WorldWideScience

Sample records for vitro test systems

  1. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  2. Relevance of in vitro tests of adhesive and composite dental materials. A review in 3 parts. Part 3: in vitro tests of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Siegward D; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    In the third part of this review of laboratory testing, methods of testing adhesive systems are evaluated. Test set-ups that are used to analyze the restorative material in combination with the adhesive system are presented. Currently, there is no standardized protocol available for the evaluation of adhesives. This complicates any direct comparisons of values between different testing institutes. Therefore, the statistically evaluated ranking of the different adhesives is more important than mean values. Depending on the testing institute, a correlation between bond strength measurements and clinical outcomes may exist. Qualitative analysis of adhesive/tooth interaction can help explain the functioning of a system, but the depth of penetration of the adhesive cannot predict bond strength. Indirect bond measurements or analyses of the interactions of adhesive and composite materials, such as dye penetration or marginal analysis, do not correlate or correlate only partially with clinical findings. Adhesive systems should be tested in vitro and compared to a well-known standard adhesive before they are used in the clinic. Water storage of specimens for several months before testing increases the predictability of the bonding performance of the tested adhesive.

  3. In vitro testing of an experimental dental composite resin and adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alb, Camelia; Alb, S; Dudea, Diana; Nicola, Codruţa; Moldovan, Mărioara; Culic, B; Buduru, Smaranda; Mesaros, Anca

    2010-01-01

    In vitro testing of new experimental materials has been introduced for many years as a method to evaluate them in simulated conditions, before the clinical trials. Our study has investigated a new experimental composite resin C1 and adhesive system Ad1 by scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies and microleakage tests. Both in vitro test were performed on extracted human teeth, that were prepared for standardized class II and V restorations and restored with three composite resins (experimental C1, TetricCeram TC and Solitaire2 S2) and their total-etch adhesive systems (Ad1, Excite EX and GlumaOneBond GB). Teeth were sectioned and investigated under the SEM microscope for the interfaces created and under the optical microscope for dye penetration and microleakage. The Romanian experimental composite C1 has shown lower alpha "ideal" interfaces than TC and S2, with no significant difference between the latter. Microleakage was significantly lower at the enamel margin and significantly higher at the gingival margin placed below the CEJ for all three compared composites. C1 presented similar dye penetration scores with the commercial available systems. The differences in SEM analysis can be attributed to higher viscosity and handling properties in the experimental adhesive Adl and to technique sensitivity. Further investigation is required to obtain better working properties for the experimental adhesive and higher "ideal" scores at the interfaces. Also the SEM investigation is more sensitive than the optical microscope analysis.

  4. In Vitro Spine Testing Using a Robot-Based Testing System: Comparison of Displacement Control and “Hybrid Control”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kevin M.; Hartman, Robert A.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Kang, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The two leading control algorithms for in-vitro spine biomechanical testing—“load control” and “displacement control”— are limited in their lack of adaptation to changes in the load-displacement response of a spine specimen—pointing to the need for sufficiently sophisticated control algorithms that are able to govern the application of loads/motions to a spine specimen in a more realistic, adaptive manner. A robotics-based spine testing system was programmed with a novel hybrid control algorithm combining “load control” and “displacement control” into a single, robust algorithm. Prior to in-vitro cadaveric testing, preliminary testing of the new algorithm was performed using a rigid-body-spring model with known structural properties. The present study also offers a direct comparison between “hybrid control” and “displacement control”. The hybrid control algorithm enabled the robotics-based spine testing system to apply pure moments to an FSU (in flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation) in an unconstrained manner through active control of secondary translational/rotational degrees-of-freedom—successfully minimizing coupled forces/moments. The characteristic nonlinear S-shaped curves of the primary moment-rotation responses were consistent with previous reports of the FSU having a region of low stiffness (neutral zone) bounded by regions of increasing stiffness (elastic zone). Direct comparison of “displacement control” and “hybrid control” showed that hybrid control was able to actively minimize off-axis forces and resulted in larger neutral zone and range of motion. PMID:23702044

  5. In vitro evaluation of translating and rotating plates using a robot testing system under follower load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y; Bell, K M; Hartman, R A; Hu, J; Wang, W; Kang, J D; Lee, J Y

    2017-01-01

    Various modifications to standard "rigid" anterior cervical plate designs (constrained plate) have been developed that allow for some degree of axial translation and/or rotation of the plate (semi-constrained plate)-theoretically promoting proper load sharing with the graft and improved fusion rates. However, previous studies about rigid and dynamic plates have not examined the influence of simulated muscle loading. The objective of this study was to compare rigid, translating, and rotating plates for single-level corpectomy procedures using a robot testing system with follower load. In-vitro biomechanical test. N = 15 fresh-frozen human (C3-7) cervical specimens were biomechanically tested. The follower load was applied to the specimens at the neutral position from 0 to 100 N. Specimens were randomized into a rigid plate group, a translating plate group and a rotating plate group and then tested in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation to a pure moment target of 2.0 Nm under 100N of follower load. Range of motion, load sharing, and adjacent level effects were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). No significant differences were observed between the translating plate and the rigid plate on load sharing at neutral position and C4-6 ROM, but the translating plate was able to maintain load through the graft at a desired level during flexion. The rotating plate shared less load than rigid and translating plates in the neutral position, but cannot maintain the graft load during flexion. This study demonstrated that, in the presence of simulated muscle loading (follower load), the translating plate demonstrated superior performance for load sharing compared to the rigid and rotating plates.

  6. Cytotoxicity of current adhesive systems: in vitro testing on cell cultures of primary murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Isabel C C M; Oliveira, Danielle C; Raele, Renata A; Ribas, Ketlin H S; Montes, Marcos A J R; De Castro, Célia M M B

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the potential cytotoxicity of dentinal adhesives on alveolar macrophages of Wistar rats, after diffusion through dentin. The cytotoxicity of adhesives [single bond plus (SB), clearfil SE bond (CF) and Xeno V (XE)] applied to the occlusal surface of human dentin disks adapted to a dentin barrier test device were analyzed. The sets placed on a monolayer of cells were incubated for 24, 48 and 72h. Culture medium and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Cellular cytotoxicity was evaluated by observing the cell survival rate (MTT assay) and nitric oxide production (NO). The data were analyzed by one-way factorial ANOVA and Tukey's and Tamhane's paired comparisons T2 (α=0.05). All the adhesive systems reduced the percentage of live cells by over 50%, compared with the control group. Within the same period of time, there was a statistically significant difference between the adhesives and LPS compared with the negative control group. SB presented a statistically significant difference between 24h and 72h, and XE between 48h and 72h. The quantity of NO produced in 24h did not differ statistically between the NC and adhesive groups. After 48h there was a significant difference between SB/CF and XE/NC. At 72h only CF showed a significant difference from each of the other groups. LPS differed statistically from all the other groups at all the evaluation times. Components of the adhesives tested may permeate the dentin in sufficient concentrations to cause death and damage to cell metabolism in the alveolar macrophages of rats, which indicates potential cytotoxicity to pulpal cells. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Report of a workshop on bacterial in vitro mutagenicity test systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattern, I.E.; Greim, H.

    1978-01-01

    Bacterial systems for the screening of chemical substances for mutagenic potential are receiving widespread attention. Now that many laboratories have introduced these test systems and a large number of substances has been tested, discrepancies in the results have become apparent. To discuss this

  8. The use of metabolising systems for in vitro testing of endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.N.; Janssens, W.; Bernauer, U.; Brandon, E.; Coecke, S.; Combes, R.; Edwards, P.; Freidig, A.; Freyberger, A.; Kolanczyk, R.; Mc Ardie, C.; Mekenyan, O.; Schmieder, P.; Schrader, T.; Takeyoshi, M.; Burg, B. van der

    2008-01-01

    Legislation and prospective legislative proposals in for instance the USA, Europe, and Japan require, or may require that chemicals are tested for their ability to disrupt the hormonal systems of mammals. Chemicals found to test positive are considered to be endocrine active substances (EAS) and may

  9. The development of in vitro mutagenicity testing systems using T-lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, R.J.

    1992-05-01

    This work has focused on the development of in vitro T-cell mutation assays. Conditions have been defined to measure the in vitro induction of mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in human T-lymphocytes. This assay is a parallel to our in vivo hprt assay, in that the same cells are utilized. However, the in vitro assay allows for carefully controlled dose response studies. 21 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. In vitro allergy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osguthorpe, John David

    2014-09-01

    History and physical examination are the first, and most important steps, in the evaluation of a patient suspected of having an allergy. The diagnosis can be confirmed with either skin or serum testing for evidence of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reactivity. The recent literature on serum-based testing for the detection and quantitation of allergen specific IgE (sIgE) was reviewed, identifying where available the "best practices" from high level of evidence studies and/or physician organization guidelines. Current practices for documenting sIgE are detailed, including enzyme-linked immunoassays on conventional extracts (standardized or not), similar on microarrays of highly purified or recombinant allergens, and basophil activation testing. Serum testing is an equal alternative to skin testing for establishing the presence of IgE-mediated sensitivity and for identifying the allergens involved. Like skin testing, limitations include the availability of fully detailed allergenic extracts, particularly for foods, drugs, and occupational agents, and the possibility of non-IgE mediated issues. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  11. Surface modification of nano-silica on the ligament advanced reinforcement system for accelerated bone formation: primary human osteoblasts testing in vitro and animal testing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiwen; Jiang, Jia; Sun, Jiashu; Li, Yuzhuo; Huang, Deyong; Long, Yun-Ze; Zheng, Wenfu; Chen, Shiyi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-05-07

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ∼21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction.

  12. Screening of toxic potential of graphene family nanomaterials using in vitro and alternative in vivo toxicity testing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nivedita; Yang, Ji Su; Park, Kwangsik; Oh, Seung Min; Park, Jeonggue; Choi, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    The widely promising applications of graphene nanomaterials raise considerable concerns regarding their environmental and human health risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity profiling of graphene family nananomaterials (GFNs) in alternative in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing models. The GFNs used in this study are graphene nanoplatelets ([GNPs]-pristine, carboxylate [COOH] and amide [NH2]) and graphene oxides (single layer [SLGO] and few layers [FLGO]). The human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2B cells) as in vitro system and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as in vivo system were used to profile the toxicity response of GFNs. Cytotoxicity assays, colony formation assay for cellular toxicity and reproduction potentiality in C. elegans were used as end points to evaluate the GFNs' toxicity. In general, GNPs exhibited higher toxicity than GOs in Beas2B cells, and among the GNPs the order of toxicity was pristine>NH2>COOH. Although the order of toxicity of the GNPs was maintained in C. elegans reproductive toxicity, but GOs were found to be more toxic in the worms than GNPs. In both systems, SLGO exhibited profoundly greater dose dependency than FLGO. The possible reason of their differential toxicity lay in their distinctive physicochemical characteristics and agglomeration behavior in the exposure media. The present study revealed that the toxicity of GFNs is dependent on the graphene nanomaterial's physical forms, surface functionalizations, number of layers, dose, time of exposure and obviously, on the alternative model systems used for toxicity assessment.

  13. Introducing a Method of In Vitro Testing of Different Anchoring Systems Used for Female Incontinence and Prolapse Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Anding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To develop a method for in vitro testing to compare different intracorporeal anchoring systems (AS used, for example, in single-incision slings or vaginal meshes. Intracorporeal fixation needs reliable anchorage systems, which keep the implant in the operative and early postoperative phase in place. Up to now, the impact of the design of current anchor systems and their capability to provide sufficient retention forces is not known. Methods. Four AS (“PelFix”, “Surelift”, “TFS”, and “MiniArc” were evaluated in an animal model and a ballistic gelatine model with pull-out tests. We performed ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni. Results were presented as mean values whereby a significance level of <0.05 was considered significant. Results. The four systems showed significantly different pull-out forces. Depending on mesh structure, size, and form of the AS, mechanical strain resulted in deformation with local peak stresses. Under the condition of form stability, relative differences of pull-out forces did not change in different tissues. Conclusions. Reliable testing of different AS in their ability to keep mesh implants in place can be done in animal models and in especially designed ballistic gelatine. These methods of testing will help to modify AS in novel pelvic floor implants.

  14. In vitro testing of curcumin based composites coatings as antitumoral systems against osteosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirca, I.; Mitran, V.; Marascu, V.; Brajnicov, S.; Ion, V.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Popovici, I. A.; Cimpean, A.; Dinca, V.; Dinescu, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we propose a new design for biodegradable composite coatings obtained by laser methods, which are aimed at evaluating the effects of active antitumoral elements on osteosarcoma cells. Our approach relies on embedding curcumin, which is a natural polyphenol having antitumoral properties, within biodegradable copolymer coatings (i.e. polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol - PVA-PEG) by using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The structural and morphological characteristics of the coatings were tailored by using different solvents (water, ethanol, benzene, dimethylsufoxide) as deposition matrix. The morphological characteristics of the resulting films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), whereas their chemical composition was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These characteristics were correlated with the degradation behavior by using ellipsometry (SE) and AFM measurements data. The in vitro study of the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell behavior indicates that the developed hybrid coatings significantly decreased osteosarcoma cell viability and proliferation potential. The physico-chemical characteristics of the thin films, along with the preliminary in vitro analyses, suggest that our developed polymeric hybrid coatings represent an efficient way to tackle the design of antitumoral surfaces, with applications in biomedicine.

  15. A comparison of finite element analysis with in vitro bond strength tests of the bracket-cement-enamel system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, T.J.; Feilzer, A.J.; Prahl-Andersen, B.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) and tensile bond strength (TBS) of 45 metal brackets bonded with Transbond XT to bovine enamel. The SBS was determined by loading the short and the long sides of the bracket base. Testing took place after storage of the

  16. Use of grape polyphenols against carcinogenesis: putative molecular mechanisms of action using in vitro and in vivo test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollucke, Andrea P B; Aguiar, Odair; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-03-01

    Polyphenols are present in foods and beverages and are related to sensorial qualities such as color, bitterness, and astringency, which are relevant in wine, tea, grape juice, and other products. These compounds occur naturally in forms varying from simple phenolic acids to complex polymerized tannins. Thus, it is reasonable to expect that grape-derived products elaborated in the presence of skins and seeds, such as wine and grape juice, are natural sources of flavonoids in the diet. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process that is characterized by genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic changes. With increasing knowledge of these mechanisms, and the conclusion that most cases of cancer are preventable, efforts have focused on identifying the agents with potential anticancer properties. The use of grape polyphenols against the carcinogenesis process seems to be a suitable alternative for either prevention and/or therapeutic purposes. The aim of this article is to show the molecular data generated from the use of grape polyphenols against carcinogenesis using in vivo and in vitro test systems.

  17. Deep bleeder acoustic coagulation (DBAC)-Part I: development and in vitro testing of a research prototype cuff system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekins, K Michael; Barnes, Stephen R; Fan, Liexiang; Hopple, Jerry D; Hsu, Stephen J; Kook, John; Lee, Chi-Yin; Maleke, Caroline; Ramachandran, A R; Zeng, Xiaozheng Jenny; Moreau-Gobard, Romain; Ahiekpor-Dravi, Alexis; Funka-Lea, Gareth; Mitchell, Stuart B; Dunmire, Barbrina; Kucewicz, John C; Eaton, John; Wong, Keith; Keneman, Scott; Crum, Lawrence A

    2015-01-01

    Bleeding from limb injuries is a leading cause of death on the battlefield, with deep wounds being least accessible. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown capable of coagulation of bleeding (cautery). This paper describes the development and refereed in vitro evaluation of an ultrasound (US) research prototype deep bleeder acoustic coagulation (DBAC) cuff system for evaluating the potential of DBAC in the battlefield. The device had to meet quantitative performance metrics on automated operation, therapeutic heating, bleeder detection, targeting accuracy, operational time limits, and cuff weight over a range of limb sizes and bleeder depths. These metrics drove innovative approaches in image segmentation, bleeder detection, therapy transducers, beam targeting, and dose monitoring. A companion (Part II) paper discusses the in vivo performance testing of an animal-specific DBAC system. The cuff system employed 3D US imaging probes ("Ix") for detection and localization (D&L) and targeting, with the bleeders being identified by automated spectral Doppler analysis of flow waveforms. Unique high-element-count therapeutic arrays ("Tx") were developed, with the final cuff prototype having 21 Tx's and 6 Ix's. Spatial registration of Ix's and Tx's was done with a combination of image-registration, acoustic time-of-flight measurement, and tracking of the cuff shape via a fiber optic sensor. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging or thermal strain imaging (TSI) at low-power doses were used to track the HIFU foci in closed-loop targeting. Recurrent neural network (RNN) acoustic thermometry guided closed-loop dosing. The cuff was tested on three phantom "limb" sizes: diameters = 25, 15, and 7.5 cm, with bleeder depths from 3.75 to 12.5 cm. "Integrated Phantoms" (IntP) were used for assessing D&L, closed-loop targeting, and closed-loop dosing. IntPs had surrogate arteries and bleeders, with blood-mimicking fluids moved by a pulsatile pump, and

  18. Converging micro-nano-bio technologies towards integrated in-vitro testing systems: Current activities and future challenges under the EU-Information & communication technologies program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymberis, A

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research towards integrated systems and their applications based on emerging convergence of information & communication technologies, micro-nano and bio technologies is expected to have a direct impact in healthcare, ageing population and well being. Micro-Nano-Bio Systems (MNBS) research and development activities under the European Union's R&D Programs, Information & Communication Technologies priority address miniaturised, smart and integrated systems for in-vitro testing (e.g. lab-on-chips) and systems interacting with the human (e.g. autonomous implants, endoscopic capsules and robotics for minimally invasive surgery). Projects addressing in-vitro testing focus on research, development and testing of technology building blocs (e.g. sample preparation technique, ultra sensitive detection technique, chemistry process for molecular recognition and microfluidics) and their integration into smart and miniaturised systems e.g. DNA & protein arrays, biochips, Lab on Chip and Lab on Card. Current challenges and developed solutions as well as open issues to fully meet technological and socioeconomic needs are presented in this paper as background introductory information to the mini-symposium on "MNBS in-vitro testing". Relevant examples of R&D within the group will be presented in the mini-symposium.

  19. Characterization of 3D embryonic C57BL/6 and A/J mouse midbrain micromass in vitro culture systems for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie Juyoung; Weldon, Brittany A; Hong, Sungwoo; Workman, Tomomi; Griffith, William C; Park, Julie H; Faustman, Elaine M

    2017-12-18

    In vitro micromass culture systems have been proposed as an alternative method for developmental toxicity assessment to reduce the need for resource-intensive in vivo toxicity testing. In this study, a three-dimensional in vitro embryonic mouse midbrain culture system is characterized in two mouse strains to facilitate gene x environment considerations. Gestational day (GD) 11 C57BL/6 or GD 12 A/J mouse midbrain cells were isolated and cultured in high-density micromass format for 22days in vitro (DIV). Hematoxylin intensity and protein content revealed that neuronal differentiation increases linearly over time in both C57BL/6 and A/J cultures. Protein expression showed time-dependent proliferation markers (PCNA) increased significantly between DIV 4-6 compared to DIV 1. Early and late differentiation markers (e.g. β-tubulin III and NMDAɛ1) were expressed between DIV 6-8 and DIV 8-15, respectively. Immunohistochemistry and protein expression results for proliferation and differentiation markers were concordant. Protein expression patterns for the two mouse strain micromass systems were similar. This study characterizes a novel method for investigating early neurogenesis and may be used to characterize neurodevelopmental toxicity in vitro. Our findings show how the use of different mouse strains in neurodevelopmental studies may extend test systems for gene and environment interaction studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of robotic system passive path repeatability during specimen removal and reinstallation for in vitro knee joint testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Mary T; Smith, Sean D; Jansson, Kyle S; LaPrade, Robert F; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2014-10-01

    Robotic testing systems are commonly utilized for the study of orthopaedic biomechanics. Quantification of system error is essential for reliable use of robotic systems. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify a 6-DOF robotic system's repeatability during knee biomechanical testing and characterize the error induced in passive path repeatability by removing and reinstalling the knee. We hypothesized removing and reinstalling the knee would substantially alter passive path repeatability. Testing was performed on four fresh-frozen cadaver knees. To determine repeatability and reproducibility, the passive path was collected three times per knee following the initial setup (intra-setup), and a single time following two subsequent re-setups (inter-setup). Repeatability was calculated as root mean square error. The intra-setup passive path had a position repeatability of 0.23 mm. In contrast, inter-setup passive paths had a position repeatability of 0.89 mm. When a previously collected passive path was replayed following re-setup of the knee, resultant total force repeatability across the passive path increased to 28.2N (6.4N medial-lateral, 25.4N proximal-distal, and 10.5 N anterior-posterior). This study demonstrated that removal and re-setup of a knee can have substantial, clinically significant changes on our system's repeatability and ultimately, accuracy of the reported results. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vitro Testing of an Implantable Wireless Telemetry System for Long-Term Electromyography Recordings in Large Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneisz, Lukas; Unger, Ewald; Lanmüller, Hermann; Mayr, Winfried

    2015-10-01

    Multichannel bio-signal recording in undisturbed in vivo conditions is a frequent demand in experimental work for development of methodology and associated equipment for functional electrical stimulation (FES) application, limb prosthesis, and diagnostic tools in contemporary rehabilitation efforts. Intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) recordings can provide comprehensive insight in complex interactions of agonistic and antagonistic muscles during movement tasks and in contrast act as reliable control signals for both neuroprosthesis and mechanical prosthesis. We fabricated a fully implantable device, which is capable of recording electromyography signals from inside a body and transmit these signals wirelessly to an external receiver. The developed analog front end uses only two electrodes per channel, provides a gain of 60 dB, and incorporates a band pass filter with lower cut-off frequency of 4 Hz and upper cut-off frequency of 480 Hz. The bidirectional wireless data link, which operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band, is designed for transmission distances of 10 m using an application data rate of 1 kSps for each of the two channels. Performed in vitro tests with the devices coated in epoxy resin and inserted into a phantom with tissue-equivalent characteristics confirmed the functionality of our concept and the measurement results are consistent with those from preceding simulations. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Value of In Vitro Tests to Diminish Drug Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobalina Mayorga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity reactions have multiple implications for patient safety and health system costs, thus it is important to perform an accurate diagnosis. The diagnostic procedure includes a detailed clinical history, often unreliable; followed by skin tests, sometimes with low sensitivity or unavailable; and drug provocation testing, which is not risk-free for the patient, especially in severe reactions. In vitro tests could help to identify correctly the responsible agent, thus improving the diagnosis of these reactions, helping the physician to find safe alternatives, and reducing the need to perform drug provocation testing. However, it is necessary to confirm the sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values for these in vitro tests to enable their implementation in clinical practice. In this review, we have analyzed these parameters from different studies that have used in vitro test for evaluating drug hypersensitivity reactions and estimated the added value of these tests to the in vivo diagnosis.

  3. Neurotoxicity testing: a discussion of in vitro alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L G

    1998-04-01

    A large number of chemicals may exert adverse effects on the central and/or peripheral nervous system. A commonly recommended strategy for neurotoxicity testing is that of a tiered approach aimed at identifying and characterizing the neurotoxicity of a compound. Guidelines exist in the United States and other countries that define the tests to be utilized in tier 1 testing. To address problems related to the increasing cost and time required for toxicity testing, the increasing number of chemicals being developed, and the concern of animal welfare activists, attention is currently being devoted to in vitro alternatives. This paper addresses the use of in vitro systems in neurotoxicology, and their potential role in a general strategy for neurotoxicity testing. The advantages and disadvantages of in vitro approaches for mechanistic studies and for screening of neurotoxicants are discussed. Suggestions for further validation studies are proposed.

  4. Ozone gas effectively kills laboratory strains of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes using an in vitro test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Brintnell, W

    2014-06-01

    Ozone gas possesses antimicrobial potential against many microorganisms, however limited data exist on its effect on the keratinophilic dermatophyte fungi Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes; two organisms commonly isolated as the etiological agent in onychomycosis and tinea pedis patients. We utilized a commercial ozone gas generation device for testing the fungicidal effects of ozone on ATCC strains of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. We demonstrated that ozone gas is effective in killing > 99% of viable fungi present in various experimental systems. This work represents a proof of principle regarding ozone gas and its fungicidal effect on dermatophyte fungi. From these findings, further ozone gas studies will be conducted to develop a novel adjunct therapy for use in parallel with current antifungal medications and/or devices to better treat onychomycosis and tinea pedis patients in the short and long term.

  5. In Vitro Testing of Scaffolds for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Meniscus Tissue Engineering—Introducing a New Biocompatibility Scoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix P. Achatz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A combination of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and scaffolds seems to be a promising approach for meniscus repair. To facilitate the search for an appropriate scaffold material a reliable and objective in vitro testing system is essential. This paper introduces a new scoring for this purpose and analyzes a hyaluronic acid (HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold in combination with MSCs for tissue engineering of meniscus. The pore quality and interconnectivity of pores of a HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold were analyzed by surface photography and Berliner-Blau-BSA-solution vacuum filling. Further the two scaffold materials were vacuum-filled with human MSCs and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry after 21 days in chondrogenic media to determine cell distribution and cell survival as well as proteoglycan production, collagen type I and II content. The polyurethane scaffold showed better results than the hyaluronic acid gelatin composite scaffold, with signs of central necrosis in the HA gelatin composite scaffolds. The polyurethane scaffold showed good porosity, excellent pore interconnectivity, good cell distribution and cell survival, as well as an extensive content of proteoglycans and collagen type II. The polyurethane scaffold seems to be a promising biomaterial for a mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering approach for meniscal repair. The new score could be applied as a new standard for in vitro scaffold testing.

  6. In vitro Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-First Century.

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    Roggen, Erwin L

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) article "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy" (National Research Council, 2007) was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound. Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modeling tools for, e.g., system biology, physiologically based modeling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the twenty-first century.

  7. In Vitro Toxicity testing in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin L Roggen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Research Council (NRC article Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy (National Research Council, 2007 was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound.Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modelling tools for e.g. system biology, physiologically-based modelling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the 21st century.

  8. Novel model systems for in vitro neurotoxicity testing : Chemical stressors and neurotoxic hazard of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.W.G.D.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411965328

    2016-01-01

    Both structurally and functionally, the nervous system is one of the most complex organ systems. Its main function is to send and receive signals; so-called neurotransmission, which largely depends on the viability and structure of neurons as well as on proper regulation of the cellular and

  9. Evaluation of the marginal and internal adaptation of different ceramic and composite inlay systems after an in vitro fatigue test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, D; Moor, L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro trial was to evaluate and compare the external and internal adaptation of Class II composite and ceramic inlays with scanning electron microscopy after mechanical loading and thermal cycling (fatigue). Standardized cavities were prepared on human third molars with margins extending proximally 1 mm above or below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). A fine hybrid composite (Tetric), a hydrothermal glass (Ducera LFC), and a sintered spinell ceramic (In-Ceram) were used to fabricate the restorations. Combinations of Syntac classic--Variolink, ED primer--Panavia and Scotchbond MP--Variolink were used for cementation. For marginal adaptation in enamel, percentages of continuity varied from 85.4% to 99.6% and 85.1% to 98.2% for mesial and distal sites, respectively. Marginal adaptation in dentin showed continuity percentages varying from 63.6% (In-Ceram-Panavia) to 96.1% (Ducera LFC-Panavia). As regards internal adaptation, overall interface results varied from 32.1% (Tetric-Variolink) to 87.3% (Ducera LFC-Panavia). Gingival enamel showed the higher proportions of continuity (94.0%, all group-pooled data) compared to dentin locations (46.0% occlusally to 60.1% in gingival dentin). In all groups, debonding occurred mainly within the dentin--restoration interface and also, but to a lesser extent, between In-Ceram ceramic and both luting composites. When it occurred, adhesive failure to dentin consistently took place at or close to the hybrid layer surface. Despite important differences in their physical properties, no difference could be found under the present experimental conditions between Class II composite and ceramic inlays in terms of their marginal and internal adaptation.

  10. Ensaio de aplicabilidade in vitro do sistema dinâmico do quadril AF(DHS- AF In vitro applicability test of the AF dynamic hip system (DHS-AF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Freitas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar os resultados obtidos em ensaios de aplicabilidade de uma placa do tipo sistema dinâmico do quadril modificado, que permite a manipulação ou troca do parafuso deslizante, sem que haja necessidade da retirada de todo o sistema. MÉTODO: Foram utilizadas cinco placas do tipo sistema dinâmico do quadril modificado (DHS- AFpat.req., fabricadas por uma empresa nacional, produzidas em aço inoxidável austenítico ASTM F 138, com quatro furos e ângulo de 135o, as quais foram aplicadas a cinco segmentos de osso sintético de fêmur proximal da marca Synbone. Todos os implantes foram fixados ao osso sintético, seguindo as técnicas cirúrgicas descritas pela fundação AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen. RESULTADOS: Todas as placas do sistema dinâmico do quadril modificado (DHS-AF permitiram facilidade na manipulação e a troca do pino deslizante sem a necessidade de retirada da placa. CONCLUSÃO: Os testes in vitro de aplicabilidade do DHS-AF nos forneceram resultados promissores e nos levaram a acreditar que, após avaliações biomecânicas, para confirmar a sua segurança, podem ser reproduzidos in vivo.OBJECTIVE: This report considers the results of the applicability test of a modified dynamic hip system developed by the authors, which allows either the manipulation or the exchange of the sliding screw, without the need to remove the plate and take all the system apart in order to change its size or position. METHODS: Five modified plates - DHS-AF - manufactured with austenitic stainless steel ASTM F 138, with 4 holes and a 135o angle were inserted in five segments of synthetic bone of proximal femur (Synbone. All implants were fixed to the femur following the surgical techniques described by AO foundation (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen. RESULTS: The modified dynamic hip system (DHS-AF allowed ease in handling and exchange of sliding screw without the need for plate removal. CONCLUSION: In

  11. Psi-screen, an in vitro toxicity test system: applications in the bioassay of perfumes and fragrance chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, David E

    2005-10-01

    The effects of 65 perfume formulations (perfume oils, perfumes, eau de parfum, eau de toilette) on mitochondrial membrane potential (Psim) and mitochondrial respiration have been investigated using a mitochondria-based assay for (Psim, termed Psi-Screen. All the perfume formulations tested are highly active in the Psi-Screen assay, and the major site of inhibition in all cases is NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I). This is confirmed in studies on the inhibition of NADH oxidase and NADH-ubiquinone reductase. Some formulations also inhibit succinate oxidation at either Complex II or Complex III. Evidence for the inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase is presented, as well as for the induction of reactive oxygen species production by perfume inhibition of Complex I. Thus, perfume formulations are multiple inhibitor mixtures which inhibit multiple bioenergetic functions at high dilutions. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to cell toxicity via necrosis and/or apoptosis. Twenty candidate fragrance chemicals were investigated and all inhibited Complex I (5 at <35 microM). Mass screening strategies and high-throughput screening assays are discussed.

  12. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  13. Twelve Hours In Vitro Biocompatibility Testing of Membrane Oxygenators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleilevens, Christian; Grottke, Oliver; Tillmann, Sabine; Honickel, Markus; Kopp, Rüedger; Arens, Jutta; Rossaint, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In vitro test systems for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (mock loop) represent an interesting alternative to complex and expensive in vivo test systems to analyze the pathomechanisms leading to insufficient biocompatibility. Data on mock loop systems are limited, and operation times are constricted to a maximum duration of 6 hr. This study aims at a 12 hr operation time and frequent monitoring of markers for insufficient biocompatibility in two experimental settings. Porcine blood circulated in a mock loop without any modifications, or the circuit was operated with a CO2-enhanced gas (5% CO2/21% O2/74% N2) in combination with a nutrient solution (phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-saline-mannitol). Coagulation parameters changed over time without differences between the two groups. In the unmodified test setting, a pH increase was detected after 1 hr, followed by significantly increased levels of free hemoglobin as a marker for hemolysis and elevated numbers of activated platelets, which correlate with detected von Willebrand factor, microparticles, and interleukin-β. Proinflammatory cytokine levels were significantly increased after 12 hr. In contrast, these parameters remained constant in the modified test setting providing proof of a stable operating in vitro mock loop system with an extended/prolonged operation time.

  14. In vitro susceptibility testing of Dientamoeba fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, N; Marriott, D; Harkness, J; Ellis, J T; Stark, D

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a commonly encountered trichomonad which has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease in humans. Despite the frequency of reports recording infections with this parasite, little research has been undertaken in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of D. fragilis to several commonly used antiparasitic agents: diloxanide furoate, furazolidone, iodoquinol, metronidazole, nitazoxanide, ornidazole, paromomycin, secnidazole, ronidazole, tetracycline, and tinidazole. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on four clinical strains of D. fragilis, designated A, E, M, and V, respectively. Molecular testing followed, and all strains were determined to be genotype 1. The activities of antiprotozoal compounds at concentrations ranging from 2 μg/ml to 500 μg/ml were determined via cell counts of D. fragilis trophozoites grown in dixenic culture. Minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) were as follows: ornidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; ronidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; tinidazole, 31 μg/ml; metronidazole, 31 μg/ml; secnidazole, 31 to 63 μg/ml; nitazoxanide, 63 μg/ml; tetracycline, 250 μg/ml; furazolidone, 250 to 500 μg/ml; iodoquinol, 500 μg/ml; paromomycin, 500 μg/ml; and diloxanide furoate, >500 μg/ml. This is the first study to report the profiles of susceptibility to a wide range of commonly used treatments for clinical isolates of D. fragilis. Our study indicated 5-nitroimidazole derivatives to be the most active compounds in vitro against D. fragilis.

  15. Critical dissolution tests of oral systems based on statistically designed experiments. III. In vitro/in vivo correlation for multiple-unit capsules of paracetamol based on PLS modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzarur-Aloul, R; Gjellan, K; Sjölund, M; Graffner, C

    1998-04-01

    The main aims of the present study were to establish an in vitro/in vivo correlation for multiple-unit capsules of paracetamol by means of statistical prediction models and to investigate the effect of a number of in vitro variables on the discussion rate of paracetamol from the formulation. A fractional factorial screening design was used to investigate the effects of the variables agitation, pH, osmolality, viscosity, and the presence of bile salt on the dissolution rate of paracetamol. The effects were evaluated in two separate partial least-squares models, in which the responses were expressed as the cumulative percentage of paracetamol dissolved at specified time-points (model I) and as the shape (beta) and scale (eta) parameters according to the Weibull function (model II). It was concluded that agitation and viscosity had significant effects on the dissolution rate of paracetamol. Statistical models based on the responses from models I and II were then used to predict the in vitro conditions most closely correlated with the in vitro dissolution of paracetamol after administration of the formulation to 10 healthy volunteers. The predicted optimal in vitro conditions were similar for the two models and not too far from what is expected from the gastrointestinal tract. The experimental verification of the in vitro conditions showed that both models were equally good, and contributed to high degrees of correlation with the in vivo dissolution behavior of the formulation during 9 hr. The relationships obtained when plotting the percentage dissolved in vitro versus in vivo were y = 1.1x (r2 = 0.98) and y = 1.1x (r2 = 0.94) for models I and II, respectively. Based on these results, it is difficult to state a preference for one of the models. Finally, the use of statistical prediction models to develop critical in vitro tests is a successful approach in the establishment of associations between dissolution behavior in vitro and in vivo for oral extended

  16. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  17. The development of in vitro mutagenicity testing systems using T-lymphocytes. Research progress report, November 1, 1989--April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, R.J.

    1992-05-01

    This work has focused on the development of in vitro T-cell mutation assays. Conditions have been defined to measure the in vitro induction of mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in human T-lymphocytes. This assay is a parallel to our in vivo hprt assay, in that the same cells are utilized. However, the in vitro assay allows for carefully controlled dose response studies. 21 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Collaborative Systems Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

  19. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cell in vitro system to test the efficacy of food bioactive compounds: Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relation with BMI

    KAUST Repository

    Cifre, Margalida

    2016-11-22

    Scope: To analyse the usefulness of isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to rapidly/easily reflect n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) effects on lipid metabolism/inflammation gene profile, and evaluate if these effects are body mass index (BMI) dependent. Methods and results: PBMC from normoweight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) subjects were incubated with physiological doses of docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or their combination. PBMC reflected increased beta-oxidation-like capacity (CPT1A expression) in OW/OB but only after DHA treatment. However, insensitivity to n-3 LCPUFA was evident in OW/OB for lipogenic genes: both PUFA diminished FASN and SREBP1C expression in NW, but no effect was observed for DHA in PBMC from high-BMI subjects. This insensitivity was also evident for inflammation gene profile: all treatments inhibited key inflammatory genes in NW; nevertheless, no effect was observed in OW/OB after DHA treatment, and EPA effect was impaired. SLC27A2, IL6 and TNFα PBMC expression analysis resulted especially interesting to determine obesity-related n-3 LCPUFA insensitivity. Conclusion: A PBMC-based human in vitro system reflects n-3 LCPUFA effects on lipid metabolism/inflammation which is impaired in OW/OB. These results confirm the utility of PBMC ex vivo systems for bioactive-compound screening to promote functional food development and to establish appropriate dietary strategies for obese population.

  20. Comparison of two systems for rigidly connecting 2.0-mm bone screws to an implantable device : in vitro stability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, JP; de Bont, LGM; Verkerke, GJ

    The stability of a screw-fixed implantable device can be improved by eliminating the freedom of movement between the screws and the device. Two systems have been developed for rigidly connecting 2.0-mm bone screws to an implantable device, and the aim of this study was to test and compare the

  1. System Performance and Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frei, U.; Oversloot, H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter compares and contrasts the system performance of two widely used solar thermal systems using testing and simulation programs. Solar thermal systems are used in many countries for heating domestically used water. In addition to the simple thermosiphon systems, better designed pumped

  2. Biofilms of vaginal Lactobacillus in vitro test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, Bing-Bing; Liao, Qin-Ping

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on biofilms of Lactobacillus spp. - a type of normal flora isolated from healthy human vaginas of women of childbearing age; thereupon, it broadens the research scope of investigation of vaginal normal flora. The static slide culture method was adopted to foster biofilms, marked by specific fluorescence staining. Laser scanning confocal and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the microstructure of the biofilms. Photographs taken from the microstructure were analysed to calculate the density of the biofilms. The body of Lactobacillus spp., though red, turned yellow when interacting with the green extracellular polysaccharides. The structure of the biofilm and aquaporin within the biofilm were imaged. Lactobacillus density increases over time. This study provides convincing evidence that Lactobacillus can form biofilms and grow over time in vitro. This finding establishes an important and necessary condition for selecting proper strains for the pharmaceutics of vaginal ecology.

  3. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cell in vitro system to test the efficacy of food bioactive compounds: Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relation with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifre, Margalida; Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Varela-Calviño, Rubén; Reynés, Bàrbara; Pericás-Beltrán, Jordi; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2017-04-01

    To analyse the usefulness of isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to rapidly/easily reflect n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) effects on lipid metabolism/inflammation gene profile, and evaluate if these effects are body mass index (BMI) dependent. PBMC from normoweight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) subjects were incubated with physiological doses of docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or their combination. PBMC reflected increased beta-oxidation-like capacity (CPT1A expression) in OW/OB but only after DHA treatment. However, insensitivity to n-3 LCPUFA was evident in OW/OB for lipogenic genes: both PUFA diminished FASN and SREBP1C expression in NW, but no effect was observed for DHA in PBMC from high-BMI subjects. This insensitivity was also evident for inflammation gene profile: all treatments inhibited key inflammatory genes in NW; nevertheless, no effect was observed in OW/OB after DHA treatment, and EPA effect was impaired. SLC27A2, IL6 and TNFα PBMC expression analysis resulted especially interesting to determine obesity-related n-3 LCPUFA insensitivity. A PBMC-based human in vitro system reflects n-3 LCPUFA effects on lipid metabolism/inflammation which is impaired in OW/OB. These results confirm the utility of PBMC ex vivo systems for bioactive-compound screening to promote functional food development and to establish appropriate dietary strategies for obese population. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. In Vitro Phosphorus Solubility Test of Different Sources of Phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Hifizah, A

    2011-01-01

    The solubility of P from different P supplements was measured with in vitro procedures, using three different tests, which were water solubility, citric acid solubility and acid (0.1M HCl) solubility. Water solubility and citrate solubility were common tests used by the fertiliser industry and acid solubility was a new test developed to mimic conditions within the digestive tract. There were five samples used: Lomon MDCP, Duchess RP, Kynofos, meat meal and MSOP. A separate test was done with ...

  5. ELECTROFORCE 3330 TEST SYSTEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bose Electroforce 3330 is a test system with an axial electromagnetic linear motor, a torsional motor, and an environmental chamber for high and low temperature...

  6. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems: calcium ions combine with fatty acids liberated from triglyceride rich lipid solutions to form soaps and reduce the solubilization capacity of colloidal digestion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B; Mullertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

    2013-01-30

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A core in vitro genotoxicity battery comprising the Ames test plus the in vitro micronucleus test is sufficient to detect rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Reeve, Lesley; Gatehouse, David; Vanparys, Philippe

    2011-03-18

    In vitro genotoxicity testing needs to include tests in both bacterial and mammalian cells, and be able to detect gene mutations, chromosomal damage and aneuploidy. This may be achieved by a combination of the Ames test (detects gene mutations) and the in vitro micronucleus test (MNvit), since the latter detects both chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy. In this paper we therefore present an analysis of an existing database of rodent carcinogens and a new database of in vivo genotoxins in terms of the in vitro genotoxicity tests needed to detect their in vivo activity. Published in vitro data from at least one test system (most were from the Ames test) were available for 557 carcinogens and 405 in vivo genotoxins. Because there are fewer publications on the MNvit than for other mammalian cell tests, and because the concordance between the MNvit and the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CAvit) test is so high for clastogenic activity, positive results in the CAvit test were taken as indicative of a positive result in the MNvit where there were no, or only inadequate data for the latter. Also, because Hprt and Tk loci both detect gene-mutation activity, a positive Hprt test was taken as indicative of a mouse-lymphoma Tk assay (MLA)-positive, where there were no data for the latter. Almost all of the 962 rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins were detected by an in vitro battery comprising Ames+MNvit. An additional 11 carcinogens and six in vivo genotoxins would apparently be detected by the MLA, but many of these had not been tested in the MNvit or CAvit tests. Only four chemicals emerge as potentially being more readily detected in MLA than in Ames+MNvit--benzyl acetate, toluene, morphine and thiabendazole--and none of these are convincing cases to argue for the inclusion of the MLA in addition to Ames+MNvit. Thus, there is no convincing evidence that any genotoxic rodent carcinogens or in vivo genotoxins would remain undetected in an in vitro test battery

  8. Chapter 31: Common in vitro tests for allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Melanie; O'Gorman, Maurice R G

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific IgE antibody is the most commonly ordered in vitro test in the practice of allergy and is used to diagnose type I hypersensitivity reactions to foods or reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with relative contraindications to skin-prick testing such as dermatographism. The Phadebas radioallergosorbent test (RAST; Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) was the first assay reported for the detection of the allergen-specific IgE antibody. In a RAST, antigen (allergen) is bound to a solid phase, such as a paper disk, and then incubated with human serum. A buffer wash removes unbound serum proteins, and radiolabeled anti-human IgE is added to detect bound IgE, if present. The results are reported in arbitrary units of IgE per milliliter of serum. The term RAST was originally a brand name but it is now often used colloquially (and incorrectly) to describe any in vitro assay for allergen-specific IgE. Total serum IgE can be measured and is helpful in determining atopic presentations such as in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or in patients with persistent asthma who are candidates for monoclonal anti-IgE antibody therapy with, omalizumab. In patients with recurrent bacterial infections of the sinopulmonary tract, the basic humoral immune system testing includes measuring quantitative immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and comparing them to age-matched normal ranges. Most clinical laboratories use nephelometry to measure immunoglobulin levels quantitatively. Nephelometry detects either the rate or the end point of soluble immune complex formation (the IgG in sera complexes with an anti-IgG antibody forming a classic immunoprecipitation reaction) by monitoring the scatter of transmitted light. The most common method for the screening of cellular immunodeficiency involved the measurement of the absolute and relative representation of the major lymphocyte subsets, T-cells, T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, B-cells and NK-cells.

  9. Toxicity testing: the search for an in vitro alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J E; Xu, J; Morse, H R; Avent, N D; Donaldson, C

    2009-01-01

    Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety. Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic metabolites are detected can be further complicated if the agent is administered in a prodrug form, requiring a source of cytochrome P450 enzymes for metabolism. A number of sources of metabolic enzymes have been utilised in in vitro models, including cell lines, primary human tissue and liver extracts such as S9. This review examines current and new in vitro models for toxicity testing, including a new model developed within the authors' laboratory utilising HepG2 liver spheroids within a co-culture system to examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on other cell types.

  10. In vitro and human testing strategies for skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Osborne, R; Perkins, M A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to the manufacture, transport, and marketing of chemicals or products, it is critical to assess their potential for skin toxicity (corrosion or irritation), thereby protecting the worker and consumer from adverse skin effects due to intended or accidental skin exposure. Traditionally, animal testing procedures have provided the data needed to assess the more severe forms of skin toxicity, and current regulations may require animal test data before permission can be obtained to manufacture, transport, or market chemicals or the products that contain them. In recent years, the use of animals to assess skin safety has been opposed by some as inhumane and unnecessary. The conflicting needs of the industrial toxicologist to (1) protect human safety, (2) comply with regulations, and (3) reduce animal testing have led to major efforts to develop alternative, yet predictive, test methods. A variety of in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been developed and several have successfully passed initial international validation. These have included skin or epidermal equivalent assays that have been shown to distinguish corrosive from noncorrosive chemicals. These skin/epidermal equivalent assays have also been modified and used to assess skin irritation potential relative to existing human exposure test data. The data show a good correlation between in vitro assay data and different types of human skin irritation data for both chemicals and consumer products. The effort to eliminate animal tests has also led to the development of a novel human patch test for assessment of acute skin irritation potential. A case study shows the benefits of in vitro and human skin irritation tests compared to the animal tests they seek to replace, and strategies now exist to adequately assess human skin irritation potential without the need to rely on animal test methods.

  11. Relevance of in vitro neurotoxicity testing for regulatory requirements: challenges to be considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal-Price, Anna K; Hogberg, Helena T; Buzanska, Leonora; Coecke, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The current testing requirements for both adult and developmental neurotoxicity evaluation are based on in vivo animal models and the neurotoxic potency of compounds is mainly determined by neurobehavioural and neuropathological effects. In vitro studies are considered complementary to animal tests because they provide an understanding of the molecular/cellular mechanisms involved in neurotoxicity. However, the selection of relevant in vitro neuronal/glial specific endpoints applied to various neuronal cellular models should be done in a careful way to build reliable and feasible testing strategies since usually these endpoints have to be tested in various complementary in vitro systems. The requirements for applying a more complex test strategy where toxicokinetic aspects are included together with different tools to compensate for the lack of in vitro metabolic competence are discussed. Taking into consideration the recent European Commission chemical legislation concerning registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) it has become a priority to develop new intelligent testing strategies integrating computational models and in vitro assays based on cell culture models and endpoints that are amenable for adaptation to high throughput screening to be able to test a large number of chemicals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system

  13. Nightly Test system migration

    CERN Document Server

    Win-Lime, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The summer student program allows students to participate to the Cern adventure. They can follow several interesting lectures about particle science and participate to the experiment work. As a summer student, I had worked for LHCb experiment. LHCb uses a lot of software to analyze its data. All this software is organized in packages and projects. They are built and tested during the night using an automated system and the results are displayed on a web interface. Actually, LHCb is changing this system. It is looking for a replacement candidate. So I was charged to unify some internal interfaces to permit a swift migration. In this document, I will describe shortly the system used by LHCb, then I will explain what I have done in detail.

  14. In Vitro Endothelialization Test of Biomaterials Using Immortalized Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kono

    Full Text Available Functionalizing biomaterials with peptides or polymers that enhance recruitment of endothelial cells (ECs can reduce blood coagulation and thrombosis. To assess endothelialization of materials in vitro, primary ECs are generally used, although the characteristics of these cells vary among the donors and change with time in culture. Recently, primary cell lines immortalized by transduction of simian vacuolating virus 40 large T antigen or human telomerase reverse transcriptase have been developed. To determine whether immortalized ECs can substitute for primary ECs in material testing, we investigated endothelialization on biocompatible polymers using three lots of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and immortalized microvascular ECs, TIME-GFP. Attachment to and growth on polymer surfaces were comparable between cell types, but results were more consistent with TIME-GFP. Our findings indicate that TIME-GFP is more suitable for in vitro endothelialization testing of biomaterials.

  15. Resonance test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Walter [Boulder, CO; White, Darris [Superior, CO

    2011-05-31

    An apparatus (10) for applying at least one load to a specimen (12) according to one embodiment of the invention may comprise a mass (18). An actuator (20) mounted to the specimen (12) and operatively associated with the mass (18) moves the mass (18) along a linear displacement path (22) that is perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the specimen (12). A control system (26) operatively associated with the actuator (20) operates the actuator (20) to reciprocate the mass (18) along the linear displacement path (22) at a reciprocating frequency, the reciprocating frequency being about equal to a resonance frequency of the specimen (12) in a test configuration.

  16. Gonadotropin regulation of in vitro androgen production by reptilian testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo Tsui, H; Licht, P

    1977-04-01

    The hormonal regulation of in vitro androgen production by minced testes from 7 species of reptiles representing the 3 major orders was studied using purified follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from tetrapod species. Androgen content was measured by radioimmunoassay. All 7 species showed a dose-dependent response to all preparations of FSH and LH tested. However, variations were found depending on the species tested and the source of the hormone. All snake hormones were particularly inactive in turtles. Some of the variation in relative potencies of hormone reflect phylogenetic specificity in the testes. Synergism between FSH and LH was tested in the sea turtle. While subliminal doses of FSH and LH produced a small stimulation of androgen production, each alone was ineffective. Both gonadotropins have intrinsic activity with regard to the stimulation of steroidogenesis.

  17. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE) for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar; Villar, Agustí; Rull, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen - 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical studies of SPE have been inconclusive - some have shown significant results, and others have not - possibly the result of varying bioactivities of the SPEs used in the studies. To determine the in vitro potency in a cell-free test system of a novel SP supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE), an inhibitor of the 5α-reductase isoenzyme type II. The inhibitory potency of SPSE was compared to that of finasteride, an approved 5α-reductase inhibitor, on the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5α-reduced product 5α-androstanedione. By concentration-dependent inhibition of 5α-reductase type II in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 3.58±0.05 μg/mL), SPSE demonstrated competitive binding toward the active site of the enzyme. Finasteride, the approved 5α-reductase inhibitor tested as positive control, led to 63%-75% inhibition of 5α-reductase type II. SPSE effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is comparatively low. It can be confirmed from the results of this study that SPSE has bioactivity that promotes prostate health at a level that is superior to that of many other phytotherapeutic extracts. The bioactivity of SPSE corresponds favorably to that reported for the hexane extract used in a large number of positive BPH clinical trials, as well as to finasteride

  18. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pilar Pais, Agustí Villar, Santiago Rull Euromed, Barcelona, Spain Background: The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen – 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical studies of SPE have been inconclusive – some have shown significant results, and others have not – possibly the result of varying bioactivities of the SPEs used in the studies. Purpose: To determine the in vitro potency in a cell-free test system of a novel SP supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE, an inhibitor of the 5α-reductase isoenzyme type II. Materials and methods: The inhibitory potency of SPSE was compared to that of finasteride, an approved 5α-reductase inhibitor, on the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5α-reduced product 5α-androstanedione. Results: By concentration-dependent inhibition of 5α-reductase type II in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 3.58±0.05 µg/mL, SPSE demonstrated competitive binding toward the active site of the enzyme. Finasteride, the approved 5α-reductase inhibitor tested as positive control, led to 63%–75% inhibition of 5α-reductase type II. Conclusion: SPSE effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is comparatively low. It can be confirmed from the results of this study that SPSE has bioactivity that promotes prostate health at a level that is superior to that of many other phytotherapeutic extracts. The

  19. In vitro testing of dual-mode thulium microsurgical laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew D.; Stafford, James A.; Schmidt, Brandon P.; Wells, Jonathon D.

    2012-02-01

    Recently, thulium (Tm) fiber lasers have been investigated for use in surgical procedures, especially in urology, because of their numerous advantages over existing laser systems. Lockheed Martin Aculight has recently developed the first truly dual-mode Tm laser, which can be operated in either CW or in short-pulsed mode to produce high peak power. The goal of this study was to assess both the soft tissue ablation performance of this laser in vitro and the feasibility of using it for lithotripsy. Ablation tests were performed on liver tissue, chicken breast, and porcine skin, using a 100μm or 200μm delivery fiber, and operated in CW mode or pulsed (~350ns pulse widths) at 10kHz or 1kHz. Ablation efficiencies for long (3 minutes) exposures and collateral damage zones for short (3-5 seconds) exposures were determined for the different pulse modes and a range of pulse energies. In all tissues, the most energy-efficient ablation occurred for the 10kHz pulsed mode operating just above ablation threshold, while the highest mass removal rate occurred in 10kHz pulsed mode operating at max energy (2.1 mJ). In histological sections from short exposures, 10kHz pulsed exposures created slightly smaller thermal coagulation zones than energy-matched CW exposures, while 1kHz deliveries had substantially smaller thermal damage zones. In addition, using a 100μm fiber, the 10kHz mode was able to fragment samples of uric acid stones.

  20. Nanotechnologies for In Vitro IgE Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märki, Iwan; Rebeaud, Fabien

    2017-07-01

    This review discusses the recent advances in the development of IgE antibody assays based on nanotechnologies. IgE blood testing is an important part of the diagnostic workup of IgE-mediated hypersentivity. We also address the challenges in moving from an academic proof-of-concept to a product routinely used by allergy experts. Several nanotechnologies have been applied to the field of IgE testing: nanoparticles are used either as a support to capture analytes or as a detection tool to enhance the measurement signal. Nanofluidics allows to reduce assay time by enhancing molecular interaction. Nanotechnologies bring forth new methods for in vitro IgE testing. Substantial advantages such as lower sample volume, shorter assay time, simplified procedures, and lower analytic sensitivity, without affecting test precision and accuracy, can be achieved thanks to nanotechnologies.

  1. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Lise, Kristensen,; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics......Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics...

  2. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  3. Evaluation of a biphasic in vitro dissolution test for estimating the bioavailability of carbamazepine polymorphic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jia; Staufenbiel, Sven; Bodmeier, Roland

    2017-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to discriminate three crystal forms of carbamazepine (a BCS II drug) by in vitro dissolution testing and to correlate in vitro data with published in vivo data. A biphasic dissolution system (phosphate buffer pH6.8 and octanol) was used to evaluate the dissolution of the three polymorphic forms and to compare it with conventional single phase dissolution tests performed under sink and non-sink conditions. Similar dissolution profiles of three polymorphic forms were observed in the conventional dissolution test under sink conditions. Although a difference in dissolution was seen in the single phase dissolution test under non-sink conditions as well as in the aqueous phase of the biphasic test, little relevance for in vivo data was observed. In contrast, the biphasic dissolution system could discriminate between the different polymorphic forms in the octanol phase with a ranking of form III>form I>dihydrate form. This was in agreement with the in vivo performance. The dissolved drug available for oral absorption, which was dominated by dissolution and solution-mediated phase transformation, could be reflected in the biphasic dissolution test. Moreover, a good correlation was established between in vitro dissolution in the octanol phase of the biphasic test and in vivo pharmacokinetic data (R(2)=0.99). The biphasic dissolution method is a valuable tool to discriminate between different crystal forms in the formulations of poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. System Testing of Ground Cooling System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensey, Tyler Steven

    2014-01-01

    This internship focused primarily upon software unit testing of Ground Cooling System (GCS) components, one of the three types of tests (unit, integrated, and COTS/regression) utilized in software verification. Unit tests are used to test the software of necessary components before it is implemented into the hardware. A unit test determines that the control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures of a particular component are tested to determine if the program is fit for use. Three different files are used to make and complete an efficient unit test. These files include the following: Model Test file (.mdl), Simulink SystemTest (.test), and autotest (.m). The Model Test file includes the component that is being tested with the appropriate Discrete Physical Interface (DPI) for testing. The Simulink SystemTest is a program used to test all of the requirements of the component. The autotest tests that the component passes Model Advisor and System Testing, and puts the results into proper files. Once unit testing is completed on the GCS components they can then be implemented into the GCS Schematic and the software of the GCS model as a whole can be tested using integrated testing. Unit testing is a critical part of software verification; it allows for the testing of more basic components before a model of higher fidelity is tested, making the process of testing flow in an orderly manner.

  5. Neurotoxicity testing: a discussion of in vitro alternatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    A large number of chemicals may exert adverse effects on the central and/or peripheral nervous system. A commonly recommended strategy for neurotoxicity testing is that of a tiered approach aimed at identifying and characterizing the neurotoxicity of a compound. Guidelines exist in the United States and other countries that define the tests to be utilized in tier 1 testing. To address problems related to the increasing cost and time required for toxicity testing, the increasing number of chem...

  6. In vitro susceptibility testing of Fonsecaea pedrosoi to antifungals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina de BEDOUT

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the difficulties experienced in the treatment of chromoblastomycosis, 12 primary human isolates of F. pedrosoi, were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to various antimycotics. We adapted the recommendations of the NCCLS for yeasts and followed the indications for mold testing from other authors in order to determine their MIC’s and the MLC’s. It was found that a significant proportion of the isolates were resistant to 3 of the 4 antimycotics tested, as revealed by high MIC values, as follows: 33% were resistant to amphotericin B (AMB, 58.3% to 5 fluocytosine (5 FC and 66.7% to fluconazole (FLU. Contrarywise, none of the isolates proved resistant to itraconazole (ITZ. Determination of the MLC’s revealed that a larger proportion of the isolates were not killed by AMB, 5 FC (91.7%, FLU (100% or even, ITZ (41.7%. These data indicate that it would be desirable to determine the susceptibility of F. pedrosoi before initiating therapy, in order to choose the more effective antifungal and avoid clinical failureTestes de suscetibilidade in vitro de Fonsecaea pedrosoi a antifúngicos Baseados nas dificuldades experimentadas no sucesso do tratamento da cromoblastomicose, 12 isolamentos humanos primários do F. pedrosoi foram examinados para a sua suscetibilidade in vitro aos vários antifúngicos. Nos adaptamos às recomendações da NCCLS feitas para leveduras e, seguimos as indicações para fungos filamentosos testados dadas por outros autores para as determinações dos MIC’s e dos MCLS. Nossos resultados mostraram que uma proporção significativa dos isolados testados foi resistente a três ou quatro dos antifúngicos experimentados, como revelaram os altos valores do MIC; assim, 33% dos isolados foram resistentes à anfotericina-B (AMB 58,3% à fluorocitosina (5FC e 66,7% ao fluconazole (FLU; pelo contrário, nenhum dos isolados examinados mostrou-se resistente ao itraconazole (ITZ. As determinações dos MLC revelaram que

  7. Comparing in vitro activity of tigecycline by using the disk diffusion test, the manual microdilution method, and the VITEK 2 automated system Comparación de la actividad in vitro de la tigeciclina mediante la prueba de difusión con disco, el método de microdilución manual y el sistema automatizado Vitek 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Leal Castro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tigecycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic having activity against multiresistant isolates. In vitro susceptibility testing is difficult to perform with the use of traditional microbiological techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disk diffusion test with three different Mueller-Hinton agar brands, and the Vitek 2 automated system in comparison with the standard broth microdilution method against 200 gram-negative isolates (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Acinetobacter baumannii. Among Enterobacteriaceae, the Becton Dickinson agar had the lowest rate of minor (32.5% and major errors (3.8%. No very major errors were found. For A. baumanni, the rate of minor and major errors was lower. A high rate of agreement (94% was found between the broth microdilution method and the Vitek 2 system. Our results show that there are important differences between agars used for the disk diffusion test, and that Vitek 2 is a valid tool for susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories.La tigeciclina es un antibiótico de amplio espectro con actividad frente a bacterias multirresistentes. Existen dificultades en la determinación de la actividad in vitro a través de las técnicas microbiológicas convencionales. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar tres marcas diferentes de medio agar Mueller-Hinton para utilizar en el método de difusión con disco y el método automatizado Vitek 2, y compararlos con la prueba tradicional de microdilución manual (Paneles Trek frente a 200 aislamientos de microorganismos gram negativos (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens y Acinetobacter baumannii. Para el grupo de las enterobacterias, el medio con mejor desempeño fue el producido por Becton Dickinson, que tuvo 32,5% de errores menores y 3,8% de errores mayores. No se presentaron errores mayores con ningún medio. Se encontró una alta concordancia (94% entre el

  8. The role of in vitro methods as alternatives to animals in toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, María Aranzazu; Castellano, Victor; Martínez-Larrañaga, María Rosa

    2014-01-01

    It is accepted that animal testing should be reduced, refined or replaced as far as it is practicably possible. There are also a wide variety of in vitro models, which are used as screening studies and mechanistic investigations. The ability of an in vitro assay to be reliable, biomedically, is essential in pharmaceutical development. Furthermore, it is necessary that cells used in in vitro testing mimic the phenotype of cells within the human target tissue. The focus of this review article is to identify the key points of in vitro assays. In doing so, the authors take into account the chemical agents that are assessed and the integrated in vitro testing strategies. There is a transfer of toxicological data from primary in vivo animal studies to in vitro assays. The key element for designing an integrated in vitro testing strategy is summarized as follows: exposure modeling of chemical agents for in vitro testing; data gathering, sharing and read-across for testing a class of chemical; a battery of tests to assemble a broad spectrum of data on different mechanisms of action to predict toxic effects; and applicability of the test and the integrated in vitro testing strategies and flexibility to adjust the integrated in vitro testing strategies to test substance. While these methods will be invaluable if effective, more studies must be done to ensure reliability and suitability of these tests for humans.

  9. Correlation of in vitro challenge testing with consumer use testing for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C; Kaufman, D J

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro microbial challenge test has been developed to predict the likelihood of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. The challenge test involved inoculating product at four concentrations (30, 50, 70, and 100%) with microorganisms known to contaminate cosmetics. Elimination of these microorganisms at each concentration was followed over a 28-day period. The test was used to classify products as poorly preserved, marginally preserved, or well preserved. Consumer use testing was then used to determine whether the test predicted the risk of actual consumer contamination. Products classified by the challenge test as poorly preserved returned 46 to 90% contaminated after use. Products classified by the challenge test as well preserved returned with no contamination. Marginally preserved products returned with 0 to 21% of the used units contaminated. As a result, the challenge test described can be accurately used to predict the risk of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. PMID:3662517

  10. In Vitro Susceptibility Test of Different Clinical Isolates against Ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hakim Masood

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the prevailing penicillin resistance in microorganisms, broad spectrum cephalosporins are used empirically specially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility pattern of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens against third generation cephalosporin-ceftriaxone to explore the existing effectiveness of this antibiotic.Methods: 180 clinical isolates of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens including P.mirabilis, S. typhi P.aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and Klebsiella were collected from blood and urine samples of in-patients. 30 isolates of all species were tested against each of six brands of ceftriaxone using in vitro sensitivity tests by disc diffusion method (NCCLS criteria. The susceptibility limit was ≥21 mm zone of inhibition, while moderately susceptible was considered at 20-14 mm, and those isolates which showed >13 mm or no zone of inhibition were resistant to this antibacterial drug.Results: Ceftriaxone was found most effective against S. aureus. While 96.1% of the isolates showed susceptibility towards ceftriaxone, followed by E. coli (95%, P. aeruginosa (92.7%, K. pneumonia (89.4% and S. typhi (87.2%. P. mirabilis showed lowest susceptibility amongst all the test organisms (83.8%.Conclusion: Ceftriaxone can be used as a drug of choice in infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, P. aurigenosa, K. pneumonia and S. typhi. However, it should be used with other antimicrobial agents in order to increase its effectiveness against P. mirabilis.

  11. Systems Engineering, Quality and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2015-01-01

    AS9100 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to aerospace test programs. There is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination or some type of lab or bench testing. If one examines how the systems engineering processes are implemented throughout a test program; and how these processes can be mapped to AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed.

  12. Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcal, Lucian; Torres Andón, Fernando; Di Cristo, Luisana; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Bergamaschi, Enrico; Mech, Agnieszka; Hartmann, Nanna B; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Riego-Sintes, Juan; Ponti, Jessica; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Rossi, François; Oomen, Agnes; Bos, Peter; Chen, Rui; Bai, Ru; Chen, Chunying; Rocks, Louise; Fulton, Norma; Ross, Bryony; Hutchison, Gary; Tran, Lang; Mues, Sarah; Ossig, Rainer; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Campagnolo, Luisa; Vecchione, Lucia; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Fadeel, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS). Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterials Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues). The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry - hydrophilic (NM-103) and hydrophobic (NM-104), two forms of ZnO - uncoated (NM-110) and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111) and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques - precipitated (NM-200) and pyrogenic (NM-203). Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h) (ZnO>SiO2>TiO2). Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days) significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of ZnO, but not TiO2 and SiO2, while the embryonic stem cell test (EST) classified the TiO2 NMs as potentially 'weak-embryotoxic' and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as 'non-embryotoxic'. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103). This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for which TiO2

  13. Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Farcal

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials (NMs display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS. Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterials Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues. The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry - hydrophilic (NM-103 and hydrophobic (NM-104, two forms of ZnO - uncoated (NM-110 and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111 and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques - precipitated (NM-200 and pyrogenic (NM-203. Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h (ZnO>SiO2>TiO2. Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of ZnO, but not TiO2 and SiO2, while the embryonic stem cell test (EST classified the TiO2 NMs as potentially 'weak-embryotoxic' and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as 'non-embryotoxic'. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103. This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for which TiO2

  14. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Tear Substitutes Using in vitro System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Aleksandrova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study is to evaluate in vitro the cytotoxic effect of different moisture eye drops (containing or without preservatives on the epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and the cornea.Materials and methods. The objects of the study are moisture eye drops: Hylabak®, Thealoz®, Sistane Ultra®, Kationorm®, Oftolik®, Artelak® Balance, Optiv®. As test systems there were used the transformed cells of normal eye tissues: constant conjunctiva transformed cell lines (Chang Conjunctiva, Clone 1-5c-4 and the human cornea (HCEC. The cytotoxicity of the “artificial tears” was assessed by the viability of cells, cultured in substratum containing the solutions of the objects at concentrations 1, 5 and 10%. Cell viability was assessed by their morphology and metabolic activity.Results. The most sensitive to the investigated eye drops is considered to be the test system based on human corneal cells. Four of the seven investigated eye drops (Artelak® Balance, Optiv®, Kationorm®, Oftolik® at a concentration of 10% (by volume of the substratum showed a high degree of toxicity for cornea cells. Eyedrops Sistane Ultra® had moderate toxic effect on the cells of the cornea and conjunctiva at concentration 5 and 10% (by volume. Hylabak® and Thealoz® in this concentrations did not have any cytotoxic effect on the cells of all test system and showed the best results in the research. The most toxic of all cell types were eye drops Oftolik® and Artelak® balance.Conclusion. A direct relationship between the concentration of drug in culture medium and cell cytotoxicity was investigated. Eye drops Hylabak® and Thealoz®, that do not contain in its composition a preservative, had no cytotoxic effect on the cells of both test systems at all concentrations used. The lowest toxic effect of the test had eye drop Sistane Ultra® containing “soft” preservative Poliquad®. Among the “artificial tears”, the greatest toxic effect on

  15. Test System Impact on System Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pau, L. F.

    1987-01-01

    The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance of the sys......The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance...... of the system subject to monitoring and test. A time-dependent Markov model is presented, and applied in three cases, with examples of numerical results provided for preventive maintenance decisions, design of an automatic test system, buffer testing in computers, and data communications....

  16. In vitro vaccine potency testing: a proposal for reducing animal use for requalification testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K; Stokes, W

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a program under which the use of animals for requalification of in vitro potency tests could be eliminated. Standard References (USDA/CVB nomenclature) would be developed, characterized, stored and monitored by selected reference laboratories worldwide. These laboratories would employ scientists skilled in protein and glycoprotein chemistry and equipped with state-of-the-art instruments for required analyses. After Standard References are established, the reference laboratories would provide them to the animal health industry as "gold standards". Companies would then establish and validate a correlation between the Standard Reference and the company Master Reference (USDA/CVB nomenclature) using an internal in vitro assay. After this correlation is established, the company could use the Standard References for qualifying, monitoring and requalifying company Master References without the use of animals. Such a program would eliminate the need for animals for requalification of Master References and the need for each company to develop and validate a battery of Master Reference Monitoring assays. It would also provide advantages in terms of reduced costs and reduced time for requalification testing. As such it would provide a strong incentive for companies to develop and use in vitro assays for potency testing.

  17. In vitro tests and ethnopharmacological investigations: wound healing as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, P J; Hylands, P J; Mensah, A Y; Hensel, A; Deters, A M

    2005-08-22

    In vitro tests are now widely employed in ethnopharmacological research because of ethical reasons and their usefulness in bioactive-guided fractionation and determination of active compounds. For many disease conditions, a variety of in vitro tests can now be employed as the biochemical mechanisms underlying disease and healing processes are understood. Approaches to the in vitro investigations of wound healing processes are exemplified by studies on extracts of Buddleja species and three Ghanaian species Spathodea campanulata, Commelina diffusa and Secamone afzelii. Most studies have been carried out on Buddleja officinalis or Buddleja globosa. The extracts have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties due to flavonoids, triterpenoids, diterpenoids and caffeic acid derivatives. There appears to a slight effect on proliferation of fibroblasts at lower concentrations, but this was not significant, and higher concentrations appeared to be cytotoxic. Novel findings are the ability of Buddleja globosa leaf extracts to induce differentiation in keratinocytes and to alter the profile of proteins produced by cultured fibroblasts. Extracts also had some effect on lattice contraction. The three Ghanaian species examined show a mixture of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The evolution over recent years of tests for wound healing, from in vivo tests to cell-based systems and chemical reactions and on to investigations into effects on secondary messengers and protein expression, is described.

  18. Development of an in vitro Endotoxin Test for Monoolein–Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    vitro endotoxin test (LAL test) for water- insoluble gel products. Since our research group is currently developing monoolein–water liquid crystalline gels of gentamycin for use as bioresorbable implants for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis [10-12], we set out to develop an in vitro test method for endotoxin in this.

  19. Assessment of MCF-7 cells as an in vitro model system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have been carried out to establish an experimental in vitro model system for routine testing of oxidative stress inducers through biochemical analysis using human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cell line. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been chosen as a test chemical oxidant to assess the level of induced glutathione ...

  20. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  1. In Vitro Tests for Aerosol Deposition. V: Using Realistic Testing to Estimate Variations in Aerosol Properties at the Trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangyin; Hindle, Michael; Delvadia, Renishkumar R; Byron, Peter R

    2017-10-01

    The dose and aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of drug aerosols' exiting models of the mouth and throat (MT) during a realistic inhalation profile (IP) may be estimated in vitro and designated Total Lung Dose, TLDin vitro, and APSDTLDin vitro, respectively. These aerosol characteristics likely define the drug's regional distribution in the lung. A general method was evaluated to enable the simultaneous determination of TLDin vitro and APSDTLDin vitro for budesonide aerosols' exiting small, medium and large VCU-MT models. Following calibration of the modified next generation pharmaceutical impactor (NGI) at 140 L/min, variations in aerosol dose and size exiting MT were determined from Budelin® Novolizer® across the IPs reported by Newman et al., who assessed drug deposition from this inhaler by scintigraphy. Values for TLDin vitro from the test inhaler determined by the general method were found to be statistically comparable to those using a filter capture method. Using new stage cutoffs determined by calibration of the modified NGI at 140 L/min, APSDTLDin vitro profiles and mass median aerodynamic diameters at the MT exit (MMADTLDin vitro) were determined as functions of MT geometric size across Newman's IPs. The range of mean values (n ≥ 5) for TLDin vitro and MMADTLDin vitro for this inhaler extended from 6.2 to 103.0 μg (3.1%-51.5% of label claim) and from 1.7 to 3.6 μm, respectively. The method enables reliable determination of TLDin vitro and APSDTLDin vitro for aerosols likely to enter the trachea of test subjects in the clinic. By simulating realistic IPs and testing in different MT models, the effects of major variables on TLDin vitro and APSDTLDin vitro may be studied using the general method described in this study.

  2. Establishment of a novel in vitro test setup for electric and magnetic stimulation of human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, P C; Jonitz-Heincke, A; Su, Y; Souffrant, R; Hansmann, D; Ewald, H; Krüger, A; Mittelmeier, W; Bader, R

    2014-11-01

    When large defects occur, bone regeneration can be supported by bone grafting and biophysical stimuli like electric and magnetic stimulation (EMS). Clinically established EMS modes are external coils and surgical implants like an electroinductive screw system, which combines a magnetic and electric field, e.g., for the treatment of avascular bone necrosis or pseudarthrosis. For optimization of this implant system, an in vitro test setup was designed to investigate effects of EMS on human osteoblasts on different 3D scaffolds (based on calcium phosphate and collagen). Prior to the cell experiments, numerical simulations of the setup, as well as experimental validation, via measurements of the electric parameters induced by EMS were conducted. Human osteoblasts (3 × 10(5) cells) were seeded onto the scaffolds and cultivated. After 24 h, screw implants (Stryker ASNIS III s-series) were centered in the scaffolds, and EMS was applied (3 × 45 min per day at 20 Hz) for 3 days. Cell viability and collagen type 1 (Col1) synthesis were determined subsequently. Numerical simulation and validation showed an adequate distribution of the electric field within the scaffolds. Experimental measurements of the electric potential revealed only minimal deviation from the simulation. Cell response to stimulation varied with scaffold material and mode of stimulation. EMS-stimulated cells exhibited a significant decrease of metabolic activity in particular on collagen scaffolds. In contrast, the Col1/metabolic activity ratio was significantly increased on collagen and non-sintered calcium phosphate scaffolds after 3 days. Exclusive magnetic stimulation showed similar but nonsignificant tendencies in metabolic activity and Col1 synthesis. The cell tests demonstrate that the new test setup is a valuable tool for in vitro testing and parameter optimization of the clinically used electroinductive screw system. It combines magnetic and electric stimulation, allowing in vitro investigations

  3. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Hywel D; Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The Lipid Formulation Classification System Consortium looks to develop standardized in vitro tests and to generate much-needed performance criteria for lipid-based formulations (LBFs). This article highlights the value of performing a second, more stressful digestion test to identify LBFs near...... a performance threshold and to facilitate lead formulation selection in instances where several LBF prototypes perform adequately under standard digestion conditions (but where further discrimination is necessary). Stressed digestion tests can be designed based on an understanding of the factors that affect LBF......-chain glyceride-rich LBFs, but not more hydrophilic surfactant-rich LBFs, whereas decreasing pH stressed tolfenamic acid LBFs, but not fenofibrate LBFs. Lastly, a new Performance Classification System, that is, LBF composition independent, is proposed to promote standardized LBF comparisons, encourage robust LBF...

  4. A new in vitro spine test rig to track multiple vertebral motions under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Agnes; Herren, Christian; Mundt, Marion; Siewe, Jan; Kobbe, Philipp; Sobottke, Rolf; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Stoffel, Marcus; Markert, Bernd

    2017-04-27

    In vitro pure moment spine tests are commonly used to analyse surgical implants in cadaveric models. Most of the tests are performed at room temperature. However, some new dynamic instrumentation devices and soft tissues show temperature-dependent material properties. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a new test rig, which allows applying pure moments on lumbar spine specimens in a vapour-filled chamber at body temperature. As no direct sight is given in the vapour-filled closed chamber, a magnetic tracking (MT) system with implantable receivers was used. Four human cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) were tested in a vapour atmosphere at body temperature with a native and rigid instrumented group. In conclusion, the experimental set-up allows vertebral motion tracking of multiple functional spinal units (FSUs) in a moisture environment at body temperature.

  5. Acidosis activates complement system in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Emeis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the in vitro effect of different form s of acidosis (pH 7.0 on the formation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Metabolic acidosis due to addition of hydrochloric acid (10 μ mol/ml blood or lactic acid (5.5 μ mol/ml to heparin blood (N=12 caused significant activation of C3a and C5a compared to control (both p=0.002. Respiratory acidosis activated C3a (p=0.007 and C5a (p=0.003 compared to normocapnic controls. Making blood samples with lactic acidosis hypocapnic resulted in a median pH of 7.37. In this respiratory compensated metabolic acidosis, C3a and C5a were not increased. These experiments show that acidosis itself and not lactate trigger for activation of complement components C3 and C5.

  6. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgra, S.; Westerhout, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and

  7. In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the passing of The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed “modified risk”. On 4-6 April 2016, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) convened a workshop conference titled “In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products” to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia, and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP. Specific topics were covered to assess the status of current in vitro smoke and aerosol/vapor exposure systems, as well as the various approaches and challenges to quantifying the complex exposures, in in vitro pulmonary models developed for evaluating adverse pulmonary events resulting from tobacco product exposures. The four core topics covered were, 1) Tobacco Smoke And E-Cigarette Aerosols, 2) Air-Liquid Interface-In Vitro Exposure Systems, 3) Dosimetry Approaches For Particles And Vapors; In Vitro Dosimetry Determinations and 4) Exposure Microenvironment/Physiology Of Cells. The two and a half day workshop included presentations from 20 expert speakers, poster sessions, networking discussions, and breakout sessions which identified key findings and provided recommendations to advance these technologies. Here, we will re

  8. Electromagnetic Environmental Effects System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    K-1 L. INTRA SYSTEM ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY ( EMC ) SOURCE/VICTIM ................... L-1 M. PERSONNEL...TEMPEST and test guidance for the addition of test procedures for implementing Electromagnetic Compatibility ( EMC ), Radiated Emissions (RE...for Grounds and Bonds is not addressed since it is sufficiently discussed in MIL-STD-464C. For Shielding Effectiveness, reference American Society

  9. In-vitro corneal transparency measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liliane; da Costa Vieira, Marcelo A.; Isaac, Flavio; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    2001-06-01

    A system for measuring the average corneal transparency of preserved corneas has been developed in order to provide a more accurate and standard report of the corneal tissue. The donated cornea transparency is one of the features to be analyzed previously to its indication for the transplant. The small portable system consists of two main parts: the optical and the electronic parts. The optical system consists of a white light, lenses and pin-holes that collimate white light beams that illuminates the cornea in its preservative medium. The light that passes through the cornea is detected by a resistive detector and the average corneal transparency is shown in a display. In order to obtain just the tissue transparency, the electronic circuit was built in a way that there is a baseline input of the preservative medium, previous to the measurement of the corneal transparency. Manipulating the system consists of three steps: (1) Adjusting the zero percentage in the absence of light (at this time the detectors in the dark); (2) Placing the preservative medium in the system and adjusting the 100% value (this is the baseline input); (3) Preserving the cornea and placing it in the system. The system provides the tissue transparency. The system is connected to an endothelium evaluation system for Slit Lamp, that we have developed, and statistics about the relationship of the corneal transparency and density of the endothelial cells will be provided in the next years. The system is being used in a public Eye Bank in Brasil.

  10. ATLAS Pixel Detector System Test

    CERN Document Server

    Triplett, N

    2007-01-01

    On June 25th of 2007 the ATLAS collaboration lowered the pixel detector into place, however before this the detector had to be qualified through a series of tests. Prior to assembly, each individual piece of the detector and services chain passed a set of quality controls. This was followed by the construction and test of the whole pixel detector. This test of the full chain of services -including the voltage supplies, opto-boards, cooling, temperature monitoring, control software, and the pixel modules themselves- is referred to as the Pixel System Test. The System Test took place in an above-ground laboratory setting at CERN and consisted of two main parts. The first half of the test focused on one of the pixel detector’s endcaps. This endcap consists of 144 modules, making up roughly 10% of the total pixel detector. For the pixel endcap test, most of the 144 modules were operated simultaneously which required that the pixel endcap’s cooling system be functioning as well[1]. Additionally, four scintilla...

  11. Penetration Testing In System Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zunnurain Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Authors will be discussing the penetration testing in system administration and challenges faced by the industry in securing the data and information using different techniques. Penetration Testing is modern technique of assessing the vulnerabilities in the system. It has been performed to explore all the loop holes in the system and the tester behave like an attacker. All the potential weaknesses access to data manually or automatically being checked and verifies by the tester. The purpose of this activity is to gather all the required information to secure the data before real attack effects the system during the process port scanning and other activities were performed and finally as report will be made to suggest improvement in the system to secure it. It is very challenging these days to secure the communication between two users although people use different encryption techniques 1.

  12. In vitro binding of estrogens by dietary fiber and the in vivo apparent digestibility tested in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, C.J.M.; Govers, C.A.R.L.; Berg, H. van den; Wolters, M.G.E.; Leeuwen, P. van; Thijsen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Within the framework of experiments related to the association between dietary fiber and breast cancer an in vitro test system was used to study the binding of estrogens to various fibers (e.g. cholestyramin, lignin and cellulose) and fiber sources (e.g. wheat bran, cereals, seeds and legumes).

  13. STATIC AND DYNAMIC IN VITRO TEST OF BIOACTIVITY OF GLASS CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANA KOZÁNKOVÁ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioactivity of glass ceramics from Li2O–SiO2–CaO–P2O5–CaF2 system, with different amount of fluorapatite expressed as P2O5 content, has been tested in vitro under static and dynamic regime. The paper reports the results of bioactivity test of glass ceramics in static and dynamic regime. XRD, SEM and EPMA analysis were used to characterise the sample as well as to detect the presence of new phase onto the surface of glass ceramics. The bioactivity, as demonstrated by the formation of new apatite layer, depends on P2O5 content and testing regime. In static regime, one can observe a fine microstructure of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface on glass ceramics samples. In dynamic regime, the formation rate of this layer seems to be retarded in comparison with that of static regime.

  14. Nanoparticle-protein corona in invertebrate in vitro testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Scavenius, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    , and the primary cells were thus exposed to silver nanoparticles with pre-formed corona of serum albumin (a major serum protein). Here we have profiled proteins forming the hard corona around silver nanoparticles (OECD reference materials, 15 nm and 75 nm) using gel electrophoresis techniques to identify proteins...... for evaluation of the protein corona in invertebrate in vitro setting....

  15. Thyroid in a jar: towards an integrated in vitro testing strategy for thyroid-active compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jomaa, B.

    2015-01-01

      Jomaa, B. (2015). Thyroid in a Jar: Towards an Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategy for Thyroid-Active Compounds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Abstract The aim of this thesis was to find in vitro and toxicogenomics-based alternatives to

  16. Bioinformatics-based selection of a model cell type for in vitro biomaterial testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Nathalie; van de Peppel, Jeroen; Yuan, Huipin; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

    2013-07-01

    Biomaterial properties can be tailored for specific applications via systematic and high-throughput screening of biomaterial-cell interactions. However, progress in material development is often hampered by the lack of adequate in vitro testing methods, frequently due to incomplete understanding of involved in vivo mechanisms. In line with drug discovery in pharmacology, a crucial step in assay development for biomaterial screening is the identification of a target to direct the screen against. Herein, the cell type to be used for screening is of essential importance and has to be carefully chosen. So far, few attention has been put on selecting a cell type specifically suitable for in vitro testing of materials for predefined applications. In this manuscript, we describe an approach to define a suitable cell type for screening assays, for which biomaterials for bone regeneration served as example. Using a bioinformatics methodology, different cell lines are compared on three well-characterized model materials. The transcriptional profiles of MG63, iMSC, SV-HFO, hPPCT, hBPCT and SW480 cells are assessed on 3 calcium phosphate-based materials to evaluate their potential application in a screening assay. We show that MG63 is the most suitable cell line to evaluate biomaterials for bone regeneration applications, evidenced by their robust gene expression differences between the 3 model materials. The gene expression differences between the cell lines were assessed based on the overall gene expression profiles and specific subsets of genes and pathways related to osteogenesis and bone homeostasis in response to the 3 materials tested. In the next phase, this cell line will be used to identify a target correlating with in vivo biomaterial performance and henceforth to develop an in vitro screening system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An efficient system for in vitro multiplication of Ocimum basilicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro micropropagation system was developed for direct shoot growth of Ocimum basilicum, an important medicinal plant, using nodal explants. The excised nodes were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing two plant growth regulators (6-benzyladenine and 2- isopentanyl adenine) with ...

  18. Development of an in vitro culture system adapted to banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The beneficial impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on banana nutrition and resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses is well documented. However, most ... Here we developed an in vitro culture system associating autotrophic micropropagated banana plants with an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices). Intraradical ...

  19. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1117 - B-type natriuretic peptide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false B-type natriuretic peptide test system. 862.1117... Systems § 862.1117 B-type natriuretic peptide test system. (a) Identification. The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) test system is an in vitro diagnostic device intended to measure BNP in whole blood and...

  1. Human Vascular Microphysiological System for in vitro Drug Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C. E.; Yen, R. W.; Perez, S. M.; Bedell, H. W.; Povsic, T. J.; Reichert, W. M.; Truskey, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro human tissue engineered human blood vessels (TEBV) that exhibit vasoactivity can be used to test human toxicity of pharmaceutical drug candidates prior to pre-clinical animal studies. TEBVs with 400–800 μM diameters were made by embedding human neonatal dermal fibroblasts or human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dense collagen gel. TEBVs were mechanically strong enough to allow endothelialization and perfusion at physiological shear stresses within 3 hours after fabrication. After 1 week of perfusion, TEBVs exhibited endothelial release of nitric oxide, phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction, and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation, all of which were maintained up to 5 weeks in culture. Vasodilation was blocked with the addition of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). TEBVs elicited reversible activation to acute inflammatory stimulation by TNF-α which had a transient effect upon acetylcholine-induced relaxation, and exhibited dose-dependent vasodilation in response to caffeine and theophylline. Treatment of TEBVs with 1 μM lovastatin for three days prior to addition of Tumor necrosis factor – α (TNF-α) blocked the injury response and maintained vasodilation. These results indicate the potential to develop a rapidly-producible, endothelialized TEBV for microphysiological systems capable of producing physiological responses to both pharmaceutical and immunological stimuli. PMID:26888719

  2. Laboratory Tests of Small SDHW Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1997-01-01

    A test facility for Small SDHW systems was built in 1992. In the test facility up to 10 SDHW systems can be tested side-by-side under the same realistic conditions. Since 1992 16 different systems have been tested in the facility. Both test systems and marketed systems from Danish as well as fore...

  3. Digital holographic microscopy as multimodal read out for in vitro nanomaterial cytotoxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mues, Sarah; Ketelhut, Steffi; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) was used as multimodal optical method for nanomaterial toxicity testing that overcomes the limitations and assay disturbances of conventional in vitro assays based on absorbance or fluorescence read outs.

  4. [In vitro cytotoxicity test of medical ultrasonic couplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingxian; Wang, Shasha; Jin, Meng; Yan, Xiaoli

    2013-05-01

    The cytotoxicity of medical ultrasonic couplant was tested by MTT assay and agar overlay test. By MTT assay, when the inoculum density was high, the cytotoxicity level was low, or vice versa. The cytotoxicity grade tested by agar overlay was not accord to MTT assay's too. MTT assay is suitable to test the cytotoxicity of medical ultrasonic couplant because it is quantitative and more sensitive, however, the experimental condition and the preparative method of extraction should be determined.

  5. An approach to operating system testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, R. N., Jr.; Campbell, R. H.; Kubitz, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    To ensure the reliability and performance of a new system, it must be verified or validated in some manner. Currently, testing is the only resonable technique available for doing this. Part of this testing process is the high level system test. System testing is considered with respect to operating systems and in particular UNIX. This consideration results in the development and presentation of a good method for performing the system test. The method includes derivations from the system specifications and ideas for management of the system testing project. Results of applying the method to the IBM System/9000 XENIX operating system test and the development of a UNIX test suite are presented.

  6. Inter-laboratory variability in in vitro spinal segment flexibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel J; Freeman, Andrew L; Ellingson, Arin M; Nuckley, David J; Buckley, Jenni M; Scheer, Justin K; Crawford, Neil R; Bechtold, Joan E

    2011-09-02

    In vitro spine flexibility testing has been performed using a variety of laboratory-specific loading apparatuses and conditions, making test results across laboratories difficult to compare. The application of pure moments has been well established for spine flexibility testing, but to our knowledge there have been no attempts to quantify differences in range of motion (ROM) resulting from laboratory-specific loading apparatuses. Seven fresh-frozen lumbar cadaveric motion segments were tested intact at four independent laboratories. Unconstrained pure moments of 7.5 Nm were applied in each anatomic plane without an axial preload. At laboratories A and B, pure moments were applied using hydraulically actuated spinal loading fixtures with either a passive (A) or controlled (B) XY table. At laboratories C and D, pure moments were applied using a sliding (C) or fixed ring (D) cable-pulley system with a servohydraulic test frame. Three sinusoidal load-unload cycles were applied at laboratories A and B while a single quasistatic cycle was applied in 1.5 Nm increments at laboratories C and D. Non-contact motion measurement systems were used to quantify ROM. In all test directions, the ROM variability among donors was greater than single-donor ROM variability among laboratories. The maximum difference in average ROM between any two laboratories was 1.5° in flexion-extension, 1.3° in lateral bending and 1.1° in axial torsion. This was the first study to quantify ROM in a single group of spinal motion segments at four independent laboratories with varying pure moment systems. These data support our hypothesis that given a well-described test method, independent laboratories can produce similar biomechanical outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deciphering defective amelogenesis using in vitro culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinawati, Dian Yosi; Miyoshi, Keiko; Tanimura, Ayako; Horiguchi, Taigo; Hagita, Hiroko; Noma, Takafumi

    2018-01-31

    The conventional two-dimensional (2D) in vitro culture system is frequently used to analyze the gene expression with or without extracellular signals. However, the cells derived from primary culture and cell lines frequently deviate the gene expression profile compared to the corresponding in vivo samples, which sometimes misleads the actual gene regulation in vivo. To overcome this gap, we developed the comparative 2D and 3D in vitro culture systems and applied them to the genetic study of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) as a model. Recently, we found specificity protein 6 (Sp6) mutation in an autosomal-recessive AI rat that was previously named AMI. We constructed 3D structure of ARE-B30 cells (AMI-derived rat dental epithelial cells) or G5 (control wild type cells) combined with RPC-C2A cells (rat pulp cell line) separated by the collagen membrane, while in 2D structure, ARE-B30 or G5 was cultured with or without the collagen membrane. Comparative analysis of amelogenesis-related gene expression in ARE-B30 and G5 using our 2D and 3D in vitro systems revealed distinct expression profiles, showing the causative outcomes. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and follistatin were reciprocally expressed in G5, but not in ARE-B30 cells. All-or-none expression of amelotin, kallikrein-related peptidase 4, and nerve growth factor receptor was observed in both cell types. In conclusion, our in vitro culture systems detected the phenotypical differences in the expression of the stage-specific amelogenesis-related genes. Parallel analysis with 2D and 3D culture systems may provide a platform to understand the molecular basis for defective amelogenesis caused by Sp6 mutation. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicogenomics-based in vitro alternatives for estrogenicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.

    2013-01-01

    Testing chemicals for their endocrine-disrupting potential, including interference with estrogen receptor signaling, is an important aspect to assess the safety of currently used and newly developed chemicals. The standard test for disruption of normal estrogen function is the in vivo uterotrophic

  9. In vitro eye irritation testing using the open source reconstructed hemicornea - a ring trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Karsten R; Engelke, Maria; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Bartok, Melinda; Tandon, Rashmi; Brandner, Johanna M; Petersohn, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present ring trial was to test whether two new methodological approaches for the in vitro classification of eye irritating chemicals can be reliably transferred from the developers' laboratories to other sites. Both test methods are based on the well-established open source reconstructed 3D hemicornea models. In the first approach, the initial depth of injury after chemical treatment in the hemicornea model is derived from the quantitative analysis of histological sections. In the second approach, tissue viability, as a measure for corneal damage after chemical treatment, is analyzed separately for epithelium and stroma of the hemicornea model. The three independent laboratories that participated in the ring trial produced their own hemicornea models according to the test producer's instructions, thus supporting the open source concept. A total of 9 chemicals with different physicochemical and eye-irritating properties were tested to assess the between-laboratory reproducibility (BLR), the predictive performance, as well as possible limitations of the test systems. The BLR was 62.5% for the first and 100% for the second method. Both methods enabled to discriminate Cat. 1 chemicals from all non-Cat. 1 substances, which qualifies them to be used in a top-down approach. However, the selectivity between No Cat. and Cat. 2 chemicals still needs optimization.

  10. Human in vitro skin organ culture as a model system for evaluating DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hannah; Tuchinda, Papapit; Fishelevich, Rita; Harberts, Erin; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2014-06-01

    UV-exposures result in accumulation of genetic lesions that facilitate the development of skin cancer. Numerous pharmacologic agents are currently under development to both inhibit formation of DNA lesions and enhance repair. Drugs must be evaluated in vitro, currently performed in cell culture systems, before being tested on humans. Current systems do not account for the architecture and diverse cellularity of intact human skin. To establish a novel, functionally viable, and reproducible in vitro skin organ culture system for studying the effects of various pharmacologic agents on DNA repair. Human skin was obtained from neonatal foreskins. Intact skin punches derived from foreskins were cultured in vitro prior to exposure to UV-irradiation, and evaluated for DNA-damage using a DNA dot blot. Serial skin biopsies were obtained from patients with actinic keratoses treated with topical imiquimod. Expression of immune-stimulating and DNA repair genes was evaluated in ex vivo and in vitro samples. DNA dot blots revealed active repair of UV induced lesions in our in vitro skin organ culture. The photo-protective effect of sunscreen was detected, while imiquimod treatment did not enhance DNA repair in vitro. The DNA repair molecules XPA and XPF were up-regulated in the skin of imiquimod treated patients with actinic keratoses and imiquimod treated bone marrow-derived cell lines, but not keratinocytes. Our in vitro human skin organ culture model detected repair of UV-induced DNA lesions, and may be easily adapted to investigate various photo-protective drugs intended to prevent or treat skin cancer. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro susceptibility testing of Malassezia pachydermatis to gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Freddy A; Ferrer, Otilia; Déniz, Soraya; Rosario, Inmaculada; Conde-Felipe, Magnolia; Díaz, Esther L; Acosta-Hernández, Begoña

    2017-08-01

    Two studies have observed that growth media containing gentamicin can inhibit the growth of the yeast organism Malassezia pachydermatis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this bactericidal antibiotic for this organism has not been previously determined. To evaluate the susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to gentamicin. The MIC of gentamicin was determined using a modified version of the M27-A3 microdilution method following the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A modified Christensen's urea broth was used to enhance the growth of the M. pachydermatis isolates. Visual and spectrophotometric end-point readings were performed to detect the presence or absence of yeast growth. The MIC50 and MIC90 of gentamicin were 8.12 μg/mL and 32.5 μg/mL, respectively; M. pachydermatis strains were classified as susceptible (S), intermediate (I) and resistant (R). The susceptibility of these isolates to gentamicin in vitro, by visual and spectrophotometric end-point reading, was: S, 54-56%; I, 40-41%; and R, 3-6%. Prospective MICs for M. pachydermatis have been established for gentamicin. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. Therapeutically important proteins from in vitro plant tissue culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Pauline M

    2013-01-01

    Plant cells cultured in liquid medium in bioreactors are now being used commercially to produce biopharmaceutical proteins. The emergence of in vitro plant cell culture as a production vehicle reflects the importance of key biosafety and biocontainment concerns affecting the competitiveness of alternative systems such as mammalian cell culture and agriculture. Food plant species are particularly attractive as hosts for in vitro protein production: the risk of transgene escape and food chain contamination is eliminated using containment facilities, while regulatory approval for oral delivery of drugs may be easier than if non-edible species were used. As in whole plants, proteolysis in cultured plant cells can lead to significant degradation of foreign proteins after synthesis; however, substantial progress has been made to counter the destructive effects of proteases in plant systems. Although protein secretion into the culture medium is advantageous for product recovery and purification, measures are often required to minimise extracellular protease activity and product losses due to irreversible surface adsorption. Disposable plastic bioreactors, which are being used increasingly in mammalian cell bioprocessing, are also being adopted for plant cell culture to allow rapid scale-up and generation of saleable product. This review examines a range of technical and regulatory issues affecting the choice of industrial production platform for foreign proteins, and assesses progress in the development of in vitro plant systems for biopharmaceutical production.

  13. Biorelevant in vitro performance testing of orally administered dosage forms-workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppas, Christos; Friedel, Horst-Dieter; Barker, Amy R; Buhse, Lucinda F; Cecil, Todd L; Keitel, Susanne; Kraemer, Johannes; Morris, J Michael; Shah, Vinod P; Stickelmeyer, Mary P; Yomota, Chikako; Brown, Cynthia K

    2014-07-01

    Biorelevant in vitro performance testing of orally administered dosage forms has become an important tool for the assessment of drug product in vivo behavior. An in vitro performance test which mimics the intraluminal performance of an oral dosage form is termed biorelevant. Biorelevant tests have been utilized to decrease the number of in vivo studies required during the drug development process and to mitigate the risk related to in vivo bioequivalence studies. This report reviews the ability of current in vitro performance tests to predict in vivo performance and generate successful in vitro and in vivo correlations for oral dosage forms. It also summarizes efforts to improve the predictability of biorelevant tests. The report is based on the presentations at the 2013 workshop, Biorelevant In Vitro Performance Testing of Orally Administered Dosage Forms, in Washington, DC, sponsored by the FIP Dissolution/Drug Release Focus Group in partnership with the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) and a symposium at the AAPS 2012 Annual meeting on the same topic.

  14. Comparison of in vitro predictive tests for irritation induced by anionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Paye, M; Piérard, G E

    1995-07-01

    Skin compatibility of anionic surfactants may often but not always be predicted by in vitro tests. For instance, the correlation between in vivo and in vitro data is classically hampered in the presence of magnesium. This ion is known to interfere with in vitro skin irritation predictive tests based on protein denaturation. This study was conducted to compare a recently introduced assay, corneosurfametry, with other in vitro tests including the pH-rise of bovine serum albumin, collagen swelling, and zein solubilization tests. Corneosurfametry entails collection of cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and short contact time with surfactants, followed by staining samples with toluidine blue and basic fuchsin dyes. Measurements are made by reflectance colorimetry. Data show that irritation potentials predicted by corneosurfametry agree with those obtained by established in vivo and in vitro irritation tests. Moreover, corneosurfametry data are not artificially lowered by addition of magnesium in surfactant solutions. In conclusion, corneosurfametry should be viewed as one of the realistic predictive tests for surfactant irritancy.

  15. In vivo and in vitro testing for selenium and selenium compounds bioavailability assessment in foodstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2017-03-04

    The assessment of selenium and selenium species bioavailability in foodstuff is of special concern on the context of human nutrition. In vivo (human and animal), and in vitro tests are important approaches for estimating the bioavailability of toxic and essential compounds to humans. An overview on in vivo and in vitro bioavailability assays for releasing selenium and selenium species in foodstuffs is summarized. Se and Se species content in a foodstuff critically influence Se bioavailability and bioactivity to humans and animals. Se bioavailability is affected by foodstuff-matrix major composition and minor components. Foodstuffs processing and/or treatments could enhancement or decrease Se bioavailability. Experimental conditions such as the selection of healthy status of examined people (in in vivo humans approaches), the selection of animal model (in vivo animals approaches), or the selection of GI conditions (in in vitro tests) could determines the results. Thus, international standardized protocol for in vivo and in vitro approaches assessment is mandatory.

  16. Cytotoxicity of current adhesive systems: in vitro testing on cell culture of L929 and balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts = Citotoxicidade de sistemas adesivos atuais: teste in vitro em cultura de células fibroblásticas L929 e balbc 3T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poskus, Laiza Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de três adesivos: Prime & Bond NT (PBNT, Single Bond (SB e XENO III (XENO. Metodologia: Após embebição e polimerização de filtros de papel com os referidos adesivos, estes foram colocados em contato com a superfície de agar solidificada sobre a monocamada de células L929 plaqueadas em cultura celular de 6-poços e incubadas por 24 h. A zona de inibição formada ao redor dos filtros de papel foi medida em milímetros. Outro teste realizado foi o do MTT, utilizando fibroblastos Balb / c 3T3 em placas de multi-poços, sendo os ensaios realizados em triplicatas. Resultados: Todos os materiais testados foram citotóxicos (Kruskal-Wallis, P0,05. Para a análise intra-grupos, o SB apresentou a mais baixa citotoxicidade (P0,05. O ensaio de MTT confirmou a citotoxicidade dos adesivos. Conclusão: Considerando as limitações deste trabalho, todos os adesivos testados foram tão citotóxicos quanto o látex

  17. Proof of concept testing of a positive reference material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Lee, Michelle; Fukui, Chie; Watanabe, Kayo; Olsen, Daniel; Turley, Audrey; Morishita, Yuki; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Fujimaki, Hideo; Inoue, Kaoru; Yoshida, Midori; Ogawa, Kumiko; Haishima, Yuji

    2017-12-11

    In vivo and in vitro irritation testing is important for evaluating the biological safety of medical devices. Here, the performance of positive reference materials for skin irritation testing was evaluated. Four reference standards, referred to as Y-series materials, were analyzed: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet spiked with 0 (Y-1), 1.0 (Y-2), 1.5 (Y-3), or 10 (Y-4) parts of Genapol X-080 per 100 parts of PVC by weight. Y-1, Y-2, and Y-3 did not induce skin irritation responses in an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue model, as measured by tissue viability or interleukin-1α release, or in an in vivo intracutaneous response test using rabbits. In contrast, Y-4 extracts prepared with saline or sesame oil at 37°C and 50°C clearly elicited positive irritation responses, including reduced viability (< 50%) and significantly higher interleukin-1α release compared with the solvent alone group, in the RhE tissue model and an intracutaneous response test, where substantial necrosis was observed by histopathology. The positive skin irritation responses induced in vitro under various extraction conditions, as well as those elicited in vivo, indicate that Y-4 is an effective extractable positive control material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation tests of medical devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A new fluorescence-based method for characterizing in vitro aerosol exposure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Majeed, Shoaib; Kratzer, Gilles; Hoeng, Julia; Frentzel, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of how an in vitro aerosol exposure system delivers a test aerosols to the biological test system is among the most crucial prerequisites for the interpretation of exposure experiments and relies on detailed exposure system characterization. Although various methods for this purpose exist, many of them are time consuming, require extensive instrumentation, or offer only limited ability to assess the performance of the system under experimental settings. We present the development and evaluation of a new, highly robust and sensitive fluorometry-based method for assessing the particle size specific delivery of liquid aerosols. Glycerol aerosols of different mean particle sizes and narrow size distributions, carrying the fluorophore disodium fluorescein, were generated in a condensation monodisperse aerosol generator. Their detailed characterization confirmed their stability and the robustness and reproducibility of their generation. Test exposures under relevant experimental settings in the Vitrocell® 24/48 aerosol exposure system further confirmed their feasibility for simulating exposures and the high sensitivity of the method. Potential applications of the presented method range from the experimental confirmation of computationally simulated particle dynamics, over the characterization of in vitro aerosol exposure systems, to the detailed description of aerosol delivery in test systems of high complexity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation... Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification. A multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device consisting of one automated or semiautomated...

  20. In-vitro orthodontic bond strength testing : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finnema, K.J.; Ozcan, M.; Post, W.J.; Ren, Y.J.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to systematically review the available literature regarding in-vitro orthodontic shear bond strength testing and to analyze the influence of test conditions on bond strength. METHODS: Our data sources were Embase and Medline. Relevant studies were selected

  1. Is the time right for in vitro neurotoxicity testing using human iPSC-derived neurons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, Anke M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412471604; de Groot, Martje W G D M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411965328; Wijnolts, Fiona M J; Kasteel, Emma E J; Hondebrink, Laura|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833134; Westerink, Remco H S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239425952

    2016-01-01

    Current neurotoxicity testing heavily relies on expensive, time consuming and ethically debated in vivo animal experiments that are unsuitable for screening large number of chemicals. Consequently, there is a clear need for (high-throughput) in vitro test strategies, preferably using human cells as

  2. Genotoxicity testing of pidotimod in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, K; Allen, J A; Brooker, P C; Henderson, L; Jones, E; Proudlock, R J; Mailland, F; Coppi, G

    1994-12-01

    The mutagenic potential of pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2- pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6) was assessed in a series of five assays designed to measure gene mutation, chromosomal damage and primary DNA damage. All tests were carried out in accordance with appropriate EEC and OECD Guidelines. No indications of mutagenic potential were observed in any of the assays.

  3. Rapid prototyping compliant arterial phantoms for in-vitro studies and device testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglino Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compliant vascular phantoms are desirable for in-vitro patient-specific experiments and device testing. TangoPlus FullCure 930® is a commercially available rubber-like material that can be used for PolyJet rapid prototyping. This work aims to gather preliminary data on the distensibility of this material, in order to assess the feasibility of its use in the context of experimental cardiovascular modelling. Methods The descending aorta anatomy of a volunteer was modelled in 3D from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR images and rapid prototyped using TangoPlus. The model was printed with a range of increasing wall thicknesses (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm, keeping the lumen of the vessel constant. Models were also printed in both vertical and horizontal orientations, thus resulting in a total of ten specimens. Compliance tests were performed by monitoring pressure variations while gradually increasing and decreasing internal volume. Knowledge of distensibility was thus derived and then implemented with CMR data to test two applications. Firstly, a patient-specific compliant model of hypoplastic aorta suitable for connection in a mock circulatory loop for in-vitro tests was manufactured. Secondly, the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT of a patient necessitating pulmonary valve replacement was printed in order to physically test device insertion and assess patient’s suitability for percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention. Results The distensibility of the material was identified in a range from 6.5 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 0.6 mm case, to 3.0 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 1.5 mm case. The models printed in the vertical orientation were always more compliant than their horizontal counterpart. Rapid prototyping of a compliant hypoplastic aorta and of a RVOT anatomical model were both feasible. Device insertion in the RVOT model was successful. Conclusion Values of distensibility, compared with literature data, show that Tango

  4. Potency testing of veterinary rabies vaccines: replacement of challenge by in vitro testing: considerations for development of alternative assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C E; Fry, A M; Hermann, J R; Siev, D; Dusek, D M; Gatewood, D M

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of domestic animals against rabies creates a critical barrier between wildlife reservoirs and the human population. Ensuring these vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing human exposure to this deadly and costly disease. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) test is, at present, the most widely used and internationally recommended potency assay for batch testing inactivated rabies vaccines. This test has numerous inherent limitations and disadvantages, including a lack of precision. The NIH test requires a large number of animals and involves unrelieved pain and suffering. A relevant in vitro assay should provide a more accurate, reproducible, rapid, safe, and humane rabies vaccine potency test.

  5. 77 FR 41406 - Evaluation of In Vitro Tests for Identifying Eye Injury Hazard Potential of Chemicals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... assess the validation status of in vitro tests and integrated non-animal testing strategies proposed for... vitro alternatives to animals for eye safety assessments is an ICCVAM priority (ICCVAM, 2008). See http... test and integrated non-animal ] testing strategies proposed for identifying eye injury hazard...

  6. In vitro validation of a novel mechanical model for testing the anchorage capacity of pedicle screws using physiological load application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Christian; Zimmermann, Julia; Graf, Nicolas; Schilling, Christoph; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Kienle, Annette

    2018-01-01

    Biomechanical in vitro tests analysing screw loosening often include high standard deviations caused by high variabilities in bone mineral density and pedicle geometry, whereas standardized mechanical models made of PU foam often do not integrate anatomical or physiological boundary conditions. The purpose of this study was to develop a most realistic mechanical model for the standardized and reproducible testing of pedicle screws regarding the resistance against screw loosening and the holding force as well as to validate this model by in vitro experiments. The novel mechanical testing model represents all anatomical structures of a human vertebra and is consisting of PU foam to simulate cancellous bone, as well as a novel pedicle model made of short carbon fibre filled epoxy. Six monoaxial cannulated pedicle screws (Ø6.5 × 45mm) were tested using the mechanical testing model as well as human vertebra specimens by applying complex physiological cyclic loading (shear, tension, and bending; 5Hz testing frequency; sinusoidal pulsating forces) in a dynamic materials testing machine with stepwise increasing load after each 50.000 cycles (100.0N shear force + 20.0N per step, 51.0N tension force + 10.2N per step, 4.2Nm bending moment + 0.8Nm per step) until screw loosening was detected. The pedicle screw head was fixed on a firmly clamped rod while the load was applied in the vertebral body. For the in vitro experiments, six human lumbar vertebrae (L1-3, BMD 75.4 ± 4.0mg/cc HA, pedicle width 9.8 ± 0.6mm) were tested after implanting pedicle screws under X-ray control. Relative motions of pedicle screw, specimen fixture, and rod fixture were detected using an optical motion tracking system. Translational motions of the mechanical testing model experiments in the point of load introduction (0.9-2.2mm at 240N shear force) were reproducible within the variation range of the in vitro experiments (0.6-3.5mm at 240N shear force). Screw loosening occurred continuously in

  7. In vitro Cell Culture Model for Toxic Inhaled Chemical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shama; Ahmad, Aftab; Neeves, Keith B.; Hendry-Hofer, Tara; Loader, Joan E.; White, Carl W.; Veress, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Cell cultures are indispensable to develop and study efficacy of therapeutic agents, prior to their use in animal models. We have the unique ability to model well differentiated human airway epithelium and heart muscle cells. This could be an invaluable tool to study the deleterious effects of toxic inhaled chemicals, such as chlorine, that can normally interact with the cell surfaces, and form various byproducts upon reacting with water, and limiting their effects in submerged cultures. Our model using well differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures at air-liqiuid interface circumvents this limitation as well as provides an opportunity to evaluate critical mechanisms of toxicity of potential poisonous inhaled chemicals. We describe enhanced loss of membrane integrity, caspase release and death upon toxic inhaled chemical such as chlorine exposure. In this article, we propose methods to model chlorine exposure in mammalian heart and airway epithelial cells in culture and simple tests to evaluate its effect on these cell types. PMID:24837339

  8. In vitro Alternative Methodologies for Central Nervous System Assessment: A Critique using Nanoscale Materials as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying the potential health hazards to the central nervous system of a new family of materials presents many challenges. Whole-animal toxicity testing has been the tradition, but in vitro methods have been steadily gaining popularity. There are numerous challenges in testing...

  9. Use of cortical neuronal networks for in vitro material biocompatibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhkar, Hamid; Frewin, Christopher; Nezafati, Maysam; Knaack, Gretchen L; Peixoto, Nathalia; Saddow, Stephen E; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2014-03-15

    Neural interfaces aim to restore neurological function lost during disease or injury. Novel implantable neural interfaces increasingly capitalize on novel materials to achieve microscale coupling with the nervous system. Like any biomedical device, neural interfaces should consist of materials that exhibit biocompatibility in accordance with the international standard ISO10993-5, which describes in vitro testing involving fibroblasts where cytotoxicity serves as the main endpoint. In the present study, we examine the utility of living neuronal networks as functional assays for in vitro material biocompatibility, particularly for materials that comprise implantable neural interfaces. Embryonic mouse cortical tissue was cultured to form functional networks where spontaneous action potentials, or spikes, can be monitored non-invasively using a substrate-integrated microelectrode array. Taking advantage of such a platform, we exposed established positive and negative control materials to the neuronal networks in a consistent method with ISO 10993-5 guidance. Exposure to the negative controls, gold and polyethylene, did not significantly change the neuronal activity whereas the positive controls, copper and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), resulted in reduction of network spike rate. We also compared the functional assay with an established cytotoxicity measure using L929 fibroblast cells. Our findings indicate that neuronal networks exhibit enhanced sensitivity to positive control materials. In addition, we assessed functional neurotoxicity of tungsten, a common microelectrode material, and two conducting polymer formulations that have been used to modify microelectrode properties for in vivo recording and stimulation. These data suggest that cultured neuronal networks are a useful platform for evaluating the functional toxicity of materials intended for implantation in the nervous system. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of sperm nuclear quality after in vitro maturation of fresh or frozen/thawed mouse pre-pubertal testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblette, A; Rives, N; Dumont, L; Rives, A; Verhaeghe, F; Jumeau, F; Rondanino, C

    2017-10-01

    Is nuclear quality of in vitro generated spermatozoa from fresh or frozen/thawed pre-pubertal mouse testes similar to that of their in vivo counterparts? The production of spermatozoa with aneuploidy, DNA fragmentation or chromatin condensation defects was not significantly increased in organotypic cultures compared to in vivo controls. Although murine spermatozoa have been produced in vitro from pre-pubertal testes, their nuclear DNA integrity has never been investigated. Fresh and frozen/thawed testicular fragments from 6 to 7 days postpartum (dpp) mice were cultured for 30 days. Testicular tissues were frozen by controlled slow freezing (CSF) or solid surface vitrification (SSV). In total, 30 fresh, 30 CSF, 30 SSV testes were used for in vitro maturation and 6 testes from 36 to 37 dpp mice were used as in vivo controls. Murine spermatozoa were extracted from pooled in vitro cultured testicular fragments and from in vivo controls. Sperm aneuploidy was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling, chromatin condensation by aniline blue staining, telomere length and number by quantitative FISH, DNA oxidation by immunocytochemical detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Because of the low spermatogenic yield in cultures, a hundred spermatozoa extracted from pooled tissues were examined and compared to their in vivo counterparts. Most of spermatozoa generated in vitro and in vivo were haploid, contained unfragmented DNA and normally condensed chromatin. A similar proportion of spermatozoa with aneuploidy, DNA fragmentation or chromatin condensation defects was found in cultures and in vivo. No significant difference in telomere length was found within the nuclei of in vitro and in vivo generated spermatozoa. However, the number of telomere spots was lower in gametes obtained from cultures of fresh, CSF and SSV testes than in their natural counterparts (P

  11. Rapid prototyping of replica knee implants for in vitro testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verjans Mark

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the complex biomechanics of the knee is a key for an optimal implant design. To easily investigate the influence of prosthetic designs on knee biomechanics a rapid prototyping workflow for knee implants has been developed and evaluated. Therefore, different manufacturing technologies and post-treatment methods have been examined and overall seven different replica knee implants were manufactured. For evaluation, the manufacturing properties such as surface accuracy and roughness were determined and kinematic behaviour was investigated in a novel knee testing rig. It was carried out that PolyJet-Modelling with a sanded surface resulted in changed kinematic patterns compared to a usual CoCr-UHMWPE implant. However, fused deposition modelling using ABS and subsequent surface smoothening with acetone vapor showed the lowest roughness of the manufactured implants and only minor kinematic differences. For this reason this method constitutes a promising approach towards an optimal implant design for improved patient-satisfaction and long lifetime of the implant. Finally the workflow is not only limited to the knee.

  12. Anticoccidial efficacy testing: In vitro Eimeria tenella assays as replacement for animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ahmed; Zhang, Runhui; Alnassan, Alaa-Aldin; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2017-01-15

    Availability of an accurate in vitro assay is a crucial demand to determine sensitivity of Eimeria spp. field strains toward anticoccidials routinely. In this study we tested in vitro models of Eimeria tenella using various polyether ionophores (monensin, salinomycin, maduramicin, and lasalocid) and toltrazuril. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC 95 , MIC 50/95 ) for the tested anticoccidials were defined based on a susceptible reference (Houghton strain), Ref-1. In vitro sporozoite invasion inhibition assay (SIA) and reproduction inhibition assay (RIA) were applied on sensitive laboratory (Ref-1 and Ref-2) and field (FS-1, FS-2, and FS-3) strains to calculate percent of inhibition under exposure of these strains to the various anticoccidials (%I SIA and%I RIA, respectively). The in vitro data were related to oocyst excretion, lesion scores, performance, and global resistance indices (GI) assessed in experimentally infected chickens. Polyether ionophores applied in the RIA were highly effective at MIC 95 against Ref-1 and Ref-2 (%I RIA ≥95%). In contrast, all tested field strains displayed reduced to low efficacy (%I RIA animal model (p89%) against all strains used in this study. However, adjusted GI (GI adj ) for toltrazuril-treated groups exhibited differences between reference and field strains which might indicate varying sensitivity. RIA is a suitable in vitro tool to detect sensitivity of E. tenella towards polyether ionophores, and may thus help to reduce, replace, or refine use of animal experimentation for in vivo sensitivity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. From in vivo to in vitro: The medical device testing paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerecman Myers, Dayna; Goldberg, Alan M; Poth, Albrecht; Wolf, Michael F; Carraway, Joseph; McKim, James; Coleman, Kelly P; Hutchinson, Richard; Brown, Ronald; Krug, Harald F; Bahinski, Anthony; Hartung, Thomas

    2017-05-25

    Amid growing efforts to advance the replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research, there is a growing recognition that in vitro testing of medical devices can be more effective, both in terms of cost and time, and also more reliable than in vivo testing. Although the technological landscape has evolved rapidly in support of these concepts, regulatory acceptance of alternative testing methods has not kept pace. Despite the acceptance by regulators of some in vitro tests (cytotoxicity, gene toxicity, and some hemocompatibility assays), many toxicity tests still rely on animals (irritation, sensitization, acute toxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity), even where other industrial sectors have already abandoned them. Bringing about change will require a paradigm shift in current approaches to testing - and a concerted effort to generate better data on risks to human health from exposure to leachable chemicals from medical devices, and to boost confidence in devices and alternative testing methods. To help advance these ideas, stir debate about best practices, and coalesce around a roadmap forward, the JHU-Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) hosted a symposium in Baltimore, Maryland, in December 2013 - believed to be the first gathering dedicated to the topic of in vitro testing of medical devices. Industry representatives, academics, and regulators in attendance presented evidence to support the unique strengths and challenges associated with the approaches currently in use as well as new methods under development, and drew next steps to push the field forward from their presentations and discussion.

  14. Integrated testing system FiTest for diagnosis of PCBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Arkadiusz; Lesniak, Adam

    2016-12-01

    This article presents the innovative integrated testing system FiTest for automatic, quick inspection of printed circuit board assemblies (PCBA) manufactured in Surface Mount Technology (SMT). Integration of Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI), In-Circuit Tests (ICT) and Functional Circuit Tests (FCT) resulted in universal hardware platform for testing variety of electronic circuits. The platform provides increased test coverage, decreased level of false calls and optimization of test duration. The platform is equipped with powerful algorithms performing tests in a stable and repetitive way and providing effective management of diagnosis.

  15. Formation of multicellular tumor spheroids induced by cyclic RGD-peptides and use for anticancer drug testing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasov, Roman; Zaytseva-Zotova, Daria; Burov, Sergey; Leko, Maria; Dontenwill, Monique; Chiper, Manuela; Vandamme, Thierry; Markvicheva, Elena

    2016-06-15

    Development of novel anticancer formulations is a priority challenge in biomedicine. However, in vitro models based on monolayer cultures (2D) which are currently used for cytotoxicity tests leave much to be desired. More and more attention is focusing on 3D in vitro systems which can better mimic solid tumors. The aim of the study was to develop a novel one-step highly reproducible technique for multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) formation using synthetic cyclic RGD-peptides, and to demonstrate availability of the spheroids as 3D in vitro model for antitumor drug testing. Cell self-assembly effect induced by addition of both linear and cyclic RGD-peptides directly to monolayer cultures was studied for 12 cell lines of various origins, including tumor cells (e.i. U-87 MG, MCF-7, M-3, HCT-116) and normal cells, in particular L-929, BNL.CL2, HepG2. Cyclo-RGDfK and its modification with triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP), namely cyclo-RGDfK(TPP) in a range of 10-100μM were found to induce spheroid formation. The obtained spheroids were unimodal with mean sizes in a range of 60-120μm depending on cell line and serum content in culture medium. The spheroids were used as 3D in vitro model, in order to evaluate cytotoxicity effects of antitumor drugs (doxorubicin, curcumin, temozolomide). The developed technique could be proposed as a promising tool for in vitro test of novel antitumor drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Electrical Power Systems Test Operations: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTA Electrical Power Systems Test Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  17. Porcine ear skin as a biological substrate for in vitro testing of sunscreen performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myriam; Korn, Verena; Imanidis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the use of skin from porcine ears as a biological substrate for in vitro testing of sunscreens in order to overcome the shortcomings of the presently used polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates that generally fail to yield a satisfactory correlation between sun protection factors (SPF) in vitro and in vivo. Trypsin-separated stratum corneum and heat-separated epidermis provided UV-transparent substrates that were laid on quartz or on PMMA plates. These were used to determine surface roughness by chromatic confocal imaging and to measure SPF in vitro of 2 sunscreens by diffuse transmission spectroscopy. The recovered skin layers showed a lower roughness than full-thickness skin but yielded SPF in vitro values that more accurately reflected the SPF determined in vivo by a validated procedure than PMMA plates, although the latter had in part roughness values identical to those of intact skin. Combination of skin tissue with a high roughness PMMA plate also provided accurate SPF in vitro. Besides roughness, the improved affinity of the sunscreen to the skin substrate compared to PMMA plates may explain the better in vitro prediction of SPF achieved with the use of a biological substrate. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Razor UAS Test and Evaluation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adsys Controls' Razor UAS Test System is a high fidelity simulation and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) test system. Razor provides extensive existing capability for high...

  19. Evaluation of genotoxicity of Trois through Ames and in vitro chromosomal aberration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manu; Payasi, Anurag

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mutagenic potential of Trois using the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and in vitro chromosomal aberration test. Methods The ability of Trois to induce reverse mutations was evaluated in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537) and Escherichia coli (WP2 uvrA) with and without metabolic activation system (S9 mix) at the dose range of 313 to 5000 µg/plate. Chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cell line at the dose levels of 15, 7.5, 3.7, 1.9 and 0.9 mg/mL in the absence and presence of S9 mix. Results There were no increases in the number of revertant colonies at any concentrations of Trois used in the study with and without S9 mix in all tester strains. Trois did not produce any structural aberration in CHL cells in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that Trois is non-mutagenic.

  20. In vitro pituitary and thyroid cell proliferation assays and their relevance as alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Barae; Aarts, Jac M M J G; de Haan, Laura H J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bovee, Toine F H; Murk, Albertinka J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro effect of eleven thyroid-active compounds known to affect pituitary and/or thyroid weights in vivo, using the proliferation of GH3 rat pituitary cells in the so-called "T-screen," and of FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells in a newly developed test denoted "TSH-screen" to gain insight into the relative value of these in vitro proliferation tests for an integrated testing strategy (ITS) for thyroid activity. Pituitary cell proliferation in the T-screen was stimulated by three out of eleven tested compounds, namely thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Of these three compounds, only T4 causes an increase in relative pituitary weight, and thus T4 was the only compound for which the effect in the in vitro assay correlated with a reported in vivo effect. As to the newly developed TSH-screen, two compounds had an effect, namely, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) induced and T4 antagonized FRTL-5 cell proliferation. These effects correlated with in vivo changes induced by these compounds on thyroid weight. Altogether, the results indicate that most of the selected compounds affect pituitary and thyroid weights by modes of action different from a direct thyroid hormone receptor (THR) or TSH receptor (TSHR)-mediated effect, and point to the need for additional in vitro tests for an ITS. Additional analysis of the T-screen revealed a positive correlation between the THR-mediated effects of the tested compounds in vitro and their effects on relative heart weight in vivo, suggesting that the T-screen may directly predict this THR-mediated in vivo adverse effect.

  1. Integrating computer prediction systems with in vitro methods towards a better understanding of toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, M D

    1998-12-28

    Structure Activity Relationships (SARs) or Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) form the basis of most computer prediction systems in toxicology. The underlying premise of SARs and QSARs is that the properties of a chemical are implicit in its molecular structure. For an SAR or QSAR to be valid and reliable, the dependent property for all of the chemicals covered by the relationship has to be elicited by a mechanism which is both common to the set of chemicals as well as relevant to that dependent property. Similar principles must also be applied to the development of in vitro alternatives to animal tests if those methods are to be reliable. A number of ways in which computer prediction systems and in vitro toxicology can complement each other in the development of alternatives to live animal experiments are described.

  2. Development of an in vitro Endotoxin Test for Monoolein–Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Drugs that are administered by parenteral route must be apyrogenic. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro endotoxin test for liquid crystalline gels for use as implants, using a monoolein–water liquid crystalline gel as a model. Methods: The gel-clot technique was used. The gel was dissolved first in ...

  3. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, M.V.; Annema, W.; Salvati, A.; Lesniak, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Barnes, C.; McKerr, G.; Howard, C.; Lynch, I.; Dawson, K.; Piersma, A.H.; de Jong, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining

  4. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapin, R.E.; Boekelheide, K.; Cortvrindt, R.; Duursen, van M.; Gant, T.; Jegou, B.; Marczylo, E.; Pelt, van A.M.; Post, J.N.; Roelofs, M.J.; Schlatt, S.; Teerds, K.J.; Toppari, J.; Piersma, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at

  5. Actual Test Coverage for Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Testing embedded systems is inherently incomplete; no test suite will ever be able to test all possible usage scenarios. Therefore, in the past decades many coverage measures have been developed. These measures denote the portion of a system that is tested, that way providing a quality criterion for

  6. Non-Nuclear NEP System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbud, Ivana; Goodfellow, Keith; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series addresses Phase 1 Space Fission Systems issues in particular non-nuclear testing and system integration issues leading to the testing and non-nuclear demonstration of a 400-kW fully integrated flight unit. The first part of the SAFE 30 test series demonstrated operation of the simulated nuclear core and heat pipe system. Experimental data acquired in a number of different test scenarios will validate existing computational models, demonstrated system flexibility (fast start-ups, multiple start-ups/shut downs), simulate predictable failure modes and operating environments. The objective of the second part is to demonstrate an integrated propulsion system consisting of a core, conversion system and a thruster where the system converts thermal heat into jet power. This end-to-end system demonstration sets a precedent for ground testing of nuclear electric propulsion systems. The paper describes the SAFE 30 end-to-end system demonstration and its subsystems.

  7. A mock heart engineered with helical aramid fibers for in vitro cardiovascular device testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen-Park, So-Hyun; Hsu, Po-Lin; Müller, Indra; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Abel, Dirk; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Rossaint, Rolf; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Mock heart circulation loops (MHCLs) serve as in-vitro platforms to investigate the physiological interaction between circulatory systems and cardiovascular devices. A mock heart (MH) engineered with silicone walls and helical aramid fibers, to mimic the complex contraction of a natural heart, has been developed to advance the MHCL previously developed in our group. A mock aorta with an anatomical shape enables the evaluation of a cannulation method for ventricular assist devices (VADs) and investigation of the usage of clinical measurement systems like pressure-volume catheters. Ventricle and aorta molds were produced based on MRI data and cast with silicone. Aramid fibers were layered in the silicone ventricle to reproduce ventricle torsion. A rotating hollow shaft was connected to the apex enabling the rotation of the MH and the connection of a VAD. Silicone wall thickness, aramid fiber angle and fiber pitch were varied to generate different MH models. All MH models were placed in a tank filled with variable amounts of water and air simulating the compliance. In this work, physiological ventricular torsion angles (15°-26°) and physiological pressure-volume loops were achieved. This MHCL can serve as a comprehensive testing platform for cardiovascular devices, such as artificial heart valves and cannulation of VADs.

  8. Wear of nanofilled dental composites in a newly-developed in vitro testing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.

    Purpose. In vivo wear of dental composites can lead to loss of individual tooth function and the need to replace a composite restoration. To evaluate the wear performance of new and existing dental composites, we developed a novel system for measuring in vitro wear and we used this system to analyze the mechanisms of wear of nanofilled composite materials. Methods. A modified wear testing device was designed based on the Alabama wear testing machine. The new device consists of: (1) an antagonist which is lowered to and raised from the composite specimen by weight loading, (2) a motorized stage to cause the antagonist to slide 2mm on the composite surface, and (3) pumps for applying lubricant to the specimens. Various testing parameters of the device were examined before testing, including the impulse force, the third-body medium, the lubricant and antagonist. The parameters chosen for this study were 20N at 1Hz with a 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist. Three nano-composites were fabricated with a BisGMA polymer matrix and 40nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25%, 50% and 65%). The mechanical properties of the composites were measured. The materials were then tested in the modified wear testing device under impact wear, sliding wear and a combination of impact and sliding wear. The worn surfaces were then analyzed with a non-contact profilometer and SEM. Results. The volumetric wear data indicated that increasing filler content beyond 25% decreased the wear resistance of the composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and decreased toughness. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the 25% filled materials failed by fatigue and the 50% and 65% filled materials failed by abrasive wear. Impact wear produced fretting in this device and sliding wear is more aggressive than impact wear. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study and previous studies on this topic, manufacturers are recommended to use a filler

  9. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  10. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  11. Testing Digital Electronic Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gabourin, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the core concepts and realisation of the Safe Machine Parameters Controller (SMPC) testbench, based on a VME crate and LabVIEW program. Its main goal is to ensure the correct function of the SMPC for the protection of the CERN accelerator complex. To achieve this, the tester has been built to replicate the machine environment and operation, in order to ensure that the chassis under test is completely exercised. The complexity of the task increases with the number of input combinations. This paper also outlines the benefits and weaknesses of developing a test suite independently of the hardware being tested, using the “V” approach.

  12. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Robert E; Boekelheide, Kim; Cortvrindt, Rita; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Gant, Tim; Jegou, Bernard; Marczylo, Emma; van Pelt, Ans M M; Post, Janine N; Roelofs, Maarke J E; Schlatt, Stefan; Teerds, Katja J; Toppari, Jorma; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-08-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments in terms of microenvironment and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing: Application of a generic PBK modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-10-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at the target site is accepted to be an indispensable element for such purposes. Nonetheless, PBK models are usually designed for a single or a group of compounds and are considered demanding, with respect to experimental data needed for model parameterization. Alternatively, we evaluate here the use of a more generic approach, i.e. the so-called IndusChemFate model, which is based on incorporated QSAR model parametrization. The model was used to simulate the in vivo kinetics of three diverse classes of developmental toxicants: triazoles, glycol ethers' alkoxyacetic acid metabolites and phthalate primary metabolites. The model required specific input per each class of compounds. These compounds were previously tested in three alternative assays: the whole-embryo culture (WEC), the zebrafish embryo test (ZET), and the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST). Thereafter, the PBK-simulated blood levels at toxic in vivo doses were compared to the respective in vitro effective concentrations. Comparisons pertaining to relative potency and potency ranking with integration of kinetics were similar to previously obtained comparisons. Additionally, all three in vitro systems produced quite comparable results, and hence, a combination of alternative tests is still preferable for predicting the endpoint of developmental toxicity in vivo. This approach is put forward as biologically more plausible since plasma concentrations, rather than external administered doses, constitute the most direct in vivo dose metric. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A new lumbar posterior fixation system, the memory metal spinal system: an in-vitro mechanical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Dennis; Firkins, Paul John; Wapstra, Frits H; Veldhuizen, Albert G

    2013-09-18

    Spinal systems that are currently available for correction of spinal deformities or degeneration such as lumbar spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease use components manufactured from stainless steel or titanium and typically comprise two spinal rods with associated connection devices (for example: DePuy Spines Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System). The Memory Metal Spinal System of this study consists of a single square spinal rod made of a nickel titanium alloy (Nitinol) used in conjunction with connecting transverse bridges and pedicle screws made of Ti-alloy. Nitinol is best known for its shape memory effect, but is also characterized by its higher flexibility when compared to either stainless steel or titanium. A higher fusion rate with less degeneration of adjacent segments may result because of the elastic properties of the memory metal. In addition, the use of a single, unilateral rod may be of great value for a TLIF procedure. Our objective is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the new Memory Metal Spinal System compared to the Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System. An in-vitro mechanical evaluation of the lumbar Memory Metal Spinal System was conducted. The test protocol followed ASTM Standard F1717-96, "Standard Test Methods for Static and Fatigue for Spinal Implant Constructs in a Corpectomy Model." 1. Static axial testing in a load to failure mode in compression bending, 2. Static testing in a load to failure mode in torsion, 3. Cyclical testing to estimate the maximum run out load value at 5.0 x 10^6 cycles. In the biomechanical testing for static axial compression bending there was no statistical difference between the 2% yield strength and the stiffness of the two types of spinal constructs. In axial compression bending fatigue testing, the Memory Metal Spinal System construct showed a 50% increase in fatigue life compared to the Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System. In static torsional testing the Memory Metal Spinal System constructs showed an

  15. Testing Infrastructure for Operating System Kernel Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Maxwell; Karlsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Testing is an important part of system development, and to test effectively we require knowledge of the internal state of the system under test. Testing an operating system kernel is a challenge as it is the operating system that typically provides access to this internal state information. Multi......-core kernels pose an even greater challenge due to concurrency and their shared kernel state. In this paper, we present a testing framework that addresses these challenges by running the operating system in a virtual machine, and using virtual machine introspection to both communicate with the kernel...... and obtain information about the system. We have also developed an in-kernel testing API that we can use to develop a suite of unit tests in the kernel. We are using our framework for for the development of our own multi-core research kernel....

  16. In vitro biocompatibility tests of glass ionomer cements impregnated with collagen or bioactive glass to fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, C; Neelakantan, P; Subbarao, C V

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of glass ionomer cement (GIC) impregnated with collagen or bioactive glass to BHK-21 fibroblasts in vitro. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate was used as the standard for comparison. Human maxillary central incisors (n = 70) were instrumented with a rotary NiTi system and filled. Following resection of the apical 3mm, root end cavities were prepared and restored with conventional GIC (group 1) or GIC with 0.01%, 0.1% or 1% collagen (groups 2, 3, 4 respectively) or, 10%, 30% or 50% bioactive glass (groups 5, 6, 7 respectively), or Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (group 8). The root slices were incubated in tissue culture plates with BHK-21 fibroblast cell line. Phase contrast and scanning electron microscopes were used to score cell quantity, morphology and cell attachment. The data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA with Post Hoc Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). Group 5 showed the highest scores which was significantly higher than all other groups (p 0.05). Glass ionomer cement with 10% bioactive glass showed better adhesion and spreading of cells than glass ionomer cement with 0.01% collagen. The biocompatibility of collagen and bioactive glass was concentration dependent. The addition of bioactive glass improved the biocompatibility of glass ionomer cement to fibroblasts better than addition of collagen.

  17. In vitro testing of biological control agents on A1 and A2 isolates of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianne Elliott; Simon Shamoun

    2008-01-01

    Biological control products were tested in vitro with six isolates of Phytophthora ramorum. These isolates were geographically diverse and were selected based on their pathogenicity to detached Rhododendron leaves. In addition to five commercially available biocontrol products, nine species of Trichoderma were tested. The in vitro...

  18. Evaluation of genotoxicity of amine-terminated water-dispersible FePt nanoparticles in the Ames test and in vitro chromosomal aberration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenosono, Shinya; Yoshida, Rie; Saita, Soichiro

    2009-06-01

    Genotoxicity of superparamagnetic iron-platinum (FePt) nanoparticles (NPs) capped with 2-aminoethanethiol (AET) was evaluated using the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and in vitro chromosomal aberration test. Mutagenicity of AET-capped FePt NPs was found to be negative in the Ames test, while clastogenicity of FePt NPs seemed to be false-positive in the in vitro chromosomal aberration test using Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells. However, further detailed in vitro genotoxicity tests, such as DNA adduct studies, are necessary to conclude that a positive aberration result is irrelevant.

  19. An investigation of the possibility to replace the rabbit pyrogen test by an in vitro test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommer AM; Donders LAM; LGM

    1998-01-01

    The classical test for the detection of pyrogenic contaminations in pharmaceuticals is the rabbit pyrogen test. The most frequently occuring and most important pyrogenic contamination in biological and biotechnological pharmaceutical preparations are bacterial endotoxins, originating from the

  20. New surface biopolymers for oxygenators: an in vitro hemocompatibility test of poly(2-methoxyethylacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykut, D; Bernet, F; Wehrle, J; Weichelt, K; Schwartz, P; Zerkowski, H R

    2001-07-30

    The continuous interaction of blood with artificial contact surfaces under cardiopulmonary bypass can lead to a substantial damage of blood cells and plasma factors. Surface biopolymers in oxygenation systems can help increasing the hemocompatibility, often combined with anticoagulative agents such as heparin. The poly(2-methoxyethylacrylate) [PMEA] is a new heparin-free polymer. The objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the hemocompatibility of a PMEA-coated oxygenator (Terumo Capiox RX-25) (PTX) under standardized in vitro conditions compared to two ionic-bound and one covalent-bound heparin-coated models. Each oxygenator was mounted in a separate standardized closed circulation system. Heparinized (5 IE/mL) fresh human blood from the same donor (hemodilution: Ringer's solution) was used. Circulation time: 120 - 180 min with a flow rate of 4.0 L/min. Blood samplings: at the beginning, 5. min and every 30 min of the circulation. platelets, granulocytes, plasma factors (p-selectin, alpha-granulomeres expression, and TAT(III)-complex). After the experiment, oxygenators were dismantled and examined by scanning electron microscopy. All of the oxygenators led to an initial reduction of platelets and granulocytes. PTX had the lowest platelet and granulocyte reduction rates. With a lower p-selectin release compared to covalent-bound heparin-coated oxygenator and higher expression of alpha-granulomeres compared to ionic-bound heparin-coated oxygenators, the results of PTX indicated that a high number of circulating platelets were intact on the PMEA surface. TAT(III)-complex showed a steady increase in all of the oxygenators during the tests, more remarkably in PTX. In contrast to ionic-bound heparin-coated oxygenators, the electron microscopy displayed virtually no cellular accumulation on hollow fiber and housing surfaces of PTX and covalent-bound heparin-coated oxygenator. 1. The hemocompatibility characteristics of PTX were remarkably better than ionic

  1. Model-Based Testing of Probabilistic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhold, Marcus; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Stevens, Perdita; Wasowski, Andzej

    This paper presents a model-based testing framework for probabilistic systems. We provide algorithms to generate, execute and evaluate test cases from a probabilistic requirements model. In doing so, we connect ioco-theory for model-based testing and statistical hypothesis testing: our ioco-style

  2. The limits of testing particle-mediated oxidative stress in vitro in predicting diverse pathologies; relevance for testing of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulumian Mary

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In vitro studies with particles are a major staple of particle toxicology, generally used to investigate mechanisms and better understand the molecular events underlying cellular effects. However, there is ethical and financial pressure in nanotoxicology, the new sub-specialty of particle toxicology, to avoid using animals. Therefore an increasing amount of studies are being published using in vitro approaches and such studies require careful interpretation. We point out here that 3 different conventional pathogenic particle types, PM10, asbestos and quartz, which cause diverse pathological effects, have been reported to cause very similar oxidative stress effects in cells in culture. We discuss the likely explanation and implications of this apparent paradox, and its relevance for testing in nanotoxicology.

  3. Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.

    1997-05-01

    This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process.

  4. Cooperative Testing of Uncontrollable Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. This paper deals with targeted testing of timed systems with uncontrollable behavior. The testing activity is viewed as a game between the tester and the system under test (SUT) towards a given test purpose. The SUT is modeled as Timed Game Automaton and the test purpose is specified...... in Timed CTL formula. We can employ a timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to check if the test purpose is ture w.r.t. the model, and if yes, to generate a winning strategy and use it for black-box conformance testing. Specifically, we show that in case the checking yields a negative result, we can still test...... the SUT against the test purpose as long as the SUT reacts to our moves in a cooperative style. We present an operational framework of cooperative winning strategy generation, test case derivation and execution. The test method is proved to be sound and complete. Preliminary experimental results indicate...

  5. Common System and Software Testing Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-03

    connecting servers and data libraries (e.g., SAN) – Busses within systems (embedded software) • Software must meet quality requirements (thresholds of...Firesmith, 3 November 2014 General Pitfalls – Stakeholder Involvement and Commitment Wrong Testing Mindset (GEN- SIC -1) → Unrealistic Testing...Expectations (GEN- SIC -2) Lack of Stakeholder Commitment to Testing (GEN- SIC -3) 22Common System/SW Testing PitfallsDonald G. Firesmith, 3 November 2014 General

  6. In vitro antimicrobial activity of natural toxins and animal venoms tested against Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Vincent TK

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei are the causative agent of melioidosis. Increasing resistance of the disease to antibiotics is a severe problem in treatment regime and has led to intensification of the search for new drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are the most ubiquitous in nature as part of the innate immune system and host defense mechanism. Methods Here, we investigated a group of venoms (snakes, scorpions and honey bee venoms for antimicrobial properties against two strains of Gram-negative bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei by using disc-diffusion assay for in vitro susceptibility testing. The antibacterial activities of the venoms were compared with that of the isolated L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO and phospholipase A2 (PLA2s enzymes. MICs were determined using broth dilution method. Bacterial growth was assessed by measurement of optical density at the lowest dilutions (MIC 0.25 mg/ml. The cell viability was measured using tetrazolium salts (XTT based cytotoxic assay. Results The studied venoms showed high antimicrobial activity. The venoms of C. adamanteus, Daboia russelli russelli, A. halys, P. australis, B. candidus and P. guttata were equally as effective as Chloramphenicol and Ceftazidime (30 μg/disc. Among those tested, phospholipase A2 enzymes (crotoxin B and daboiatoxin showed the most potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (TES bacteria. Naturally occurring venom peptides and phospholipase A2 proved to possess highly potent antimicrobial activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei. The XTT-assay results showed that the cell survival decreased with increasing concentrations (0.05–10 mg/mL of Crotalus adamanteus venom, with no effect on the cell viability evident at 0.5 mg/mL. Conclusion This antibacterial profile of snake venoms reported herein will be useful in the search for potential antibacterial agents against drug resistant microorganisms like B. pseudomallei.

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of natural toxins and animal venoms tested against Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, R; Pachiappan, A; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Thwin, Maung M; Hian, Yap E; Chow, Vincent TK; Bow, Ho; Weng, Joseph T

    2006-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei are the causative agent of melioidosis. Increasing resistance of the disease to antibiotics is a severe problem in treatment regime and has led to intensification of the search for new drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are the most ubiquitous in nature as part of the innate immune system and host defense mechanism. Methods Here, we investigated a group of venoms (snakes, scorpions and honey bee venoms) for antimicrobial properties against two strains of Gram-negative bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei by using disc-diffusion assay for in vitro susceptibility testing. The antibacterial activities of the venoms were compared with that of the isolated L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2s) enzymes. MICs were determined using broth dilution method. Bacterial growth was assessed by measurement of optical density at the lowest dilutions (MIC 0.25 mg/ml). The cell viability was measured using tetrazolium salts (XTT) based cytotoxic assay. Results The studied venoms showed high antimicrobial activity. The venoms of C. adamanteus, Daboia russelli russelli, A. halys, P. australis, B. candidus and P. guttata were equally as effective as Chloramphenicol and Ceftazidime (30 μg/disc). Among those tested, phospholipase A2 enzymes (crotoxin B and daboiatoxin) showed the most potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (TES) bacteria. Naturally occurring venom peptides and phospholipase A2 proved to possess highly potent antimicrobial activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei. The XTT-assay results showed that the cell survival decreased with increasing concentrations (0.05–10 mg/mL) of Crotalus adamanteus venom, with no effect on the cell viability evident at 0.5 mg/mL. Conclusion This antibacterial profile of snake venoms reported herein will be useful in the search for potential antibacterial agents against drug resistant microorganisms like B. pseudomallei. PMID:16784542

  8. Automatic Test Suite for Physics Simulation System

    OpenAIRE

    Mannerfelt, Anders-Petter; Schrab, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Testing software is an important but time consuming task. Meqon AB as well as their product has grown in complexity and the need for a good testing system is greater than ever. This paper gives an overview of software testing and the needs for testing at Meqon as well as an introduction to the system we have designed and implemented for Meqon. The system which has requirements like ease of use and flexibility must still be powerful enough to be useful in the testing process. We discuss how th...

  9. Evaluation of Culture Time and Media in an In Vitro Testis Organ Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Merry, Gwenn E; Inselman, Amy L; Sloper, Daniel T; Del Valle, Pedro L; Sato, Takuya; Ogawa, Takehiko; Hansen, Deborah K

    2017-04-17

    The complexity of spermatogenesis makes development of appropriate in vitro testis models challenging. A novel in vitro mouse testis culture system has been reported but not yet evaluated as an alternative model for male reproductive toxicity testing. We assessed the effects of media composition on sperm differentiation and testis morphology of cultured mouse testis fragments. Testes from postnatal day 5 B6:CBA-Tg(Acrv1-EGFP)2727Redd/J male mice were cultured in knockout serum replacement (KSR) or Albumax I (Albumax) medium. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression was examined on days 35, 42, 45, and 49 of culture. Histology and flow cytometry were performed for testis morphology and spermatid differentiation. EGFP signals were first observed in round spermatids on day 22 of culture (corresponding to postnatal day 27) and were observed until the end of culture, indicating testis-specific protein expression. A-kinase anchor protein 4 expression, a marker of elongated spermatid (step 15-16) occurred earlier in explants cultured in KSR than Albumax medium (typically day 35 and after day 42 of culture, respectively). The percentage of seminiferous tubules with elongated spermatid was higher in Albumax than KSR medium from days 45 to 49 of culture. Albumax medium may facilitate or support better morphology and spermatid production than KSR medium. Further studies need to improve spermatid production and refinement of this in vitro testis culture system that may be useful as a supplement to current male reproductive toxicity testing or an alternative model in cases where in vivo testing may be unfeasible. Birth Defects Research 109:465-474, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Testing of the in vitro susceptibilities of Madurella mycetomatis to six antifungal agents by using the Sensititre system in comparison with a viability-based 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5- [(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT) assay and a modified NCCLS method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); A. Ahmed (Asif); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe in vitro susceptibilities of 36 clinical isolates of Madurella mycetomatis, the prime agent of eumycetoma in Africa, to ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine were determined by the Sensititre YeastOne system. This system appeared to be

  11. THE ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC CELL IN VITRO TESTS FOR POST-VACCINATION ANTIPLAGUE IMMUNITY FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kulichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of post-vaccination anti-plague immunity evaluation was researched using antigen-stimulated cells tests in vitro and cytometry analysis. The object of study — the blood samples of 17 people immunised by the live plague vaccine (Yersinia pestis EV epicutaneously. Blood taking was carried out before vaccination and after immunisation on 7 and on 21 days, in 3 and in 6 months. Intensity antigen reactivity of lymphocytes was detected by cell tests in vitro, analysing markers of early (CD45+CD3+CD25+ and late (CD45+CD3+HLA-DR+ lymphocyte activation using flow cytometry. The complex of water-soluble Y. pestis antigens and allergen — pestin PP was tested as antigen. The high stimulating potential was defined of the water-soluble antigens Y. pestis complex. It is shown that coefficient of stimulation of relative level T- lymphocytes which express receptors for IL-2 was positive for all observation times after immunisation. The coefficient of stimulation had maximum values at 21 days (56.37% and at 3 (47.41% months. In identifying HLADR-positive lymphocytes before vaccination, the negative coefficient of stimulation was indicated on 7 and 21 days and the positive coefficient of stimulation was indicated at 3 and at 6 months. Analysis of intensity expression of early and late lymphocyte activation markers dynamics showed the possibility and prospect of application of cellular in vitro tests for the laboratory evaluation of specific reactivity of cellular immunity in both the early (7 days and late (6 months periods after vaccination. The results can be the basis for developing a new algorithm for assessment of immunological effectiveness of vaccination people against plague. It is the algorithm based on the identification of lymphocyte activation markers by antigen stimulation in conditions in vitro.

  12. A strategy for in vitro safety testing of nanotitania-modified textile products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roszak, Joanna; Stępnik, Maciej; Nocuń, Marek; Ferlińska, Magdalena; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 8 St Teresy St., 91-348 Łódź (Poland); Grobelny, Jarosław; Tomaszewska, Emilia [University of Lodz, Faculty of Chemistry, 163 Pomorska St, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Wąsowicz, Wojciech [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 8 St Teresy St., 91-348 Łódź (Poland); Cieślak, Małgorzata, E-mail: cieslakm@iw.lodz.pl [Textile Research Institute, 118 Gdańska St., 90-520, Łódź (Poland)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Commercially available TiO{sub 2}/Ag nanomaterials (NMs) showed higher cytotoxic effect than TiO{sub 2} NMs. • Both titania NMs in pristine form induced a weak genotoxic effect in in vitro studies. • Cytotoxic effect of textile materials modified with TiO{sub 2}/Ag NMs depended on the mode of the fiber manufacturing. • The strategy of in vitro testing of textile materials modified with NMs was proposed. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanomaterials are extensively used in many applications, also for modification of textile materials. Toxicological assessment of such textile materials is currently seldom performed, mainly because of lack of appropriate guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of commercially available TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag NMs in pristine form as well as polypropylene fibers modified with the NMs. Both titania NMs showed a cytotoxic effect on BALB/3T3 clone A31 and V79 fibroblasts after 72-h exposure. Both NMs induced a weak genotoxic effect in comet assay, with TiO{sub 2}/Ag being more active. In vitro micronucleus test on human lymphocytes revealed a weak mutagenic effect of both materials after 24 h of exposure. In contrast, no significant increase in micronuclei frequency was observed in the in vitro micronucleus test on V79 fibroblasts. The 24-h extracts prepared from polypropylene fibers modified with TiO{sub 2}/Ag induced a cytotoxic effect on BALB/3T3 cells which strongly depended on the mode of the fibers manufacturing. The study presents a comprehensive approach to toxicity assessment of textile fibers modified with NMs. Proposed approach may form a good “starting point” for improved future testing strategies.

  13. A listening test system for automative audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Søren; Gulbol, Mehmet-Ali; Martin, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes two listening tests that were performed to provide initial validation of an auralisation system (see Part 1) to mimic the acoustics of a car interior. The validation is based on a comparison of results from an in-car listening test and another test using the auralisation system...... and recordings of the stimuli used for the in-car test. The music samples for the test were chosen from a database of various CODEC examples from a previous extensive ITU test to validate the ITU-R BS.1387-1 standard....

  14. Introducing an ophthalmic testing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhuo Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To integrate the individual and various items of refractive examination to one software, and made it applicated conveniently.METHODS: On the basis of every examination system, the computer software was designed and developed, the modules were established and maintained.RESULTS: The computer software could fulfill the examinations of visual acuity, strabismus(Hess screen, color vision, stereopsis.CONCLUSION: After 10 years' application, the effect is significant. It can nearly replace the items using projector of integrated refractometer, stereopsis exam and color blind exam.

  15. In vitro exposure systems and dosimetry assessment tools for inhaled tobacco products: Workshop proceedings, conclusions and paths forward for in vitro model use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrsing, Holger; Hill, Erin; Raabe, Hans; Tice, Raymond; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Devlin, Robert; Pinkerton, Kent; Oberdörster, Günter; Wright, Chris; Wieczorek, Roman; Aufderheide, Michaela; Steiner, Sandro; Krebs, Tobias; Asgharian, Bahman; Corley, Richard; Oldham, Michael; Adamson, Jason; Li, Xiang; Rahman, Irfan; Grego, Sonia; Chu, Pei-Hsuan; McCullough, Shaun; Curren, Rodger

    2017-07-01

    In 2009, the passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP), and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed 'modified risk'. On 4-6 April 2016, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) convened a workshop conference entitled, In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products, to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP. Specific topics were covered to assess the status of current in vitro smoke and aerosol/vapour exposure systems, as well as the various approaches and challenges to quantifying the complex exposures in in vitro pulmonary models developed for evaluating adverse pulmonary events resulting from tobacco product exposures. The four core topics covered were: a) Tobacco Smoke and E-Cigarette Aerosols; b) Air-Liquid Interface-In Vitro Exposure Systems; c) Dosimetry Approaches for Particles and Vapours/In Vitro Dosimetry Determinations; and d) Exposure Microenvironment/Physiology of Cells. The 2.5-day workshop included presentations from 20 expert speakers, poster sessions, networking discussions, and breakout sessions which identified key findings and provided recommendations to advance these technologies. Here, we will report on the proceedings, recommendations, and outcome of the April 2016 technical workshop, including paths forward for developing and validating non-animal test methods for tobacco product smoke and next generation tobacco product aerosol/vapour exposures. With the recent FDA publication of the final deeming rule for the governance of tobacco products, there is an unprecedented necessity to evaluate a very large number of tobacco-based products and ingredients. The questionable relevance, high cost, and ethical

  16. LHCb : Full Experiment System Test

    CERN Multimedia

    Cattaneo, M

    2009-01-01

    LHCb had been planning to commission its High Level Trigger software and Data Quality monitoring procedures using real collisions data from the LHC pilot run. Following the LHC incident on 19th September 2008, it was decided to commission the system using simulated data. This “Full Experiment System Test” consists of: - Injection of simulated minimum bias events into the full HLT farm, after selection by a simulated Level 0 trigger. - Processing in the HLT farm to achieve the output rate expected for nominal LHC luminosity running, sustained over the typical duration of an LHC fill. - Real time Data Quality validation of the HLT output, validation of calibration and alignment parameters for use in the reconstruction. - Transmission of the event data, calibration data and book-keeping information to Tier1 sites and full reconstruction of the event data. - Data Quality validation of the reconstruction output. We will report on the preparations and results of FEST09, and on the status of commissioning for no...

  17. Spaceport Command and Control System Automated Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Meriel

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) launch control system for the Orion capsule and Space Launch System, the next generation manned rocket currently in development. This large system requires high quality testing that will properly measure the capabilities of the system. Automating the test procedures would save the project time and money. Therefore, the Electrical Engineering Division at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recruited interns for the past two years to work alongside full-time engineers to develop these automated tests, as well as innovate upon the current automation process.

  18. Excitation system testing in HPP 'Uvac'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojčić Nemanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The excitation system of hydro unit in HPP 'Uvac' and results of testings of excitation system performed for achieving of unit's mathematical model are presented in this paper. Description of excitation system equipment, parameters of regulators and results obtained after testings are presented. The presented results showed that the regulators are properly adjusted and that the excitation system is completely functional and reliable.

  19. Magnesium alloys: predicting in vivo corrosion with in vitro immersion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jemimah; Shadanbaz, Shaylin; Kirkland, Nicholas T; Stace, Edward; Woodfield, Tim; Staiger, Mark P; Dias, George J

    2012-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been proposed as degradable replacements to commonly used orthopedic biomaterials such as titanium alloys and stainless steel. However, the corrosion of Mg in a physiological environment remains a difficult characteristic to accurately assess with in vitro methods. The aim of this study was to identify a simple in vitro immersion test that could provide corrosion rates similar to those observed in vivo. Pure Mg and five alloys (AZ31, Mg-0.8Ca, Mg-1Zn, Mg-1Mn, Mg-1.34Ca-3Zn) were immersed in either Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS), minimum essential medium (MEM), or MEM-containing 40 g/L bovine serum albumin (MEMp) for 7, 14, or 21 days before removal and assessment of corrosion by weight loss. This in vitro data was compared to in vivo corrosion rates of the same materials implanted in a subcutaneous environment in Lewis rats for equivalent time points. The results suggested that, for the alloys investigated, the EBSS buffered with sodium bicarbonate provides a rate of degradation comparable to those observed in vivo. In contrast, the addition of components such as (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) (HEPES), vitamins, amino acids, and albumin significantly increased corrosion rates. Based on these findings, it is proposed that with this in vitro protocol, immersion of Mg alloys in EBSS can be used as a predictor of in vivo corrosion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of a new Syphilis assay on Vitros® 5600 Integrated System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusy Longo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A new homogeneous immunoassay for detection of primary infection of Treponema Pallidum (TP on Vitros® 5600 Integrated System was evaluated.The scope of the study was to verify analytical performances and diagnostic accuracy in comparison to commercial methods (Immunoblotting test, ELISA test, Immunoturbidimetric test. Methods. The new Syphilis assay from SENTINEL CH. SpA, is an immunoturbidimetric assay, using microparticles coated with TP fixed on the surface of polystyrene latex particles which agglutinate by an antigen-antibody reaction when anti-TP antigen is present in the specimen. The assay was implemented on Vitros® 5600 Integrated System. Modified CLSI protocols were adopted. Acceptance criteria for total imprecision were 5% for negative samples (or SD 0.5 U/mL and 4% for positive samples. In comparison to commercial methods, sensitivity must be 99.5% and specificity 99.5%. Results. Total imprecision (22 days gave SD at 6 U/mL lower than 0.5 U/mL, and CV% at 10 U/mL and 45 U/mL lower than 4%. Low quantitation limit is 5 U/mL. No prozone up to 13000 U/mL was found. In the on-board calibration stability study no drift was found up to 4 weeks. 153 samples were tested vs immunoblotting method and specificity was 100%, sensitivity was 100%. 495 samples were tested vs ELISA method and test specificity and sensitivity were 99.6% and 100% respectively. 521 samples were tested vs immunoturbidimetric method and specificity was 99.8%, sensitivity was 100%. Interference from Bilirubin (20 mg/dL, Hemoglobin (500 mg/dL and Triglycerides (1000 mg/dL was not detected.All the sample collection tubes tested (K2EDTA, SST, LH PST II, LH, NH did not interfere with the assay. Conclusion. Performances of the new SENTINEL Syphilis assay on Vitros® 5600 Integrated System meet the requirements for its use as screening tool in blood bank, thus allowing consolidation with general chemistry on a single high volume chemistry analyzer, which is

  1. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    2016-09-18

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices.

  2. A new minimally invasive heart surgery instrument for atrial fibrillation treatment: first in vitro and animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J; Faure, A; Chaillet, N; Rougeot, P; Beaufort, D; Goldstein, J P; Finlay, P A; Bogaerts, G

    2006-06-01

    The paper presents a new robotic system for beating heart surgery. The final goal of this project is to develop a tele-operated system for the thoracoscopic treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation. The system consists of a robot that moves an innovative end-effector used to perform lines as in the Cox-Maze technique. The device is an electrode mesh that is introduced in the thorax through a trocar and is deployed inside the left atrium, where it can create selective ablation lines at any atrial region, using radio frequency. The current version of the umbrella has 22 electrodes. Using visual feedback from an ultrasound based navigation system, the surgeon can choose which electrodes on the mesh to activate. Once the umbrella is in contact with the endocardium of the left atrium, at the expected position, the surgeon activates the chosen electrodes sequentially. The umbrella can then be moved to another position. In vitro and in vivo animal tests have been carried out in order to test and improve the instrument, the robotic system and the operative procedure. The performed trials proved the ability of the system to treat atrial fibrillation. More in vivo tests are currently being performed to make the robot and its device ready for clinical use. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Heat exchangers for cardioplegia systems: in vitro study of four different concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mário; Novello, Waldyr Parorali; de Arruda, Antonio Celso Fonseca; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of four different heat exchangers used for myocardium during cardioplegic system in cardiac surgeries. Four types of shell and tube heat exchangers made of different exchange elements were constructed, as follows: stainless steel tubes, aluminium tubes, polypropylene hollow fiber, and bellows type. The evaluation was performed by in vitro tests of parameters such as heat transfer, pressure drop, and hemolysis tendency. The result has shown that all four systems tested were able to achieve the heat performance, and to offer low resistance to flow, and safety, as well as have low tendency to hemolysis. However, we can emphasize that the bellows type heat exchanger has a significant difference with regard to the other three types.

  4. Automated System Tests High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.; Wendt, Isabel O.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-controlled system tests metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) at high voltages and currents. Measures seven parameters characterizing performance of MOSFET, with view toward obtaining early indication MOSFET defective. Use of test system prior to installation of power MOSFET in high-power circuit saves time and money.

  5. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condensate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-29

    Preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Condensate System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides a collection point for condensate generated by the W-030 primary vent offgas cooling system serving tanks AYIOI, AY102, AZIOI, AZI02. The system is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell and consists of a condensate seal pot, sampling features, a drain line to existing Catch Tank 241-AZ-151, and a cell sump jet pump. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  6. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after......Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study...... biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR.The two in vitro metabolizing systems...

  7. [Considerations on in vitro and in vivo magnetic nanoparticles hemocompatibility testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Al D; Bredeţean, O; Dimitriu, Daniela-Cristina; Iacob, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize few aspects and underline some difficulties that hemocompatibility testing come up. The purpose of hemocompatibility testing is to look for possible undesirable changes in the blood caused directly by a medical device, by chemicals leaching from a device or biomaterials. Undesirable effects of device materials on the blood may include alterations in coagulation parameters, thrombus formation, hemolysis, and immunological changes. For each different event the literature is rich in showing tests, not different in principle, but in testing conditions. ISO 10993-4 describes hemocompatibility tests in five different categories (thrombosis, coagulation, platelets, hematology, and immunology). Here we put together the tests that ISO 10993 and/or American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) suggest to evaluate hemocompatibility and we emphases on their utility for magnetic nanoparticules testing. The individual tests are not discussed in detail; they may be performed either in vivo or, preferably, in vitro. For each test we made few considerations with criticism. There is still some uncertainty with respect to what is actually required by the regulatory authorities for the hemocompatibility test, and there is still no harmony between ASTM and ISO 10993 regulations regarding some aspects to be standardised.

  8. System tests and applications photovoltaic program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    A summary of all the photovoltaic system tests and application experiments that have been initiated since the start of the US DOE Photovoltaics Program in 1975 is presented. They are organized in the following manner for ease of reference: (1) application experiments: these are independently designed and constructed projects which are funded by DOE; (2) system field tests: projects designed and monitored by the national laboratories involved in the photovoltaic program; (3) exhibits: designed to acquaint the general public to photovoltaics; (4) component field tests: real time endurance testing conducted to monitor module reliability under actual environmental conditions; and (5) test facilities: descriptions of the four national laboratories involved in the photovoltaic program.

  9. Toxicity testing: The search for an in vitro alternative to animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    May, J. E.; Xu, J.; Morse, R.; Avent, N; Donaldson, C

    2009-01-01

    Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must\\ud undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety.\\ud Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal\\ud models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a\\ud continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for\\ud this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of\\ud concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects\\ud in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic\\ud metabolites are detected can be fu...

  10. Preventing false-negatives in the in vitro skin sensitization testing of acid anhydrides using interleukin-8 release assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kazuto; Vo, Phuc Thi Hong; Yamamoto, Kenta; Kojima, Hajime; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    In vitro safety tests may be used as replacements for animal tests owing to their accuracy and high-throughput performance. However, several in vitro skin sensitization tests produce false-negative results such as acid anhydride. Here, we investigated the relationship between false-negative results of acid anhydride and its hydrolysis by aqueous vehicle. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis for phthalic anhydride (PAH) due to addition of 1 drop of stock solution of PAH in liquid paraffin (LP) dispersion medium and PAH in DMSO were analyzed in a cell-free system. The results showed that use of LP dispersion medium stabilized the concentration of PAH in water over 5min by sustained-release, although almost all PAH converted to phthalic acid in water within 5min using DMSO. Additionally, treatment of THP-1 cells with PAH and phthalic acid using LP dispersion medium for 5min resulted in a 32-fold increase in IL-8 release for PAH as compared with that in the vehicle control. In contrast, for PAH using aqueous vehicle and phthalic acid using LP dispersion medium, there were no significant increases in IL-8 release. Similarly, using LP dispersion medium, trimellitic anhydride significantly increased IL-8 release was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.

  12. Assessment of cosmetic ingredients in the in vitro reconstructed human epidermis test method EpiSkin™ using HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry in the MTT-reduction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alépée, N; Hibatallah, J; Klaric, M; Mewes, K R; Pfannenbecker, U; McNamee, P

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetics Europe recently established HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry as a suitable alternative endpoint detection system for measurement of formazan in the MTT-reduction assay of reconstructed human tissue test methods irrespective of the test system involved. This addressed a known limitation for such test methods that use optical density for measurement of formazan and may be incompatible for evaluation of strong MTT reducer and/or coloured chemicals. To build on the original project, Cosmetics Europe has undertaken a second study that focuses on evaluation of chemicals with functionalities relevant to cosmetic products. Such chemicals were primarily identified from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2010 memorandum (addendum) on the in vitro test EpiSkin™ for skin irritation testing. Fifty test items were evaluated in which both standard photometry and HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry were used for endpoint detection. The results obtained in this study: 1) provide further support for Within Laboratory Reproducibility of HPLC-UPLC-spectrophotometry for measurement of formazan; 2) demonstrate, through use a case study with Basazol C Blue pr. 8056, that HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry enables determination of an in vitro classification even when this is not possible using standard photometry and 3) addresses the question raised by SCCS in their 2010 memorandum (addendum) to consider an endpoint detection system not involving optical density quantification in in vitro reconstructed human epidermis skin irritation test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Donald K.; Liever, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT), conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  14. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Compliance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) defines an open architecture for software defined radios. This document describes the testing methodology to aid in determining the degree of compliance to the STRS architecture. Non-compliances are reported to the software and hardware developers as well as the NASA project manager so that any non-compliances may be fixed or waivers issued. Since the software developers may be divided into those that provide the operating environment including the operating system and STRS infrastructure (OE) and those that supply the waveform applications, the tests are divided accordingly. The static tests are also divided by the availability of an automated tool that determines whether the source code and configuration files contain the appropriate items. Thus, there are six separate step-by-step test procedures described as well as the corresponding requirements that they test. The six types of STRS compliance tests are: STRS application automated testing, STRS infrastructure automated testing, STRS infrastructure testing by compiling WFCCN with the infrastructure, STRS configuration file testing, STRS application manual code testing, and STRS infrastructure manual code testing. Examples of the input and output of the scripts are shown in the appendices as well as more specific information about what to configure and test in WFCCN for non-compliance. In addition, each STRS requirement is listed and the type of testing briefly described. Attached is also a set of guidelines on what to look for in addition to the requirements to aid in the document review process.

  15. Systems integration test laboratory application & experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, Melvyn; Falco, Michael; Solan, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The ability to safely control highly dynamic systems is of prime importance to designers. Whether the system is an aircraft, spacecraft, or propulsion system, control system designers must turn to test laboratories not only to verify and validate the control systems, but also to actually use the laboratory as a design and development tool. The use of the laboratory early in the development phase of a system—prior to committing to actual hardware/software (HW/SW)—permits early detection of system anomalies, thereby minimizing program development costs while enhancing safety. Later the laboratory can be used to train system operators (for example, pilots, ground crew) in preparation for flight/ground test. In the case of the statically unstable X-29 forward swept wing aircraft, a comprehensive real-time, hardware-in-the-loop test facility was critical in the development of the aircraft's digital fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control system. The X-29 laboratory initially was used to introduce control laws to a simulated real-time environment to verify control system characteristics. Later, actual flight hardware was introduced to the laboratory, at which point the formal system verification/validation test program began. The test program utilized detailed test plans and procedures derived from system requirements and specifications to map out all tests required. This assured that the maximum number of components of the system were exercised in the laboratory, and all components tested had traceability throughout the test program. The end-to-end hardware-in-the loop simulation provided the environment to perform critical failure modes testing, parameter sensitivity evaluation and ultimately pilot/ground crew training during normal and degraded flight control system operation. The X-29 test experience, applicable to the laboratory testing of all critical control systems, has ingrained the philosophy that successful development of complex systems requires an orderly build

  16. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-11

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  17. In Vitro Drug Sensitivity Tests to Predict Molecular Target Drug Responses in Surgically Resected Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors have dramatically changed the strategy of medical treatment of lung cancer. Patients should be screened for the presence of the EGFR mutation or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4-ALK fusion gene prior to chemotherapy to predict their clinical response. The succinate dehydrogenase inhibition (SDI test and collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST are established in vitro drug sensitivity tests, which may predict the sensitivity of patients to cytotoxic anticancer drugs. We applied in vitro drug sensitivity tests for cyclopedic prediction of clinical responses to different molecular targeting drugs.The growth inhibitory effects of erlotinib and crizotinib were confirmed for lung cancer cell lines using SDI and CD-DST. The sensitivity of 35 cases of surgically resected lung cancer to erlotinib was examined using SDI or CD-DST, and compared with EGFR mutation status.HCC827 (Exon19: E746-A750 del and H3122 (EML4-ALK cells were inhibited by lower concentrations of erlotinib and crizotinib, respectively than A549, H460, and H1975 (L858R+T790M cells were. The viability of the surgically resected lung cancer was 60.0 ± 9.8 and 86.8 ± 13.9% in EGFR-mutants vs. wild types in the SDI (p = 0.0003. The cell viability was 33.5 ± 21.2 and 79.0 ± 18.6% in EGFR mutants vs. wild-type cases (p = 0.026 in CD-DST.In vitro drug sensitivity evaluated by either SDI or CD-DST correlated with EGFR gene status. Therefore, SDI and CD-DST may be useful predictors of potential clinical responses to the molecular anticancer drugs, cyclopedically.

  18. Summary, the 20th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    For advancement of radioisotope in vitro tests such as radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, the Subcommittee for Radioisotope in vitro Test in Medical and Pharmaceutical Committee of Japan Radioisotope Association has conducted the yearly quality control survey for the test facilities in Japan since 1978. This is the summary of the 20th survey in 1998 where non-radioisotope tests like enzyme-immunoassay were involved as well. The survey was done for 143 facilities: 20 national and public university hospitals, 18 private university hospitals, 8 national hospitals, 13 public hospitals, 21 private hospitals, 41 hygienic laboratories and 22 manufacturers of reagents. Facilities examined intra- and between day-reproducibility, freeze-thaw effect and time change of the measured values on the same samples. Assays were for: growth hormone (h), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating h, luteinizing h, prolactin, thyroid stimulating h, triiodothyronines, thyroxines, thyroxine binding protein, calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagons, gastrin, testosterones, estradiol, progesterone, gonadotropin, 17{alpha}-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandorosterone sulfate, renin, IgE, digoxin, {alpha}-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, CA (125, 19-9 and 15-3), prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, {beta}2-microglobulin, ferritin, and neuron specific enolase. There was no great difference between this and last survey results although tendency of improvement was recognized. There were problems to be solved from the standpoint of clinical practice. (K.H.)

  19. In vitro dissolution testing of parenteral aqueous solutions and oily suspensions of paracetamol and prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Mareike; Schmidt, Martin; Tietz, Katharina; Klein, Sandra; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne

    2017-10-30

    The number of intramuscularly applied dosage forms has been continuously increasing during the last decades. However, up to date no in vitro dissolution test method for parenteral dosage forms has been described in the Ph. Eur. or USP. It was the aim of this study to investigate dissolution test setups based on the compendial flow-through cell and the reciprocating holder for this purpose. Both apparatuses were equipped with dialysis membranes to accommodate the drug formulation. The suitability of the dissolution method was evaluated by comparing release profiles with blood level curves that were obtained previously in an in vivo study in rats by our group. Aqueous solutions and oily suspensions of paracetamol and prednisolone were tested in vitro that were also applied in the in vivo study. In the case of the aqueous solutions in which no formal dissolution occurs, transport from the applied depot across a dialysis membrane was investigated. While the drug transport across the dialysis membrane of both drugs in aqueous solution was similar in all applied test methods, differences in the release behavior of paracetamol and prednisolone as an oily suspension were observed. This was mainly due to sedimentation of the particles within the oily depot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trypanocidal activity of the essential oils in their conventional and nanoemulsion forms: in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Oliveira, Camila B; Zimmermann, Carine E P; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Santos, Roberto C V; Rech, Virginia C; Tonin, Alexandre A; Giongo, Janice L; Mattos, Cristiane B; Koester, Letícia; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility in vitro of Trypanosoma evansi to the essential oils of andiroba (Carapa guaianensis) and aroeira (Schinus molle), in their conventional and nanostructured forms. For that, pure oils at concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% were used. A negative control (untreated) and a positive control (diminazene aceturate 0.5%) were used as comparative parameters. Later, the same tests were performed, using nanoemulsions oils at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%. The tests were carried out in triplicates and the numbers of parasites were quantified on 1, 3 and 6 h from onset of the study. A dose-dependent reduction in the number of parasites to the forms of two oils tested was observed after 1 h. The concentration of parasites was significantly reduced at low concentrations after 3 h, as well as at 6 h no alive parasites were observed for the essential oils tested. Ours findings indicate, for the first time, that oils of andiroba and aroeira (in their conventional and nanoemulsion forms) have high activity against T. evansi in vitro, leading to the suggestion that these oils may be applied as an alternative treatment for this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Automatic TLI recognition system beta prototype testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the beta prototype automatic target recognition system ATR3, and some performance tests done with this system. This is a fully operational system, with a high computational speed. It is useful for findings any kind of target in digitized image data, and as a general purpose image analysis tool.

  2. Data Link Test and Analysis System/ATCRBS Transponder Test System Technical Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    This document references material for personnel using or making software changes : to the Data Link Test and Analysis System (DATAS) for Air Traffic Control Radar : Beacon System (ATCRBS) transponder testing and data collection. This is one of : a se...

  3. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): The Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…

  4. Model-based testing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Justyna; Mosterman, Pieter J

    2011-01-01

    What the experts have to say about Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems: "This book is exactly what is needed at the exact right time in this fast-growing area. From its beginnings over 10 years ago of deriving tests from UML statecharts, model-based testing has matured into a topic with both breadth and depth. Testing embedded systems is a natural application of MBT, and this book hits the nail exactly on the head. Numerous topics are presented clearly, thoroughly, and concisely in this cutting-edge book. The authors are world-class leading experts in this area and teach us well-used

  5. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B

    2012-01-01

    -soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces...

  6. LADEE Propulsion System Cold Flow Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter; Chapman, Jack M.; Trinh, Hau, P.; Bell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a NASA mission that will orbit the Moon. Its main objective is to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The spacecraft development is being led by NASA Ames Research Center and scheduled for launch in 2013. The LADEE spacecraft will be operated with a bi-propellant hypergolic propulsion system using MMH and NTO as the fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The propulsion system utilizes flight-proven hardware on major components. The propulsion layout is composed of one 100-lbf main thruster and four 5-lbf RCS thrusters. The propellants are stored in four tanks (two parallel-connected tanks per propellant component). The propellants will be pressurized by regulated helium. A simulated propulsion system has been built for conducting cold flow test series to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes, such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. Propellant drainage differential between propellant tanks will also be assessed. Since the oxidizer feed line system has a higher flow demand than the fuel system does, the cold flow test focuses on the oxidizer system. The objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the LADEE propulsion fluid flow operation through water cold flow test and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. The test activities, including the simulated propulsion test article, cold flow test, and analytical modeling, are being performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. At the time of the abstract submission, the test article checkout is being performed. The test series will be completed by November, 2012

  7. Suitability of skin integrity tests for dermal absorption studies in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Katharina; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Fabian, Eric; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Ben

    2015-02-01

    Skin absorption testing in vitro is a regulatory accepted alternative method (OECD Guideline 428). Different tests can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the skin samples. Here, we compared the pre- or post-run integrity tests (transepidermal electrical resistance, TEER; transepidermal water loss, TEWL; absorption of the reference compounds water, TWF, or methylene blue, BLUE) and additionally focused on co-absorption of a (3)H-labeled internal reference standard (ISTD) as integrity parameter. The results were correlated to absorption profiles of various test compounds. Limit values of 2kΩ, 10 gm(-2)h(-1) and 4.5∗10(-3)cmh(-1) for the standard methods TEER, TEWL and TWF, respectively, allowed distinguishing between impaired and intact human skin samples in general. Single skin samples did, however, not, poorly and even inversely correlate with the test-compound absorption. In contrast, results with ISTD (e.g. (3)H-testosterone) were highly correlated to the absorption of (14)C-labeled test compounds. Importantly, ISTD did not influence analytics or absorption of test compounds. Therefore, ISTD, especially when adjusted to the physico-chemical properties of test compounds, is a promising concept to assess the integrity of skin samples during the whole course of absorption experiments. However, a historical control dataset is yet necessary for a potential routine application. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Further testing of solar water heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Watson, M.

    2002-07-01

    In a study for the DTI, the Energy Monitoring Company compared the amount of energy which eight solar water heaters could generate. The systems were operated side by side over about six months. In one series of tests the systems were operated entirely as solar systems, and in another, auxiliary top-up heating was applied. The two systems were evaluated and the relative advantages/disadvantages discussed.

  9. Bone remodelling in vitro: Where are we headed?: -A review on the current understanding of physiological bone remodelling and inflammation and the strategies for testing biomaterials in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nupur; Ho, Sonia; Brown, Stuart J; Sawadkar, Prasad; Sharma, Vaibhav; Snow, Martyn; García-Gareta, Elena

    2018-02-02

    Bone remodelling is a dynamic process required for the maintenance of bone architecture in response to the changing mechanical needs. It is also a vital process during the repair of bone tissue following injury. Clinical intervention in terms of autografting or allografting is often required to heal bone injuries where physiological healing fails. The use of biomaterials as alternatives to autografts and allografts has spurred a significant research interest into further development of biomaterials for better clinical outcomes. Unfortunately, many biomaterials fail to make it to the clinic or fail after implantation due to the inconsistencies observed between in vitro and in vivo studies. It is therefore important to mimic the in vivo situation as closely as possible in an in vitro setting for testing biomaterials. The current in vitro models focus mostly on investigating the behaviour of osteoblast progenitors with the biomaterial under development as well as assessing the behaviour of osteoclasts, endothelial cells etc. However, the sequence of events that take place during bone healing or remodelling are not incorporated into the current in vitro models. This review highlights our current understanding of the physiological bone remodelling and the bone healing process followed by strategies to incorporate both the physiological and pathophysiological events into an in vitro environment. Here, we propose three strategies for the assessment of biomaterials for bone, which includes; (1) testing biomaterials in the presence of immune cells, (2) testing biomaterials for osteogenesis, and (3) testing biomaterials in the presence of osteoclasts followed by osteoblasts to recapitulate the physiological events of bone resorption prior to bone formation. The focus of this review is to discuss the third strategy in details as the first two strategies are currently incorporated into a majority of in vitro experiments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. QUASI-RANDOM TESTING OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yarmolik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various modified random testing approaches have been proposed for computer system testing in the black box environment. Their effectiveness has been evaluated on the typical failure patterns by employing three measures, namely, P-measure, E-measure and F-measure. A quasi-random testing, being a modified version of the random testing, has been proposed and analyzed. The quasi-random Sobol sequences and modified Sobol sequences are used as the test patterns. Some new methods for Sobol sequence generation have been proposed and analyzed.

  11. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  12. In vitro penetration of alpha arbutin niosome span 60 system in gel preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rise Desnita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpha arbutin is a hydrophilic compound which is difficult to pass trough the stratum corneum. One of the effort to increase the penetration of the drug through the stratum corneum is by making in niosome system. This study aims to determine the optimum concentration of span 60 to improve the entrapment efficiency of niosome and investigate the increasing penetration of alpha arbutin using the niosome system in the preparation of the gel in vitro. Niosome consist a mixture of span 60 and cholesterol it made by thin layer hydration method. Concentration of span 60 was varied into three formulas were 100, 150 and 200 µmoL. The formulation of gel was made in two formulas including formulation of niosome alpha arbutin and alpha arbutin in gel. The determination of enterapment efficiency showed that formula 100µmol has an optimum enterapment efficiency by 99.09%±0.17.The in vitro penetration tests with shed snake skin membrane showed that usage span 60 as a niosome composer could increase penetration of alpha arbutin in gel formulation with cumulative numbers of diffusion in 8 hours was 91.62%±2.32 compared to alpha arbutin in gel without niosome system about 73.00%±0.94.

  13. Comparison of three in vitro culture systems for maturation of early preantral mouse ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousset-Simeón, Nathalie; Jouannet, Pierre; Le Cointre, Laëtitia; Coussieu, Christiane; Poirot, Catherine

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three different culture systems for in vitro follicular growth and oocyte maturation in ovarian follicles of mice in order to assess the technique with the optimal growth and improved rate of meiotic maturation. The three systems tested were culture under oil, on a hydrophobic membrane and on agar respectively. Early preantral follicles were cultured for 12 days in alpha-MEM GlutaMAX medium. Follicular growth, oocyte meiotic maturation, oocyte extrusion, atresia and estradiol production were analysed. Follicular development showed two phases in the three systems, with slow growth before day 5 and subsequent acceleration. The percentage of follicles transferred into oocyte maturation medium was significantly higher after culture under oil. The proportion of oocytes that achieved nuclear maturation (metaphase II) was higher when follicles were cultured under oil or on a hydrophobic membrane than on agar. Our results support the use of culture under oil for in vitro follicular growth from the early preantral stage in order to obtain metaphase II oocytes. Fertilization ability of these oocytes and the capacity to obtain healthy mice in a reproducible manner warrants further investigation.

  14. Gas transport during in vitro and in vivo preclinical testing of inert gas therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Katz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New gas therapies using inert gases such as xenon and argon are being studied, which require in vitro and in vivo preclinical experiments. Examples of the kinetics of gas transport during such experiments are analyzed in this paper. Using analytical and numerical models, we analyze an in vitro experiment for gas transport to a 96 cell well plate and an in vivo delivery to a small animal chamber, where the key processes considered are the wash-in of test gas into an apparatus dead volume, the diffusion of test gas through the liquid media in a well of a cell test plate, and the pharmacokinetics in a rat. In the case of small animals in a chamber, the key variable controlling the kinetics is the chamber wash-in time constant that is a function of the chamber volume and the gas flow rate. For cells covered by a liquid media the diffusion of gas through the liquid media is the dominant mechanism, such that liquid depth and the gas diffusion constant are the key parameters. The key message from these analyses is that the transport of gas during preclinical experiments can be important in determining the true dose as experienced at the site of action in an animal or to a cell.

  15. Tutoring system for nondestructive testing using computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Koo; Koh, Sung Nam [Joong Ang Inspection Co.,Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Yun Ju; Kim, Min Koo [Dept. of Computer Engineering, Aju University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-15

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing.

  16. Determination of the In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Compounds Tested Against Punta Toro Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-29

    cells were grown in minimum essential medium (MEM; GIBCO Labs, Grand Island, NY) containing 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS; HyClone Labs, Logan, UT) and 0.1... bovine serum (FBS, HyClone Labs, Logan, UT) and 0.1% NaHCO3 without antibiotics. All were determined to be mycoplasma-free. Test Compounds: All...influenza, parainfluenza , rhino, vesicular stomatitis, bluetongue, reo and rota viruses (3-6). The compound was only slightly effective vs PTV in vitro (VR

  17. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the workshop was for participants to interactively discuss (with regard to optical imaging or optical imaging systems): Local end-user needs; What those needs imply for associated new & existing laboratory testing & measurement...

  18. Atlantic-THORpex Observing System Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atlantic - THORpex Observing System Test (ATOST) is part of an international research program to accelerate improvements in the accuracy of 1 to 14 day weather...

  19. In vitro performance investigation of bioresorbable scaffolds – Standard tests for vascular stents and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.schmidt@uni-rostock.de [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University Medicine Rostock, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Strasse 4, D-18119 Rostock-Warnemünde (Germany); Behrens, Peter, E-mail: peter.behrens@uni-rostock.de [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University Medicine Rostock, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Strasse 4, D-18119 Rostock-Warnemünde (Germany); Brandt-Wunderlich, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.brandt@uni-rostock.de [Institute for ImplantTechnology and Biomaterials – IIB e.V., Associated Institute of the University of Rostock, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Strasse 4, D-18119 Rostock-Warnemünde (Germany); Siewert, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.siewert@uni-rostock.de [Institute for ImplantTechnology and Biomaterials – IIB e.V., Associated Institute of the University of Rostock, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Strasse 4, D-18119 Rostock-Warnemünde (Germany); Grabow, Niels, E-mail: niels.grabow@uni-rostock.de [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University Medicine Rostock, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Strasse 4, D-18119 Rostock-Warnemünde (Germany); Schmitz, Klaus-Peter, E-mail: klaus-peter.schmitz@uni-rostock.de [Institute for ImplantTechnology and Biomaterials – IIB e.V., Associated Institute of the University of Rostock, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Strasse 4, D-18119 Rostock-Warnemünde (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Background/Purpose: Biodegradable polymers are the main materials for coronary scaffolds. Magnesium has been investigated as a potential alternative and was successfully tested in human clinical trials. However, it is still challenging to achieve mechanical parameters comparative to permanent bare metal (BMS) and drug-eluting stents (DES). As such, in vitro tests are required to assess mechanical parameters correlated to the safety and efficacy of the device. Methods/Materials: In vitro bench tests evaluate scaffold profiles, length, deliverability, expansion behavior including acute elastic and time-dependent recoil, bending stiffness and radial strength. The Absorb GT1 (Abbott Vascular, Temecula, CA), DESolve (Elixir Medical Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA) and the Magmaris (BIOTRONIK AG, Bülach, Switzerland) that was previously tested in the BIOSOLVE II study, were tested. Results: Crimped profiles were 1.38 ± 0.01 mm (Absorb GT1), 1.39 ± 0.01 mm (DESolve) and 1.44 ± 0.00 mm (Magmaris) enabling 6F compatibility. Trackability was measured depending on stiffness and force transmission (pushability). Acute elastic recoil was measured at free expansion and within a mock vessel, respectively, yielding results of 5.86 ± 0.76 and 5.22 ± 0.38% (Absorb), 7.85 ± 3.45 and 9.42 ± 0.21% (DESolve) and 5.57 ± 0.72 and 4.94 ± 0.31% (Magmaris). Time-dependent recoil (after 1 h) was observed for the Absorb and DESolve scaffolds but not for the Magmaris. The self-correcting wall apposition behavior of the DESolve did not prevent time-dependent recoil under vessel loading. Conclusions: The results of the suggested test methods allow assessment of technical feasibility based on objective mechanical data and highlight the main differences between polymeric and metallic bioresorbable scaffolds.

  20. Test System for Standard ALICE DCS Components

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160773

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the ALICE DCS project is supervising equipment installed in the ALICE experiment site at CERN. Hence, the aim of this project was to provide a test bench in the DCS lab, where a real equipment and software tools will be deployed. Using this test bench, test procedures which exercise the devices under the test in a configurable way and provide logging and trending of the acquired data were implemented. The setup was devised using the ALICE software framework and Siemens SCADA system WINCC OA, providing the same functionality as the systems installed in ALICE, and will be used for the commissioning of the new software and hardware, burn-in tests of new modules and log-term stability tests of ALICE hardware.

  1. Development of a novel in vitro method for drug development for fish; application to test efficacy of antimicrosporidian compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M; Kumar, G; Abdel-Baki, A-A; Dkhil, M; El-Matbouli, M; Al-Quraishy, S

    2014-12-06

    Few drugs are approved for treating diseases caused by parasites in minor species such as fish. This is due, in part, to the expense of drug development and to the comparatively small market. In vivo effectiveness trials for antiparasitic drugs are costly, time consuming and require ethics approval, therefore an in vitro screening approach is a cost-effective alternative to finding promising drug candidates. We developed an in vitro testing system to test antimicrosporidial compounds against a microsporidian pathogen Heterosporis saurida. Five antiparasitic compounds, albendazole, fumagillin, TNP-70, nitazoxanide and lufenuron, were assayed for antimicrosporidial activity. All compounds reduced the number of H saurida spores in infected cells when applied at a concentration that did not appear to be toxic to the host cells. Albendazole inhibited replication of H saurida by >60 per cent, fumagillin and its analogue TNP-470 inhibited H saurida >80 per cent, nitazoxanide and lufenuron inhibited growth >70 per cent. The data suggest that both fumagillin and its analogous TNP-70 hold the best promise as therapeutic agents against H saurida. The ability to use fish cell cultures to assess drugs against H saurida demonstrates an approach that may be helpful to evaluate other drugs on different microsporidia and host cells. British Veterinary Association.

  2. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  3. Solar Heating Systems: Progress Checks & Tests Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This manual contains Progress Checks and Tests for use in a Solar Heating Systems curriculum (see note). It contains master copies of all Progress Checks and Unit Tests accompanying the curriculum, organized by unit. (The master copies are to be duplicated by each school so that adequate copies are available for student use in a self-paced student…

  4. Visual Turing test for computer vision systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geman, Donald; Geman, Stuart; Hallonquist, Neil; Younes, Laurent

    2015-03-24

    Today, computer vision systems are tested by their accuracy in detecting and localizing instances of objects. As an alternative, and motivated by the ability of humans to provide far richer descriptions and even tell a story about an image, we construct a "visual Turing test": an operator-assisted device that produces a stochastic sequence of binary questions from a given test image. The query engine proposes a question; the operator either provides the correct answer or rejects the question as ambiguous; the engine proposes the next question ("just-in-time truthing"). The test is then administered to the computer-vision system, one question at a time. After the system's answer is recorded, the system is provided the correct answer and the next question. Parsing is trivial and deterministic; the system being tested requires no natural language processing. The query engine employs statistical constraints, learned from a training set, to produce questions with essentially unpredictable answers-the answer to a question, given the history of questions and their correct answers, is nearly equally likely to be positive or negative. In this sense, the test is only about vision. The system is designed to produce streams of questions that follow natural story lines, from the instantiation of a unique object, through an exploration of its properties, and on to its relationships with other uniquely instantiated objects.

  5. Study of the system of tuberous root induction in vitro from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-19

    Mar 19, 2012 ... This study investigated the induction system of tuberous root in vitro from Rehmannia glutinosa. The roles of plant growth substance, carbohydrates, and minerals were evaluated for induction and development of tuberous root in vitro. The results show that Murashige and Skoog (MS) contributed greatly to ...

  6. Fluidic system for long-term in vitro culturing and monitoring of organotypic brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Troels-Smith, Ane R.; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brain slice preparations cultured in vitro have long been used as a simplified model for studying brain development, electrophysiology, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In this paper an open fluidic system developed for improved long term culturing of organotypic brain slices is presented....... The positive effect of continuous flow of growth medium, and thus stability of the glucose concentration and waste removal, is simulated and compared to the effect of stagnant medium that is most often used in tissue culturing. Furthermore, placement of the tissue slices in the developed device was studied...... by numerical simulations in order to optimize the nutrient distribution. The device was tested by culturing transverse hippocampal slices from 7 days old NMRI mice for a duration of 14 days. The slices were inspected visually and the slices cultured in the fluidic system appeared to have preserved...

  7. Orion Ammonia Boiler System Preflight Test Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Controls and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is currently undergoing preparations for ground testing of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to prepare its subsystems for EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1). EM-1, Orions second unmanned flight, is a three-week long lunar mission during which the vehicle will complete a 6-day retrograde lunar orbit before returning to Earth. This paper focuses on the work done during the authors 16-week internship with the Mechanical Engineering Branch of KSCs Engineering Directorate. The authors project involved assisting with the preparations for testing the Orion MPCVs ammonia boiler system. The purpose of the ammonia boiler system is to keep the spacecraft sufficiently cool during the reentry portion of its mission, from service module (SM) separation to post-landing. This system is critical for keeping both the spacecraft (avionics and electronics) and crew alive during reentry, thus a successful test of the system is essential to the success of EM-1. XXXX The author was able to draft a detailed outline of the procedure for the ammonia system functional test. More work will need to be done on the vehicle power-up and power-down portions of the procedure, but the ammonia system testing portion of the procedure is thorough and includes vehicle test configurations, vehicle commands, and GSE. The author was able to compile a substantial list of questions regarding the ammonia system functional test with the help of her mentors. A significant number of these questions were answered in the teleconferences with Lockheed Martin.

  8. Performance Test for the SIGMA Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seonyeong; Lee, Hyojeong; Lee, Seongwhan; Shin, Jehyuck; Lee, Jungkyu; Jin, Ho

    2016-12-01

    Scientific CubeSat with Instruments for Global Magnetic Fields and Radiations (SIGMA) is a 3-U size CubeSat that will be operated in low earth orbit (LEO). The SIGMA communication system uses a very high frequency (VHF) band for uplink and an ultra high frequency (UHF) band for downlink. Both frequencies belong to an amateur band. The ground station that communicates with SIGMA is located at Kyung Hee Astronomical Observatory (KHAO). For reliable communication, we carried out a laboratory (LAB) test and far-field tests between the CubeSat and a ground station. In the field test, we considered test parameters such as attenuation, antenna deployment, CubeSat body attitude, and Doppler frequency shift in transmitting commands and receiving data. In this paper, we present a communication performance test of SIGMA, a link budget analysis, and a field test process. We also compare the link budget with the field test results of transmitting commands and receiving data.

  9. Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jooyong

    2010-01-01

    The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

  10. Assessment of eptifibatide clearance by hemodialysis using an in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Joanna Q; McNeely, Elizabeth B; Green, Christie A; Jennings, Lisa K

    2010-01-01

    Eptifibatide is a parenteral glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor that prevents platelet aggregation. Although contraindicated in dialysis patients due to limited safety and dialysis data, eptifibatide is prescribed in this population and is associated with bleeding complications. This study was done to determine dialysis clearance (CL(D)) of eptifibatide using an in vitro system. Three common dialyzers were tested. In vitro dialysis was performed at a dialysate flow rate of 500 ml/min, 'blood' flow rate (Q(B)) of 200 and 400 ml/min, and the minimal ultrafiltration rate. Eptifibatide CL(D) and fraction removed were calculated for each condition. CL(D) ranged from 122 to 225 ml/min and was not significantly different among the dialyzers tested. CL(D) was flow dependent with higher clearances observed at higher Q(B). The estimated fraction of eptifibatide removed was 73-83%. These data suggest that hemodialysis is an effective method to decrease the effects of eptifibatide in patients with impaired kidney function. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Multipurpose laboratory test system applying CAMAC standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.L.

    1976-11-01

    A flexible electronic product test and evaluation system is proposed. A system study was performed to determine how increasingly complex telemetry systems could be effectively evaluated during development and preproduction and after first production units were built. A primary requirement was that this system remain flexible with respect to configuration and mission and that it be easily maintainable. In addition, the system must be upgraded easily as old product requirements and definitions are replaced by new designs. As a result of this study it is concluded that this project would involve the expenditure of considerable funds and manpower at the beginning of the project and that the cost effectiveness of the system would be dependent upon its utilization and management. This study also demonstrates how the use of computer interface hardware standards (IEEE 583) can minimize requirements for expensive specially designed test equipment for each application.

  12. Rocket Testing and Integrated System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John

    2005-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) describes a set of system capabilities that in aggregate perform: determination of condition for each system element, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes for anomalies, and prognostics for future anomalies and system behavior. The ISHM should also provide operators with situational awareness of the system by integrating contextual and timely data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) as needed. ISHM capabilities can be implemented using a variety of technologies and tools. This chapter provides an overview of ISHM contributing technologies and describes in further detail a novel implementation architecture along with associated taxonomy, ontology, and standards. The operational ISHM testbed is based on a subsystem of a rocket engine test stand. Such test stands contain many elements that are common to manufacturing systems, and thereby serve to illustrate the potential benefits and methodologies of the ISHM approach for intelligent manufacturing.

  13. FERMILAB CRYOMODULE TEST STAND RF INTERLOCK SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Troy [Fermilab; Diamond, J. S. [Fermilab; McDowell, D. [Fermilab; Nicklaus, D. [Fermilab; Prieto, P. S. [Fermilab; Semenov, A. [Fermilab

    2016-10-12

    An interlock system has been designed for the Fermilab Cryo-module Test Stand (CMTS), a test bed for the cryo- modules to be used in the upcoming Linac Coherent Light Source 2 (LCLS-II) project at SLAC. The interlock system features 8 independent subsystems, one per superconducting RF cavity and solid state amplifier (SSA) pair. Each system monitors several devices to detect fault conditions such as arcing in the waveguides or quenching of the SRF system. Additionally each system can detect fault conditions by monitoring the RF power seen at the cavity coupler through a directional coupler. In the event of a fault condition, each system is capable of removing RF signal to the amplifier (via a fast RF switch) as well as turning off the SSA. Additionally, each input signal is available for re- mote viewing and recording via a Fermilab designed digitizer board and MVME 5500 processor.

  14. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  15. In vitro antigen measurement and potency tests: challenges encountered during method development...and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, V

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant investment and technical efforts, veterinary vaccine manufacturers continue to experience challenges with the transition from historic animal-based potency methods to in vitro potency assays. These challenges have a number of contributing factors, including an inadequate understanding of protective antigens and epitopes, a lack of ruggedness and discriminating capabilities in evolving immunologically-based methods, inconsistencies between methods used for in-process antigen measurement and finished product potency, and a lack of clear methods to characterize the finished formulation (including complex adjuvants). A lack of harmonized guidelines and consistent regulatory expectations further complicates these efforts. There is room for optimism, however. There are numerous examples of successful in vitro potency test implementations. Titrations of modified live viral and bacterial vaccines, immune-based quantitative assays, and the recent application of direct physicochemical methods have allowed the transition from animal testing in many applications globally. Specific challenges for assay development and implementation are discussed in the areas of 1) target antigen selection, 2) complexity of finished product formulation, 3) potency discrimination, and 4) stability-indicating relevance.

  16. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for in vitro diagnostic testing at the point of care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Haley; Schechinger, Monika; Garza, Javier; Locke, Andrea; Coté, Gerard

    2017-06-01

    Point-of-care (POC) device development is a growing field that aims to develop low-cost, rapid, sensitive in-vitro diagnostic testing platforms that are portable, self-contained, and can be used anywhere - from modern clinics to remote and low resource areas. In this review, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is discussed as a solution to facilitating the translation of bioanalytical sensing to the POC. The potential for SERS to meet the widely accepted "ASSURED" (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid, Equipment-free, and Deliverable) criterion provided by the World Health Organization is discussed based on recent advances in SERS in vitro assay development. As SERS provides attractive characteristics for multiplexed sensing at low concentration limits with a high degree of specificity, it holds great promise for enhancing current efforts in rapid diagnostic testing. In outlining the progression of SERS techniques over the past years combined with recent developments in smart nanomaterials, high-throughput microfluidics, and low-cost paper diagnostics, an extensive number of new possibilities show potential for translating SERS biosensors to the POC.

  17. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS for in vitro diagnostic testing at the point of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks Haley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-care (POC device development is a growing field that aims to develop low-cost, rapid, sensitive in-vitro diagnostic testing platforms that are portable, self-contained, and can be used anywhere – from modern clinics to remote and low resource areas. In this review, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS is discussed as a solution to facilitating the translation of bioanalytical sensing to the POC. The potential for SERS to meet the widely accepted “ASSURED” (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid, Equipment-free, and Deliverable criterion provided by the World Health Organization is discussed based on recent advances in SERS in vitro assay development. As SERS provides attractive characteristics for multiplexed sensing at low concentration limits with a high degree of specificity, it holds great promise for enhancing current efforts in rapid diagnostic testing. In outlining the progression of SERS techniques over the past years combined with recent developments in smart nanomaterials, high-throughput microfluidics, and low-cost paper diagnostics, an extensive number of new possibilities show potential for translating SERS biosensors to the POC.

  18. New in vitro system to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy of drug combinations in fresh tumor samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Christian Kischkel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background To find the best individual chemotherapy for cancer patients, the efficacy of different chemotherapeutic drugs can be predicted by pretesting tumor samples in vitro via the chemotherapy-resistance (CTR-Test®. Although drug combinations are widely used among cancer therapy, so far only single drugs are tested by this and other tests. However, several first line chemotherapies are combining two or more chemotherapeutics, leading to the necessity of drug combination testing methods. Methods We established a system to measure and predict the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drug combinations with the help of the Loewe additivity concept in combination with the CTR-test. A combination is measured by using half of the monotherapy’s concentration of both drugs simultaneously. With this method, the efficacy of a combination can also be calculated based on single drug measurements. Results The established system was tested on a data set of ovarian carcinoma samples using the combination carboplatin and paclitaxel and confirmed by using other tumor species and chemotherapeutics. Comparing the measured and the calculated values of the combination testings revealed a high correlation. Additionally, in 70% of the cases the measured and the calculated values lead to the same chemotherapeutic resistance category of the tumor. Conclusion Our data suggest that the best drug combination consists of the most efficient single drugs and the worst drug combination of the least efficient single drugs. Our results showed that single measurements are sufficient to predict combinations in specific cases but there are exceptions in which it is necessary to measure combinations, which is possible with the presented system.

  19. Test-driven modeling of embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To benefit maximally from model-based systems engineering (MBSE) trustworthy high quality models are required. From the software disciplines it is known that test-driven development (TDD) can significantly increase the quality of the products. Using a test-driven approach with MBSE may have...... a similar positive effect on the quality of the system models and the resulting products and may therefore be desirable. To define a test-driven model-based systems engineering (TD-MBSE) approach, we must define this approach for numerous sub disciplines such as modeling of requirements, use cases......, scenarios, behavior, architecture, etc. In this paper we present a method that utilizes the formalism of timed automatons with formal and statistical model checking techniques to apply TD-MBSE to the modeling of system architecture and behavior. The results obtained from applying it to an industrial case...

  20. In vitro enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation on five adhesive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Pilar; Furtado-Antunes de Freitas, Márcia; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen M.; González-Rodríguez, María P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the E. faecalis biofilm formation on the surface of five adhesive systems (AS) and its relationship with roughness. Study Design: The formation of E. faecalis biofilms was tested on the surface of four dual-cure AS: AdheSE DC, Clearfil DC Bond, Futurabond DC and Excite DSC and one light-cure antimicrobial AS, Clearfil Protect Bond, after 24 hours of incubation, using the MBEC high-throughput device. Results: E. faecalis biofilms grew on all the adhesives. The least growth of biofilm was on Excite DSC, Clearfil Protect Bond, and the control. Futurabond DC resulted in the greatest roughness and biofilm amount. There was a close relationship between the quantity of biofilm and roughness, except for Clearfil Protect Bond, which showed little biofilm but high roughness. Conclusion: None of the tested AS prevented E. faecalis biofilm formation, although the least quantity was found on the surface of Clearfil Protect Bond. Key words:Adhesive systems, biofilm, Enterococcus faecalis, roughness. PMID:22143728

  1. In vitro and in vivo tests of PLA/d-HAp nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Thai; Mao Can, Van; Son Ho, Anh; Hai Nguyen, Song; Thu Trang Nguyen, Thi; Pham, Thi Nam; Phuong Nguyen, Thu; Le Hien Nguyen, Thi; Thanh Dinh Thi, Mai

    2017-12-01

    The bioactivity of the PLA/d-HAp nanocomposite with 30 wt.% d-HAp was evaluated by in vitro tests and indicated that after 7 immersion days in SBF solution, PLA amorphous part was hydrolyzed and PLA crystal part was remained. The formation of apatite on the surface of the material was observed. The in vivo test results of PLA/d-HAp nanocomposite (70/30 wt/wt) on femur of dogs displayed that 3 months after grafting, the materials did not induce any osteitis, osteomyelitis or structural abnormalities. The histological and x-ray image demonstrated a growth of the bone into the material area, while osteitis and osteomyelitis were not observed.

  2. A Novel In Vitro System for Comparative Analyses of Bone Cells and Bacteria under Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Josef Dauben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation is a promising approach to enhance bone regeneration while having potential to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate effects of alternating electric field stimulation on both human osteoblasts and bacteria, a novel in vitro system was designed. Electric field distribution was simulated numerically and proved by experimental validation. Cells were stimulated on Ti6Al4V electrodes and in short distance to electrodes. Bacterial growth was enumerated in supernatant and on the electrode surface and biofilm formation was quantified. Electrical stimulation modulated gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers in a voltage-dependent manner, resulting in significantly enhanced osteocalcin mRNA synthesis rate on electrodes after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. While collagen type I synthesis increased when stimulated with 0.2VRMS, it decreased after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. Only slight and infrequent influence on bacterial growth was observed following stimulations with 0.2VRMS and 1.4VRMS after 48 and 72 h, respectively. In summary this novel test system is applicable for extended in vitro studies concerning definition of appropriate stimulation parameters for bone cell growth and differentiation, bacterial growth suppression, and investigation of general effects of electrical stimulation.

  3. A Novel In Vitro System for Comparative Analyses of Bone Cells and Bacteria under Electrical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaatreh, Sarah; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is a promising approach to enhance bone regeneration while having potential to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate effects of alternating electric field stimulation on both human osteoblasts and bacteria, a novel in vitro system was designed. Electric field distribution was simulated numerically and proved by experimental validation. Cells were stimulated on Ti6Al4V electrodes and in short distance to electrodes. Bacterial growth was enumerated in supernatant and on the electrode surface and biofilm formation was quantified. Electrical stimulation modulated gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers in a voltage-dependent manner, resulting in significantly enhanced osteocalcin mRNA synthesis rate on electrodes after stimulation with 1.4V RMS. While collagen type I synthesis increased when stimulated with 0.2V RMS, it decreased after stimulation with 1.4V RMS. Only slight and infrequent influence on bacterial growth was observed following stimulations with 0.2V RMS and 1.4V RMS after 48 and 72 h, respectively. In summary this novel test system is applicable for extended in vitro studies concerning definition of appropriate stimulation parameters for bone cell growth and differentiation, bacterial growth suppression, and investigation of general effects of electrical stimulation. PMID:28044132

  4. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  5. Genotoxicity of nano/microparticles in in vitro micronuclei, in vivo comet and mutation assay systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukumori Nobutaka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, manufactured nano/microparticles such as fullerenes (C60, carbon black (CB and ceramic fiber are being widely used because of their desirable properties in industrial, medical and cosmetic fields. However, there are few data on these particles in mammalian mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. To examine genotoxic effects by C60, CB and kaolin, an in vitro micronuclei (MN test was conducted with human lung cancer cell line, A549 cells. In addition, DNA damage and mutations were analyzed by in vivo assay systems using male C57BL/6J or gpt delta transgenic mice which were intratracheally instilled with single or multiple doses of 0.2 mg per animal of particles. Results In in vitro genotoxic analysis, increased MN frequencies were observed in A549 cells treated with C60, CB and kaolin in a dose-dependent manner. These three nano/microparticles also induced DNA damage in the lungs of C57BL/6J mice measured by comet assay. Moreover, single or multiple instillations of C60 and kaolin, increased either or both of gpt and Spi- mutant frequencies in the lungs of gpt delta transgenic mice. Mutation spectra analysis showed transversions were predominant, and more than 60% of the base substitutions occurred at G:C base pairs in the gpt genes. The G:C to C:G transversion was commonly increased by these particle instillations. Conclusion Manufactured nano/microparticles, CB, C60 and kaolin, were shown to be genotoxic in in vitro and in vivo assay systems.

  6. Reproducible and expedient rice regeneration system using in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... Inevitable prerequisite for expedient regeneration in rice is the selection of totipotent explant and developing an apposite combination of growth hormones. Here, we reported a reproducible regeneration protocol in which basal segments of the stem of the in vitro grown rice plants were used as ex-plant.

  7. Reproducible and expedient rice regeneration system using in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inevitable prerequisite for expedient regeneration in rice is the selection of totipotent explant and developing an apposite combination of growth hormones. Here, we reported a reproducible regeneration protocol in which basal segments of the stem of the in vitro grown rice plants were used as ex-plant. Using the protocol ...

  8. Establishment of in vitro plant regeneration system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Two new tryptamine-derived alkaloids from Chimonanthus praecoxf concolor. Tetrahedron Lett., 47: 3199-3202. Kozomara B,Vinterhalter B, Radojević LJ, Vinterhalter D (2008). In vitropropagation of Chimonanthus praecox (L.), a winter flowering ornamental shrub. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant, 44: 142-147.

  9. Site acceptance test, W-030 MICON system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-10

    Monitoring and control of the W-030 ventilation upgrade is provided by a distributed control system (DCS) furnished by MICON Corporation. After shipment to the Hanford Site, the site acceptance test (SAT) for this system was conducted in a laboratory environment over a six month period, involving four distinct phases and numerous hardware and software modifications required to correct test exceptions. The final results is a system which is not fully compliant with procurement specifications but is determined to meet minimum Project W-030 safety and functional requirements. A negotiated settlement was reached with the supplier to establish a `path forward` for system implementation. This report documents the `as-run` status of the SAT. The SAT was completed in August of 1995. It was later followed by comprehensive acceptance testing of the W-030 control-logic configuration software; results are documented in WHC-SD-W030-ATR-011. Further testing is reported as part of process system startup operational testing, performed after the MICON installation.

  10. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  11. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  12. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen P Hendriksma

    Full Text Available The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  13. Light-emitting device test systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Mark; Brodie, Alan; George, James; Guan, Yu; Nyffenegger, Ralph

    2018-01-23

    Light-emitting devices, such as LEDs, are tested using a photometric unit. The photometric unit, which may be an integrating sphere, can measure flux, color, or other properties of the devices. The photometric unit may have a single port or both an inlet and outlet. Light loss through the port, inlet, or outlet can be reduced or calibrated for. These testing systems can provide increased reliability, improved throughput, and/or improved measurement accuracy.

  14. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited β-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes

  15. Accelerated in vitro release testing method for naltrexone loaded PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andhariya, Janki V; Choi, Stephanie; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yuan; Burgess, Diane J; Shen, Jie

    2017-03-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop a discriminatory and reproducible accelerated release testing method for naltrexone loaded parenteral polymeric microspheres. The commercially available naltrexone microsphere product (Vivitrol ® ) was used as the testing formulation in the in vitro release method development, and both sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4 methods were investigated. Following an in vitro drug stability study, frequent media replacement and addition of anti-oxidant in the release medium were used to prevent degradation of naltrexone during release testing at "real-time" (37°C) and "accelerated" (45°C), respectively. The USP apparatus 4 method was more reproducible than the sample-and-separate method. In addition, the accelerated release profile obtained using USP apparatus 4 had a shortened release duration (within seven days), and good correlation with the "real-time" release profile. Lastly, the discriminatory ability of the developed accelerated release method was assessed using compositionally equivalent naltrexone microspheres with different release characteristics. The developed accelerated USP apparatus 4 release method was able to detect differences in the release characteristics of the prepared naltrexone microspheres. Moreover, a linear correlation was observed between the "real-time" and accelerated release profiles of all the formulations investigated, suggesting that the release mechanism(s) may be similar under both conditions. These results indicate that the developed accelerated USP apparatus 4 method has the potential to be an appropriate fast quality control tool for long-acting naltrexone PLGA microspheres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro comparison of Günther Tulip and Celect filters: testing filtering efficiency and pressure drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, M; Malvé, M; Peña, E; Martínez, M A; Leask, R

    2015-02-05

    In this study, the trapping ability of the Günther Tulip and Celect inferior vena cava filters was evaluated. Thrombus capture rates of the filters were tested in vitro in horizontal position with thrombus diameters of 3 and 6mm and tube diameter of 19mm. The filters were tested in centered and tilted positions. Sets of 30 clots were injected into the model and the same process was repeated 20 times for each different condition simulated. Pressure drop experienced along the system was also measured and the percentage of clots captured was recorded. The Günther Tulip filter showed superiority in all cases, trapping almost 100% of 6mm clots both in an eccentric and tilted position and trapping 81.7% of the 3mm clots in a centered position and 69.3% in a maximum tilted position. The efficiency of all filters tested decreased as the size of the embolus decreased and as the filter was tilted. The injection of 6 clots raised the pressure drop to 4.1mmHg, which is a reasonable value that does not cause the obstruction of blood flow through the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation and Comparison of the Translucency of Two Different All-Ceramic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Sanja; Jurišić, Gordan; Zlatarić, Dubravka Knezović

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the translucency of two different all-ceramic systems using Vita Easyshade digital shade matching device in an in vitro model. Translucency of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press) and zirconia all-ceramic system (Ceramill ZI) were evaluated and compared. A total of 5 square-shaped specimens with 0.5 mm thickness were fabricated from each ceramic system in A1 shade according to Vitapan Classical shade tab. Specimens were then veneered and glazed with corresponding veneer ceramics recommended by each system manufacturer and the total thickness was set to 1.5 mm. Translucency was evaluated using VITA Easyshade in two stages: before and after veneering and glazing on black and white background. Translucency parameter (TP) was calculated. A one-way ANOVA and Bonferonni tests were used when appropriate (α=0.05). Lithium disilicate glass-ceramic was significantly more translucent than the zirconia system in both stages (PTranslucency of all specimens was significantly decreased after veneering and glazing in both all-ceramic systems (Ptranslucency of two different dental ceramics was significantly influenced by both material and stages of preparation. Within the limitations of the experiment, these results can be valuable and help the clinician to make appropriate esthetic decisions.

  18. In vitro characterization of microcontainers as an oral drug delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Petersen, Ritika Singh

    We here present in vitro studies showing the promise of microcontainers (fabricated in either SU-8 or Poly(lactic acid) (PLLA)) as an oral drug delivery system for the poorly watersoluble drug, furosemide.......We here present in vitro studies showing the promise of microcontainers (fabricated in either SU-8 or Poly(lactic acid) (PLLA)) as an oral drug delivery system for the poorly watersoluble drug, furosemide....

  19. Assessment of an in vitro whole cigarette smoke exposure system: The Borgwaldt RM20S 8-syringe smoking machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAughey John

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many recent developments of in vitro cigarette smoke systems closely replicating in vivo exposures. The Borgwaldt RM20S smoking machine (RM20S enables the serial dilution and delivery of cigarette smoke to exposure chambers for in vitro analyses. In this study we have demonstrated reliability and robustness testing of the RM20S in delivering smoke to in vitro cultures using an in-house designed whole smoke exposure chamber. Results The syringe precision and accuracy of smoke dose generated by the RM20S was assessed using a methane gas standard and resulted in a repeatability error of ≤9%. Differential electrical mobility particle spectrometry (DMS measured smoke particles generated from reference 3R4F cigarettes at points along the RM20S. 53% ± 5.9% of particles by mass reached the chamber, the remainder deposited in the syringe or connecting tubing and ~16% deposited in the chamber. Spectrofluorometric quantification of particle deposition within chambers indicated a positive correlation between smoke concentration and particle deposition. In vitro air-liquid interface (ALI cultures (H292 lung epithelial cells, exposed to whole smoke (1:60 dilution (smoke:air, equivalent to ~5 μg/cm2 demonstrated uniform smoke delivery within the chamber. Conclusions These results suggest this smoke exposure system is a reliable and repeatable method of generating and exposing ALI in vitro cultures to cigarette smoke. This system will enable the evaluation of future tobacco products and individual components of cigarette smoke and may be used as an alternative in vitro tool for evaluating other aerosols and gaseous mixtures such as air pollutants, inhaled pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  20. In Vitro Susceptibilities of Candida dubliniensis Isolates Tested against the New Triazole and Echinocandin Antifungal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Messer, S. A.; Gee, S.; Joly, S.; Pujol, C.; Sullivan, D. J.; Coleman, D. C.; Soll, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a newly recognized fungal pathogen causing mucosal disease in AIDS patients. Although preliminary studies indicate that most strains of C. dubliniensis are susceptible to established antifungal agents, fluconazole-resistant strains have been detected. Furthermore, fluconazole-resistant strains are easily derived in vitro, and these strains exhibit increased expression of multidrug resistance transporters, especially MDR1. Because of the potential for the development of resistant strains of C. dubliniensis, it is prudent to explore the in vitro activities of several of the newer triazole and echinocandin antifungals against isolates of C. dubliniensis. In this study we tested 71 isolates of C. dubliniensis against the triazoles BMS-207147, Sch 56592, and voriconazole and a representative of the echinocandin class of antifungal agents, MK-0991. We compared the activities of these agents with those of the established antifungal agents fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) by using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microdilution reference methods. Our findings indicate that the vast majority of clinical isolates of C. dubliniensis are highly susceptible to both new and established antifungal agents. Strains with decreased susceptibilities to fluconazole remained susceptible to the investigational agents as well as to amphotericin B and 5FC. The increased potencies of the new triazole and echinocandin antifungal agents may provide effective therapeutic options for the treatment of infections due to C. dubliniensis. PMID:9986880

  1. Spaceport Command and Control System Automation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plano, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The goal of automated testing is to create and maintain a cohesive infrastructure of robust tests that could be run independently on a software package in its entirety. To that end, the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has brought in a large group of interns to work side-by-side with full time employees to do just this work. Thus, our job is to implement the tests that will put SCCS through its paces.

  2. Process Identification through Test on Cryogenic System

    CERN Document Server

    Pezzetti, M; Chadli, M; Coppier, H

    2008-01-01

    UNICOS (UNified Industrial Control System) is the CERN object-based control standard for the cryogenics of the LHC and its experiments. It includes a variety of embedded functions, dedicated to the specific cryogenic processes. To enlarge the capabilities of the standard it is proposed to integrate the parametrical identification step in the control system of large scale cryogenic plants. Different methods of parametrical identification have been tested and the results were combined to obtain a better model. The main objective of the work is to find a compromise between an easy-to-use solution and a good level of process identification model. The study focuses on identification protocol for large delayed system, the measurement consistency and correlation between different inputs and outputs. Furthermore the paper describes in details, the results and the tests carried out on parametrical identification investigations with large scale systems.

  3. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of Ubiquicidin 29-41-{sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ivette Z.; Okazaki, Kayo; Dias, Luis Alberto Pereira; Higa, Olga Z.; Silva, Fabiana M. da; Vieira, Daniel P., E-mail: dpvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Passos, Priscila; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M., E-mail: fabiana@biosintesis.com.br [Laboratorio Biosintesis Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The work carried out cytotoxicity tests using a radiopharmaceutical compound produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP to certify its safety through in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Since 2009, the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA) requires that such tests have to be carried out following good laboratory practices (GLP) and in according to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) guidelines in order to certify its safety for medical use. Those guidelines comprises series of technical recommendations performed to assure quality of experiments. The study chose Ubiquicidin 29-41, an antimicrobial peptide used to discriminate bacterial infection foci from inflammatory sites. Amounts of UBI{sub 29-41} were conjugated or not to {sup 99m}Tc and diluted to equivalent concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000% of the maximum dose (or activity) administered in adults. Possible cytotoxic effects were evaluated in comparison to untreated controls as well as positive and negative damage controls. Both full (radioactive) radiopharmaceuticals, as their precursors (only molecules without conjugation to isotopes) showed no significant cytotoxic effect (cytotoxicity ≤ 10%). The study was conducted for the first time in the country comprising preclinical testing of this radiopharmaceutical in accordance with internationally accepted quality parameters, ensuring the safety of its use and enabling inclusion in the pharmaceutical regulatory agenda. (author)

  4. The 21th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishiba, Yoshimasa; Shimizu, Taeko [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Kousaka, Tadako; Kobayashi, Hisae; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tsushima, Toshio; Hoshino, Minoru; Mori, Mikio

    2000-10-01

    The quality control survey in the title has been conducted every year from 1978 to improve the quality of the in vitro tests and this report gives the survey results done in 1999. The survey was performed in 133 facilities out of 283 in Japan, which involved 18 national and public university hospitals, 16 private university hospitals, 19 national and public hospitals, 18 private hospitals, 41 hygiene test institutes and 21 reagent manufacturers. Tests examined were on 6 substances related to functions of pituitary, 5 of thyroid function, 1 of parathyroid, 4 of digestive-pancreas, 5 of gonad-placenta, 4 of adrenal and 1 of renal-blood pressure regulation, on IgE, on digoxin and on 11 tumor-related substances. Tests were done on 2 - 3 samples supplied from the Committee and for reproducibility for within-day, between-day, effects of freeze-thaw and periodic variation after thawing. Methods involved those using non-radioisotopes like enzyme immunoassay as well as those using radioactive isotopes like radioimmunoassay. Results given by the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation for each kit, were analyzed for within-kit (between-facility) variation and between-kit (between-reagent) variation by one way analysis of variance. Findings were similar to those previously reported without the particular new problem; however, the committee considered that the survey should be done with human serum as a matrix especially for samples with a high matrix effect in future. (K.H.)

  5. In vitro and in vivo assessment of matrix type transdermal therapeutic system of labetalol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ashu; Parmar, Shikha; Singh, Brijendra

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to develop and evaluate matrix type transdermal therapeutic systems containing new polymeric combinations (Eudragit E PO/Eudragit RL 100 & Plasdone S 630) as polymers and Labetalol Hydrochloride (LBHCl) as a model drug. The matrix type TTS of LBHCl were prepared by film casting technique. The patches were characterized for physical, in vitro release studies & ex-vivo permeation studies (human cadaver skin). On the basis of in vitro drug release and skin permeation performance, formulation A1 was found to be better than the other formulations and it was selected as the optimized formulation. The optimized patch was assessed for its pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, skin irritation potential, and stability studies. The maximum percentage drug release & Permeation in 48 hrs were 92.43 % and 76.24 % respectively for optimized patch. The Korsmeyer peppas release exponent value of 0.604 suggested release mechanism towards first order release in the optimized formulation. The results obtained from the in vivo characterization of the optimized patch showed sustained action of the developed formulation. The interaction studies analysis indicated no chemical interaction between the drug and polymers. The optimized patch was seemingly free of potentially hazardous skin irritation as suggested by skin irritation score of 0.915<2.00 (under Draize score test). The optimized formulation was found to be stable at ambient storage conditions. The above TTS holds promise for improved bioavailability and better management of hypertension on long term basis.

  6. Biocompatible and bioactive nanostructured glass coatings synthesized by pulsed laser deposition: In vitro biological tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, A.C.; Sima, F.; Duta, L.; Popescu, C.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-54, RO-77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Capitanu, D. [S.C. Medical SRL, Nasta Hospital, Bucharest (Romania); Mustata, R.; Sima, L.E.; Petrescu, S.M. [Institute of Biochemistry, Romanian Academy, Splaiul Independentei 296, Bucharest (Romania); Janackovic, D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2009-03-01

    We report on the synthesis by pulsed laser deposition with a KrF* excimer laser source ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} = 25 ns) of bioglass thin films of 6P57 and 6P61 types. Physiology, viability, and proliferation of human osteoblast cells were determined by quantitative in vitro tests performed by flow cytometry on primary osteoblasts cultured on pulsed laser deposited bioglasses. Both types of glass films proved to be appropriate mediums for cell survival and proliferation. In a parallel investigation, cell morphology and adhesion to the surface was studied by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Strong bonds between the materials and cells were found in both cases, as osteoblast pseudopodes penetrated deep into the material. According to our observations, the 6P57 glass films were superior with respect to viability and proliferation performances.

  7. In vitro testing of defense reactions in zygotic and somatic embryos of Abies numidica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense of desiccated cotyledonary somatic embryos and mature zygotic embryos of Abies numidica was tested in vitro by dual cultures with tester, fungus Phaeolus schweinitzii. Both types of embryos expressed defense reactions manifested by inhibited growth of fungal tester towards the embryos. Mycelial growth was described by logistic sigmoid growth model with a single asymptote. Mutual comparisons of mycelial growth in presence of zygotic and somatic embryos showed significant differences in parameters of mycelium growth curves towards the embryos. Larger defense reactions were observed in zygotic embryos relative to somatic embryos and unlimited control cultivations without embryo. The possible role of auxin in the defense response of plant embryos is discussed.

  8. Mucolytic Activity Test of Shallot Extract (Allium Ascalonicum L) by in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswati, D. A.; Dhina, M. A.; Mubaroq, S. R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the results of research on the mucolytic activity of shallot extract is proportional to 0.2% N-Acetylcysteine. Shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) is efficacious for treating cough. This research was conducted by examining the mucolytic activity of shallot extract made with various dose concentration 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The mucolytic activity test was performed in vitro based on the decrease in the viscosity of the egg whites by using the Brookfield viscometer. The results showed that shallot extract with dose concentration of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% had mucolytic activity by decreasing the viscosity of egg white solution. The effective concentration almost equal to 0.2% N-Acetylcysteine is at 25% concentration.

  9. Bacterial challenge of NISSHO ultrafilter ETF 609: results of in vitro testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautzig, S; Lonnemann, G; Shaldon, S; Koch, K M

    1996-07-01

    In hemodialysis, a certain degree of bacterial contamination on the dialysate side is a regular finding. Concern has been growing that this contamination may lead to a chronic inflammatory response in the patient. Ultrafiltration of dialysate can be used to reduce bacterial content and levels of cytokine-inducing substances upstream of the patient's dialyzer. The aim of this study was to test in vitro the rejection capacity of a polysulfone hollow-fiber ultrafilter (ETF 609, NISSHO Co., Osaka, Japan) challenged with bacterial filtrates derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA103. Results showed a reduction of interleukin-1 beta-inducing activity (measured on peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from 5,035 +/- 394 pg/ml prefilter to nondetectable levels postfilter and endotoxin levels (limulus amebocyte lysate assay) of 4,167 +/- 1,079 versus 12 +/- 2 pg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, ultrafiltration of dialysate with the polysulfone ultrafilter ETF 609 leads to a potent reduction of cytokine-inducing activity.

  10. Biocompatibility of dielectric Ta2O5 coatings in in vitro tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkov, N.; Mateev, E.; Zykova, A.; Safonov, V.; Luk'yanchenko, V.

    2010-04-01

    A study was performed on the impact of the structure and properties of e-beam evaporated Ta2O5 films on the cell/material response. The surface properties and structure the films were investigated by means of XPS and XRD. The cyto toxicity and cyto compatibility were estimated by in vitro tests. Other parameters, such as the surface free energy (SFE) and fractional polarity, were determined by means of the Wu, and Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble methods. The dependence was followed of the cells adhesive behavior on the coatings surface composition and parameters. The best biological response parameters (total cell number, detached cells percentage, proliferation ratio) were obtained in the case of annealed Ta2O5 coatings with stoichiometric composition and the largest values of the SFE polar part and the of the fractional polarity.

  11. In vitro human digestion test to monitor the dissolution of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, P.; Malvindi, M. A.; Sabella, S.

    2017-06-01

    Nanotechnology is a scientific revolution that the food industry has experienced over the last years. Widely employed as food additives and/or food contact materials in consumer products, silver nanoparticles are an example of this innovation. However, their increasing use makes also likely the human ingestion, thus requiring a proper risk analysis. In this framework, a comprehensive characterization of biotransformation of silver nanoparticles in biological fluids is fundamental for the regulatory needs. Herein, we aimed at studying the dissolution behaviour of silver nanoparticles using an in vitro test, which simulates the human oral ingestion of NPs during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The nanoparticle suspensions were characterized in the different digestion phases using several techniques to follow the changes of key physical properties (e.g., size, surface charge and plasmon peak) and to quantify the biotransformed products arisen by the process, as for example free silver ions.

  12. Influence of test parameters on in vitro fracture resistance of post-endodontic restorations: a structured review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naumann, M.; Metzdorf, G.; Fokkinga, W.A.; Watzke, R.; Sterzenbach, G.; Bayne, S.; Rosentritt, M.

    2009-01-01

    A structured literature review aimed to elucidate test parameters for in vitro testing of post-endodontic restorations. The literature was digitally searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE, MedPilot and an additional hand search was performed. Two independent researchers assessed the articles in relation to

  13. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, J.A.Y.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Haan, de L.H.J.; Koning, R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bovee, T.F.H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on

  14. Optical Blade Position Tracking System Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingersh, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    The Optical Blade Position Tracking System Test measures the blade deflection along the span of the blade using simple off-the-shelf infrared security cameras along with blade-mounted retro-reflective tape and video image processing hardware and software to obtain these measurements.

  15. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry.

  16. Testing the LHC magnet cryogenic systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The magnets in the LHC will be cooled to 1.9 K (- 270.3°C). To keep this 27 km long machine at such a low temperatures requires one of the largest refrigeration systems in the world. These pictures show the cryogenics plant in the testing area.

  17. Developing a solar panel testing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Rácz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is increasingly used togenerate electricity for individual households. There isa wide variety of solar panel technologies, whichshould be tested at an individual level during theirlifetime. In this paper, the development of a testingstation at the University of Debrecen is presented. Thetesting system can be used for research andeducational purposes and for in field applicationsequally well.

  18. Retained gas sampler system acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, N.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-18

    Acceptance test results for the Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS) obtained in the 306E laboratory are reported. The RGSS will be utilized to retrieve and analyze samples from the Hanford flammable gas watch-list tanks to determine the quantity and chemistry of gases confined within the waste.

  19. Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using the Ames test and in vitro micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, David H; Yan, Jian; Chen, Ying; Mittelstaedt, Roberta A; Zhang, Yongbin; Biris, Alexandru S; Heflich, Robert H; Chen, Tao

    2012-06-14

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antimicrobial properties, which have contributed to their widespread use in consumer products. A current issue regarding nanomaterials is the extent to which existing genotoxicity assays are useful for evaluating the risks associated with their use. In this study, the genotoxicity of 5 nm AgNPs was assessed using two standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. Using the preincubation version of the Ames assay, Salmonella strains TA102, TA100, TA1537, TA98, and TA1535 were treated with 0.15-76.8 μg/plate of the AgNPs. Toxicity limited the doses that could be assayed to 2.4-38.4 μg/plate; no increases in mutant frequency over the vehicle control were found for the concentrations that could be assayed. Human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were treated with 10-30 μg/ml AgNPs, and additional cells were treated with water and 0.73 gy X-rays as vehicle and positive controls. Micronucleus frequency was increased by the AgNP treatment in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 30 μg/ml (with 45.4% relative population doubling), AgNPs induced a significant, 3.17-fold increase with a net increase of 1.60% in micronucleus frequency over the vehicle control, a weak positive response by our criteria. These results demonstrate that the 5 nm AgNP are genotoxic in TK6 cells. Also, the data suggest that the in vitro micronucleus assay may be more appropriate than the Ames test for evaluating the genotoxicity of the AgNPs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Development of a discriminative biphasic in vitro dissolution test and correlation with in vivo pharmacokinetic studies for differently formulated racecadotril granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jia; Staufenbiel, Sven; Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Dashevskiy, Andriy; Bodmeier, Roland

    2017-06-10

    The purpose of this study was to discriminate the release behavior from three differently formulated racecadotril (BCS II) granules and to establish an in vitro-in vivo correlation. Three granule formulations of the lipophilic drug were prepared with equivalent composition but prepared with different manufacturing processes (dry granulation, wet granulation with or without binder). In vitro release of the three granules was investigated using a biphasic dissolution system (phosphate buffer pH6.8 and octanol) and compared to the conventional single phase USP II dissolution test performed under sink and non-sink conditions. In vivo studies with each granule formulation were performed in rats. Interestingly, the granule formulations exhibited pronouncedly different behavior in the different dissolution systems depending on different wetting and dissolution conditions. Single phase USP II dissolution tests lacked discrimination. In contrast, remarkable discrimination between the granule formulations was observed in the octanol phase of biphasic dissolution system with a rank order of release from granules prepared by wet granulation with binder>wet granulation without binder>dry granulation. This release order correlated well with the wettability of these granules. An excellent correlation was also established between in vitro release in the octanol phase of the biphasic test and in vivo data (R(2)=0.999). Compared to conventional dissolution methods, the biphasic method provides great potential to discriminate between only minor formulation and process changes within the same dosage form for poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Scholtens, Brekke E.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient methods for characterizing thermal performance of materials under cryogenic and vacuum conditions have been developed. These methods provide thermal conductivity data on materials under actual-use conditions and are complementary to established methods. The actual-use environment of full temperature difference in combination with vacuum-pressure is essential for understanding insulation system performance. Test articles include solids, foams, powders, layered blankets, composite panels, and other materials. Test methodology and apparatus design for several insulation test cryostats are discussed. The measurement principle is liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry. Heat flux capability ranges from approximately 0.5 to 500 watts per square meter; corresponding apparent thermal conductivity values range from below 0.01 up to about 60 mW/m- K. Example data for different insulation materials are also presented. Upon further standardization work, these patented insulation test cryostats can be available to industry for a wide range of practical applications.

  2. Induction of the acrosome reaction test to in vitro estimate embryo production in Nelore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of induction of the acrosome reaction (AR test as a parameter to in vitro estimate embryo production (IVP in Nelore breed and the AR pattern by the Trypan Blue/Giemsa (TB stain were evaluated. Frozen semen samples from ten Nelore bulls were submitted to AR induction and were also evaluated for cleavage and blastocyst rates. The treatments utilized for AR induction were: control (TALP medium, TH (TALP medium + 10μg heparin, TL (TALP medium + 100μg lysophosphatidylcholine and THL (TALP medium + 10μg heparin + 100μg lysophosphatidylcholine. Sperm acrosomal status and viability were evaluated by TB staining at 0 and after 4h incubation at 38°C. The results obtained for AR presented a significant difference (P<0.05 in the percentage of acrosome reacted live sperm after 4h of incubation in the treatments that received heparin. The cleavage and blastocyst rates were 60% and 38% respectively and a significant difference was observed among bulls (P<0.05. It was founded a satisfactory model to estimate the cleavage and blastocyst rates by AR induction test. Therefore, it can be concluded that the induction of the AR test is a valuable tool to predict the IVP in Nelore breed.

  3. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro

  4. Performance Test for the SIGMA Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonyeong Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific CubeSat with Instruments for Global Magnetic Fields and Radiations (SIGMA is a 3-U size CubeSat that will be operated in low earth orbit (LEO. The SIGMA communication system uses a very high frequency (VHF band for uplink and an ultra high frequency (UHF band for downlink. Both frequencies belong to an amateur band. The ground station that communicates with SIGMA is located at Kyung Hee Astronomical Observatory (KHAO. For reliable communication, we carried out a laboratory (LAB test and far-field tests between the CubeSat and a ground station. In the field test, we considered test parameters such as attenuation, antenna deployment, CubeSat body attitude, and Doppler frequency shift in transmitting commands and receiving data. In this paper, we present a communication performance test of SIGMA, a link budget analysis, and a field test process. We also compare the link budget with the field test results of transmitting commands and receiving data.

  5. Different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs from vitrified ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Dattena, M; Mayorga Muñoz, I M

    2015-02-01

    It has been reported that different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs. The aim of this study was to test body weight and lambing rate of lambs born from five different in vitro culture systems after vitrification. Oocytes of Sarda sheep were matured in TCM-199 plus 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) using systems: (i) 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA4); (ii) 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA8); (iii) BSA8-hyaluronan (BSA8-HA); (iv) BSA8-charcoal-stripped FBS (BSA8-CH); or (v) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; serum) and fertilized with fresh semen. The presumptive zygotes were cultured up to the blastocyst stage with BSA8, BSA8-HA, BSA8-CH or serum or BSA4. In the third and fifth days of culture 5% charcoal-stripped FBS was added into BSA8-CH and serum, while 8 mg/ml or 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA was added as BSA8, BSA8-HA and BSA4 respectively; 6 mg/ml HA was added to BSA8-HA. In total, 240 vitrified blastocysts were transferred into synchronized ewes. The lambing rate was not significant different between BSA groups or between serum groups (BSA8-CH and serum), while serum groups showed significant lower values when compared with BSA groups. Only BSA8 groups produced heavy lambs (≥4.5 kg) with a significant difference between BSA4 and BSA8 groups (P < 0.05).

  6. In vitro cell culture, platelet adhesion tests and in vivo implant tests of plasma-polymerized para-xylene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Man [Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yeh, Chou-Ming, E-mail: cmchou4301@gmail.com [Taichung Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chung, Chi-Jen [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); He, Ju-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-09-01

    Plasma-polymerized para-xylene (PPX) was developed in a previous study by adjusting the process parameters: pulse frequency of the power supply (ω{sub p}) and para-xylene monomer flow rate (f{sub p}). All the obtained PPX films exhibit an amorphous structure and present hydrophobicity (water contact angle ranging from 98.5° to 121.1°), higher film growth rate and good fibroblast cell proliferation. In this study, in vitro tests (fibroblast cell compatibility and platelet adhesion) and an in vivo animal study were performed by using PPX deposited industrial-grade silicone sheets (IGS) and compared with medical-grade silicone ones (MS), which were commonly manufactured into catheters or drainage tubes in clinical use. The results reveal that PPX deposited at high ω{sub p} or high f{sub p}, in comparison with MS, exhibit better cell proliferation and clearly shows less cell adhesion regardless of ω{sub p} and f{sub p}. PPX also exhibit a comparatively lower level of platelet adhesion than MS. In the animal study, PPX-coated IGS result in similar local tissue responses at 3, 7 and 28 days (short-term) and 84 days (long-term) after subcutaneous implantation the abdominal wall of rodents compared with respective responses to MS. These results suggest that PPX-coated industrial-grade silicone is one alternative to high cost medical-grade silicone.

  7. Integration Tests of the Muon System

    CERN Multimedia

    Cerutti, F; Palestini, S

    A complex large-size prototype of the Muon system is installed in the test area H8B in Prévessin; the set-up includes chambers belonging to the three layers of the Barrel Spectrometer (on the right in Figure 1), and chambers belonging to one octant of the End Cap Spectrometer (center and left side of Figure 1). Figure 1: Set-up of the Muon spectrometer integration test. The installation accurately reproduces the geometry of regions of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, with the H8 beam-line crossing the detectors at positions/angles corresponding to particles with polar angle of 75 ± 4 and 15 ± 4 degrees, respectively for the Barrel and the End Cap. A comprehensive test program is being carried out with this set-up, ranging from tests of support frames (octant of the MDT BigWheel and of the SmallWheel) and of handling/installation of tracking chambers, to real-size tests of the alignment systems, together with accurate studies of performance and calibration of the precision chambers, and with develo...

  8. Development of an automated ultrasonic testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuxiang, Jiao; Wong, Brian Stephen

    2005-04-01

    Non-Destructive Testing is necessary in areas where defects in structures emerge over time due to wear and tear and structural integrity is necessary to maintain its usability. However, manual testing results in many limitations: high training cost, long training procedure, and worse, the inconsistent test results. A prime objective of this project is to develop an automatic Non-Destructive testing system for a shaft of the wheel axle of a railway carriage. Various methods, such as the neural network, pattern recognition methods and knowledge-based system are used for the artificial intelligence problem. In this paper, a statistical pattern recognition approach, Classification Tree is applied. Before feature selection, a thorough study on the ultrasonic signals produced was carried out. Based on the analysis of the ultrasonic signals, three signal processing methods were developed to enhance the ultrasonic signals: Cross-Correlation, Zero-Phase filter and Averaging. The target of this step is to reduce the noise and make the signal character more distinguishable. Four features: 1. The Auto Regressive Model Coefficients. 2. Standard Deviation. 3. Pearson Correlation 4. Dispersion Uniformity Degree are selected. And then a Classification Tree is created and applied to recognize the peak positions and amplitudes. Searching local maximum is carried out before feature computing. This procedure reduces much computation time in the real-time testing. Based on this algorithm, a software package called SOFRA was developed to recognize the peaks, calibrate automatically and test a simulated shaft automatically. The automatic calibration procedure and the automatic shaft testing procedure are developed.

  9. Development of an in vitro system for the analysis of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of natural killer cell activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersey, Peter; Magrath, Helene (Royal Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle (Australia). Mater Misericordiae Hospital Oncology and Immunology Unit); Wilkinson, Frank (National Measurement Lab., Sydney, NSW (Australia))

    1993-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that natural killer (NK) cell activity was suppressed in volunteer subjects exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from solarium lamps. The present studies were carried out to determine the spectrum of UVR responsible for suppression of NK activity and to develop in vitro methods to analyze the effectiveness of sunscreen agents in prevention of UVR-mediated suppression of NK activity and other aspects of immune function. These studies suggest that when the greater proportion of UV-A in solar radiation and its greater penetration into skin is taken into account, UV-A may have equivalent or greater direct immunosuppressive effects than UV-B. The mechanisms of their immunosuppressive effects may, however, differ. The in vitro system described here would appear to provide a simple test system for further analysis of UVR-induced immunosuppression. (Author).

  10. INFORMATION SYSTEM ELAB FOR ACCREDITED TESTING LABORATORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sytovа

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles of organization and algorithms of information system eLab operation for accredited testing laboratories based on free software are described. The system runs under Windows and Linux. The work is carried out through the Web-interface in multi-user mode with the sharing the access rights through widely distributed browsers installed on the users' desktops. The software composition, problems of security and the enhancement of the functionality of the system, as well as the organizational chart of the software and the hierarchy of basic classes are discussed in detail. The algorithm of secure connection to the database and the algorithm for installation of the system software on the server are given.

  11. System of Non-Destructive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Čače

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the initial analysis of NDT laboratory is presented by means of agent-based modelling. For the purpose of analysis, laboratory is taken into account as a complex system consisting of three agents; equipment, personnel and specimens. Interaction between the agents is circular. In that sense, the agents are mutually interconnected in a way that one agent simultaneously interacts with others.According to the interactions specific for NDT laboratories, the response of total testing time is presented considering various number of laboratory personnel while each operator has different skills and ability. Agent personnel has to perform testing of specimens. Since the complexity of specimens is quite diverse the specimens are represented as an agent. Additionally, during the whole time sequence of testing a certain specimen, operator is using NDT equipment relevant for the testing method, while the particular time of usage of the equipment can be shorter than the whole testing time. Availability of the equipment is therefore another agent. The evaluated outcome is the total testing time.Presented results are obtained carrying out a simulation by means of multi-agent modelling and simulation tool named “ENTORAMA”. Finally, the overall laboratory's performance is given in the respect of the number and structure of the laboratory personnel.

  12. An in vitro comparison of fluorescence-aided caries excavation and conventional excavation by microhardness testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Guangyun; Zhu, Laikuan; Xu, Xiaohui; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare fluorescence-aided caries excavation with conventional excavation based on the Martens and Vickers hardness of dentin at the cavity floor after caries removal. In total, 20 extracted human teeth with dentin caries were bisected through the lesion center into two halves, which were assigned to either the fluorescence-aided caries excavation group or the conventional excavation group. After the treatment, embedding, mounting, and polishing, a line of indentations from the dental pulp across the sound dentin to the cavity floor was made on each sample. The data were compared with Student's t and Mann-Whitney U tests. The calculated Vickers hardness of the sound dentin was 57 ± 10 kg/mm(2) in the fluorescence-aided caries excavation group and 59 ± 8 kg/mm(2) in the conventional excavation group, which is consistent with the previous studies. The absolute and relative Martens hardness measurements of the cavity floor were 224 ± 93 N/mm(2) and 46 ± 17%, respectively, in the fluorescence-aided caries excavation group and 412 ± 75 N/mm(2) and 81 ± 14%, respectively, in the conventional excavation group. Based on either the Martens or Vickers hardness, both the absolute and relative microhardness measurements of the cavity floor after fluorescence-aided caries excavation were significantly lower than the values obtained by conventional excavation. Fluorescence-aided caries excavation showed the tissue-preserving property and was more conservative than the conventional excavation in this in vitro study.

  13. Flight testing an integrated synthetic vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  14. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  15. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2005-01-01

    This research is aimed at testing gravitational theory, primarily on an interplanetary scale and using mainly observations of objects in the solar system. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements.

  16. In-vitro evaluation of the PediaSat continuous central venous oxygenation monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Werner; Spielmann, Nelly; Zaiter, Hassan; Lijovic, Tomislav; Bettex, Dominique; Bürki, Christoph; Weiss, Markus

    2010-03-01

    In-vitro performance of the PediaSat system for continuous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry has been evaluated. PediaSat continuous fibre-optic oximetry catheters were inserted in a black testing chamber, connected with an extracorporeal circuit and filled with human whole blood. Oxygen inflow into the cardiopulmonary bypass system was varied, and the testing chamber was perfused with blood flow of 1000 ml min(-1). Oxygen saturation values measured by PediaSat (S PediaSat O2) were compared with cooximetry (S CO-OX O2) values from simultaneously taken blood samples by Bland-Altman and simple regression analyses. Fifty data pairs were obtained. S PediaSat O2 and S CO-OX O2 values ranged between 28-98 and 24.9-99.5%, respectively. Correlation between S PediSat O2 and S CO-OX O2 was high with an r2 value equal to 0.96 (P central venous oxygen saturation.

  17. Porous ceramic lamellae for orthodontic ceramic brackets: part II: in vitro performance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, S; Minors, C J; Messer, P F

    1997-07-01

    This study was undertaken to test a new and original orthodontic bracket base, consisting of a porous lamella, which was designed to facilitate removal of ceramic brackets from the enamel surface after treatment. In the phase of the study presented here, two types of lamella and the adhesive resin used to bond them to brackets and teeth, were evaluated in vitro. Two types of test were carried out on bracketed teeth. The tensile bond strength was measured for specimens that had been either kept in water for 24 h at 37 degrees C or subjected to 18000 cycles in water between 6 degrees C and 55 degrees C. The stress required to remove brackets with debracketing pliers was measured and the mode of failure recorded for specimens that had been kept in water for 24 h at 37 degrees C. The results indicate that bracket/lamella assemblies can be bonded to enamel sufficiently strongly for clinical application and can be safely removed without damage to enamel.

  18. Summary. The 19th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishiba, Yoshimasa; Shimizu, Taeko [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Kousaka, Tadako; Kobayashi, Hisae; Tsushima, Toshio; Hoshino, Minoru; Mori, Mikio

    1998-11-01

    This summary concerns results of the survey in the title performed by the Subcommittee for Radioisotope in vitro Test in the Medical and Pharmaceutical Committee, Japan Radioisotope Association. The survey was conducted in 161 facilities in Japan including public and private hospitals, health institutes and reagent manufacturers. Samples were sent to the facilities and subjected to examinations of intra- and inter-day reproducibility, freeze-thawing effects and periodical changes of the measured values. Methods employed were RIA, IRMA, EIA, ELISA, LPIA, PAMIA, FIA, FPIA, NIA, LAT, CLIA and ECLIA. Results were analyzed by variation coefficients in the kit and between the kits. Samples were for: growth hormone, somatomedin C, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroxine binding globulin, calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, gastrin, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, {beta}human chorionic gonadotropin, 17{alpha}-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, renin, immunogloblin E, digoxin, {alpha}-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, {beta}{sub 2}-microgloblin and ferritin. Results were found rather unsatistactory for some products in the clinical practice, necessary for improvement of detection for some tests and needed for some kits for solving the problems of difference between kits and of matrix effect. (K.H)

  19. Use of HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry for detection of formazan in in vitro Reconstructed human Tissue (RhT)-based test methods employing the MTT-reduction assay to expand their applicability to strongly coloured test chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alépée, N; Barroso, J; De Smedt, A; De Wever, B; Hibatallah, J; Klaric, M; Mewes, K R; Millet, M; Pfannenbecker, U; Tailhardat, M; Templier, M; McNamee, P

    2015-06-01

    A number of in vitro test methods using Reconstructed human Tissues (RhT) are regulatory accepted for evaluation of skin corrosion/irritation. In such methods, test chemical corrosion/irritation potential is determined by measuring tissue viability using the photometric MTT-reduction assay. A known limitation of this assay is possible interference of strongly coloured test chemicals with measurement of formazan by absorbance (OD). To address this, Cosmetics Europe evaluated use of HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry as an alternative formazan measurement system. Using the approach recommended by the FDA guidance for validation of bio-analytical methods, three independent laboratories established and qualified their HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry systems to reproducibly measure formazan from tissue extracts. Up to 26 chemicals were then tested in RhT test systems for eye/skin irritation and skin corrosion. Results support that: (1) HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry formazan measurement is highly reproducible; (2) formazan measurement by HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry and OD gave almost identical tissue viabilities for test chemicals not exhibiting colour interference nor direct MTT reduction; (3) independent of the test system used, HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry can measure formazan for strongly coloured test chemicals when this is not possible by absorbance only. It is therefore recommended that HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry to measure formazan be included in the procedures of in vitro RhT-based test methods, irrespective of the test system used and the toxicity endpoint evaluated to extend the applicability of these test methods to strongly coloured chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SQL Injection Test System for Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatkovski, Dragi; Suteva, Natasa; Mileva, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a new web application as a vulnerable testing system for SQL injection attacks. Its purpose is to give opportunity to students of Computer security courses, to explore the nature of these modern attacks, to see how hackers exploit them and to learn how to protect their databases from them. Deployment of SQL injection attack on real web applications is illegal and it is subject to prosecution by law. With this software, we protect our students, and in the same time...

  1. Airborne Optical Systems Test Bed (AOSTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    the operator GUI 5 for onboard data processing, configured many of the computer systems, and helped perform months of testing of the sensor both...coated broadband mirror, and is directed by a periscope downwards and to the RSMA scan mirror. A safety shutter exists on a motorized flip mount...emergency. The shutter consists of a motorized flip mount with a flat mirror 31 that is out of the beam path for propagation, and in the beam path when

  2. Situated Usability Testing for Security Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-03-02

    While usability testing is well established, assessing the usability of security software, tools, or methods deserves more careful consideration. It has been argued that dealing with security has become too difficult for individuals or organizations to manage effectively or to use conveniently. As difficult as it is for system administrators and developers to deal with, security is even more challenging for casual users. Indeed, it is much too easy for casual/home users to configure the security of their systems in non-optimal ways that leave their systems inadvertently insecure. This is exacerbated by the fact that casual users are focused on matters other than security, and likely would prefer not even to think about security. This brief report argues that when security and/or privacy are part of the equation, traditional methods for usability testing should be re-considered. The purpose of this brief report is to argue for and outline a method associated with a new approach to usability testing for examining usable security issues.

  3. Launch Control System Software Development System Automation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) launch control system for the Orion capsule and Space Launch System, the next generation manned rocket currently in development. This system requires high quality testing that will measure and test the capabilities of the system. For the past two years, the Exploration and Operations Division at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has assigned a group including interns and full-time engineers to develop automated tests to save the project time and money. The team worked on automating the testing process for the SCCS GUI that would use streamed simulated data from the testing servers to produce data, plots, statuses, etc. to the GUI. The software used to develop automated tests included an automated testing framework and an automation library. The automated testing framework has a tabular-style syntax, which means the functionality of a line of code must have the appropriate number of tabs for the line to function as intended. The header section contains either paths to custom resources or the names of libraries being used. The automation library contains functionality to automate anything that appears on a desired screen with the use of image recognition software to detect and control GUI components. The data section contains any data values strictly created for the current testing file. The body section holds the tests that are being run. The function section can include any number of functions that may be used by the current testing file or any other file that resources it. The resources and body section are required for all test files; the data and function sections can be left empty if the data values and functions being used are from a resourced library or another file. To help equip the automation team with better tools, the Project Lead of the Automated Testing Team, Jason Kapusta, assigned the task to install and train an optical character recognition (OCR

  4. Electronic Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL) User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTL. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  5. Degradation behaviour of LAE442-based plate–screw-systems in an in vitro bone model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, Leonie [Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover (Germany); Besdo, Silke [Institute of Continuum Mechanics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 11, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Angrisani, Nina [Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover (Germany); Wriggers, Peter [Institute of Continuum Mechanics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 11, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Hering, Britta [Institute of Production Engineering and Machine Tools, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Seitz, Jan-Marten [Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Reifenrath, Janin, E-mail: janin.reifenrath@tiho-hannover.de [Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    The use of absorbable implant materials for fixation after bone fracture helps to avoid a second surgery for implant removal and the risks and costs involved. Magnesium (Mg) is well known as a potential metallic material for degradable implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate if degradable LAE442-based magnesium plate–screw-systems are suitable candidates for osteosynthesis implants in load-bearing bones. The corrosion behaviour was tested concerning the influence of different surface treatments, coatings and screw torques. Steel plates and screws of the same size served as control. Plates without special treatment screwed on up to a specified torque of 15 cNm or 7 cNm, NaOH treated plates (15 cNm), magnesium fluoride coated plates (15 cNm) and steel plates as control (15 cNm) were examined in pH-buffered, temperature-controlled SBF solution for two weeks. The experimental results indicate that the LAE442 plates and screws coated with magnesium fluoride revealed a lower hydrogen evolution in SBF solution as well as a lower weight loss and volume decrease in μ-computed tomography (μCT). The nanoindentation and SEM/EDX measurements at several plate areas showed no significant differences. Summarized, the different screw torques did not affect the corrosion behaviour differently. Also the NaOH treatment seemed to have no essential influence on the degradation kinetics. The plates coated with magnesium fluoride showed a decreased corrosion rate. Hence, it is recommended to consider this coating for the next in vivo study. - Highlights: • Mg-based plate screw systems were examined in an in vitro corrosion setup. • Different screw torques did not affect the corrosion behaviour. • Pretreatment with NaOH showed no increase in corrosion resistance. • Fluoride coating slowed down the corrosion rate of plates. • Fluoride coating might be an alternative for decrease of corrosion rate in vivo.

  6. Regulation of embryonic size in early mouse development in vitro culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaki, Tomoka; Kawai, Ikuma; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko; Kano, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Mammals self-regulate their body size throughout development. In the uterus, embryos are properly regulated to be a specific size at birth. Previously, size and cell number in aggregated embryos, which were made from two or more morulae, and half embryos, which were halved at the 2-cell stage, have been analysed in vivo in preimplantation and post-implantation development in mice. Here, we examined whether or not the mouse embryo has the capacity to self-regulate growth using an in vitro culture system. To elucidate embryonic histology, cells were counted in aggregated or half embryos in comparison with control embryos. Both double- and triple-aggregated embryos contained more cells than did control embryos during all culture periods, and the relative growth ratios showed no growth inhibition in an in vitro culture system. Meanwhile, half embryos contained fewer cells than control embryos, but the number grew throughout the culture period. Our data suggest that the growth of aggregated embryos is not affected and continues in an in vitro culture system. On the other hand, the growth of half embryos accelerates and continues in an in vitro culture system. This situation, in turn, implied that post-implantation mouse embryos might have some potential to regulate their own growth and size as seen by using an in vitro culture system without uterus factors. In conclusion, our results indicated that embryos have some ways in which to regulate their own size in mouse early development.

  7. Laser thermal shock and fatigue testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Vincenzo; Serri, Laura; Bianchi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Thermal fatigue consists in repeatedly cycling the temperature of a specimen under test without any other constraint and stopping the test when predefined damage aspects. The result is a lifetime in terms of number of cycles. The parameters of the thermal cycle are the following: minimum and maximum temperature, time of heating, of cooling and time at high or at low temperature. When the temperature jump is very big and fast, phenomena of thermal shock can be induced. Among the numerous techniques used to perform these tests, the laser thermal fatigue cycling is very effective when fast heating of small and localized zones is required. That's the case of test performed to compare new and repaired blades of turbogas machines or components of combustion chambers of energy power plants. In order to perform these tests a thermal fatigue system, based on 1 kW Nd-YAG laser as source of heating, has been developed. The diameter of the heated zone of the specimen irradiated by the laser is in the range 0.5 - 20 mm. The temperatures can be chosen between 200 degree(s)C and 1500 degree(s)C and the piece can be maintained at high and/or low temperature from 0 s to 300 s. Temperature are measured by two sensors: a pyrometer for the high range (550 - 1500 degree(s)C) and a contactless thermocouple for the low range (200 - 550 degree(s)C). Two different gases can be blown on the specimen in the irradiated spot or in sample backside to speed up cooling phase. A PC-based control unit with a specially developed software performs PID control of the temperature cycle by fast laser power modulation. A high resolution vision system of suitable magnification is connected to the control unit to detect surface damages on the specimen, allowing real time monitoring of the tested zone as well as recording and reviewing the images of the sample during the test. Preliminary thermal fatigue tests on flat specimens of INCONEL 738 and HAYNES 230 are presented. IN738 samples, laser cladded by

  8. In vitro biomechanical testing of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: traditional versus physiologically relevant load analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Mark; Palathinkal, Darren M; Beaupre, Lauren; Otto, Dave; Leung, Paul; Amirfazli, A

    2011-06-01

    Various anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft-fixation devices exist. In this in vitro study a comparison of biomechanical characteristics of the cross-pin and button type fixation devices under practical rehabilitation loads was done. Forty bovine knees and hoof extensor tendons were harvested. After disarticulation, the femoral end of an ACL was prepared with either fixation, using the extensor tendon as graft. The mechanical test was either a single load to failure or load to failure after cycling loads. Twenty specimens were loaded to failure at a rate of 1mm/s, remaining specimens were cycled between 50 and 250 N for 1000 cycles then failure tested in a similar manner. Results show that both forms of fixation are able to withstand loads that exceed those observed in performing functional activities. Activity-specific stiffness (loads comparable to walking, jogging and stair descent) was lower than linear stiffness for both endobutton and cross-pin, without prior cycling. After cycling, activity-specific stiffness increased to linear stiffness values for the cross-pin for all activities. Thus, suggesting that the cross-pin provides a more rigid fixation after initial implantation over a wider range of activities, which would theoretically permit a more aggressive rehabilitation protocol and possibly an earlier return to regular activity. In contrast, activity-specific stiffness increased above linear stiffness values for the endobutton only under heavier loads (jogging and stair descent). Dynamic stiffness was higher and displacement lower for cross-pin throughout the cycle test. These results indicate, in ACL reconstruction, that graft complex stiffness should be considered at relevant loads only. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A reliable in vitro fruiting system for armillaria mellea for evaluation of agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armillaria mellea is a serious pathogen of horticultural and agricultural systems in Europe and North America. The lack of a reliable in vitro fruiting system has hindered research, and necessitated dependence on intermittently available wild-collected basidiospores. Here we describe a reliable, rep...

  10. Aviation Systems Test and Integration Lab (AvSTIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aviation Systems Test and Integration Laboratory offers an innovative approach to aviation system and subsystem testing by fully immersing aviation platforms in...

  11. Validation of an in vitro digestive system for studying macronutrient decomposition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Schwander, Flurina; Gijs, Martin; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti

    2012-02-01

    The digestive process transforms nutrients and bioactive compounds contained in food to physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion systems have proven to be powerful tools for understanding and monitoring the complex transformation processes that take place during digestion. Moreover, the investigation of the physiological effects of certain nutrients demands an in vitro digestive process that is close to human physiology. In this study, human digestion was simulated with a 3-step in vitro process that was validated in depth by choosing pasteurized milk as an example of a complex food matrix. The evolution and decomposition of the macronutrients was followed over the entire digestive process to the level of intestinal enterocyte action, using protein and peptide analysis by SDS-PAGE, reversed-phase HPLC, size exclusion HPLC, and liquid chromatography-MS. The mean peptide size after in vitro digestion of pasteurized milk was 5-6 amino acids (AA). Interestingly, mostly essential AA (93.6%) were released during in vitro milk digestion, a significantly different relative distribution compared to the total essential AA concentration of bovine milk (44.5%). All TG were degraded to FFA and monoacylglycerols. Herein, we present a human in vitro digestion model validated for its ability to degrade the macronutrients of dairy products comparable to physiological ranges. It is suited to be used in combination with a human intestinal cell culture system, allowing ex vivo bioavailability measurements and assessment of the bioactive properties of food components.

  12. Initial in vitro testing of a paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Karimov, Jamshid H; Horvath, David J; Sunagawa, Gengo; Byram, Nicole A; Kuban, Barry D; Moazami, Nader

    2018-01-19

    Mechanical circulatory support has become standard therapy for adult patients with end-stage heart failure; however, in paediatric patients with congenital heart disease, the options for chronic mechanical circulatory support are limited to paracorporeal devices or off-label use of devices intended for implantation in adults. Congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathy often involve both the left and right ventricles; in such cases, heart transplantation, a biventricular assist device or a total artificial heart is needed to adequately sustain both pulmonary and systemic circulations. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro performance of the initial prototype of our paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart. The paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart pump was downsized from the adult continuous-flow total artificial heart configuration by a scale factor of 0.70 (1/3 of total volume) to enable implantation in infants. System performance of this prototype was evaluated using the continuous-flow total artificial heart mock loop set to mimic paediatric circulation. We generated maps of pump performance and atrial pressure differences over a wide range of systemic vascular resistance/pulmonary vascular resistance and pump speeds. Performance data indicated left pump flow range of 0.4-4.7 l/min at 100 mmHg delta pressure. The left/right atrial pressure difference was maintained within ±5 mmHg with systemic vascular resistance/pulmonary vascular resistance ratios between 1.4 and 35, with/without pump speed modulation, verifying expected passive self-regulation of atrial pressure balance. The paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart prototype met design requirements for self-regulation and performance; in vivo pump performance studies are ongoing.

  13. In vitro susceptibility testing of fluoroquinolone activity against Salmonella: recent changes to CLSI standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphries, R. M.; Fang, F. C.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2012-01-01

    significance, and data supporting the revised ciprofloxacin break points. We encourage clinical laboratories to adopt the revised CLSI ciprofloxacin break points for all Salmonella isolates in which susceptibility testing is indicated and discuss the technical issues for laboratories using commercial...... antimicrobial susceptibility systems. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved....

  14. Antimutagenic evaluation of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in vitro and in vivo, with the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy Janett; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; de Angel, Beatriz López; Flores-Lozada, Jorge; Blasco, José Luis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate vitamins B antimutagenic effect against alkylatings methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), ethyl-N-nitro-N'- nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), frameshift mutagens 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and 2-acetyl-amino-fluorene (2AF) and ROS-generating antibiotics norfloxacin (NOR) and nalidixic acid (NLX), using the in vitro Ames test. In vivo antimutagenesis studies were performed against urinary mutagens induced by NOR (70 mg/kg) or NLX (100 mg/kg) in CD1 mice. Vitamin B1 was antimutagenic against alkylatings MNNG (P<0.05) or ENNG (P<0.001). In fact as per the results observed during the current study, none of the vitamins reduced mutagenesis caused by frameshift mutagens. All of them reduced mutagenesis of NOR or NLX (P<0.001). In vivo studies showed that vitamins B1 and B6 (10 or 100 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens from NOR (P<0.001) or NLX (P<0.02) either free or β-glucoronidase-conjugates. None of the studied samples were toxic for the employed antimutagenic system. Vitamin B12 (4 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens of NOR or NLX (P<0.02). Vitamins B inhibited DNA mutations induced by ROS generated by NLX or NOR, both in vitro and in vivo. Vitamin B1is antimutagenic against mutations induced by the alkylating MNNG or ENNG. Based on the observations, employment of vitamins B in vivo can be a promising alternative to reduce genotoxic risk exposure to ROS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Rapid in vitro tests to determine the toxicity of raw wastewater and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... Chemosphere 51 539–543. KENDIG D and TARLOFF J (2007) Inactivation of lactate dehydro- genase by several chemicals: Implications for in vitro toxicology studies. Toxicol. In Vitro 21 125–132. KIRBY M, MORRIS S, HURST M, KIRBY S, NEALL P, TYLOR T and FAGG A (2000) The use of cholinesterase ...

  16. Implementation challenges for designing Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategies (ITS) aiming at reducing and replacing animal experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Mikulowski, S.; Poth, A.; Roggen, E.L.; Vilà, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    At the IVTIP (In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform) meeting of November 26th 2009 entitled 'Toxicology in the 21st century ('21C') - working our way towards a visionary reality' all delegates endorsed the emerging concept of the '21C' vision as the way forward to enable a thorough, reliable and

  17. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  18. ENERGY SYSTEM CONTRIBUTIONS DURING INCREMENTAL EXERCISE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Bertuzzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems during an incremental exercise test (IET. Ten male recreational long-distance runners performed an IET consisting of three-minute incremental stages on a treadmill. The fractions of the contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems were calculated for each stage based on the oxygen uptake and the oxygen energy equivalents derived by blood lactate accumulation, respectively. Total metabolic demand (WTOTAL was considered as the sum of these two energy systems. The aerobic (WAER and glycolytic (WGLYCOL system contributions were expressed as a percentage of the WTOTAL. The results indicated that WAER (86-95% was significantly higher than WGLYCOL (5-14% throughout the IET (p < 0.05. In addition, there was no evidence of the sudden increase in WGLYCOL that has been previously reported to support to the "anaerobic threshold" concept. These data suggest that the aerobic metabolism is predominant throughout the IET and that energy system contributions undergo a slow transition from low to high intensity

  19. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  20. The 11th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the results of the 11th quality control nationwide survey. Of 730 facilities performing radioisotopes in vitro tests in November 1989, 422 facilities (60.5%) participated in the present survey. The following 23 items were examined: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), albumin, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA 125), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), calcitonin, cortisol, estradiol, ferritin, free thyroxine (FT{sub 4}), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), gastrine, cholylglycine, glucagon, insulin, anti-DNA antibody, luteinizing hormone (LH), neuron specific enolase (NSE), parathyroid hormone (PTH), squamous cell carcinoma associated antigen (SCC), thyroxine (T{sub 4}), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), and antithyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody. 'Within kit variation' between facilities showed large coefficient of variation for ACTH, CA125, CEA, estradiol, ferritin, FSH, glucagon, anti-DNA antibody, LH, PTH, and TSH receptor antibody. Both 'within kit variation' and 'between kit variation' showed small coefficient of variation for cortisol, free T{sub 4}, NSE, SCC, T{sub 4}, and TBG. The present survey was characterized by using immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and non-isotope techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay. Kits for IRMA greatly varied from facility to facility. (N.K.).

  1. Preparation, Characterization, and Preliminary In Vitro Testing of Nanoceria-Loaded Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina Grillone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria, well known for their pro- and antioxidant features, have been recently proposed for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, interaction between nanoceria and biological molecules such as proteins and lipids, short blood circulation time, and the need of a targeted delivery to desired sites are some aspects that require strong attention for further progresses in the clinical application of these nanoparticles. The aim of this work is the encapsulation of nanoceria into a liposomal formulation in order to improve their therapeutic potentialities. After the preparation through a reverse-phase evaporation method, size, Z-potential, morphology, and loading efficiency of nanoceria-loaded liposomes were investigated. Finally, preliminary in vitro studies were performed to test cell uptake efficiency and preserved antioxidant activity. Nanoceria-loaded liposomes showed a good colloidal stability, an excellent biocompatibility, and strong antioxidant properties due to the unaltered activity of the entrapped nanoceria. With these results, the possibility of exploiting liposomes as carriers for cerium oxide nanoparticles is demonstrated here for the first time, thus opening exciting new opportunities for in vivo applications.

  2. In vitro testing of gentamicin-vancomycin loaded bone cement to prevent prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Jirí; Kolár, Milan; Florschütz, Anthony V; Novotný, Radek; Pantůcek, Roman; Kesselová, Michaela

    2005-06-01

    Sepsis is a greatly feared complication of total joint arthroplasty. One key question is how to prevent perioperative bacterial adherence, and therefore the potential for infectious complications. The objective of our study was to appraise the emerging capacity of staphylococcal survival on prosthetic materials and to analyze the in vitro effects of gentamicin and vancomycin loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement on bacterial adherence and growth. Hospital acquired staphylococcal strains were systematically inoculated on four orthopedic materials (ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene, PMMA without antibiotic, commercially produced PMMA loaded with gentamicin, and manually mixed PMMA loaded with gentamicin and vancomycin). Staphylococci were identified using culture and biochemical tests. The inoculated material was allowed to incubate in a liquid broth growth media and subsequently prepared for scanning electron microscopy and bacterial growth quantification. Materials without antibiotics showed evidence of staphylococcal growth. PMMA loaded with only gentamicin grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Gentamicin-vancomycin loaded PMMA completely inhibited any bacterial growth. Low-dose gentamicin-vancomycin loaded PMMA prevents staphylococcal colonization better than commercially manufactured PMMA loaded with gentamicin. We recommend this combination in high-risk procedures and revision surgeries requiring bone cement.

  3. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented.

  4. Testing Modified Gravity in the Solar System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    It is well known that the Earth-Sun gravitational field has a few interesting features, such as the Lagrange points. It also has a saddle point, which from a Newtonian/GR point of view is rather boring, but in the context of modified gravity becomes a whole lot more interesting. Using both theoretical and computational models, we will present a way of testing modified gravity theories in the Solar System, using the forthcoming LISA-pathfinder space probe. This document is composed of the slides of the presentation. (author)

  5. Immunochemical faecal occult blood tests have superior stability and analytical performance characteristics over guaiac-based tests in a controlled in vitro study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the measurement accuracy of a widely used guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) compared with an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) during in vitro studies, including their analytical stability over time at ambient temperature and at 4°C; and (2) to compare analytical imprecision and other characteristics between two commercially available iFOBT methods.

  6. Comparison of three-dimensional helical axes of the cervical spine between in vitro and in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, René; Demmelmaier, Robert; Hacker, Steffen P; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2017-10-23

    The range of motion is a well-accepted parameter for the assessment and evaluation of cervical motion. However, more qualitative data of the kinematics of the cervical spine are needed for the development and success of cervical disc arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to provide basic information about helical axes of human cervical spine under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, it should clarify whether the three-dimensional helical axes of cervical motion gained from in vitro experiments are in agreement with those gained from in vivo experiments, and therefore to prove its reliability. An in vitro test with pure moments and mono-segmental specimens was designed to investigate and compare the helical axes of the cervical spine. Six human cadaveric specimens (three male and three female) with an average age of 47.5 years (range: 34-58 years) were carefully selected. Each specimen was divided into three motion segments: C2-C3, C4-C5, and C6-C7. We performed 3.5 full cycles of rotation about all axes, flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, by applying pure moments of 1.5 Nm without any preload. Following the in vitro tests, the three-dimensional helical axes were calculated and projected into the x-ray images. Rotation analysis of all three directions revealed similar results for all six specimens. All calculated helical axes were similar to the published in vivo data. Furthermore, the instantaneous centers of rotation were in agreement with in vivo data. The data gained from this study verify cervical kinematics during in vitro testing using pure moments. It can be assumed that other soft tissue such as muscles are not necessarily needed to simulate cervical kinematics in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The 14th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report presents the results of the 14th quality control nationwide survey. Of 490 facilities performing RI in vitro tests as of December 1992, 261 (53.3%) participated in the present 1992 survey. Free testosterone and renin were added to the following conventional 37 test items: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T[sub 3]), free T[sub 3], thyroxine (T[sub 4]), free T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, thyroglobulin, T[sub 3] binding globulin (TBG), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, gastrin, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, immunoglobulin E (IgE), digoxin, [alpha]-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, and ferritin. Measurement data for each kit were analyzed by a mean value of measurements, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation (CV). Both 'within kit variation' between facilities and 'between kit variation' showed a CV of 20% or less for GH, somatomedin C, TSH, T[sub 3], T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, TBG, cortisol, IgE, CA125, PAP, and [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, revealing satisfactory results. There was a great 'within kit variation' between facilities in ACTH, free T[sub 4], and calcitonin; and there was a great 'between kit variation' in ACTH, LH, free T[sub 4], thyroglobulin, PTH, calcitonin, and [alpha]-fetoprotein. (N.K.).

  8. In vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Navghare

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruit is claimed to have antidiabetic effects despite its high calorie content, and its peels also contain vital phytoconstituents including gallocatechin. Previously banana pulp has been studied for antihyperglycemic effects, and in the present investigation antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of inner peels of Musa sapientum (EMS, Musa paradisiaca (EMP, Musa cavendish (EMC and Musa acuminata (EMA fruit was evaluated using oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic rats. In vitro antioxidant study was conducted using DPPH, H2O2 radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Wistar rats were divided into fourteen groups and twelve groups received different doses of aforementioned extracts, while control group received gum acacia solution and remaining group received standard drug, glimepiride. All the rats received glucose load at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight. Groups treated with EMC and EMA showed significant decrease in glucose level (p < 0.01 at 150 min as compared to control group. In hypoglycemic study, only EMP 500 mg/kg, p.o. treated group revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in glucose level at 120 min, while other groups did not show any sign of hypoglycemia. In glucose tolerance test, animals treated with EMC and EMA depicted dose dependent antihyperglycemic effect at 150 min while EMS and EMP showed significant reduction in plasma glucose at higher doses. In a similar fashion, EMA i.e. M. acuminata demonstrated highest antioxidant activity followed by EMC against DPPH radical. In ferric reducing power and H2O2 scavenging assay, EMA demonstrated maximal antioxidant activity when compared with other extracts.

  9. Constructing Human Skin Equivalents on Porcine Acellular Peritoneum Extracellular Matrix for In Vitro Irritation Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chin; Zhang, Zheng; Florek, Charles; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-01-01

    The irritancy of topical products has to be investigated to ensure the safety and compliance. Although several reconstructed human epidermal models have been adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to replace in vivo animal irritation testing, these models are based on a single cell type and lack dermal components, which may be insufficient to reflect all of the components of irritation. In our study, we investigated the use of acellular porcine peritoneum extracellular matrix as a substrate to construct full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) for use as irritation screening tool. The acellular peritoneum matrix (APM) exhibited excellent skin cell attachment (>80%) and proliferation for human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). APM-HSEs based on coculture of HDF and HaCaT were prepared. Increased HDF seeding density up to 5 × 10(4)/cm(2) resulted in APM-HSEs with a thicker and more organized epidermis. The epidermis of APM-HSEs expressed keratin 15, a keratinocyte proliferation marker, and involucrin, a differentiation marker, respectively. To assess the use of APM-HSEs for irritation testing, six proficiency chemicals, including three nonirritants (phosphate-buffered saline, polyethylene glycol 400, and isopropanol) and three irritants (1-bromohexane, heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) were applied. The APM-HSEs were able to discriminate nonirritants from irritants based on the viability. Levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in these treatment groups further assisted the irritancy ranking. In conclusion, we have developed partially differentiated full-thickness APM-HSEs based on acellular porcine peritoneum matrix, and these APM-HSEs demonstrated utility as an in vitro irritation screening tool.

  10. Exploration and comparison of in vitro eye irritation tests with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit test for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun-Won; Hailian, Quan; Na, Yirang; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Cho, Eun-Young; Lee, Miri; Kim, Da-Eun; Bae, SeungJin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2016-12-01

    In an effort to explore the use of alternative methods to animal testing for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of medical devices, we evaluated representative contact lenses with the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test (BCOP) and an in vitro eye irritation test using the three-dimensionally-reconstructed human corneal epithelium (RhCE) models, EpiOcular™ and MCTT HCE™. In addition, we compared the obtained results with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit eye irritation test (ISO10993-10). Along with the positive controls (benzalkonium chloride, BAK, 0.02, 0.2, and 1%), the extracts of 4 representative contact lenses (soft, disposable, hard, and colored lenses) and 2 reference lenses (dye-eluting and BAK-coated lenses) were tested. All the lenses, except for the BAK-coated lens, were determined non-irritants in all test methods, while the positive controls yielded relevant results. More importantly, BCOP, EpiOcular™, and MCTT HCE™ yielded a consistent decision for all the tested samples, with the exception of 0.2% BAK in BCOP, for which no prediction could be made. Overall, all the in vitro tests correlated well with the in vivo rabbit eye irritation test, and furthermore, the combination of in vitro tests as a tiered testing strategy was able to produce results similar to those seen in vivo. These observations suggest that such methods can be used as alternative assays to replace the conventional in vivo test method in the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of ophthalmic medical devices, although further study is necessary. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. In vitro tests for drug hypersensitivity reactions: an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, C; Celik, G; Rouzaire, P; Whitaker, P; Bonadonna, P; Rodrigues-Cernadas, J; Vultaggio, A; Brockow, K; Caubet, J C; Makowska, J; Nakonechna, A; Romano, A; Montañez, M I; Laguna, J J; Zanoni, G; Gueant, J L; Oude Elberink, H; Fernandez, J; Viel, S; Demoly, P; Torres, M J

    2016-08-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are a matter of great concern, both for outpatient and in hospital care. The evaluation of these patients is complex, because in vivo tests have a suboptimal sensitivity and can be time-consuming, expensive and potentially risky, especially drug provocation tests. There are several currently available in vitro methods that can be classified into two main groups: those that help to characterize the active phase of the reaction and those that help to identify the culprit drug. The utility of these in vitro methods depends on the mechanisms involved, meaning that they cannot be used for the evaluation of all types of DHRs. Moreover, their effectiveness has not been defined by a consensus agreement between experts in the field. Thus, the European Network on Drug Allergy and Drug Allergy Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has organized a task force to provide data and recommendations regarding the available in vitro methods for DHR diagnosis. We have found that although there are many in vitro tests, few of them can be given a recommendation of grade B or above mainly because there is a lack of well-controlled studies, most information comes from small studies with few subjects and results are not always confirmed in later studies. Therefore, it is necessary to validate the currently available in vitro tests in a large series of well-characterized patients with DHR and to develop new tests for diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, J.A.Y.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; de Haan,; Koning, R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bovee, T.F.H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na+, K+, or Ca2+ channels or the Na+/K+ ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that ...

  13. Transfer of hydrophobic contaminants in urban runoff particles to benthic organisms estimated by an in vitro bioaccessibility test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakajima, F.; Saito, K.; Isozaki, Y.

    2006-01-01

    An in vitro bioaccessibility test was applied for assessing the transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in road dust, into benthic organisms living in a receiving water body. The road dust is supposed to be urban runoff particles under wet weather conditions. Sodium dodecyl su...... the exposed contaminants than the traditional organic solvent extraction method and the SDS extracted fraction is applicable to toxicity tests reflecting the digestive process....

  14. Strobe-margin test for plated memory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspach, T. E.; Clarke, J. W.; Constable, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Technique measures performance of plated-wire memories. Strobe-margin test (SMT) utilizes worst-case testing and automatically gives exact strobe margin. Test is automatic; thus, memory system-level test is superior to tests at component level that use artificial test conditions. Test is significant tool in design and test of plated-wire memory systems. It can rapidly quantify memory-system margin on each production unit and impact of any design changes.

  15. Nest expansion assay: a cancer systems biology approach to in vitro invasion measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Lourdes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional in vitro cell invasion assays focus on measuring one cell parameter at a time and are often less than ideal in terms of reproducibility and quantification. Further, many techniques are not suitable for quantifying the advancing margin of collectively migrating cells, arguably the most important area of activity during tumor invasion. We have developed and applied a highly quantitative, standardized, reproducible Nest Expansion Assay (NEA to measure cancer cell invasion in vitro, which builds upon established wound-healing techniques. This assay involves creating uniform circular "nests" of cells within a monolayer of cells using a stabilized, silicone-tipped drill press, and quantifying the margin expansion into an overlaid extracellular matrix (ECM-like component using computer-assisted applications. Findings The NEA was applied to two human-derived breast cell lines, MCF10A and MCF10A-CA1d, which exhibit opposite degrees of tumorigenicity and invasion in vivo. Assays were performed to incorporate various microenvironmental conditions, in order to test their influence on cell behavior and measures. Two types of computer-driven image analysis were performed using Java's freely available ImageJ software and its FracLac plugin to capture nest expansion and fractal dimension, respectively – which are both taken as indicators of invasiveness. Both analyses confirmed that the NEA is highly reproducible, and that the ECM component is key in defining invasive cell behavior. Interestingly, both analyses also detected significant differences between non-invasive and invasive cell lines, across various microenvironments, and over time. Conclusion The spatial nature of the NEA makes its outcome susceptible to the global influence of many cellular parameters at once (e.g., motility, protease secretion, cell-cell adhesion. We propose the NEA as a mid-throughput technique for screening and simultaneous examination of factors

  16. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  17. Cosmological test using strong gravitational lensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C. C.; Wang, F. Y.

    2015-09-01

    As one of the probes of universe, strong gravitational lensing systems allow us to compare different cosmological models and constrain vital cosmological parameters. This purpose can be reached from the dynamic and geometry properties of strong gravitational lensing systems, for instance, time-delay Δτ of images, the velocity dispersion σ of the lensing galaxies and the combination of these two effects, Δτ/σ2. In this paper, in order to carry out one-on-one comparisons between ΛCDM universe and Rh = ct universe, we use a sample containing 36 strong lensing systems with the measurement of velocity dispersion from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamic survey (LSD) survey. Concerning the time-delay effect, 12 two-image lensing systems with Δτ are also used. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations are used to compare the efficiency of the three methods as mentioned above. From simulations, we estimate the number of lenses required to rule out one model at the 99.7 per cent confidence level. Comparing with constraints from Δτ and the velocity dispersion σ, we find that using Δτ/σ2 can improve the discrimination between cosmological models. Despite the independence tests of these methods reveal a correlation between Δτ/σ2 and σ, Δτ/σ2 could be considered as an improved method of σ if more data samples are available.

  18. Proximal caries lesion detection using the Canary Caries Detection System: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Janja; Wan Bakar, Wan Zaripah; Mathews, Sapna M; Okoye, Linda O; Ehler, Benjamin R; Louden, Christopher; Amaechi, Bennett T

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of the Canary System (CS) to detect proximal caries lesions in vitro, and compared it with conventional methods: International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II and bitewing radiography (BW). Visible proximal surfaces of extracted human teeth were assessed by ICDAS-II before setting them in five manikin mouth models. Then contacting proximal surfaces in mouth models were assessed by BW and CS. Histological validation with polarized-light microscopy served as a gold standard. Pairwise comparisons were performed on area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the three methods, and corrected using Bonferroni's method. Sensitivities and specificities were compared using a test of proportions and AUC values were compared using DeLong's method. The CS presented significantly higher sensitivity (0.933) than ICDAS-II (0.733, P = 0.01) and BW (0.267, P proximal lesions than ICDAS-II and BW, although without significantly higher specificity. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Study of the genotoxicity of organic extracts from wastewater-irrigated vegetables using in vitro and in vivo biological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongxia; Cao, Yanhua; Liu, Yingli; Liu, Nan; Guan, Weijun

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore genotoxicity due to organic pollutants in wastewater-irrigated vegetables using biological and chemical analyses. Chinese cabbages from wastewater-irrigated farmland were taken as the research object. For the in vitro test, DNA damage was characterized in rat hepatocytes exposed to organic extracts from the cabbages using the comet assay. For the in vivo tests, mice were exposed to organic extracts from the cabbages. DNA damage was assessed in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), and chromosome damage was assessed in bone marrow cells using the comet assay and micronucleus test, respectively. For the chemical analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze the organic compounds in the organic vegetable extracts. The in vitro test results showed that the comet tail lengths of the DNA in rat hepatocytes were significantly increased in the group dosed with 0.36 g/ml (P organic content in the organic vegetable extracts from the wastewater-irrigated area (1.355 mg/kg) was significantly higher than the content in the cabbage samples from the clean-water-irrigated area (0.089 mg/kg). This finding indicated that wastewater irrigation can cause organic pollution with genetic toxicity in vegetables. This study also showed that in vivo and in vitro biological tests can reflect the joint toxicity of organic pollutants, and the test results were in accordance with the chemical analysis of the organic pollutant compositions.

  20. Digital holographic microscopy overcomes the limitations of in vitro nanomaterial cytotoxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mues, Sarah; Ketelhut, Steffi; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    The cytotoxic potential of nanomaterials is commonly evaluated by different cellular endpoints as reactive oxygen species formation, cell viability or cell death. Usually these parameters are determined by intensity based optical readouts that are often influenced by nanomaterial-based interferences. Here we present Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) as a multimodal optical method, which overcomes the limitations of conventional in vitro assays based on color or fluorescence read outs. Using cell viability WST8- and cell death LDH-assay we investigated the toxic effects of two representative silver nanomaterials. Therefore, we used a matrix of four cell lines representing different organ functions. Compared to conventional toxicity assays DHM allows time resolved proliferation monitoring which is free of assay system interactions. Also, information about time-dependent mechanisms can be obtained. Additionally, we have analyzed single macrophages for refractive index, cell volume and dry mass after the incubation to cytotoxic silver spheres. The refractive index decreased dose dependent, while cell volume and dry mass stayed constant. We therefore suggest the evaluation of these parameters in cytotoxicity assessment for further evaluation of their relevance under the applied conditions. This demonstrates DHM as valuable label-free tool for nanomaterial toxicity analysis.

  1. Cooperative field test program for wind systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  2. Technical validation of an RT-qPCR in vitro diagnostic test system for the determination of breast cancer molecular subtypes by quantification of ERBB2, ESR1, PGR and MKI67 mRNA levels from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumor specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Mark; Schlombs, Kornelia; Kaiser, Katharina; Veltrup, Elke; Herlein, Stefanie; Lakis, Sotiris; Stöhr, Robert; Eidt, Sebastian; Hartmann, Arndt; Wirtz, Ralph M; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-07-07

    MammaTyper is a novel CE-marked in vitro diagnostic RT-qPCR assay which assigns routinely processed breast cancer specimens into the molecular subtypes Luminal A-like, Luminal B-like (HER2 positive or negative), HER2 positive (non-luminal) and Triple negative (ductal) according to the mRNA expression of ERBB2, ESR1, PGR and MKI67 and the St Gallen consensus surrogate clinical definition. Until now and regarding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material (FFPE), this has been a task mostly accomplished by immunohistochemistry (IHC). However the discrepancy rates of IHC for the four breast cancer biomarkers are frequently under debate, especially for Ki-67 which carries the highest degree of inter- and even intra-observer variability. Herein we describe a series of studies in FFPE specimens which aim to fully validate the analytical performance of the MammaTyper assay, including the site to site reproducibility of the individual marker measurements. Tumor RNA was extracted with the novel RNXtract RNA extraction kit. Synthetic RNA was used to assess the sensitivity of the RNXtract kit. DNA and RNA specific qPCR assays were used so as to determine analyte specificity of RNXtract. For the assessment of limit of blank, limit of detection, analytical measurement range and PCR efficiency of the MammaTyper kit serial dilutions of samples were used. Analytical precision studies of MammaTyper were built around two different real time PCR platforms and involved breast tumor samples belonging to different subtypes analyzed across multiple sites and under various stipulated conditions. The MammaTyper assay robustness was tested against RNA input variations, alternative extraction methods and tumor cell content. Individual assays were linear up to at least 32.33 and 33.56 Cqs (quantification cycles) for the two qPCR platforms tested. PCR efficiency ranged from 99 to 109 %. In qPCR platform 1, estimates for assay specific inter-site standard deviations (SD) were between 0.14 and

  3. Microfluidic system for in-vitro hypoxia assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busek, M.; Grünzner, S.; Steege, T.; Steinfelder, C.; Schmieder, F.; Klotzbach, U.; Sonntag, F.

    2017-02-01

    Hereby presented is a microfluidic system, including a micro pump, an oxygenator and a cell culture chamber for perfusion controlled hypoxia assays. It consists of laser-structured polycarbonate (PC) foils and an elastomeric membrane which were joined together using thermal diffusion bonding. The elastomer forms an oxygenator element. The microfluidic system is characterized using non-invasive flow measurement based on micro-Particle-ImageVelocimetry (μPIV) and optical oxygen measurement utilizing the oxygen dependent fluorescence decay. Based on those experimental results and mathematical considerations, the oxygenator and mass transport phenomena within the microfluidic system can be described. This oxygen sensor, the micro pump, a controlling device and the gas mixture at the oxygenator forms a regulatory circuit to adjust the oxygen content in the cell culture chamber and helps to produce well-defined hypoxic conditions for the cells.

  4. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1785 - Urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system... Test Systems § 862.1785 Urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to detect and estimate...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system... Test Systems § 862.1377 Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify homocystine (an...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1130 Blood volume test system. (a) Identification. A blood volume test system is a device intended to...

  8. Evaluation of a gas in vitro system for predicting methane production in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsson, Rebecca; Ramin, Mohammad; Bertilsson, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Methane production from ruminant livestock varies with the diet as a result of factors such as dry matter intake, diet composition, and digestibility. To estimate the effect of dietary composition and feed additives, CH4 production can be measured in vitro as a first step because large numbers...... of samples can be incubated and analyzed at the same time. This study evaluated a recently developed in vitro method for prediction of in vivo CH4 production by examining the relationship between predicted and observed CH4 production values. A total of 49 different diets (observations), used in previous 13...... in vivo studies, were selected to include diets varying in nutrient composition. Methane production was measured in all in vivo studies by respiration chambers or the GreenFeed system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). Overall, the in vitro system predicted CH4 production well (R2 = 0.96), but the values...

  9. Analysis of the developing neural system using an in vitro model by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kosuke; Kudoh, Suguru N; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2015-04-07

    We developed an in vitro model of early neural cell development. The maturation of a normal neural cell was studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy for 120 days. The Raman spectra datasets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the relationship between maturation stages and molecular composition changes in neural cells. According to the PCA, the Raman spectra datasets can be classified into four larger groups. Previous electrophysiological studies have suggested that a normal neural cell goes through three maturation states. The groups we observed by Raman analysis showed good agreement with the electrophysiological results, except with the addition of a fourth state. The results demonstrated that Raman analysis was powerful to investigate the daily changes in molecular composition of the growing neural cell. This in vitro model system may be useful for future studies of the effects of endocrine disrupters in the developing early neural system.

  10. Multi-parameter in vitro toxicity testing of crizotinib, sunitinib, erlotinib, and nilotinib in human cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, Kimberly R., E-mail: kimberly.doherty@quintiles.com [Quintiles, 777 Oakmont Lane Suite 100, Westmont, IL 60559 (United States); Wappel, Robert L.; Talbert, Dominique R.; Trusk, Patricia B.; Moran, Diarmuid M. [Quintiles, 777 Oakmont Lane Suite 100, Westmont, IL 60559 (United States); Kramer, James W.; Brown, Arthur M. [ChanTest Corporation, 14656 Neo Parkway, Cleveland, OH 44128 (United States); Shell, Scott A.; Bacus, Sarah [Quintiles, 777 Oakmont Lane Suite 100, Westmont, IL 60559 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) have greatly improved the treatment and prognosis of multiple cancer types. However, unexpected cardiotoxicity has arisen in a subset of patients treated with these agents that was not wholly predicted by pre-clinical testing, which centers around animal toxicity studies and inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) channel. Therefore, we sought to determine whether a multi-parameter test panel assessing the effect of drug treatment on cellular, molecular, and electrophysiological endpoints could accurately predict cardiotoxicity. We examined how 4 FDA-approved TKi agents impacted cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, metabolic status, impedance, and ion channel function in human cardiomyocytes. The 3 drugs clinically associated with severe cardiac adverse events (crizotinib, sunitinib, nilotinib) all proved to be cardiotoxic in our in vitro tests while the relatively cardiac-safe drug erlotinib showed only minor changes in cardiac cell health. Crizotinib, an ALK/MET inhibitor, led to increased ROS production, caspase activation, cholesterol accumulation, disruption in cardiac cell beat rate, and blockage of ion channels. The multi-targeted TKi sunitinib showed decreased cardiomyocyte viability, AMPK inhibition, increased lipid accumulation, disrupted beat pattern, and hERG block. Nilotinib, a second generation Bcr-Abl inhibitor, led to increased ROS generation, caspase activation, hERG block, and an arrhythmic beat pattern. Thus, each drug showed a unique toxicity profile that may reflect the multiple mechanisms leading to cardiotoxicity. This study demonstrates that a multi-parameter approach can provide a robust characterization of drug-induced cardiomyocyte damage that can be leveraged to improve drug safety during early phase development. - Highlights: • TKi with known adverse effects show unique cardiotoxicity profiles in this panel. • Crizotinib increases ROS, apoptosis, and

  11. Development of an in vitro culture system adapted to banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... culture system associating autotrophic micropropagated banana plants with an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices). ... and Ranade, 2004). In recent years, biological control agents (BCA) have been considered as new alternatives for pest and diseases control. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have.

  12. Prototype system tests of the Belle II PXD DAQ system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Soeren; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Muenchow, David; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Liu, Zhen' An; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Jingzhou [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Collaboration: II PXD Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The data acquisition system for the Belle II DEPFET Pixel Vertex Detector (PXD) is designed to cope with a high input data rate of up to 21.6 GB/s. The main hardware component will be AdvancedTCA-based Compute Nodes (CN) equipped with Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGAs. The design for the third Compute Node generation was completed recently. The xTCA-compliant system features a carrier board and 4 AMC daughter boards. First test results of a prototype board will be presented, including tests of (a) The high-speed optical links used for data input, (b) The two 2 GB DDR2-chips on the board and (c) Output of data via ethernet, using UDP and TCP/IP with both hardware and software protocol stacks.

  13. Free Fatty Acid Concentration and Carboxy methyl cellulase Activity of Some Formulas of Protected Fat-proteins Tested In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Hartati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the levels of free fatty acids and carboxymethylcellulase activity (cmc-ase activity of some protected fat-proteins base on in vitro Tilley and Terry method. Two sources of fat, i.e. crude palm oil and fish oil and three sources of protein i.e. skim milk, soybean flour and soybean meal were used in the formulation of protected fat-protein, and thus there were six treatment combinations. The filtrate from the in vitro test was analyzed for the levels of free fatty acids and  cmcase activity. The result of this research indicates that different combinations of feed materials and fat give different content of free fatty acid in first stage and second stage in vitro, with the best results in the combination treatment of skim milk and palm oil that give the lowest result of  free fatty acid concentration in fisrt stage in vitro (0.168% and the highest result free fatty acid concentration in second stage in vitro ( 4.312% . The activity of CMC-ase was not influenced by different  sources of fat and protein. It can be concluded was that the protection of the combination between skim milk and CPO gives the highest protection results.

  14. System for Testing Thermal Insulation of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D.; Nagy, Zoltan F.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method have been developed for measuring the rates of leakage of heat into pipes carrying liquids, the purpose of the measurements being to quantify the thermal performance of the insulation system. The apparatus is designed primarily for testing pipes used to carry cryogenic liquids, but can also be used for measuring the thermal performance of other insulated pipes or piping systems. The basic measurement principle is straightforward: The outer surface of the pipe insulation is maintained at a fixed warmer temperature. The interior of the pipe is maintained in a narrow fixed lower-temperature range by means of a regular liquid (e.g., water) that is pumped through the pipe at a known flow rate or a cryogenic liquid (e.g., nitrogen) that is saturated at atmospheric pressure and replenished until steady-state conditions are achieved. In the case of water or another liquid pumped through, the inlet and outlet temperatures are measured and heat-leak power is calculated as the mass flow rate of the liquid multiplied by the specific heat of the liquid multiplied by the inlet-to-outlet temperature rise of the liquid. In the case of liquid nitrogen or another low-temperature boiling liquid, the heat-leak power is calculated as the rate of boil-off multiplied by the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid. Then the thermal-insulation performance of the pipe system can be calculated as a function of the measured heat-leak power, the inner and outer boundary temperatures, and the dimensions of the pipe. The apparatus can test as many as three pipes simultaneously. The pipes can have inner diameters up to .15 cm and outer diameters up to .20 cm. The lengths of the pipes may vary; typical lengths are of the order of 18 m. Two thermal guard boxes . one for each end of the pipe(s) under test . are used to make the inlet and outlet fluid connections to the pipe(s) (see figure). The connections include bellows that accommodate thermal expansion and contraction

  15. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  16. Test, Control and Monitor System maintenance plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, David P.; Lougheed, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The maintenance requirements for Test, Control, and Monitor System (TCMS) and the method for satisfying these requirements prior to First Need Date (FND) of the last TCMS set are described. The method for satisfying maintenance requirements following FND of the last TCMS set will be addressed by a revision to this plan. This maintenance plan serves as the basic planning document for maintenance of this equipment by the NASA Payloads Directorate (CM) and the Payload Ground Operations Contractor (PGOC) at KSC. The terms TCMS Operations and Maintenance (O&M), Payloads Logistics, TCMS Sustaining Engineering, Payload Communications, and Integrated Network Services refer to the appropriate NASA and PGOC organization. For the duration of their contract, the Core Electronic Contractor (CEC) will provide a Set Support Team (SST). One of the primary purposes of this team is to help NASA and PGOC operate and maintain TCMS. It is assumed that SST is an integral part of TCMS O&M. The purpose of this plan is to describe the maintenance concept for TCMS hardware and system software in order to facilitate activation, transition planning, and continuing operation. When software maintenance is mentioned in this plan, it refers to maintenance of TCMS system software.

  17. Proposed phase 2/ step 2 in-vitro test on basis of EN 14561 for standardised testing of the wound antiseptics PVP-iodine, chlorhexidine digluconate, polihexanide and octenidine dihydrochloride

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schedler, Kathrin; Assadian, Ojan; Brautferger, Uta; Müller, Gerald; Koburger, Torsten; Classen, Simon; Kramer, Axel

    2017-01-01

    .... In the present study, a standardised in-vitro test is proposed, which allows to test potential antiseptics in a more realistically simulation of conditions found in wounds as in a suspension test...

  18. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites AGENCY: Federal... test ranges/sites to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS... integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system at six test ranges. In establishing...

  19. Identification by virtual screening and in vitro testing of human DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Daidone

    Full Text Available Dopa decarboxylase (DDC, a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of dopamine and serotonin, is involved in Parkinson's disease (PD. PD is a neurodegenerative disease mainly due to a progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. Co-administration of L-Dopa with peripheral DDC inhibitors (carbidopa or benserazide is the most effective symptomatic treatment for PD. Although carbidopa and trihydroxybenzylhydrazine (the in vivo hydrolysis product of benserazide are both powerful irreversible DDC inhibitors, they are not selective because they irreversibly bind to free PLP and PLP-enzymes, thus inducing diverse side effects. Therefore, the main goals of this study were (a to use virtual screening to identify potential human DDC inhibitors and (b to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening (VS protocol by experimentally testing the "in vitro" activity of selected molecules. Starting from the crystal structure of the DDC-carbidopa complex, a new VS protocol, integrating pharmacophore searches and molecular docking, was developed. Analysis of 15 selected compounds, obtained by filtering the public ZINC database, yielded two molecules that bind to the active site of human DDC and behave as competitive inhibitors with K(i values ≥10 µM. By performing in silico similarity search on the latter compounds followed by a substructure search using the core of the most active compound we identified several competitive inhibitors of human DDC with K(i values in the low micromolar range, unable to bind free PLP, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier. The most potent inhibitor with a K(i value of 500 nM represents a new lead compound, targeting human DDC, that may be the basis for lead optimization in the development of new DDC inhibitors. To our knowledge, a similar approach has not been reported yet in the field of DDC inhibitors discovery.

  20. Identification by virtual screening and in vitro testing of human DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidone, Frederick; Montioli, Riccardo; Paiardini, Alessandro; Cellini, Barbara; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Giardina, Giorgio; Bossa, Francesco; Borri Voltattorni, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Dopa decarboxylase (DDC), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of dopamine and serotonin, is involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenerative disease mainly due to a progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. Co-administration of L-Dopa with peripheral DDC inhibitors (carbidopa or benserazide) is the most effective symptomatic treatment for PD. Although carbidopa and trihydroxybenzylhydrazine (the in vivo hydrolysis product of benserazide) are both powerful irreversible DDC inhibitors, they are not selective because they irreversibly bind to free PLP and PLP-enzymes, thus inducing diverse side effects. Therefore, the main goals of this study were (a) to use virtual screening to identify potential human DDC inhibitors and (b) to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening (VS) protocol by experimentally testing the "in vitro" activity of selected molecules. Starting from the crystal structure of the DDC-carbidopa complex, a new VS protocol, integrating pharmacophore searches and molecular docking, was developed. Analysis of 15 selected compounds, obtained by filtering the public ZINC database, yielded two molecules that bind to the active site of human DDC and behave as competitive inhibitors with K(i) values ≥10 µM. By performing in silico similarity search on the latter compounds followed by a substructure search using the core of the most active compound we identified several competitive inhibitors of human DDC with K(i) values in the low micromolar range, unable to bind free PLP, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier. The most potent inhibitor with a K(i) value of 500 nM represents a new lead compound, targeting human DDC, that may be the basis for lead optimization in the development of new DDC inhibitors. To our knowledge, a similar approach has not been reported yet in the field of DDC inhibitors discovery.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity of linezolid tested against vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Adriana O.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE has been described recently in Brazil. This is in contrast to the USA and Europe, where the VRE appeared in the late 1980s. The progressive increase in VRE isolation poses important problems in the antimicrobial therapy of nosocomial infections. Treatment options and effective antimicrobial agents for VRE are often limited and the possibility of transfer of vancomycin genes to other Gram-positive microorganisms continues. In the search for antimicrobial agents for multiresistant Gram-positive cocci, compounds such as linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin have been evaluated. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro activity of the oxazolidinone linezolid and 10 other antimicrobial agents, including quinupristin-dalfopristin, against multiresistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals. Thirty-three vancomycin resistant isolates (17 Enterococcus faecium and 16 E. faecalis, were analyzed. Strains were isolated from patients at São Paulo Hospital, Oswaldo Cruz Hospital, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, Santa Marcelina Hospital, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and Hospital de Clínicas do Paraná. The samples were tested by a broth microdilution method following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. All isolates were molecular typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Linezolid was the most active compound against these multiresistant enterococci, showing 100% inhibition at the susceptible breakpoints. Quinupristin/dalfopristin and teicoplanin showed poor activity against both species. The molecular typing results suggest that there has been interhospital spread of vancomycin resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis among Brazilian hospitals. The results of this study indicate that linezolid is an appropriate therapeutic option for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections in Brazil.

  2. Baculovirus integration with the vertebrate cells in system in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strokovskaya L. I.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review the literature data are analyzed relative to the study of a new vector system for the cells of vertebrates, based on the insect viruses – baculoviruses. The ways and mechanisms of recombinant baculoviruses penetration into cells, the factors, which influence the effectiveness of transduction, the principles of the modification of virus display, and the reaction of the different types of cells on virus introduction are examined. The prospects of using recombinant baculoviruses in cellular engineering are discussed.

  3. The Use of In Vitro Systems for Evaluating Immunotoxicity: The Report and Recommendations of an ECVAM Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Alessandra; Ban, Masarin; Braun, Armin; Casati, Silvia; Corsini, Emanuela; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Descotes, Jacques; Hartung, Thomas; Hooghe-Peters, Robert; House, Robert; Pallardy, Marc; Pieters, Raymond; Reid, Lynnda; Tryphonas, Helen; Tschirhart, Eric; Tuschl, Helga; Vandebriel, Rob; Gribaldo, Laura

    2005-04-01

    This is the report of a workshop organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods that are of importance to the biosciences and which replace, reduce or refine the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures that would enable it to become well informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures. It was decided that this would be best achieved by the organization of ECVAM workshops on specific topics, at which small groups of invited experts would review the current status of various types of in vitro tests and their potential uses, and make recommendations about the best ways forward (Anonymous, 1994). The workshop on "The use of in vitro systems for evaluating Immunotoxicity" was held at ECVAM (Ispra), Italy, on 24th-26th November 2003. The participants represented academia, national organizations, international regulatory bodies and industry. The aim of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in the field of in vitro immunotoxicology, and to develop strategies towards the replacement of in vivo testing. At the end of this report are listed the recommendations that should be considered for prevalidation and validation of relevant and reliable procedures, that could replace the use of animals in chemical and cosmetics toxicity testing.

  4. In vitro strain in human metacarpal bones during striking: testing the pugilism hypothesis of hominin hand evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horns, Joshua; Jung, Rebekah; Carrier, David R

    2015-10-01

    The hands of hominins (i.e. bipedal apes) are distinguished by skeletal proportions that are known to enhance manual dexterity but also allow the formation of a clenched fist. Because male-male physical competition is important in the mating systems of most species of great apes, including humans, we tested the hypothesis that a clenched fist protects the metacarpal bones from injury by reducing the level of strain during striking. We used cadaver arms to measure in vitro strain in metacarpals during forward strikes with buttressed and unbuttressed fist postures and during side slaps with an open palm. If the protective buttressing hypothesis is correct, the clenched fist posture should substantially reduce strain in the metacarpal bones during striking and therefore reduce the risk of fracture. Recorded strains were significantly higher in strikes in which the hand was secured in unbuttressed and slapping postures than in the fully buttressed posture. Our results suggest that humans can safely strike with 55% more force with a fully buttressed fist than with an unbuttressed fist and with twofold more force with a buttressed fist than with an open-hand slap. Thus, the evolutionary significance of the proportions of the hominin hand may be that these are the proportions that improved manual dexterity while at the same time making it possible for the hand to be used as a club during fighting. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. WRAP module 1 data management system software test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1997-07-25

    This document summarizes the test result information for the Data Management System (DMS). Appendix A contains test result information for all Functional Test cases and Appendix B contains the results for all the Performance Test cases.

  6. A new in vitro bioassay system for discovery and quantitative evaluation of mosquito repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes are vectors of many pathogens that cause human diseases. Although prevention and control of immature stages is the best method to control mosquitoes, repellents play a significant role in reducing the risk of these diseases by preventing mosquito bites. The In vitro K & D bioassay system ...

  7. In vitro culture systems and acclimatization of Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Medeiros Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea setigera is an endemic bromeliad from Amazon with ornamental potential. Bromeliads have been propagated by tissue culture. The consistency of the culture medium in vitro multiplication influences the rate of propagation. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate different culture systems with the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on in vitro propagation and the effect of different substrates in acclimatization of plantlets Aechmea setigera. In vitro germinated seedlings were inoculated in MS medium in liquid stationary, semisolid, double-phase systems, plus 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in different concentrations (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8 and 17.7 μM. The ex vitro rooting and acclimatization were performed on substrate Plantmax Forest ®, vermiculite and sawdust eucalyptus. After three successive subcultures, the double-phase system showed a higher number of regenerated shoots in comparison to other systems. Acclimatization using the combination of commercial substrate Plantmax Forest ® and vermiculite favored the growth of micropropagated plants. The use of a culture medium double-phase without growth regulator, and the rooting in acclimatization are feasible strategy for the micropropagation of A. setigera. Indexação

  8. In Vitro Availability of Naproxen from Liquid Self-Emulsifying Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vitro Availability of Naproxen from Liquid Self-Emulsifying Systems. AA Attama, IE Enete. Abstract. No Abstract Available Discovery and Innovation Vol.16(1&2) 2004: 22-25. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v16i1.15650.

  9. Test System for Thermoelectric Modules and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a design for a complex measuring device that enables its user to assess the parameters of power-generating thermoelectric modules (TEMs) (or bulk thermoelectric materials) under a wide range of temperatures ( T cold = 25°C to 90°C, T hot thermocouple array connected to a data acquisition computer, and (iv) a thermostatic water-based cooling system with electronically controlled flow rate and temperature of cooling water. Our testing setup represents a useful tool able to assess, e.g., the thermoelectric parameters of newly developed TEMs and materials or to evaluate the thermoelectric parameters of commercially available modules and materials for comparison with values declared by the manufacturer.

  10. Particular Characterisation of an In-Vitro-DTH Test to Monitor Cellular Immunity - Applications for Patient Care and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurecker, M.; Mayer, W.; Gruber, M.; Muckenthaler, F.; Draenert, R.; Bogner, J.; Kaufmann, I.; Crucian, B.; Rykova, M.; Morukov, B.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Goal:i) Characterization of the role of the main immune reactive cell types contributing to the cellular immune response in the in-vitro DTH and ii) Validation of the in-vitro DTH under different clinical and field conditions. Methods:As positive control whole blood was incubated in the in-vitro DTH, supernatants were gathered after 12, 24 and 48h. Readout parameters of this test are cytokines in the assay's supernatant. To determine the role of T-cells, monocytes and natural killer (NK), these cell populations were depleted using magnetic beads prior to in-vitro-DTH incubation. Validation of the test has occurred under clinical (HIV-patients, ICU) and field-conditions (parabolic/space-flights, confinement). Results:T-cell depletion abandoned almost any IL-2 production and reduced IFN-gamma production irrespective of the type of antigen, whereas CD56 depleted cultures tended to lower IL-2 secretion and IFN-gamma and to parallel a IL-10-increase after viral challenge. This IL-10-increase was seen also in CD14-depleted setups. DTH read-out was significantly different under acute stress (parabolic flight) or chronic stress (ISS), respectively. Preliminary data of HIV infected patients demonstrate that this test can display the contemporary immune status during an antiviral therapy. Conclusion:The in-vitro DTH mirrors adaptive and innate immune activation and may serve as tool also for longitudinal follow up of Th1/Th2 weighed immune response under adverse life conditions on earth and in space. It is planned to implement the assay in the on the ISS (MoCISS).

  11. Zero boil-off system testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, D. W.; Johnson, W. L.; Feller, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are a part of NASA's future space exploration plans due to their high specific impulse for rocket motors of upper stages. However, the low storage temperatures of LH2 and LO2 cause substantial boil-off losses for long duration missions. These losses can be eliminated by incorporating high performance cryocooler technology to intercept heat load to the propellant tanks and modulating the cryocooler temperature to control tank pressure. The technology being developed by NASA is the reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocooler and its integration to the propellant tank through a distributed cooling tubing network coupled to the tank wall. This configuration was recently tested at NASA Glenn Research Center in a vacuum chamber and cryoshroud that simulated the essential thermal aspects of low Earth orbit, its vacuum and temperature. This test series established that the active cooling system integrated with the propellant tank eliminated boil-off and robustly controlled tank pressure.

  12. In vitro testing to assess the UVA protection performance of sun care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gers-Barlag, H; Klette, E; Bimczok, R; Springob, C; Finkel, P; Rudolph, T; Gonzenbach, H U; Schneider, P H; Kockott, D; Heinrich, U; Tronnier, H; Bernklau, R; Johncock, W; Langner, R; Driller, H J; Westenfelder, H

    2001-02-01

    The UVA protection delivered by sunscreens is an issue of increasing importance due to the increasing knowledge about UVA-induced skin damage. In Europe there is no officially accepted method available to determine the degree of UVA protection. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to design a protocol combining the merits of an in vitro model, which are simple and reproducible, with aspects known to be relevant from in vivo studies. The principle is: an UV-transparent support to which the test product is applied, a (pre)irradiation and a transmission measurement. Transpore(R) tape (standard support for SPF determinations) was found to be incompatible with many preparations on prolonged contact times. Roughened quartz was adopted as a suitable alternative. Transmission measurements on this support are not reliable with a layer of 2 mg cm(-2) (standard for SPF) due to detection limitations of spectrophotometers, hence a reduced layer of 0.75 mg cm(-2) was adopted. Overall, it is very difficult to apply products in a reproducible thin layer on appropriate substrates. As a consequence, absolute parameters derived from the transmission profile show relatively large dispersion, whereas relative parameters, such as critical wavelength lambda(c)[1] or UVA/UVB ratio are much less sensitive to unavoidable variations in layer thickness. An increase in deviations was observed when the samples were irradiated before measurement. It is crucial to control the output carefully (spectral distribution and even more importantly, irradiance and dose delivered) of the light source. By doing so and also taking into account the previous learning steps, a protocol was drafted and tested in a ringtest (four samples in six laboratories). The results are encouraging and show that if relative parameters (e.g. lambda(c), UVA/UVB ratio) are considered, the intra- as well as interlaboratory reproducibility is clearly better than can be obtained in vivo. In general, we describe a

  13. Development and characterization of a human three-dimensional chondrosarcoma culture for in vitro drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voissiere, Aurélien; Jouberton, Elodie; Maubert, Elise; Degoul, Françoise; Peyrode, Caroline; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that chemoresistance of chondrosarcoma (CHS), the cartilage tumor, is caused by the phenotypic microenvironmental features of the tumor tissue, mainly the chondrogenic extracellular matrix (ECM), and hypoxia. We developed and characterized a multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) of human chondrosarcoma HEMC-SS cells to gain insight into tumor cell biology and drug response. At Day 7, HEMC-SS spheroids exhibited a homogeneous distribution of proliferative Ki-67 positive cells, whereas in larger spheroids (Day 14 and Day 20), proliferation was mainly localized in the periphery. In the core of larger spheroids, apoptotic cells were evidenced by TUNEL assay, and hypoxia by pimonidazole staining. Interestingly, VEGF excretion, evidenced by ELISA on culture media, was detectable from Day 14 spheroids, and increased as the spheroids grew in size. HEMC-SS spheroids synthesized a chondrogenic extracellular matrix rich in glycosaminoglycans and type-2 collagen. Finally, we investigated the sensitivity of Day 7 and Day 14 chondrosarcoma MCTS to hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 and doxorubicin compared with their 2D counterparts. As expected, TH-302 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on larger hypoxic spheroids (Day 14) than on non-hypoxic spheroids (Day 7), with multicellular resistance index (MCRI) values of 7.7 and 9.1 respectively. For doxorubicin, the larger-sized spheroids exhibited higher drug resistance (MCRI of 5.0 for Day 7 and 18.3 for Day 14 spheroids), possibly due to impeded drug penetration into the deep layer of spheroids, evidenced by its auto-fluorescence property. We have developed a model of human chondrosarcoma MCTS that combines an ECM rich in glycosaminoglycans with a high hypoxic core associated with VEGF excretion. This model could offer a more predictive in vitro chondrosarcoma system for screening drugs targeting tumor cells and their microenvironment.

  14. Development and characterization of a human three-dimensional chondrosarcoma culture for in vitro drug testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Voissiere

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that chemoresistance of chondrosarcoma (CHS, the cartilage tumor, is caused by the phenotypic microenvironmental features of the tumor tissue, mainly the chondrogenic extracellular matrix (ECM, and hypoxia. We developed and characterized a multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS of human chondrosarcoma HEMC-SS cells to gain insight into tumor cell biology and drug response. At Day 7, HEMC-SS spheroids exhibited a homogeneous distribution of proliferative Ki-67 positive cells, whereas in larger spheroids (Day 14 and Day 20, proliferation was mainly localized in the periphery. In the core of larger spheroids, apoptotic cells were evidenced by TUNEL assay, and hypoxia by pimonidazole staining. Interestingly, VEGF excretion, evidenced by ELISA on culture media, was detectable from Day 14 spheroids, and increased as the spheroids grew in size. HEMC-SS spheroids synthesized a chondrogenic extracellular matrix rich in glycosaminoglycans and type-2 collagen. Finally, we investigated the sensitivity of Day 7 and Day 14 chondrosarcoma MCTS to hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 and doxorubicin compared with their 2D counterparts. As expected, TH-302 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on larger hypoxic spheroids (Day 14 than on non-hypoxic spheroids (Day 7, with multicellular resistance index (MCRI values of 7.7 and 9.1 respectively. For doxorubicin, the larger-sized spheroids exhibited higher drug resistance (MCRI of 5.0 for Day 7 and 18.3 for Day 14 spheroids, possibly due to impeded drug penetration into the deep layer of spheroids, evidenced by its auto-fluorescence property. We have developed a model of human chondrosarcoma MCTS that combines an ECM rich in glycosaminoglycans with a high hypoxic core associated with VEGF excretion. This model could offer a more predictive in vitro chondrosarcoma system for screening drugs targeting tumor cells and their microenvironment.

  15. Testing strategies for embryo-fetal toxicity of human pharmaceuticals. Animal models vs. in vitro approaches: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Chapin, Robert E; Haenen, Bert; Jacobs, Abigail C; Piersma, Aldert

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity testing is characterized by high animal use. For registration of pharmaceutical compounds, developmental toxicity studies are usually conducted in both rat and rabbits. Efforts have been underway for a long time to design alternatives to animal use. Implementation has lagged, partly because of uncertainties about the applicability domain of the alternatives. The reproductive cycle is complex and not all mechanisms of development can be mimicked in vitro. Therefore, efforts are underway to characterize the available alternative tests with regard to the mechanism of action they include. One alternative test is the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST), which has been studied since the late 1990s. It is a genuine 3R "alternative" assay as it is essentially animal-free. A meeting was held to review the state-of-the-art of various in vitro models for prediction of developmental toxicity. Although the predictivity of individual assays is improving, a battery of several assays is likely to have even higher predictivity, which is necessary for regulatory acceptance. The workshop concluded that an important first step is a thorough survey of the existing rat and rabbit studies, to fully characterize the frequency of responses and the types of effects seen. At the same time, it is important to continue the optimization of in vitro assays. As more experience accumulates, the optimal conditions, assay structure, and applicability of the alternative assays are expected to emerge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Retentive characteristics of Ankylos SynCone conical crown system over long-term use in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-Guo; Hannak, Wolfgang B; Roggensack, Markus; Freesmeyer, Wolfgang B

    2008-06-01

    18 Ankylos SynCone conical crowns with 4-degree angle and 18 SynCone conical crowns with 6-degree angle were tested in vitro for a total of 5,000 insertion-separation cycles to investigate their retentive characteristics. Under 20 N insertion force, the retentive force of Ankylos SynCone conical crown system was between 5 and 10 N. The rententive force kept almost constant during the entire testing cycles. It was thus shown that the SynCone conical crown system could potentially provide adequate and constant retentive force to retain implant-supported overdentures. It may be considered to retain implant-supported mandibular overdentures as an alternative to bar attachments.

  17. Development and in vitro characterization of drug delivery system of rifapentine for osteoarticular tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jun Wu,1 Yi Zuo,2 Yunjiu Hu,1 Jian Wang,2 Jidong Li,2 Bo Qiao,1 Dianming Jiang1 ¹Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; ²Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The study was to develop and evaluate the rifapentine-loaded poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microspheres (RPMs for the treatment of osteoarticular tuberculosis to avoid critical side effects caused by oral regimens of antibiotics or intravenous antibiotics. The RPMs were spherical with rough surfaces, and elevated amounts of rifapentine in the formulation markedly increased the particle size and drug loading, while decreased the size distribution and entrapment efficiency. The highest drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of RPMs were 23.93%±3.93% and 88.49%±8.49%, respectively. After the initial rapid drug release, the release rate gradually decreased, and approximately 80% of the encapsulated rifapentine was released after 30 days of incubation. Moreover, RPMs could effectively inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. With increasing rifapentine content, the inhibition zones were continuously enlarged while the minimal inhibitory concentration values decreased. These results suggested that RPMs were bioactive and controlled release delivery systems for the treatment of osteoarticular tuberculosis. Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, antitubercular drugs, in vitro, PLGA microspheres, chemotherapy, antibacterial

  18. Application of drag-reducing polymer solutions as test fluids for in vitro evaluation of potential blood damage in blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda R; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V

    2010-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood.

  19. A novel off-center paddle impeller (OPI) dissolution testing system for reproducible dissolution testing of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Armenante, Piero M

    2012-02-01

    Dissolution testing is routinely conducted in the pharmaceutical industry to provide in vitro drug release information for quality control purposes. The most common dissolution testing system for solid dosage forms is the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Dissolution Testing Apparatus 2. This apparatus is very sensitive to the initial location of the tablet, which cannot be controlled because the tablet is dropped into the vessel at the beginning of the test and it may rest at random locations at the vessel's bottom. In this work, a modified Apparatus 2 in which the impeller was placed 8 mm off center in the vessel was designed and tested. This new design was termed "OPI" for "off-center paddle impeller." Dissolution tests were conducted with the OPI apparatus for nine different tablet locations using both disintegrating tablets (prednisone) and nondisintegrating tablets (salicylic acid). The dissolution profiles in the OPI apparatus were largely independent of the tablet location at the vessel's bottom, whereas those obtained in the Standard System generated statistically different profiles depending on the tablet location. The newly proposed OPI system can effectively eliminate artifacts generated by random settling of the tablet at the vessel's bottom, thus making the test more robust. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Validation of a new in vitro dynamic system to simulate infant digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Olivia; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Souchon, Isabelle; Deglaire, Amélie; Dupont, Didier; Picque, Daniel

    2014-02-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of infant formula disintegration in the infant gastrointestinal tract is a key step for developing new formulas with health benefits for the neonate. For ethical reasons, the access to in vivo data obtained on infants is limited. The use of animal models can be an alternative but these experiments are labour intensive, expensive and results obtained show high inter-individual variability, making their interpretation difficult. The aim of this work was to develop a simple in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system, for studying infant formula digestion, and to validate it by comparing the kinetics of proteolysis obtained in vitro with in vivo data collected from piglets. Results showed a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo data and confirmed the rapid hydrolysis of caseins in gastric conditions, whereas whey proteins appeared more resistant to digestion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1560 Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify phenylketones (such... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862.1580... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test...

  3. Orbital docking system centerline color television camera system test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongan, Philip T.

    1993-01-01

    A series of tests was run to verify that the design of the centerline color television camera (CTVC) system is adequate optically for the STS-71 Space Shuttle Orbiter docking mission with the Mir space station. In each test, a mockup of the Mir consisting of hatch, docking mechanism, and docking target was positioned above the Johnson Space Center's full fuselage trainer, which simulated the Orbiter with a mockup of the external airlock and docking adapter. Test subjects viewed the docking target through the CTVC under 30 different lighting conditions and evaluated target resolution, field of view, light levels, light placement, and methods of target alignment. Test results indicate that the proposed design will provide adequate visibility through the centerline camera for a successful docking, even with a reasonable number of light failures. It is recommended that the flight deck crew have individual switching capability for docking lights to provide maximum shadow management and that centerline lights be retained to deal with light failures and user preferences. Procedures for light management should be developed and target alignment aids should be selected during simulated docking runs.

  4. Quality management systems for your in vitro fertilization clinic's laboratory: Why bother?

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Jan I; Banker, Manish R; Late Peter Sjoblom

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have in recent years introduced prescribed requirements for treatment and monitoring of outcomes, as well as a licensing or accreditation requirement for in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics and their laboratories. It is commonplace for Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) laboratories to be required to have a quality control system. However, more effective Total Quality Management systems are now being implemented by an increasing number of ART clinics. In India, it is no...

  5. Development of an integrated semi-automated system for in vitro pharmacodynamic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangsu; Wismer, Michael K; Racine, Fred; Conway, Donald; Giacobbe, Robert A; Berejnaia, Olga; Kath, Gary S

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an integrated system for in vitro pharmacodynamic modelling of antimicrobials with greater flexibility, easier control and better accuracy than existing in vitro models. Custom-made bottle caps, fittings, valve controllers and a modified bench-top shaking incubator were used. A temperature-controlled automated sample collector was built. Computer software was developed to manage experiments and to control the entire system including solenoid pinch valves, peristaltic pumps and the sample collector. The system was validated by pharmacokinetic simulations of linezolid 600 mg infusion. The antibacterial effect of linezolid against multiple Staphylococcus aureus strains was also studied in this system. An integrated semi-automated bench-top system was built and validated. The temperature-controlled automated sample collector allowed unattended collection and temporary storage of samples. The system software reduced the labour necessary for many tasks and also improved the timing accuracy for performing simultaneous actions in multiple parallel experiments. The system was able to simulate human pharmacokinetics of linezolid 600 mg intravenous infusion accurately. A pharmacodynamic study of linezolid against multiple S. aureus strains with a range of MICs showed that the required 24 h free drug AUC/MIC ratio was approximately 30 in order to keep the organism counts at the same level as their initial inoculum and was about > or = 68 in order to achieve > 2 log(10) cfu/mL reduction in the in vitro model. The integrated semi-automated bench-top system provided the ability to overcome many of the drawbacks of existing in vitro models. It can be used for various simple or complicated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies efficiently and conveniently.

  6. The establishment of a slow-growth conservation system in vitro for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of a slow-growth conservation system in vitro for two wild lily species. D Yun-peng, L Wen-yuan, Z Ming-fang, H Heng-bin, J Gui-xia. Abstract. There are abundant resources of wild lily in China. To achieve a sustainable use for these resources, a slow-growing preservation system should be well ...

  7. Development and validation of a continuous in vitro system reproducing some biotic and abiotic factors of the veal calf intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard-Champod, Marie; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Bravo, David; Alric, Monique

    2010-08-01

    Following the January 2006 European ban of antibiotics used as growth promoters in the veal calf industry, new feed additives are needed in order to maintain animal health and growth performance. As an alternative to in vivo experiments in the testing of such additives, an in vitro system modeling the intestinal ecosystem of the veal calf was developed. Stabilization of the main cultured microbial groups and their metabolic activity were tracked in an in vitro continuous fermentor operated under anaerobiosis, at pH 6.5, and at a temperature of 38.5 degrees C and supplied with one of three different nutritive media (M1, M2, or M3). These media mainly differed in their concentrations of simple and complex carbohydrates and in their lipid sources. In vitro microbial levels and fermentative metabolite concentrations were compared to in vivo data, and the biochemical composition of the nutritive media was compared to that of the veal calf intestinal content. All three nutritive media were able to stabilize anaerobic and facultative anaerobic microflora, lactate-utilizing bacteria, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, and Bacteroides fragilis group bacteria at levels close to in vivo values. The microbiota was metabolically active, with high concentrations of lactate, ammonia, and short-chain fatty acids found in the fermentative medium. Comparison with in vivo data indicated that M3 outperformed M1 and M2 in simulating the conditions encountered in the veal calf intestine. This in vitro system would be useful in the prescreening of new feed additives by studying their effect on the intestinal microbiota levels and fermentative metabolite production.

  8. Evaluation of the in vitro degradation of macroporous hydrogels using gravimetry, confined compression testing, and microcomputed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravesh, Esfandiar; Timmer, Mark D; Lemoine, Jeremy J; Liebschner, Michael A K; Mikos, Antonios G

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro degradation characteristics of macroporous hydrogels based on poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) (P(PF-co-EG)). Four formulations were fabricated to test the effect of porosity and cross-linking density on the degradation of the resulting macroporous hydrogels. Macroporosity was introduced by the addition of sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid, the precursors of the carbon dioxide porogen, in the initiation system for the hydrogel cross-linking. Macroporous hydrogels with porosities of 0.80 +/- 0.03 and 0.89 +/- 0.03 were synthesized by the addition of sodium bicarbonate of concentrations 40 and 80 mg/mL and ascorbic acid of concentrations 0.05 and 0.1 mol/L, respectively. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) was utilized as a cross-linker. The molecular weight between cross-links had a significant effect on weight loss after 12 weeks, where samples with M(C) of 1,880 +/- 320 synthesized with a P(PF-co-EG):PEG-DA ratio of 3:1 had a significantly greater mass loss due to degradation than those with M(C) of 1,000 +/- 100 synthesized with a P(PF-co-EG):PEG-DA ratio of 1:1. In contrast, porosity played a minimal role in determining the weight loss. Mechanical testing of the hydrogels under confined compression showed a decrease in compressive modulus over the degradation time for all formulations. In addition, an increase in hydrogel equilibrium water content and pore wall thickness was observed with degradation time, whereas the hydrogel porosity and surface area density remained invariant. The results from microcomputed tomography corroborated with the rest of the measurements and indicated a bulk degradation mechanism of the macroporous hydrogels.

  9. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzone, Santina, E-mail: santina.bruzzone@unige.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Battaglia, Florinda [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Mannino, Elena [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Parodi, Alessia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Fruscione, Floriana [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Basile, Giovanna [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Salis, Annalisa; Sturla, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Stringara, Silvia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Filaci, Gilberto [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Department of Internal Medicine, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-{beta}, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  10. In vitro performance of two-piece zirconia implant systems for anterior application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Verena; Kammermeier, Armin; Handel, Gerhard; Rosentritt, Martin

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the influence of the implant-abutment connection on the long-term in vitro performance and fracture resistance of two-piece zirconia implant systems for anterior application. Six groups of two-piece zirconia implant systems (n=10/group) with screw-retained (5×) or bonded (1×) connections were restored with full-contour zirconia crowns. A two-piece screw-retained titanium system served as reference. For simulating anterior loading the specimens (n=8/group) were mounted at an angle of 135° in the chewing simulator, and subjected to thermal cycling (TC: 2×9000×5°/55°C) and mechanical loading (ML: 3.6×10(6)×100N). Failed restorations were examined (scanning electron microscopy). Fracture resistance and maximum bending stress of surviving restorations were determined. 2 specimens per group were loaded to fracture after 24h water storage without TCML. Data were statistically analyzed (ANOVA; Bonferroni; Kaplan-Meier-Log-Rank; α=0.05). The bonded zirconia system and the titanium reference survived TCML without any failures. Screw-retained zirconia systems showed fractures of abutments and/or implants, partly combined with screw fracture/loosening. Failure frequency (F) varied between the groups (F=8×: 3 groups, F=3×: 1 group, F=1×: 1 group). The Log-Rank-test showed significant (p=0.000) differences. Fracture forces and maximum bending stresses (mean±standard deviation) differed significantly ( p=0.000) between 233.4±31.4N/317.1±42.6N/mm(2) and 404.3±15.1N/549.2±20.5N/mm(2). Fracture forces after TCML were similar to 24h fracture forces. Screw-retained two-piece zirconia implant systems showed higher failure rates and lower fracture resistance than a screw-retained titanium system, and may be appropriate for clinical anterior requirements with limitations. Failures involved the abutment/implant region around the screw, indicating that the connecting design is crucial for clinical success. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials

  11. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi is...

  12. Micro- and nano bio-based delivery systems for food applications: In vitro behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Simões, Lívia; Madalena, Daniel A; Pinheiro, Ana C; Teixeira, José A; Vicente, António A; Ramos, Óscar L

    2017-05-01

    Micro- and nanoencapsulation is an emerging technology in the food field that potentially allows the improvement of food quality and human health. Bio-based delivery systems of bioactive compounds have a wide variety of morphologies that influence their stability and functional performance. The incorporation of bioactive compounds in food products using micro- and nano-delivery systems may offer extra health benefits, beyond basic nutrition, once their encapsulation may provide protection against undesired environmental conditions (e.g., heat, light and oxygen) along the food chain (including processing and storage), thus improving their bioavailability, while enabling their controlled release and target delivery. This review provides an overview of the bio-based materials currently used for encapsulation of bioactive compounds intended for food applications, as well as the main production techniques employed in the development of micro- and nanosystems. The behavior of such systems and of bioactive compounds entrapped into, throughout in vitro gastrointestinal systems, is also tracked in a critical manner. Comparisons between various in vitro digestion systems (including the main advantages and disadvantages) currently in use, as well as correlations between the behavior of micro- and nanosystems studied through in vitro and in vivo systems were highlighted and discussed here for the first time. Finally, examples of bioactive micro- and nanosystems added to food simulants or to real food matrices are provided, together with a revision of the main challenges for their safe commercialization, the regulatory issues involved and the main legislation aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlating In Vitro Splice Switching Activity With Systemic In Vivo Delivery Using Novel ZEN-modified Oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M Hammond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Splice switching oligonucleotides (SSOs induce alternative splicing of pre-mRNA and typically employ chemical modifications to increase nuclease resistance and binding affinity to target pre-mRNA. Here we describe a new SSO non-base modifier (a naphthyl-azo group, “ZEN™” to direct exon exclusion in mutant dystrophin pre-mRNA to generate functional dystrophin protein. The ZEN modifier is placed near the ends of a 2′-O-methyl (2′OMe oligonucleotide, increasing melting temperature and potency over unmodified 2′OMe oligonucleotides. In cultured H2K cells, a ZEN-modified 2′OMe phosphorothioate (PS oligonucleotide delivered by lipid transfection greatly enhanced dystrophin exon skipping over the same 2′OMePS SSO lacking ZEN. However, when tested using free gymnotic uptake in vitro and following systemic delivery in vivo in dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the same ZEN-modified SSO failed to enhance potency. Importantly, we show for the first time that in vivo activity of anionic SSOs is modelled in vitro only when using gymnotic delivery. ZEN is thus a novel modifier that enhances activity of SSOs in vitro but will require improved delivery methods before its in vivo clinical potential can be realized.

  14. Response of proopiomelanocortin and gonado- or lactotroph systems to in-vitro fertilisation procedures stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbach, Heinz; Antrecht, Kerstin; Boedeker, Rolf-Hasso; Brenck, Florian; Gips, Holger; Hempelmann, Gunter; Muehling, Joerg; Welters, Ingeborg; Zygmunt, Marek

    2008-12-01

    To analyse for the first time the response of the corticotroph-type and the melanotroph-type pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) system with regard to in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment using self-developed highly specific non-cross-reacting radioimmunoassay. University hospital. patients: A total of 28 patients undergoing IVF oocyte retrieval. Cross sectional exploratory study, one factorial design with repeated measurements on one factor, non-parametric tests. Blood was collected before anaesthesia (t(A)) (n=28) and immediately after oocyte retrieval (t(B)) (n=28). beta-endorphin immunoreactive material (IRM), acetyl-N-beta-endorphin IRM, beta-lipotropin IRM, ACTH, cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. For determination of authentic beta-endorphin [beta-endorphin (1-31)] a highly specific two-site fluid phase immunoprecipitation radioimmunoassay was developed, which did not cross-react with any beta-endorphin derivative or any other opioid peptide tested. No response of acetyl-N-beta-endorphin IRM and of authentic beta-endorphin (1-31) was observed to oocyte retrieval in contrast to a significant increase of corticotroph-type proopiomelanocortin derivatives. A significant rise in prolactin plasma concentration indicates a pronounced lactotroph response to oocyte retrieval stress. No significant correlation between POMC derivates and prolactin and between POMC derivatives and gonadotropins or sexual steroids except for ACTH and progesterone and for beta-endorphin IRM and estradiol was observed. IVF treatment stress led to significant corticotroph-type POMC and lactotroph responses, but not to responses of authentic beta-endorphin or melanotroph-type POMC in women undergoing oocyte retrieval.

  15. Cheese rind communities provide tractable systems for in situ and in vitro studies of microbial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Benjamin E.; Button, Julie E.; Santarelli, Marcela; Dutton, Rachel J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Tractable microbial communities are needed to bridge the gap between observations of patterns of microbial diversity and mechanisms that can explain these patterns. We developed cheese rinds as model microbial communities by characterizing in situ patterns of diversity and by developing an in vitro system for community reconstruction. Sequencing of 137 different rind communities across 10 countries revealed 24 widely distributed and culturable genera of bacteria and fungi as dominant community members. Reproducible community types formed independent of geographic location of production. Intensive temporal sampling demonstrated that assembly of these communities is highly reproducible. Patterns of community composition and succession observed in situ can be recapitulated in a simple in vitro system. Widespread positive and negative interactions were identified between bacterial and fungal community members. Cheese rind microbial communities represent an experimentally tractable system for defining mechanisms that influence microbial community assembly and function. PMID:25036636

  16. Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Benney

    2009-11-30

    The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be

  17. In vitro evaluation of Malassezia pachydermatis susceptibility to azole compounds using E-test and CLSI microdilution methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Iatta, Roberta; Colao, Valeriana; Montagna, Maria T; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-11-01

    Dermatitis caused by Malassezia spp., one of most common skin disease in dogs, requires prolonged therapy and/or high doses of antifungal agents. In the present study, the antifungal susceptibility of M. pachydermatis to ketoconazole (KTZ), fluconazole (FLZ), itraconazole (ITZ), posaconazole (POS) and voriconazole (VOR) was evaluated in vitro using both CLSI reference broth microdilution (CLSI BMD) and E-test. A total of 62 M. pachydermatis strains from dogs with and without skin lesions were tested. M. pachydermatis strains were susceptible to ITZ, KTZ and POS using both test methods, with the highest MIC found in tests of FLZ. Essential agreement between the two methods ranged from 87.1% (VOR) to 91.9% (ITZ), and categorical agreement from 74.2% (FLZ) to 96.8% (ITZ). Minor error discrepancies were observed between the two methods, with major discrepancies observed for KTZ. A higher MIC(50) value for FLZ was noted with M. pachydermatis genotype B. The MICs(50) of M. pachydermatis genotype B for KTZ, VOR and POS were higher in isolates from dogs with skin lesions than those in isolates from animals without skin lesions. The results suggest a link between genotypes of M. pachydermatis and in vitro drug susceptibility. The categorical agreement for both E-test and CLSI BMD methods found in this investigation confirms the E-test as a reliable diagnostic method for routine use in clinical mycology laboratories.

  18. Thyroid endocrine system disruption by pentachlorophenol: an in vitro and in vivo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2013-10-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the disruption caused to the thyroid endocrine system by pentachlorophenol (PCP) using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the in vitro assay, rat pituitary GH3 cells were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μM PCP. PCP exposure significantly downregulated basal and triiodothyronine (T3)-induced Dio 1 transcription, indicating the antagonistic activity of PCP in vitro. In the in vivo assay, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 1, 3, and 10 μg/L of PCP until 14 days post-fertilization. PCP exposure resulted in decreased thyroxine (T4) levels, but elevated contents of whole-body T3. PCP exposure significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of genes along hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including those encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone, sodium/iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, Dio 1 and Dio 2, alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptor, and uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyl-transferase. PCP exposure did not influence the transcription of the transthyretin (TTR) gene. The results indicate that PCP potentially disrupts the thyroid endocrine system both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of the precision error of the pulmonary artery thermodilution catheter using an in vitro continuous flow test rig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Xing; Critchley, Lester A; Joynt, Gavin M

    2011-01-01

    Thermodilution cardiac output using a pulmonary artery catheter is the reference method against which all new methods of cardiac output measurement are judged. However, thermodilution lacks precision and has a quoted precision error of ± 20%. There is uncertainty about its true precision and this causes difficulty when validating new cardiac output technology. Our aim in this investigation was to determine the current precision error of thermodilution measurements. A test rig through which water circulated at different constant rates with ports to insert catheters into a flow chamber was assembled. Flow rate was measured by an externally placed transonic flowprobe and meter. The meter was calibrated by timed filling of a cylinder. Arrow and Edwards 7Fr thermodilution catheters, connected to a Siemens SC9000 cardiac output monitor, were tested. Thermodilution readings were made by injecting 5 mL of ice-cold water. Precision error was divided into random and systematic components, which were determined separately. Between-readings (random) variability was determined for each catheter by taking sets of 10 readings at different flow rates. Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for each set and averaged. Between-catheter systems (systematic) variability was derived by plotting calibration lines for sets of catheters. Slopes were used to estimate the systematic component. Performances of 3 cardiac output monitors were compared: Siemens SC9000, Siemens Sirecust 1261, and Philips MP50. Five Arrow and 5 Edwards catheters were tested using the Siemens SC9000 monitor. Flow rates between 0.7 and 7.0 L/min were studied. The CV (random error) for Arrow was 5.4% and for Edwards was 4.8%. The random precision error was ± 10.0% (95% confidence limits). CV (systematic error) was 5.8% and 6.0%, respectively. The systematic precision error was ± 11.6%. The total precision error of a single thermodilution reading was ± 15.3% and ± 13.0% for triplicate readings. Precision

  20. SFTG international collaborative study on in vitro micronucleus test. II. Using human lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clare, M.G.; Lorenzon, G.; Akhurst, L.C.; Marzin, D.; Delft, J. van; Montero, R.; Botta, A.; Bertens, A.; Cinelli, S.; Thybaud, V.; Lorge, E.

    2006-01-01

    This study on the in vitro micronucleus assay, comprising 11 laboratories using human lymphocytes, was coordinated by an organizing committee supported by the SFTG (the French branch of the European Environmental Mutagen Society). Nine coded substances were assessed for their ability to induce

  1. Polymer Optical Fiber Compound Parabolic Concentrator fiber tip based glucose sensor: In-Vitro Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Janting, Jakob; Aasmul, Soren

    2016-01-01

    We present in-vitro sensing of glucose using a newly developed efficient optical fiber glucose sensor based on a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) tipped polymer optical fiber (POF). A batch of 9 CPC tipped POF sensors with a 35 mm fiber length is shown to have an enhanced fluorescence pickup...

  2. A colorimetric and spectrophotometric method for in vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species against caspofungin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsthorst, D.T.A. te; Zwaaftink, R.B.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Meletiadis, J.; Verweij, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 45 Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus isolates against caspofungin (CAS) was assessed by the CLSI reference method with spectrophotometric reading and by a colorimetric method that employed the dye MTT. Perfect agreement was found between

  3. Development in Assay Methods for in Vitro Antimalarial Drug Efficacy Testing: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Sinha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of drug resistance are the major challenges in malaria eradication mission. Besides various strategies laid down by World Health Organization, such as vector management, source reduction, early case detection, prompt treatment, and development of new diagnostics and vaccines, nevertheless the need for new and efficacious drugs against malaria has become a critical priority on the global malaria research agenda. At several screening stages, millions of compounds are screened (1,000–2,000,000 compounds per screening campaign, before pre-clinical trials to select optimum lead. Carrying out in vitro screening of antimalarials is very difficult as different assay methods are subject to numerous sources of variability across different laboratories around the globe. Despite this, in vitro screening is an essential part of antimalarial drug development as it enables to resource various confounding factors such as host immune response and drug–drug interaction. Therefore, in this article, we try to illustrate the basic necessity behind in vitro study and how new methods are developed and subsequently adopted for high-throughput antimalarial drug screening and its application in achieving the next level of in vitro screening based on the current approaches (such as stem cells.

  4. Montmorillonite-alginate nanocomposite as a drug delivery system--incorporation and in vitro release of irinotecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, Ruxandra Irina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ghitulica, Cristina Daniela; Voicu, Georgeta; Ficai, Anton; Hoteteu, Mihai

    2014-03-25

    The scope of the present study was the preparation and characterization of irinotecan nanocomposite beads based on montmorillonite (Mt) and sodium alginate (AL) as drug carriers. After irinotecan (I) incorporation into Mt, the resulting hybrid was compounded with alginate, and I-Mt-AL nanocomposite beads were obtained by ionotropic gelation technique. The structure and surface morphology of the hybrid and composite materials were established by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Irinotecan incorporation efficiency in Mt and in alginate beads was determined both by UV-vis spectroscopy and thermal analysis and was found to be high. The hybrid and composite materials were tested in vitro in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4, at 37 °C) in order to establish if upon administering the beads at the site of a resected colorectal tumor, the delivery of the drug is sustained and can represent an alternative to the existing systemic chemotherapy. The in vitro drug release test results clearly suggested that Mt, and Mt along with AL were able to control the release of irinotecan by making it sustained, without any burst effect, and by reducing the released amount and the release rate. The nanocomposite beads may be a promising drug delivery system in chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Declarative testing and depolyment of distributed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, S.; Dolstra, E.

    2010-01-01

    System administrators and developers who deploy distributed systems have to deal with a deployment process that is largely manual and hard to reproduce. This paper describes how networks of computer systems can be reproducibly and automatically deployed from declarative specifications.

  6. The equivalence of multi-axis spine systems: Recommended stiffness limits using a standardized testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsgrove, Timothy P; Amin, Dhara B; Pascual, Sonia Ramos; Ding, Boyin; Welch, William C; Gheduzzi, Sabina; Miles, Anthony W; Winkelstein, Beth A; Costi, John J

    2017-09-14

    The complexity of multi-axis spine testing often makes it challenging to compare results from different studies. The aim of this work was to develop and implement a standardized testing protocol across three six-axis spine systems, compare them, and provide stiffness and phase angle limits against which other test systems can be compared. Standardized synthetic lumbar specimens (n=5), comprising three springs embedded in polymer at each end, were tested on each system using pure moments in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Tests were performed using sine and triangle waves with an amplitude of 8Nm, a frequency of 0.1Hz, and with axial preloads of 0 and 500N. The stiffness, phase angle, and R2 value of the moment against rotation in the principal axis were calculated at the center of each specimen. The tracking error was adopted asa measure of each test system to minimize non-principal loads, defined as the root mean squared difference between actual and target loads. All three test systems demonstrated similar stiffnesses, with small (systems. These recommendations can be used with the standard specimen and testing protocol by other research institutions to ensure equivalence of different spine systems, increasing the ability to compare in vitro spine studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A New In Vitro Bioassay System for the Discovery and Quantitative Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Cantrell, Charles L; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-09-01

    Mosquitoes vector many pathogens that cause human diseases. Repellents play a significant role in reducing the risk of these diseases by preventing mosquito bites. In this paper, we are reporting an Ali and Khan (A & K), large cage in vitro bioassay system that can effectively be used to measure repellency of compounds against mosquitoes. The system uses temperature as a landing and feeding stimulus, and collagen as a feeding substrate. The minimum effective dose (MED) of DEET (N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide; 19.3 µg/cm2) against Aedes aegypti (L.) in a 30-cm2 treatment area from the A & K bioassay falls in the upper range of the in vivo, cloth patch bioassay (6-23 µg/cm2). Undecanoic acid and geranic acid, with MED values of 3.6 and 7.5 µg/cm2, respectively, in the A & K bioassay were active at 5.5-6.6 times lower dose than that in the in vivo bioassay. Thymol and methyl eugenol with MED values of 11.1 and 10.9 µg/cm2, respectively, were active at 3-4 times lower dose than that in the in vivo bioassay, whereas (-)-trans-p-Menthane-3,8 diol with MED value of 32.3 µg/cm2 was active at 1.3 times lower dose. Comparisons between 12-cm2 and 30-cm2 treatment areas, with similar concentration per unit area in the A & K bioassay, indicated that the MED values at 30 cm2 were 1-2 times higher. In addition to its use to identify the repellent properties of new products, the A & K bioassay can generate useful data on promising repellents to make in vivo testing and field evaluation decisions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Retinal Gene Therapy for Choroideremia: In Vitro Testing for Gene Augmentation Using an Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV) Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, Maria I; MacLaren, Robert E

    2018-01-01

    As gene therapy of choroideremia is becoming a clinical reality, there is a need for reliable and sensitive assays to determine the expression of exogenously delivered Rab Escort Protein-1 (REP1), in particular to test new gene therapy vectors and as a quality control screen for clinical vector stocks. Here we describe an in vitro protocol to test transgene expression following AAV2/2-REP1 transduction of a human cell line. Gene augmentation can be confirmed by western blot and quantification of the fold-increase of human REP1 levels over untransduced controls.

  9. Scanning Long-wave Optical Test System: a new ground optical surface slope test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianquan; Park, Won Hyun; Parks, Robert E.; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    The scanning long-wave optical test system (SLOTS) is under development at the University of Arizona to provide rapid and accurate measurements of aspherical optical surfaces during the grinding stage. It is based on the success of the software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) which uses visible light to measure surface slopes. Working at long wave infrared (LWIR, 7-14 μm), SLOTS measures ground optical surface slopes by viewing the specular reflection of a scanning hot wire. A thermal imaging camera collects data while motorized stages scan the wire through the field. Current experiments show that the system can achieve a high precision at micro-radian level with fairly low cost equipment. The measured surface map is comparable with interferometer for slow optics. This IR system could be applied early in the grinding stage of fabrication of large telescope mirrors to minimize the surface shape error imparted during processing. This advantage combined with the simplicity of the optical system (no null optics, no high power carbon dioxide laser) would improve the efficiency and shorten the processing time.

  10. Novel in vitro perfusion system for the determination of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moidel, Melissa A; Belz, Emily E; Czambel, R Kenneth; Rubin, Robert T; Rhodes, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a three-gland component of the endocrine system and a key modulator of the stress response. We have developed a novel in vitro perfusion system to enable the study of pharmacological and hormonal challenges to tissue components of the HPA axis. In vivo studies have shown functional sex differences (sexual diergism) in HPA responses to cholinergic drugs, and in the present in vitro study, we examine these differences at several levels of the HPA axis. Hypothalami, pituitaries, and adrenal glands were collected from male and female rats (n=3 per sex). One-half hypothalamus, one-half pituitary, and one adrenal gland were placed individually into three Erlenmeyer flasks connected by tubing. Flasks were perfused with medium (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. Sampling ports between the flasks were used to collect buffer for determination of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and corticosterone (CORT) release from the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal flasks, respectively, over an extended baseline period, to determine stability of the system, and after nicotine administration. The perfusion system produced steady CRH, ACTH, and CORT baselines, the ACTH and CORT values being comparable to in vivo basal ACTH and CORT values in jugular-vein-cannulated rats. In vitro CRH, ACTH, and CORT responses to nicotine were significantly increased at 10 min and returned to baseline by 30 min, the CRH and ACTH responses from female tissues being greater than responses from male tissues. These sex differences were similar to those following nicotine administration in vivo. The ability of this novel, dynamic in vitro system to replicate in vivo HPA axis responses supports its potential as a new method for pharmacological and toxicological studies.

  11. The function of digestive enzymes on Cu, Zn, and Pb release from soil in in vitro digestion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Demisie, Walelign; Zhang, Ming-kui

    2013-07-01

    The bioaccessibility of soil heavy metals is the solubility of soil heavy metals in synthetic human digestive juice, which is usually determined using in vitro digestion test. To reveal the effects of digestive enzymes on soil heavy metals bioaccessibility, three representative in vitro digestion tests, Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET), Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET), and Simple Gastrointestinal Extraction Test (SGET), were chosen. The bioaccessibility of soil Cu, Zn, and Pb in each method were respectively evaluated with and without digestive enzymes, and the differences were compared. The results showed that the effects of digestive enzymes varied with different methods and elements. Because of digestive enzymes addition, the environmental change from acid gastric phase to neutral intestinal phase of PBET did not result in apparently decrease of the bioaccessibility of soil Cu. However, the solubility of soil Zn and Pb were pH-dependent. For SGET, when digestive enzymes were added, its results reflected more variations resulting from soil and element types. The impacts of digestive enzymes on heavy metal dissolution are mostly seen in the intestinal phase. Therefore, digestive enzyme addition is indispensable to the gastrointestinal digestion methods (PBET and SGET), while the pepsin addition is not important for the methods only comprised of gastric digestion (SBET).

  12. In vitro evaluation of five rapid antigen detection tests for group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal sore throat infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseter, Gemma M; McNulty, Cliodna A M; Richard Hobbs, F D; Mant, David; Little, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Using accurate and easy to use rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) to identify group A beta-haemolytic Streptococci (GABHS) sore throat infections could reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing and antimicrobial resistance. Although there is no international consensus on the use of RADTs, these kits have been widely adopted in Finland, France and the USA. Yet in the UK, the Clinical Knowledge Summaries, that provide the main online guidance for GPs, discourage RADTs use, citing their poor sensitivity and inability to impact on prescribing decisions in acute sore throat infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ease of use and in vitro accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the five most commonly used RADTs in Europe (OSOM Ultra, Quickvue Dipstick, Streptatest, Clearview Exact Strep A and IMI Test Pack). To ensure the RADTs were evaluated objectively, a standardized in vitro method using known concentrations of GABHS was used to remove the inherent biases associated with clinical studies. The IMI Test Pack was the easiest RADT to use overall. The ability to detect all positive GABHS (sensitivity) varied considerably between kits from 95% [95% confidence interval (CI): 88-98%], for the IMI Test Pack and OSOM, to 62% (95% CI: 51-72%) for Clearview, at the highest GABHS concentration. None of the RADTs gave any false-positive results with commensal flora-they were 100% specific. The IMI Test Pack is most suitable for use in primary care, as it had high sensitivity, high specificity and was easy to use.

  13. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62......%) of the 52 farms tested by EHA. As the reference strain used was not fully susceptible to benzimidazoles it was not possible to determine the level of resistance by LDA. Pyrantel resistance was indicated on three of 15 farms by faecal egg count reduction. Resistance was also indicated by LDA for one...... of these farms. In addition resistance was indicated by LDA on two more farms that were not tested by FECRT. Further testing is needed to confirm if these findings are truly indicative of resistance. Generally, correlations between the tests were poor and it was not possible to use the outcome of one test...

  14. Systemic objective test in medical biochemistry: Part 1-metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testing plays an important role in this system. The objective test is created in a way that a different estimator that assesses independently will achieve the same results for the introduced level of knowledge and abilities based on true answers. In comparison with the traditional objective test, the systemic objective test ...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1678 - Tacrolimus test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tacrolimus test system. 862.1678 Section 862.1678....1678 Tacrolimus test system. (a) Identification. A tacrolimus test system is a device intended to quantitatively determine tacrolimus concentrations as an aid in the management of transplant patients receiving...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1595 - Porphyrins test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Porphyrins test system. 862.1595 Section 862.1595....1595 Porphyrins test system. (a) Identification. A porphyrins test system is a device intended to measure porphyrins (compounds formed during the biosynthesis of heme, a constituent of hemoglobin, and...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5735 - Prothrombin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prothrombin immunological test system. 866.5735 Section 866.5735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5735 Prothrombin immunological test system. (a)...

  18. 30 CFR 56.12028 - Testing grounding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing grounding systems. 56.12028 Section 56.12028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12028 Testing grounding systems. Continuity and resistance of grounding systems shall be tested...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775....1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to measure uric acid in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis...

  20. 78 FR 12259 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program AGENCY: Federal... be levied on the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site operators, but prior to the close of the comment... stakeholders regarding the proposed privacy approach for the unmanned aircraft systems test site program. The...

  1. 21 CFR 862.3555 - Lidocaine test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lidocaine test system. 862.3555 Section 862.3555....3555 Lidocaine test system. (a) Identification. A lidocaine test system is a device intended to measure lidocaine, an antiarrythmic and anticonvulsant drug, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1815 - Vitamin E test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment of infants with vitamin E deficiency syndrome. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin E test system. 862.1815 Section 862.1815....1815 Vitamin E test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin E test system is a device intended to measure...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1910 - Spectacle dissociation test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectacle dissociation test system. 886.1910... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1910 Spectacle dissociation test system. (a) Identification. A spectacle dissociation test system is an AC-powered or battery-powered...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862....1095 Ascorbic acid test system. (a) Identification. An ascorbic acid test system is a device intended to measure the level of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in plasma, serum, and urine. Ascorbic acid...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system....5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. (a) Identification. An infectious mononucleosis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1165 - Catecholamines (total) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catecholamines (total) test system. 862.1165... Systems § 862.1165 Catecholamines (total) test system. (a) Identification. A catecholamines (total) test..., norepinephrine, and dopamine) are present in urine and plasma. Catecholamine determinations are used in the...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862....1680 Testosterone test system. (a) Identification. A testosterone test system is a device intended to measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5240 - Complement components immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement components immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5240 Complement components immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement components...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5570 - Lactoferrin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactoferrin immunological test system. 866.5570... Lactoferrin immunological test system. (a) Identification. A lactoferrin immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the lactoferrin (an iron...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section 862.1365....1365 Glutathione test system. (a) Identification. A glutathione test system is a device intended to measure glutathione (the tripeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid) in erythrocytes (red blood...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862....1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to measure urea nitrogen (an end-product of nitrogen metabolism) in whole blood, serum, plasma, and urine...

  13. Phase 1 space fission propulsion system testing and development progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Pedersen, Kevin; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter

    2001-02-01

    Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems are expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified, MSFC is leading a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system using non-nuclear testing. This test series is carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities. If SAFE-related nuclear tests are desired, they will have a high probability of success and can be performed at existing nuclear facilities. The paper describes the SAFE non-nuclear test series, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans. .

  14. Mise au point d'un test in vitro de comportement au sel de quatre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agrumes, en termes de résistance à la salinité in vitro au niveau des cals et des cellules cultivées parallèlement sur milieu liquide et solide. Méthodologie et résultat : À cet égard, des cals de quatre génotypes d'agrumes : mandarinier Cléopâtre ...

  15. IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF TWO MARKETED BRANDS OF PARACETAMOL TABLETS USING QUALITY CONTROL TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Satinder Kumar et al

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol is a widely used non-prescription analgesic and antipyretic medicine. The study was conducted to assess the comparative in-vitro quality control parameters through the evaluation of weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile between the commercially available tablet brands of paracetamol. Tablets of two manufacturers of the formulation were evaluated in two groups A and B. The similarities were found between both the groups. Both tablet bra...

  16. Evaluation of the medical devices benchmark materials in the controlled human patch testing and in the RhE in vitro skin irritation protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandárová, Helena; Bendova, Hana; Letasiova, Silvia; Coleman, Kelly P; De Jong, Wim H; Jírova, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Several irritants were used in the in vitro irritation medical device round robin. The objective of this study was to verify their irritation potential using the human patch test (HPT), an in vitro assay, and in vivo data. The irritants were lactic acid (LA), heptanoic acid (HA), sodium dodecyl

  17. A listening test system for automotive audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...

  18. A Guide to Computer Adaptive Testing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Some brand names are used generically to describe an entire class of products that perform the same function. "Kleenex," "Xerox," "Thermos," and "Band-Aid" are good examples. The term "computerized adaptive testing" (CAT) is similar in that it is often applied uniformly across a diverse family of testing methods. Although the various members of…

  19. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2008-01-01

    /output conformance serves as the notion of implementation correctness, essentially timed trace inclusion taking environment assumptions into account. Test cases can be generated offline and later executed, or they can be generated and executed online. For both approaches this chapter discusses how to specify test...

  20. THE NEW METALL-BETA-LACTAMASE’S INHIBITOR EFFICACY IN A MODEL SYSTEM IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Afinogenova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterobacteriaceae antibiotics resistance depends on a combination of several mechanisms, such as the beta-lactamases overproduction, the microbial cell reduction outer membrane permeability (usually associated with loss of protein porin, the presence of efflux systems. Particularly noteworthy are the metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL whose presence causes resistance of gram-negative microorganisms to all beta-lactam antibiotics (in some cases except aztreonam. Currently there are no MBL inhibitors permitted for use in the clinic. The effective inhibitors search for carbapenem-resistant bacteria’ MBL authorized for use in the clinic and reinforcing effects of carbapenems, served as the basis for the present study. The work was carried out in three stages: 1 creating a model system using a standard enzyme reagent metallo-beta-lactamase P. aeruginosa recombinant expressed in E. coli, to evaluate the increasing of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of carbapenems against previously sensitive Gram-negative microorganisms strains in vitro; 2 evaluation of MBL promising inhibitors in the presence of the same standard enzyme reagent; 3 evaluation of the ability of the identified inhibitors increase the carbapenems effects against clinical isolates of Gram-negative microorganisms producing MBL, in terms of the their MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index. The checkerboard array was modified to evaluate the combined use of carbapenems and potential MBL inhibitor — a drug from the group of bisphosphonates — etidronic acid. Using a standard enzyme reagent metallo-beta-lactamase P. aeruginosa recombinant expressed in E. coli, we created a model system that allows to assess the prospects of new inhibitors MBL gram-negative microorganisms. A dose-dependent effect of increasing the meropenem level MIC from reagent MBL quantity in a model system against previously antibiotic sensitive reference strains of microorganisms was

  1. In Vitro Systems for the Study of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrick K. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of a virus is made possible by the availability of culture systems in which the viral lifecycle can be realized. Such systems support robust virus entry, replication, assembly, and secretion of nascent virions. Furthermore, culture models provide a platform in which therapeutic interventions can be devised or monitored. Hepatitis C virus (HCV has a restricted tropism to human and chimpanzees; thus investigations of HCV biology have been hindered for many years due to a lack of small animal models. Nevertheless, significant efforts have been directed at developing cell culture models to elucidate the viral lifecycle in vitro. HCV primarily infects liver parenchymal cells commonly known as hepatocytes. The liver is a highly specialized and complex organ and the development of in vitro systems that reflects this complexity has proven difficult. Consequently, host cell receptor molecules that potentiate HCV infection were identified over a decade after the virus was discovered. A summary of the various HCV in vitro culture models, their advantages, and disadvantages are described.

  2. Design and characterisation of a novel in vitro skin diffusion cell system for assessing mass casualty decontamination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, H; Larner, J; Kansagra, S; Atkinson, K L; Skamarauskas, J T; Amlot, R; Chilcott, R P

    2014-06-01

    The efficient removal of contaminants from the outer surfaces of the body can provide an effective means of reducing adverse health effects associated with incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of hazardous materials. Showering with water is frequently used by first responders as a rapid method of mass casualty decontamination (MCD). However, there is a paucity of data on the generic effectiveness and safety of aqueous decontamination systems. To address these issues, we have developed a new in vitro skin diffusion cell system to model the conditions of a common MCD procedure ("ladder pipe system"). The new diffusion cell design incorporates a showering nozzle, an air sampling port for measurement of vapour loss and/aerosolisation, adjustable (horizontal to vertical) skin orientation and a circulating manifold system (to maintain a specified flow rate, temperature and pressure of shower water). The dermal absorption characteristics of several simulants (Invisible Red S, curcumin and methyl salicylate) measured with the new in vitro model were in good agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, these initial studies have indicated that whilst flow rate and water temperature are important factors for MCD, the presence of clothing during showering may (under certain circumstances) cause transfer and spreading of contaminants to the skin surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro growth and leaf anatomy of Cattleya walkeriana (Gardner, 1839 grown in natural ventilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bortolotti da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural ventilation system facilitates gaseous exchanges in in vitro plants promoting changes in the leaf tissue, which can be evaluated through the leaf anatomy, and it allows a cultivation closer to the photoautrophic micropropagation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects on in vitro growth and on the leaf anatomy of Cattleya walkeriana grown in natural and conventional ventilation system with different concentrations of sucrose (0; 15; 30 and 45 L-1 combined with different cultivation systems (conventional micropropagation and natural ventilation system. The culture medium was composed of MS salts, solidified with 7 g L-1 of agar and pH adjusted to 5.8. Forty milliliters of culture medium were distributed in 250 mL flasks, autoclaved at 120 ºC for 20 minutes. The greater plant growth, as well as the greater thickness of the mesophyll was observed with the use of 20 g L-1 sucrose in natural ventilation system. Plants grown in natural ventilation system showed a thicker leaf mesophyll, which is directly related to photoautotrophic crops. The natural ventilation system induced more elliptical stomata and probably more functional formats.

  4. In vitro-in vivo correlations for nicotine transdermal delivery systems evaluated by both in vitro skin permeation (IVPT) and in vivo serum pharmacokinetics under the influence of transient heat application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo Hyeon; Thomas, Sherin; Raney, Sam G; Ghosh, Priyanka; Hammell, Dana C; El-Kamary, Samer S; Chen, Wilbur H; Billington, M Melissa; Hassan, Hazem E; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2018-01-28

    The in vitro permeation test (IVPT) has been widely used to characterize the bioavailability (BA) of compounds applied on the skin. In this study, we performed IVPT studies using excised human skin (in vitro) and harmonized in vivo human serum pharmacokinetic (PK) studies to evaluate the potential in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of nicotine BA from two, matrix-type, nicotine transdermal delivery systems (TDS). The study designs used for both in vitro and in vivo studies included 1h of transient heat (42±2°C) application during early or late time periods post-dosing. The goal was to evaluate whether any IVIVC observed would be evident even under conditions of heat exposure, in order to investigate further whether IVPT may have the potential to serve as a possible surrogate method to evaluate the in vivo effects of heat on the bioavailability of a drug delivered from a TDS. The study results have demonstrated that the BA of nicotine characterized by the IVPT studies correlated with and was predictive of the in vivo BA of nicotine from the respective TDS, evaluated under the matched study designs and conditions. The comparisons of single parameters such as steady-state concentration, heat-induced increase in partial AUCs and post-treatment residual content of nicotine in TDS from the in vitro and in vivo data sets showed no significant differences (p≥0.05). In addition, a good point-to-point IVIVC (Level A correlation) for the entire study duration was achieved by predicting in vivo concentrations of nicotine using two approaches: Approach I requiring only an in vitro data set and Approach II involving deconvolution and convolution steps. The results of our work suggest that a well designed IVPT study with adequate controls can be a useful tool to evaluate the relative effects of heat on the BA of nicotine from TDS with different formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles as an oral delivery system for Amikacin: in vitro and ex vivo evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyabi, F; Talaie, F; Dinarvand, R

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was the synthesis of two thiol conjugated Chitosan polymers, and evaluation of the potential of Thiomer nanoparticle formulation as a carrier for oral delivery system. Mediated by EDAC (Ethylene-3-(3-di-methylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide), either N-acetyl Cysteine (NAC) or N-acetyl D-penicillamine (NAP) were covalently attached to Chitosan. The success of the synthesis was demonstrated by comparing FTIR spectra. Iodometric titration demonstrated that depending on the pH value of the synthesis medium, the Thiomers display 250 +/- 30 microMol and 300 +/- 20 microMol thiol groups per gram of polymer respectively. The interaction between mucin and Thiomers, compared to mucin and Chitosan was studied for assessment of mucoadhesion properties of synthesized polymers. This interaction was determined by the measurement of the amount of mucin adsorbed on Chitosan and the conjugated polymers. Rotating cylinder method demonstrated an average of 20 times improvement in mucoadhesion of Thiomers compared to the unmodified polymer. Chitosan and Thiomer nanoparticles were formulated by two methods; TPP and Sodium Sulfate gelation. SEM micrographs and data achieved by a Malvern nano/zetasizer show nanoparticles formed by TPP gelation have a mean size of 150 +/- 15 nm compared to 300 +/- 25 nm sized nanoparticles obtained by Sodium sulfate gelation. TPP gelation yields smaller, more spherical shaped nanoparticles with a smaller range of size distribution. Amikacin loaded nanoparticles with an average size of 280 nm were prepared by TPP gelation in which disulfide bond formation was achieved by a time dependent oxidation process. In vitro studies were carried out; a recovery rate of 33% and a drug entrapment of 25% were achieved. The amount of release was determined during 18 hr in a carefully prepared media. The permeation time across a biological membrane was observed to be about 150 minutes. Microbiological tests were carried out on two microorganisms

  6. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota.

  7. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Costabile

    Full Text Available A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice. Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota.

  8. Roll control resonance test vehicle (RCRTV) system postflight evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryvoruka, J.K.

    1973-03-01

    This report presents the flight test results for a reentry vehicle spin-fin roll control system. The test vehicle, designated the Roll Control Resonance Test Vehicle, was flight tested on May 10, 1972, at the Sandia Laboratories Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of the flight were (1) to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the control system to overcome a roll resonance flight instability and (2) to confirm the analytic predictions of system performance. The flight test vehicle had built-in asymmetries which, without roll control, would have caused a persistent roll resonance instability to occur. The test was successful in that all systems functioned properly and all program and flight test objectives were accomplished. Flight test data presented herein confirm analytic predictions and flight simulation methods. Results show that the system maintained roll rate control and prevented the roll resonance instability.

  9. Installing and Testing a Server Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the experience of the author with the FreeBSD server operating system administration on three servers in use under academicdirect.ro domain.The paper describes a set of installation, preparation, and administration aspects of a FreeBSD server.First issue of the paper is the installation procedure of FreeBSD operating system on i386 computer architecture. Discussed problems are boot disks preparation and using, hard disk partitioning and operating system installation using a existent network topology and a internet connection.Second issue is the optimization procedure of operating system, server services installation, and configuration. Discussed problems are kernel and services configuration, system and services optimization.The third issue is about client-server applications. Using operating system utilities calls we present an original application, which allows displaying the system information in a friendly web interface. An original program designed for molecular structure analysis was adapted for systems performance comparisons and it serves for a discussion of Pentium, Pentium II and Pentium III processors computation speed.The last issue of the paper discusses the installation and configuration aspects of dial-in service on a UNIX-based operating system. The discussion includes serial ports, ppp and pppd services configuration, ppp and tun devices using.

  10. YMP Engineered Barrier Systems Scaled Ventilation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Dunn; B. Lowry; B. Walsh; J.D. Mar; C. Howard; R. Johnston; T. Williams

    2002-11-22

    Yucca Mountain, approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been selected as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high level nuclear waste. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is currently developing the design for the underground facilities. Ventilation is a key component of the design as a way to maintain the desired thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts prior to closure. As a means of determining the effects of continuous ventilation on heat removal from the emplacement drifts two series of scaled ventilation tests have been performed. Both test series were performed in the DOE/North Las Vegas Atlas facility. The tests provided scaled (nominally 25% of the full scale emplacement drift design) thermal and flow process data that will be used to validate YMP heat and mass transport codes. The Phase I Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of ambient ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow and input power conditions. The Phase II Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of pre-conditioned ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow, input temperature and moisture content, and simulated waste package input power conditions. Twenty-two distinct ventilation tests were run.

  11. Implementation challenges for designing integrated in vitro testing strategies (ITS) aiming at reducing and replacing animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Krul, Cyrille; Mikulowski, Stan; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L; Vilà, Maya R

    2012-04-01

    At the IVTIP (in vitro testing industrial platform) meeting of November 26th 2009 entitled 'Toxicology in the 21st century ('21C')--working our way towards a visionary reality' all delegates endorsed the emerging concept of the '21C' vision as the way forward to enable a thorough, reliable and systematic approach to future toxicity testing without the use of animals. One of the emerging concepts focused on integrating a defined number of tests modelling in vivo-relevant and well-characterised toxicity pathways representing mechanistic endpoints. At this meeting the importance of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) as tools towards reduction and eventually replacement of the animals currently used for hazard identification and risk assessment was recognised. A follow-up IVTIP Spring 2010 meeting entitled 'Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategies (ITS)--Implementation Challenges' was organised to address pending questions about ITS. This report is not a review of the ITS literature, but a summary of the discussions triggered by presented examples on how to develop and implement ITS. Contrasts between pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as well as a list of general but practical aspects to be considered while developing an ITS emerged from the discussions. In addition, current recommendations on the validation of ITS were discussed. In conclusion, the outcome of this workshop improved the understanding of the participants of some important factors that may impact the design of an ITS in function of its purpose (e.g., screening, or early decision making versus regulatory), the context in which they need to be applied (e.g., ICH guidelines, REACH) and the status and quality of the available tools. A set of recommendations of best practices was established and the importance of the applicability of the individual tests as well as the testing strategy itself was highlighted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prototype space erectable radiator system ground test article development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Joseph P.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype heat rejecting system is being developed by NASA-JSC for possible space station applications. This modular system, the Space-Erectable Radiator System Ground Test Article (SERS-GTA) with high-capacity radiator panels, can be installed and replaced on-orbit. The design, fabrication and testing of a representative ground test article are discussed. Acceptance test data for the heat pipe radiator panel and the whiffletree clamping mechanism have been presented.

  13. Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Assessment of Chios Mastic Oil by the In Vitro Micronucleus Test on Human Lymphocytes and the In Vivo Wing Somatic Test on Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Drosopoulou, Elena; Efthimiou, Ioanna; Gavriilidis, Maximos; Panagaki, Dimitra; Mpatziou, Krystalenia; Kalamara, Paraskevi; Mademtzoglou, Despoina; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Chios mastic oil (CMO), the essential oil derived from Pistacia lentiscus (L.) var. chia (Duham), has generated considerable interest because of its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and other beneficial properties. In the present study, the potential genotoxic activity of CMO as well as its antigenotoxic properties against the mutagenic agent mitomycin-C (MMC) were evaluated by employing the in vitro Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN) assay and the in vivo Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART). In the in vitro experiments, lymphocytes were treated with 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10% (v/v) of CMO with or without 0.05 μg/ml MMC, while in the in vivo assay Drosophila larvae were fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v) of CMO with or without 2.50 μg/ml MMC. CMO did not significantly increase the frequency of micronuclei (MN) or total wing spots, indicating lack of mutagenic or recombinogenic activity. However, the in vitro analysis suggested cytotoxic activity of CMO. The simultaneous administration of MMC with CMO did not alter considerably the frequencies of MMC-induced MN and wing spots showing that CMO doesn't exert antigenotoxic or antirecombinogenic action. Therefore, CMO could be considered as a safe product in terms of genotoxic potential. Even though it could not afford any protection against DNA damage, at least under our experimental conditions, its cytotoxic potential could be of interest.

  14. Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Assessment of Chios Mastic Oil by the In Vitro Micronucleus Test on Human Lymphocytes and the In Vivo Wing Somatic Test on Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Vlastos

    Full Text Available Chios mastic oil (CMO, the essential oil derived from Pistacia lentiscus (L. var. chia (Duham, has generated considerable interest because of its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and other beneficial properties. In the present study, the potential genotoxic activity of CMO as well as its antigenotoxic properties against the mutagenic agent mitomycin-C (MMC were evaluated by employing the in vitro Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN assay and the in vivo Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART. In the in vitro experiments, lymphocytes were treated with 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10% (v/v of CMO with or without 0.05 μg/ml MMC, while in the in vivo assay Drosophila larvae were fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v of CMO with or without 2.50 μg/ml MMC. CMO did not significantly increase the frequency of micronuclei (MN or total wing spots, indicating lack of mutagenic or recombinogenic activity. However, the in vitro analysis suggested cytotoxic activity of CMO. The simultaneous administration of MMC with CMO did not alter considerably the frequencies of MMC-induced MN and wing spots showing that CMO doesn't exert antigenotoxic or antirecombinogenic action. Therefore, CMO could be considered as a safe product in terms of genotoxic potential. Even though it could not afford any protection against DNA damage, at least under our experimental conditions, its cytotoxic potential could be of interest.

  15. Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Assessment of Chios Mastic Oil by the In Vitro Micronucleus Test on Human Lymphocytes and the In Vivo Wing Somatic Test on Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Drosopoulou, Elena; Efthimiou, Ioanna; Gavriilidis, Maximos; Panagaki, Dimitra; Mpatziou, Krystalenia; Kalamara, Paraskevi; Mademtzoglou, Despoina; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Chios mastic oil (CMO), the essential oil derived from Pistacia lentiscus (L.) var. chia (Duham), has generated considerable interest because of its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and other beneficial properties. In the present study, the potential genotoxic activity of CMO as well as its antigenotoxic properties against the mutagenic agent mitomycin-C (MMC) were evaluated by employing the in vitro Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN) assay and the in vivo Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART). In the in vitro experiments, lymphocytes were treated with 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10% (v/v) of CMO with or without 0.05 μg/ml MMC, while in the in vivo assay Drosophila larvae were fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v) of CMO with or without 2.50 μg/ml MMC. CMO did not significantly increase the frequency of micronuclei (MN) or total wing spots, indicating lack of mutagenic or recombinogenic activity. However, the in vitro analysis suggested cytotoxic activity of CMO. The simultaneous administration of MMC with CMO did not alter considerably the frequencies of MMC-induced MN and wing spots showing that CMO doesn’t exert antigenotoxic or antirecombinogenic action. Therefore, CMO could be considered as a safe product in terms of genotoxic potential. Even though it could not afford any protection against DNA damage, at least under our experimental conditions, its cytotoxic potential could be of interest. PMID:26110900

  16. Embryo vitrification using a novel semi-automated closed system yields in vitro outcomes equivalent to the manual Cryotop method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tammie K; Brandi, Susanna; Tappe, Naomi M; Bradley, Cara K; Vom, Eduardo; Henderson, Chester; Lewis, Craig; Battista, Kristy; Hobbs, Ben; Hobbs, Simon; Syer, John; Lanyon, Sam R; Dopheide, Sacha M; Peura, Teija T; McArthur, Steven J; Bowman, Mark C; Stojanov, Tomas

    2014-11-01

    groups, of which 17 and 15%, respectively, progressed to fully hatched blastocysts 48 h after warming. The cooling and warming rates achieved with the Gavi system were 14 136°C/min and 11 239°C/min, respectively. Testing of the Gavi system described here was limited to in vitro development of embryos from two mouse strains and a limited number of human embryos. Validation of Gavi system advanced production models is now required to confirm the success of semi-automated vitrification, including clinical evaluation of pregnancy outcomes from the transfer of Gavi vitrified-warmed human embryos. The Gavi system has the potential to revolutionize and standardize vitrification of embryos and oocytes. The success of the Gavi system shows that it is possible to semi-automate complicated labour-intensive ART methods and processes, and opens up the possibility for further improvements in clinical outcomes and efficiencies in the ART clinic. This study was funded by Genea Ltd. S.B., N.M.T., T.T.P., S.J.M., M.C.B. and T.S. are shareholders of Genea Ltd. E.V., C.H., C.L., S.R.L. and S.M.D. are shareholders of Planet Innovation Pty Ltd. The remaining authors are employees of either Genea Ltd. or Planet Innovation Pty Ltd. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Powertrain instrumentation and test systems development, hybridization, electrification

    CERN Document Server

    Paulweber, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The book deals with the increasingly complex test systems for powertrain components and systems giving an overview of the diverse types of test beds for all components of an advanced powertrain focusing on specific topics such as instrumentation, control, simulation, hardware-in-the-loop, automation or test facility management. This book is intended for powertrain (component) development engineers, test bed planners, test bed operators and beginners.

  18. A three-dimensional culture system using alginate hydrogel prolongs hatched cattle embryo development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Gao, Hui; Wu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Shuai-Shuai; Li, Ming-Jie; Bai, Jia-Hua; Liu, Yan; Evans, Alexander; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2015-07-15

    No successful method exists to maintain the three-dimensional architecture of hatched embryos in vitro. Alginate, a linear polysaccharide derived from brown algae, has characteristics that make it an ideal material as a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix for in vitro cell, tissue, or embryo culture. In this study, alginate hydrogel was used for IVC of posthatched bovine embryos to observe their development under the 3D system. In vitro-fertilized and parthenogenetically activated posthatched bovine blastocysts were cultured in an alginate encapsulation culture system (AECS), an alginate overlay culture system (AOCS), or control culture system. After 18 days of culture, the survival rate of embryos cultured in AECS was higher than that in the control group (P cultured in the normal culture system, 9.09% of them attached to the bottoms of the plastic wells and grew rapidly, with the largest area of an attached embryo being 66.00 mm(2) on Day 32. The embryos cultured in AOCS developed monovesicular or multivesicular morphologies. Total cell number of the embryos cultured in AECS on Day 19 was significantly higher than that of embryos on Day 8. Additionally, AECS and AOCS supported differentiation of the embryonic cells. Binuclear cells were visible in Day-26 adherent embryos, and the messenger RNA expression patterns of Cdx2 and Oct4 in AOCS-cultured embryos were similar to those in vivo embryos, whereas IFNT and ISG15 messenger RNA were still expressed in Day-26 and Day-32 prolong-cultured embryos. In conclusion, AECS and AOCS did support cell proliferation, elongation, and differentiation of hatched bovine embryos during prolonged IVC. The culture system will be useful to further investigate the molecular mechanisms controlling ruminant embryo elongation and implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro evaluation of the implant-abutment bacterial seal: the locking taper system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibart, Serge; Warbington, Martha; Su, Ming Fan; Skobe, Ziedonis

    2005-01-01

    To test in vitro whether the seal provided by the locking taper used in the implant-abutment connection was capable of preventing the invasion of oral microorganisms. Twenty-five wide-body implants (5 x 11 mm) and 25 abutments were divided into 2 groups for a 2-phase experiment. The first phase tested the ability of the seal to shield the implant well from outside bacteria; the second phase tested the ability of the seal to prevent bacteria present in the implant well from seeping out. For phase 1, 10 implant-abutment units were immersed in a bacterial broth for 24 hours. The abutments were then separated from the implants and bacterial presence was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. In phase 2, the tested abutments were inoculated with a droplet of soft agar bacterial gel and assembled with the implant. These units were incubated in a sterile nutrient broth for 72 hours, sampled, and plated to assess bacterial presence. In phase 1, no bacteria were detected in any of the implant wells. In phase 2, no bacteria were detected in the nutrient broth or on the agar plates at 72 hours. In implants where a microgap is present, microbial leakage could lead to inflammation and bone loss; thus, it is important to minimize bacterial presence in and around the the implant-abutment junction. The seal provided by the locking taper design has been demonstrated to be hermetic with regard to bacterial invasion in vitro.

  20. Future testing of active safety systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, F.M.; Pelders, H.A.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are

  1. Hypothesis testing with open quantum systems

    OpenAIRE

    Molmer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Using a quantum circuit model we derive the maximal ability to distinguish which of several candidate Hamiltonians describe an open quantum system. This theory, in particular, provides the maximum information retrievable from continuous quantum measurement records, available when a quantum system is perturbatively coupled to a broadband quantized environment.

  2. Smart infrared inspection system field operational test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles : passing through the system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel : components. As a vehicle ...

  3. The ARES test system for palm OS handheld computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsmore, Timothy F; Reeves, Dennis L; Reeves, Andrea N

    2007-02-01

    The ARES (ANAM Readiness Evaluation System) is a cognitive testing system designed for operation on palm OS handheld computers i.e., Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). It provides an inexpensive and portable testing platform for field and clinical applications. ARES test batteries can be configured from a library of tests derived from the ANAM test system. ARES features include support of multiple users on a single PDA, a Microsoft Windows test battery authoring program, and a program for downloading, viewing, graphing, and archiving data. In validity tests, the same subjects were tested on identical ARES and conventional ANAM NeuroCog test batteries. Scores from the two platforms correlated highly, but absolute scores differed slightly. In reliability testing with the ARES Warrior battery, ARES scores were highly correlated in daily tests.

  4. Development of an in vitro, isolated, infected spore testing model for disinfectant testing of Microsporum canis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Karen A; Deboer, Douglas J; Volk, Lynn M; Sparkes, Andrew; Robinson, Ann

    2004-06-01

    The isolated infected hair model is a commonly used technique to test the fungicidal efficacy of topical therapies against Microsporum canis. The most commonly used model uses mats of infective hairs, and results from various laboratories have differed. The objectives of this study were to develop a method to produce spores for testing when only mycelial forms were available and to develop a semiquantitative testing method that used only infective spores from hairs, and not pooled hair samples for testing. Ten isolates of M. canis were used in this study. Juvenile guinea pigs were easily infected using mycelial forms of M. canis and large numbers of spores were easily harvested for testing. Eight dilutions of disinfectants were tested. Fungal culture data were evaluated using an endpoint dilution at which there was 100% fungicidal activity, i.e. no growth on the plates. The 10 samples showed identical results. Chlorhexidine and Virkon(R) S were ineffective even when used at x4 the manufacturer's recommended dilution. Lime sulphur (1 : 33), enilconazole (20 microL mL(-1)), and bleach (1 : 10) were consistently effective when used at the recommended dilution. In addition, lime sulphur and enilconazole were 100% fungicidal even when the recommended concentration was diluted 1 : 4 or x4 as dilute as recommended.

  5. Thrombelastography detects dabigatran at therapeutic concentrations in vitro to the same extent as gold-standard tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solbeck, Sacha; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Stensballe, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dabigatran is an oral anticoagulant approved for treatment of non-valvular atrial fibrillation, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism and prevention of DVT following orthopedic surgery. Monitoring of the dabigatran level is essential in trauma and bleeding patien...... to the current gold-standard tests Hemoclot and ECT, for assessing dabigatran. TEG R is applicable as a rapid and precise whole blood monitoring test for dabigatran treated patients in the emergency setting....... but the available plasma-based assays may not sufficiently display its hemostatic effect. This study investigated the in vitro effect of different concentrations of dabigatran on whole blood thrombelastography (TEG) and its correlation to the specific but time-consuming plasma-based tests Hemoclot and Ecarin...

  6. In vitro evaluation of the bonding durability of self-adhesive resin cement to titanium using highly accelerated life test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bonding durability of three self-adhesive resin cements to titanium using the Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT). The following self-adhesive resin cements were used to bond pairs of titanium blocks together according to manufacturers' instructions: RelyX Unicem, Breeze, and Clearfil SA Luting. After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, bonded specimens (n=15) immersed in 37°C water were subjected to cyclic shear load testing regimes of 20, 30, or 40 kg using a fatigue testing machine. Cyclic loading continued until failure occurred, and the number of cycles taken to reach failure was recorded. The bonding durability of a self-adhesive resin cement to titanium was largely influenced by the weight of impact load. HALT showed that Clearfil SA Luting, which contained MDP monomer, yielded the highest median bonding lifetime to titanium.

  7. A novel in vitro model for preclinical testing of the hemocompatibility of intravascular stents according to ISO 10993-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Stefan; Scheuermann, Torsten; Deichelbohrer, Stephan; Ziemer, Gerhard; Wendel, Hans P

    2011-06-01

    Subacute stent thrombosis, caused by undesired interactions between blood and the stent surface, is a major concern in the first few weeks following coronary artery stent implantation. The aim of this study was to establish a novel in vitro model for hemocompatibility testing of coronary artery stents according to ISO 10993-4. The model consists of a modified Chandler-Loop design with closed heparin-coated PVC Loops and a thermostated water bath. The tests were performed with anticoagulated human whole blood. After incubation in the loop, blood was analyzed for coagulation and inflammatory activation markers (TAT, β-TG, sP-selectin, SC5b-9 and PMN-elastase). Three different stent types with varying thrombogenicity were tested; statistically significant differences were found between the three stent types in measures of coagulation and platelet activation. The new Chandler-Loop model can be used as an alternative to animal and current in vitro models, especially for the determination of early events after stent implantation.

  8. Effects of Achyrocline satureioides Inflorescence Extracts against Pathogenic Intestinal Bacteria: Chemical Characterization, In Vitro Tests, and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Suzana Moresco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Achyrocline satureioides (AS inflorescences extracts were characterized: (i a freeze-dried extract prepared from the aqueous extractive solution and (ii a freeze-dried and (iii a spray-dried extract prepared from hydroethanol extractive solution (80% ethanol. The chemical profile, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria of AS extracts were evaluated. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay. In vivo analysis and characterization of intestinal microbiota were performed in male Wistar rats (saline versus treated animals with AS dried extracts by high-throughput sequencing analysis: metabarcoding. Antimicrobial activity was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion tests. Moisture content of the extracts ranged from 10 to 15% and 5.7 to 17 mg kg−1 of fluorine. AS exhibited antioxidant activity, especially in its freeze-dried form which also exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria greater than those observed by the antibiotic, amoxicillin, when tested against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of AS extracts seemed to be positively correlated with the present amount of flavonoids. These findings suggest a potential use of AS as a coadjuvant agent for treating bacterial-induced intestinal diseases with high rates of antibiotic resistance.

  9. In vitro propagation of ‘FHIA-25’ (Musa spp., AAB in Temporary Immersion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Basail Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessity to produce high quality planting material has required searching new alternatives to increase the efficiency of in vitro propagation methods and their automation, as in Temporary Immersion Systems (TIS. This work was aimed to multiply the hybrid ‘FHIA-25’ (Musa spp. AAB in TIS. The effect of different culture medium volumes per explant and densities of planting materials per culture flask at the same immersion frequency was determined. These two factors showed influence on the evaluated variables. A volume of 40 ml of culture medium per explant and densities of 80 explants per flask were selected to multiply this cultivar in TIS. These results permitted to increase in vitro production of high-quality plants for rooting stage. Key words: multiplication coefficient, culture flasks, liquid culture medium

  10. Formulation of gastroretentive floating drug delivery system using hydrophilic polymers and its in vitro characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Srikanth Meka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to formulate and evaluate the gastroretentive floating drug delivery system of antihypertensive drug, propranolol HCl. Gastroretentive floating tablets (GRFT were prepared by using a synthetic hydrophilic polymer polyethylene oxide of different grades such as PEO WSR N-12 K and PEO 18 NF as release retarding polymers and calcium carbonate as gas generating agent. The GRFT were compressed by direct compression strategy and the tablets were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, in vitro buoyancy, swelling studies, in vitro dissolution studies and release mechanism studies. From the dissolution and buoyancy studies, F 9 was selected as an optimized formulation. The optimized formulation followed zero order rate kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The optimized formulation was characterised with FTIR studies and observed no interaction between the drug and the polymers.

  11. Test systems in drug discovery for hazard identification and risk assessment of human drug-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Richard J; Betts, Catherine; Blomme, Eric A G; Gerets, Helga H J; Gjervig Jensen, Klaus; Hewitt, Philip G; Juhila, Satu; Labbe, Gilles; Liguori, Michael J; Mesens, Natalie; Ogese, Monday O; Persson, Mikael; Snoeys, Jan; Stevens, James L; Walker, Tracy; Park, B Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The liver is an important target for drug-induced toxicities. Early detection of hepatotoxic drugs requires use of well-characterized test systems, yet current knowledge, gaps and limitations of tests employed remains an important issue for drug development. Areas Covered: The current state of the science, understanding and application of test systems in use for the detection of drug-induced cytotoxicity, mitochondrial toxicity, cholestasis and inflammation is summarized. The test systems highlighted herein cover mostly in vitro and some in vivo models and endpoint measurements used in the assessment of small molecule toxic liabilities. Opportunities for research efforts in areas necessitating the development of specific tests and improved mechanistic understanding are highlighted. Expert Opinion: Use of in vitro test systems for safety optimization will remain a core activity in drug discovery. Substantial inroads have been made with a number of assays established for human Drug-induced Liver Injury. There nevertheless remain significant gaps with a need for improved in vitro tools and novel tests to address specific mechanisms of human Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Progress in these areas will necessitate not only models fit for application, but also mechanistic understanding of how chemical insult on the liver occurs in order to identify translational and quantifiable readouts for decision-making.

  12. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Installing and Testing a Server Operating System

    OpenAIRE

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2003-01-01

    The paper is based on the experience of the author with the FreeBSD server operating system administration on three servers in use under academicdirect.ro domain.The paper describes a set of installation, preparation, and administration aspects of a FreeBSD server.First issue of the paper is the installation procedure of FreeBSD operating system on i386 computer architecture. Discussed problems are boot disks preparation and using, hard disk partitioning and operating system installation usin...

  14. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  15. Penetration testing protecting networks and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a preparation guide for the CPTE examination, yet is also a general reference for experienced penetration testers, ethical hackers, auditors, security personnel and anyone else involved in the security of an organization's computer systems.

  16. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  17. 21 CFR 866.5750 - Radioallergosorbent (RAST) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radioallergosorbent (RAST) immunological test... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5750 Radioallergosorbent (RAST) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A...

  18. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-09-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system.

  19. Hardware-in-the-loop testing of marine control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Skjetne

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL testing is proposed as a new methodology for verification and certification of marine control systems. Formalizing such testing necessitates the development of a vocabulary and set of definitions. This paper treats these issues by constructing a framework suitable for industrial HIL test applications and certification of marine systems.

  20. Value of the in vitro or in vivo monoethylglycinexylidide test for predicting liver graft function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, Peter; Maring, J.K; Groothuis, Geny; Kranenburg, K; Hof, I.H; Meijer, D.K F; Slooff, M.JH; Merema, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    Background. An adequate function test for donor livers is still lacking, The monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) test, performed in vivo in the donor to measure the metabolic rate of lidocaine conversion to MEGX, has been proposed as a function test for donor livers to predict postoperative organ

  1. Medical chilling device designed for hypothermic hydration graft storage system: Design, thermohydrodynamic modeling, and preliminary testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Hwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Hypothermic hydration graft storage is essential to reduce the metabolic demand of cells in vitro. The alleviated metabolic demands reduce the emergence rate of anaerobic metabolism generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy that creates free radicals. The cessive free radicals can damage cells and tissues due to their highly oxidative power with molecules. Current cooling systems such as a conventional air cooling system and an ice pack system are inappropriate for chilling cell tissues in vitro because of inconvenience in use and inconsistent temperature sustainability caused by large size and progressive melting, respectively. Here, we develop a medical chilling device (MCD) for hypothermic hydration graft storage based on thermo-hydrodynamic modeling and thermal electric cooling technology. Our analysis of obtained hydrodynamic thermal behavior of the MCD revealed that the hypothermic condition of 4 .deg. C was continuously maintained, which increased the survival rates of cells in vitro test by reduced free radicals. The validated performance of the MCD promises future development of an optimal hypothermic hydration graft storage system designed for clinical use.

  2. Scale up the potato in vitro tubers production using Temporary Immersion System and its evaluation under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naivy Pérez-Alonso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A special temporary immersion system was designed in order to scale up the potato in vitro tubers production as an alternative method for potato seed production. An average of 2.6 in vitro tubers with an average fresh weight of 1.27g and diameter of 11.4mm was obtained. Only 2.9% of the in vitro tubers had a diameter of less than 4.0mm, while 78.1% of the in vitro tubers were larger than 7.0mm in diameter. These tubers can be stored and directly planted without an acclimatization stage so they are the most desirable for commercial production. Under field conditions, the plants obtained from in vitro tubers reached an average height of 22.77cm and 1.51 stems per plant compared to an average height of 15.32cm and 1.16 stems per plant reached by the in vitro plants. During the harvest the number of minitubers per plant was similar in both treatments, although comparing fresh weight and diameter, the results were statistical superior for in vitro tubers than for in vitro plants. Key words: Automation, in vitro tuberization, micropropagation, potato

  3. Brake System Analysis, Reliability Testing And Control Using Bench Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Z.; Yang, B.

    1997-01-01

    In this project, the authors investigated the dynamics and reliability of a brake control system using a test bench which is a Lincoln Town Car brake system. The objectives of the project are to: 1) experimentally characterize the brake system; 2) obtain good nonlinear models of the brake system; 3) perform reliability analysis of the brake control system; and, 4) develop algorithms for brake malfunction detection and brake reliability enhancement. By using the brake test bench, the dynamic c...

  4. Adenosine dry powder inhalation for bronchial challenge testing, part 1 : Inhaler and formulation development and in vitro performance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, Anne J.; Hagedoorn, Paul; Van Der Wiel, Erica; Hacken, ten Nicolaas; Frijlink, Henderik W.; De Boer, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    Dry powder administration of adenosine by use of an effective inhaler may be an interesting alternative to nebulisation of adenosine 5 '-monophosphate in bronchial challenge testing, because of a shorter administration time and more consistent delivered fine particle dose over the entire dose range.

  5. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, Rob; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Bosgra, Sieto; Caiment, Florian; Ezendam, Janine; Greupink, Rick; Hendriksen, Peter; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; Jennen, Danyel; Kleinjans, Jos; Kroese, Dinant; Kuper, Frieke; van Loveren, Henk; Monshouwer, Mario; Russel, Frans; van Someren, Eugene; Tsamou, Maria; Groothuis, Geny

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617-623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if

  6. Testing power system controllers by real-time simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venne, Philippe; Guillaud, Xavier; Sirois, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a number of state-of-the art methods for testing power system controllers based on the use of a real-time power system simulator. After introducing Hypersim, we list and discuss the different means of connection between the controller under tests and the power system...

  7. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  8. Improved mutagen testing systems in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roderick, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Our laboratory was the first to induce and ascertain a mammalian chromosomal inversion; we did this by searching for a high frequency of first meiotic anaphase bridges in testes of males whose fathers received post-spermatogonial radiation or mutagenesis from chromosomal breaking chemical mutagens. One test in was examined in each mouse, and those showing a high frequency were then mated to determine if the high frequency were passed on as a dominant and whether linkage analysis suggested the presence of an inversion. A very high incidence (exceeding 20% bridges in first meiotic anaphase bridges) was found in about 1 in 150 males examined and this frequency was generally found to be passed on to the offspring an predicted. Later cytological banding techniques were developed elsewhere and we used them to show visually the inverted orders of the inverted chromosomal segments. Since that time we have induced inversions covering most of the mouse genome.

  9. Laboratory testing of the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H

    2010-10-01

    Recent reports on vestibular testing, relevant to clinical diagnosis, are reviewed.Besides the case history and bedside examination, objective measurement of the vestibuloocular reflex in all of its facets remains the cornerstone in the diagnostic process. In recent years, this has been enhanced considerably by reliable unilateral tests for the otolith organs, most notably by vestibular-evoked myogenic potential recording and estimation of subjective visual vertical. In addition, progress has been made in the investigation of multisensory interaction, involving visual acuity and posturography.Technological developments include improved eye movement measurement techniques, electrotactile and vibrotactile sensory enhancement or substitution, the use of virtual reality devices and motion stimulators such as hexapods and the rediscovery of galvanic vestibular stimulation as a research and diagnostic tool. The recent introduction of new tests, together with the development of novel technologies, is gradually increasing the scope of the physical and bedside examination of the dizzy patient (see chapter 'Medical management of peripheral disorders' in this issue). The use of more complex equipment, such as rotating chairs, linear sleds, hexapods and posturography platforms, is likely to become limited to specialized laboratories and rehabilitation centers in future years. Further, high resolution magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and computed tomography have allowed insight into the morphology and determination of malformations of the human labyrinth.

  10. Short Communication: In Vitro Efficacy Testing of Praziquantel, Ivermectin, and Oxfendazole against Taenia Solium Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cederberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxfendazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treating porcine cysticercosis. The drug does not kill brain cysts and is not registered for use in pigs. Latest its safety in the recommended dose has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate two alternative anthelminthics. The efficacy of praziquantel and ivermectin was compared to oxfendazole In Vitro on Taenia solium. Cysts of T. solium were isolated from infected pork and incubated in culture media together with the drugs. The degree of evagination was used as effect measurement and determined after 6 hours. Praziquantel had a half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of value 0.006 ± 0.001 μg/mL. Ivermectin did not show any impact on the evagination in concentrations from 0.001 to 30 μg/mL and neither did oxfendazole in concentrations from 0.001 to 50 μg/mL.

  11. Hydroxyapatite nanorods: soft-template synthesis, characterization and preliminary in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga Kim; Leoni, Matteo; Maniglio, Devid; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanorods are excellent candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, hydroxyapatite nanorods resembling bone minerals were produced by using soft-template method with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Composite hydroxyapatite/poly(D, L)lactic acid films were prepared to evaluate the prepared hydroxyapatite nanorods in terms of cell affinity. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed that aspect ratio and film surface roughness play a vital role in controlling adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cell line MG 63. The hydroxyapatite nanorods with aspect ratios in the range of 5.94-7 were found to possess distinctive properties, with the corresponding hydroxyapatite/poly(D, L)lactic acid films promoting cellular confluence and a fast formation of collagen fibers as early as after 7 days of culture.

  12. Rapid in vitro test to predict ocular tissue permeability based on biopartitioning micellar chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Biosca, Y; Molero-Monfort, M; Sagrado, S; Villanueva-Camañas, R M; Medina-Hernández, M J

    2003-10-01

    The drug permeability prediction across the ocular tissues is important in the development of new drugs and drug delivery strategies. Physicochemical characteristics of drugs, mainly acid-base character, hydrophobicity and the molecular size determine both their transport across the eye tissue barriers and their retention in biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC). An in vitro model able to describe and predict the whole cornea drug permeability is proposed. The model uses the retention of drugs in BMC and molecular weight (MW) as predictive variables. The relationships between drug retention data in BMC and their bibliographic permeability values in stroma, epithelium-plus-stroma and endothelium-plus-stroma are also studied. The results show that BMC can be a useful tool to select drug candidates according to their whole cornea permeability at the early stage of the drug discovery process.

  13. Performance testing of the Desdemona motion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roza, M.; Wentink, M.; Feenstra, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the spring of 2007 TNO Human Factors together with AMST Systemtechnik GmbH have completed the development of their newest research simulator, the Desdemona, in The Netherlands. The Desdemona research simulator features a unique motion system not seen elsewhere in the world. Its serial design and

  14. Characterization of DNA repair phenotypes of Xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines by a paralleled in vitro test; Phenotypage de la reparation de l'ADN de lignees Xeroderma pigmentosum, par un test in vitro multiparametrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffin, A.L.

    2009-06-15

    DNA is constantly damaged modifying the genetic information for which it encodes. Several cellular mechanisms as the Base Excision Repair (BER) and the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) allow recovering the right DNA sequence. The Xeroderma pigmentosum is a disease characterised by a deficiency in the NER pathway. The aim of this study was to propose an efficient and fast test for the diagnosis of this disease as an alternative to the currently available UDS test. DNA repair activities of XP cell lines were quantified using in vitro miniaturized and paralleled tests in order to establish DNA repair phenotypes of XPA and XPC deficient cells. The main advantage of the tests used in this study is the simultaneous measurement of excision or excision synthesis (ES) of several lesions by only one cellular extract. We showed on one hand that the relative ES of the different lesions depend strongly on the protein concentration of the nuclear extract tested. Working at high protein concentration allowed discriminating the XP phenotype versus the control one, whereas it was impossible under a certain concentration's threshold. On the other hand, while the UVB irradiation of control cells stimulated their repair activities, this effect was not observed in XP cells. This study brings new information on the XPA and XPC protein roles during BER and NER and underlines the complexity of the regulations of DNA repair processes. (author)

  15. Simulating New Drop Test Vehicles and Test Techniques for the Orion CEV Parachute Assembly System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Ray, Eric; Moore, Jim W.; Olson, Leah M.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is engaged in a multi-year design and test campaign to qualify a parachute recovery system for human use on the Orion Spacecraft. Test and simulation techniques have evolved concurrently to keep up with the demands of a challenging and complex system. The primary simulations used for preflight predictions and post-test data reconstructions are Decelerator System Simulation (DSS), Decelerator System Simulation Application (DSSA), and Drop Test Vehicle Simulation (DTV-SIM). The goal of this paper is to provide a roadmap to future programs on the test technique challenges and obstacles involved in executing a large-scale, multi-year parachute test program. A focus on flight simulation modeling and correlation to test techniques executed to obtain parachute performance parameters are presented.

  16. Evaluation of Four Veterinary Hematology Analyzers for Bovine and Ovine Blood Counts for In Vitro Testing of Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Ina Laura; Friedmann, Yasmin; Jones, Alyssa; Thornton, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Small affordable automated hematology analyzers that produce rapid and accurate complete blood cell counts are a valuable tool to researchers developing blood-handling medical devices, such as ventricular assist devices, for in vitro safety assessments. In such studies, it is common to use the blood of large animals such as cattle and sheep. However, the commercially available instruments have not been evaluated for their ability to measure the blood counts of these animals. In this study, we compare, for the first time, four veterinary analyzers for blood counts on bovine and ovine blood samples. We look at ease of use, repeatability and agreement with a view to inform researchers of the benefits of these instruments in routine measurement of ovine and bovine bloods during in vitro testing. Complete blood cell counts and a three-part differential (granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes) were measured by each of the instruments, and the results compared to those obtained from two additional analyzers used in a reference laboratory. Repeatability and agreement were evaluated using the Bland-Altman method; bias and 95% limits of agreement between the instruments, and between the instruments and two reference instruments, were used to evaluate instrument performance. In summary, there are advantages and disadvantages with all instruments. Of the four instruments tested, the repeatability and agreement was fairly similar for all instruments except one instrument which cannot be recommended for bovine or ovine blood counts. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  18. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  19. Efficacy of Four Remineralizing Agents on Primary Teeth: In Vitro Evaluation Using Microhardness Testing and Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gayathri; George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S; John, Sheen Ann; Mathew, V; Shanavas, Nikil M

    2017-05-15

    This study's purpose was to evaluate the remineralization of primary enamel using GC Tooth Mousse, Clinpro Tooth Crème, SHY-NM, and Pronamel by employing microhardness testing and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) values. An in vitro study was performed with 100 intact primary anterior teeth. After specimen preparation, they were subjected to baseline microhardness and QLF testing. The specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution, subjected again to microhardness and QLF testing, and divided randomly into five groups of 20 teeth: group one-control group (artificial saliva); group two-GC Tooth Mousse; group three-ClinPro tooth crème; group four-SHY-NM; and group five-Pronamel. The pastes were respectively applied for the specific group specimens for 15 consecutive days. The samples were subjected to microhardness and QLF testing. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance testing. A post-hoc comparison was done using a paired t test. There were mean increases in microhardness and QLF values with all remineralizing agents. Group two showed a statistically significant increase (Pmicrohardness and QLF values. Group four showed a significant increase only in microhardness values. (Pmaterials for remineralizing incipient lesions in primary teeth.

  20. Water Containment Systems for Testing High-Speed Flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trase, Larry; Thompson, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Water-filled containers are used as building blocks in a new generation of containment systems for testing high-speed flywheels. Such containment systems are needed to ensure safety by trapping high-speed debris in the event of centrifugal breakup or bearing failure. Traditional containment systems for testing flywheels consist mainly of thick steel rings. The effectiveness of this approach to shielding against high-speed debris was demonstrated in a series of tests.