of preparations for prosthetic purposes may influence the
Albano Luis Novaes Bueno
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of light exposure through simulated indirect ceramic restorations (SICR on hardness (KHN of dual-cured resin cements (RCs, immediately after light-activation and 24 h later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three dual-cured RCs were evaluated: Eco-Link (Ivoclar Vivadent, Rely X ARC (3M ESPE, and Panavia F (Kuraray Medical Inc.. The RCs were manipulated in accordance to the manufacturers' instructions and were placed into cylindrical acrylic matrixes (1-mm-thick and 4-mm diameter. The RC light-activation (Optilux 501; Demetron Kerr was performed through a glass slide for 120 s (control group, or through 2-mm or 4-mm thick SICRs (IPS Empress II; Ivoclar Vivadent. The specimens were submitted to KHN analysis immediately and 24 h after light-activation. The data obtained at the 2 evaluation intervals were submitted to 2-way ANOVA repeated measures and post-hoc Tukey's test (pre-set alpha of 5%. RESULTS: Lower KHN was observed when light-activation was performed through SICRs for Eco-Link at all evaluation intervals and for Rely X ARC 24 h later. For Panavia F, no significant difference in KHN was observed between control and experimental groups, regardless of evaluation interval. Most groups exhibited higher KHN after 24 h than immediately after light-activation, with the exception of Rely X ARC light-activated through SICR, as no significant difference in KHN was found between evaluation intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Light overexposure did not compensate for light intensity attenuation due to the presence of SICR when Rely X and Eco-Link were used. Although hardness of such RCs increased over a 24-h interval, the RCs subjected to light overexposure did not reach the hardness values exhibited after direct light exposure.
McCafferty, Jennifer; O'Connell, Anne C
To assess whether an adhesive bonding agent increases the retention of resin fissure sealants on first permanent molars (FPMs) and to determine any difference in sealant retention on occlusal, buccal, or palatal surfaces. The effect of the child's behaviour on the retention of the sealants was also assessed. One hundred and twelve children were recruited (age range 5-15 years). One operator placed sealants (Helioseal, Ivoclar Vivadent) on 390 FPMs using a split-mouth design. The study group, (n = 195), had an ethanol-based adhesive bond (ExciTEF, Ivoclar Vivadent) placed prior to sealant application, and no bond was used in the control group (n = 195). The sealants were reviewed after 12 months and analysed using Fisher's exact test. The addition of a bonding agent significantly increased sealant retention (P = 0.0005). Retention of bonded sealants on occlusal surfaces was higher (98%) than non-bonded sealants (93%) (P = 0.08). Bonded sealants placed on buccal/palatal surfaces were retained (92%) more successfully than non-bonded sealants (82%) (P = 0.0005). The behaviour of the patient significantly affected the retention of fissure sealants (P = 0.0001). The addition of an ethanol-based bonding agent significantly increased the retention of sealants at 12 months particularly on palatal fissures of maxillary first permanent molar teeth. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Surface roughness average and scanning electron microscopic observations of resin luting agents Alteração de rugosidade superficial e observações em microscopia eletrônica de varredura de cimentos resinosos
Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the surface roughness changes of three current resin cements after tooth brushing simulation, as well as discuss its relation with scanning electron microscopic observations. The materials employed were Enforce Sure Cure (Dentsply, Rely X (3M-ESPE and Variolink II (Vivadent. They were subjected to brushing abrasion (100,000 strokes for each specimen and the surface roughness alterations (before and after strokes were detected. For each roughness test condition, specimens were coated with gold-palladium and observed on a DSM 900 Zeiss scanning electron microscope. Roughness changes values (Ra were statistically increased after brushing strokes. Based on the microscopic observations and roughness changes analysis, all cements studied became rougher after brushing strokes.O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a alteração de rugosidade superficial de três cimentos resinosos após submetê-los a ciclos de escovação simulada e analisar qualitativamente a sua superfície através de observações microscópicas. Os materiais empregados neste estudo foram Enforce Sure Cure (Dentsply, Rely X (3M-ESPE e Variolink II (Vivadent. Estes foram submetidos à ciclos de escovação simulada (100.000 ciclos para cada espécime e a alteração de sua rugosidade superficial (antes e após escovação foi avaliada. Para cada material e condição de rugosidade, espécimes foram selecionados, metalizados e observados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (DSM 900 Zeiss. Baseado nas observações microscópicas e nos valores de alteração de rugosidade, todos os materiais apresentaram aumento de rugosidade aritmética (Ra após ciclos de escovação simulada.
Öztürk, Elif; Chiang, Yu-Chih; Coşgun, Erdal; Bolay, Şükran; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different resin cement shades on the opacity and color difference of ceramics and to determine the polymerization efficiency of the resin cement at different shades after curing through ceramics. Two different ceramics (IPS e.max Press and IPS Empress(®)CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were used for this study. A light-cured veneer luting resin (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent) in four different shades of HV+1, HV+3, LV-1, and LV-3 was used for the colorimetric measurements. The color and spectral reflectance of the ceramics were measured according to the CIELab color scale relative to the standard illuminant D65 on a reflection spectrophotometer (ColorEye7000A, USA). Color differences (ΔE values) and the contrast ratios (CR) of the different groups of samples were calculated. In order to analyse the polymerization efficiency of the resin cements, the micromechanical properties of the resins were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests (SPSS 18.0). The one-way ANOVA test showed that the values of ΔE and CR of the different specimen groups were significantly different (presin cement) exhibited the highest and group 10 (14.8 ± 0.5) (e.max:HV+3) exhibited the lowest ΔE value. Significant differences in the micromechanical properties were identified among the tested resin cements in different shades (pResin cement shade is an important factor for the opacity of a restoration. Furthermore, the resin shade affects the micromechanical properties of the underlying resin cement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora
Obtaining a perfect aesthetic, especially with the translucent porcelain laminate veneers; shade of the porcelain, type of the resin cement and their long term colour stability are important factors to achieve aesthetic success. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of different resin cement systems and UV ageing on the colour of full ceramic laminates with different shades. 392 discs were made with A1, A3, HO and HT shades of IPS e.max Press with 0.5mm thickness. Different shades of light cured Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent (+3, MO, -3); Rely X Veneer, 3M ESPE (A1, A3, White Opaque, Translucent); and dual cured Maxcem Elite, Kerr (White, Yellow, White Opaque, Clear); and Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent (White Opaque, Translucent) resin cements were applied on the porcelain discs with a thickness of 0.1mm. Colour differences of the porcelain substructures after cementation and 300 h (150 kJ/m(2)) of UV ageing test, were examined with a colorimeter (Shade Eye Ex, Shofu, Japan). The results were analysed statistically with Wilcoxon signed-rank and Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean values of L*, a*, and b* were also compared using Paired Sample t-test. Spearman's Rank Correlation test was used to analyse the correlation between ceramics with resin-cemented ceramics after ageing. The data analyses were evaluated at a significance level of p resin cements, which were polymerized beneath the porcelain substructure with 0.5mm thickness. Although statistically significant differences were observed for all specimens, the magnitudes of the mean colour differences were at an acceptable perception level and were considered clinically acceptable (ΔEResin cements and ageing process influence the colour of porcelain laminate veneers. Cementation of laminates with either dual or light-cure resin cements does not effect the long term colour stability differently. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Passia, Nicole; Lehmann, Frank; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Kern, Matthias
Today, many adhesive systems with different coupling agents for tooth structures and restorative materials are available. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength (TBS) of different universal adhesive systems to etched lithium disilicate ceramic. The authors etched and bonded 96 disk-like lithium disilicate ceramic specimens (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) with 4 different adhesive bonding systems to Plexiglas tubes filled with a composite resin. The authors stored the specimens in water at 37°C for 3 days without thermal cycling or for 30 or 150 days with 7,500 or 37,500 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C, respectively. Then, all specimens underwent TBS testing. The authors performed statistical analysis by using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests with a Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing. Initially, all adhesive systems exhibited considerable TBS, but some showed a significant reduction after 30 days of storage. After 3, 30, and 150 days, the Monobond Plus and Multilink Automix (Ivoclar Vivadent) silane-containing adhesive system showed significantly higher bond strengths to lithium disilicate ceramic than did the other universal adhesive systems, some of which do not contain silanes. The bond strength to lithium disilicate ceramic is affected significantly by the adhesive bonding system used. Universal adhesive systems that do not contain a silane should be avoided for bonding lithium disilicate ceramic restorations because of their inferior bond strength. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pucci, César Rogério; Barcellos, Daphne Câmara; Palazon, Milena Traversa; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; da Silva, Melissa Aline; de Paiva Gonçalves, Sergio Eduardo
To evaluate the cohesive strength between composite and different light-curing characterizing materials (LCCM), which were prepared using the intrinsic technique. One hundred composite specimens were made by using a prefabricated Teflon device, and a layer of LCCM was applied at the interface. The specimens were divided into 5 groups (n = 20): group 1 (control), no LCCM was used; group 2: application of White Kolor Plus Pigment (Kerr) LCCM; group 3: White Tetric Color Pigment (Ivoclar/Vivadent) LCCM; group 4: Brown Kolor Plus Pigment (Kerr) LCCM; group 5: Black Tetric Color Pigment (Ivoclar/Vivadent) LCCM. All materials were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. Specimens were submitted to a tensile test in a universal testing machine (EMIC DL-200MF) to evaluate the cohesive strength at the composite interface. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). ANOVA showed a p-value = 0.0001, indicating that there were significant differences among the groups. The mean values in MPa (± standard deviation) obtained for the groups were: G1: 28.5 (± 2.74)a; G2: 23.5 (± 2.47)b; G3: 20.3 (± 2.49)b; G4: 10.5 (± 2.40)c; G5: 9.66 (± 3.06)c. The groups with the same letters presented no significant differences. The control group presented statistically significantly higher cohesive strengths when compared to the other groups. The groups in which Brown Kolor Plus Pigment and Black Tetric Color Pigment LCCM were used showed significantly lower cohesive strengths when compared to the groups in which White Kolor Plus Pigment and White Tetric Color Pigment LCMM were used. The use of LCCM produced with the intrinsic technique reduced the cohesive strength of composite.
Arash Poorsattar Bejeh Mir
Full Text Available Background and Aims: A large number of investigations have revealed that physical and chemical alterations and weight loss could occur in composite materials exposed to acidic phosphate fluoride (APF gel. The purpose of this study was to assess the microleakage of a fissure sealant and a flow composite exposed to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 60 intact human extracted premolar teeth were used. After preparing the occlusal groove, the teeth were divided into two groups (n=30. Teeth were filled with either Helioseal fissure sealant (Vivadent, Germany or Tetric flow composite (Vivadent, Germany. After that, each group was divided into two subgroups (n=15: 1.23% APF gel (Sultan, U.S.A was applied in the case subgroups, while control subgroups were preserved in normal saline solution. All of teeth were covered with 2 layers of nail varnish except for the filling zone and 1mm around the border of filling. After submerging in 0.5% fushin solution, specimens were sectioned bucco-lingually. Then dye penetration through the filling and fissure sealant was assessed by means of a stereo-microscope. The depth of dye penetration was scored. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Levene test. Results: The mean values of dye penetration were 1.26±1.09, 1.4±1.05, 1.2±1.37, and 1.4±1.35 for fissure sealant+gel, composite+gel, composite+normal saline, and normal saline groups, respectively. No significant difference was found in inter-groups (P=0.96. Conclusion: Considering the result of the present research, APF gel had no significant effect on the microleakage of Tetric flow composite filling and Helioseal fissure sealant and thus, it can be applied for routine usage.
Taschner, Michael; Krämer, Norbert; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Pelka, Matthias; Breschi, Lorenzo; Petschelt, Anselm; Frankenberger, Roland
Aim of the present prospective controlled clinical study was to compare the clinical performances of two different cementation procedures to lute IPS Empress inlays and onlays. Eighty-three IPS Empress restorations (70 class-II inlays, 13 onlays/47 premolars, 36 molars) were placed in 30 patients (19 females/11 males, mean age=39 years). Two cementation procedures were tested: group 1: forty-three restorations were luted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, RX, 3M ESPE); group 2: forty restorations were luted with an etch-and-rinse multistep adhesive (Syntac Classic, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and Variolink II low (SV, Ivoclar-Vivadent). All restorations were evaluated after 2 weeks (baseline=1st recall=R1, n=83), 6 months (R2, n=83), 1 year (R3, n=82), and 2 years (R4, n=82) by two independent blinded calibrated examiners using modified USPHS criteria. From R1 to R4, one failure occurred in the SV group (at R2) due to marginal enamel chipping. After 2 years of clinical service (R4), better marginal and tooth integrity (padhesive cement (RX, group 1), while no differences were found for all remaining investigated criteria (p>0.05). The absence of enamel in proximal boxes (10% with no enamel and 51% of the restorations with less than 0.5mm enamel width at the bottom of the proximal box) did not affect marginal performance (p>0.05). The self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem showed clinical outcomes similar to a conventional multi-step cementation procedure after 2 years of clinical service for most of the tested criteria. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vichi, Alessandro; Carrabba, Michele; Goracci, Cecilia; Ferrari, Marco
To assess whether the polymerization extent of cement is influenced by curing mode of the adhesive and/or by photoactivation of the cement. One hundred five root segments were prepared from endodontically treated teeth. After post space preparation, the root segments were randomly divided into 7 groups, based on the cementation procedure to lute RelyX Fiber Posts (3M ESPE): 1. Variolink II (V, Ivoclar Vivadent); 2. V light-cured (LC); 3. Excite LC (ELC, Ivoclar Vivadent)/V; 4. ELC/V LC; 5. ELC-V LC (One Shot); 6. Excite DSC (EDSC)/V; 7. EDSC-V LC (One Shot). Each root segment was submitted to the acetone shake test to remove the unpolymerized resin and then cut longitudinally. On each half, the extent of cure of the cement was measured with image analysis software. The deepest and basically complete polymerization was obtained with EDSC (groups 6 and 7), regardless of whether light curing was performed. The extent of polymerization was most limited when adhesive was not applied (groups 1 and 2), or when ELC was only light cured, while V was allowed to auto-cure (group 3). With the one-shot polymerization of ELC and V (group 5), the extent of polymerization was similar to the procedure involving separate irradiation of adhesive and cement (group 4). The one-shot technique was significantly more effective if EDSC was used (group 6). The use of a self-activating dual-curing adhesive system in combination with a dual-curing cement enables effective luting of FRC posts regardless of the amount of light transmitted through the post.
Sarr, Mouhamed; Mine, Atsushi; De Munck, Jan; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Kane, Abdoul Wakhabe; Vreven, José; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L
The objective of this study was to compare the one-week bonding effectiveness of nine contemporary composite cements used to lute ceramic to dentin and to determine an appropriate processing method for pretesting failures. The microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) of different luting agents including five self-adhesive cements (Unicem, 3 M ESPE; Maxcem, Kerr; Monocem, Shofu; G-Cem, GC; and Multilink Sprint, Ivoclar-Vivadent), two self-etch cements (Panavia F2.0 and Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray), and two etch-and-rinse cements (Calibra, Dentsply, and Variolink II, Ivoclar-Vivadent) were measured using a standardized protocol. As control, a two-step self-etch adhesive combined with a restorative composite (Clearfil SE+Clearfil APX, Kuraray) were included as luting material. Depending on the processing of the pretesting failures, two groups of cements could be distinguished: (1) those with low bond strength and many pretesting failures and (2) those with relatively high bond strength and few pretesting failures. Nevertheless, the control luting procedure involving a self-etch adhesive combined with a restorative composite presented with a significantly higher µTBS. The µTBS was clearly product-dependent rather than being dependent on the actual adhesive approach. Fracture analysis indicated that failure usually occurred at the dentin-cement interface especially for the cements with low bond strength and many pretesting failures. Depending on the cement system, an adequate immediate ceramic-to-dentin bond strength can be obtained, even with self-adhesive cements that do not use a separate dental adhesive. Yet, the self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE combined with the restorative composite revealed a superior bonding performance and should therefore be preferred in clinical situations where the restoration transmits light sufficiently.
Krifka, Stephanie; Federlin, Marianne; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried
The marginal integrity of class V restorations in a silorane- and a group of methacrylate-based composite resins with varying viscosities was tested in the present study. Different adhesives (OptiBond FL, KerrHawe; AdheSE One, Vivadent; or Silorane System Adhesive, 3M ESPE) were applied to 168 standardized class V cavities. The cavities (n = 12) were filled with a wide range of different viscous composite resins: Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE; els and els flow, Saremco; Tetric EvoCeram and Tetric EvoFlow, Vivadent; Grandio, Voco; and Ultraseal XT Plus, Ultradent. Microleakage of the restoration was assessed by dye penetration (silver staining) on multiple sections with and without thermocycling and mechanical loading (TCML: 5,000 × 5-55°C; 30 s/cycle; 500,000 × 72.5 N, 1.6 Hz). Data were statistically analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Error Rates Method (ERM). The silorane-based composite resin yielded the lowest dye penetration after TCML. Microleakage of methacrylate-based composite restorations, in general (ERM), was statistically significantly influenced by the adhesive system, Moreover, dye penetration at enamel margins was significantly lower than dye penetration at dentin margins. The chemical basis of composite resins and adjacent tooth substance seems to strongly influence marginal sealing of class V restorations for methacrylate-based materials. Moreover, the steps of dental adhesives used affected marginal integrity. The silorane-based composite resin evaluated in the present study exhibits the best marginal seal. The three-step adhesive yielded better marginal sealing than the one-step adhesive for methacrylate-based class V composite restorations.
Gudkina, Jekaterina; Brinkmane, Anda
The aim was to assess possible relationship between oral hygiene, salivary cariogenic microflora, buffer capacity, secretion rate and caries experience in 6 year olds and 12 year olds in Riga, and to evaluate these variables in relation to caries risk. 50 children aged 6 and 71 children aged 12 were examined clinically and by bitewing X-ray for caries diagnosis. Green-Vermillion oral hygiene index, stimulated salivary flow rate and buffer capacity were estimated (CRT-buffer; Ivoclar, Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) (CRT-bacteria; Vivadent) were determined only for children with dmft/DMFT>4: 60% at age of 6, 54,9% at age of 12. All data were statistically analyzed using frequency tables, Pearson chi2test and ANOVA analysis. Mean DMFT was 0.12 in 6 year olds, and 4.6 in 12 year olds. Mean Green-Vermillion index was 0.75 in 6 year olds and 0.99 in 12 year olds. Caries experience and Green-Vermillion index were associated only in 6 year olds (p=0.024). Salivary MS was associated with Green-Vermillion index only in 12 year olds (p=0.086). Salivary MS and caries experience were associated only in 12 year olds (p=0.010). Salivary LB was associated with stimulated saliva's secretion rate only in 12 year olds (p=0.027). Salivary cariogenic microflora level and buffer capacity were associated in 6 year olds (p for MS=0.010; p for LB=0.052). Same association was observed only between salivary MS and buffer capacity in 12 year olds (p=0.081). Stimulated saliva's secretion rate and buffer capacity were associated only in 12 year olds (p=0.004). Information of caries risk factors should be used to work effectively on caries reduction in 6 year olds and 12 year olds in Riga.
Rocca, Jean-Paul; Fornaini, Carlo; Brulat-Bouchard, Nathalie; Bassel Seif, Samy; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne
Lithium disilicate and Zirconia ceramics offer a high level of accuracy when used in prosthetic dentistry. Their bonding using different resins is highly dependent on micro-mechanical interlocking and adhesive chemical bonding. Investigation of the performances of high strength ceramics when their surface is modified for chemical and mechanical bonding is then required. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using laser for surface treatment of different high strength CAD/CAM ceramics and thus to improve their mechanical and chemical properties. Thirty two CAD/CAM ceramic discs were divided into two different groups: lithium disilicate ceramics (IPS e.max CAD®, Ivoclar, Vivadent, Italy) and Zirconia ceramics (IPS e.max ZirCAD®, Ivoclar, Vivadent, Italy). The Laser surface treatment was performed by Carbon Dioxide laser (Dream Pulse Laser®, Daeshin Enterprise Corp., Korea) at 20 W, 25 W and 30 W CW and by Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite laser (Nd:YAP Lokki®, Lobel Medical, France) at 10 W and 30 Hz. Physical modifications of the irradiated ceramic discs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemically analyzed by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Surface wettability was tested using the water drop test and the crystalline structure was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The macroscopic observation showed a shinier structure in all the groups, while at the SEM observation only CO2 25 W and 30 W treated groups showed cracks and fissures. In the conditions of this study, CO2 laser and Nd:YAP laser with the parameters used create chemical and physical surface modifications of the ceramics, indicating the possibility of an improvement in adhesion of the tested ceramics.
Fabian Fonzar, Riccardo; Carrabba, Michele; Sedda, Maurizio; Ferrari, Marco; Goracci, Cecilia; Vichi, Alessandro
To compare flexural strength of CAD-CAM and heat-pressed lithium disilicate. For Pressed specimens (Group A), acrylate polymer blocks were cut with a saw in bars shape. Sprueing, investing and preheating procedures were carried out following manufacturer's instructions. IPS e.max Press ingots (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were divided into subgroups (n=15) according to translucency: A.1=HT-A3; A.2=MT-A3; A.3=LT-A3; A.4=MO2. Ingots were then pressed following manufacturer's instructions. For CAD-CAM specimens (Group B) blocks of IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were divided into subgroups: B.1=HT-A3; B.2=MT-A3; B.3=LT-A3; B.4=MO2. Specimens (n=15) were obtained by cutting the blocks with a saw. Final crystallization was performed following manufacturer's instructions. Both Press and CAD specimens were polished and finished with silica carbide papers of increasing grit. Final dimensions of the specimens were 4.0±0.2mm, 1.2±0.2mm, and 16.0±0.2mm. Specimens were tested using a three-point bending test. Flexural strength, Weibull modulus, and Weibull characteristic strength were calculated. Flexural strength data were statistically analyzed. The overall means of Press and CAD specimens did not differ significantly. Within the Press group different translucencies were found to have similar flexural strength. Within the CAD group, statistically significant differences emerged among the tested translucencies (pCAD formulations can be based on different criteria than flexural resistance. Within each formulation, for IPS e.max Press translucency does not affect the flexural strength while for IPS e.max CAD it is an influential factor. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kumbuloglu, Ovul; Özcan, Mutlu
This prospective clinical study evaluated the performance of indirect, anterior, surface-retained, fibre-reinforced-composite restorations (ISFRCR). Between June-2003 and January-2011, a total of 134 patients (83 females, 51 males, 16-68 years old) received 175 ISFRCRs (local ethical registration number: 14/9/4). All restorations were made indirectly on a plaster model using unidirectional E-glass fibres (everStick C&B, StickTech) in combination with a laboratory resin composite (Dialogue, Schütz Dental) and cemented according to the instructions of 4 resin cements [(RelyX ARC, 3M-ESPE, n=61), Bifix DC, VOCO, n=45), Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent, n=32) and Multilink (Ivoclar Vivadent, n=37)]. After baseline recordings, patients were followed at 6 months and thereafter annually up to 7.5 years. The evaluation protocol involved technical (chipping, debonding or fracture of tooth/restoration) and biological failures (caries). Mean observation period was 58 months. Altogether, 13 failures were observed [survival rate: 97.7%] (Kaplan-Meier). One catastrophic fracture [(cement: RelyX ARC), eight partial debonding (cement: Bifix DC (5), Multilink (1), RelyX ARC (1), Variolink II (1)] and four delaminations of veneering composite [(cement: Bifix DC (2), RelyX ARC (1), Multilink (1)] were observed. Except one replacement, all defective restorations were repaired or recemented. Annual failure rate of ISFRCRs was 1.73%. The survival rates with the four resin cements did not show significant differences (RelyX ARC: 98.3%; Bifix DC: 93.5%; Variolink 2: 100%; Multilink: 100%) (p=0.114). Secondary caries did not occur in any of the teeth. The 3-unit anterior indirect surface-retained resin-bonded FRC FDPs showed similar clinical survival rate when cemented with the resin cements tested. Experienced failures in general were due to debonding of the restoration or delamination of the veneering composite. 3-unit surface retained resin-bonded FRC FDPs could be considered minimal
Giráldez, Isabel; Ceballos, Laura; Garrido, Miguel A; Rodríguez, Jesús
To determine the influence of curing mode on the surface hardness of seven resin cements used to lute indirect composite restorations. Seven commercial dual-curing resin cements were tested: two were total-etch (RelyX ARC [3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA] and Variolink II [Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein]); one was self-etch (Multilink Automix [Ivoclar Vivadent]), and four were self-adhesive (RelyX Unicem [3M ESPE], Maxcem Elite [Kerr Corp., Orange, CA, USA], SmartCem2 [Dentsply, Detrey, GmbH, Konstanz, Germany], and G-Cem [GC CORPORATION, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo, Japan]). Three specimens (0.5 × 6.5mm) of each material were prepared for each of three experimental groups: Group 1 (cements allowed to self cure); Group 2 (cements light-cured for 40 seconds); and Group 3 (cements light-cured for 80 seconds). All specimens were cured through a 4-mm-thick composite cylinder (Filtek Z250-A3). Surface microhardness numbers were determined at 20 min after preparation. Results were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (pcement tested (pcements studied, and these values increased even further with a doubling of irradiation time. Self-adhesive cements exhibited different behavior according to the curing mode. RelyX Unicem was highly sensitive to light irradiation, showing the lowest mean values in the self-curing mode. After light irradiation for 40 or 80 seconds, Maxcem Elite exhibited the lowest mean hardness values of all the resin cements tested. The microhardness of resin cements is highly dependent on the brand. Dual-curing resin cements should always be light irradiated for longer periods than that recommended by manufacturers. Dual-curing resin cements should always be light-cured for longer irradiation times, as light irradiation for 80 seconds yields the highest microhardness values in comparison with self-curing or light irradiation for 40 seconds. However, some self-adhesive resin cements exhibit low microhardness values when used
Seydler, Bodo; Rues, Stefan; Müller, Denise; Schmitter, Marc
The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of wall thickness on the fracture loads of monolithic lithium disilicate molar crowns. Forty-eight extracted molars were prepared by use of a standardized preparation design. Lithium disilicate crowns (e.max CAD, Ivoclar/Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) of different wall thicknesses (d = 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm; n = 16 for each series) were then constructed and milled (Cerec MC-XL, Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). After placement of the teeth in acrylic blocks (Technovit, Heraeus Kulzer, Hanau, Germany), the crowns were adhesively luted (Multilink, Ivoclar Vivadent). In each series, eight crowns were loaded without artificial aging whereas another eight crowns underwent thermocycling (10,000 cycles, THE-1100, SD Mechatronik) and chewing simulation (1.2 million cycles, Willytec CS3, SD Mechatronik, F max = 108 N). All specimens were loaded until fracture on one cusp with a tilt of 30° to the tooth axis in a universal testing machine (Z005, Zwick/Roell). Statistical assessment was performed by use of SPSS 19.0. Crowns with d = 1.0 and 1.5 mm wall thickness did not crack during artificial aging whereas two of the crowns with d = 0.5 mm wall thickness did. The loads to failure (F u) of the crowns without aging (with aging) were 470.2 ± 80.3 N (369.2 ± 117.8 N) for d = 0.5 mm, 801.4 ± 123.1 N (889.1 ± 154.6 N) for d = 1.0 mm, and 1107.6 ± 131.3 N (980.8 ± 115.3 N) for d = 1.5 mm. For aged crowns with d = 0.5 mm wall thickness, load to failure was significantly lower than for the others. However, differences between crowns with d = 1.0 mm and d = 1.5 mm wall thickness were not significant. Fracture loads for posterior lithium disilicate crowns with 0.5 mm wall thickness were too low (F u crowns with 1.0 and 1.5 mm wall thicknesses showed appropriate fracture resistances F u > 600 N. The wall thickness of posterior lithium disilicate
Santini, Ario; Ivanovic, Vladimir; Tan, Chuei Luan; Ibbetson, Richard
The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage around Class V glass-ceramic restorations of different coefficients of thermal expansion after prolonged thermal cycling. One hundred and twenty noncarious extracted human premolars (patient age range 12-20 years) were randomly assigned to three groups. Standard Class V preparations were cut in the buccal surface using customised Cerana burs, size no. 3. Glass-ceramic inserts from two manufacturers (Cerana, Nordiska Dental AB, Helsingborg, Sweden; Beta-Quartz, Hager & Werken GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) were used to restore the cavities and were luted with a hybrid, high-viscous composite (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and a bonding agent (Excite, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). A control group, without inserts, was bulk-filled with the same composite used as the luting agent. In accordance with American Dental Association guidelines, half of the preparation was in enamel, half in dentine/cementum and had a mesio-distal width of 3 mm, an occluso-gingival height of 3 mm, and a depth of 2 mm. All margins had butt joints. Sixty teeth, selected at random, were not thermal cycled; the remaining 60 teeth were thermal cycled 4000 times between water baths held at 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C and the specimens prepared and examined for microleakage using 2.0% Procion Red (ICI, Slough, UK) dye, buffered at pH7, as a marker. The results were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (ANOVA) at a 95% significance level. At the occlusal margins there was no significant difference in microleakage between the three groups (P>0.5) without thermal cycling. After thermal cycling, microleakage at the occlusal margins was significantly less around cavities restored with Cerana glass-ceramic inserts versus Beta-Quartz and Tetric Ceram (Pmicroleakge between the groups before thermal cycling (P>0.5). After thermal cycling, there was significantly less microleakage between Cerana inserts and
Kadam, Ajay; Pujar, Madhu; Patil, Chetan
The concept of using a "post" for the restoration of teeth has been practiced to restore the endodontically treated tooth. Metallic posts have been commonly used, but their delirious effects have led to the development of fiber-reinforced materials that have overcome the limitations of metallic posts. The use of glass and quartz fibers was proposed as an alternative to the dark color of carbon fiber posts as far as esthetics was concerned. "Debonding" is the most common failure in fiber-reinforced composite type of posts. This study was aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive dual-cured luting agent (RelyX U100) with a total etch resin luting agent (Variolink II) used to cement two different FRC posts. Eighty human maxillary anterior single-rooted teeth were decoronated, endodontically treated, post space prepared and divided into four groups (n = 20); Group I: D.T. light post (RTD) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent), Group II: D.T. light post (RTD) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE), Group III: Glassix post (Nordin) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent) and Group IV: Glassix post (Nordin) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE). Each root was sectioned to get slices of 2 ± 0.05-mm thickness. Push-out tests were performed using a triaxial loading frame. To express bond strength in megapascals (Mpa), load value recorded in Newton (N) was divided by the area of the bonded interface. After testing the push-out strengths, the samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. The mean values of the push-out bond strength show that Group I and Group III had significantly higher values than Group II and Group IV. The most common mode of failure observed was adhesive between dentin and luting material and between post and luting material. The mean push-out bond strengths were higher for Groups I and III where Variolink II resin cement was used for luting the fiber post, which is based on the total etch adhesive approach. In most of the samples, failure was observed between
Naenni, Nadja; Bindl, Andreas; Sax, Caroline; Hämmerle, Christoph; Sailer, Irena
The aim of the present pilot study was to test whether or not posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with pressed veneering ceramic exhibit less chipping than FDPs with layered veneering ceramics. Forty patients (13 female, 27 male; mean age 54 years (range 26.1-80.7 years) in need of one maxillary or mandibular three-unit FDP in the second premolar or molar region were recruited and treated at two separate centers at the University of Zurich according to the same study protocol. The frameworks were made out of zirconia using a CAD/CAM system (Cerec Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). The patients were randomly assigned to either the test group (zirconia frameworks veneered with pressed ceramic; IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20) or the control group (layered veneering ceramic; IPS e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20). All FDPs were adhesively cemented and evaluated at baseline (i.e., cementation), at 6 months and at 1 and 3 years of clinical service. The survival of the reconstruction was recorded. The technical outcome was assessed using modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria. The biologic parameters analyzed at abutment teeth and analogous non-restored teeth included probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque control record (PCR), bleeding on probing (BOP), and tooth vitality (CO2). Data was descriptively analyzed and survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. 36 patients (25 female, 11 male; mean age 52.3 years) with 18 test and 18 control FDPs were examined after a mean follow-up of 36 months (95% CI: 32.6-39.1 months). Comparison of groups was done by Crosstabulation showing even distribution of the respective restored teeth amidst the groups. Survival rate was 100% for both test and control FDPs. Chipping of the veneering ceramic tended to occur more frequently in test (n=8; 40%) than in control (n=4; 20%) FDPs, albeit not significantly (p=0.3). No further
Rechmann, Peter; Buu, Natalie C H; Rechmann, Beate M T; Finzen, Frederick C
The removal of all-ceramic crowns is a time consuming procedure in the dental office. Little research has been done in alternative removal techniques for all-ceramic crowns. The objective of the second phase of this proof-of-principle laboratory pilot study was to evaluate whether Ivoclar Vivadent all-ceramic crowns can be efficiently removed from natural teeth without damage to the underlying tooth structure using an Erbium laser. The ceramic materials used were IPS E.max CAD Lithium-disilicate (LS2 ) (E.max CAD) and IPS E.max ZirCAD Zirconium-oxide (ZrO2 ) (ZirCAD) (Ivoclar, Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Molars, either as stand-alone teeth or placed in an artificial row of teeth, were prepared to receive all-ceramic crowns. Copings and full contour crowns with either featheredge or regular margins were produced. The all-ceramic crowns were bonded to the teeth with Ivoclar Multilink Automix. The time for Er:YAG laser debonding of each crown was then measured. The Er:YAG (LiteTouch, Syneron, Yokneam, Israel) was used with an 1,100 µm diameter fiber tip with energies up to 600 mJ per pulse (wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 µs at 126 mJ/pulse, and 400 µs at 590 mJ/pulse). The irradiation was applied at a distance of 10 mm from the crown surface following a defined pattern. Air-water spray was applied to the crowns at a rate of 67 ml/minute. All of the all-ceramic crowns were successfully debonded with the laser. On average, an all-ceramic E.max CAD crown was debonded in 190 ± 92 seconds (average ± SD). The debonding time for ZirCAD featheredge crowns was 226 ± 105 seconds and for ZirCAD crowns with regular margins it was 312 ± 102 seconds. No crowns fractured and no damage to the underlying dentin was detected. The bonding cement deteriorated due to the Er:YAG irradiation. Additionally, no carbonization at the dentin/cement interface was observed. Er:YAG laser energy can successfully be used
Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Liporoni, Priscila C Suzy; Munin, Egberto; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Lovadino, José Roberto
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bleaching efficacy of high concentration bleaching agents activated by chemical or physical catalysts. This study was divided into two parts. Part 1 evaluated the efficacy of tooth whitening after treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP Maxx) that was activated by different light-curing units: halogen lamp (conventional and bleach mode) (Optilux 501C, Demetron/Kerr), LED first generation (Ultrablue IV, DMC), LED/diode laser (Ultrablue IV, DMC), LED second generation (Bluephase 16i, Ivoclar Vivadent), and no light source (control group). Part 2 provided an analysis of the effect of chemical and physical catalysts on high concentration bleaching agents: 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP Maxx) + 20% sodium hydroxide; 35% hydrogen peroxide + 7% sodium bicarbonate; 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Xtra Boost); 35% hydrogen peroxide + halogen lamp; 35% hydrogen peroxide + 20% sodium hydroxide + halogen lamp; 35% hydrogen peroxide + 7% sodium bicarbonate + halogen lamp; 38% hydrogen peroxide + halogen lamp; and 35% hydrogen peroxide. Blocks obtained from human molars were randomly divided into groups (n = 5) in accordance with bleaching treatments. The efficacy of bleaching was measured using a spectrophotometer. Three bleaching sessions were performed. The results were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (5%). For both parts of the study, activated vs. non-activated bleaching did not differ significantly for all sessions tested. Activating systems did not improve the whitening effectiveness of high concentration bleaching agents.
Prochnow, Catina; Venturini, Andressa B; Grasel, Rafaella; Bottino, Marco C; Valandro, Luiz Felipe
This study examined the effects of distinct hydrofluoric acid concentrations on the mechanical behavior of a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic. Bar-shaped specimens were produced from ceramic blocks (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). The specimens were polished, chamfered, and sonically cleaned in distilled water. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups (n = 23). The HF1, HF3, HF5, and HF10 specimens were etched for 20 s with acid concentrations of 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10%, respectively, while the SC (control) sample was untreated. The etched surfaces were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. Finally, the roughness was measured, and 3-point bending flexural tests were performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The Weibull modulus and characteristic strength were also determined. No statistical difference in the roughness and flexural strength was determined among the groups. The structural reliabilities (Weilbull moduli) were similar for the tested groups; however, the characteristic strength of the HF1 specimen was greater than that of the HF10 specimen. Compared with the untreated ceramic, the surface roughness and flexural strength of the ceramic were unaffected upon etching, regardless of the acid concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 885-891, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kakaboura, A; Vougiouklakis, G; Argiri, G
Finishing and polishing an amalgam restoration, is considered as an important and necessary step of the restorative procedure. Various polishing techniques have been recommended to success a smooth amalgam surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three different polishing treatments on the marginal integrity and surface smoothness of restorations made of three commercially available amalgams and a glass-cermet cement. The materials used were the amalgams, Amalcap (Vivadent), Dispersalloy (Johnson and Johnson), Duralloy (Degussa) and the glass-cermet Katac-Silver (ESPE). The occlusal surfaces of the restorations were polished by the methods: I) round bur, No4-rubber cup-zinc oxide paste in a small brush, II) round bur No 4-bur-brown, green and super green (Shofu) polishing cups and points successively and III) amalgam polishing bur of 12-blades-smooth amalgam polishing bur. Photographs from unpolished and polished surfaces of the restorations, were taken with scanning electron microscope, to evaluate the polishing techniques. An improvement of marginal integrity and surface smoothness of all amalgam restorations was observed after the specimens had been polished with the three techniques. Method II, included Shofu polishers, proved the best results in comparison to the methods I and III. Polishing of glass-cermet cement was impossible with the examined techniques.
Kremeier, Karin; Fasen, Lutz; Klaiber, Bernd; Hofmann, Norbert
To determine the influence of post type and luting material on bond strength to dentin. The root canals of extracted human upper central incisors were instrumented and post space was prepared using the respective drills for each post system. Glass fiber posts (Luscent Anchor, Dentatus [LA]) were luted using three dual-curing adhesive systems (Excite DSC/Variolink II, Vivadent [VL2]; EnaBond/EnaCem, Micerium [ENA]; Prime & Bond NT/Calibra, DentSply DeTrey [CAL]). A different brand of glass fiber post (EasyPost, DentSply Maillefer [EP]) and quartz fiber post (DT Light Post, VDW [DT]) were luted using CAL. Gold posts (Perma-dor, VDW) were luted either adhesively following tribo-chemical silicate coating (Rocatec, ESPE-Sil, 3M ESPE; CAL) or conventionally using glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem, 3M ESPE). Three slices of 2mm height were cut perpendicular to the post from each restored root. Bond strength was determined by pushing out the post using a universal testing machine (/1449, Zwick). For all experimental groups combined, bond strength increased from the coronal to the apical section (Friedman test: Pposts (DT/CAL>LA/CAL; Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni-Holm adjustment: Pposts were equivalent to DT/CAL with both luting procedures. Selection of post type may be more important for bond strength than luting material. Bond strength of fiber posts was equivalent but not superior to adhesively or conventionally luted gold posts.
Al-Fouzan, Afnan F; Al-Mejrad, Lamya A; Albarrag, Ahmed M
The goal of this study was to compare the adhesion of Candida albicans to the surfaces of CAD/CAM and conventionally fabricated complete denture bases. Twenty discs of acrylic resin poly (methyl methacrylate) were fabricated with CAD/CAM and conventional procedures (heat-polymerized acrylic resin). The specimens were divided into two groups: 10 discs were fabricated using the CAD/CAM procedure (Wieland Digital Denture Ivoclar Vivadent), and 10 discs were fabricated using a conventional flasking and pressure-pack technique. Candida colonization was performed on all the specimens using four Candida albicans isolates. The difference in Candida albicans adhesion on the discs was evaluated. The number of adherent yeast cells was calculated by the colony-forming units (CFU) and by Fluorescence microscopy. There was a significant difference in the adhesion of Candida albicans to the complete denture bases created with CAD/CAM and the adhesion to those created with the conventional procedure. The CAD/CAM denture bases exhibited less adhesion of Candida albicans than did the denture bases created with the conventional procedure ( P CAD/CAM procedure for fabricating complete dentures showed promising potential for reducing the adherence of Candida to the denture base surface. Clinical Implications. Complete dentures made with the CAD/CAM procedure might decrease the incidence of denture stomatitis compared with conventional dentures.
Kömürcüoğlu, Meltem Bektaş; Sağırkaya, Elçin; Tulga, Ayça
To evaluate the effects of different surface treatments on the bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement by four point bending test. The CAD/CAM materials under investigation were e.max CAD, Mark II, Lava Ultimate, and Enamic. A total of 400 bar specimens (4×1.2×12 mm) (n=10) milled from the CAD/CAM blocks underwent various pretreatments (no pretreatment (C), hydrofluoric acid (A), hydrofluoric acid + universal adhesive (Scotchbond) (AS), sandblasting (Sb), and sandblasting + universal adhesive (SbS)). The bars were luted end-to-end on the prepared surfaces with a dual curing adhesive resin cement (Variolink N, Ivoclar Vivadent) on the custom-made stainless steel mold. Ten test specimens for each treatment and material combination were performed with four point bending test method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. The surface treatment and type of CAD/CAM restorative material showed a significant effect on the four point bending strength (FPBS) ( P CAD/CAM restorative materials was modified after treatments. The surface treatment of sandblasting or HF acid etching in combination with a universal adhesive containing MDP can be suggested for the adhesive cementation of the novel CAD/CAM restorative materials.
Maria Jacinta M. Coelho Santos
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical performance of two types of ceramics: a slurry-powder ceramic (Duceram Plus, Degussa - D and a hot-pressed leucite-based glass-ceramic (IPS Empress, Ivoclar Vivadent - IPS. Eighty-six restorations, 44 IPS and 42 D, were made by one operator. A total of 33 onlays and 53 inlays on twenty-seven premolars and 59 molars were cemented in 35 patients of both sexes, mean age 35 years. All restorations were cemented with the dual-resin cement (Variolink, Ivoclar-Vivadent under rubber dam and were evaluated at the baseline and after six months, using the modified U.S.P.H.S. criteria for postoperative sensitivity, secondary caries, fracture, color match, marginal discoloration, marginal integrity and surface texture. Additionally radiographs and intraoral photographs were carried out. At baseline 86 restorations were analyzed and all of them received Alfa rating, except for the following that received Bravo rating for postoperative sensitivity - IPS (2.27%; D (7.14%; for color match - IPS (2.27%; D (2.38% and for surface texture - IPS (2.27%; D (11.90%. After 6 months 100% of the restorations were analyzed and the following received Bravo rating: color match - IPS (4.55% and D (9.52%; surface texture - IPS (2.27% and D (11.9%; marginal discoloration - IPS (6.82% and D (4.76% and marginal integrity - IPS (4.55% and D (7.14%. The results were submitted to the Fisher and McNemar Statistical Tests. No significant differences were noticed between the two ceramics. Both ceramics demonstrated satisfactory clinical performance after six months.Este trabalho se propôs a avaliar a performance clínica de dois tipos de cerâmica: IPS Empress, Ivoclar-Vivadent - IPS e Duceram Plus, Degussa - D. Foram realizadas 86 restaurações por apenas um operador, sendo 44 IPS e 42 D. Vinte e sete pré-molares e 59 molares, num total de 33 onlays e 53 inlays, foram cimentadas em 35 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idade m
Manojlovic, Dragica; Radisic, Marina; Lausevic, Mila; Zivkovic, Slavoljub; Miletic, Vesna
Elution of potentially toxic substances, including monomers, from resin-based dental composites may affect the biocompatibility of these materials in clinical conditions. In addition to the amounts of eluted monomers, mathematical modeling of elution kinetics reveals composite restorations as potential chronic sources of leachable monomers. The aim of this work was to experimentally quantify elution of main cross-linking monomers from four commercial composites and offer a mathematical model of elution kinetics. Composite samples (n = 7 per group) of Filtek Supreme XT (3M ESPE), Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent), Admira (Voco), and Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) were prepared in 2-mm thick Teflon moulds and cured with halogen or light-emitting diode light. Monomer elution in ethanol and water was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography up to 28 days postimmersion. The mathematical model was expressed as a sum of two exponential regression functions representing the first-order kinetics law. Elution kinetics in all cases followed the same mathematical model though differences in rate constants as well as the extent of monomer elution were material-, LCU-, medium-dependent. The proposed mechanisms of elution indicate fast elution from surface and subsurface layers and up to 100 times slower monomer extraction from the bulk polymer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Krämer, N; Rudolph, H; Garcia-Godoy, F; Frankenberger, R
To evaluate the effect of thermo-mechanical loading (TML) on marginal quality and wear of different crown types for primary molars. Eighty extracted human primary molars were used. After preparation, five groups received different crowns (n=16): preformed metal crowns (3M ESPE) and NuSmile crowns (Orthodontic Technologies Inc.) were inserted as preformed metal crowns; as semi-preformed crowns Protemp crowns (3M ESPE) were luted; and as individually manufactured resin composite crowns Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Heliomolar (Ivoclar Vivadent) were used. Specimens were subjected to 2,500 thermal cycles between 5-55(o)C and chewing simulation for 100,000 cycles at 50N at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Before and after thermo-mechanical loading, impressions of the teeth were taken and replicas were made. The replicas received marginal quality evaluation under a SEM at x200 magnification. Occlusal wear was measured as vertical height loss using a 3-D laser scanning microscope. After TML, all crowns were intact. The adhesively bonded crowns showed significantly better marginal quality to dentine/cementum compared with GIC luted crowns (pcrowns showed a good fit and nearly transition-free margins also after TML. Preformed metal crowns showed the significantly lowest wear rates compared to the resin composites (pcrown types under investigation showed a good performance concerning the evaluated parameters marginal quality and wear.
Oguz Ahmet, Serra; Mutluay, M Murat; Seyfioglu Polat, Zelal; Seseogullari Dirihan, Roda; Bek, Bulent; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu
The clinical survival rates of the adhesive restorations are limited due to the deterioration of resin-dentin bonds over time, partly due to the endogenous enzymatic activity of dentin. Recently, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been shown to effectively inhibit endogenous protease activity of dentin. This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the degree of conversion (DC), vickers hardness (VH), setting time (ST) and biaxial flexural strength (FS) of two self-adhesive resin luting cements (RC). Two RC SpeedCEM (Ivoclar-Vivadent) and BisCem (Bisco) were modified by addition of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 wt% BAC. The luting cements without the addition of BAC served as control. The DC (FT-IR/ATR from the bottom of the resin disc), vickers hardness (from top and bottom of the light-cured specimen), setting time (ISO 4049) and biaxial flexural strength (0.6 × 6 mm discs) of the specimens were tested. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukeys HSD. DC results were in the range of 70-80%, with some significant changes in BisCem (p adhesive resin luting cements during the mixing procedure does not significantly affect the degree of conversion or flexural strength of the luting agent and may be a good option to improve the durability of adhesive interface.
Nainan, Mohan Thomas; Balan, Ashok Kalappurakkal; Sharma, Roshni; Thomas, Sabeena Susan; Deveerappa, Santhosh B
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the micro hardness of a nanohybrid composite resin after brushing with two herbal and one non-herbal whitening toothpastes. Materials and Methods: We divided Eighty disk-shaped specimens of a nanohybrid composite (Tetric N Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Asia) into 4 groups of 20 specimens each: Groups A, B, C, and D. Group A was control, Group B was brushed with Colgate total advanced whitening (Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited), Group C with Salt and Lemon, Dabur (Dabur International Limited, Dubai, UAE), and Group D with HiOra Shine, Himalaya (The Himalaya Drug Company, India). The specimens were polished using medium, fine, and superfine discs (Sof-lex, 3M, ESPE, USA) and subsequently placed at 37°C in distilled water. They were brushed for 2 minutes twice daily with a soft motorized toothbrush (Colgate 360 sonic power battery-operated tooth brush, Colgate Palmolive, India) for 30 days. The samples were rinsed under running water to remove the toothpaste and stored in distilled water at 37°C until the readout was taken on the Vickers's hardness tester for microhardness. Results: The results revealed that the difference among the groups was statistically significant (P toothpaste had a greater impact on the microhardness of nanohybrid resin composite than herbal whitening toothpastes. PMID:25506143
Dietschi, Didier; Olsburgh, Steven; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel
Composite inlays are indicated for large cavities, which frequently extend cervically into dentin. The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro the marginal and internal adaptation of class II fine hybrid composite inlays (Herculite, Kerr) made with or without composite bases, having different physical properties. Freshly extracted human molars were used for this study. The base extended up to the cervical margins on both sides and was made from Revolution (Kerr), Tetric flow (Vivadent), Dyract (Detrey-Dentsply) or Prodigy (Kerr), respectively. Before, during and after mechanical loading (1 million cycles, with a force varying from 50 to 100 N), the proximal margins of the inlay were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Experimental data were analysed using non-parametric tests. The final percentages of marginal tooth fracture varied from 30.7% (no base) to 37.6% (Dyract). In dentin, percentages of marginal opening varied from 9.2% (Tetric Flow) to 30.1% (Prodigy), however, without significant difference between base products. Mean values of opened internal interface with dentin varied from 11.06% (Tetric Flow) to 28.15% (Prodigy). The present results regarding dentin adaptation confirmed that the physical properties of a base can influence composite inlay adaptation and that the medium-rigid flowable composite Tetric Flow is a potential material to displace, in a coronal position, proximal margins underneath composite inlays.
Besse, Vincent; Derbanne, Mathieu A; Pham, Thi-Nhàn; Cook, Wayne D; Le Pluart, Loïc
This paper investigates the photo-co-polymerization behavior of a blend of a diacrylamide (DEBAAP) with a phosphonylated acidic monomer using either bis(acyl)phosphine oxide or camphorquinone/amine as photo-initiator and studies the effect of variation of the structure of the phosphonylated acidic monomer on the shear bond strength to human dentin. Photopolymerization kinetics has been assessed through the use of photo-DSC with either initiating system and with and without a phosphonic acid monomer, while the shear bond strengths (SBS) of dentin bonding agents formulated with several phosphonylated acidic monomers have been evaluated by macro SBS testing on human dentin. Photo-DSC results show that bis(acyl)phosphine oxide initiates a faster polymerization than camphorquinone/amine and that both photopolymerizations are accelerated by the phosphonic acid monomer. Similar results were obtained between adhesives based on camphorquinone/amine and a commercial adhesive (AdheSE, Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). The best performances were obtained when BAPO was used as the initiator, in many cases far better than the commercial adhesive. Adhesive SEA6 based on difluoromethylphosphonic acid C demonstrated the best adhesion results of this study. Significance The bis(acyl)phosphine oxide photo-initiator causes faster photopolymerization of two-step self-etching dental adhesive, and its use could yield better bonding performance. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adriano Fonseca Lima
Full Text Available Objectives In this study, we evaluated the influence of different radiant exposures provided by single-peak and polywave light-curing units (LCUs on the degree of conversion (DC and the mechanical properties of resin cements. Materials and Methods Six experimental groups were established for each cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE; LuxaCore Dual, Ivoclar Vivadent; Variolink, DMG, according to the different radiant exposures (5, 10, and 20 J/cm2 and two LCUs (single-peak and polywave. The specimens were made (7 mm in length × 2 mm in width × 1 mm in height using silicone molds. After 24 hours of preparation, DC measurement was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The same specimens were used for the evaluation of mechanical properties (flexural strength, FS; elastic modulus, E by a three-point bending test. Data were assessed for normality, after which two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were performed. Results No properties of the Variolink cement were influenced by any of the considered experimental conditions. In the case of the RelyX ARC cement, DC was higher when polywave LCU was used; FS and E were not influenced by the conditions evaluated. The LuxaCore cement showed greater sensitivity to the different protocols. Conclusions On the basis of these results, both the spectrum of light emitted and the radiant exposure used could affect the properties of resin cements. However, the influence was material-dependent.
Nainan, Mohan Thomas; Balan, Ashok Kalappurakkal; Sharma, Roshni; Thomas, Sabeena Susan; Deveerappa, Santhosh B
The aim of this study was to compare the micro hardness of a nanohybrid composite resin after brushing with two herbal and one non-herbal whitening toothpastes. We divided Eighty disk-shaped specimens of a nanohybrid composite (Tetric N Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Asia) into 4 groups of 20 specimens each: Groups A, B, C, and D. Group A was control, Group B was brushed with Colgate total advanced whitening (Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited), Group C with Salt and Lemon, Dabur (Dabur International Limited, Dubai, UAE), and Group D with HiOra Shine, Himalaya (The Himalaya Drug Company, India). The specimens were polished using medium, fine, and superfine discs (Sof-lex, 3M, ESPE, USA) and subsequently placed at 37°C in distilled water. They were brushed for 2 minutes twice daily with a soft motorized toothbrush (Colgate 360 sonic power battery-operated tooth brush, Colgate Palmolive, India) for 30 days. The samples were rinsed under running water to remove the toothpaste and stored in distilled water at 37°C until the readout was taken on the Vickers's hardness tester for microhardness. The results revealed that the difference among the groups was statistically significant (P whitening toothpaste had a greater impact on the microhardness of nanohybrid resin composite than herbal whitening toothpastes.
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the microtensile bond strength of Single Bond, AdheSE, and Fuji Bond LC to human dentin. Fifteen non-carious third molars were selected for the study. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups of five teeth each. Each group was given a different bonding treatment. Group I was treated with Single Bond (3M, ESPE, group II with AdheSE (Ivoclar, Vivadent, and group III was treated with Fuji Bond LC (GC America. A T-band metal matrix was placed and composite resin bonded on to the tooth surface using appropriate bonding agents. The composite resin was packed in increments and light cured. Each tooth was sectioned to obtain 1 mm x 1 mm beams of dentin-resin samples. Tensile bond testing was done using a universal testing machine (Instron at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results: The mean bond strength of Single Bond (35.5 MPa was significantly higher than that of AdheSE (32.8 MPa and Fuji Bond LC (32.6 MPa. The difference between the microtensile bond strength values of AdheSE and Fuji Bond LC was statistically insignificant. Inference: Though the bond strength of AdheSE and Fuji Bond LC was above 30 MPa, it was less than that of Single Bond as evaluated by testing of microtensile bond strength.
Warhadpande, Manjusha Madhukar; Meshram, Ganesh Kothiramji; Bahadure, Rakesh Namdeoraoji; Tawani, Shubha Gopal; Tawani, Gopal; Badole, Shital Gautam
Objectives The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity of four different root canal sealers i.e. Apexit Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent), Endomethasone N (Septodont), AH-26 (Dentsply) and Pulpdent Root Canal Sealer (Pulpdent), on a mouse fibroblast cell line (L929). Materials and Methods Thirty two discs for each sealer (5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height) were fabricated in Teflon mould. The sealer extraction was made in cell culture medium (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, DMEM) using the ratio 1.25 cm2/mL between the surface of the sealer samples and the volume of medium in a shaker incubator. Extraction of each sealer was obtained at 24 hr, 7th day, 14th day, and one month of interval. These extracts were incubated with L929 cell line and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was done. Two-way ANOVA for interaction effects between sealer and time and Post-hoc multiple comparison using Tukey's test across all the 16 different groups were used for statistical analysis. Results Apexit Plus root canal sealer was significantly less toxic than other sealers (p Sealer showed severe to moderate toxicity. Conclusions Apexit Plus was relatively biocompatible sealer as compared to other three sealers which were cytotoxic at their initial stages, however, they became biocompatible with time. PMID:24303354
Bevilacqua, L; Cadenaro, M; Sossi, A; Biasotto, M; Di Lenarda, R
Aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of a dental sealant using different pre-treatment techniques of the enamel surface. Thirty extracted human intact teeth were selected and divided into 3 groups (n = 10) (1: acid etching with 37% orthophosphoric acid - 3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; 2: air abrasion; 3: air abrasion + acid etching). The sealant (Helioseal, Vivadent Ivoclar AG, Liechtenstein) was applied into occlusal pits and fissures and light cured for 40 sec. All samples were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5 degrees -55 degrees C). Teeth were then immersed into a 2% methylene blue solution for 24 hrs and sectioned in a mesio-distal direction. Forty-eight sections were obtained for each group. Each section was analysed and photographed with a stereomicroscope (50x) assessing dye penetration (0: no dye penetration; 1: dye penetration restricted to the outer half of the sealant; 2: dye penetration restricted to the inner half of the sealant; 3: dye penetration into the underlying fissure). Data were statistically analysed (Mann-Whitney test). Specimens prepared after air abrasion combined with acid etching showed lower microleakage expression if compared with the other two groups (pabrasion and chemical acid etching represents an effective pre-treatment of enamel surface that may significantly reduce the risk of microleakage.
Begum, Zubeda; Chheda, Pratik; Shruthi, C S; Sonika, Radhika
The main objective of the study was to recognize the effect of ceramic thickness and luting agent on the extent to which the restoration masks color variations that may be present in the underlying dental structure. Two pressable ceramics were used: Lithium disilicate reinforced (IPS e.max- Ivoclar Vivadent) and Leucite reinforced (Cergo- Dentsply). Fifteen ceramic discs were manufactured from each ceramic and divided into three groups, according to the thickness (0.5, 1, 1.5 mm). To simulate the color of a dark underlying dental structure, background discs, color C3, with 20 mm diameter, were made using resin composite. The ceramic discs with varying thicknesses were seated on the dark background of the resin composite with either resinous opaque cement or resinous cement. The color parameters were determined by the CIE Lab system of colors using a spectrophotometer and color differences (ΔE) were calculated. The results were then statistically analyzed, using ANOVA test and Tukey HSD test. The ΔE values of both ceramic systems were affected by both the luting agent and the ceramic thickness (P veneers, higher values in the color parameters were obtained for both ceramic materials. The color masking ability of ceramics used for laminate veneers is significantly affected by the thickness of the ceramic and the shade of the luting agent used.
Runnacles, Patrício; Correr, Gisele Maria; Baratto Filho, Flares; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio
During the cementation of ceramic veneers the polymerization of resin cements may be jeopardized if the ceramics attenuate the irradiance of the light-curing device. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types and thicknesses of ceramic veneers on the degree of conversion of a light-cured resin-based cement (RelyX Veneer). The cement was light-cured after interposing ceramic veneers [IPS InLine, IPS Empress Esthetic, IPS e.max LT (low translucency) and IPS e.max HT (high translucency) - Ivoclar Vivadent] of four thicknesses (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm). As control, the cement was light-cured without interposition of ceramics. The degree of conversion was evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy (n=5). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Significant differences were observed among groups (p0.05). Among 1.5-mm-thick veneers, IPS e.max LT was the only one that showed different results from the control (pveneers were able to produce cements with degrees of conversion similar to the control (p>0.05). The degree of conversion of the evaluated light-cured resin cement depends on the thickness and type of ceramics employed when veneers thicker than 1.5 mm are cemented.
Perdigão, Jorge; Sezinando, Ana; Muñoz, Miguel A; Luque-Martinez, Issis V; Loguercio, Alessandro D
To measure the microshear bond strengths (μSBS) of composite resin to the intaglio surface of prefabricated indirect veneers and analyze the FE-SEM ultramorphology of the pretreated intaglio surfaces as well as the fracture modes. Three veneer systems (veneer and respective luting material) were used in this study: two prefabricated veneer types, Cerinate One-hour (CER, DenMat) and Componeer (CMP, Coltene), and a laboratory- made veneer, IPS e.max Press (IPS, Ivoclar Vivadent) used as the control. For each group, 10 veneers were used. After delimitation of the bonding area with a double-faced adhesive tape, 0.8-mm-diameter cylinders of composite luting material were bonded to the pretreated intaglio surface. After polymerization, the specimens were fractured in shear mode using the wire-loop method in a universal testing machine. The pretreated intaglio surface of two extra veneers and four fractured specimens per group were morphologically characterized using FE-SEM. CER resulted in statistically lower mean μSBS (7.1 ± 1.2 MPa) than the other two veneer systems, CMP (15.2 ± 2.5 MPa) and IPS (14.7 ± 1.7 MPa) at p veneer systems resulted in greater bond strengths than those of the CER veneer system.
Lilian Cristina Vessoni Iwaki
Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigate the optical density of four different brands of composite resins of nanotechnology. The composite resins Estelite Sigma Quick® (Tokuyama, Esthet –X HD® (Dentsply, 4 Seasons® (Ivoclar Vivadent and Filtek Z350XTTM (3M-ESPE were inserted into cavities in transparent acrylic sheets, separated by thickness into 1, 2 and 3 mm. The images were imported into the software ImageTool® 3.0 (UTHSCSA, EUA. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey. The mean values of the composite resins 4 Seasons® (2.71±0.20 and Filtek Z350XTTM (2.64±0.26 did not differ statistically for samples with thickness of 1 and 2 mm. However, for both thickness Estelite Sigma Quick® (1.92±0.11 and Esthet-X HD® (3.57±0.29 showed significant differences compared to the other composite resins (p = .012. All 3 mm-thick samples showed significant differences among themselves (Estelite Sigma Quick® p < .001, Esthet-X HD® p < .001, 4 Seasons® p=.001 and Filtek Z350XTTMp = .003. Conclusion: Among the three thicknesses evaluated, Estelite Sigma Quick® showed the lowest optical density, whereas the highest values were observed for Esthet X HD®. The resins are studied according to the rules of optical density value thus being favorable clinical use.
Vignolo, Valeria; Fuentes, Maria-Victoria; Garrido, Miguel-Angel; Rodríguez, Jesús; Ceballos, Laura
To compare microhardness along the root canal post space of two resin cements in different shades and a dual-cure resin core material. Root canals of 21 bovine incisors were prepared for post space. Translucent posts (X∘Post, Dentsply DeTrey) were luted using one the following resin luting agent: Calibra (Dentsply DeTrey) in Translucent, Medium and Opaque shades, RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) in Translucent, A2 and A3 shades and the dual-cure resin core material Core∘X flow. All materials were applied according to manufacturers' instructions and were all photopolymerized (Bluephase LED unit, Ivoclar Vivadent, 40s). After 24 hours, roots were transversally cut into 9 slices 1 mm thick from the coronal to apical extremes, three corresponding to each root third. Then, VHNs were recorded (100gf, 30 s) on the resin luting materials along the adhesive interface in all sections. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and SNK tests (α=0.05). A significant influence on microhardness of resin luting material in their respective shades (pmicrohardness values and Calibra the lowest, regardless of the shade selected. All resin luting materials tested exhibited a significantly higher microhardness in the cervical third. Microhardness of resin luting agents tested inside the canal is dependent on material brand and resin cement shade seems to be a less relevant factor. Microhardness decreased along the root canal, regardless of the shade selected.
Catelan, Anderson; Giorgi, Maria Cecília Caldas; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Lima, Debora Alves Nunes Leite; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio
To evaluate quantitatively the marginal microleakage of restorations carried out with self-etching adhesives with or without prior phosphoric enamel acid etching of silorane or methacrylate resin-based composite restorations subjected to thermal cycling. Forty cavities were prepared at the proximal surface of bovine incisors and randomly divided according to the etching of the enamel and restorative system used. The groups were restored with methacrylate [Adper SE Plus adhesive (3M ESPE) + Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE)] or silorane [Filtek LS adhesive (3M ESPE) + Filtek LS composite (3M ESPE)] restorative systems, light-cured using a LED unit (Bluephase 16i, Vivadent). After restorative procedure and thermocycling (1000 cycles), the specimens were immersed in methylene blue for 2 h. The specimens were triturated and the powder was used for analysis in an absorbance spectrophotometer. Data were statistically analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). No statistical difference between the restorative materials tested with or without previous acid etching of enamel in Class II marginal microleakage was observed (p > 0.05). The use of acid etching prior to self-etching adhesives did not interfere on the microleakage of methacrylate- or silorane-based restorations.
Feuerstein, Osnat; Matalon, Shlomo; Slutzky, Hagay; Weiss, Ervin I
Dental adhesives with antibacterial properties may reduce recurrent or secondary caries. The authors conducted a study to examine the immediate and long-lasting antibacterial properties of four self-etching adhesive systems. The authors used the agar diffusion test (ADT) and direct contact test (DCT) to measure the antibacterial properties of AdheSe (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Adper Prompt L-Pop (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), Clearfil Protect Bond (Kuraray, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan) and Xeno III (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany) on Streptoccocus mutans after aging samples in phosphate-buffered saline for one, two, seven and 14 days. Only Clearfil Protect Bond showed an inhibition halo in the ADT. In the DCT, fresh samples of all of the tested materials exhibited potent antibacterial properties, which were maintained by AdheSe for one day and Clearfil Protect Bond for seven days. None of the adhesive systems exhibited any antibacterial properties after 14 days. All of the tested adhesives had an immediate bactericidal effect on S. mutans. None, however, had long-lasting antibacterial properties. The application of self-etching adhesive materials could contribute to the immediate elimination of residual bacteria. The likelihood of developing secondary caries as a consequence of bacterial microleakage may not be affected by the use of the adhesive systems tested in this study.
Full Text Available Dental caries is a disease which affects the human oral cavity. Currently, the search for active principles of plants with antimicrobial effect seems promising for dental therapy. In this article the activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (clove was evaluated with an emphasis on its antimicrobial properties. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, characterized by thin layer chromatography and chemical tests. The main compound was identified in the oil obtained from the flower buds and its antibacterial activity against planktonic cells Streptcoccus mutans ATCC700611 was assessed by performing serial dilutions, from 15 up to 1000µg/mL, compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine and dimethylsulfoxide. MIC was also determined. Subsequently, UFC was analyzed and compared with CMR® Test Ivoclar Vivadent. The efficiency in obtaining the oil was 2.20%. By using the CCD technique, a fraction was revealed by UV light, corresponding to eugenol. It had a good response for triterpenoids and flavonoids. It showed greater antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 1000, 500 and 250µg/ml. The MIC and MBC of the oil was 125 to 250µg/mL, respectively. Eugenol was found as an active principle in the oil obtained. Currently, the impact of using plant extracts has favored the evaluation of alternative, effective and biocompatible antibacterial agents for the formulations of oral hygiene products applied to the prevention or treatment of oral diseases.
Gemalmaz, D; Kükrer, D
The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of class II ceromer (Targis, Vivadent) indirect inlay restorations under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Twenty Targis inlays were produced for class II inlay cavities (13 mandibular and seven maxillary teeth) in 20 patients. The in vivo adaptation of the inlay to the tooth cavity was evaluated by means of silicone replica technique. For in vitro evaluation, 20 mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) Targis inlays were made in extracted upper molars. Half of the inlays were cemented with Variolink high-viscosity resin cement while the other half was cemented with Variolink Ultra. The replica specimens and in vitro samples were sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally, and marginal adaptation was evaluated at both proximal and occlusal margins at 200x magnification under a light microscope. The data was analyzed with anova (P < 0.05). The in vivo mean film thickness values for occlusal and proximal locations were recorded as 73 and 132 microm respectively. In vitro mean marginal fit values were observed as 48 and 67 microm for occlusal and proximal margins of inlays luted with Variolink II high viscosity. The marginal fit values recorded under in vivo conditions were higher in magnitude than the measurements obtained under in vitro conditions. The use of a highly filled resin luting agent with an ultrasonic insertion technique did not cause an increase in marginal gap width of the inlay.
Elsharkasi, M M; Platt, J A; Cook, N B; Yassen, G H; Matis, B A
The present study investigated the effect of three high-viscosity bulk-fill resin-based composite materials on cuspal deflection in natural teeth. Thirty-two sound maxillary premolar teeth with large slot mesio-occlusal-distal cavities were distributed into four groups (n=8). Three groups were restored with bulk-fill resin composite materials (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein; x-tra fil, VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany; and SonicFill, Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) in a single 4-mm increment. The conventional composite group, Filtek Z100 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), was used to restore the cavities in 2-mm increments. Cusp deflection was recorded postirradiation using a Nikon measurescope UM-2 (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) by measuring the changes in the bucco-palatal widths of the teeth at five minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours after completion of the restorations. Cuspal deflection was significantly higher in the conventional composite than in the Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill ( p=0.0031), x-tra fil ( p=0.0029), and SonicFill Bulk ( p=0.0002) groups. There were no significant differences in cuspal deflection among the three bulk-fill materials (all pcomposites exhibited cuspal deflection values that were smaller than those associated with a conventional incrementally placed resin composite.
Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Dozic, Alma; Liem, Jeff K
To investigate the influence of colored zirconia frameworks on the overall color match of zirconia-veneered restorations. Identical natural and colored zirconia frameworks (Cercon Base, Degudent) were layered using a veneer ceramic (IPS e.max Ceram Dentin, Ivoclar Vivadent) applied either directly on the frameworks, over a thin layer of a masking liner (IPS e.max ZirLiner 1), or over a layer of a deep chroma dentin (IPS e.max Deep Dentin) of the required target color, A1. Color parameters were obtained using a spectrophotometer (Spectro Shade Micro, MHT) and were used to calculate color difference value with the preselected required color (A1 tab according to Vita Classical shade guide). Color difference value ceramic (P black background. The combination of yellow zirconia with deep chroma dentin over a white background produced a yellowish color shift, while white zirconia frameworks with either liner or deep chroma dentin were brighter and less yellow than the target color (A1). When properly veneered, colored zirconia frameworks could produce clinically acceptable color match and have the capacity to mask a dark background such as a dark tooth or core buildup material.
Biacchi, G R; Basting, R T
The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture strength of full ceramic crowns using two techniques-indirect conventional crowns retained by glass fiber posts, and endocrowns with an "anchorage" in the pulp chamber-and analyze the failure mode. For this purpose, 20 healthy mandibular molars were divided into two groups (n=10): GroupGC contained teeth with indirect conventional crowns, filling cores, and glass fiber posts; Group GE contained teeth with restorations of the endocrown type. Teeth were endodontically treated and prepared for ceramic restorations fabricated by the injection technique(IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar-Vivadent), forming the GC and GE groups. Specimens were mount-ed in a universal test machine (EMIC) and were submitted to an oblique compression load, at an angle of 135 degrees to the long axis of the tooth, until failure. Statistical evaluation performed by the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test showed significant differences between the two groups (p=0.002), with Group GE shown to be more resistant to compressive forces than Group GC. The pre-dominant failure pattern in both groups was fracture of the tooth on the side of force application and/or consequent displacement of the restoration on the opposite side.
Emslander, Angela; Reise, Michael; Eichberger, Marlis; Uhrenbacher, Julia; Edelhoff, Daniel; Stawarczyk, Bogna
This study investigated the influence of different surface treatments on fracture load (FL) of canine crowns fabricated from two different pressable lithium-disilicate ceramics: A (HS10PC, estetic ceram, n=180) and B (IPS e.max Press, IvoclarVivadent, n=120). The standardized specimens were divided into groups of six different surface treatments and two glazing temperatures. A-group specimens were additionally assigned two glazing pastes with various thermal expansion coefficients (TEC). FL was measured and TECs were determined. Data were analyzed using three/one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Scheffe's test. B showed comparable or higher FL than A (B: 503-876 N; A: 375-734 N). Lithium-disilicate crowns show higher FL when not grinded but only polished or glazed. Glazing pastes affected FL depending on their TECs, firing temperature and crown treatment. TEC of A and B was 10 ppm/K, glazing pastes for A presented TECs of 7.5 ppm/K and 10 ppm/K and for B of 9 ppm/K.
Jian, Yutao; He, Zi-Hua; Dao, Li; Swain, Michael V; Zhang, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Ke
To investigate and characterize the distribution of fabrication defects in bilayered lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDG) crowns using micro-CT and 3D reconstruction. Ten standardized molar crowns (IPS e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) were fabricated by heat-pressing on a core and subsequent manual veneering. All crowns were scanned by micro-CT and 3D reconstructed. Volume, position and sphericity of each defect was measured in every crown. Each crown was divided into four regions-central fossa (CF), occlusal fossa (OF), cusp (C) and axial wall (AW). Porosity and number density of each region were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed using Welch two sample t-test, Friedman one-way rank sum test and Nemenyi post-hoc test. The defect volume distribution type was determined based on Akaike information criterion (AIC). The core ceramic contained fewer defects (p0.05). Four of ten specimens contained the largest pores in region CF, while for the remaining six specimens the largest pore was in region OF. LDG core ceramic contained fewer defects than the veneer ceramic. LDG strength estimated from pore size was comparable to literature values. Large defects were more likely to appear at the core-veneer interface of occlusal fossa, while small defects also distributed in every region of the crowns but tended to aggregate in the central fossa region. Size distribution of small defects in veneer obeyed a logarithmic normal distribution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ergücü, Z; Celik, E U; Unlü, N; Türkün, M; Ozer, F
This study examined the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of a three-step etch-and-rinse and a two-step self-etch adhesive to sound and caries-affected dentin. Sixteen freshly extracted human molars with occlusal dentin caries were used. The caries lesion was removed by one of the following methods: conventional treatment with burs or Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase MD, Biolase). The adhesive systems (AdheSE, Ivoclar Vivadent and Scotchbond Multi Purpose, 3M ESPE) were applied to the entire tooth surface according to the manufacturers' instructions. Resin composites were applied to the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces and light-cured. Each tooth was sectioned into multiple beams with the "non-trimming" version of the microtensile test. The specimens were subjected to microtensile forces (BISCO Microtensile Tester, BISCO). The data was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and independent t-tests (p=0.05). Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation exhibited similar microTBS values compared to that of conventional bur treatment, regardless of the adhesive system and type of treated dentin. The self-etch system revealed lower microTBS values, both with conventional and laser treatment techniques, compared to the etch-and-rinse adhesive in sound and caries-affected dentin (padhesive systems to sound and caries-affected dentin.
de Andrade e Silva, Safira Marques; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira; Marquezini Junior, Luiz; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel; Manso, Adriana Pigozzo; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; de Carvalho, Ricardo Marins
To test the hypothesis that the quality of the dentinal sealing provided by two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives cannot be altered by the addition of an extra layer of the respective adhesive or the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated resin. full-crown preparations were acid-etched with phosphoric acid for 15 s and bonded with Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE), Excite DSC (Ivoclar/Vivadent) or Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply). The adhesives were used according to the manufacturers' instructions (control groups) or after application to dentin they were a) covered with an extra coat of each respective system or b) coated with a non-solvated bonding agent (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive, 3M ESPE). Fluid flow rate was measured before and after dentin surfaces were acid-etched and bonded with adhesives. None of the adhesives or experimental treatments was capable to block completely the fluid transudation across the treated dentin. Application of an extra coat of the adhesive did not reduce the fluid flow rate of adhesive-bonded dentin (p>0.05). Conversely, the application of a more hydrophobic non-solvated resin resulted in significant reductions in the fluid flow rate (padhesives. The quality of the dentinal sealing provided by etch-and-rinse adhesives can be significantly improved by the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated bonding agent.
Habib, Syed Rashid; Shiddi, Ibraheem F Al
This study assessed how changing the Zirconia (Zr) substructure affected the color samples after they have been overlaid by the same shade of veneering ceramic. Three commercial Zr materials were tested in this study: Prettau(®) Zirconia (ZirKonZahn, Italy), Cercon (Dentsply, Germany) and InCoris ZI (Sirona, Germany). For each system, 15 disk-shaped specimens (10 × 1 mm) were fabricated. Three shades of A1, A2 and A3.5 of porcelain (IPS e.MaxCeram, IvoclarVivadent, USA) were used for layering the specimens. Five specimens from each type of Zr were layered with same shade of ceramic. Color measurements were recorderd by a spectrophotometer Color-Eye(®) 7000A (X-Rite, Grand Rapids, MI). Mean values of L, a, b color coordinates and ΔE were recorded and comparisons were made. Differences in the ΔE were recorded for the same porcelain shade with different Zr substructures and affected the color of the specimens (p Zirconia substructure were found to be the least among the three types. The brand of Zr used influences the final color of the all ceramic Zr based restorations and this has clinical significance.
Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cebe, Fatma; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Arpag, Osman Fatih; Ozturk, Bora
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and Bis-EMA monomers from six bulk fill composite resins over four different time periods, using HPLC. Six different composite resin materials were used in the present study: Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), X-tra Fill (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), Sonic Fill (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE Dental Product, St. Paul, MN), SDR (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), EQUIA (GC America INC, Alsip, IL). The samples (4mm thickness, 5mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 20s with a light emitted diode unit. After fabrication, each sample was immediately immersed in 75wt% ethanol/water solution used as extraction fluid and stored in the amber colored bottles at room temperature. Ethanol/water samples were taken (0.5mL) at predefined time intervals:10m (T1), 1h (T2), 24h (T3) and 30 days (T4). These samples were analyzed by HPLC. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significance level of presins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers was increased with time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alhekeir, Diemah F.; Al-Sarhan, Rana A.; Al Mashaan, Abdulmohsen F.
Objective To investigate the association of the failure of porcelain laminate veneers with factors related to the patient, material, and operator. Methods This clinical survey involved 29 patients (19 women and 10 men) and their dentists, including undergraduate and postgraduate dental students and dental interns. Two questionnaires were distributed to collect information from participants. All patients were clinically examined. Criteria for failure of the porcelain laminate veneers included color change, cracking, fracture, and/or debonding. Results A total of 205 porcelain laminate veneers were evaluated. All of the restorations were fabricated from IPS e.max Press and cemented with Variolink Veneer (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Principality of Liechtenstein) or RelyX veneer cement (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA). The preparations were generally located in enamel (58.6%), and most veneers had an overlapped design (89.7%). Ten patients (34.48%) showed veneer failure, most often in terms of color change (60%). Overall, 82.8% of patients were satisfied with their restorations. Conclusion Insufficient clinical skills or operator experience resulted in restoration failure in one-third of patients. PMID:25408598
Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, Akio; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between fracture load of monolithic zirconia crowns and axial/occlusal thickness and to evaluate the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns with reduced thickness in comparison with that of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns with regular thickness. Monolithic zirconia crowns (Lava Plus Zirconia, 3M/ESPE) with specified axial/occlusal thicknesses and lithium disilicate crowns (IPS e.max press, Ivoclar/Vivadent) with regular thickness were fabricated using a dental CAD/CAM system and a press technique, respectively. The crowns cemented onto dies were loaded until fracture. Based on measurements of the crown thickness made by micro-CT and the fracture load, multiple regression analysis was performed. It was revealed that the occlusal thickness significantly affected the fracture load (p zirconia crowns, the fracture load of the zirconia crowns with the occlusal thickness of 0.5 mm (5558 ± 522 N) was significantly higher than that of lithium disilicate crowns with an occlusal thickness of 1.5 mm (3147 ± 409 N). Within the limitations of the present study, it is suggested that monolithic zirconia crown with chamfer width of 0.5 mm and occlusal thickness of 0.5 mm can be used in the molar region in terms of fracture resistance.
Schmitter, M; Mueller, D; Rues, S
The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the ultimate load to failure of zirconia based crowns veneered with CAD/CAM manufactured ceramic. 32 identical, anatoform zirconia (Sirona inCoris ZI, mono L F1) frameworks (thickness 0.6mm) were constructed (Sirona inLab 3.80). Afterwards, 16 crowns were completed using a CAD/CAM manufactured lithium disilicate ceramic veneer (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). The remaining 16 frames were veneered using conventional manual layering technique. For the CAD/CAM manufactured veneers, the connection between framework and veneer was accomplished via a glass fusion ceramics. Before fracture tests, half of the specimens underwent thermocycling and chewing simulation (1.2 million chewing cycles, force magnitude F(max)=108 N). To further investigate the new technique, finite element computations were carried out on the basis of the original geometry. Nearly all (87.5%) conventionally veneered crowns failed already during chewing simulation, whereas crowns with CAD/CAM manufactured veneers were non-sensitive to artificial ageing. Crowns veneered with lithium disilicate ceramic displayed ultimate loads to failure of about 1600 N. The CAD/CAM production of veneers for restorations with zirconia framework is a promising way to reduce failures originating from material fatigue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
GUARDA, Guilherme B.; GONÇALVES, Luciano S.; CORRER, Américo B.; MORAES, Rafael R.; SINHORETI, Mário A.C.; CORRER-SOBRINHO, Lourenço
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the bond strength of ceramic restorations luted using a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE) under different dentin conditions. Material and Methods In the experimental groups, ceramic restorations were luted to bovine incisors with RelyX Unicem under the following conditions: [Dry dentin]: surface was dried using air stream for 15 s; [Moist dentin]: excess dentin moisture was removed with absorbent paper; [Bonding agent]: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) self-etching adhesive system was previously applied to dentin. In the Control group, cementation was done using an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Excite DSC) and Variolink II resin cement (Ivoclar Vivadent). Photoactivation of the resin cements was performed with UltraLume LED 5 unit (Ultradent). The restorations (n=5 per group) were sectioned into beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (padhesive failures was observed for the "bonding agent" and "dry dentin" groups. The "moist dentin" group presented predominantly cohesive failures within the luting material. The previous application of a self-etching adhesive showed no significant effect. Conclusions Only excess dentin moisture should be removed for the cementation of ceramic restorations with self-adhesive resin cements. PMID:20857001
Kameyama, Atsushi; Bonroy, Kim; Elsen, Caroline; Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Suyama, Yuji; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan
The aim of this study was to investigate bonding effectiveness in direct restorations. A two-step self-etch adhesive and a light-cure resin composite was compared with luting with a conventional dual-cure resin cement and a two-step etch and rinse adhesive. Class-I box-type cavities were prepared. Identical ceramic inlays were designed and fabricated with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) device. The inlays were seated with Clearfil SE Bond/Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Medical) or ExciTE F DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent), each by two operators (five teeth per group). The inlays were stored in water for one week at 37°C, whereafter micro-tensile bond strength testing was conducted. The micro-tensile bond strength of the direct composite was significantly higher than that from conventional luting, and was independent of the operator (P<0.0001). Pre-testing failures were only observed with the conventional method. High-power light-curing of a direct composite may be a viable alternative to luting lithium disilicate glass-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations.
Guarda, Guilherme B; Gonçalves, Luciano S; Correr, Américo B; Moraes, Rafael R; Sinhoreti, Mário A C; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço
The aim of this study was to investigate the bond strength of ceramic restorations luted using a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE) under different dentin conditions. In the experimental groups, ceramic restorations were luted to bovine incisors with RelyX Unicem under the following conditions: [Dry dentin]: surface was dried using air stream for 15 s; [Moist dentin]: excess dentin moisture was removed with absorbent paper; [Bonding agent]: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) self-etching adhesive system was previously applied to dentin. In the Control group, cementation was done using an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Excite DSC) and Variolink II resin cement (Ivoclar Vivadent). Photoactivation of the resin cements was performed with UltraLume LED 5 unit (Ultradent). The restorations (n=5 per group) were sectioned into beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (padhesive failures was observed for the "bonding agent" and "dry dentin" groups. The "moist dentin" group presented predominantly cohesive failures within the luting material. The previous application of a self-etching adhesive showed no significant effect. Only excess dentin moisture should be removed for the cementation of ceramic restorations with self-adhesive resin cements.
Abo-Hamar, Sahar E; Federlin, Marianne; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Friedl, Karl-Heinz; Schmalz, Gottfried
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of either eugenol-containing or eugenol-free temporary cement removal by excavator or sandblasting on the shear bond strength of ceramic luted to dentin. A self-etching primer system, Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray Medical (PF2), and a total-etch bonding system, Excite/Variolink II, Vivadent (EXV), were used. One hundred and forty human molars, ground to expose dentin surfaces, were divided into 14 groups (seven groups for each adhesive system). For each adhesive system, either a eugenol-containing (Temp bond) or a eugenol-free (Temp bond NE) temporary cement was applied to the dentin surface for 7 days, then removed by an excavator or sandblasting (four groups). Three control groups were studied where fresh dentin was either scratched by excavator or sandblasted, or underwent no surface treatment. After application of the adhesives, ceramic cones (Cerafil inserts) were adhesively luted to standardized dentin areas. After 24 h storage in distilled water, the shear bond strengths were determined at a cross-head speed of 0.75 mm/min. For each adhesive system, neither the method of temporary cement removal nor the type of temporary cement affected the bond strength significantly (Pcements, either containing eugenol or not, does not alter the retentive strength of ceramic restorations luted to dentin using the tested adhesive systems, whether the temporary cements are removed by excavator or sandblasting.
Aykor, Arzu; Ozel, Emre
This study evaluated the long-term clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneers luted with hybrid composite in combination with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems. The study was performed on 30 patients ranging in age between 28 and 54 years. Ten veneers were performed per patient in the maxillary arch. In Group 1, 150 teeth were treated with porcelain veneers, using a total-etch adhesive system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus, 3M ESPE). In Group 2, 150 teeth were bonded with a self-etch adhesive system (AdheSE, Ivoclar-Vivadent). All the veneers were luted with a light-cured hybrid composite (Z100, 3M ESPE). The patients were recalled after 1, 2 and 5 years. Modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria were utilized to evaluate the porcelain laminate veneers in terms of marginal adaptation, cavo-surface marginal discoloration, secondary caries, postoperative sensitivity, satisfaction with restoration shade and gingival tissue response. Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square test (p 0.05). Porcelain veneers exhibited successful clinical performance with both total-etch and two-step self-etch adhesives at the end of five-years.
Alhekeir, Diemah F; Al-Sarhan, Rana A; Al Mashaan, Abdulmohsen F
To investigate the association of the failure of porcelain laminate veneers with factors related to the patient, material, and operator. This clinical survey involved 29 patients (19 women and 10 men) and their dentists, including undergraduate and postgraduate dental students and dental interns. Two questionnaires were distributed to collect information from participants. All patients were clinically examined. Criteria for failure of the porcelain laminate veneers included color change, cracking, fracture, and/or debonding. A total of 205 porcelain laminate veneers were evaluated. All of the restorations were fabricated from IPS e.max Press and cemented with Variolink Veneer (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Principality of Liechtenstein) or RelyX veneer cement (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA). The preparations were generally located in enamel (58.6%), and most veneers had an overlapped design (89.7%). Ten patients (34.48%) showed veneer failure, most often in terms of color change (60%). Overall, 82.8% of patients were satisfied with their restorations. Insufficient clinical skills or operator experience resulted in restoration failure in one-third of patients.
Lin, Tai-Min; Liu, Perng-Ru; Ramp, Lance C; Essig, Milton E; Givan, Daniel A; Pan, Yu-Hwa
The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate marginal discrepancy and fracture resistance of two veneering materials using two preparation designs. Two veneer preparation designs (full and traditional) were restored with leucite-reinforced ceramic (ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) milled by CAD/CAM (Cerec 3D milling system, Serona Dental Systems), and conventional sintered feldspathic porcelain (Noritake Super Porcelain EX3, Noritake Dental Supply Co). Forty-eight specimens were analysed with a sample size of n=12 per group. The thickness of each veneer was measured on four specific surfaces. Marginal discrepancy was evaluated with a replica technique and cross-sectional view using a digital microscope. The fracture resistance of veneers cemented on standardised composite resin dies was evaluated using a universal testing machine. Results were analysed with ANOVA, Tukey-Kramer post hoc testing, and linear regression. The results of this investigation revealed no correlation between the thickness and marginal discrepancy of the veneers. The full preparation design with ProCAD and the traditional preparation design with feldspathic porcelain manifested smaller gap. Fracture resistance was decreased for the full preparation design with feldspathic porcelain. In terms of marginal discrepancy and fracture resistance, the most favourable combination was a traditional veneer preparation design with conventional sintered feldspathic porcelain. For the full veneer preparation, a stronger ceramic material such as ProCAD is suggested. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kumar, Umesh; Dharmani, Charan Kamal Kaur; Singh, Shamsher; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem
Microleakage in class V Glass Ionomer Cement(GIC) or composite restorations at enamel or cementum margins has been cited as a reason for their failure. Air abrasion has been used to precondition tooth surface for increasing retention of such restorations. This study is done to evaluate the effect of preconditioning with air abrasion on microleakage in class V GIC and composite restorations. Class V cavities were prepared in 40 freshly extracted teeth. They were categorised into following four groups (n=10) depending on cavity preconditioning and restoration. Group I: 10% polyacrylic acid and GI (Ketac molar TM 3M ESPE); Group II: AA and GI; Group III: 35% Phosphoric acid and micro filled composite (MC) (Heliomolar, Ivoclar Vivadent); Group IV: AA and MC. Each group was further divided into subgroups A (no loading) & B (cyclic loading). Microleakage at occlusal and gingival margins was evaluated using methylene blue dye penetration method. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Microleakage at cementum margins was higher than at enamel margins in all the groups. Preconditioning with AA resulted in increased micro leakage. AA as a preconditioning agent was ineffective in producing superior tooth-restoration bonding.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The use of flowable composites as an orthodontic bonding adhesive merits great attention because of their adequate bond strength, ease of clinical handling and reduced number of steps in bonding. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this Randomized Controlled Trial was to comparatively evaluate over a 6-month period the bond failure rate of a flowable composite (Heliosit Orthodontic, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan and a conventional orthodontic bonding adhesive (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek. METHODS: 53 consecutive patients (23 males and 30 females who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. A total of 891 brackets were analyzed, where 444 brackets were bonded using Heliosit Orthodontic and 447 brackets were bonded using Transbond XT. The survival rates of brackets were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Bracket survival distributions for bonding adhesives, tooth location and dental arch were compared with the log-rank test. RESULTS: The failure rates of the Transbond XT and the Heliosit Orthodontic groups were 8.1% and 6% respectively. No significant differences in the survival rates were observed between them (p= 0.242. There was no statistically significant difference in the bond failure rates when the clinical performance of the maxillary versus the mandibular arches and the anterior versus the posterior segments were compared. CONCLUSIONS: Both systems had clinically acceptable bond failure rates and are adequate for orthodontic bonding needs.
Nemeth, Orsolya; Kivovics, Marton; Pinke, Ildiko; Marton, Krisztina; Kivovics, Peter; Garami, Miklos
The aim of this study was to investigate the later oral consequences of chemotherapy on the oral health of children with emphasis on the cariological status and the major and minor salivary gland function. Thirty-eight 12-year-old children (mean age 12.3 ± 0.58 years) who underwent chemotherapy were evaluated after 5 years of treatment. Forty age- and sex-matched healthy children with similar socioeconomic backgrounds served as controls. Subjects' cariological status was explained by the number of decayed, filled, missing permanent teeth (DMF-T), and unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva flow rates were measured by the spitting method. Palatal saliva flow rate using a Periotron meter (Oraflow Inc., Plainview, NY) and salivary buffer capacity using CRT buffer (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Lichtenstein) were also investigated. Children who underwent chemotherapy had significantly more decayed teeth than healthy controls (3.97 ± 3.58 vs 0.84 ± 1.75, respectively, p chemotherapy had significantly lower stimulated whole saliva flow rate (0.84 ± 0.35 vs 1.13 ± 0.46 ml/min, p chemotherapy in children might result in a decreased stimulated whole saliva flow rate, hyposalivation, and, consequently, increased caries risk. Although these processes might be compensated to a limited extend by the increased minor saliva flow rate, resulting in a higher buffer capacity, nutrition and oral hygiene control of children obtaining cancer therapy is essential in the preservation of the oral tissues.
Janaína Cavalcanti Xavier
Full Text Available Linear polymerization shrinkage (LPS, flexural strength (FS and modulus of elasticity (ME of low-viscosity resin composites (Admira Flow™, Grandio Flow™/VOCO; Filtek Z350 Flow™/3M ESPE; Tetric Flow™/Ivoclar-Vivadent was evaluated using a well-established conventional micro-hybrid composite as a standard (Filtek Z250™/3M ESPE. For the measurement of LPS, composites were applied to a cylindrical metallic mould and polymerized (n = 8. The gap formed at the resin/mould interface was observed using SEM (1500×. For FS and ME, specimens were prepared according to the ISO 4049 specifications (n = 10. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test. The conventional resin presented significantly lower LPS associated with high FS and ME, but only the ME values of the conventional resin differed significantly from the low-viscosity composites. The relationship between ME and LPS of low-viscosity resin composites when used as restorative material is a critical factor in contraction stress relief and marginal leakage.
Konjhodzic-Prcic, Alma; Jakupovic, Selma; Hasic-Brankovic, Lajla; Vukovic, Amra
The purpose of the current study was to estimate the biocompatibility of endodontic sealers with different bases on L929 mouse fibroblasts permanent cell line using Multiscan EX Spectrophotometer. Endodontics sealers used in this study were GuttaFlow (Roeko) silicone based sealer, AH plus (De Tray-DENTSPLY) epoxy resin based, Apexit (Vivadent) calcium hydroxide based and Endorez (Ultradent) methacrylate based sealer. Sealer were tested trough time, freshly mixed 24 h, 48h and 7 days after setting. Biocompatibility was determinate on permanent cell lines L929 mouse fibroblasts trough cytotoxicity using MTT assay. Level of absorption was measured with multi scan EX spectrophotometer on length 420-600 nm. Sealer based on calcium hydroxide Apexit Plus, GuttaFlow silicone based sealer and AH plus epoxy resin based sealer, have shown a low cytotoxicity through the all periods of time on culture of L292 mouse fibroblasts. Methacrylate based sealer, Endorez showed moderate cytotoxicity when freshly mixed and after 7 days. After 24 hours the visibility of the cells was 74,0% and after 48 hours 65,1%. which is slightly cytotoxic. According to results of this study there is a statistically significant difference among the groups p<0,05 for all the tested sealers. Apexit Plus, GuttaFlow and AH plus can be considered as biocompatibile. EndoREZ sealer which is based on methacrylate, after 7 days shows 50,1% of visible live cells which is considered as moderate cytotoxicity.
Latifi-Xhemajli, B; Véronneau, J; Begzati, A; Bytyci, A; Kutllovci, T; Rexhepi, A
Understanding factors in mothers associated with high and low salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli is an important strategy for early childhood caries prevention. Aim of the study was to identify the association between salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus and potential caries risk factors in mothers. Cross-sectional design used a voluntary sample of 300 mothers of young children. Close-ended questions and observations were used to identify mothers' potential caries risk factors. The presence of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli was determined using the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent). All collected information was converted into frequency and proportion describing the prevalence factor in correlation with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli cariogenic bacteria levels of infection. Results Sample participants showed a high caries risk based on socioeconomic, behavioural and clinical factors. also showed high levels (>105) of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli infections among 28% of mothers. Three factors were significantly associated with Streptococcus mutans infection: level of education, past caries experiences, and observable dental plaque, whereas, a fourth factor, frequency of daily tooth brushing, was associated to Lactobacilli infection. This study showed that easily collectible informations such as maternal level of education, frequency of daily tooth brushing and past clinical factors tend to be associated with high level of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli infections in caregivers.
Zicari, F; Coutinho, E; Scotti, R; Van Meerbeek, B; Naert, I
To evaluate flexural properties of different fiber posts systems and to morphologically characterize their micro-structure. Six types of translucent fiber posts were selected: RelyX Post (3M ESPE), ParaPost Taper Lux (Colthéne-Whaledent), GC Fiber Post (GC), LuxaPost (DMG), FRC Postec Plus (Ivoclar-Vivadent), D.T. Light-Post (RTD). For each post system and size, ten specimens were subjected to a three-points bending test. Maximum fracture load, flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined using a universal loading device (5848 MicroTester(®), Instron). Besides, for each system, three intact posts of similar dimensions were processed for scanning electron microscopy to morphologically characterize the micro-structure. The following structural characteristics were analyzed: fibers/matrix ratio, density of fibers, diameter of fibers and distribution of fibers. Data were statistically analyzed with ANOVA. Type and diameter of posts were found to significantly affect the fracture load, flexural strength and flexural modulus (ppost diameter, in each post system (pposts with the smallest diameter (ppost systems tested. However, any correlation has been found between flexural strength and structural characteristics. Flexural strength appeared not to be correlated to structural characteristics of fiber posts, but it may rather be affected by mechanical properties of the resin matrix and the interfacial adhesion between fibers and resin matrix. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bitter, K; Maletic, A; Neumann, K; Breschi, L; Sterzenbach, G; Taschner, M
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of various self-adhesive resin cements on the push-out bond strengths and nanoleakage expression at the luting interfaces of fiber posts immediately and after one year of aging. One hundred forty-four extracted human anterior teeth were endodontically treated. After post space preparation, fiber posts were luted using five commercially available self-adhesive resin (SAR) cements and a core build-up material applied with a self-etch adhesive (BF: Bifix SE/Rebilda Post, VOCO; CSA: Clearfil SA Cement/Rely X Fiber Post, 3M ESPE; RX: RelyX Unicem 2/Rely X Fiber Post, 3M ESPE; SPC: Speed Cem/FRC Postec, Ivoclar Vivadent; SMC: Smart Cem/X Post, Dentsply; RB: Rebilda DC-Futurabond/Rebilda Post; n=22). For each group, half of the specimens were subjected to thermocycling (TC) (5°C-55°C, 10,000 cycles) and stored humid for one year at 37°C. Push-out bond strength data of six slices (thickness 1 mm) per root and nanoleakage expression of representative specimens were evaluated after 24 hours (baseline) and after TC and storage for one year (aging), respectively. Bond strength differed significantly among resin cements (pFiber post luting using SAR cements demonstrated reliable bond strengths. Product-specific differences and initial degradation effects could be demonstrated.
Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip
Scuba diving is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressure variations to which divers are exposed on the pull out strength of glass fiber post luted with different cements. In this in vitro study, 120 extracted, single-rooted lower premolars were endodontically treated. They were randomly divided into six groups and restored using the glass fiber post (Ivoclar Vivadent AG) and the following luting agents: Zinc phosphate, conventional glass ionomer, resin reinforced glass ionomer, resin cement with etch-and-rinse adhesive, resin cement with self-etching adhesive, and self-adhesive resin cement. Each group was randomly divided into two equal subgroups, one as a control, and the other to be used experimentally. After 7 days of storage, experimental groups were pressure cycled. The force required to dislodge each post was recorded in Newton (N) on Universal testing machine (Star Testing System) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed using the ANOVA and Student's t-test (P posts cemented with zinc phosphate and conventional glass ionomer in pressure cycle group was significantly less than their control group. Although, no significant difference was found between pressure cycle and control group using resin reinforced glass ionomer cement and resin cements. Dentist should consider using resin reinforced glass ionomer or resin cement, for the cementation of glass fiber post, for the patients such as divers, who are likely to be exposed to pressure cycling.
Byeon, Seon Mi; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Tae Sung
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of single and combined applications of fluoride on the amount of fluoride release, and the remineralization and physical properties of enamel. Each of four fluoride varnish and gel products (Fluor Protector, FP, Ivoclar Vivadent; Tooth Mousse Plus, TM, GC; 60 Second Gel, A, Germiphene; CavityShield, CS, 3M ESPE) and two fluoride solutions (2% sodium fluoride, N; 8% tin(ii) fluoride, S) were applied on bovine teeth using single and combined methods (10 per group), and then the amount of fluoride release was measured for 4 wk. The electron probe microanalysis and the Vickers microhardness measurements were conducted to assess the effect of fluoride application on the surface properties of bovine teeth. The amount of fluoride release was higher in combined applications than in single application (p < 0.05). Microhardness values were higher after combined applications of N with FP, TM, and CS than single application of them, and these values were also higher after combined applications of S than single application of A (p < 0.05). Ca and P values were higher in combined applications of N with TM and CS than single application of them (p < 0.05). They were also increased after combined applications of the S with A than after single application (p < 0.05). Combined applications of fluoride could be used as a basis to design more effective methods of fluoride application to provide enhanced remineralization.
This was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) set in a community dental practice. The test varnish was a commercially available product, Fluor Protector (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), containing 0.1% fluoride as difluorosilane in a polyurethane varnish base. The placebo varnish applied had an identical composition but without fluoride. The incidence and prevalence of white spot lesions (WSL) on the upper incisors, cuspids and premolars were recorded, as scored from digital photographs by two independent examiners. In the case of disagreement, cases were re-examined until a consensus was achieved. The incidence of WSL during the treatment period was 7.4% in the fluoride varnish group compared with 25.3% placebo group (P <0.001). The mean progression score was significantly lower in the fluoride varnish group than in the placebo group, (0.8 +/- 2.0 vs 2.6 +/- 2.8; P <0.001). The absolute risk reduction was 18% and the number-needed-to-treat was calculated to be 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 3.7-10.9). The results strongly suggest that regular topical fluoride varnish applications may reduce the development of WSL adjacent to the bracket base during treatment with fixed appliances.
Barutcigil, Cağatay; Harorli, Osman Tolga; Yildiz, Mehmet; Ozcan, Erdal; Arslan, Hakan; Bayindir, Funda
The authors conducted a study to evaluate esthetic restorative materials' color differences after setting and color matching between set materials and a shade guide. The authors evaluated 13 resin-based composites, one silorane-based composite, two polyacid-modified resin composites and one conventional glass ionomer cement. They measured the color parameters of the samples, which were 8 millimeters in diameter and 1.5 mm in thickness, before and after they were set according to the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color scale relative to standard illumination against a white background by means of a dental colorimeter. They also compared the final colors of the restorative materials with a shade guide. Color difference values for each restorative material ranged from 3.25 to 14.04. With the exception of Fuji IX (GC, Tokyo), Filtek P60 (3M ESPE) and Te-Econom (Ivoclar Vivadent), the restorative materials exhibited a perceptible color change after setting. Color difference values between the set materials and the shade guide tabs ranged from 1.86 to 11.83. With the exception of Filtek Supreme XT (3M ESPE) and Fuji IX, the materials exhibited a perceptible difference. Most of the materials tested exhibited a significant color change after polymerization and did not match the shade guide tab after undergoing light curing.
Bevilacqua, L; Sossi, A; Cadenaro, M; Di Lenarda, R
Aim of this study was the evaluation of the microhardness of 4 dental sealants polymerised with two different curing units. Twenty samples (5 x 5x 2 mm) were prepared with 4 different sealants; 10 samples for each group were polymerised with a plasma curing unit (Apollo 95 E DMD) and 10 with a halogen curing light (Heliolux DLX Vivadent ETS, Schaan, Liechtenstein). For each section 6 Vickers microhardness measurements were performed (VMHT 30A, Leica Wien, Austria), 3 on the surface exposed to the light and 3 on the opposite surface. After the baseline assessment all samples were stored in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for 30, 60, 90, 180 and 360 days, and then analysed again with the microhardness indenter and observed under steromicroscope 10X (Leica DM2500 Wien, Austria). Data were then statistically analysed. The hybrid composite Tetric flow (group IV) showed the higher microhardness values compared to the other tested materials (group I, II, III); surfaces exposed to curing light showed higher microhardness values than opposite surfaces. Moreover, a significant microhardness reduction was observed after 30 days; values remained unmodified after 60, 90, 180 and 360 days. Data were then statistically analysed with Anova test for repeated measures, with a global significance level of 0.05. Because of the good mechanical properties of dental sealants they represent the first choice materials in pits and fissures sealing.
Matalon, Shlomo; Slutzky, Hagay; Mazor, Yardena; Weiss, Ervin I
Sealants form a physical barrier between the oral environment and deep fissures that contribute to caries prevention. It is postulated that sealants possessing antibacterial properties are advantageous. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of four pit and fissure sealants using direct contact test (DCT) and agar diffusion test (ADT). For the DCT, 8 samples of Helioseal F (Vivadent), Ultraseal XT (Ultadent-Weldent), Conseal F (SDI), and Dyract Seal (Dentsply) were placed on the sidewalls of wells of a 96-microtiter plate. After polymerization, freshly grown Streptococcus mutans cells (circa 1 x 10(6)) were placed on the surface of each sample for 1 hour at 37 degrees C. Fresh media was then added to each well and bacterial growth was followed for 16 hours by temperature-controlled spectrophotometer. Similarly prepared samples were aged in phosphate buffered saline for 14 and 30 days and the DCT was repeated. The ADT was performed by placing samples in uniform wells punched in agar plates. Freshly polymerized samples in the DCT, Dyract Seal and Ultraseal XT possessed prominent antibacterial properties. Dyract Seal also demonstrated the most potent antibacterial properties, which lasted 14 days but faded within 30 days. In ADT, the halo in the bacterial lawn was measured after 48 hours, and only Dyract Seal demonstrated an inhibition zone. The compomer-based sealant Dyract Seal possessed the most potent and longest lasting antibacterial activity.
Bošković Mirjana V.
Full Text Available Introduction. Contemporary reconstructive dentistry is considered to be a bioesthetic discipline, the study of the beauty of living creatures in their original form and functions. A discussion of esthetic dentistry, the sophisticated artificial restorations in the patient mouth, hardly discernible to an observer or expert eye, implies a whole series of qualities. Damage of hard tooth-tissue, which is not caused by caries, is a physiological process present throughout the whole life, but some factors can bring about great losses of the hard tissue. This damage can be caused by a combination of different etiological factors, such as genetical and functional ones. Case report. A patient is coming in dental surgery complaining of a large damage of the hard-tooth tissue, ugly appearance of his teeth, speech dysfunction and masticatory problems. An intraoral view shows the presence of a large teeth-abrasion. The treatment plan simplified the treatment with a combination of metal-ceramic restorations and a new ceramic system IPS e.max (Ivoclar Vivadentm Schaan, Liechtenstien. Conclusion. In this clinical case with presented abrasion the treatment was presented using all-ceramic restorations and classical metal-ceramic restorations to establish good health, function and estehetic. The use of restorations based on zirconium (IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein can produce excellent clinical results in the frontal, as well as in lateral segments.
Zucuni, C P; Guilardi, L F; Fraga, S; May, L G; Pereira, G K R; Valandro, L F
This study evaluated the effects of different pre-sintering fabrication processing techniques of Y-TZP ceramic (CAD/CAM Vs. in-lab), considering surface characteristics and mechanical performance outcomes. Pre-sintered discs of Y-TZP ceramic (IPS e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were produced using different pre-sintering fabrication processing techniques: Machined- milling with a CAD/CAM system; Polished- fabrication using a cutting device followed by polishing (600 and 1200 SiC papers); Xfine- fabrication using a cutting machine followed by grinding with extra-fine diamond bur (grit size 30 μm); Fine- fabrication using a cutting machine followed by grinding with fine diamond bur (grit size 46 μm); SiC- fabrication using a cutting machine followed by grinding with 220 SiC paper. Afterwards, the discs were sintered and submitted to roughness (n=35), surface topography (n=2), phase transformation (n=2), biaxial flexural strength (n=20), and biaxial flexural fatigue strength (fatigue limit) (n=15) analyses. No monoclinic-phase content was observed in all processing techniques. It can be observed that obtaining a surface with similar characteristics to CAD/CAM milling is essential for the observation of similar mechanical performance. On this sense, grinding with fine diamond bur before sintering (Fine group) was the best mimic protocol in comparison to the CAD/CAM milling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dharmani, Charan Kamal Kaur; Singh, Shamsher; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem
Background: Microleakage in class V Glass Ionomer Cement(GIC) or composite restorations at enamel or cementum margins has been cited as a reason for their failure. Air abrasion has been used to precondition tooth surface for increasing retention of such restorations. This study is done to evaluate the effect of preconditioning with air abrasion on microleakage in class V GIC and composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared in 40 freshly extracted teeth. They were categorised into following four groups (n=10) depending on cavity preconditioning and restoration. Group I: 10% polyacrylic acid and GI (Ketac molar TM 3M ESPE); Group II: AA and GI; Group III: 35% Phosphoric acid and micro filled composite (MC) (Heliomolar, Ivoclar Vivadent); Group IV: AA and MC. Each group was further divided into subgroups A (no loading) & B (cyclic loading). Microleakage at occlusal and gingival margins was evaluated using methylene blue dye penetration method. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Microleakage at cementum margins was higher than at enamel margins in all the groups. Preconditioning with AA resulted in increased micro leakage. Conclusion: AA as a preconditioning agent was ineffective in producing superior tooth-restoration bonding. PMID:24995240
Bitter, Kerstin; Noetzel, Jörn; Volk, Claudia; Neumann, Konrad; Kielbassa, Andrej Michael
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of antibacterial agents (erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Er:YAG] laser or gaseous ozone) intended to disinfect root canals on bond strengths of fiber posts compared with canals that were finally irrigated using chlorhexidine (CHX). One hundred forty-four human anterior teeth were divided into three groups (n = 48); root canal instrumentation was performed, and antimicrobial pretreatment was conducted as follows: control group: CHX, group 2: Er:YAG laser, and group 3: gaseous ozone. In all groups, fiber posts were inserted using Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan), Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), RelyX Unicem (3M Espe; Seefeld, Germany), or Ketac Cem (3M Espe) (n = 12 each). Push-out bond strengths to root canal dentin were affected by the type of luting agent but not by the antimicrobial pretreatment regimen. However, significant interactions between the luting agent and pretreatment could be observed, and adhesion of the self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem was significantly reduced after using gaseous ozone.
Ouchi, H; Tsujimoto, A; Nojiri, K; Hirai, K; Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the oxygen inhibition layer of universal adhesive on enamel bond fatigue durability and interfacial characteristics with different etching modes. The three universal adhesives used were Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), Adhese Universal (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Lichtenstein), and G-Premio Bond (GC, Tokyo, Japan). The initial shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength to enamel was determined in the presence and absence of the oxygen inhibition layer, with and without phosphoric acid pre-etching. The water contact angle was also measured in all groups using the sessile drop method. The enamel bonding specimens with an oxygen inhibition layer showed significantly higher (padhesive type and etching mode. Moreover, the water contact angles on the specimens with an oxygen inhibition layer were significantly lower (puniversal adhesives significantly increases the enamel bond fatigue durability and greatly changes interfacial characteristics, suggesting that the bond fatigue durability and interfacial characteristics of these adhesives strongly rely on its presence.
Tamura, Yukie; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Shimamura, Yutaka; Akiba, Shunsuke; Yabuki, Chiaki; Imai, Arisa; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi
The influences of air-powder polishing with glycine or sodium bicarbonate powders on shear bond strengths (SBS) and surface-free energies of universal adhesives were examined. Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SU, 3M ESPE), G-Premio Bond (GP, GC), Adhese Universal (AU, Ivoclar Vivadent), and All-Bond Universal (AB, Bisco) were used in this study. Bovine dentin surfaces were air polished with glycine or sodium bicarbonate powders prior to the bonding procedure, and resin pastes were bonded to the dentin surface using universal adhesives. SBSs were determined after 24-h storage in distilled water at 37°C. Surface-free energy was then determined by measuring contact angles using three test liquids on dentin surfaces. Significantly lower SBSs were observed for dentin that was air-powder polished and surface-free energies were concomitantly lowered. This study indicated that air-powder polishing influences SBSs and surface-free energies. However, glycine powder produced smaller changes in these surface parameters than sodium bicarbonate.
Lim, Myung-Jin; Jang, Hyun-Jin; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Min, Kyung-San
This study investigated the removal efficacy and cytotoxicity of a newly developed calcium hydroxide paste (cleaniCal, Maruchi) using N-2-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a vehicle in comparison with ApexCal (Ivoclar Vivadent) and Calcipex II (Nishika), which use different vehicles such as polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, respectively. Thirty maxillary premolars with oval-shaped canals were divided into 3 groups and the teeth were filled with one of the pastes. After removal of the paste, micro-computed tomographic (μ-CT) imaging was obtained to assess the volume of residual paste in the root canal of each tooth. The teeth were then split longitudinally and the area of the paste-coated surface was evaluated by stereomicroscopy. The cytotoxicity of each product was assessed using an agar overlay assay. The effect of each vehicle on cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests to detect any significance (p pastes in the agar overlay assay. Furthermore, NMP exhibited lower cell viability compared to the other vehicles. cleaniCal showed better removal efficacy compared to the other products. However, clinicians should be aware of the higher cytotoxicity of the NMP-based material and consider its possible adverse effects on periradicular tissue when it is overfilled.
Kargul, B; Tanboga, I; Gulman, N
To evaluate the retention rates of a resin based colour changing fissure sealant (Helioseal Clear Chroma; Ivoclar Vivadent AG Schaan, Liechtenstein) compared with a coloured resin based fluoride fissure sealant (Delton FS(+); Dentsply De Trey GmbH,Konstanz,Germany). The fissure sealants (FS) were placed on all 4 caries-free first permanent molars of 31 children aged 6-9 years, using a half mouth experimental design by a paediatric dentist according to the manufacturers' instructions. A total of 121 FS were placed at baseline. Teeth were evaluated at 3 month intervals for 36 months where a preventive program including topical fluoride application was applied. Retention rates for 36 months showed a differences between Delton FS(+) and Helioseal Clear Chroma that were statistically significant (pretention rate of 30.4% for 36 months compared with Helioseal Clear Chroma at 10.8% for the same evaluation period. Although Delton FS(+) showed significantly better results than Helioseal Clear Chroma for the evaluation periods, there were no statistically significant differences between Delton FS(+) (90.7%) and Helioseal Clear Chroma (80.4%) with respect to caries incidence at 36 months(p>0.05). Delton FS(+) showed a better complete retention rate for occlusal FS at one year. Both FS were aesthetically acceptable and easy to see during application and follow-up periods and gave significant protection from occlusal decay.
Oliveira, Luciana Butini; Zardetto, Cristina Giovanetti; Rocha, Rachel de; Rodrigues, Célia Regina; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla
The objectives of this study were 1) to compare the efficacy of biofilm removal with conventional (Bitufo 22) and triple-headed (DenTrust) toothbrushes on smooth and occlusal surfaces, and 2) to verify the influence of the person who performs the toothbrushing (mother vs dentist). Twenty children aged 4 years old with sound, complete primary dentition participated in this crossover study. The quantity of biofilm was evaluated using the bacterial plaque revealer Plaque Test (Vivadent) before and after toothbrushing by the mother or dentist for 1 minute per arch. This was done at two separate appointments, one week apart, with one type of toothbrush at the first and the other type at the second appointment. The Green & Vermillion index (1960) was used for smooth surfaces and Rodrigues et al (1999) indexes for the occlusal surfaces. Data were submitted to analysis of variance. A statistically significant difference was observed on biofilm removal on occlusal and smooth surfaces, regardless of the toothbrush used or who performed the brushing (P teeth. The conventional toothbrush showed a better performance only on occlusal surfaces when the dentist performed the brushing (P biofilm than the mother, 76% and 53%, respectively (P biofilm removal was achieved with both toothbrushes; however, the tripleheaded type had a better performance on surfaces when the mother brushed the teeth. The dentist removed more biofilm than the mother.
Gesi, A; Magnolfi, S; Goracci, C; Ferrari, M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time needed to remove several types of fiber posts using two different bur kits. Estimates refer to the time needed to pass the fiber post until arriving at the gutta-percha. Sixty extracted anterior teeth were treated endodontically. A post space with a standard depth of 10 mm was prepared in each root canal. The sample was randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 specimens each. Three different types of posts were cemented: group 1, Conic 6% tapered fiber posts (Ghimas); group 2, FRC Poster fiber posts (Ivoclar-Vivadent); and group 3, Composipost carbon fiber posts (RTD). To remove the post, for half of each group's specimens the burs from the RTD fiber posts removal kit were used (subgroup A). From the other half of the teeth in each group (subgroup B), posts were removed by using a diamond bur and a Largo bur. Composipost carbon fiber posts (group 3) took significantly less time to remove than the other two types of posts (p type of post and the type of bur kit used was not significant (p > 0.05).
Erlina Sih Mahanani
Full Text Available Background: Salvadora persica is a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth that it is known Siwak. Several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial effects of Salvadora persica. Purpose: This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of Salvadora persica in several modified preparation against the salivary Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli. Methods: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial study with crossover design was used. The study comprised of 5 groups, per group consisted of 14 healthy dental students who had good oral hygiene. Each participant was given 5 intervention to clean their teeth using, electric toothbrush modified with siwak, electric toothbrush with siwak toothpaste (colgate kayu sugi toothpaste, electric toothbrush with general toothpaste (colgate total toothpaste, original siwak chewing stick and normal saline. The wash out periode each intervention was 3 days. Patients’ saliva was used to quantify the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli using caries risk test (CRT kit from Vivadent. Results: The results showed that there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli risk score after cleansing different intervention except electric toothbrush modified with siwak. However, there was no significant difference for Streptococcus mutans (p=0.158 and Lactobacilli (p=0.396 risk score reduction when comparison was done between the groups. Conclusion: The original siwak chewing stick has antimicrobial effects similar to toothbrushing with general toothpaste and salvadora persica toothpaste. However, electric toothbrush modified with siwak has no effect on microbial reduction.Latar belakang: Salvadora persica adalah pembersih gigi tradisional yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Siwak. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Salvadora persica memiliki daya antibakteri. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas Salvadora persica dalam berbagai bentuk sediaan untuk membersihkan
Jain, Sidharth; Parkash, Hari; Gupta, Sharad; Bhargava, Akshaya
Fractures of metal-ceramic restoration pose an esthetic and functional dilemma both for patient and the dentist. Intraoral repair systems eliminate the remake and removal of restoration. Many intraoral repair materials and surface treatments are available to repair intraorally fractured metal-ceramic restoration. Bond strength data of various materials and specific technique used for repair are necessary for predicting the success of a given repair system. This study evaluated the shear bond strength of three different intraoral repair systems for metal-ceramic restorations applied on exposed metal and porcelain surface. One hundred and twenty metal discs (20 mm in diameter × 0.7 mm thick) were fabricated with nickel-chromium alloy (Mealloy, Dentsply, USA). Feldspathic porcelain (Duceram, Degudent, Germany) were applied over one test surface of the discs in the thickness of 1.8 mm followed by conventional firing. The defect, which simulates clinical failures were created in 1/4th area of the metal-ceramic discs. The metal-ceramic discs samples were divided into ceramic substrate (Group I, n = 60) and metal substrate (Group II, n = 60), according to the defect location. Then, samples of ceramic substrate (Group I) and metal substrate (Group II) were subdivided into A, B according to the surface treatments (A; roughening with diamond bur and B; abraded with 50 μ Al2O3) and repaired with one of the intraoral repair systems tested (a. Ceramic repair system, Ivoclar Vivadent; b. Clearfil repair system, Kurary, c; Porcelain repair system, 3 M ESPE). All the repaired samples were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h. After thermocycling at 6-60° C, all the samples were stored at 37 °C for additional 7 days. Shear bond strength of all the samples were calculated by using Universal testing machine. The mean shear bond strength values for the group I (A/B) were as follows: Ceramic repair system (9.47 ± 1.41/14.03 ± 2.54 MPa), Clearfil
Sérgio Lima Santiago
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical performance of bonded composite (Excite/Tetric Ceram - Vivadent versus a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer - 3M for restoring non-carious cervical lesions. A total of 70 restorations (thirty-five per material were placed in 30 patients, 18-50 aged, by one operator. Rubber dam was employed in all cases, lesions were pumiced, enamel margins were not beveled, and no mechanical retention was placed. The restorations were directly assessed by two independent evaluators using modified-USPHS criteria for six clinical categories. The ratings for clinical acceptability restorations (alfa plus bravo were as follows (Tetric Ceram/Vitremer: retention (86%/100%, marginal integrity (100%/100%, marginal discoloration (100%/100%, wear (97%/100%, postoperative sensitivity (100%/100% and recurrent caries (100%/100%. Statistical analysis was completed with Fisher's exact or Pearson Chi-square tests at a significance level of 5% (PAvaliou-se o desempenho clínico de um sistema restaurador adesivo (Excite - Tetric Ceram/ Vivadent e do cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina (Vitremer/ 3M na restauração de lesões cervicais não cariosas por meio do sistema de avaliação do USPHS modificado. Um total de setenta restaurações, trinta e cinco por material, foi realizado por um único operador em trinta pacientes voluntários com idades de 18 a 50 anos. Previamente à execução das restaurações, foi realizada uma profilaxia com pedra-pomes e água a fim de remover quaisquer resíduos. As lesões cervicais não foram submetidas a qualquer tipo de preparo cavitário, sendo restauradas sob isolamento absoluto e de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Todas as restaurações foram avaliadas pelo método direto por dois examinadores usando os critérios de retenção (R, integridade marginal (IM, descoloração marginal (DM, desgaste (D, sensibilidade pós-operatória (S e incidência de
Avaliação da resistência adesiva e do padrão de descolagem de diferentes sistemas de colagem de braquetes associados à clorexidina Evaluation of the bond strength and debonding pattern of different bracket bonding systems associated with chlorhexidine
Jorge Luís de Oliveira Ribeiro
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar a resistência adesiva e o padrão de descolagem de diferentes sistemas de colagem de braquetes (Sistema Transbond XT / 3M-Unitek e Sistema Enlight / Ormco cujos respectivos adesivos foram pré-misturados ao verniz de clorexidina (Cervitec / Ivoclar-Vivadent. METODOLOGIA: a amostra utilizada foi constituída por 60 pré-molares humanos, extraídos por indicações ortodônticas, incluídos em cilindros de PVC e divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: grupo 1 - Sistema Transbond XT conforme prescrito pelo fabricante; grupo 2 - Sistema Transbond XT associado a verniz de clorexidina; grupo 3 - Sistema Enlight conforme prescrito pelo fabricante; grupo 4 - Sistema Enlight associado a verniz de clorexidina. A resistência adesiva foi avaliada pelo teste de cisalhamento na máquina de ensaios universal EMIC (0,5mm/min; o padrão de descolagem foi avaliado, através da lupa estereoscópica STEMI 2000-C / Zeiss (20x, pela observação do Índice de Adesivo Remanescente (IAR na superfície do esmalte dentário, após a descolagem dos braquetes. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p AIM: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength and the debonding pattern of different bracket bonding systems (Transbond XT System / 3M-Unitek and Enlight System / Ormco whose respective adhesives were pre-mixed with chlorhexidine varnish (Cervitec / Ivoclar-Vivadent. METHODS: The sample used consisted of sixty human pre-molars extracted for orthodontic purposes, included in PVC cylinder and randomly divided in four experimental groups: group 1 - Transbond XT System according to the manufacturer’s instructions; group 2 - Transbond XT System combined with chlorhexidine varnish; group 3 - Enlight System according to the manufacturer’s instructions; group 4 - Enlight System combined with chlorhexidine varnish. The bond strength evaluation was obtained through
Full Text Available Objectives There has been a growing interest in glass ceramic systems with good esthetics, high fracture resistance and bonding durability, and simplified fabrication techniques using CAD/CAM. The aim of this study is to compare flexural strength before and after heat treatment of two lithium disilicate CAD/CAM blocks, IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent and Rosetta SM (Hass, and to observe their crystalline structures. Materials and Methods Biaxial flexural strength was tested according to ISO 6872 with 20 disc form specimens sliced from each block before and after heat treatment. Also, the crystalline structures were observed using field-emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM, Hitachi and x-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku analysis. The mean values of the biaxial flexural strength were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test at a significance level of p = 0.05. Results There were no statistically significant differences in flexural strength between IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM either before heat treatment or after heat treatment. For both ceramics, the initial flexural strength greatly increased after heat treatment, with significant differences (p < 0.05. The FE-SEM images presented similar patterns of crystalline structure in the two ceramics. In the XRD analysis, they also had similar patterns, presenting high peak positions corresponding to the standard lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate at each stage of heat treatment. Conclusions IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM showed no significant differences in flexural strength. They had a similar crystalline pattern and molecular composition.
Bitter, Kerstin; Gläser, Christin; Neumann, Konrad; Blunck, Uwe; Frankenberger, Roland
Restoration of endodontically treated teeth using fiber posts in a one-stage procedure gains more popularity and aims to create a secondary monoblock. Data of detailed analyses of so called "post-and-core-systems" with respect to morphological characteristics of the resin-dentin interface in combination with bond strength measurements of fiber posts luted with these materials are scarce. The present study aimed to analyze four different post-and-core-systems with two different adhesive approaches (self-etch and etch-and-rinse). Human anterior teeth (n = 80) were endodontically treated and post space preparations and post placement were performed using the following systems: Rebilda Post/Rebilda DC/Futurabond DC (Voco) (RB), Luxapost/Luxacore Z/Luxabond Prebond and Luxabond A+B (DMG) (LC), X Post/Core X Flow/XP Bond and Self Cure Activator (Dentsply DeTrey) (CX), FRC Postec/MultiCore Flow/AdheSE DC (Ivoclar Vivadent) (MC). Adhesive systems and core materials of 10 specimens per group were labeled using fluorescent dyes and resin-dentin interfaces were analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Bond strengths were evaluated using a push-out test. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement ANOVA and following post-hoc test. CLSM analyses revealed significant differences between groups with respect to the factors hybrid layer thickness (ppost-and-core-system. All systems demonstrated homogenous hybrid layer formation and penetration into the dentinal tubules in spite of the complicating conditions for adhesion inside the root canal.
Rahiotis, Christos; Patsouri, Katerina; Silikas, Nick; Kakaboura, Afrodite
We evaluated the curing efficiency of 4 high-intensity light-emitting diode (LED) devices by assessing percentage of residual C=C (%RDB), surface microhardness (SM), depth of cure (DC), percentage of linear shrinkage-strain (%LS), and percentage of wall-to-wall contraction (%WWC). The light-curing units tested were a QTH light, the Elipar TriLight (3M/ESPE), and 4 LED devices - the Allegro (Denmat), the Bluephase (Ivoclar/Vivadent), the FreeLight2 (3M/ESPE), and The Cure TC-01 (Spring Health Products). The %RDB was measured by microFTIR spectroscopy. Microhardness measurements (Vickers) were performed at the surface (H0) and at depths of 3 mm (H3) and 5 mm (H5) of cylindrical specimens. Depth of cure was expressed as the ratio of microhardness at each depth, relative to the corresponding surface value (H3/H0 and H5/H0). The bonded disc method was used to evaluate %LS. For the %WWC evaluation, cylindrical resin restorations were imaged by high resolution micro-CT and the %WWC was calculated at depths of 0 mm and 2 mm. There were no statistical differences among the LEDs in %RDB or %LS. The Bluephase and Allegro had the highest SM values. As compared with the other LEDs, the Bluephase and The Cure TC-01 had lower values for depth of cure at depths of 3 mm and 5 mm. There were no significant differences in %WWC among the LEDs at either depth, and the QTH had the lowest %WWC at both depths.
Giachetti, L; Scaminaci Russo, D; Baldini, M; Goracci, C; Ferrari, M
To evaluate the compatibility between aged siloranes and methacrylate-based composites by simulating a common repair-technique. Twenty substrates were constructed using silorane (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) and methacrylate composites (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE). Substrates were aged in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C for 72 hours. Silorane build-ups were constructed on silorane substrates without any intermediate layer (IL). Methacrylate build-ups were constructed on silorane substrates without any IL, with a methacrylate IL (Heliobond, Ivoclar Vivadent), or with a phosphate-methacrylate IL (Silorane System Adhesive Bond, 3M ESPE). Methacrylate build-ups were also constructed on methacrylate substrates without any IL. The micro-shear bond strength test was carried out after thermocycling. Bond strength data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. Failure modes were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy observations. The silorane-methacrylate group without any IL showed the lowest bond strength values (0.4 ± 0.1 MPa). The use of a methacrylate-based IL (1.6 ± 1.7 MPa) led to a slight increase in bond strength, whereas the use of phosphate-methacrylate IL (9.1 ± 5.4 MPa) significantly increased bond strength. There was no statistically significant difference in bond strength between silorane-silorane (7.9 ± 3.6 MPa) and methacrylate-methacrylate (9.5 ± 4.1 MPa) groups without any IL.
Vashisth, Pallavi; Mittal, Mudit; Goswami, Mousumi; Chaudhary, Seema; Dwivedi, Swati
To evaluate the interfacial morphology and the bond strength produced by the three-step, two-step and single-step bonding systems in primary teeth. Occlusal surfaces of 72 extracted human deciduous teeth were ground to expose the dentin. The teeth were divided into four groups: (a) Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M, ESPE), (b) Adh Se (Vivadent), (d) OptiBond All-in-One (Kerr) and (e)Futurabond NR (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). The adhesives were applied to each group following the manufacturer's instructions. Then, teeth from each group were divided into two groups: (A) For viewing interfacial morphology (32 teeth), with 8 teeth in each group, and (B) For measurement of bond strength (40 teeth), with 10 teeth in each group. All the samples were prepared for viewing under SEM. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0 software. Observational measurement of tag length in different adhesives revealed that Scotchbond had the most widely spread values with a range from 12.20 to 89.10μm while OptiBond AIO had the narrowest range (0 to 22.50). The bond strength of Scotchbond Multipurpose was significantly higher (7.4744±1.88763) (p<0.001) as compared to Futurabond NR (3.8070±1.61345), Adhe SE (4.4478 ± 1.3820) and OptiBond-all-in-one (4.4856±1.07925). The three-step bonding system showed better results as compared to simplified studied bonding systems.
Full Text Available To evaluate the interfacial morphology and the bond strength produced by the three-step, two-step and single-step bonding systems in primary teeth.Occlusal surfaces of 72 extracted human deciduous teeth were ground to expose the dentin. The teeth were divided into four groups: (a Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M, ESPE, (b Adh Se (Vivadent, (d OptiBond All-in-One (Kerr and (eFuturabond NR (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany. The adhesives were applied to each group following the manufacturer's instructions. Then, teeth from each group were divided into two groups: (A For viewing interfacial morphology (32 teeth, with 8 teeth in each group, and (B For measurement of bond strength (40 teeth, with 10 teeth in each group. All the samples were prepared for viewing under SEM. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0 software.Observational measurement of tag length in different adhesives revealed that Scotchbond had the most widely spread values with a range from 12.20 to 89.10μm while OptiBond AIO had the narrowest range (0 to 22.50. The bond strength of Scotchbond Multipurpose was significantly higher (7.4744±1.88763 (p<0.001 as compared to Futurabond NR (3.8070±1.61345, Adhe SE (4.4478 ± 1.3820 and OptiBond-all-in-one (4.4856±1.07925.The three-step bonding system showed better results as compared to simplified studied bonding systems.
Yap, Adrian U J; Soh, M S
This study investigated the curing efficacy of a new generation high-power LED lamp (Elipar Freelight 2 [N] 3M-ESPE). The effectiveness of composite cure with this new lamp was compared to conventional LED/halogen (Elipar Freelight [F], 3M-ESPE; Max [M], Dentsply-Caulk) and high-power halogen (Elipar Trilight [T], 3M-ESPE; Astralis 10 [A], Ivoclar Vivadent) lamps. Standard continuous (NS, FS, TS; MS), turbo (AT) and exponential (NE, FE, TE) curing modes of the various lights were examined. Curing efficacy of the various lights and modes were determined by measuring the top and bottom surface hardness of 2-mm thick composite specimens (Z100, 3M-ESPE) using a digital microhardness tester (n=5; load=500 g; dwell time=15 seconds) one hour after light polymerization. The hardness ratio was computed by dividing HK (Knoops Hardness) of the bottom surface by HK of the top surface. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA/Scheffe's test and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Results of the statistical analysis were as follows: HK top--E, FE, NE > NS and NE > AT, TS, FS; HK bottom--TE, NE > NS; Hardness ratio--NS > FE and FS, TS > NE. No significant difference in HK bottom and hardness ratio was observed between the two modes of Freelight 2 and Max. Freelight 2 cured composites as effectively as conventional LED/halogen and high-power halogen lamps, even with a 50% reduction in cure time. The exponential modes of Freelight 2, Freelight and Trilight appear to be more effective than their respective standard modes.
de Paula, Felipe Costa; Valentin, Regis de Souza; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; Medeiros, Maria Cristina Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Raiza Freitas; da Silva, Ademir Oliveira
The surface degree of conversion and crosslink density of composites should not be affected by the use of instrument lubricants in order to provide long-lasting tooth restorations. This study aimed to analyze the effect of instrument lubricants on the degree of conversion and crosslink density of nanocomposites. Samples (N = 10) were fabricated according to the composites (Filtek Z350 XT, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA; and IPS Empress Direct, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein and lubricants used (Adper Single Bond 2 and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose bonding agent adhesive systems, 3M ESPE; 70% ethanol, absolute ethanol, and no lubricant). Single composite increments were inserted into a Teflon mold using the same dental instrument. The composite surface was then modeled using a brush wiped with each adhesive system and a spatula wiped with each ethanol. The control group was fabricated with no additional modeling. The surface degree of conversion and crosslink density were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the hardness decrease test, respectively. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey's test (p degree of conversion regardless of the lubricant used, whereas the use of adhesive systems and 70% ethanol decreased the degree of conversion for IPS Empress Direct. Only Scotchbond Multi-Purpose bonding agent decreased crosslink density for Filtek Z350 XT, whereas both adhesive systems decreased crosslink density for IPS Empress Direct. Filtek Z350 XT appeared to be less sensitive to the effects of lubricants, and absolute ethanol did not affect the degree of conversion and crosslink density of the nanocomposites tested. Although the use of lubricants may be recommended to minimize the stickiness of dental instruments and composite resin, dentists should choose materials that do not have a negative effect on the surface properties of composites. Only the use of absolute ethanol safely maintains the surface integrity
Mehl, Christian; Ali, Shurouk; El Bahra, Shadi; Harder, Sönke; Vollrath, Oliver; Kern, Matthias
The main goal of this in-vitro study was to evaluate whether tensile strength and retrievability of cemented implant-retained crowns correlate when using artificial aging. A total of 128 crowns were fabricated from a cobalt-chromium alloy for 128 tapered titanium abutments (6 degrees taper, 4.3 mm diameter, 4 mm length, Camlog). The crowns were cemented with glass-ionomer (Ketac Cem, 3M) or resin cements (Multilink Implant, Telio CS Cem [Ivoclar Vivadent], Retrieve [Parkell]). Multilink Implant was used without priming. The experimental groups were subjected to either 37,500 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C, 1,200,000 chewing cycles, or a combination of both. Control groups were stored for 10 days in deionized water. The crowns were removed with a universal testing machine or a clinically used removal device (Coronaflex, KaVo). Data were statistically analyzed using nonparametrical tests. Retention values were recorded between 31 N and 362 N. Telio CS Cem showed the lowest retention values, followed by Retrieve, Ketac Cem, and Multilink Implant (P≤.0001). The number of removal attempts with the Coronaflex were not significantly different between the cements (P>.05). Thermal cycling and chewing simulation significantly influenced the retrieval of Retrieve Telio CS Cem, and Ketac Cem specimens (P≤.05). Only for Multilink Implant and Telio CS Cem correlations between removal with the universal testing machine and the Coronaflex could be revealed (P≤.0001). Ketac Cem and Multilink Implant (without silane) can be used for a semipermanent cementation. Retrieve and Telio CS Cem are recommendable for a temporary cementation.
Reddy, V Rajashekar; Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Mukunda, K S; Kiran, N K; Kavyarani, B S; Pradeep, M C
The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent) and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE) pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen's criteria at 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th), 8(th), 10(th) and 12(th) month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. At the end of our study period (12(th) month), 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F) pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro) pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled) sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled).
V Rajashekar Reddy
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen′s criteria at 2 nd , 4 th , 6 th , 8 th , 10 th and 12 th month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: At the end of our study period (12 th month, 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of sealant placement under the guidelines of the Oral Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (Portugal, and to test the influence of clinical and socioeconomic variables on the DMFT increment in 277 children, born in 1997. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A dental hygienist performed the initial examinations and sealant placement (Helioseal, Vivadent on the permanent first molars in 2005. These activities were registered in dental records that were assessed in 2007. Children were classified according to caries risk at baseline [high (HR: DMFT+dmft>0; low (LR: DMFT+dmft=0 risk] and sealant placement as follows: HR-S and LR-S Groups (with sealant placement; HR-NS and LR-NS Groups (without sealant placement. A calibrated dentist performed the final examination in 2007 at school, based on the World Health Organization recommendations. The variables collected were: dental caries, visible dental plaque, malocclusions, and socioeconomic level (questionnaire sent to children's parents. For univariate (Chi-square or Fisher tests and multivariate (Multiple logistic regression analyses the DMFT increment >0 was selected as dependent variable. RESULTS: Approximately 17.0% of the children showed DMFT increment>0 (mean=0.25. High-risk children presented a significant increase in the number of decayed and/or filled teeth. These children had 7.94 more chance of developing caries. Children who did not receive sealant were 1.8 more prone to have DMFT increment >0. CONCLUSION: It appears that sealant placement was effective in preventing dental caries development. Moreover, the variables "risk" and "sealant placement" were predictors for DMFT increment in the studied children.
Dietschi, Didier; Benbachir, Nacer; Krejci, Ivo
Various bleaching modalities are now offered to patients, either monitored by the dental office or self-directed, for which relative efficiency is unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the ability of bleaching products and protocols to lighten enamel and dentin. Bovine tooth specimens of standardized thickness (2.5 +/- 0.025 mm with similar dentin and enamel thickness) were prepared and stained with whole blood and hemolysate before being submitted to seven supervised or self-directed bleaching regimens: tray-based bleaching using 10% (Opalescence, Ultradent; Nite White, Discus Dental) or light-activated 30% (Metatray, Metatray) carbamide peroxide (CP); 6% (Zoom, Discus Dental) or 9% (TresWhite, Ultradent) hydrogen peroxide (HP); strips (Whitening Strips, Oral B-Rembrandt); and paint-on gel (Paint on Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent) containing 8.1% and 6% HP, respectively. Colorimetric measurements were performed on each specimen side, according to the CIE L*a*b* system, before and after staining, as well as after 5, 10, and the recommended number of bleaching applications. Color change after recommended number of applications (DEr) varied from 15.72 (Metatray) to 29.67 (Nite White) at enamel and 14.91 (Paint on Plus) to 41.43 (Nite White) at dentin side; Nite White (10% CP) and TresWhite (9% HP) were more effective than Metatray (30% CP) and Paint on Plus (6% HP) after 5 or the recommended number of applications. In this in vitro study based on bovine teeth, tray-based systems produced the faster and better bleaching effect, regardless of the product and concentration used, at both enamel and dentin sides.
BALDINI, Vânia; TAGLIAFERRO, Elaine Pereira da Silva; AMBROSANO, Gláucia Maria Bovi; MENEGHIM, Marcelo de Castro; PEREIRA, Antonio Carlos
Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of sealant placement under the guidelines of the Oral Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (Portugal), and to test the influence of clinical and socioeconomic variables on the DMFT increment in 277 children, born in 1997. Material and Methods A dental hygienist performed the initial examinations and sealant placement (Helioseal, Vivadent) on the permanent first molars in 2005. These activities were registered in dental records that were assessed in 2007. Children were classified according to caries risk at baseline [high (HR: DMFT+dmft>0); low (LR: DMFT+dmft=0) risk] and sealant placement as follows: HR-S and LR-S Groups (with sealant placement); HR-NS and LR-NS Groups (without sealant placement). A calibrated dentist performed the final examination in 2007 at school, based on the World Health Organization recommendations. The variables collected were: dental caries, visible dental plaque, malocclusions, and socioeconomic level (questionnaire sent to children's parents). For univariate (Chi-square or Fisher tests) and multivariate (Multiple logistic regression) analyses the DMFT increment >0 was selected as dependent variable. Results Approximately 17.0% of the children showed DMFT increment>0 (mean=0.25). High-risk children presented a significant increase in the number of decayed and/or filled teeth. These children had 7.94 more chance of developing caries. Children who did not receive sealant were 1.8 more prone to have DMFT increment >0. Conclusion It appears that sealant placement was effective in preventing dental caries development. Moreover, the variables "risk" and "sealant placement" were predictors for DMFT increment in the studied children. PMID:21710092
Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Price, Hannah Louise; Price, Richard Bengt
Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (pSlim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p<0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Araújo, M S R G; Souza, L C; Apolonio, Fabianni Magalhães; Barros, Lívia Oliveira; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Saboia, V P A
The aim of this 24-month double-blind randomized paired-tooth clinical study was to evaluate the 2-year clinical performance of two self-etch adhesives containing or not chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Twenty-two patients, with at least four NCCLs, participated in this study. After sample size calculation, 126 restorations were assigned to one of the following groups: CSE--Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray); CSE/CHX--Clearfil SE Bond+CHX; ADS--AdheSE (Ivoclar Vivadent); and ADS/CHX--AdheSE+CHX. The composite resin Filtek Z-250 composite (3M ESPE) was placed incrementally by one expert operator. The restorations were evaluated at baseline and after 2 years using the modified USPHS criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with Friedman repeated measures ANOVA by rank and Fisher exact test for significance in each pair (α=0.05). No significant difference was observed between baseline and 2-year for any criteria when adhesives with and without the addition of CHX were compared (p>0.05). ADS and ADS/CHX resulted in lower retention rates (82% on average) than CSE and CSE/CHX (97%) (p=0.02). The inclusion of CHX into the primer of both self-etch systems did not add clinical advantages over the 2-year period. Clearfil SE Bond resulted in better retention rate than AdheSE. It is more important to choose a gold standard self-etch adhesive, like a Clearfil SE Bond, than to consider the inclusion of CHX in the self-etch adhesives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Resin composite is an option for the restoration of primary teeth, and new materials with simplified procedures are increasingly being suggested. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the microtensile bond strengths and fracture modes of flowable composites on primary dentin with application of different adhesive strategies. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted noncaries primary molars were abraded from buccal surfaces to expose dentin surface. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Group 1, Vertise™ Flow (Kerr (self-adhering flowable composite; Group 2, G-aenial Universal Flo® (GC Europe (used with one-step self-etch system; Group 3, Tetric® N-Flow (Ivoclar/Vivadent (used with two-step total etch system. Then, the flowable composites were applied to buccal dentin surfaces with the help of guide mold. Samples were embedded in acrylic blocks and sectioned to form dentin-composite sticks with a surface area of approximately 1 mm2. Finally, a total of 180 sticks were obtained to give each group of 60 sticks. Microtensile bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min. Fracture modes were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Statistical Analysis: Microtensile bond strengths data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric test. Results: The microtensile bond strengths of G-aenial (15.5 megapascals [Mpa] and Tetric (13.0 MPa were statistically significant higher than Vertise (2.3 MPa. It was recorded that most of fractures in G-aenial was 40% cohesive, Tetric was 53.3% mixed, and Vertise was 83.3% adhesive. Conclusions: The self-adhering flowable composite Vertise™ Flow had the lowest and G-aenial Universal Flo® had the highest microtensile bond values.
Tsitrou, E A; van Noort, R
The advantages of minimally invasive dentistry are well established, especially for direct restorations. However, when it comes to indirect restorations traditional tooth preparation designs are still advised by most manufacturers. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the ability of a CAD/CAM machine (Cerec) to produce minimal preparation designs and identify limiting parameters. Crown preparations based on the proposed minimal design were made using phantom teeth. Gauged burs (Intensiv SA; Meissinger, Germany) and a paralleling device were used to standardize preparations. Cerec Scan/Cerec 3D was used for scanning and designing. The materials tested were a resin composite (Paradigm MZ100, 3M ESPE) and two ceramic materials (ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, and VITA Mark II, Vita). The morphology, marginal integrity, and materials' integrity were examined. The design was subjected to an interactive process as material property limitations and constraints imposed by the system became apparent. SEM, optical microscopy, and transillumination were used for the qualitative control of the crowns. The results of this study showed that only the composite material produced acceptable crowns with intact margins for the minimal design initially proposed. The ceramic materials required a wider preparation design in order to produce acceptable crowns. Within the limitations of this study, the null hypothesis was partially rejected as it was found that only the composite material could produce acceptable crowns based on the proposed minimal design. It was also found that the materials' properties, the milling mode, and cutting instruments are determining factors in establishing the extent of the minimal preparation.
Suyama, Yuji; de Munck, Jan; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Yamada, Toshimoto; Van Meerbeek, Bart
Clinically, the most easy-to-use composite cements are the so-called self-adhesive composite cements (SAC's). Hardly any data is however today available on the long-term bonding effectiveness of such luting composites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond durability of different composite cements used to lute feldspathic ceramic blocks onto dentine. Four SAC's (Clearfil SA Cement, Kuraray; G-CEM, GC; SmartCem2, Dentsply; Unicem 3M ESPE), one 'self-etch' (Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray) and one 'etch-and-rinse' (Variolink ll, Ivoclar-Vivadent) multi-step composite cement were used to lute feldspathic ceramic blocks (Vita Mark II, Vita) onto dentine surfaces. Teeth were distributed randomly in 24 experimental groups according to two different surface-preparation techniques ('SMEAR-COVERED' versus 'SMEAR-FREE') and storage conditions ('IMMEDIATE' versus 'AGED'). Failure patterns were evaluated with a stereomicroscope, and afterwards imaged using Feg-SEM. Two additional specimens were processed for cement-dentine interfacial analysis using TEM. A linear mixed effects statistical model revealed significant differences for the variables 'composite cement', 'surface preparation' and 'ageing'. All self-adhesive composite cements, except Unicem (3M ESPE), did bond less favourably to fractured dentine. TEM revealed an ultra-structurally different interaction of the composite cements with 'SMEAR-COVERED' and 'SMEAR-FREE' dentine. All SAC's suffered most when luted to 'SMEAR-FREE' (fractured) dentine, fortunately of no clinical relevance and most likely due to enhanced water sorption through the open tubules. When luted to 'SMEAR-COVERED' dentine, all SACs appeared equally effective and durable as the 'etch-and-rinse' and 'self-etch' multi-step composite cements. Solely the SAC SmartCem2 (Dentsply) appeared clearly less favourable and consistent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daiana Kelly Lopes HERNANDES
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3 layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP, and chroma of low (LT and high (HT translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. Material and Methods One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B and white (W background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C*ab=(a*2+b*2½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Conclusions Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable.
Beck, Kelly A; Sarantopoulos, Demetrios M; Kawashima, Isao; Berzins, David W
An entirely new subclass of casting alloy composition whereby palladium (∼approximately 25 wt%) is added to traditional base metal alloys such as CoCr and NiCr was recently introduced to the market. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elemental release of new CoPdCr and NiPdCr alloys and compare them to traditional CoCr and NiCr alloys. Five casting alloys were investigated: CoPdCr-A (NobleCrown NF, The Argen Corporation), CoPdCr-I (Callisto CP+, Ivoclar Vivadent), NiPdCr (NobleCrown, Argen), CoCr (Argeloy N.P. Special, Argen), and NiCr (Argeloy N.P. Star, Argen). Rectangular specimens (n = 6/alloy) were prepared and immersed in a lactic acid/NaCl solution at 37°C for 7 days according to ISO 10271. Solutions were analyzed with ICP-AES to determine elemental release. The concentrations of major ions (cobalt, nickel, palladium, chromium, and molybdenum) were compared using a generalized linear model (p alloys released a significantly greater amount of respective ions (Co, Cr, Mo, and total ions) compared to the traditional CoCr alloy. No significant differences in elemental release were noted between NiPdCr and NiCr. Optical microscopic examination showed abundant areas of corrosion in the palladium-containing CoCr alloys after immersion, whereas little difference was observed for the other alloys. Corrosion resistance measured via elemental release was compromised when CoCr was alloyed with palladium, but this effect was not observed with NiCr. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Full Text Available The effect of composition glass fiber non dental on water solubility of fiber reinforced composites. E glass fiber dental is one of the most used dental fibers in several applications in the dental field. However, the available of E glass fiber dental in Indonesia is very limited. A variety of types of non-dental glass fiber material is easily found as the materials engineering. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of composition non dental glass fiber on the component solubility of FRC. The materials used in the research was E glass fiber dental (Fiber splint, Polydentia SA, Switzerland, composition A non-dental glass fiber (LT, China, composition B (CMAX, China, composition C (HJ, China, flowable composite (Charmfill Flow, Denkist, Korea and silane coupling agent (Monobond S, Ivoclair Vivadent, Liechtenstein. The subject was divided into 4 groups. Component solubility test was based on the ISO 4049. The result was then analyzed with one way ANOVA (α=0,05. The result of the research showed that on the average percentage of the solubility (%, the lowest was on the group of E glass fiber dental (0.476±0.03 and the highest was on the non dental glass fiber C (0.600±0.01. The result of the one way ANOVA test showed a significant difference between the compositiom fiber on the component solubility. The conclusion the research was that low content of Na2O K2O, CaO and MgO decreased the component solubility of FRC.
Shibasaki, S; Takamizawa, T; Nojiri, K; Imai, A; Tsujimoto, A; Endo, H; Suzuki, S; Suda, S; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M
The present study determined the mechanical properties and volumetric polymerization shrinkage of different categories of resin composite. Three high viscosity bulk fill resin composites were tested: Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TB, Ivoclar Vivadent), Filtek Bulk Fill posterior restorative (FB, 3M ESPE), and Sonic Fill (SF, Kerr Corp). Two low-shrinkage resin composites, Kalore (KL, GC Corp) and Filtek LS Posterior (LS, 3M ESPE), were used. Three conventional resin composites, Herculite Ultra (HU, Kerr Corp), Estelite ∑ Quick (EQ, Tokuyama Dental), and Filtek Supreme Ultra (SU, 3M ESPE), were used as comparison materials. Following ISO Specification 4049, six specimens for each resin composite were used to determine flexural strength, elastic modulus, and resilience. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage was determined using a water-filled dilatometer. Data were evaluated using analysis of variance followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference test (α=0.05). The flexural strength of the resin composites ranged from 115.4 to 148.1 MPa, the elastic modulus ranged from 5.6 to 13.4 GPa, and the resilience ranged from 0.70 to 1.0 MJ/m 3 . There were significant differences in flexural properties between the materials but no clear outliers. Volumetric changes as a function of time over a duration of 180 seconds depended on the type of resin composite. However, for all the resin composites, apart from LS, volumetric shrinkage began soon after the start of light irradiation, and a rapid decrease in volume during light irradiation followed by a slower decrease was observed. The low shrinkage resin composites KL and LS showed significantly lower volumetric shrinkage than the other tested materials at the measuring point of 180 seconds. In contrast, the three bulk fill resin composites showed higher volumetric change than the other resin composites. The findings from this study provide clinicians with valuable information regarding the mechanical properties and
Stappert, Christian F J; Derks, Jan; Gerds, Thomas; Strub, Jörg R
This in-vitro study investigated the marginal accuracy of press-ceramic full veneers with different preparation designs. Measurements of the marginal gap were performed after adhesive cementation as well as after mouth motion fatigue of the veneers. 64 extracted human maxillary central incisors were divided into four groups of 16 specimens each and prepared as follows: Group SZ = enamel (S) restricted 0.5 mm deep preparation with a high palatal shoulder (contact point on tooth structure [Z]), Group SK = enamel (S) restricted 0.5 mm deep preparation with a low palatal shoulder (contact point on ceramic [K]), Group DZ = dentine (D) included 1 mm deep preparation with a high palatal shoulder (contact point on tooth structure), Group DK = dentine included 1 mm deep preparation with a low palatal shoulder (contact point on ceramic). IPS e.max Press ceramic was used to fabricate the full veneers. Restorations were adhesively luted with a dual-polymerizing resin-cementVariolinkII* (*Ivoclar-Vivadent AG). Specimens underwent fatigue in a masticatory simulator (1.2 million cycles; 49 N), including thermal cycling (5500; 5 degrees C/55 degrees C). Computer-aided measurements of the marginal accuracy using stereo-light-microscopy (200x) resulted in mean values of 56 pm to 64 pm after adhesive luting. Masticatory simulation did not cause significant changes of mean marginal accuracies. In comparison, neither the adhesive cementation of the veneers to mainly enamel or dentin nor the position of load application did demonstrate a significant influence on the marginal fit in the given investigation period. Based on the used measurement methods, mouth motion fatigue of the restorations did not demonstrate a significant change of marginal fit.
Wolfart, Stefan; Eschbach, Stefanie; Scherrer, Susanne; Kern, Matthias
The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of crown-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) made from a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar-Vivadent). Thirty-six three-unit FDPs were placed in 28 patients. The FDPs replaced teeth in the anterior (16%) and posterior (84%) regions. All teeth were prepared following a standardized protocol. The size of the proximal connector of the FDPs was 12 mm2 (anterior) or 16 mm2 (posterior). FDPs were cemented either with glass-ionomer cement (n=19) or composite resin (n=17). The following parameters were evaluated at baseline, 6 months after cementation and then annually (at abutment and contralateral teeth): probing pocket depth, plaque index, bleeding on probing, and tooth vitality. Three FDPs were defined as drop-out. The mean observation period of the remaining 33 FDPs was 86 months (range: 67-98 months): two FDPs in two patients had to be replaced (6%) because of fractures. The 8-year survival rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 93%. In addition, chipping of the veneering material was found in two FDPs (6%). Two abutments (3%) of two restorations had to be treated endodontically; and two FDPs (6%) lost retention and had to be recemented. These complications did not affect the function of the involved restorations clinically. There were no significant differences between the periodontal parameters of the test and control teeth. Short-span crown-retained three-unit FDPs made from lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic can be used clinically irrespective of an adhesive or conventional cementation.
Dozic, Alma; Voit, Norbert F A; Zwartser, Rob; Khashayar, Ghazal; Aartman, Irene
A newly developed system for color determination and reproduction is logically arranged and systematically combines a few components to acquire its broad color range. The objective was to evaluate color coverage of human teeth with the range of the new system and to compare it with other existing systems. The systems for color determination used in this study were: New system Standard (NS), New system Expanded (NE), Vita Classical (VC) and Vita 3D-Master (V3D) (Vita Zahnfabriek, Germany), Vintage Halo (VH) (Shofu, Japan), Chromascope (CH) (Ivoclar Vivadent, Lichtenstein). The tabs of all systems were measured with digital spectrophotometer, SpectroShade-Micro (MHT, Italy), and their L*a*b* values were compared with the L*a*b* values of 198 teeth (mean age=30.10; SD=13.15) to obtain their coverage errors. The ΔE≤1.6 was established as threshold for perceptibility. Wilcoxon-signed rank test showed that the coverage of the teeth with the NE range was the best, as indicated by the lowest mean minimal ΔE value, followed by the NS range. Both ranges had statistically significant lower mean minimal ΔE values than all the other systems (p>0.01). The percentage of ΔE≤1.6 was significantly higher for NS and NE range than for the other systems (p>0.01). The newly developed color determination and color reproduction system could cover the range of human teeth, used in this study, below the level of perceptibility (ΔE≤1.6) better than four other available contemporary systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effects on intrapulpal temperature change of two different LED light-source modes used during the polymerization of bulk-fill composite resins placed in deep cavities. Materials and Method: Human extracted mandibular molar teeth (n=5 were used to create single-tooth model with an occlusal dentin-thickness of 0.5 mm. Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior (3M ESPE and SDR (Dentsply were applied according to manufacturers’ instructions. A conventional composite resin, Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE was used as control. The soft and turbo modes of LED (Bluephase 20i, Ivoclar Vivadent were used for polymerization. Intrapulpal temperature changes were determined by using a device simulating pulpal blood microcirculation. For each material, initial and maximum temperature was determined during the curing. Difference between the initial and the highest temperature value was considered as the maximum temperature change (Δt. The data were analyzed with two-way variance analysis and post-hoc Tukey test (p<0.05. Results: The turbo mode was found to cause significantly greater temperature rise than the soft mode (p<0.001; Tukey test. When the filling material was taken as the variable, the greatest temperature change was observed in the SDR, whereas the least temperature change was observed in the control (p<0.05; Tukey test. Conclusion: The polymerization of bulk-fill composite resins in the turbo mode of the LED light-source led to greater pulpal temperature rise. The materials’ content and structure also affected the temperature increase. Using the soft mode of a LED light-source for the polymerization of bulk-fill composite resins in deep cavities is preferable to keep the intrapulpal temperature rise minimum.
Gao, Fei; Luo, Xiaoping; Li, Ning
To analyze the color parameters and translucency of four frequently-used veneer materials. Forty disc specimens[(1.00±0.01) mm in thickness, 10 mm in diameter] were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions with IPS Empress(®) CAD[A2, high translucency (HT)], IPS e.max(®) Press(A2, HT), IPS e.max(®) CAD (A2, HT) and VITABLOCS(®) Mark II (A2) respectively and were divided into Groups A, B, C, D. All of the specimens were ground and polished on a grinding machine. Then color parameters (L*, a*, b*) and transmittance (τ) were measured using spectrocolorimeter and transmissivity testing device. The color parameters of the specimens were compared to the color parameters of A2 shade of Ivoclar Vivadent A-D shade guide. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and mean values were compared by the Tukey's test (α = 0.05). There was no statistical difference between the color parameters L*, a*, b* and C*ab of Group A and Group D (P > 0.05). But the color parameters of those two ceramic materials were statistically different from the color parameters of Group B and Group C (P 0.05). However, the color parameters L* and a* of the two materials were statistically different(P materials are different. Their transmittance are relatively high but statistically different. The color difference (ΔE) between IPS e.max(®) CAD (A2, HT) and standard A2 is lowest among all the groups.
Sérgio Kiyoshi ISHIKIRIAMA
Full Text Available Increased surface roughness and wear of resin cements may cause failure of indirect restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the surface roughness change and the vertical wear of four resin cements subjected to mechanical toothbrushing abrasion. Ten rectangular specimens (15 × 5 × 4 mm were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions for each group (n = 10: Nexus 3, Kerr (NX3; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE (ARC; RelyX U100, 3M ESPE (U100; and Variolink II, Ivoclar/Vivadent (VL2. Initial roughness (Ra, µm was obtained through 5 readings with a roughness meter. Specimens were then subjected to toothbrushing abrasion (100,000 cycles, and further evaluation was conducted for final roughness. Vertical wear (µm was quantified by 3 readings of the real profile between control and brushed surfaces. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. The Pearson correlation test was performed between the surface roughness change and wear (p < 0.05. The mean values of initial/final roughness (Ra, µm/wear (µm were as follows: NX3 (0.078/0.127/23.175; ARC (0.086/0.246/20.263; U100 (0.296/0.589/16.952; and VL2 (0.313/0.512/22.876. Toothbrushing abrasion increased surface roughness and wear of all resin cements tested, although no correlation was found between those variables. Vertical wear was similar among groups; however, it was considered high and may lead to gap formation in indirect restorations.
Daniela Bastos TUMSCITZ
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Light-cured resin cements are the first choice for the cementation of laminate veneers. Ideally, they should be biocompatible and offer minimum risks to patients. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the cytotoxicity of three resin cements: Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent (C1, Allcem Veneer, FGM (C2, and Rely X Veneer, 3M ESPE (C3. Material and method Twenty four samples of each of the cements were fabricated in a standardized metal mold, light activated, and transferred to a 96-well cell plate with culture of fibroblasts. After 24, 48, and 72h of incubation, cytotoxicity was assessed and cell viability was calculated by the methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT colorimetric assay. Absorbance was measured at 570 nm using a microplate spectrophotometer. Result The following results were found: Variolink II presented viability of 72.24% (SD 6.80 after 24h, 83.92% (SD 5.26 after 48h, and 92.77% (SD 5.59 after 72h; Allcem Veneer exhibited viability of 70.46% (SD 12.91 after 24h, 85.03% (SD 21.4 after 48h, and 70.46% (SD 12.91 after 72h; Rely X Veneer showed viability of 5.06% (SD 0.88 after 24h, 5.84% (SD 1.18 after 48h, and 6.99% (SD 1.34 after 72h. Conclusion Under these testing conditions, Rely X Veneer presented significantly higher cytotoxicity compared with those of the other light-cured resin cements assessed.
Hernandes, Daiana Kelly Lopes; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão; Lima, Erick de; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Rodrigues, José Augusto
This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3) layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP), and chroma of low (LT) and high (HT) translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick) under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE) of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B) and white (W) background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C*ab=(a*2+b*2)½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable.
Akoğlu, Burçin; Gemalmaz, Deniz
The purpose of this study was to examine the fracture load of ceramic veneers with different preparation designs. Seventy-five extracted, intact, human maxillary central incisors were prepared according to five preparation designs (P) (n: 15) as follows: (1) P2e: 2-mm incisal reduction, preparation entirely in enamel; (2) P4e: 4-mm incisal reduction, preparation entirely in enamel; (3) P2d: 2-mm incisal reduction, preparation entirely in dentin; (4) P4d: 4-mm incisal reduction, preparation entirely in dentin; and (6) Pc: Unrestored, intact teeth as control. All preparations had a butt joint incisal finish line, rounded internal line angles, and cervical finish lines 1 mm above the cementoenamel junction. Ceramic veneers were fabricated with IPS Empress (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and cemented with Syntac Classic Adhesive system and Variolink II (Ivoclar) resin cement. Veneers were loaded until fracture at a 90° angle to the lingual surface of the test tooth following the thermocycling process (5° to 55°, 3500 times). Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Multiple Range Test. The mean fracture loads (SD) were (in N) as follows: (1) P2e: 262 (63); (2) P4e: 189 (40); (3) P2d: 239 (53); (4) P4d: 162 (36); and (5) Pc: 277 (66). The amount of incisal reduction exhibited a significant influence on fracture resistance regardless of the preparation depth (p veneers with preparation designs entirely on dentin with 4-mm incisal reduction yielded lower fracture loads than those prepared with 2-mm incisal reduction. Veneers with 2-mm incisal reduction exhibited fracture resistance similar to that of intact teeth for preparation designs supplied on both enamel and dentin. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Ulusoy, Kıvanç Utku; Bagis, Yildirim Hakan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether surface treatments affect the translucency of laminate veneers with different shades and thicknesses. A total of 224 disc-shaped ceramic veneers were prepared from A1, A3, HT (High Translucent) and HO (High Opaque) shades of IPS e.max Press (Ivoclar Vivadent) with 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thicknesses. The ceramics were divided into four groups for surface treatments. Group C: no surface treatments; Group HF: etched with hydrofluoric acid; Group SB: sandblasted with 30-µm Al2O3 [corrected]; and Group L; irradiated with an Er;YAG laser. A translucent shade of resin cement (Rely X Veneer, 3M ESPE) was chosen for cementation. The color values of the veneers were measured with a colorimeter and translucency parameter (TP) values were calculated. A three-way ANOVA with interactions for TP values was performed and Bonferroni tests were used when appropriate (α=0.05). There were significant interactions between the surface treatments, ceramic shades and thicknesses (P=.001). For the 0.5-mm-thick specimens there were significant differences after the SB and L treatments. There was no significant difference between the HF and C treatments for any shades or thicknesses (P>.05). For the 1-mm-thick ceramics, there was only a significant difference between the L and C treatments for the HT shade ceramics (P=.01). There were also significant differences between the SB and C treatments except not for the HO shades (P=.768). The SB and L treatments caused laminate veneers to become more opaque; however, HF treatment did not affect the TP values. When the laminate veneers were thinner, both the shade of the ceramic and the SB and laser treatments had a greater effect on the TP values.
Oztoprak, Mehmet Oguz; Tozlu, Murat; Iseri, Ufuk; Ulkur, Feyza; Arun, Tulin
Porcelain laminate veneers as esthetic and minimally invasive restorations are being used as an alternative to full veneer crowns. However, the removal of porcelain veneers that have failed may be an uncomfortable and time-consuming procedure because of the high bond strength between the porcelain laminate veneers and the tooth surface. The purpose of this study was to prepare a simple and reliable method for porcelain laminate veneer debonding by using an Er:YAG laser with the scanning method and to determine the amount of lasing time required. Eighty cylindrical specimens with a thickness of 0.7 mm and a diameter of 5 mm were fabricated from Empress II ceramic material. They were cemented on the labial surface of extracted bovine mandibular incisors using Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and light cured for 40 s. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 20. The first group was assigned as the control group and no laser application was performed. The Er:YAG laser was applied on each specimen in the other three study groups for 3, 6, and 9 s by using the scanning method. One second after the lasing, a mechanical force was applied to remove the laminate veneers by using an Instron Universal Testing machine. Results of this study exhibited statistically significant differences between the control group and the three study groups. Intergroup comparison of shear bond strengths of the three study groups showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0001). This study showed that all three application times of Er-YAG laser were effective for debonding ceramic laminate veneers by softening the adhesive resin.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of six different prophylactic agents on shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic brackets. Materials and methods: One hundred twenty-six freshly extracted mandibular bovine incisors were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 equal groups (18 per group as follows: group-1 served as control with no pre-treatment; group-2 enamel treated with fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector, Ivoclar Vivadent; group-3 containing casein-phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium-phosphate (CPP–ACP paste (GC Tooth Mousse, RECALDENT™; group-4 with ozone (HealOzone, Kavo; group-5 with glycine powder (Perio Flow, EMS; group-6 with hydroxyapatite powder 99.5% (Coswell S.p.A.; group-7 with a toothpaste made of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (BioRepair® Plus, Coswell S.p.A. Brackets were all bonded using the same technique with transbond XT (3 M Unitek, Monrovia, CA. All the bonded specimens were stored for 24 h in deionized water (37 °C and subjected to thermal cycling for 1000 cycles. The SBS was measured with an Instron Universal Testing machine and the adhesive remnant was assessed with the adhesive remnant index (ARI using a stereomicroscope at 10× magnification. Results: Statistical differences (ANOVA were found among the seven investigated groups (F = 12.226, p < 0.001. SBS of groups 2, 5 and 6 were significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.05. ARI scores (chi-square test were correlated with the differences of SBS values. Conclusion: CPP–ACP paste, ozone or BioRepair® did not compromise on bracket bond strength. Fluoride, glycine or hydroxyapatite significantly decreased the SBS; only the fluoride group showed significant clinically low (<6 MPa SBS values.
Shin, Joo-Hee; Jang, Ji-Hyun; Park, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Euiseong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the micromorphologic changes that accompany different surface treatments on mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and their effect on the bond strength to the composite resin with 4 adhesive systems. Three types of MTA cement, ProRoot MTA (WMTA) (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK), MTA Angelus (AMTA) (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), and Endocem MTA (EMTA) (Maruchi, Wonju, Korea), were prepared and stored for a week to encourage setting. Surface treatment was performed using phosphoric acid or self-etch primer, and an untreated MTA surface was prepared as a control. The surface changes were observed using scanning electron microscopy. MTA surfaces were bonded with 4 adhesive systems, including Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN), Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE), Clearfil SE BOND (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan), and AdheSE One F (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), to evaluate the adhesive effectiveness of MTA followed by composite resin restoration. The shear bond strength of the polymerized specimens was tested. For WMTA and AMTA, untreated surfaces showed an irregular crystalline plate with clusters of globular aggregate particles. For EMTA, the untreated surface presented a reticular matrix with acicular crystals. After surface treatment, superficial crystalline structures were eroded regardless of the MTA cement and adhesive system used. WMTA bonded significantly more strongly than AMTA and EMTA, regardless of the adhesive system used. In the WMTA and AMTA groups, AdheSE One F showed the highest bond strength to the composite. For EMTA, no significant differences were found across adhesive systems. Acidic treatment of the MTA surface affected the micromorphology and the bond strength to the composite. Within the limitations of this study, using a 1-step self-etch adhesive system might result in a strong bond to WMTA when the composite resin restoration is required over MTA cement. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists
Gillet, D; Nancy, J; Dupuis, V; Dorignac, G
Clinical preventive procedures must be done after a risk assessment. One of the risk factors is the occlusal morphology of the posterior teeth. These caries-free fissures must be sealed. This first in vitro experimentation of the study evaluated the microleakage and the penetration depth of three types of materials by Vivadent: Helioseal F, Tetric, Tetric Flow. The teeth were etched with phosphoric acid and bonded using a one bottle bonding in order to determine the best material for the sealing of the fissure. The depth of penetration of fuschine dye as well as that of the tested material was measured with a grid. The results, compared to the depth of the fissures, are expressed in percentage of penetration. The results were as follows: penetration of fuschine dye: 0% for the 2 composites, 100% for Helioseal F; penetration of the materials: 96.90% for Helioseal F, 70.82 for Tetric and 86.10 for Tetric Flow (significant difference, Wilcoxon test = 0.0105). In this first in vitro study, Tetric Flow shows no microleakage and is more efficient when compared to Helioseal F and Tetric in obturating deep fissures of non carious bicuspids. The second experiment of the study evaluated the microleakage and the penetration depth of Tetric Flow when it is bonded by two different methods: Group 1: total etch (phosphoric acid) and Scotch-bond 1 (3M), and Group 2: self-etching primer with Prompt (Espe). There was no significant difference (p > 0.03) between classical bonding vs self-etching primer. The self-etching primer Prompt is very efficient vs phosphoric acid in obturating the fissures of non carious bicuspids with Tetric Flow. It is concluded that for prevention by sealing, using a flowable ceromer (Tetric Flow) with the self-etching (Prompt), is a really good technique.
Behr, M; Rosentritt, M; Leibrock, A; Schneider-Feyrer, S; Handel, G
The aim of the study was to check four lab-side and four chair-side methods for finishing and polishing the ceromer material Targis. Eighty bar-shaped specimens (20 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm) of Vectris were produced; 72 were covered with a 2 mm (thickness) layer of the Ceromer Targis and eight samples with the composite Tetric. All specimens were ground plane parallel with 320 Silicium carbide grit sandpaper in order to start with the same level of roughness. Then the specimens were finished and polished using the following methods: (1) Artglass toolkit, (2) pumice-stone and brushes/linen brush and polishing paste P3, (3) Robinson brush/Ivoclar Universal paste and wool brush, (4) Silicone wheel and rag wheel, (5) Shofu Rainbow set, (6) Sof-Lex discs, (7) Vivadent Politip set and (8) Nupro-pastes and brushes. The surface roughness was determined with a profilometer. The arithmetical roughness value Ra was calculated. From each group one specimen was randomly chosen and sputtered with gold in order to observe the surface with a scanning electron microscope to evaluate its smoothness. The methods were ranked as followed: 2, 3 and 5 with the lowest roughness, then 8, 6, 7, 4, 1. The best ranked chair-side method (5) and the best ranked lab-side methods (2, 3) did not differ significantly between the Ra values. No difference was observed between the composite Tetric and the ceromer Targis when these materials were polished using the same method. the lab-side-methods 2 and 3 and the chair-side-method 5 can be recommended for finishing and polishing the new ceromer material Targis.
Østervemb, Niels; Jørgensen, Jette Nedergaard; Hørsted-Bindslev, Preben
Modern composite systems are either very simple with few shades or very complex with an array of shades. Which approach gives the best esthetic results? The study aims to use a new approach to compare the esthetic properties of different composite materials and evaluate the ability of four different composite systems to imitate the natural shade of teeth. Seventeen extracted teeth were restored using four different composite materials (Filtek Supreme XT [3M ESPE, Glostrup, Denmark], Ceram-X Duo [Dentsply-Friadent, Roskilde, Denmark], Tetric EvoCeram [Ivoclar Vivadent AB, Solna, Sweden], Enamel Plus HRI [Micerium, Avegno, Italy]). In total, 68 restorations were fabricated using the 17 teeth as their own control. This was made possible utilizing a device designed to remove exactly the same piece of tooth/composite every time. The time for placement and shades used were recorded. Two dentists evaluated the esthetic match of the restorations using slightly modified Extended Visual Rating Scale for Appearance Match criteria. There was a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between Filtek Supreme XT and Tetric EvoCeram and between Enamel Plus HRI and Tetric EvoCeram regarding the esthetic match. However, this was not deemed clinically relevant in most cases. Filtek Supreme XT required the most time, whereas Ceram-X Duo required the least time. There was a high intra- and interobserver agreement regarding ratings. The study concluded that: (1) it was possible with all four composite systems to make restorations that were judged clinically acceptable in 91 to 96% of the cases; (2) more time was needed when using the more "advanced systems"; and (3) the new standardized, simple, and clinically relevant evaluation method was capable of comparing different composite systems' ability to imitate natural teeth. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim this study is to compare the hybrid layer thickness and its micromorphological characteristics in samples from primary and permanent teeth following application of total etch adhesives.Materials and methods: On intact specimens of 20 primary and 10 permanent teeth was created flat dentin surfaces. The patterns were divided in 6 groups. Two different total etch adhesive systems were used – one tree steps (OptiBond, Kerr and one two steps (Exite, VivaDent. In groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 recommended etching time was used - 15 s, in groups 1 and 2 the etching time was reduced to 7 s. After applying the adhesive, resin composite build-ups were constructed. Thus restored samples are stored in saline solution for 24 hours at temperature 37 C. Then they are subjected to thermal stress in temperature between 5 C to 55 C for 1,500 cycles and to masticatory stress – 150,000 cycles with force 100 N in intervals of 0.4 s. After that the teeth are cut through the middle in medio-distal direction with a diamond disc. SEM observation was done to investigate the thickness of the hybrid layer and the presence of microgaps. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Tukey׳s tests.Results: SEM observation showed significant differences of the hybrid layer thickness between primary and permanent teeth under equal conditions and after different etching time. Group 6 presented the highest average thickness 8.85 μ and group 1 the lowest average in hybrid layer 3.74 μ.Conclusion: In primary teeth the hybrid layer thickness increases with the increased etching time. The hybrid layer thickness in primary teeth is greater than that of the hybrid layer in permanent teeth under equal conditions. For primary teeth it is more appropriate to reduce the etching time to 7s to obtain a hybrid layer with better quality
Hata, Utako; Yamamura, Osamu; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Fujii, Teruhisa
Recently, the use of all-ceramic crowns has spread widely in clinical applications to meet the demand for both functional and esthetically-pleasing restorations. In making all-ceramic crowns, it is necessary to reproduce the shape and color near to those of the natural teeth. However, the color shades of abutments might influence the color of the copings which are made of material with high transparency. This study examined the influence of the color shades of the abutments on the final color of copings for three kinds of all-ceramic core materials: Empress, Empress 2 (IVOCLAR VIVADENT), and Procera AllCeram (Nobel Biocare). Copings with 0.5 mm in thickness were fabricated by using Empress (TC1), Empress 2 (100), and Procera AllCeram (white) core materials for an upper-right central incisor. Abutments were made by using six kinds of die materials of the Empress system (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, ST8, ST9), gold-silver-palladium alloy, gold alloy, and experimental black body. Copings were inserted in each abutment and the final color of the central part of the buccal surface was measured using a spectrophotometer according to the L*a*b* color system. Regardless of the color shades of the abutments, the chroma values of the copings rose in the order of Empress, Empress 2, and Procera, and the values of lightness rose in the order of Empress, Procera, and Empress 2. When the final color of each coping measured under the wet and dry conditions were compared, the difference in chroma was great. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the influence of the color shades of the abutments on the final color of the three kinds of copings is small in the order of Empress, Procera, and Empress 2. In clinical and dental laboratory operations, it is hoped to observe and measure the color of copings and restorations under the wet condition.
Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. The success of endodontic treatment depends on the effective removal of root content, the elimination of infection, and the hermetical sealing of the root system using a compatible material. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the tissue response to the implant of endodontic material based on calcium hydroxide into the bone in the artificially prepared defect in a rat mandible. Methods. The research was carried out on 40 Wistar rats. The artificial defect was made between the midline and the mental foramen on the left side of the mandible. The prepared defect was left to heal spontaneously in animals of the control group, while among the animals of the experimental group the sealer Apexit (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Lichtenstein was implanted into the experimental defect. The tissue samples consisting of the experimental field and the surrounding bone were microscopically analyzed with a light microscope. Results. During the initial phase, 15 days after the implantation, signs of chronic inflammation were noted and expansion of the Volkmann’s and Haversian canals. On the 30th day after the implantation, osteosynthetic activity and filling with newly-formed bone were noted. Changes were also noted in cement lines in the wider region of the experimental defect. Sixty days following the implantation, the bone was gradually remodeled. Ninety days after the implantation, a restitutio ad integrum was noted. Conclusion. Apexit does not lead to any disruptions in normal reparation processes nor in morphofunctional relations in bone tissue during the remodeling phase. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175061: The antioxidant protection and potentials for differentiation and regeneration of mesenchymal stem cells from different tissues during the aging process
Gehrt, Maren; Wolfart, Stefan; Rafai, Nicole; Reich, Sven; Edelhoff, Daniel
The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of anterior and posterior crowns made of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic framework material (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent). A total of 104 single crowns were placed in 41 patients (mean age, 34 ± 9.6 years; 15 male, 26 female). Eighty-two anterior and 22 posterior crowns were inserted. All teeth received a 1-mm-wide chamfer or rounded shoulder preparation with an occlusal/incisal reduction of 1.5-2.0 mm. The minimum framework thickness was 0.8 mm. Frameworks were laminated by a prototype of a veneering material combined with an experimental glaze. Considering the individual abutment preconditions, the examined crowns were either adhesively luted (69.2 %) or inserted with glass-ionomer cement (30.8 %). Follow-up appointments were performed 6 months after insertion, then annually. Replacement of a restoration was defined as failure. Four patients (10 crowns) were defined as dropouts. For the remaining 94 crowns, the mean observation time was 79.5 months (range, 34-109.7 months). The cumulative survival rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 97.4 % after 5 years and 94.8 % after 8 years. Applying log rank test, it was shown that the location of the crown did not significantly have an impact on the survival rate (p = 0.74) and that the cementation mode did not significantly influence the occurrence of complications (p = 0.17). The application of lithium-disilicate framework material for single crowns seems to be a reliable treatment option. Crowns made of a lithium-disilicate framework material can be used clinically in the anterior and posterior region irrespective of an adhesive or conventional cementation when considering abutment preconditions.
Rippe, M P; Amaral, R; Oliveira, F S; Cesar, P F; Scotti, R; Valandro, L F; Bottino, M A
This study evaluated the effect of the cement type (adhesive resin, self-adhesive, glass ionomer, and zinc phosphate) on the retention of crowns made of yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). Therefore, 108 freshly extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin, perpendicular to their long axis, and prepared for full crowns: the crown preparations were removed and reconstructed using composite resin plus fiber posts with dimensions identical to the prepared dentin. The preparations were impressed using addition silicone, and Y-TZP copings were produced, which presented a special setup for the tensile testing. Cementation was performed with two adhesive resin cements (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar-Vivadent; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), one self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100, 3M ESPE), one glass ionomer based cement (RelyX Luting, 3M ESPE), and one zinc phosphate cement (Cimento de Zinco, SS White, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). For the resin cement groups, the inner surfaces of the crowns were subjected to three surface treatments: cleaning with isopropyl alcohol, tribochemical silica coating, or application of a thin low-fusing glass porcelain layer plus silanization. After 24 hours, all groups were subjected to thermocycling (6000 cycles) and included in a special device for tensile testing in a universal testing machine to test the retention of the infrastructure. After testing, the failure modes of all samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the surface treatment and cement type (α=0.05) affected the tensile retention results. The Multilink cement presented the highest tensile retention values, but that result was not statistically different from RelyX ARC. The surface treatment was statistically relevant only for the Multilink cement. The cement choice was shown to be more important than the crown surface treatment for cementation of a Y-TZP crown to a composite resin substrate.
Yetkiner, Enver; Wegehaupt, Florian Just; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas
To test the null hypothesis that combining low-viscosity caries infiltrant with conventional adhesive resins would not improve sealing of sound enamel against demineralization in vitro. Bovine enamel discs (N = 60) with diameter of 3 mm were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 10). The discs were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds and treated with resins of different monomer content forming the following groups: (1) Icon (DMG), (2) Transbond XT Primer (3M ESPE), (3) Heliobond (Ivoclar Vivadent), (4) Icon + Transbond XT Primer, and (5) Icon + Heliobond. Untreated etched samples served as the negative control. Specimens were subjected to demineralization by immersion in hydrochloric acid (pH 2.6) for 80 hours. Calcium dissolution into the acid was assessed by colorimetric analysis using Arsenazo III method at 16-hour intervals. Groups presenting high protection against demineralization were subjected to further acidic challenge for 15 days with calcium measurements repeated at 24-hour intervals. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Untreated specimens showed the highest amount of demineralization. Icon and Transbond XT primer decreased the mineral loss significantly compared to the control. Heliobond performed significantly better than both Icon and Transbond XT primer. Combination of Icon both with Transbond XT primer or Heliobond served as the best protective measures and maintained the protective effect for the additional 15-day acidic challenge. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it could be concluded that the use of low-viscosity caries infiltrant prior to application of the tested conventional adhesives increases their protective effect against demineralization.
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of four self etching primer adhesives to dentin. Materials & Methods: A total of 75 extracted human maxillary and mandibular molars were selected for the study. The teeth were divided into 5 groups of 15 teeth each, Group A- AdheSE (Ivoclar Vivadent, Group B-Adper prompt (3M ESPE, Group C- i bond (Heraeus-Kulzer, Group D-XenoIII (Dentsply, De Trey Group E-Single bond (3M ESPE was used and served as control. All the adhesives were applied according to the manufacturer′s instructions. Composite post was built on these bonded surfaces using Z-100 hybrid composite. The teeth were subjected to thermocycling for 500 cycles between 5°C to 55°C. The teeth were then mounted on universal testing machine and fractured under a shearing load, applied at a speed of 0.2mm/min. The readings were noted, tabulated and shear bond strength calculated in Mega Pascal (Mpa units. Results: There was significant difference in the mean shear bond strength of the four self etching primers, adhesives tested. Shear strength values were in the range of 16.57 to 21.73 Mpa. Xeno III gave the highest mean of shear bond strength whereas Adhe SE showed the lowest value of shear strength. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that contemporary self etching primer adhesives bond successfully to dentin. Moreover the bonding ability of Self Etching Systems seems to be comparable to the conventional Total Etch Systems.
Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten
To demonstrate that hydrolytically stable methacrylamide monomers allow one-component self-etching adhesives with comparable adhesive properties and better storage stability than hitherto available methyacrylate-based adhesive formulations. The shear bond strength and storage stability of the new one-component self-etching, methacrylamide-based adhesive AdheSE One F (Ivoclar Vivadent) to enamel and dentin was compared to the methacrylate-based Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray), G-Bond (GC), Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical), iBond (Heraeus Kulzer), Optibond All In One (Sybron-Kerr), and the methacrylamide-based Xeno V (Dentsply). Hydrolytic stability and adhesive performance of these adhesives was evaluated by accelerated aging at 42 degrees C over 16 weeks and monthly assessment of shear bond strength to dentin. The null hypothesis was that the bond strength of one-bottle self-etching dental adhesives is independent of storage duration and that, disregarding their higher stability against hydrolysis, methacrylamide- based materials offer performance beyond shelf-life time, comparable to methacrylate-based adhesives. Statistical analysis included 1-way-ANOVA and the Tukey-B post-hoc test (p AdheSE One F) to 16.6 MPa (iBond) and on dentin from 36.1 MPa (Optibond All In One) to 20.5 MPa (G-Bond). During accelerated aging, methacrylate-based adhesives with a pH AdheSE One F and Xeno V were stable for 16 weeks regarding shear bond strength to dentin. The shelf life of one-component self-etching adhesives is determined by their chemical composition. In conventional methacrylate-based adhesives, the inherently acidic environment of such formulations leads to monomer degradation due to hydrolysis. In contrast, methacrylamide-based adhesives are stable to aqueous acid and exhibit much superior storage stability without monomer degradation-related losses in adhesion performance.
van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla
The objective of this prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the 4-year clinical performance of an ormocer-based nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X; Dentsply/DeTrey) in Class II restorations placed with a one-step self-etch (Xeno III; Dentsply/DeTrey) and two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Ivoclar Vivadent). Seventy-eight participants received at random at least two, as similar as possible, Class II restorations of the nano-hybrid resin composite bonded with either a single step self-etch adhesive or a control 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. The 165 restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 4 years. 162 restorations were evaluated at 4 years. Postoperative sensitivity was observed in 6 patients (3 Xeno III, 3 Exite) between 1 and 3 weeks. Eleven failed restorations (6.8%) were observed during the follow up. Seven in the one-step self-etch adhesive group (7.7%) and four in the 2-step etch-and-rinse group (5.6%). This resulted in non-significant different annual failure rates of 1.9% and 1.4%, respectively. Fracture of restoration was the main reason for failure. The ormocer-based nano-hybrid resin composite showed a good clinical performance in Class II cavities during the 4 year evaluation. No significant difference was seen in overall clinical effectiveness between the two adhesives. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferreira, Joao Cardoso; Pires, Patricia Teixeira; Azevedo, Alvaro Ferreira; Oliveira, Sofia Arantes; Melo, Paulo Ribeiro; Silva, Mario Jorge
The goal of this study was to evaluate nanoleakage within the hybrid layer yielded by etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems, with different solvents and compositions. Four adhesives were applied onto 20 human dentin disks: group A: Adper Scotchbond 1XT(™) (3M ESPE), group B: One Coat Bond(®) (Coltène Whaledent), group C: AdheSE(®) (Ivoclar Vivadent) and group D: Xeno-V(®) (Dentsply). The samples were immersed in aqueous ammoniacal silver nitrate for 24 hour, prepared and observed under field-emission scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electrons. Microphotographs were scanned and data were processed. The mean value and standard deviation were calculated. Kruskal- Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used (p adhesives showed nanoleakage within the hybrid layer: Adper Scotchbond 1XT(™) (218.5 µm ± 52.6 µm), One Coat Bond(®) (139.6 µm ± 79.0 µm), AdheSE(®) (92.7 µm ± 64.8 µm) and Xeno-V(®) (251.0 µm ± 85.2 µm). AdheSE(®) yielded less nanoleakage than Adper Scotchbond-1XT(™) (p = 0.003) and than Xeno-V(®) (p = 0.007). No other statistically significant differences were detected. Two-step self-etch adhesive system (AdheSE(®)) might contribute for lower nanoleakage deposition and thus better performance in dentin adhesion. The two-step self-etch adhesive system showed the lowest nanoleakage deposition compared with the other adhesive systems evaluated, which seems to indicate a better behavior when a restoration is performed in dentin and possibly can lead to a durable adhesion along time.
Guilherme B Guarda
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the bond strength of ceramic restorations luted using a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE under different dentin conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the experimental groups, ceramic restorations were luted to bovine incisors with RelyX Unicem under the following conditions: [Dry dentin]: surface was dried using air stream for 15 s; [Moist dentin]: excess dentin moisture was removed with absorbent paper; [Bonding agent]: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray self-etching adhesive system was previously applied to dentin. In the Control group, cementation was done using an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Excite DSC and Variolink II resin cement (Ivoclar Vivadent. Photoactivation of the resin cements was performed with UltraLume LED 5 unit (Ultradent. The restorations (n=5 per group were sectioned into beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05. Failure modes were classifed under Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM (x120 magnifcation. RESULTS: The bond strength was dependent on the moisture status of the dentin. Bond strength in the "dry dentin group" was signifcantly lower than that of all other groups, which showed similar results. A predominance of mixed failures was detected for the control group, while a predominance of adhesive failures was observed for the "bonding agent" and "dry dentin" groups. The "moist dentin" group presented predominantly cohesive failures within the luting material. The previous application of a self-etching adhesive showed no signifcant effect. CONCLUSIONS: Only excess dentin moisture should be removed for the cementation of ceramic restorations with self-adhesive resin cements.
Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Guerra, Bruna A.; Machado, Brena S. A.; Cabral, Adolfo J.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.
Resin composites are widely used as restorative materials due to their excellent aesthetical and mechanical properties. Posterior teeth are constantly submitted to occlusal stress and upon restoration require more resistant resins. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the wear suffered over time by restorations in resin composite in posterior teeth, by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). 30 molars had occlusal cavities prepared and were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and restored with resin composite: G1: Filtek P90 (3M/ESPE), G2: Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent); G3: Filtek P60 (3M/ESPE). Specimens were subjected to initial analysis by OCT (OCP930SR, Thorlabs, axial resolution 6.2 μm) and stereoscopic microscope. Specimens were submitted to thermocycling (500 cycles, 5-55 °C) and subjected to simulated wear through a machine chewing movements (Wear Machine WM001), projecting four years of use. After mechanical cycles, the specimens were submitted to a second evaluation by the OCT and stereoscopic microscopy. As a result, it was observed that 90% of the restorations of both groups had fractures and/or points of stress concentration, considered niches for early dissemination of new fracture lines. It was also found that G1 and G2 had more points of stress concentration, whereas G3 had a higher incidence of fracture lines already propagated. It was concluded that the G3 showed more brittle behavior at the masticatory wear when compared to G1 and G2.
Scotti, Nicola; Comba, Allegra; Cadenaro, Milena; Fontanive, Luca; Breschi, Lorenzo; Monaco, Carlo; Scotti, Roberto
Various materials and systems for bonding lithium disilicate to the tooth substrate are available to clinicians, who can adapt the materials to each clinical situation to maximize the performance of indirect esthetic restorations. This study aimed to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) and the microhardness (MH) of a dual-curing and a light-curing cement under lithium disilicate discs of different thicknesses. A total of 48 lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) samples were prepared and divided into three groups (n = 16) according to the thickness (group A was 0.6 mm; group B was 1.0 mm; group C was 1.5 mm). Each group was further divided into two subgroups (n = 8) according to the resin cement employed, NX3 (Kerr) or Choice 2 (Bisco). A standardized quantity of cement was placed on the sample, and DC was evaluated with an attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectrophotometer (Nicolet IS10, Thermo Scientific). Twenty-four hours after DC was established, Vickers test was performed on the cement with a microindentometer (Leica Microsystems). Results were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance test and significance set at P < .05. Statistical analysis showed cement type had a significant influence (P = .005) on DC. MH results were influenced by thicknesses only between 0.6 and 1.5 mm when light-cured cement was employed. The light-curing and the dual-curing cements reached comparable DCs between 0.6 and 1.5 mm. However, the light-curing resin showed a higher DC and MH.
Zhao, Ke; Pan, Yu; Guess, Petra C; Zhang, Xin-Ping; Swain, Michael V
To assess the influence of veneer application on fracture behavior, namely failure load and failure mode, of standardized lithium-disilicate-based crowns. Forty molar crowns (IPS e.max Press, IvoclarVivadent) were fabricated in full anatomic (without veneer, 1.5-2.0mm at occlusal surface) and bi-layer (the occlusal surface is 0.7 mm of veneer and 0.8-1.3mm core) contour representing two groups. Crown specimens were seated and adhered on composite resin dies. All specimens were loaded with a 6mm diameter steatite sphere over the central fissure to failure. Failure modes and fractographic patterns were analyzed by optical stereo and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fracture loads of the two groups were compared by the t-test, while the failure modes were analyzed by Pearson Chi-square test. There was a statistically significant difference in mean fracture load values (N±S.D.) between full anatomic [(2665.4±759.2)N] and veneered crowns [(1431.1±404.3)N] (pveneered specimens predominately showed cohesive veneer and ceramic interface failure (75%); solely cohesive veneer failure (20%); and bulk fracture (5%). Within the limitations of this study, veneer application resulted in significant lower fracture load values compared to full anatomic crowns. Fracture initiated from occlusal fissures near the load application site. A combination of cohesive veneer and ceramic interface failure represents the main failure mode of lithium-disilicate-based bi-layered crowns, whereas full anatomic crowns failed mainly from ceramic bulk fracture at the occlusal fissures. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.
Yilmaz-Savas, Tuba; Demir, Necla; Ozturk, A Nilgun; Kilic, Hamdi Sukur
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments [sandblasting, Erbium:Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet (Er:YAG), and femtosecond lasers] on the shear bond strength (SBS) of the CAD-on technique. Although demand for all-ceramic restorations has increased, chipping remains one of the major problems for zirconia-based restorations. Forty yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) zirconia plates (IPS e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were cut, sintered (12.4 × 11.4 × 3 mm) and divided into four groups according to the surface treatments (n = 10): a control group with no surface treatment (Group C), sandblasting with 50 μm Al2O3 (Group S), Er:YAG laser irradiation (Group E), and femtosecond laser irradiation (Group F). Also, 40 cylindrical (5 mm diameter, 2 mm height) lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD) veneer ceramics were cut and fused to all zirconia cores by a glass-fusion ceramic and crystallized according to the CAD-on technique. Specimens were subjected to shear force using a universal testing machine. The load was applied at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Mean SBS (MPa) were analyzed with one way ANOVA (p veneer specimens. However, the novel CAD-on technique with no surface treatment also showed high bonding strength. Thus, this technique could prevent ceramic chipping without additional surface treatments.
Subash, Dayalan; Shoba, Krishnamma; Aman, Shibu; Bharkavi, Srinivasan Kumar Indu; Nimmi, Vijayan; Abhilash, Radhakrishnan
The restoration of a severely damaged tooth usually needs a post and core as a part of treatment procedure to provide a corono - radicular stabilization. Biodentine is a class of dental material which possess high mechanical properties with excellent biocompatibility and bioactive behaviour. The sealing ability coupled with optimum physical properties could make Biodentine an excellent option as a core material. The aim of the study was to determine the fracture resistance of Biodentine as a core material in comparison with resin modified glass ionomer and composite resin. Freshly extracted 30 human permanent maxillary central incisors were selected. After endodontic treatment followed by post space preparation and luting of Glass fibre post (Reforpost, Angelus), the samples were divided in to three groups based on the type of core material. The core build-up used in Group I was Biodentine (Septodont, France), Group II was Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GC, Japan) and Group III was Hybrid Composite Resin (TeEconom plus, Ivoclar vivadent). The specimens were subjected to fracture toughness using Universal testing machine (1474, Zwick/Roell, Germany) and results were compared using One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post hoc test. The results showed that there was significant difference between groups in terms of fracture load. Also, composite resin exhibited highest mean fracture load (1039.9 N), whereas teeth restored with Biodentine demonstrated the lowest mean fracture load (176.66 N). Resin modified glass ionomer exhibited intermediate fracture load (612.07 N). The primary mode of failure in Group I and Group II was favourable (100%) while unfavourable fracture was seen in Group III (30%). Biodentine, does not satisfy the requirements to be used as an ideal core material. The uses of RMGIC's as a core build-up material should be limited to non-stress bearing areas. Composite resin is still the best core build-up material owing to its high fracture
Federlin, Marianne; Sipos, C; Hiller, K-A; Thonemann, B; Schmalz, G
This in vitro study examines the effects of three preparation designs and different luting agents on the marginal integrity of partial ceramic crowns. One hundred forty-four extracted human molars were prepared according to the following preparation designs: A. Coverage of functional cusps, B. Horizontal reduction of functional cusps and C. Complete reduction of functional cusps. Partial ceramic crowns (Vita Mark II, Cerec 3 System) were bonded to the cavities with: Variolink II/Excite (Vivadent), Panavia F/ED primer (Kuraray), Dyract/Prime and Bond NT (Detrey/Dentsply), and Fuji Plus/GC cavity conditioner (GC). The specimens were exposed to thermocycling and mechanical loading. Marginal adaptation was assessed on replicas using quantitative margin analysis in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Significant differences were observed between the preparation designs in general. Coverage of functional cusps with preparation of butt joints and use of Variolink as luting material showed a tendency toward the lowest values for compromised adhesion, especially within the dentin. Significant differences could be determined between luting systems: resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) caused fracture of the restorations and revealed higher values than all other luting materials for compromised adhesion at ceramic-luting agent and tooth-luting agent interfaces. The dentin-luting material interface, in general, showed higher percentages of compromised adhesion (38-100%) than enamel- and ceramic-luting material interfaces (0-30%). In conclusion, the SEM data indicate that, with adhesively bonded partial ceramic crowns, retentive preparation is not contraindicated and the choice of luting material is more relevant than the preparation design. Margins below the cemento-enamel junction reveal significant loss of adhesion in spite of adhesive luting techniques. The RMGIC cannot be recommended as a luting material for feldspathic partial ceramic crowns.
Ntala, Polyxeni; Chen, Xiaohui; Niggli, Jason; Cattell, Michael
The aims of the study were to develop and test multi-phase glaze coatings for zirconia restorations, so that the surface could be etched and adhesively bonded. Zirconia disc specimens (n=125, 16 mm x 1 mm) were cut from cylinders of Y-TZP (yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals) ZS-Blanks (Kavo, Everest) and sintered overnight. Specimens were subjected to the recommended firing cycles, and next sandblasted. The specimens were divided into 5 groups of 25, with Group 1 as the sandblasted control. Groups 2-5 were coated with overglaze materials (P25 and IPS e.max Ceram glazes) containing secondary phases. Group 2 was (wt%): 10% hydroxyapatite (HA)/P25 glaze, Group 3: 20% IPS Empress 2 glass-ceramic/glaze, Group 4: 20% IPS Empress 2 glass/glaze and Group 5: 30% IPS Empress 2 glass/glaze. After sintering and etching, Monobond-S and composite resin cylinders (Variolink II, Ivoclar-Vivadent) were applied and light cured on the test surfaces. Specimens were water stored for 7 days. Groups were tested using the shear bond strength (SBS) test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Overglazed and the fractured specimen surfaces were viewed using secondary electron microscopy. Room and high temperature XRD and DSC were carried out to characterize the materials. The mean (SD) SBS (MPa) of the test groups were: Group 1: 7.7 (3.2); Group 2: 5.6 (1.7); Group 3: 11.0 (3.0); Group 4: 8.8 (2.6) and Group 5: 9.1 (2.6). Group 3 was significantly different to the control Group 1 (p0.05). Group 2 showed statistically lower SBS than Groups 3-5 (pcement. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ibarra, Gabriela; Johnson, Glen H; Geurtsen, Werner; Vargas, Marcos A
Cementation technique of bonded ceramic restorations is a time-consuming and technique-sensitive procedure critical to long-term success. Evaluate the performance of a self-adhesive, modified-resin dental cement (Rely-X UniCem, 3M-ESPE) for the cementation of ceramic veneer restorations without previous conditioning of the tooth surface, and in combination with a one-bottle adhesive and a self-etching adhesive. Thirty-six premolars received a veneer preparation that extended into dentin. Leucite-reinforced pressed glass ceramic (Empress 1) veneers were cemented following manufacturers' instructions, according to the following treatment groups (n=9): (1) Variolink-Excite Ivoclar-Vivadent (V+E control), (2) Unicem+Single Bond 3M-ESPE (U+SB), (3) Unicem+Adper Prompt L-Pop 3M-ESPE (U+AP), (4) Unicem 3M-ESPE (U). After 24h storage at 37 degrees C, teeth were thermocycled (2000 cycles) at 5 and 55 degrees C, immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate for 24h, placed in a developer solution overnight and sectioned using a slow-speed saw. Three 1mm longitudinal sections were obtained from each tooth and evaluated for leakage with a microscope (1x to 4x). Imaging software was used to measure stain penetration along the dentin and enamel surfaces. ANOVA with SNK (alpha=0.05) revealed that on dentin, U had significantly less leakage than U+SB and U+AP, but no different than V+E; on enamel U had leakage values that were significantly greater than the groups with adhesives. The self-adhesive cement U gave low leakage on dentin that was comparable to the cement that employed an adhesive for sealing dentin, whereas this cement benefits from use of an adhesive when cementing to enamel.
AlQahtani, Mohammed Q; AlShaafi, Maan M; Price, Richard B
This study examined the effect of selecting a single-peak blue vs a polywave blue/violet emission LED curing light on the degree of conversion (DC) and Knoop microhardness (KHN) of resin cements when light cured through a ceramic disk. Two shades (A1 and A4) of resin cement (Variolink II) were placed in a 0.5-mm-thick ring. The top surfaces were covered with a Mylar strip and further covered with a disk of 1-mm-thick Empress Esthetic ceramic, shade A2. The specimens were light cured by means of an Elipar-S10 (3M ESPE, single-peak blue LED) or BluePhase-G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent, polywave blue/violet LED) curing light, both for 20 s, directly on the surface of an attenuated total reflectance FT-IR plate at 30°C. The DC of the resin was calculated after 100 s. The specimens were removed, and the Knoop microhardness was tested immediately and again after 24-h storage in the dark at 37°C and 100% humidity. Five specimens were made in each group. The DC and Knoop microhardness results were analyzed with ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD at α = 0.05. The choice of curing light had no significant effect on the DC and only a small effect on the immediate and 24-h KHN values. Shade A4 of the resin cement was harder and had a higher DC than shade A1. When light cured for 20 s, Variolink II resin cement can be light cured with either the single-peak or the polywave curing light. Shade A4 of the cement was slightly harder than A1.
HERNANDES, Daiana Kelly Lopes; ARRAIS, Cesar Augusto Galvão; de LIMA, Erick; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; RODRIGUES, José Augusto
ABSTRACT Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3) layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP), and chroma of low (LT) and high (HT) translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. Material and Methods One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick) under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE) of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B) and white (W) background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C* ab=(a*2+b*2)½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Conclusions Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable. PMID:27556211
Shadman, Niloofar; Kandi, Saeideh Gorji; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Shoul, Maryam Azizi
Although studies have shown that porcelain veneers are very efficient for treating discolored teeth, they did not address in particular the minimum thickness of a multilayer IPS e.max Press (IvoclarVivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) restoration required to mask discolored tooth. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum thickness of a multilayer porcelain restoration required for masking severe tooth discoloration. A total of 24 disk-shaped multilayer specimens were prepared from IPS e.max Press with the diameter of 13 mm and four different thicknesses (core/veneer: 0.4/0.4 mm, 0.5/0.5 mm, 0.6/0.6 mm and 0.8/0.7 mm). Two backgrounds, C4-shade body porcelain and an opaque background from the selected IPS e.max ceramic itself were fabricated to mimic a discolored or stained natural tooth structure and to determine the masking ability. After applying the resin cement layer (Panavia F2.0) with 0.01 mm thickness on each background, all specimens were measured on both background using a spectrophotometer and values of L*, a* and b* were calculated to determine the color differences (ΔE*ab). One-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests of specimen average one-to-one comparison (Tukey HSD) were conducted and P ≤ 0.05 was set as the level of significance. ΔE*ab of all groups were within the range of the clinically acceptable color difference (ΔE≤3.3), thus all the groups could mask the C4 background even group 1 with only 0.8 mm thickness. A trend was shown in the results as by increasing the thickness, ΔE*ab is was decreased. The mean ΔE*1*a*b between different thicknesses were statistically significant (P discoloration was 0.8 mm.
Full Text Available Background and aims. Bleaching can considerably reduce shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic brackets bonded with composite adhesives. Application of antioxidants is a method to reverse the negative effect of bleaching on compositeto-enamel bond. However, the efficacy of antioxidants in increasing the SBS of brackets bonded using resin-modified glassionomer cement (RMGIC has not been studied, which was the aim of this study. Materials and methods. Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary first premolars were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office Bleaching, SDI. Sodium ascorbate 10% was applied to the experimental specimens (n=25. All the specimens were etched with 37% phosphoric acid (Ivoclar/Vivadent and bonded using RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC, GC. The specimens were subjected to incubation (37°C, 24h and thermocycling (1000 cycles, 5-55°C, dwell time = 1 min. The SBS was measured at 0.5 mm/min debonding crosshead speed. The adhesive remnant index (ARI was scored under ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, one- and independent-samples t-test, and Fisher’s exact test (α=0.05. Results. The mean SBS of experimental and control groups were 11.97 ± 4.49 and 7.7 ± 3.19 MPa, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.000 by t-test. SBS of both control (P=0.014 and experimental (P=0.000 groups were significantly higher than the minimum acceptable SBS of 6 MPa, according to one-sample t-test. Conclusion. Application of ascorbic acid can guarantee a strong bond when RMGIC is to be used. However, RMGIC might tolerate the negative effect of bleaching with minimum SA treatments (or perhaps without treatments, which deserves further studies.
Turgut, Sedanur; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Ulusoy, Kıvanç Utku; Bagis, Yildirim Hakan
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether surface treatments affect the translucency of laminate veneers with different shades and thicknesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 224 disc-shaped ceramic veneers were prepared from A1, A3, HT (High Translucent) and HO (High Opaque) shades of IPS e.max Press (Ivoclar Vivadent) with 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thicknesses. The ceramics were divided into four groups for surface treatments. Group C: no surface treatments; Group HF: etched with hydrofluoric acid; Group SB: sandblasted with 50-µm Al2O3; and Group L; irradiated with an Er;YAG laser. A translucent shade of resin cement (Rely X Veneer, 3M ESPE) was chosen for cementation. The color values of the veneers were measured with a colorimeter and translucency parameter (TP) values were calculated. A three-way ANOVA with interactions for TP values was performed and Bonferroni tests were used when appropriate (α=0.05). RESULTS There were significant interactions between the surface treatments, ceramic shades and thicknesses (P=.001). For the 0.5-mm-thick specimens there were significant differences after the SB and L treatments. There was no significant difference between the HF and C treatments for any shades or thicknesses (P>.05). For the 1-mm-thick ceramics, there was only a significant difference between the L and C treatments for the HT shade ceramics (P=.01). There were also significant differences between the SB and C treatments except not for the HO shades (P=.768). CONCLUSION The SB and L treatments caused laminate veneers to become more opaque; however, HF treatment did not affect the TP values. When the laminate veneers were thinner, both the shade of the ceramic and the SB and laser treatments had a greater effect on the TP values. PMID:24605200
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the shear bond strength of three new adhesive systems to enamel and dentin of permanent human teeth using three new etch and rinse and self-etch adhesive systems.Materials and Methods: Sixty intact caries-free third molars were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups. Flat buccal and lingual enamel and dentin surfaces were prepared and mounted in the acrylic resin perpendicular to the plan of the horizon. Adhesives used in this study were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE-One F (Ivoclar/Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein. The adhesives were applied on the surfaces and cured with quartz tungsten halogen curing unit (600 mW/cm2 intensity for 20 s. After attaching composite to the surfaces and thermocycling (500 cycles, 5-55ºC, shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The failure modes were examined under a stereomicroscope. The data were statistically analyzed using T-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Fisher's exact tests.Results: In enamel, Tetric N-Bond (28.57±4.58 MPa and AdheSE (21.97±7.6 MPa had significantly higher bond strength than AdheSE-One F (7.16±2.09 MPa (P0.05.Conclusion: Shear bond strength to dentin in Tetric N-Bond (etch and rinse system( was higher than self-etch adhesives (AdheSE and AdheSE-One F. The bond strength to enamel and dentin in two-step self-etch (AdheSE was higher than one-step self-etch (AdheSE-One F.
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths [µTBS] using different adhesive bonding approaches. Materials and Methods: Flat superficial dentin surfaces of 24 extracted human third molars were exposed and polished to create a standardized smear layer. The teeth were randomly distributed into four different groups: Three-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE - SBMP, two-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2, 3 M ESPE - SB; two-step self-etch (AdheSE, Ivoclar/Vivadent - AD; and self-etch 1 step (Adper Prompt L-Pop, 3M ESPE - LP. Following the adhesive application (n = 6, resin composite was incrementally applied (Filtek™ Supreme XT - 3 M ESPE in order to obtain bonded sticks, with a cross-sectioned area of 0.81 mm 2 . The bonded sticks were randomly divided and assigned to be tested after one day [OD] (n 30 or six months [6 M] of water storage [6 M] (n = 30. Results: Two-way ANOVA and Tukey′s test showed that none of the adhesives showed degradation after 6 M. SB achieved the highest µTBS both in the [OD] (49.13 MPa and [6M] (40.27 MPa. Despite the highest values in both time evaluations, the µTBS of SB significantly reduced after 6M. LP showed the lowest µTBS in both periods of evaluation (18.35 and 18.34 MPa. Conclusions: Although a significant degradation was only observed for SB, this was the adhesive that showed the highest µTBS after 6 M of water storage.
Lee, Wan-Sun; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Hae-Young
The purpose of this study is to mix dental ceramic powder in varying ratios and evaluate the effect of the mixing ratio on color and translucency. The ceramic powder of shade A3 of the same product was mixed with the shade A2 of three products: IPS e.max Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Vintage Halo (SHOFU Inc., Kyoto, Japan), and Ceramco 3 (Ceramco-Dentsply, Burlington, NJ, USA) in the following fixed ratios (0 wt%, 25 wt%, 50 wt%, 75 wt%, and 100 wt%) and then fired. A total of 150 specimen of ceramic fired were manufactured in a regular size (W: 8.5 mm, L: 10.5 mm, and H: 1.5 mm). For color and translucency, L*, a*, and b* were measured and Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for data analysis (α=0.05). The higher the mixing ratio was, L*, a*, and b* of IPS e.max Ceram were all increased, and L* of Vintage Halo was reduced and a* and b* were increased. L* and a* of Ceramco3 were reduced and b* of Ceramco3 was increased. Color difference (ΔE*ab) was increased in all three products as the mixing ratio got higher. Increased mixing ratios resulted in decreased translucency parameter (TP) values for IPS e.max Ceram but increased TP values for Vintage Halo and Ceramco3. In this limited study, CIE L*, a*, and b* were influenced by the mixing ratio of the A3 powders and porcelain powder mixtures represented a various color and translucency.
Andréa Cristina Schneider
Full Text Available Resumo A adequada fotopolimerização das resinas compostas é fundamental para obtenção de uma boa dureza capaz de resistir aos esforços mastigatórios. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência das técnicas de fotopolimerização - Convencional (CONV, Soft-start (SS e Pulso atrasado (PA na microdureza Knoop de três resinas compostas. Para a confecção dos corpos-de-prova foram utilizadas as resinas compostas Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE, Empress Direct (IvoclarVivadent e P90 (3M ESPE. Foram obtidos nove grupos experimentais em função da técnica de polimerização e resina composta. Vinte e quatro horas após a fotopolimerização foi realizado o teste de microdureza Knoop nas superfícies de base e topo de cada corpo-de-prova. Assim, os valores obtidos foram submetidos ao teste de Kruskall Wallis, seguido do teste de Dunn, p < 0,05. A eficácia da polimerização na superfície de topo das resinas compostas testadas não foi afetada pelos diferentes modos de polimerização. A resina composta Empress Direct apresentou os mais baixos valores de dureza para todos os modos de polimerização quando comparada às demais resinas compostas avaliadas.
Kilinc, Evren; Antonson, Sibel A; Hardigan, Patrick C; Kesercioglu, Atilla
Adhesive resin cements may go through internal discoloration, which may show-through and affect the appearance of translucent all-ceramic restorations. This in vitro study evaluated the amount of resin cement color change and its effect on the final shade of the all-ceramics. Three different resin cements in both light and dual-cure forms were included in the study (Nexus-2/Kerr; Appeal/Ivoclar Vivadent; Calibra/Dentsply). All resin cements contained veneered (IPS Empress Esthetic, ETC1 shade, 20 mm × 1 mm ingot discs) and uncovered groups (n=10/group), all luted on white backgrounds (acetalpolyoxymethylene/Delrin(®)). Curing was performed according to ISO standards with a calibrated LED curing-light (Flashlite 1401). Samples were stored in 37°C distilled water at dark. Spectrophotometric baseline color measurements (Color Eye 7000A) were performed from the samples' top surfaces at 24h (D65 illuminator). Samples were subjected to 65 h of accelerated ageing (Atlas Ci4000). Further color measurements from the same areas were recorded in CIEL*a*b* coordinates where a ΔE data above 3 was accepted as visible discoloration (OptiviewLite-1.9software). Statistical analysis was performed using a nested random effects model and Tukey's post hoc analysis. Light-cure groups showed better color stability in all three resins but only in Appeal resin cement, the dual-cure group discolored significantly more (pcolor change (ΔE>3) through the ceramic surface on any veneered group. All resin cements showed varying degrees of discoloration after accelerated ageing however their actual color change was partially masked by the ceramic. Dual-cure resin cements may affect aesthetics on restoration margins if directly exposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa
A large number of colonies of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) cariogenic bacteria in the saliva show a high risk of dental caries development. Cotinine is a biomarker of exposure to the tobacco smoke. The aim of the study was assessment of the number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in the saliva of non-smokers and smokers considering the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. The number of SM and LB was analysed in relation to the frequency of oral health check-ups. The investigated group comprised 124 people aged 20-54. 58 (46.8%) reported cigarette smoking; 66 (53.2%) reported they had never smoked cigarettes and had never attempted to smoke. Cotinine concentration in the saliva was assayed using the Cotinine test (Calbiotech), and the number of SM and LB with the use of the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi2 and Mann-Whitney tests. Test values of pSM and LB and the status of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of cigarette smoking. Smokers who reported having dental check-ups at least once a year significantly more frequently had a small number of LB stated in relation to people who had dental check-ups to control their oral health less frequently than once a year. The number of SM and LB in saliva does not depend on the smoking status, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of smoking.
Ergun, Gulfem; Cekic, Isil; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K
To evaluate the effect of orthotropic fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) at the interface on bonding of lithium-disilicate ceramic to dentin and enamel using different adhesive systems. Dentin and enamel surfaces were ground occlusally on human molar teeth. Ceramic blocks of IPS Empress 2 (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were fabricated. Following acid etching and silane treatment of the ceramics, the teeth were divided into two groups (dentin and enamel). Ceramic blocks were bonded to the tooth substance with or without a layer of FRC and dual-polymerizing composite cement (Duolink). Total-etching (etchant (Etch 37) with adhesive (One Step Plus)) and self-etching (self-priming etchant (Tyrian SPE) with adhesive (One Step Plus)) systems were used, with five test specimens in each group. The cement was polymerized with a LED curing unit (Elipar Freelight LED 2) with standard mode of 40 s. The specimens were thermocycled for 6000 cycles and tested with the microtensile tester at a rate of 5 mm/min. Fracture mode analyses were done by light microscope and with SEM. The data were analyzed using three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA showed that enamel had statistically significant (p<0.001) higher bond strength values than dentin. Bond strength values were significantly higher (p=0.012) with the total-etching system than with the self-etching system. The existence of FRC also had a minor effect on bond strength values (p=0.013). The enamel and total-etching system provided more reliable bonding than dentin and the self-etching system. Use of an FRC layer at the interface did not improve bond strength values, but instead changed fracture pattern behavior.
Chan, Ryan N.; Stoner, Brian R.; Thompson, Jeffrey Y.; Scattergood, Ronald O.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate strengthening mechanisms of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film coatings as a viable method for improving fracture toughness of all-ceramic dental restorations. Methods Bars (2×2×15mm, n=12) were cut from porcelain (ProCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) blocks and wet-polished through 1200-grit using SiC abrasive. A Vickers indenter was used to induce flaws with controlled size and geometry. Depositions were performed via radio frequency magnetron sputtering (5mT, 25ºC, 30:1 Ar/O2 gas ratio) with varying powers of substrate bias. Film and flaw properties were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Flexural strength was determined by three-point bending. Fracture toughness values were calculated from flaw size and fracture strength. Results Data show improvements in fracture strength of up to 57% over unmodified specimens. XRD analysis shows that films deposited with higher substrate bias displayed a high %monoclinic volume fraction (19%) compared to non-biased deposited films (87%), and resulted in increased film stresses and modified YSZ microstructures. SEM analysis shows critical flaw sizes of 67±1μm leading to fracture toughness improvements of 55% over unmodified specimens. Significance Data supports surface modification of dental ceramics with YSZ thin film coatings to improve fracture toughness. Increase in construct strength was attributed to increase in compressive film stresses and modified YSZ thin film microstructures. It is believed that this surface modification may lead to significant improvements and overall reliability of all-ceramic dental restorations. PMID:23764025
Dieng-Sarr, Farimata; Sharrock, Patrick; Dabsie, Firas; Grégoire, Geneviève
Our objective was to analyse the acid strengths and concentrations in contemporary self-etch adhesives and test whether the adhesion/decalcification concept functions the same way for all products. The self-etching adhesives were dissolved in a 50% water-ethanol solvent, these were reacted with biological apatite (HA) in the form of powder of human dentine in order to quantify calcium release and study the reaction products as a function of acid strengths and concentrations. The four self-etching adhesives investigated were AdheSE One (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), Optibond All-In-One (KERR, Orange, CA, USA), Xeno V (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany). Acid concentrations were found to span the range from 1 to 2 mmol/l, and the acid dissociation constants varied between apparent pKa values of 3.4 and 4.2. The pH values changed with time from values near 2.8 to 3.6, confirming the buffering action of HA. The stronger acids dissolved more calcium ions but left less organic matter attached to the tissue particles. Thermogravimetric and infrared analysis demonstrated that the weaker acids tended to bind to HA surfaces and increased significantly the organic to mineral ratios of the powders. Self-etching adhesives can be differentiated and classified in two types: weak acids attach to the mineral phase and leach little calcium; strong acids bind to the calcium ions, demineralize more and tend to debond from the dentinal hard tissues by forming more soluble calcium salts. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In order to forensic use, dental materials should be sufficiently radiopaque to be detected against enamel/dentin, resulting in correct evaluation of restorations contours, detection of secondary caries, marginal defects, etc. Radiopacity of contemporary composites has been improved by inserting of filler-particles containing heavy metals: aluminum, barium, strontium, zirconium, ytterbium. Tetric composite group (Te-econom, Ceram, EvoCeram has the most suitable radiopacity; T-econom has highest radiopacity (4.78mm aluminum when exposure-0.6'. The aim of this study was to comparison of MOD composite restorations (T-Econom, Ivoclar, Vivadent radiographs in molar models and to assess their role in forensic identification, by dental students. Two sets of identical radiographs of molars models (that were previously filled with cement base and composite were made by standardized technique (exposure-time 0.2ms, amperage-10mA, voltage-70kV. One of the sets consists a few radiographs that did not have their pairs in the second set. Equality of composite restorations on the 'ante-mortem' and 'post-mortem' radiographs were assessed by dental students. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa test. Results showed (k.t.=0.82 that there is a high correlation of correct answers although estimates are made by students who have no experience in forensic identification and forensic evidence, neither enough knowledge in dental radiology. Although the forensic identification should not be based only on the appearance of the one restoration, or the assessment of non-professional forensic scientists, this study indicates that radiopacity of composites may have a major forensic importance, because 'ante-mortem' and 'post-mortem' radiographs were showed exactly match certain morphological characteristics of composite restorations.
Garlapati, Tejesh Gupta; Krithikadatta, Jogikalmat; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan
This in-vitro study tested the fracture resistance of endodontically treated molars with Mesial-Occluso-Distal (MOD) cavities restored with fibre reinforced composite material everX posterior in comparision with hybrid composite and ribbond fiber composite. Fifty intact freshly extracted human mandibular first molars were collected and were randomly divided into five groups (n=10). Group 1: positive control (PC) intact teeth without any endodontic preparation. In groups 2 through 6 after endodontic procedure standard MOD cavities were prepared and restored with their respective core materials as follows: group 2, negative control (NC) left unrestored or temporary flling was applied. Group 3, Hybrid composite (HC) as a core material (Te-Econom Plus Ivoclar Vivadent Asia) group 4, Ribbond (Ribbond; Seattle, WA, USA)+conventional composite resin (RCR) group 5, everX posterior (everX Posterior GC EUROPE)+conventional composite resin (EXP) after thermocycling fracture resistance for the samples were tested using universal testing machine. The results were analysed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests. Mean fracture resistance (in Newton, N) was group 1: 1568.4±221.71N, group 2: 891.0±50.107N, group 3: 1418.3±168.71N, group 4:1716.7±199.51N and group 5: 1994.8±254.195N. Among the materials tested, endodontically treated teeth restored with everX posterior fiber reinforced composite showed superior fracture resistance. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turk, Ayse Gozde; Ulusoy, Mubin; Yuce, Mert
PURPOSE To determine whether the fracture strengths and failure types differed between metal and zirconia frameworks veneered with pressable or layering ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS A phantom molar tooth was prepared and duplicated in 40 cobalt-chromium abutments. Twenty metal (IPS d.SIGN 15, Ivoclar, Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and 20 zirconia (IPS e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar) frameworks were fabricated on the abutments. Each framework group was randomly divided into 2 subgroups according to the veneering material: pressable and layering ceramics (n=10). Forty molar crowns were fabricated, cemented onto the corresponding abutments and then thermocycled (5-55℃, 10,000 cycles). A load was applied in a universal testing machine until a fracture occurred on the crowns. In addition, failure types were examined using a stereomicroscope. Fracture load data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The highest strength value was seen in metal-pressable (MP) group, whereas zirconia-pressable (ZP) group exhibited the lowest one. Moreover, group MP showed significantly higher fracture loads than group ZP (P=.015) and zirconia-layering (ZL) (P=.038) group. No significant difference in fracture strength was detected between groups MP and ML, and groups ZP and ZL (P>.05). Predominant fracture types were cohesive for metal groups and adhesive for zirconia groups. CONCLUSION Fracture strength of a restoration with a metal or a zirconia framework was independent of the veneering techniques. However, the pressing technique over metal frameworks resisted significantly higher fracture loads than zirconia frameworks. PMID:26816575
Sreekala, Laju; Narayanan, Mahesh; Eerali, Sunil M.; Eerali, Susil M.; Varghese, Joju; Zainaba Fathima, A. l.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to base metal alloy and zirconia substructures before and after aging. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the failure pattern. Materials and Methods: Twenty rectangular blocks (9 mm length × 4 mm height × 4 mm width) of base metal alloy (Bellabond plus, Bego, Germany) and zirconia (Will ceramZ zirconia K block) were fabricated for shear bond strength test. Surface of the base metal alloy block (4 mm × 4 mm area) was veneered with corresponding veneering porcelain (Ivoclar, IPS classic, vivadent). Similarly, surface of the zirconia rectangular block (4 mm × 4 mm) was veneered with corresponding veneering ceramic (Cercon ceram kiss, Degudent). Out of forty rectangular porcelain veneered core specimen, ten porcelain veneered base metal alloy specimen and ten porcelain veneered zirconia specimen were immersed in water at 37°C for one month to simulate the oral environment. Results: On comparison, the highest shear bond strength value was obtained in porcelain veneered base metal alloy before aging group followed by porcelain veneered base metal alloy after aging group, Porcelain veneered zirconia before aging group, porcelain veneered zirconia after aging group. SEM analysis revealed predominantly cohesive failure of veneering ceramic in all groups. Conclusion: Porcelain veneered base metal alloy samples showed highest shear bond strength than porcelain veneered zirconia samples. Study concluded that aging had an influence on shear bond strength. Shear bond strength was found to be decreasing after aging. SEM analysis revealed cohesive failure of veneering ceramic in all groups suggestive of higher bond strength of the interface than cohesive strength of ceramic. Hence, it was concluded that veneering ceramic was the weakest link. PMID:26942121
Sreekala, Laju; Narayanan, Mahesh; Eerali, Sunil M; Eerali, Susil M; Varghese, Joju; Zainaba Fathima, A L
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to base metal alloy and zirconia substructures before and after aging. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the failure pattern. Twenty rectangular blocks (9 mm length × 4 mm height × 4 mm width) of base metal alloy (Bellabond plus, Bego, Germany) and zirconia (Will ceramZ zirconia K block) were fabricated for shear bond strength test. Surface of the base metal alloy block (4 mm × 4 mm area) was veneered with corresponding veneering porcelain (Ivoclar, IPS classic, vivadent). Similarly, surface of the zirconia rectangular block (4 mm × 4 mm) was veneered with corresponding veneering ceramic (Cercon ceram kiss, Degudent). Out of forty rectangular porcelain veneered core specimen, ten porcelain veneered base metal alloy specimen and ten porcelain veneered zirconia specimen were immersed in water at 37°C for one month to simulate the oral environment. On comparison, the highest shear bond strength value was obtained in porcelain veneered base metal alloy before aging group followed by porcelain veneered base metal alloy after aging group, Porcelain veneered zirconia before aging group, porcelain veneered zirconia after aging group. SEM analysis revealed predominantly cohesive failure of veneering ceramic in all groups. Porcelain veneered base metal alloy samples showed highest shear bond strength than porcelain veneered zirconia samples. Study concluded that aging had an influence on shear bond strength. Shear bond strength was found to be decreasing after aging. SEM analysis revealed cohesive failure of veneering ceramic in all groups suggestive of higher bond strength of the interface than cohesive strength of ceramic. Hence, it was concluded that veneering ceramic was the weakest link.
Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated color differences (ΔEs and translucency parameter changes (ΔTPs of various computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee. Materials and Methods Eight CAD/CAM blocks and four restorative composite resins were evaluated. The CIE L*a*b* values of 2.0 mm thick disk-shaped specimens were measured using the spectrophotometer on white and black backgrounds (n = 6. The ΔEs and ΔTPs of one day, one week, and one month immersion in coffee or water were calculated. The values of each material were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05. The ΔEs after prophylaxis paste polishing of 1 month coffee immersion specimens, water sorption and solubility were also evaluated. Results After one month in coffee, ΔEs of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks and restorative composites ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 and from 2.1 to 7.9, respectively, and ΔTPs decreased. The ANOVA of ΔEs and ΔTPs revealed significant differences in two main factors, immersion periods and media, and their interaction except for ΔEs of TEL (Telio CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent. The ΔEs significantly decreased after prophylaxis polishing except GRA (Gradia Block, GC. There was no significant correlation between ΔEs and water sorption or solubility in water. Conclusions The ΔEs of CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee varied among products and were comparable to those of restorative composite resins. The discoloration of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks could be effectively removed with prophylaxis paste polishing, while that of some restorative composites could not be removed.
Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and nanohybrid resin-based composites polished with 3 different, multistep, aluminum-oxide impregnated finishing and polishing disks. Materials and Methods Disk-shaped specimens (8 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness were light-cured between two glass slabs using one nanohybid bulk-fill (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent, one micro-hybrid bulk-fill (Quixfil, Dentsply, and two nanohybrid incremental-fill (Filtek Ultimate, 3M ESPE; Herculite XRV Ultra, Kerr resin-based composites, and aged by thermocycling (between 5 - 55℃, 3,000 cycles. Then, they were divided into subgroups according to the polishing procedure as SwissFlex (Coltène/Whaledent, Optidisc (Kerr, and Praxis TDV (TDV Dental (n = 12 per subgroup. One surface of each specimen was left unpolished. All specimens were immersed in coffee solution at 37℃. The color differences (ΔE were measured after 1 and 7 days of storage using a colorimeter based on CIE Lab system. The data were analyzed by univariate ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and Friedmann tests (α = 0.05. Results Univariate ANOVA detected significant interactions between polishing procedure and composite resin and polishing procedure and storage time (p 0.05. Polishing reduced the discoloration resistance of Tetric EvoCeram/SwissFlex, Tetric EvoCeram/Praxis TDV, Quixfil-SwissFlex, and all Herculite XRV Ultra groups after 7 days storage (p < 0.05. Conclusions Discoloration resistance of bulk-fill resin-based composites can be significantly affected by the polishing procedures.
Gorseta, Kristina; Glavina, Domagoj; Skrinjaric, Tomislav; Czarnecka, Beata; Nicholson, John W.
Abstract This study determined the influence of coating with either petroleum jelly or light-cured varnish and storage medium on the flexural strength of glass-ionomer cements (GIC). The flexural strength of two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji Equia Fil and Ketac Molar Aplicap) was measured. Specimens (2 × 2 × 25 mm) were prepared in three groups: uncoated, coated with petroleum jelly, or coated with light-cured varnish (EquiaCoat) cured for 20 s using a cure lamp (Bluephase G2, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Specimens were stored for 1 week at 37 °C in water, artificial saliva or 20 mmol dm− 3 lactic acid, then flexural strength was determined in 3-pont bend. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc test (p < 0.05). In addition, the mold was filled with water and the temperature change caused by the cure lamp was measured with a thermocouple. For both materials, storage in water gave the lowest flexural strength. It was slightly higher in either saliva or lactic acid, and was improved by coating in petroleum jelly. Specimens coated with light-cured varnish, that also involved heating with a cure lamp, gave the highest flexural strength. The heating effect of the lamp was demonstrated by the temperature rise in the water in the mold after light exposure from 21.9 (± 1.0) °C to 26.8 (± 1.0) °C. hence, sealing of GIC from aqueous media improves flexural strength. The cure lamp emitted heat, which may enhance the flexural strength of specimens coated with light-cured varnish. PMID:28642913
Maccari, Paulo César; Cosme, Dúcia Caldas; Oshima, Hugo Mitsuo; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami
Many post systems are available to clinicians, yet no consensus exists about which one is better in restoring endodontically treated teeth. This study evaluated the fracture strength of teeth with flared canals and restored with two fiber-reinforced resin systems (glass fiber: FRC Postec [Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein]; quartz fiber: D.T. Light-Post [Bisco Dental Products, Schaumburg, IL, USA]), and one custom cast base metal (Ni-Cr) post and core system. Thirty anterior teeth had their crowns removed below the cemento-enamel junction and were endodontically treated. The canals were prepared for post fixation, and the canal walls were flared using a taper diamond bur. The prepared roots were randomly divided into three groups according to the post system. All posts were cemented with an adhesive resin cement. For the fiber-reinforced resin posts, cores were built up using microhybrid composite. Metallic crowns were luted using zinc phosphate cement. Specimens were loaded at 45 degrees in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. The mode of failure was classified as repairable or nonrepairable. Teeth restored with cast posts had fracture strength twice that of teeth restored with resin posts. Fiber-reinforced resin posts failed at a compressive force comparable to clinical conditions, but all failures were repairable. Fracture strength and mode of failure in anterior teeth with flared canals varied according to the type of post used to support a crown. Under the conditions of this study, cast posts are preferable to restore endodontically treated teeth with flared canals and no ferrule.
Maucoski, Cristiane; Zarpellon, Driellen Christine; Dos Santos, Fabio Andre; Lipinski, Leandro Cavalcante; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Rueggeberg, Frederick Allen; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão
This study evaluated the temperature increase in swine gingival temperature after exposure to light emitted by a Polywave(®) LED light curing unit (LCU, Bluephase 20i, Ivoclar Vivadent). After local Ethics Committee approval (protocol 711/2015), 40 pigs were subjected to general anesthesia and the LCU tip was placed 5mm from the buccal gingival tissue (GT) close to lower lateral incisors. A thermocouple probe (Thermes WFI, Physitemp) was inserted into the gingival sulcus before and immediately after exposure to light. Real-time temperature (°C) was measured after the following exposure modes were applied: High Power (20s-H, 40s-H, and 60s-H) or Turbo mode (5s-T), either with or without the presence of rubber dam (RD) interposed between the LCU tip and GT (n=10). The presence of gingival lesions after the exposures was also evaluated. Peak temperature (°C) and the temperature increase during exposure over that of the pre-exposure baseline value (ΔT) data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc test (α=5%). A binary logistic regression analysis determined the risk of gingival lesion development. Without RD, no significant difference in ΔT was observed among 20s-H, 40s-H, and 60s-H groups, which showed the highest temperature values, while the 5s-T exposure showed the lowest ΔT, regardless of RD. RD reduced ΔT only for the 20s-H group (p=0.004). Gingival lesions were predominantly observed using 40s-H, with RD, and 60s-H, with and without RD. Exposure to a LCU light might be harmful to swine gingiva only when high radiant exposure values are delivered, regardless of the use of RD. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cardoso, Kelly Antonieta Oliveira Rodrigues de Faria; Zarpellon, Driellen Christine; Madruga, Camila Ferreira Leite; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão
Using Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) in vitro, the effects of varying radiant exposure (RE) values generated by second and third generation LED LCUs on the degree of conversion (DC) and maximum rate of polymerization (Rpmax) of an experimental Lucirin TPO-based RC were evaluated. 1 mm or 2 mm thick silicon molds were positioned on a horizontal attenuated total reflectance (ATR) unit attached to an infrared spectroscope. The RC was inserted into the molds and exposed to varying REs (18, 36 and 56 J/cm2) using second (Radii Plus, SDI) and third generation LED LCUs (Bluephase G2/Ivoclar Vivadent) or a quartz tungsten based LCU (Optilux 501/SDS Kerr). FTIR spectra (n=7) were recorded for 10 min (1 spectrum/s, 16 scans/spectrum, resolution 4 cm-1) immediately after their application to the ATR. The DC was calculated using standard techniques for observing changes in aliphatic to aromatic peak ratios both prior to, and 10 min after curing, as well as during each 1 second interval. DC and Rpmax data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p=0.05). No significant difference in DC or Rpmax was observed between the 1 mm or 2 mm thick specimens when RE values were delivered by Optilux 501 or when the 1 mm thick composites were exposed to light emitted by Bluephase G2, which in turn promoted a lower DC when 18 J/cm2 (13 s) were delivered to the 2 mm thick specimens. Radii Plus promoted DC and Rpmax values close to zero under most conditions, while the delivery of 56 J/cm2 (40 s) resulted in low DC values. The third generation LCU provided an optimal polymerization of Lucirin TPO-based RC under most tested conditions, whereas the second generation LED-curing unit was useless regardless of the RE.
Sezinando, Ana; Luque-Martinez, Issis; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Perdigão, Jorge
To test the influence of a hydrophobic resin coating (HC) on the immediate (24h) and 6-month (6m) microtensile dentin bond strengths (μTBS) and nanoleakage (NL) of three universal adhesives applied in self-etch (SE) or in etch-and-rinse (ER) mode. Sixty caries-free extracted third molars were assigned to 12 experimental groups resulting from the combination of the factors "adhesive system" (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU], 3M ESPE; All-Bond Universal [ABU], Bisco Inc.; and G-Bond Plus [GBP], GC Corporation); "adhesive strategy" (SE or ER); "hydrophobic resin coating" [HC] (with or without Heliobond, Ivoclar Vivadent); and "storage time" (24h or 6m). Specimens were prepared for μTBS testing - (24h) half of the beams were immediately tested under tension; and (6m) the other half was stored in distilled water (37°C) for 6m prior to testing. For each tooth, two beams were randomly selected for NL evaluation for both evaluation times. Data were analyzed for each adhesive system using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05). μTBS: (24h): In SE mode, HC resulted in statistically greater mean μTBS for all adhesives. (6m): When HC was not used the mean μTBS for SBU/ER, ABU/ER, GBP/ER and SBU/SE decreased significantly. NL: (24h): SBU/ER, ABU/ER and GBP/SE resulted in a significant reduction in NL when HC was applied. (6m): No significant reduction was observed for SBU/ER or for SBU/SE regardless of the use of HC. The application of a hydrophobic resin coating improved the 24h and the 6m performances of all three adhesives systems in SE mode. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahesh K Duddu
Full Text Available Purpose: The study was conducted with the aim of comparing the shear bond strength (SBS and microleakage of Tetric N-Bond, G-bond, and Xeno V (seventh generation dentin adhesives in primary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: For the shear bond strength, 45 teeth were randomly divided in to three groups namely group A, B, C (n = 15. Samples were mounted horizontally on acrylic block exposing the facial surface and bonded with different adhesives according to manufacturer instructions. A split Teflon mold was used to build the composite resin cylinder and light cured. Shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine. The values were statistically analysed. For microleakage, another 45 teeth were similarly grouped. Two class V cavities were prepared on the labial surface and treated with different dentine bonding agents and restored with resin composite (Ivoclar vivadent A2 shade. The restorations were subsequently thermally stressed for 200 cycles and were subjected to dye penetration test, followed by sectioning through the center of the restoration labiolingually. Each section was examined using stereomicroscope at × 40 magnification to asses dye penetration at the margins of the restoration. Results: The SBS varied between 22.12-23.77 N/mm 2 (P-value = 0.231. The microleakage scores varied between 0.6-1.2 (P-value = 0.03; Post-hoc test A vs B (0.007.There was a statistically higher degree of microleakage observed in group A when compared to group B. Conclusion: Among the three commercially available bonding agents, there were no statistically significant differences in SBS. G bond had higher microleakage when compared to the others.
Full Text Available Objectives This study investigated the removal efficacy and cytotoxicity of a newly developed calcium hydroxide paste (cleaniCal, Maruchi using N-2-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP as a vehicle in comparison with ApexCal (Ivoclar Vivadent and Calcipex II (Nishika, which use different vehicles such as polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, respectively. Materials and Methods Thirty maxillary premolars with oval-shaped canals were divided into 3 groups and the teeth were filled with one of the pastes. After removal of the paste, micro-computed tomographic (μ-CT imaging was obtained to assess the volume of residual paste in the root canal of each tooth. The teeth were then split longitudinally and the area of the paste-coated surface was evaluated by stereomicroscopy. The cytotoxicity of each product was assessed using an agar overlay assay. The effect of each vehicle on cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests to detect any significance (p < 0.05. Results In the μ-CT and stereomicroscopic analysis, cleaniCal exhibited less remnants of medicament than ApexCal and Calcipex. cleaniCal showed a higher cytotoxicity than the other pastes in the agar overlay assay. Furthermore, NMP exhibited lower cell viability compared to the other vehicles. Conclusions cleaniCal showed better removal efficacy compared to the other products. However, clinicians should be aware of the higher cytotoxicity of the NMP-based material and consider its possible adverse effects on periradicular tissue when it is overfilled.
Runnacles, Patrício; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão; Pochapski, Marcia Thais; Dos Santos, Fábio André; Coelho, Ulisses; Gomes, João Carlos; De Goes, Mário Fernando; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel; Rueggeberg, Frederick Allen
This in vivo study evaluated pulp temperature (PT) rise in human premolars during exposure to a light curing unit (LCU) using selected exposure modes (EMs). After local Ethics Committee approval, intact first upper premolars, requiring extraction for orthodontic reasons, from 8 volunteers, received infiltrative and intraligamental anesthesia. The teeth (n=15) were isolated using rubber dam and a minute pulp exposure was attained. A sterile probe from a wireless, NIST-traceable, temperature acquisition system was inserted directly into the coronal pulp chamber, and real time PT (°C) was continuously monitored while the buccal surface was exposed to polywave light from a LED LCU (Bluephase 20i, Ivoclar Vivadent) using selected EMs allowing a 7-min span between each exposure: 10-s either in low (10-s/L) or high (10-s/H); 5-s-turbo (5-s/T); and 60-s-high (60-s/H) intensities. Peak PT values and PT increases from baseline (ΔT) after exposure were subjected to one-way, repeated measures ANOVAs, and Bonferroni's post hoc tests (α=0.05). Linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between applied radiant exposure and ΔT. All EMs produced higher peak PT than the baseline temperature (p<0.001). The 60-s/H mode generated the highest peak PT and ΔT (p<0.001), with some teeth exhibiting ΔT higher than 5.5°C. A significant, positive relationship between applied radiant exposure and ΔT (r(2)=0.916; p<0.001) was noted. Exposing intact, in vivo anesthetized human upper premolars to a polywave LED LCU increases PT, and depending on EM and the tooth, PT increase can be higher than the critical ΔT, thought to be associated with pulpal necrosis. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lauvahutanon, Sasipin; Shiozawa, Maho; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Oki, Meiko; Finger, Werner J; Arksornnukit, Mansuang
This study evaluated color differences (ΔEs) and translucency parameter changes (ΔTPs) of various computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) blocks after immersion in coffee. Eight CAD/CAM blocks and four restorative composite resins were evaluated. The CIE L*a*b* values of 2.0 mm thick disk-shaped specimens were measured using the spectrophotometer on white and black backgrounds (n = 6). The ΔEs and ΔTPs of one day, one week, and one month immersion in coffee or water were calculated. The values of each material were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). The ΔEs after prophylaxis paste polishing of 1 month coffee immersion specimens, water sorption and solubility were also evaluated. After one month in coffee, ΔEs of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks and restorative composites ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 and from 2.1 to 7.9, respectively, and ΔTPs decreased. The ANOVA of ΔEs and ΔTPs revealed significant differences in two main factors, immersion periods and media, and their interaction except for ΔEs of TEL (Telio CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). The ΔEs significantly decreased after prophylaxis polishing except GRA (Gradia Block, GC). There was no significant correlation between ΔEs and water sorption or solubility in water. The ΔEs of CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee varied among products and were comparable to those of restorative composite resins. The discoloration of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks could be effectively removed with prophylaxis paste polishing, while that of some restorative composites could not be removed.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two extraoral computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, in comparison with conventional techniques, on the marginal fit of monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic crowns. This is an in vitro interventional study. The study was carried out at the Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, from December 2015 to April 2016. A marginal gap of 60 lithium disilicate crowns was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. In total, 20 pressable lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press [Ivoclar Vivadent]) ceramic crowns were fabricated using the conventional lost-wax technique as a control group. The experimental all-ceramic crowns were produced based on a scan stone model and milled using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems: the Cerec group was fabricated using the Cerec CAD/CAM system, and the Trios group was fabricated using Trios CAD and milled using Wieland Zenotec CAM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Scheffe post hoc test were used for statistical comparison of the groups (α=0.05). The mean (±standard deviation) of the marginal gap of each group was as follows: the Control group was 91.15 (±15.35) µm, the Cerec group was 111.07 (±6.33) µm, and the Trios group was 60.17 (±11.09) µm. One-way ANOVA and the Scheffe post hoc test showed a statistically significant difference in the marginal gap between all groups. It can be concluded from the current study that all-ceramic crowns, fabricated using the CAD/CAM system, show a marginal accuracy that is acceptable in clinical environments. The Trios CAD group displayed the smallest marginal gap.
Singhal, Sakshi; Gurtu, Anuraag; Singhal, Anurag; Bansal, Rashmi; Mohan, Sumit
This study was conducted to assess the effect of different composite materials on the cuspal deflection of premolars restored with bulk placement of resin composite in comparison to horizontal incremental placement and modified tangential incremental placement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cuspal deflection caused by different composite materials when different insertion techniques were used. Two different composite materials were used that is Tetric N Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent marketing, India) and SonicFill TM (Kerr Sybron Dental). Forty standardized Mesio-Occluso-Distal (MOD) preparations were prepared on maxillary first premolars. Each group was divided according to composite insertion technique (n=10), as follows: Group I - bulk insertion using Tetric N Ceram, Group II - Horizontal incremental insertion technique using Tetric N Ceram, Group III- Modified tangential incremental technique using Tetric N Ceram, and Group IV- bulk insertion using SonicFill TM . Preparations were acid-etched, and bonded with adhesive resin to provide micro mechanical attachment before restoration using a uniform etching and bonding protocol in all the groups. All groups received the same total photo-polymerization time. Cuspal deflection was measured during the restorative procedure using customized digital micrometer assembly. One-way ANOVA test was applied for the analysis of significant difference between the groups, p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The average cuspal deflections for the different groups were as follows: Group I 0.045±0.018, Group II 0.029±0.009, Group III 0.018±0.005 and Group IV 0.017±0.004. The intergroup comparison revealed statistically significant difference. A measurable amount of cuspal deflection was present in all the four studied groups. In general, bulkfill restoration technique with conventional composite showed significantly highest cusp deflection. There were no significant differences in cuspal
Ribelles Llop, M; Guinot Jimeno, F; Mayné Acién, R; Bellet Dalmau, L J
The first studies on the use of chewing gum in dentistry were done in the 1970s. The Turku Sugar Studies, carried out between 1970 and 1973, showed the excellent anticaries properties of xylitol chewing gums. Since then, many dentists, particularly in Scandinavian countries, have studied the role of chewing xylitol-sweetened chewing gums as another preventive strategy in the control of dental caries. To compare variations in salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and levels of Streptococcus mutans in baseline conditions and after chewing paraffin pellets or xylitol chewing gum in children between the ages of 6 and 12 years who eat lunch in a school canteen. The study sample consisted of 90 children divided into 2 study groups, and a control group. The children ate lunch at the canteen of the Escultor Ortells state school in the town of Vila-real (Castellón, Spain). The baseline data recorded in the first phase of the study were compared with the data recorded in the second phase, after 15 minutes of chewing xylitol- sweetened chewing gums or paraffin pellets, depending on the study group. Salivary flow rate was measured by collecting the stimulated saliva in a graduated beaker. Levels of pH were measured using a Cyberscan pH 110 pH meter (Eutech Instruments). CRT buffer strips and the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were used to measure buffering capacity and levels of S. mutans, respectively. The data obtained after sample collection were compared by means of a 1-way analysis of variance using the StatGraphics Plus statistical software package, version 5.0. Statistically significant differences were found (ppH, buffering capacity and levels of S. mutans were compared between the 3 groups. Comparison of salivary flow rates revealed no statistically significant differences (p>.05), though salivary flow rates were higher in the groups where gum was chewed. The effect of chewing is essential to the stimulation of salivary flow and the resulting recovery of
Pollington, Sarah; van Noort, Richard
The aim of this study was to investigate the manufacture and characterisation of different compositions of fluorcanasite glass-ceramics with reduced fluorine content and to assess their mechanical and physical properties. Three compositional variations (S80, S81 and S82) of a fluorcanasite glass were investigated. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified crystallisation temperatures and phases. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) determined the element composition in the glass-ceramics. Different heat treatments [2 h nucleation and either 2 or 4 h crystallisation] were used for the glasses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examined the microstructure of the cerammed glass. The chemical solubility, biaxial flexural strength, fracture toughness, hardness and brittleness index of S81 and S82 fluorcanasite were investigated with lithium disilicate (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) as a commercial comparison. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparison tests (Pglasses. XRD analysis confirmed fluorcanasite formation with the S81 and S82 compositions, with the S82 (2+2h) showing the most prominent crystal structure. The chemical solubility of the glass-ceramics was significantly different, varying from 2565 ± 507 μg/cm(2) for the S81 (2+2 h) to 722 ± 177 μg/cm(2) for the S82 (2+2 h) to 37.4 ± 25.2 μg/cm(2) for the lithium disilicate. BFS values were highest for the S82 (2+2 h) composition (250 ± 26 MPa) and lithium disilicate (266 ± 37 MPa) glass-ceramics. The fracture toughness was higher for the S82 compositions, with the S82 (2+2h) attaining the highest value of 4.2 ± 0.3 MPa m(1/2)(P=0.01). The S82 (2+2 h) fluorcanasite glass-ceramic had the lowest brittleness index. The S82 (2+2 h) fluorcanasite glass-ceramic has acceptable chemical solubility, high biaxial flexural strength, fracture toughness and hardness. A novel glass-ceramic has been developed with potential as a restorative material. The
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Restoration of endodontically treated teeth using fiber posts in a one-stage procedure gains more popularity and aims to create a secondary monoblock. Data of detailed analyses of so called "post-and-core-systems" with respect to morphological characteristics of the resin-dentin interface in combination with bond strength measurements of fiber posts luted with these materials are scarce. The present study aimed to analyze four different post-and-core-systems with two different adhesive approaches (self-etch and etch-and-rinse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human anterior teeth (n = 80 were endodontically treated and post space preparations and post placement were performed using the following systems: Rebilda Post/Rebilda DC/Futurabond DC (Voco (RB, Luxapost/Luxacore Z/Luxabond Prebond and Luxabond A+B (DMG (LC, X Post/Core X Flow/XP Bond and Self Cure Activator (Dentsply DeTrey (CX, FRC Postec/MultiCore Flow/AdheSE DC (Ivoclar Vivadent (MC. Adhesive systems and core materials of 10 specimens per group were labeled using fluorescent dyes and resin-dentin interfaces were analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM. Bond strengths were evaluated using a push-out test. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement ANOVA and following post-hoc test. RESULTS: CLSM analyses revealed significant differences between groups with respect to the factors hybrid layer thickness (p<0.0005 and number of resin tags (p = 0.02; ANOVA. Bond strength was significantly affected by core material (p = 0.001, location inside the root canal (p<0.0005 and incorporation of fluorescent dyes (p = 0.036; ANOVA. CX [7.7 (4.4 MPa] demonstrated significantly lower bond strength compared to LC [14.2 (8.7 MPa] and RB [13.3 (3.7 MPa] (p<0.05; Tukey HSD but did not differ significantly from MC [11.5 (3.5 MPa]. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that bond strengths inside the root canal were not affected by the adhesive approach of the post-and-core-system. All systems
Recently introduced to the market has been an entirely new subclass of casting alloy composition whereby palladium (˜25 wt%) is added to traditional base metal alloys such as CoCr and NiCr. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microstructure and Vickers hardness of two new CoPdCr and one new NiPdCr alloy and compare them to traditional CoCr and NiCr alloys. Methods. The casting alloys investigated were: CoPdCr-A (Noble Crown NF, The Argen Corporation), CoPdCr-I (Callisto CP+, Ivoclar Vivadent), NiPdCr (Noble Crown, Argen), CoCr (Argeloy N.P. Special, Argen), and NiCr (Argeloy N.P. Star, Argen). As-cast cylindrical alloy specimens were mounted in epoxy resin and prepared with standard metallographic procedures, i.e. grinding with successive grades of SiC paper and polishing with alumina suspensions. The alloys were examined with an optical microscope, SEM/EPMA, and XRD to gain insight into their microstructure, composition, and crystal structure. Vickers hardness (VHN) was measured and statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (alpha=0.05). Results. Optical microscopy showed a dendritic microstructure for all alloys. The Pd-containing alloys appear to possess a more complex microstructure. SEM/EPMA showed Cr to be rather uniformly distributed in the matrix with palladium tending to be segregated apart from Mo and Ni or Co. Areas of different composition may explain the poor electrochemical results noted in previous studies. XRD suggested the main phase in the Ni-containing solutions was a face centered cubic Ni solid solution, whereas the CoCr exhibited a hexagonal crystal structure that was altered to face centered cubic when Pd was included in the composition. For Vickers hardness, the Co-containing alloys possessed a greater hardness than the Ni-containing alloys. However, the incorporation of Pd in CoCr and NiCr had only a slight effect on microhardness. Conclusion. Overall, the inclusion of palladium increases the
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Jeong, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jin-Han; Cho, Hye-Won
Although the number of lithium disilicate crowns fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology has increased, the accuracy of the prostheses produced by using digital pathways remains unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare marginal and internal discrepancies of lithium disilicate crowns fabricated from digital and conventional impressions. A typodont mandibular first molar was prepared for a lithium disilicate crown, and 20 duplicate dies were fabricated by milling poly(methyl methacrylate) resin blocks from laboratory scans. Four groups of 5 lithium disilicate crowns each were created by using a CS3500 (Carestream Dental) intraoral digital impression; Trios (3shape) intraoral digital impression; Ceramill Map400 (Amann Girrbach) extraoral digital impression; and a heat-press technique as a control group. All of the IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent AG) crowns were produced using a 5-axis milling engine (Ceramill Motion2). The lithium disilicate crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement under finger pressure. Marginal and internal discrepancies were measured using micro-computed tomography (SkyScan1172). One-way ANOVAs with the Tukey honest significant differences test were used for statistical analysis of the data (α=.05). The mean marginal discrepancies of CS3500 lithium disilicate crowns were 129.6 μm, 200.9 μm for Ceramill Map400, and 207.8 μm 176.1 μm for the heat-press technique; and the internal discrepancy volumes for CS3500 were 25.3 mm3, 40.7 mm3 for Trios, 29.1 mm3 for Ceramill Map400, and 29.1 and 31.4 mm3 for the heat-press technique. The CS3500 group showed a significantly better marginal discrepancy than the other 3 groups and a smaller internal discrepancy volume than the Trios group (Pcrowns produced using 2 intraoral digital impressions, whereas no differences were found between IPS e.max CAD crowns produced from an extraoral digital impression and IPS e.max Press crowns
Rosentritt, Martin; Raab, Philipp; Hahnel, Sebastian; Stöckle, Matthias; Preis, Verena
The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro performance and fracture resistance of a temporary computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured polymethylmethacrylate (CAD/CAM-PMMA) material as implant or tooth-supported single crown with respect to the clinical procedure (permanently bonded/temporarily cemented). Sixty-four crowns were fabricated on implants or human molar teeth simulating (a) labside procedure on prefabricated titanium-bonding base ([TiBase] implant crown bonded in laboratory, screwed chairside), (b) labside procedure ([LAB] standard abutment and implant crown bonded in laboratory, screwed chairside), (c) chairside procedure ([CHAIR] implant crown bonded to abutment), and (d) reference ([TOOTH] crowns luted on prepared human teeth). Crowns were made of a CAD/CAM-PMMA temporary material (TelioCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent). For investigating the influence of fixation, half of the crowns were permanently (P) or temporarily (T) bonded. Combined thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML) was performed simulating a 5-year clinical situation. Fracture force was determined. Data were statistically analyzed (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-way ANOVA; post hoc Bonferroni, α = 0.05). All restorations survived TCML without visible failures. Fracture results varied between 3034.3 (Tooth-P) and 1602.9 N (Tooth-T) [TOOTH], 1510.5 (TiBase-P) and 963.6 N (TiBase-T) [TiBase], 2691.1 (LAB-P) and 2064.5 N (LAB-T) [LAB], and 1609.4 (Chair-P) and 1253.0 N (Chair-T) [CHAIR]. Tested groups showed significantly (p < 0.001) different fracture values. Failure pattern was characterized by fractures in mesial-distal, buccal-oral, or mixed (mesial-distal/buccal-oral) directions, with differences for the individual groups. Temporary CAD/CAM crowns showed no different in-vitro performance but provided different fracture results that depended on cementation, screw channel, and type of abutment. All bonded and screwed PMMA crowns were in a range where clinical
Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composite in stress bearing posterior situations has restricted wider clinical application of this restorative material. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the three body abrasive wear of a dental composite based on a new filler (leucite: KAl Si2O6 and to compare it with the wear resistance of a composite based on commonly used Aluminium – Barium Silicate filler. Materials and Methods: This research was an interventional study done in Iran polymer institute. Five specimens were considered in each group. All ceramic IPS Empress® (Ivoclar- Vivadent ingots based on leucite crystals were ball milled, passed through an 800 sieve and used as filler. Experimental composites were prepared by mixing the silane- treated fillers with monomers (BisGMA and TEGDMA. Camphorquinone and amine were used as photoinitiator system. Degree of conversion of the light-cured and post-cured composites was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The prepared pastes were inserted into plexy-glass mold and light cured (700 mw/cm2, 40 s. Then for maximum degree of conversion specimens were post- cured (120ºC, 5 hours. Three body abrasion wear testing was performed using a wear machine with 50 rpm rotational movement. In this machine, pumice (150 meshes was used as the third body. Weight loss of specimens in each group was measured by balance after each 50 hours. After wear testing SEM examination was made specimens in each group. The data were analyzed and compared using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (P<0.05. Tetric Ceram was tested as commercial composite. Results: There were significantly differences between three body abrasive wear of composites. The ranking from lowest to highest was as follows: leucite composite (19% < Tetric Ceram (22% < glass composite (28%. leucite composite showed the highest wear resistance value, propably due to the crystalliniy and hardness of filler. Conclusion
Marocho, Susana María; Ozcan, Mutlu; Amaral, Regina; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe
This study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of 3 different resin cements to lithium-disilicate ceramic using two assemblies: ceramic-cement-ceramic (CCC) and ceramic-cement-dentin (CCD). The bonding surfaces of lithium disilicate ceramic blocks (5 × 5 × 4 mm) (Nblock = 90) were etched with 4% hydrofluoric acid for 20 s and silanized. Flat dentin surfaces of human third molars were conditioned according to the respective manufacturer's specifications for three types of resin cements (ML: Multilink, Ivoclar-Vivadent; PF: Panavia F, Kuraray; SB: Super Bond C&B, Sun Medical). While one set of ceramic blocks (n = 30) was cemented to another equal set (CCC assembly), another set of ceramic blocks (n = 30) was cemented on flat dentin (CCD assembly). The bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, and then sectioned along the x- and y-axes to obtain nontrimmed beam specimens. The beam specimens were randomly divided into two conditions: dry condition (DC - immediate testing); and aging condition (AC - thermocycling 12,000 times + water storage for 150 days). The µTBS bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). After debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope to categorize the failure types. The data were statistically evaluated using 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). While the mean µTBS of CCC assemblies were significantly influenced by the cement type (p 0.05). Without aging (DC), the mean µTBS (MPa) of SB (26.9) and PF (26.9) were significantly higher than ML (18.5) (p 0.05). In both CCC and CCD assemblies, pre-test failures were the least with SB cement. Regardless of the resin cement type employed and storage conditions, adhesive failures ranged between 35.3% and 88.9%, cohesive failures in cement between 2.3% and 35.3%, and cohesive failures in ceramic between 3.3% and 6.8%. SB resin cement demonstrated the highest bond strength to a
Análise dos níveis de cinza de 4 resinas compostas micro-híbridas utilizando um sistema de radiografia digital direto =Analisys of the gray scale levels for 4 micro-hibrids composite resins using a radiograph direct digital system
Pereira, Ary Salazar Rubim et al.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os diferentes níveis de cinza de quatro resinas compostas micro-híbridas, através do sistema de radiografia digital direto Sens-a-Ray. As resinas utilizadas foram: Concept (Vigodent, Herculite (Sybron/Kerr, IntenS (Ivoclar Vivadent e Z 100 (3MESPE, na cor A2. Foram confeccionadas 3 placas de acrílico para cada espessura 2, 3 e 4 mm que possuíam dimensões de um filme periapical. Em todas as placas foram feitos quatro orifícios eqüidistantes com 4 mm de diâmetro onde as resinas compostas foram inseridas, esses orifícios apresentavam 4mm de diâmetro. As amostras foram radiografadas a 30 cm de distância foco-filme do sistema Sens-a-Ray por 0,8 segundo com aparelho de Raios-X (Dabi Atlante de 70 kV e 10 mA. A quantidade dos níveis de cinza, das resinas, foi aferida em pixels pelo sistema Sens-a-Ray. Foram obtidas as seguintes médias: Concept – 2 mm com 79,6; 3 mm com 85,4 e 4 mm com 96,7; Herculite – 2 mm com 65,1; 3 mm com 72,5 e 4 mm com 85,4; IntenS – 2 mm com 138,5; 3 mm com 147,3 e 4 mm com 153,7; Z 100 – 2 mm com 133,5; 3 mm com 143,8 e 4 mm com 150,6. Após os resultados foram submetidos ao teste estatístico ANOVA-Tukey com um nível de significância (p 0,05. A colorimetria foi utilizada para ilustrar a densidade óptica dos compósitos, com cores vermelho, verde e azul, representando, respectivamente do mais radiopaco para o menos radiopaco. Podemos concluir que na medida em que aumentou a espessura das placas os níveis de cinza também aumentaram. A resina Herculite apresentou os menores níveis de cinza, diferindo estatisticamente das demais. As resinas IntenS e Z 100 apresentaram maiores níveis de cinza que as demais.
Full Text Available Background: Although studies have shown that porcelain veneers are very efficient for treating discolored teeth, they did not address in particular the minimum thickness of a multilayer IPS e.max Press (IvoclarVivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein restoration required to mask discolored tooth. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum thickness of a multilayer porcelain restoration required for masking severe tooth discoloration. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 disk-shaped multilayer specimens were prepared from IPS e.max Press with the diameter of 13 mm and four different thicknesses (core/veneer: 0.4/0.4 mm, 0.5/0.5 mm, 0.6/0.6 mm and 0.8/0.7 mm. Two backgrounds, C4-shade body porcelain and an opaque background from the selected IPS e.max ceramic itself were fabricated to mimic a discolored or stained natural tooth structure and to determine the masking ability. After applying the resin cement layer (Panavia F2.0 with 0.01 mm thickness on each background, all specimens were measured on both background using a spectrophotometer and values of LFNx01, aFNx01 and bFNx01 were calculated to determine the color differences (ΔEFNx01ab. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests of specimen average one-to-one comparison (Tukey HSD were conducted and P ≤ 0.05 was set as the level of significance. Results: ΔEFNx01ab of all groups were within the range of the clinically acceptable color difference (ΔE ≤3.3, thus all the groups could mask the C4 background even group 1 with only 0.8 mm thickness. A trend was shown in the results as by increasing the thickness, ΔEFNx01ab is was decreased. The mean ΔE FNx011FNx01aFNx01b between different thicknesses were statistically significant (P < 0.05 only between group 4 with groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, all studied thicknesses could mask the C4 background. However, the minimum thickness of a multilayer porcelain restoration (IPS e.max Press required for masking
Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Shaopu; Xing, Wenzhong; Zhan, Kangru; Wang, Yining
To evaluate the influence of various shades of resin cements on the final color of an improved lithium-disilicate pressed glass ceramic veneers and analyze the agreement of resin cements and corresponding try-in pastes. Forty-eight artificial maxillary central incisor teeth were sequenced according to the measured color parameters and divided at random into 8 groups (n = 6). These artificial teeth were prepared following veneer preparation protocol. An improved lithium- disilicate pressed glass ceramic materials (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) were selected as the veneer material. The shape and curvature of each veneer wax pattern were duplicated with the same impression to guarantee the similarity. The ceramic veneer specimens were delivered on the artificial teeth using the corresponding try-in pastes of 8 shades (Variolink Veneer, shades of LV-3, LV-2, MV, HV+2, HV+3; and 3M RelyXTM Veneer, shades of WO, TR, A3) and bonded with the resin cements. A clinical spectrophotometer was used to measure the color parameters of the ceramic veneers before the try-in, during the try-in procedure, and after cementation. ΔE values and C*ab values were calculated. The result of one-way ANOVA indicated that the color changes of ceramic veneer cementation with resin cements were statistically significantly different in the shades of resin cements (P veneer after cementation ranged from 0.93 to 6.79. The color changes of ceramic veneer specimens using the shades of LV-3, HV+3, WO were 3.31, 4.90 and 6.79, respectively (ΔE>3.3). The ΔE values of the ceramic veneer specimens between the resin cements and corresponding try-in pastes were from 0.72 to 1.79 (except the shade of HV+3). The LV-3, HV+3, WO shades were able to change the final color of a ceramic veneer. The color of resin cements and corresponding try-in pastes achieved high agreement (except the shade of HV+3).
Cho, Seok-Hwan; Lopez, Arnaldo; Berzins, David W; Prasad, Soni; Ahn, Kwang Woo
This study evaluated the effects of ceramic veneer thicknesses on the polymerization of two different resin cements. A total of 80 ceramic veneer disks were fabricated by using a pressable ceramic material (e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) from a Low Translucency (LT) ingot (A1 shade). These disks were divided into light-cured (LC; NX3 Nexus LC; Kerr) and dual-cured (DC; NX3 Nexus DC; Kerr) and each group was further divided into four subgroups, based on ceramic disk thickness (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 mm). The values of Vickers microhardness (MH) and degree of conversion (DOC) were obtained for each specimen after a 24-hour storage period. Association between ceramic thickness, resin cement type, and light intensity readings (mW/cm(2)) with respect to microhardness and degree of conversion was statistically evaluated by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). For the DOC values, there was no significant difference observed among the LC resin cement subgroups, except in the 1.2 mm subgroup; only the DOC value (14.0 ± 7.4%) of 1.2 mm DC resin cement had significantly difference from that value (28.9 ± 7.5%) of 1.2 mm LC resin cement (p resin cement groups, there was statistically significant difference (p resin cement groups demonstrated higher values than DC resin cement groups. On the other hands, among the DC resin cement subgroups, the MH values of 1.2 mm DC subgroup was significantly lower than the 0.3 mm and 0.6 mm subgroups (p 0.05). The degree of conversion and hardness of the resin cement was unaffected with veneering thicknesses between 0.3 and 0.9 mm. However, the DC resin cement group resulted in a significantly lower DOC and MH values for the 1.2 mm subgroup. While clinically adequate polymerization of LC resin cement can be achieved with a maximum 1.2 mm of porcelain veneer restoration, the increase of curing time or light intensity is clinically needed for DC resin cements at the thickness of more than 0.9 mm.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Achieving adhesion between restorative materials and dentin as a wet and dynamic surface is an important topic in restorative and especially in conservative dentistry. Adhesion of new dentin bonding systems depends on the formation of hybrid layer and micromechanical retention. Nevertheless, an ideal adhesive system has not yet been introduced .Recent studies reveal an increase in bonding stability when the collagen is removed from demineralized dentin surfaces. This study investigates the effect of collagen removal on the shear bond strength of four single bottle dentin bonding systems regarding their structural differences. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 56 intact human premolar teeth. Smooth surfaces of dentin were prepared on buccal & lingual aspects of teeth, providing 112 dentin surfaces. The dentin surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds and then rinsed. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. Single bottle adhesive systems [Single Bond (3M, One-Step (Bisco, Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply, and Excite (Vivadent] were then applied on the dentin surfaces of 4 groups using the wet bonding technique. In the other 4 groups, the demineralized dentin surfaces were treated with a 5.25% solution of sodium hypochlorite for one minute in order to remove the surface organic components. The adhesive systems mentioned before were applied to these 4 groups with the same wet bonding technique. A cylinder of Z100 (3M dental composite with a 3 mm diameter and 2 mm height was placed on the adhesive covered dentin surface of all groups and light-cured (400 mW/cm2 ,40 sec on each side. The specimens were kept in distilled water at room temperature for one week and then thermocycled for 3000 times (5-55 oc. Shear bond strength of specimens was measured using an Instron (1495 universal mechanical testing machine with cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute and chisel form shearing blade. Data were
Stappert, Christian F J; Chitmongkolsuk, Somsak; Silva, Nelson R F A; Att, Wael; Strub, Joerg R
To investigate the influence of mouth-motion fatigue on marginal-accuracy of partial-coverage-restorations-(PCRs) of various dental materials. Eighty molars were prepared equally and divided into five groups (n=16). PCRs were fabricated of following dental materials: Group-GO=Gold-Pontor-MPF(double dagger), Group-TA=Targis*, Group-EX=IPS-e.max-Press*, Group-EM=IPS-Empress*, Group-PC=ProCAD*/Cerec 3(dagger) ((double dagger)Metalor/*Ivoclar-Vivadent/(dagger)Sirona-Dental-System). Gold-PCRs were cemented conventionally. Residual 64 PCRs were adhesively luted and subjected to masticatory loading (1.2million-cycles, 1.6Hz, 49N) and thermal cycling (5 degrees C/55 degrees C, 60s, dwell-time, 5500cycles). Discrepancies in marginal-accuracy were examined on epoxy replicas (200 x magnification). Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired and paired t-tests (alpha=0.05). After cementing, marginal-accuracy (geometrical mean)[95% confidence limits] was recorded: GO-47[43-51]microm, TA-42[38-45]microm, EX-60[52-67]microm, EM-52[45-60]microm and PC-75[59-94]microm. No significant differences were found between groups GO, TA and EM. Values of Group-EX were significantly higher compared to Group-TA (p=0.04). Group-PC demonstrated significantly decreased marginal-accuracy towards groups GO (p=0.03) and TA (p=0.02). Except for Group-GO (p=0.01), no significant changes in marginal-accuracy were observed after mouth-motion fatigue and thermal cycling (GO-42[38-45]microm, TA-42[38-47]microm, EX-56[49-65]microm, EM-54[46-64]microm and PC-71[59-84]microm). However, Group-GO and Group-EM showed significant deviations in marginal-accuracy after aging (p=0.04). Marginal discrepancies of groups EX and EM were similar (p=1.0). Values of Group-PC were significantly higher when compared to groups GO (p=0.01) and TA (p=0.02). Buccal-lingual marginal discrepancies were significantly higher than mesial-distal in all groups and stages. Cast-gold-PCRs demonstrated superior marginal
Preis, Verena; Behr, Michael; Hahnel, Sebastian; Rosentritt, Martin
This study investigated the influence of conventional cementation, self-adhesive cementation, and adhesive bonding on the in vitro performance, fracture resistance, and marginal adaptation of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) crowns. Human molar teeth (n=40) were prepared and full-contour crowns of a ZLS ceramic (Celtra Duo, DeguDent, G, n=32) and a lithium disilicate ceramic (LDS; IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL, n=8) were fabricated and glazed. Four groups of ZLS crowns were defined (n=8/group) and cemented with different glass-ionomer cements, resin, and resin-modified self-adhesive luting materials. The LDS crowns served as reference group with adhesive bonding. A combined thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML: 3000×5°C/3000×55°C; 1.2×10(6) cycles à 50N) with human antagonists was performed in a chewing simulator. Fracture force of surviving crowns was determined. Marginal adaptation at the cement/tooth and cement/crown interface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy before and after TCML, and the share of perfect margins was determined. Data were statistically analyzed (one-way ANOVA; post hoc Bonferroni, α=0.05). One crown of the adhesive group failed during TCML (879,000 cycles=3.7 years). No statistically significant (p=0.078) differences in fracture resistance were found between different cementations, although highest data in tendency were found for adhesive bonding. Shares of perfect margins at the cement/tooth (93.8±5.6-99.6±0.8%) and cement/crown (84.7±6.6-100.0±0.0%) interfaces did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between the different cementation groups. Marginal adaptation and fracture forces of all tested groups are in a range, where no restrictions should be expected for clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yetkiner, Enver; Ozcan, Mutlu; Wegehaupt, Florian Just; Wiegand, Annette; Eden, Ece; Attin, Thomas
This study investigated the effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin (Icon) applied after either hydrochloric (HCl) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4) on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel. Failure types were analyzed. The crowns of bovine incisors (N = 20) were sectioned mesio-distally and inciso-gingivally, then randomly assigned to 4 groups according to the following protocols to receive mandibular incisor brackets: 1) H3PO4 (37%)+TransbondXT (3M UNITEK); 2) H3PO4 (37%)+Icon+TransbondXT; 3) HCl (15%)+Icon (DMG)+TransbondXT 4) HCl (15%)+Icon+Heliobond (Ivoclar Vivadent)+TransbondXT. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and thermocycled (5000x, 5°C to 55°C). The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Failure types were classified according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Contact angles of adhesive resins were measured (n = 5 per adhesive) on ceramic surfaces. No significant difference in SBS was observed, implying no difference between combinations of adhesive resins and etching agents (p = 0.712; ANOVA). The Weibull distribution presented significantly lower Weibull modulus (m) of group 3 (m = 2.97) compared to other groups (m = 5.2 to 6.6) (p group 1 (45.4 ± 7.9) > group 2 (44.2 ± 10.6) > group 3 (42.6 ± 15.5). While in groups 1, 3, and 4 exclusively an ARI score of 0 (no adhesive left on tooth) was observed, in group 2, only one specimen demonstrated score 1 (less than half of adhesive left on tooth). Contact angle measurements were as follows: Icon (25.86 ± 3.81 degrees), Heliobond (31.98 ± 3.17 degrees), TransbondXT (35 ± 2.21 degrees). Icon can be safely used with the conventional adhesives tested on surfaces etched with either HCl or H3PO4.
Inokoshi, Masanao; Vanmeensel, Kim; Zhang, Fei; De Munck, Jan; Eliades, George; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Naert, Ignace; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Vleugels, Jozef
The influence of surface treatment on the low-temperature degradation (LTD) of tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (TZP) is still unclear. The effect of surface treatments on the LTD behavior of zirconia was investigated. Fully-sintered specimens of seven commercial dental zirconia (Aadva, GC; In-CeramYZ, VITA; IPS e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent; LAVA Frame and LAVA Plus, 3M ESPE; NANOZR, Panasonic; ZirTough, Kuraray Noritake) were provided by the manufacturers with specimen dimensions of approximately 10mm×5mm×3mm. For each zirconia grade, samples were kept 'as sintered' (untreated) or were subjected to one of the three surface treatments: rough polished, sandblasted with Al2O3, tribochemical silica sandblasted (n=3/group). The tetragonal to monoclinic transformation was evaluated by X-ray diffraction at several intervals during LTD testing up to 40h in steam in an autoclave (134°C, 2bar). The five yttria-stabilized TZP (Y-TZP: Aadva, In-CeramYZ, IPS e.max ZirCAD, LAVA Frame, LAVA Plus) zirconia showed a similar trend in LTD behavior. The Al2O3 sandblasted zirconia showed the highest monoclinic volume fraction. The as sintered (untreated) zirconia degraded faster than the surface-treated zirconia. Although the surface-treated ceria-stabilized TZP/alumina (Ce-TZP/Al2O3: NANOZR) zirconia had a higher initial monoclinic volume fraction compared to the Y-TZP zirconia, it showed a stronger aging resistance. The as sintered (untreated) Y-TZP/alumina (Y-TZP/Al2O3: ZirTough) zirconia showed a strong aging resistance, whereas the surface-treated Y-TZP/Al2O3 zirconia degraded slightly. Surface treatment improved the aging resistance of Y-TZP zirconia. Surface treatment did not affect the LTD behavior of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 zirconia, while surface treatment decreased the aging resistance of Y-TZP/Al2O3 zirconia. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gee, C; Weddell, J N; Swain, M V
To quantify the adhesion of two bonding approaches of zirconia to more aesthetic glass-ceramic materials using the Schwickerath (ISO 9693-2:2016) three point bend (3PB)  test to determine the fracture initiation strength and strain energy release rate associated with stable crack extension with this test and the Charalamabides et al. (1989)  four point bend (4PB) test. Two glass-ceramic materials (VITABLOCS Triluxe forte, Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany and IPS.emax CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) were bonded to sintered zirconia (VITA InCeram YZ). The former was resin bonded using a dual-cure composite resin (Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray Medical Inc., Osaka, Japan) following etching and silane conditioning, while the IPS.emax CAD was glass bonded (IPS e.max CAD Crystall/Connect) during crystallization of the IPS.emax CAD. Specimens (30) of the appropriate dimensions were fabricated for the Schwickerath 3PB and 4PB tests. Strength values were determined from crack initiation while strain energy release rate values were determined from the minima in the force-displacement curves with the 3PB test (Schneider and Swain, 2015)  and for 4PB test from the plateau region of stable crack extension. Strength values for the resin and glass bonded glass ceramics to zirconia were 22.20±6.72MPa and 27.02±3.49MPa respectively. The strain energy release rates for the two methods used were very similar and for the glass bonding, (4PB) 15.14±5.06N/m (or J/m2) and (3PB) 16.83±3.91N/m and resin bonding (4PB) 8.34±1.93N/m and (3PB) 8.44±2.81N/m respectively. The differences in strength and strain energy release rate for the two bonding approaches were statistically significant (pzirconia. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
El Gezawi, M; Kaisarly, D; Al-Saleh, H; ArRejaie, A; Al-Harbi, F; Kunzelmann, K H
This study investigated the color stability and microhardness of five composites exposed to four beverages with different pH values. Composite discs were produced (n=10); Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Filtek P90 (3M ESPE) were applied in two layers (2 mm, 20 seconds), and Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (TetricBF, Ivoclar Vivadent) and SonicFill (Kerr) were applied in bulk (4 mm) and then light cured (40 seconds, Ortholux-LED, 1600 mW/cm2). Indirect composite Sinfony (3M ESPE) was applied in two layers (2 mm) and cured (Visio system, 3M ESPE). The specimens were polished and tested for color stability; ΔE was calculated using spectrophotometer readings. Vickers microhardness (50 g, dwell time=45 seconds) was assessed on the top and bottom surfaces at baseline, 40 days of storage, subsequent repolishing, and 60 days of immersion in distilled water (pH=7.0), Coca-Cola (pH=2.3), orange juice (pH=3.75), or anise (pH=8.5) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The materials had similar ΔE values (40 days, p>0.05), but TetricBF had a significantly greater ΔE than P90 or SF (40 days). The ΔE was less for P90 and TetricBF than for Z250, SonicFill, and Sinfony (60 days). Repolishing and further immersion significantly affected the ΔE (p<0.05) except for P90. All composites had significantly different top vs bottom baseline microhardnesses. This was insignificant for the Z250/water, P90/orange juice (40 days), and Sinfony groups (40 and 60 days). Immersion produced variable time-dependent deterioration of microhardness in all groups. Multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni tests were used to compare the results. ΔE and microhardness changes were significantly inversely correlated at 40 days, but this relationship was insignificant at 60 days (Pearson test). SEM showed degradation (40 days) that worsened (60 days). Bulk-fill composites differ regarding color-stability and top-to-bottom microhardness changes compared with those of other
Muniz, Leonardo; Mathias, Paula
This study evaluated the influence of 5.25% NaOCl irrigant and root canal sealers on post retention in different dentin regions. Seventy-two human incisors were decoronated at the cemento-enamel junction and randomly divided into six groups (n=12) according to irrigant and sealer technique: G1-Distilled water (DW) without sealer; G2-DW + AH Plus (Dentsply/Maillefer); G3-DW + Endofill (Dentsply/Maillefer); G4-5.251%NaOCl without sealer; G5-5.25% NaOCl + AH Plus; G6-5.25% NaOCl + Endofill. Specimens were stored in a humid environment for 30 days at 37 degrees C and were prepared with FRC Postec's drills for post insertion. The posts were cemented with Excite DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar/Vivadent). The specimens were sectioned through their long axis into three dental slices approximately 2.5 mm each, representing the cervical (C), middle (M) and apical (A) thirds of the root preparation. After calculating the adhered area of the specimens, they were submitted to the push-out test in a universal testing machine. The data were submitted to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 5% significance level and to the Tukey test (p<0.05). The mean values (MPa) obtained for cervical, middle and apical areas of the root preparation, respectively, were: G1=8.6; 12.5 and 14.3, G2=13.5; 15.4 and 16.9; G3=6.9; 10.0 and 12.1; G4=13.0; 14.9 and 15.4; G5=11.3; 13.5 and 18.0; and G6=11.0; 11.8 and 11.5. Based on the results, the eugenol-based sealer (Endofill) resulted in significantly lower mean retention strength values compared with the resin-based sealer (AH Plus). The apical region showed the greatest retention. The lowest resistance to dislodgment was found in the cervical region, mainly in the groups that used distilled water for irrigating the root canal.
Federlin, Marianne; Schmidt, Sebastian; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Thonemann, Birger; Schmalz, Gottfried
The influence of three different cavity preparations on the marginal integrity of partial ceramic crowns (PCC) luted with four different luting systems was investigated in this in vitro study. PCC preparations were performed in 144 extracted human molars using one of the following preparation designs (n=48/preparation): A--Coverage of functional cusps/butt joint preparation; B--horizontal reduction of functional cusps and C--complete reduction of functional cusps/butt joint preparation. Non-functional cusps were not covered; mesial and distal proximal boxes were extended 1 mm below the cemento-enamel-junction. PCC were fabricated from Vita Mark II ceramic (Vita) with a Cerec 3 Unit (Sirona) and adhesively luted to the cavities using the following luting systems: (VL) Variolink II/Excite (Vivadent), (PA) Panavia F/ED Primer (Kuraray), (DY) Dyract/Prime & Bond NT (DeTrey/Dentsply) and (FU) Fuji Plus/GC Cavity Conditioner (GC). Samples were simultaneously exposed to thermocycling and mechanical loading (TC: 5000x8-55 degrees C, 30 seconds/cycle; ML: 500000x72.5N, 1.6Hz). Marginal adaptation was assessed by evaluating dye penetration on multiple sections by relating the actual penetration distance to the maximal length of the corresponding cavity wall (100%). Ceramic- and tooth-luting material interfaces were evaluated separately. The data were statistically analyzed with the Mann Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon Rank Sumtest. In general, no significant differences could be found between preparations A, B and C. The combination of preparation C and luting material PA showed a tendency for the lowest dye penetration values, especially within dentin (30%). Significant differences could be determined between luting materials: Composite luting materials PA (0%) and VL (1%) revealed less dye penetration than the compomer DY (6%) and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) FU (26%); use of RMGIC caused fractures of the restorations. The dentin/luting material interface showed
Garcia, Eugenio Jose; Reis, Alessandra; Arana-Correa, Beatriz Elena; Sepúlveda-Navarro, Wilmer Fabian; Higashi, Cristian; Gomes, João Carlos; Loguercio, Alessandro D
To determine whether the adverse interaction between a two-step/acidic etch-and-rinse adhesive (One-Step Plus [OS], Bisco) and chemically cured resin luting cement [Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent] can improve adhesive coupling by reducing the dentin permeability with an oxalate desensitizer (BisBlock, Bisco). After exposing dentin on the occlusal surfaces of human third molars, bonding was performed on either oxalate treated (BB) or nontreated (NB) demineralized dentin. A resin luting cement was placed in the format of a crown following the light-curing mode (only with the base syringe [LC]) or the chemically curing mode (mixture of base and catalyst syringes [CC]). The activation of the LC or CC cements was either immediately [IM], meaning soon after the placement of LC and the initial set of CC cement (5 min), or after a delay of 20 min [DP] for both modes of polymerization. Five teeth were assigned to each experimental condition. Teeth were sectioned to obtain sticks with a cross-sectional area of 0.95 mm2, which were tested using the microtensile bond strength test soon after the specified periods of polymerization. The bond strength values of each adhesive were analyzed by three-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Fractographic analysis of the specimens was performed using SEM. The delayed polymerization (for both LC and CC cements) produced low bond strength values compared to IM activation. When the BB was employed, the bond strength values of the CC cement was approximately doubled, while the BB did not affect the bond strength of the LC cement. Bond strength values of LC cements were higher than CC. The use of BB significantly improved the bond strength of CC cement only. The morphological observations confirmed the bond strength results. A myriad of voids could be detected in the luting cement side when BB was not applied, except for the immediately light-cured group. The use of an oxalate desensitizer (BisBlock) reduced the
Hikita, K; Van Meerbeek, B; De Munck, J; Ikeda, T; Van Landuyt, K; Maida, T; Lambrechts, P; Peumans, M
The bonding effectiveness of five adhesive luting agents to enamel and dentin using different application procedures was determined using a micro-tensile bond strength protocol (microTBS). Enamel/dentin surfaces of human third molars were flattened using a high-speed diamond bur. Composite resin blocks (Paradigm, 3M ESPE) were luted using either Linkmax (LM; GC), Nexus 2 (NX; Kerr), Panavia F (PN; Kuraray), RelyX Unicem (UN; 3M ESPE) or Variolink II (VL; Ivoclar-Vivadent), strictly following manufacturers' instructions. For some luting agents, modified application procedures were also tested, resulting in four other experimental groups: Prompt L-Pop+RelyX Unicem (PLP+UN; 3M ESPE), Scotchbond Etchant+RelyX Unicem (SE+UN; 3M ESPE), Optibond Solo Plus Activator+Nexus 2 (ACT+NX; Kerr) and K-Etchant gel+Panavia-F (KE+P; Kuraray). The experimental groups were classified according to the adhesive approach in self-adhesive (UN), etch-and-rinse (ACT+NX, NX, KE+P, SE+UN and VL when bonded to enamel) and self-etch adhesive luting agents (LM, PLP+UN, PN and VL when bonded to dentin). The specimens were stored for 24h in distilled water at 37 degrees C prior to microTBS testing. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine pairwise statistical differences (padhesive separately and an insufficiently light-cured luting agent. Following a correct application procedure, the etch-and-rinse, self-etch and self-adhesive luting agents are equally effective in bonding to enamel and dentin. Several factors negatively influenced bond strength such as bonding RelyX Unicem to enamel without prior phosphoric acid etching; no separate light-curing of a light-polymerizable adhesive prior to cementation, use of a light-polymerizing adhesive converted into a dual-polymerizing adhesive, and use of a dual-cure luting agent with a low auto-polymerizable potential.
Forster, András; Ungvári, Krisztina; Györgyey, Ágnes; Kukovecz, Ákos; Turzó, Kinga; Nagy, Katalin
Health condition of the gingival tissues contacting the surfaces of fixed prostheses is a result of multiple etiologic factors. The aim of the investigation discussed here was to evaluate the attachment and proliferation rate of cultured human epithelial cells on three commonly used restorative materials under in vitro conditions. Morphological and chemical structure of polished lithium-disilicate (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Germany), yttrium modified zirconium dioxide (5-TEC ICE Zirkon Translucent, Zirkonzahn GmbH Srl, Germany) and cobalt chromium alloy (Remanium star, Dentaurum GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) discs were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human epithelial cells harvested and cultured from one donor, were applied to investigate cell attachment (24h observation) and proliferation (72h observation) via dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and AlamarBlue(®) (AB) assays on control surface (cell-culture plate) and on the restorative materials (n=3×20 specimens/material). SEM and AFM revealed typical morphology and roughness features for the materials. Zirconia presented significantly higher Ra value. EDS confirmed typical elements on the investigated restorative materials: lithium-disilicate (Si, O); Zirconia (Zi, Y, O); CoCr (Co, Cr, W). All surfaces except CoCr exhibited significant cell proliferation according to MTT and AB assays after 72h compared to 24h. Among the restorative materials, CoCr samples showed the highest cell attachment as indicated by MTT assay. AB results showed that attachment and proliferation of human epithelial cells is supported more on lithium-disilicate. Both assays indicated the lowest value for zirconia. The results indicate that the restorative materials examined are equally suitable for subgingival restorations. Lithium-disilicate exhibited the best biocompatibility. The examined materials are indicated for use
Full Text Available Background and Aim: An important requirement for a dentin bonding agent is biological compatibility. Since dentin bonding agents are placed in cavity preparations with subgingival extensions, with direct contact to gingival and mucosal tissues, tissue response to these materials must be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxicity of AdheSE, a self etching adhesive, on human gingival fibroblasts."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, primary human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to different dilutions of primer & bond of AdheSE (Vivadent, Liechtenstein. The toxicity of the primer was tested in 30 seconds, 300 seconds and 24 hours. The cytotoxicity of the bond was analyzed in uncured mode after 20 seconds, 5 minutes and 24 hours. In cured mode, tested materials were analyzed after 24 and 48 hours. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated using MTT, cell counting and DNA condensation assays. Data were analyzed by two way repeated measure ANOVA with p<0.05 as the level of significance."nResults: MTT Assay revealed that uncured AdheSE Bond was toxic only in 10-1 dilution and the difference with control group was significant (P<0.05. By increasing the time to 300sec. and 24h, dilutions of 10-2 and 10-4 were the most cytotoxic respectively. Cytotoxicity of uncured primer after 30 sec. and 300 sec. began from 10-2 and after 24h began from 10-2 and reached to 10-1. AdheSE in cured mode showed significant difference with control group in 1:2 (P<0.001,1:4 & 1:6 (P<0.01 dilutions. In cell counting assay only the 1:2 dilution was significantly more toxic than control group. Apoptosis (a morphological and biochemical distinct form of cell death that regulates cell turnover comprised in less than 5% of total death in both cured and uncured adhesives."nConclusions: Based on the results of this study, by increasing the exposure time, smaller amounts of bonding could be cytotoxic. Cytotoxicity was related to material
Shemer, S; Hendler, A; Pilo, R; Weiss, E; Perez-Davidi, M
Porcelain and Zirconia are widely used materials in oral rehabilitation for fixed partial dentures, FPD. Among many important properties, A FPD should be able to resist bite forces, the harsh oral environment and to remain intact for a long period of time. When coming back from the dental laboratory, the mechanical properties of the FPD are optimal. But it is not uncommon for the dentist to perform a machining procedures on the restoration in order to achieve good fitting to the prepared teeth. In most cases these modifications are made using high speed dental hand piece, and diamond burs. The surface integrity of the restoration is an important parameter that influences on the restoration strength and durability. The more smooth the restoration surface is, it is less prone to fracture, and is less prone to coloring and plaque retention. Therefore, every modification the dentist makes on the restoration is not recommended. In some cases, the adjustments are made on a FPD which is already cemented to the teeth. If the teeth are vital, the implications of the machining of the restoration are even more destructive. As a result of the friction between the bur and the restoration, the temperature rises. There is a risk of pulp necrosis in temperature above 42 degrees C. The purpose of this study is to compare the mechanical properties of Zirconia and Porcelain blocks after grinding with smooth burs made in a new technology, Magic touch, Strauss co. (Ranana, Israel) and coarse burs. blocks of Porcelain MARK II for CEREC (VIDENT), and Zirconia IPS e.max ZirCAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) were sliced to slices of 1mm and underwent drilling using the two kinds of burs, using thermocoupling--Almemo, Holzkirchen, Germany. So that the rise in temperature was measured through the drilling. Blocks of Porcelain and Zirconia were machined with the two kinds of burs, and their surface roughness was examined with Mitutoyo Surftest 402 Profilometer. Further examination was made with SEM
Full Text Available Fawaz Alqahtani1,2 1Department of Prosthodontics, 2Higher Education and Scientific Research, School of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Al-kharj, Saudi Arabia Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two extraoral computer-aided design (CAD and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM systems, in comparison with conventional techniques, on the marginal fit of monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic crowns. Study design: This is an in vitro interventional study. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out at the Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, from December 2015 to April 2016. Methodology: A marginal gap of 60 lithium disilicate crowns was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. In total, 20 pressable lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press [Ivoclar Vivadent] ceramic crowns were fabricated using the conventional lost-wax technique as a control group. The experimental all-ceramic crowns were produced based on a scan stone model and milled using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems: the Cerec group was fabricated using the Cerec CAD/CAM system, and the Trios group was fabricated using Trios CAD and milled using Wieland Zenotec CAM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Scheffe post hoc test were used for statistical comparison of the groups (α=0.05. Results: The mean (±standard deviation of the marginal gap of each group was as follows: the Control group was 91.15 (±15.35 µm, the Cerec group was 111.07 (±6.33 µm, and the Trios group was 60.17 (±11.09 µm. One-way ANOVA and the Scheffe post hoc test showed a statistically significant difference in the marginal gap between all groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the current study that all-ceramic crowns, fabricated using the CAD/CAM system, show a marginal accuracy that is acceptable in clinical environments. The Trios CAD group displayed the smallest
Saker, Samah; El-Shahat, Sameh; Ghazy, Mohamed
The purpose of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance of straight and angulated zirconia implant abutments supporting anterior three-unit lithium disilicate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Four different test groups (n = 8) representing anterior three-unit implant-supported all-ceramic FDPs were fabricated to fit an in vitro model with two implants. Groups 1 and 2 simulated a clinical situation with an ideal implant position for maxillary left central and right lateral incisors from a prosthetic point of view, which allowed for the use of a straight, prefabricated zirconia and titanium abutment. Groups 3 and 4 simulated a situation with a compromised implant position that required an angulated (15-degree) abutment. Tapered internal-connection implants (Direct's Legacy, 13-mm length, 3.7-mm diameter, Implant Direct) mounted in epoxy resin models were used in this study. Lithium disilicate (IPS e.max press, Ivoclar Vivadent) three-unit FDPs were fabricated and cemented using self-adhesive resin cement. The samples were subjected to thermocycling (2 × 3,000 × 5°C/55°C) and mechanical loading (TCML; 50 N × 600,000 cycles). Fracture resistances were determined for all the samples that survived aging. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to test for differences in fracture strength values at a 5% significance level. All samples subjected to TCML survived without mechanical failure. The highest fracture loads were associated with FDPs supported by implants with 0-degree abutment angulations compared with those FDPs supported by 15-degree abutment angulations (group 1: 538.7 ± 24.77 N; group 2: 542.17 ± 21.64 N; group 3: 523.57 ± 19.71 N; group 4: 528.37 ± 24.57 N). This difference in load-bearing capacity was not statistically significant (P > .05). The use of angulated zirconia abutments for compensation of nonideal implant locations is possible without reducing the load-bearing capacity of implant
Bicalho, Aline Aredes; de Souza, Silas Júnior Boaventura; de Rosatto, Camila Maria Peres; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis; Soares, Carlos José
Evaluate the effect of environment on post-gel shrinkage (Shr), cuspal strains (CS), microtensile bond strength (μTBS), elastic modulus (E) and shrinkage stress in molars with large class II restorations. Sixty human molars received standardized Class II mesio-oclusal-distal cavity preparations. Restorations were made with two composites (CHA, Charisma Diamond, Heraus Kulzer and IPS Empress Direct, Ivoclar-Vivadent) using three environment conditions (22°C/50% humidity, 37°C/50% humidity and 37°C/90% humidity) simulated in custom developed chamber. Shr was measured using the strain gauge technique (n=10). CS was measured using strain gauges. Half of the teeth (n=5) were used to assess the elastic modulus (E) and Knoop hardness (KHN) at different depths using microhardness indentation. The other half (n=5) was used to measure the μTBS. The composites and environment conditions were simulated in a two-dimensional finite element analysis of a tooth restoration. Polymerization shrinkage was modeled using Shr data. The Shr, CS, μTBS, KHN and E data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (significance level: 0.05). Both composites had similar Shr, CS, μTBS and shrinkage stress. CHA had higher elastic modulus than IPS. Increasing temperature and humidity significantly increased Shr, CS and shrinkage stress. μTBS were similar for groups with lower humidity, irrespective of temperature, and higher with higher humidity. E and KHN were constant through the depth for CHA. E and KHN values were affected by environment only for IPS, mainly deeper in the cavity. Shrinkage stress at dentin/composite interface had high inverse correlation with μTBS. Shrinkage stress in enamel had high correlation with CS. Increasing temperature and humidity caused higher post-gel shrinkage and cusp deformation with higher shrinkage stresses in the tooth structure and tooth/restoration interface for both composites tested. The chamber developed for simulating the
Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with many contributing factors in the genesis of risk (11. Streptococcus mutans (SM is a gram positive, facultative anaerobe commonly found in the human oral cavity. Described for the first time in 1924 by Clarke, is the main germ responsible for the caries disease (5, 9. In fact, SM produces an insoluble extracellular polysaccharide sucrose which plays an important role as a mediator of the adhesiveness, both as a cementing molecule for other microorganisms, and to create a protected site where the microorganism can proliferate (6, 9, 10. Its presence in the plaque is not equal for all people and is closely related to sugar consumption (9. Its transmission can take place early in the life of the child through the mother’s saliva (2, 3, 4, 8.The early acquisition of this organism is associated with Early Childhood Caries (ECC and then creates a primary colonization which is hardly removed (1, 7. Paying special attention to the health of women and children, this work aimed to decrease the incidence of childhood tooth decay, streamlining preventive efforts in a population at risk. Methods: Since 1999, all women referred to our clinic in the second trimester of pregnancy or during childbirth were offered the opportunity to perform a simple test to measure the presence of SM in saliva and have been given some advice (diet, hygiene, fuoro-prophylaxis, dental visit. The sampling of saliva was performed after chewing one paraffin tablet for about 1 minute. For the microbiological examination the technique of dip-slide test (CTR bacteria, Ivoclar Vivadent was used; results were classified according to semi-quantitative classes of microorganism concentration.Women were classified positive when bacterial concentration was 100000 CFU/ml. Besides a general advice on hygiene and diet, these women were invited to undergo a prophylactic treatment with chlorhexidine, a disinfectant with bactericidal
Tamíris Pereira da Costa NEVES
Full Text Available Resumo Introdução A evolução dos sistemas adesivos permitiu que os fabricantes desenvolvessem materiais com técnicas cada vez mais simplificadas, porém que, ainda assim, promovessem adequados valores de resistência de união imediata. Sugere-se que alguns tratamentos da superfície dentinária podem favorecer esse processo de adesão. Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos de diferentes tratamentos, em superfície dentinária plana condicionada, sobre a resistência de união à microtração de sistemas adesivos do tipo “condiciona-e-lava” de dois passos. Material e método Noventa e seis terceiros molares humanos foram divididos em 12 grupos (n=8, aleatoriamente, de acordo com o sistema adesivo utilizado (GI: Adper Single Bond 2 - 3M ESPE; GII: Prime & Bond 2.1 - Dentsply; GIII: Excite - Ivoclar Vivadent e o tipo de tratamento do substrato dentinário condicionado (a: água; b: clorexidina + água; c: etanol; d: clorexidina + etanol. Todos os dentes foram restaurados com resina Charisma na cor A2 (Heraeus - Kulzer, Germany e submetidos a ensaio mecânico de microtração (EMIC DL-2000. O teste estatístico realizado foi ANOVA a um fator, completado com teste de Tukey. Resultado Os grupos GIIc, GIIIc e GIId apresentaram aumento significativo estatisticamente na resistência de união à microtração imediata. Conclusão Os diferentes tratamentos da dentina condicionada não afetaram de maneira negativa a resistência de união para todos os sistemas adesivos testados e a utilização da técnica com etanol, associado ou não à clorexidina, parece ser uma interessante abordagem quando associada a sistemas adesivos “condiciona-e-lava” de dois passos.
Autio-Gold, Jaana T; Barrett, Allyson A
Fluoride varnish applications were applied to two hybrid resin composite materials, Z-100 (3M Dental Products, St Paul, MN, USA) and Esthet-X (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA), shades A1 and A2 and a glass ionomer, GC Fuji IX GP Fast (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), shade A2, to evaluate color stability. Specimens (12.6-mm dia x 2.3 mm) were prepared using a polyethylene frame, light-cured and polished through a 1-microm alumina finish. After the initial baseline color measurements, the discs were suspended in Fusayama artificial saliva (FAS) solution at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. Post immersion, the specimens were divided into five groups (n=15 each). The following fluoride varnishes were applied to four groups of test specimens: Duraphat (Colgate Oral Pharmaceutical, Inc, Canton MA, USA), Cavity Shield (OMNII Oral Pharmaceuticals, West Palm Beach, FL, USA), Duraflor (Pharmascience Inc, Montreal, Canada) and Fluor Protector (Vivadent, Ivoclar North America, Amherst, NY, USA). The varnish was allowed to dry for five minutes before immersion. The control group was not coated with varnish, although the specimens were immersed in FAS. All specimens were incubated in newly prepared FAS at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, cleaned with an electric toothbrush and the process repeated using newly prepared FAS. CIE L*a*b* color measurements were recorded five times: at baseline, after 48 hours FAS immersion, after cleaning the first and second fluoride varnish applications and after the final brushing using a commercial toothpaste (Crest). A Minolta CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter with an 8-mm aperture (Ramsey, NJ, USA) was used to record color measurements with the daylight (D65) setting. Calculations were performed for using CIE parameters deltaE*, deltaL*, delta a*, delta b*. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc test (Fisher's PLSD) were used for statistical analysis. After immersion in saliva, the tested glass ionomer (Fuji IX) produced the most significant color changes
Gupta, Anjali; Tavane, Pradeep; Gupta, Pankaj Kumar; Tejolatha, Bellam; Lakhani, Ashik Ali; Tiwari, Ram; Kashyap, Shruti; Garg, Gaurav
Adhesive dentistry is overwhelmingly evolving with respect to the dental surgeon's and patient's perspective. Embracing the concept of minimally invasive dentistry which follows minimum intervention performed to produce good adhesion and tooth coloured restoration, in turn makes the newer generation bonding agents more acceptable and appropriate withstanding the demand for stable restoration. To study and compare the extent of microleakage between tooth and restoration interface in class V composite resin restorations applying one Total Etch (AdperTM single bond), two Self Etch (AdperTM SE Plus, AdperTM Easy One) and Universal bonding agents using dye penetration method. A total of 120 freshly orthodontically extracted human maxillary and mandibular premolars were included in the study. Class V cavities were prepared with a cylindrical diamond bur on the facial surface of each tooth, having approximate dimensions of 3 mm × 2.5 mm × 1.5 mm. Teeth were divided into four groups (30 in each group). Group A AdperTM single bond 2 (3M ESPE), Group B AdperTM SE Plus (3M ESPE), Group C AdperTM Easy One (3M ESPE), Group D AdperTM Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE) bonding agents were applied as per the manufacturer's instructions and the cavities were then restored with nanohybrid composite resin (Tetric N Ceram Ivoclar Vivadent). Teeth were then thermocycled for 200 cycles at 5°-55°C with 60 seconds of dwell time. Specimens were subjected to a dye leakage test. Microleakage was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Data was analysed using Kruskal- Wallis, Dunn and Mann-Whitney test to assess the difference in microleakage among various adhesives. The present study revealed that the microleakage was more at the gingival margin when compared with occlusal and this was found to be statistically significant. At the occlusal margin statistical significant difference was found only between AdperTM Easy one and AdperTM SE Plus, on the other hand at gingival margin no statistical
Evaluation of weight loss and surface roughness of compomers after simulated toothbrushing abrasion test Avaliação da perda de massa e rugosidade superficial de compômeros após teste de abrasão por escovação simulada
Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli
Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the compomers wear by an "in vitro" toothbrushing abrasion test. The null hypotheses tested were that there would be no differences in weight loss and no significant changes in surface roughness of the compomers after this test. The utilized commercial brands were Dyract (Dentsply, Dyract AP (Dentsply, Compoglass F (Vivadent, Freedom (SDI, F2000 (3M ESPE, which were compared to the two resin composites Z100 (3M ESPE and Silux Plus (3M ESPE. Ten cylindrical specimens for each commercial brand were prepared with 5mm diameter and 3mm thickness. An appropriate machine with soft bristle tips containing dentifrice solution and deionized water was used. A total of 100,000 brushing cycles were performed. The amount of weight loss was measured by the percentage alteration between the initial (before toothbrushing and final weight (after toothbrushing, measured by a Sartorius analytical balance. The surface roughness change was determined by the percentage difference between initial and final means after 5 tracings by a T 1000 Hommel Tester roughness meter on the specimen's surfaces before and after toothbrushing abrasion test. The statistical analysis (Students paired t-test, ANOVA and Tukey, á=0.05 showed that all materials presented statistically significant weight loss and roughness increase after abrasion test. All compomers presented higher weight loss than resin composites. Freedom and Dyract AP presented the lowest weight loss among compomers. F2000 presented the worst abrasion resistance, without statistical differences with Dyract. For roughness changes, Dyract, Dyract AP, Z100, Compoglass F and Silux Plus showed the lowest surface roughness alteration, in increasing order, without statistical differences between them. Freedom was the statistically roughest material of the study.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência ao desgaste de compômeros submetidos a um teste escovação simulada. A hipótese nula
Rapisarda, E; Bonaccorso, A; Tripi, T R; Torrisi, L
Reconstructions with aesthetical materials neither finished nor polished can be extremely irregular and wrinkled. For this reason they represent an ideal basis for the growing of pigmentation which come from food remainings and the nestle of bacteria on the plaque. The finishing of aesthetical materials is a fundamental step in conservative dentistry. The finishing session regarding the aesthetical restorations should be considered and planned at the moment of their insertion in the prepared hollows. The finishing should not be considered an option, but the conclusion of all the conservative treatment. Purpose of the search is to examine and assess, through a technical equipment measuring the superficial wrinkledness of the materials, the action of 4 systems of finishing and polishing on two aesthetical materials widely used in the daily practice by dental surgeons: a compomer (Compoglass, Vivadent) and a composite (Spectrum, Dentsply). For each of these two materials some little slabs model have been prepared, choosing the universal colour in the colorimetric scale. The two types of filling materials have been compared with 4 systems of finishing and polishing: Sof-Lex Pop-on (3M), Enhance system (Dentsply), Hawe Micro Disc (Howe Neos), Heawe Gommini Polisher (Heawe Neos). The total working time did not overcome 1 minute. The little slabs have been obtained, pressing the resin between two slides used in microscopy. In the hope to guarantee in the different samples, a uniform thickness, we have used a technical device. On each covering slide we have put a weight of 0.5 kg for 5 minutes. The thickness of the little slabs obtained was 2 mm. Thus, pressed between the two slides, the aesthetical material has been photopolymerized according to the time suggested by Manufacturing Industries. The sizes concerning the wrinkledness of samples subjected to different treatments have been carried out using a pointed profilometer with high sensitivity. (Tencor-P10). This
Lee, Jae-Ik; Park, Sung-Ho H
The current study evaluated the effects of three variables on the shear bond strength of indirect composite restorations to human dentin. The three variables examined included immediate dentin sealing (IDS), the thinning of dentin adhesives by air-blowing before cementation and light-curing the dentin adhesive before cementation. One-hundred and eighty cylinder composite inlays, 2 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length, were made using a Tescera ATL system (BISCO Inc). Tooth disks 2-mm thick were obtained from 90 freshly-extracted human premolars. Two indirect composite cylinders were assigned to a single tooth disk. The discs were randomly divided into six groups according to the luting methods. AdheSE (Ivoclar Vivadent) was used as the dentin-bonding agent (DBA) for all groups. In Groups 1, 2 and 3, the dentin was sealed with AdheSE before taking the impression. After priming, the adhesive was lightly air-blown, then light-cured. On the other hand, the dentin was not sealed before taking the impression in Groups 4, 5 and 6. Regarding the application of DBA before cementation, it was gently air-blown and light-cured before cementation in Groups 1 and 4; whereas, it was heavily air-blown and light-cured in Groups 2 and 5 and gently air-blown but not light-cured in Groups 3 and 6. Z-250 and Duo-Link were used as luting materials. After 24-hours of storage, the bonded inlays were subjected to a shear bond test. For each luting material, one-way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test were used to compare the shear bond strength. Paired t-tests were also performed to compare the shear strength between the two luting materials. All the statistical tests were carried out at the 95% confidence level. In Z-250, the results of the shear bond strength were as follows: Group 1(14.90MPa) > Group 2(12.22MPa), Group 4(12.16MPa) Group 5(9.61MPa), Group 3(9.60MPa) Group 6(3.54MPa)(pbond strengths were obtained: Group 1(14.65MPa) > Group 2(13.04MPa), Group 4(12.66MPa) > Group 5(10.10MPa
Shono, N N; Al Nahedh, H N A
Porcelain veneer materials are translucent and are therefore affected by their thickness as well as the color of the underlying substructure, which limits their masking ability and compromises the esthetic result in heavily stained teeth. The purpose of this study was to compare the contrast ratio (CR) and masking ability of three different veneering ceramics with two thicknesses by measuring the color differences over white and black backgrounds. Correlations between CR and masking ability of these veneering ceramics were evaluated. A total of 30 disc-shaped specimens (12 mm diameter × 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm) were fabricated in shade A2 from three types of all-ceramic systems: IPS e.max Press (IPSe; Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtensein), Vita VM7 (VM7; VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany), and Nobel Rondo Press Alumina: Solo (NRPA; Nobel Biocare, Zürich-Flughafen, Switzerland). The CR, defined as the ratio of illuminance (Y) of the test material when placed on the black background (Yb) to the illuminance of the same material when placed over a white background (Yw), was determined (CR=Yb/Yw). The color (CIE L*a*b*) and Y of each specimen were measured over standard white and black tiles using a spectrophotometer (ColorEye 7000 A, Model C6, GretagMacbeth, New Windsor, NY, USA). Masking abilities of the specimens were determined by measuring the color difference (ΔE) over white and black backgrounds. Both CR and ΔE data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). One-way ANOVA was used to compare the mean values of CR across the three materials followed by the Duncan multiple comparison test. The correlations between CR and ΔE were determined by comparing R(2) values obtained from a linear regression analysis. A Student t-test for independent samples was used to compare the mean contrast ratio and ΔE values for the two thicknesses. CR values of NRPA were significantly less than those of IPSe and VM7, and the CR of IPSe was higher than that of VM
Kohal, Ralf-Joachim; Finke, Hans Christian; Klaus, Gerold
Zirconia oral implants are a new topic in implant dentistry. So far, no data are available on the biomechanical behavior of two-piece zirconia implants. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot investigation was to test in vitro the fracture strength of two-piece cylindrical zirconia implants after aging in a chewing simulator. This laboratory in vitro investigation comprised three different treatment groups. Each group consisted of 16 specimens. In group 1, two-piece zirconia implants were restored with zirconia crowns (zirconia copings veneered with Triceram; Esprident, Ispringen, Germany), and in group 2 zirconia implants received Empress 2 single crowns (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein). The implants, including the abutments, in the two zirconia groups were identical. In group 3, similar titanium implants were reconstructed with porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns. Eight samples of each group were submitted to artificial aging with a long-term load test in the artificial mouth (chewing simulator). Subsequently, all not artificially aged samples and all artificially aged samples that survived the long-term loading of each group were submitted to a fracture strength test in a universal testing machine. For the pairwise comparisons in the different test groups with or without artificial loading and between the different groups at a given artificial loading condition, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for independent samples was used. The significance level was set at 5%. One sample of group 1 (veneer fracture), none of group 2, and six samples of group 3 (implant abutment screw fractures) failed while exposed to the artificial mouth. The values for the fracture strength after artificial loading with 1.2 million cycles for group 1 were between 45 and 377 N (mean: 275.7 N), in group 2 between 240 and 314 N (mean: 280.7 N), and in the titanium group between 45 and 582 N (mean: 165.7 N). The fracture strength results without artificial load for group 1 amounted to between
Ameri, Hamideh; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh; Abdoli, Ehsan
This study evaluated the influence of mechanical loading and thermocycling on microleakage of class V resin-based composite restorations with and without enamel bevel. Sixty class V cavity preparations measuring 3.0 mm wide (mesio-gingivally) x 2.0 mm high (occluso-gingivally) x 1.5 mm deep with the occlusal margin in enamel and the gingival margin in cementum were prepared on the buccal surfaces of human premolars using a #12 diamond round bur (Drendel and Zweiling Diamant GmbH, Lemgo, Germany) in a high-speed, water-cooled handpiece. The specimens were then divided into two groups of 30 specimens each, based on the type of enamel cavosurface margin configuration as beveled or nonbeveled (butt joint). After restoring the preparations with a flowable resin-based composite (Tetric Flow, Ivoclar Vivadent-AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and finishing and polishing with sequential discs (Sof-Lex Pop-on, 3M-ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), the teeth were stored at 37° and 100 percent humidity. Twenty-four hours later, half of the specimens in each group (nonbeveled "N" or beveled "B") were exposed to a cycling loading for 250,000 cycles to simulate occlusal loading and assigned to two subgroups (NL+ or BL+), while the remainder of the specimens in each group were only maintained in a 100-percent-humidity environment, without any cyclical loading, until tested (NL+ or BL+). The specimens were sealed with sticky wax (Kemdent, Associated Dental Products, Swindon, UK) and nail polish. The apical foramen of each tooth was sealed with sticky wax and the rest of the tooth was covered with nail varnish, except for an area within 1.0 mm around the composite restoration. To detect marginal leakage, all of the samples were stored in a 0.5 percent basic fuchsine solution for 24 hours. The specimens were then sectioned longitudinally using a low-speed diamond blade (IsoMet, Buehler Ltd., Lake Bluff, IL, USA), machined, and evaluated under 25X magnification using a stereomicroscope (M9, Wild
Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Patterson, Amanda; Schäfer, Oliver
A composite resin cement and matching self-etch adhesive was developed to simplify the dependable retention of lithium disilicate crowns. The efficacy of this new system is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether lithium disilicate crowns cemented with a new composite resin and adhesive system and 2 other popular systems provide clinically acceptable crown retention after long-term aging with monthly thermocycling. Extracted human molars were prepared with a flat occlusal surface, 20-degree convergence, and 4 mm axial length. The axio-occlusal line angle was slightly rounded. The preparation surface area was determined by optical scanning and the analysis of the standard tessellation language (STL) files. The specimens were distributed into 3 cement groups (n=12) to obtain equal mean surface areas. Lithium disilicate crowns (IPS e.max Press) were fabricated for each preparation, etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid for 15 seconds, and cleaned. Cement systems were RelyX Ultimate with Scotch Bond Universal (3M Dental Products); Monobond S, Multilink Automix with Multilink Primer A and B (Ivoclar Vivadent AG); and NX3 Nexus with OptiBond XTR (Kerr Corp). Each adhesive provided self-etching of the dentin. Before cementation, the prepared specimens were stored in 35°C water. A force of 196 N was used to cement the crowns, and the specimens were polymerized in a 35°C oven at 100% humidity. After 24 hours of storage at 100% humidity, the cemented crowns were thermocycled (5°C to 55°C) for 5000 cycles each month for 6 months. The crowns were removed axially at 0.5 mm/min. The removal force was recorded and the dislodgement stress calculated using the preparation surface area. The type of cement failure was recorded, and the data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and the chi-square test (α=.05) after the equality of variances had been assessed with the Levene test. The Levene test was nonsignificant (P=.936). The ANOVA revealed the mean removal