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Sample records for vitro simulated gastro-intestinal

  1. In Vitro Model Simulating Gastro-Intestinal Digestion in the Pediatric Population (Neonates and Young Infants)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Danna; Berthelsen, Ragna; Sassene, Philip Jonas

    2017-01-01

    , it is important to simulate the gastro-intestinal conditions and processes the drug will encounter upon oral administration. When a drug is administered in the fed state, which is commonly the case for neonates, as they are typically fed every 3 h, the digestion of the milk will affect the composition...... of the fluid available for drug dissolution/solubilization. Therefore, in order to predict the solubilized amount of drug available for absorption, an in vitro model simulating digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract should be utilized. In order to simulate the digestion process and the drug solubilization...... taking place in vivo, the following aspects should be considered; physiologically relevant media, media volume, use of physiological enzymes in proper amounts, as well as correct pH and addition of relevant co-factors, e.g., bile salts and co-enzymes. Furthermore, physiological transit times...

  2. In Vitro Model Simulating Gastro-Intestinal Digestion in the Pediatric Population (Neonates and Young Infants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstrup, Danna; Berthelsen, Ragna; Sassene, Philip Jonas; Selen, Arzu; Müllertz, Anette

    2017-02-01

    The focus on drug delivery for the pediatric population has been steadily increasing in the last decades. In terms of developing in vitro models simulating characteristics of the targeted pediatric population, with the purpose of predicting drug product performance after oral administration, it is important to simulate the gastro-intestinal conditions and processes the drug will encounter upon oral administration. When a drug is administered in the fed state, which is commonly the case for neonates, as they are typically fed every 3 h, the digestion of the milk will affect the composition of the fluid available for drug dissolution/solubilization. Therefore, in order to predict the solubilized amount of drug available for absorption, an in vitro model simulating digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract should be utilized. In order to simulate the digestion process and the drug solubilization taking place in vivo, the following aspects should be considered; physiologically relevant media, media volume, use of physiological enzymes in proper amounts, as well as correct pH and addition of relevant co-factors, e.g., bile salts and co-enzymes. Furthermore, physiological transit times and appropriate mixing should be considered and mimicked as close as possible. This paper presents a literature review on physiological factors relevant for digestion and drug solubilization in neonates. Based on the available literature data, a novel in vitro digestion model simulating digestion and drug solubilization in the neonate and young infant pediatric population (2 months old and younger) was designed.

  3. Pomegranate ellagitannins inhibit α-glucosidase activity in vitro and reduce starch digestibility under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesia, Andrea; Verzelloni, Elena; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate extract was tested for its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Pomegranate extract strongly inhibited rat intestinal α-glucosidase in vitro whereas it was a weak inhibitor of porcine α-amylase. The inhibitory activity was recovered in an ellagitannins-enriched fraction and punicalagin, punicalin, and ellagic acid were identified as α-glucosidase inhibitors (IC(50) of 140.2, 191.4, and 380.9 μmol/L, respectively). Kinetic analysis suggested that the pomegranate extract and ellagitannins inhibited α-glucosidase activity in a mixed mode. The inhibitory activity was demonstrated using an in vitro digestion system, mimicking the physiological gastro-intestinal condition, and potatoes as food rich in starch. Pre-incubation between ellagitannins and α-glucosidase increased the inhibitory activity, suggesting that they acted by binding to α-glucosidase. During digestion punicalin and punicalagin concentration decreased. Despite this loss, the pomegranate extract retained high inhibitory activity. This study suggests that pomegranate ellagitannins may inhibit α-glucosidase activity in vitro possibly affecting in vivo starch digestion.

  4. Fed and fasted state gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene

    2014-01-01

    delivery system (SNEDDS) was either dosed in a hard gelatin capsule (SNEDDS-C) or loaded onto a porous tablet core (SNEDDS-T) and compared to a marketed conventional tablet (Conv) in an in vitro lipolysis model. The model simulates the digestion in the stomach and intestine during either the fasted...

  5. Flow cytometric assessment of the protectants for enhanced in vitro survival of probiotic lactic acid bacteria through simulated human gastro-intestinal stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Cao, Yu; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Shu, Quan; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to apply flow cytometric (FCM) analysis to assess the use of sucrose and lecithin vesicles for the protection of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in response to the challenge of gastric acidity and bile salts. FCM analysis in combination with fluorescent probes carboxyfluorescein (cF) and propidium iodide was used to reveal the physiological heterogeneity in the stressed bacteria population. Three subpopulations (intact, stressed, and damaged) were differentiated by FCM in all six examined strains. Significant changes were observed in the presence of the selected protectants. The addition of 20 mM sucrose in the simulated gastric fluid substantially increased the number of intact cells over 20 folds and reduced the damaged subpopulation by half. The presence of 2 % (w/v) lecithin vesicles was shown to protect 50 % more intact cells from the challenge of bile salts. The improved survival as evaluated by FCM analysis was further assessed for the proliferation capacity by sorting a number of cells from each subpopulation on nutrient agar plate. The result confirmed conformity between the proliferation-based cultivability and the probe-indicated viability in the samples of the intact and the damaged subpopulations. However, it also revealed the complexities of the stressed (injured) subpopulation. In conclusion, FCM analysis confirmed that the selected protectants could improve the survival of the probiotic strains in the simulated GI environments. The FCM analysis also proved to be a useful analytical tool for the probiotics research.

  6. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Murraya koenigii against gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Sabir Hossen; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The present study have been conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of crude aqueous and crude methanolic leaf extracts of Murraya koenigii. Infection of ruminants with gastro-intestinal (GI) parasite has become a worldwide problem. The parasite causes economic losses in a variety of ways. Previously sheep producers relied heavily on anti-parasitic drugs to control gastro-intestinal parasites of the flocks. But due to misuse of these drugs the parasites become resistant to drugs. Thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of controlling the GI parasites. Adult motility assay (AMA) and egg hatch assay (EHA) have been done for in vitro study, and faecal egg count reduction (FECR) assay have been done for in vivo study. The in vitro study revealed anthelmintic effects of M. koenigii on Haemonchus contortus as evident from their paralytic condition and/or death at eight hour post exposure in different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50 mg/ml) of aqueous and methanolic extracts which exhibit to be dose-dependent. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of M. koenigii were found to have low percent inhibitory effect on egg hatching. It may be concluded that M. koenigii showed significant anthelmintic activity.

  7. Evaluation of lipid-based formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs in the gastro-intestinal tract using in vitro tests

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Yvonne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Novel active pharmaceutical ingredients are often poorly water-soluble. Such compounds may only partially dissolve or may precipitate during intestinal passage, potentially leading to incomplete drug absorption. Despite the importance of the process, the underlying in vivo as well as in vitro drug-precipitation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Several formulation principles, including lipid-based formulations, have been introduced to prevent drug precipitation in the gastro-intestinal tra...

  8. Microencapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in alginate-chitosan capsules improves survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávarri, María; Marañón, Izaskun; Ares, Raquel; Ibáñez, Francisco C; Marzo, Florencio; Villarán, María del Carmen

    2010-08-15

    Chitosan was used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in calcium alginate beads. Chitosan-coated alginate microspheres were produced to encapsulate Lactobacillus gasseri (L) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (B) as probiotics and the prebiotic quercetin (Q) with the objective of enhancing survival of the probiotic bacteria and keeping intact the prebiotic during exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The encapsulation yield for viable cells for chitosan-coated alginate microspheres with quercetin (L+Q and B+Q) was very low. These results, together with the study about the survival of microspheres with quercetin during storage at 4 degrees C, demonstrated that probiotic bacteria microencapsulated with quercetin did not survive. Owing to this, quercetin and L. gasseri or B. bifidum were microencapsulated separately. Microencapsulated L. gasseri and microencapsulated B. bifidum were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2.0, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2h), resulting in significantly (pmicroencapsulation of L. gasseri and B. bifidum with alginate and a chitosan coating offers an effective means of delivery of viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric and intestinal juice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro characterization of cadmium transport along the gastro-intestinal tract of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinck, Joel S., E-mail: klinckjs@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    An in vitro gut sac technique was used to examine the mechanism(s) of cadmium (Cd) uptake along the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The spatial distribution of Cd between three compartments (mucus-binding, mucosal epithelium, and transport into blood space) was determined using a modified Cortland saline containing 50 {mu}M Cd (as CdCl{sub 2}) labeled with {sup 109}Cd radiotracer. Taking into account total surface areas, the order of relative importance for total Cd uptake rate was: posterior intestine > anterior intestine > stomach > mid intestine. Cd transport was not inhibited by experimentally reducing fluid transport rates by manipulation of osmotic gradients using mannitol, but was sensitive to internal luminal pressure changes, suggesting a mechanosensitive pathway. Q{sub 10} values (1, 11, and 19 {sup o}C) indicated a facilitated transport of Cd in the anterior- and mid-intestine. The effects of 10 mM Ca on the kinetics of Cd uptake suggest the presence of a common uptake pathway for Cd and Ca in the stomach, anterior-, and mid-intestine. Further evidence of a shared route of entry was found using three Ca channel blockers, lanthanum, verapamil, and nifedipine: both voltage-insensitive and voltage-sensitive Ca channels appear to be present in either some, or all portions of the GIT. Elevated Fe (500 {mu}M), Mg (50 mM), and Zn (500 {mu}M) showed varying degrees of inhibition of Cd transport depending on the compartment and segment of the GIT. Overall it appears that there are multiple sites, and mechanisms, of Cd uptake along the GIT of rainbow trout.

  10. Oxygen limitation induces acid tolerance and impacts simulated gastro-intestinal transit in Listeria monocytogenes J0161.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Danny; Allen, Stuart Ch; Phillips, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    ᅟ: Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen and the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe infection to those with a pre-disposition. Infections often arise through consumption of contaminated foods, where high intrinsic resistance to food processing practises permit survival and growth. Several practises, including refrigeration, acidification and oxygen limitation are ineffective in controlling L. monocytogenes, therefore foods which do not undergo thermal processing, e.g. ready-to-eat products, are considered high risk. While the responses to several food processing practises have been investigated, there are few reports on the responses of L. monocytogenes to oxygen limitation. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen limitation on stress response andsurvival capacity during simulated gastro-intestinal transit. Anaerobiosis induced an acid tolerance response, causing cells to be more resistant to organic and inorganic acids than aerobically grown counterparts (p juice (SGJ) compared to aerobically grown cells (p monocytogenes to oxygen limitation are not extensively studied. These findings provide an initial insight into the effects of anaerobiosis on stress response and survival potential in L. monocytogenes. While it appears anaerobiosis may impact these, further work is required to confirm these findings are not strain specific.

  11. Bioconversion of red ginseng saponins in the gastro-intestinal tract in vitro model studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, H.; Wang, M.; Venema, K.; Maathuis, A.; Heijden, R. van der; Greef, J. van der; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HPLC-FTICR-MS) method was developed to investigate the metabolism of ginsenosides in in vitro models of the gastro-intestinal tract. The metabolites were identified by

  12. on gastro intestinal smooth muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    , Kaduna State. Correspondence author: am.huguma@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Combretum micranthum were studied on gastro intestinal smooth muscle of rodents. The extract was screened using ...

  13. Cadmium accumulation and in vitro analysis of calcium and cadmium transport functions in the gastro-intestinal tract of trout following chronic dietary cadmium and calcium feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, Joel S; Ng, Tania Y-T; Wood, Chris M

    2009-09-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets made from Lumbriculus variegatus containing environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd (approximately 0.2 and 12 microg g(-1) dry wt) and/or Ca (1, 10, 20 and 60 mg g(-1) dry wt) for 4 weeks. Ten fish per treatment were removed weekly for tissue metal burden analysis. In all portions of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) (stomach, anterior, mid, and posterior intestine), chronic exposure to elevated dietary Ca decreased Cd tissue accumulation to varying degrees. At week five, the GITs of the remaining fish were subjected to an in vitro gut sac technique. Pre-exposure to the different treatments affected unidirectional uptake and binding rates of Cd and Ca in different manners, dependent on the specific GIT section. Ca and Cd uptake rates were highly correlated within all sections of the GIT, and the loosely binding rate of Cd to the GIT surfaces predicted the rate of new Cd absorption. Overall, this study indicates that elevated dietary Ca is protective against Cd uptake from an environmentally relevant diet, and that Ca and Cd uptake may occur through both common and separate pathways in the GIT.

  14. In vitro analysis of the bioavailability of six metals via the gastro-intestinal tract of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, Adeola A. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)]. E-mail: abosede_07@hotmail.com; Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)]. E-mail: woodcm@mcmaster.ca

    2007-06-05

    An in vitro gut sac technique was used to compare the uptake rates of essential (copper, zinc and nickel) and non-essential metals (silver, cadmium and lead) at 50 {mu}mol L{sup -1} each (a typical nutritive level in solution in chyme) in the luminal saline in four sections of the gastro-intestinal tract (stomach, anterior, mid and posterior intestines) of the freshwater rainbow trout. Cu, Zn, Cd and Ag exhibited similar regional patterns: on an area-specific basis, uptake rates for these metals were highest in the anterior intestine, lowest in the stomach, and approximately equal in the mid and posterior intestinal segments. When these rates were converted to a whole animal basis, the predominance of the anterior intestine increased because of its greater area, while the contribution of the stomach rose slightly to approach those of the mid and posterior intestines. However, for Pb and Ni, area-specific and whole organism transport rates were greatest in the mid (Pb) and posterior (Ni) intestines. Surprisingly, total transport rates did not differ appreciably among the essential and non-essential metals, varying only from 0.025 (Ag) to 0.050 nmol g{sup -1} h{sup -1} (Ni), suggesting that a single rate constant can be applied for risk assessment purposes. These rates were generally comparable to previously reported uptake rates from waterborne exposures conducted at concentrations 1-4 orders of magnitude lower, indicating that both routes are likely important, and that gut transporters operate with much lower affinity than gill transporters. Except for Ni, more metal was bound to mucus and/or trapped in the mucosal epithelium than was transported into the blood space in every compartment except the anterior intestine, where net transport predominated. Overall, mucus binding was a significant predictor of net transport rate for every metal except Cd, and the strongest relationship was seen for Pb.

  15. Lipid digestion of protein stabilized emulsions investigated in a dynamic in vitro gastro-intestinal model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, A.; Silletti, E.; Aken, G.A. van; Oosterveld, A.; Minekus, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of gastric passage of protein stabilized emulsions, i.e., whey protein isolate (WPI) and lysozyme, under dynamic in vitro conditions on both the gastric and intestinal lipolysis. Emulsions were prepared at neutral pH to enable an opposite surface charge.

  16. Lipid Digestion of Protein Stabilized Emulsions Investigated in a Dynamic In Vitro Gastro-Intestinal Model System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, A.; Silletti, E.; Aken, van G.A.; Oosterveld, A.; Minekus, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of gastric passage of protein stabilized emulsions, i.e., whey protein isolate (WPI) and lysozyme, under dynamic in vitro conditions on both the gastric and intestinal lipolysis. Emulsions were prepared at neutral pH to enable an opposite surface charge.

  17. In vitro characterization of cadmium and zinc uptake via the gastro-intestinal tract of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Interactive effects and the influence of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, Adeola A. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: adeolaojo25@yahoo.com; Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: woodcm@mcmaster.ca

    2008-08-11

    An in vitro gut sac technique was employed to study whether Cd and Zn uptake mechanisms in the gastro-intestinal tract of the rainbow trout are similar to those at the gills, where both metals are taken up via the Ca transport pathway. Metal accumulation in surface mucus, in the mucosal epithelium, and transport into the blood space were assayed using radiolabelled Cd or Zn concentrations of 50 {mu}mol L{sup -1} in the luminal (internal) saline. Elevated luminal Ca (10 or 100 mmol L{sup -1}versus 1 mmol L{sup -1}) reduced Cd uptake into all three phases by approximately 60% in the stomach, but had no effect in the anterior, mid, or posterior intestine. This finding is in accordance with recent in vivo evidence that Ca is taken up mainly via the stomach, and that high [Ca] diets inhibit Cd accumulation from the food specifically in this section of the tract. In contrast, 10 mmol L{sup -1} luminal Ca had no effect on Zn transport in any section, whereas 100 mmol L{sup -1} Ca stimulated Zn uptake, by approximately threefold, into all three phases in the stomach only. There was no influence of elevated luminal Zn (10 mmol L{sup -1}) on Cd uptake in the stomach or anterior intestine, or of high Cd (10 mmol L{sup -1}) on Zn uptake in these sections. However, high [Zn] stimulated Cd transport into the blood space but inhibited accumulation in the mucosal epithelium and/or mucus-binding in the mid and posterior intestine, whereas high [Cd] exerted a reciprocal effect in the mid-intestine only. We conclude that Cd uptake occurs via an important Ca-sensitive mechanism in the stomach which is different from that at the gills, while Cd transport mechanisms in the intestine are not directly Ca-sensitive. Zn uptake does not appear to involve Ca uptake pathways, in contrast to the gills. These results are discussed in the context of other possible Cd and Zn transport pathways, and the emerging role of the stomach as an organ of divalent metal uptake.

  18. Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) infections are the leading cause of production losses in commercial goat farms worldwide. This study determined the level of gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) infection and identified the common GIN parasites in commercial goat production in Central Uganda. Faecal egg counts and ...

  19. Stability of Trans-Resveratrol Encapsulated in a Protein Matrix Produced Using Spray Drying to UV Light Stress and Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Clarissa C; Andrade, Juan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-02-01

    Trans-resveratrol has demonstrated the potential to provide both therapeutic and preventive activities against chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. The incorporation of trans-resveratrol into food products would allow for broader access of this bioactive compound to a larger population. However, this strategy is limited by instability of trans-resveratrol under environmental conditions and within the digestive system leading to isomerization of trans-resveratrol (bioactive form) to cis-resveratrol (bio-inactive form). Studies in the stabilization of trans-resveratrol into protein microparticles are presented. Trans-resveratrol was encapsulated using whey protein concentrate (WPC) or sodium caseinate (SC), with or without anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Binding of resveratrol and aromatic residues in protein was estimated utilizing the Stern-Volmer equation and the number of tryptophan residues. The stability of encapsulated resveratrol was evaluated after exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) light and 3-stage in vitro digestion. After UVA light exposure, SC-based microcapsules maintained a higher trans:cis resveratrol ratio (0.63, P Food Technologists®

  20. Gastro-Intestinal Heminthes among Slaughtered Cattle at Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cattle are a major source of animal protein, hides and skin but the constraint is infection due to gastro-intestinal helminthes. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of helminthes, parasites affecting cattle slaughtered at abattoir in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. The standard saturated salt (NaCl) floatation ...

  1. Prevalence Of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites In Relation To Availability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in school children in relation to availability of sanitaryfacilities was investigated. Stool samples from 580 pupils from nine schools in Makurdi were examined for intestinal parasites. Sanitary facilties available within the schools were also noted. The overall prevalence rate of ...

  2. A Comparative Study of the Gastro-Intestinal Helminth Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites infection of fresh and brackish water fishes from Warri river, Southern Nigeria, was undertaken. Eight hundred (800) fishes examined during the investigation belong to 30 families, 45 genera and 56 species. The study revealed a highly significant relationship (P ...

  3. Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Holst, J.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that higher viscosity resulted in lower ad libitum intake and that eating rate is an important factor. In this study we aimed to explore the effect of viscosity on the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK-8 and GLP-1. Thirty-two subjects (22 ± 2 y, BMI 21.9 ± 2.2

  4. Gastro-intestinal parasites among children in some orphanages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven species of gastro-intestinal parasites – Ascaris lumbricoides (59.14%), hookworm (20.43%), Hymenolepis nana (1.08%), Entamoeba histolytica (3.23%), Enterobius vermicularis (4.30%), Trichuris trichuira (5.38%) and strongyloides stecoralis egg(6.65%) – were identified. Prevalence rate was higher among males ...

  5. GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT PERFORATION IN NEONATES R.T. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-09-09

    Sep 9, 2003 ... R.T. KUREMU, G.P. HADLEY and R. WIERSMA. ABSTRACT. Background: Gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) perforation in neonates is a serious problem associated with high mortality due to resulting sepsis. Co-morbid factors, eg. prematurity, respiratory problems, low birth weight, and nutritional factors, ...

  6. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in primates and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most prevalent gastro-intestinal parasites were Trichuris trichiura (47.2%), Strongyle spp(13.9%), Entamoeba spp (13.9%) and Stronglyloides spp (5.6%). Six (27.3%) of the infested NHP have mixed infestations. Only one of the 19 zoo keepers screened was infested with Ascaris lumbricoides and two (15.4%) of the 13 ...

  7. Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijlstra, Nicolien; Mars, Monica; de Wijk, René A

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that higher viscosity resulted in lower ad libitum intake and that eating rate is an important factor. In this study we aimed to explore the effect of viscosity on the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK-8 and GLP-1. Thirty-two subjects (22+/-2 y, BMI 21.9+/-2.2 kg...... than the liquid. There was a significant product effect for fullness (p 0.03), desire to eat (p 0.04), appetite something sweet (p 0.002) and prospective consumption (p 0.0009). We observed no clear effect of viscosity on gastro-intestinal hormones. Only for desacyl ghrelin there was a significant...

  8. The TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.

    2015-01-01

    The TNO Gastro–Intestinal Model (TIM) is a multi–compartmental model, designed to realistically simulate conditions in the lumen of the gastro–intestinal tract. TIM is successfully used to study the gastro–intestinal behavior of a wide variety of feed, food and pharmaceutical products. Experiments

  9. Investigation on the humoral immune response in patients with gastro-intestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, L; Iudicone, P; Di Girolamo, M; Buzzonetti, A; Giuliani, E; Guglielmetti, M; Scocchera, R; Severi, L; Martini, F; Van Axel, I

    1990-06-01

    The humoral immune reactivity was studied in patients affected by gastro-intestinal cancer. The number of peripheral B lymphocytes, the concentration of serum immunoglobulins (Ig) and of C3 complement factor and the frequency of circulating immuno complexes (CIC) did not significantly differ between patients and age-matched controls, while the C4 factor level was significantly increased. The frequency of serum monoclonal components (M-components) was higher in the patients than in the elderly subjects. Moreover the results concerning the "in vitro" functional response of patient B lymphocytes showed a significant decrease of the proliferative responses to Staphylococcus Aureus Cowan I (SAC) and a significant increase of the IgG and IgM synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in unstimulated and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated cultures. The meaning of these results, taken together with those reported by others, is discussed.

  10. Flexible Gastro-intestinal Endoscopy - Clinical Challenges and Technical Achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Niehls; Keuchel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Flexible gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy is an integral diagnostic and therapeutic tool in clinical gastroenterology. High quality standards for safety, patients' comfort, and efficiency have already been achieved. Clinical challenges and technical approaches are discussed in this short review. Image enhanced endoscopy for further characterization of mucosal and vascular patterns includes dye-spray or virtual chromoendoscopy. For confocal laser endoscopy, endocytoscopy, and autofluorescence clinical value has not yet been finally evaluated. An extended viewing field provided by additional cameras in new endoscopes can augment detection of polyps behind folds. Attachable caps, flaps, or balloons can be used to flatten colonic folds for better visualization and stable position. Variable stiffness endoscopes, radiation-free visualization of endoscope position, and different overtube devices help reducing painful loop formation in clinical routine. Computer assisted and super flexible self-propelled colonoscopes for painless sedation-free endoscopy need further research. Single-use devices might minimize the risk of infection transmission in the future. Various exchangeable accessories are available for resection, dissection, tunneling, hemostasis, treatment of stenosis and closure of defects, including dedicated suturing devices. Multiple arm flexible devices controlled via robotic platforms for complex intraluminal and transmural endoscopic procedures require further improvement.

  11. Degradation of teriparatide by gastro-intestinal proteolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Martin; Samhaber, Annette; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2006-04-01

    Teriparatide, a recombinant parathyroid hormone (1-34) is the first approved agent for the treatment of osteoporosis that stimulates new bone formation. Currently, the drug is administered daily by s.c. injection. Because of the obvious advantages of oral teriparatide administration, the development of such a delivery system would be of great benefit. Besides other barriers, the enzymatic barrier caused by gastro-intestinal (GI) proteolytic enzymes is believed to be responsible for negligible teriparatide oral bioavailability. It was therefore the aim of the study to evaluate the stability of teriparatide towards a variety of GI proteases under physiological conditions. Results indicate that teriparatide is entirely degraded by trypsin, chymotrypsin and pepsin within 5 min. In contrast, even after 3 h of incubation with elastase about 85% of undegraded teriparatide could still be detected. Within an incubation period of 3 h in the presence of rat small intestinal mucosa, approximately half of the teriparatide was degraded. Experiments with isolated aminopeptidase N demonstrated that this membrane bound peptidase is primarily involved in the degradation process. Results gained from and recorded in this study provide a precise characterisation of the enzymatic barrier for oral teriparatide administration and represents a prerequisite for the development of oral teriparatide delivery systems.

  12. A standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food-an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.; Alminger, M.; Alvito, P.; Ballance, S.; Bohn, T.; Bourlieu, C.; Carrière, F.; Boutrou, R.; Corredig, M.; Dupont, D.; Dufour, C.; Egger, L.; Golding, M.; Karakaya, S.; Kirkhus, B.; Le Feunteun, S.; Lesmes, U.; MacIerzanka, A.; MacKie, A.; Marze, S.; McClements, D.J.; Ménard, O.; Recio, I.; Santos, C.N.; Singh, R.P.; Vegarud, G.E.; Wickham, M.S.J.; Weitschies, W.; Brodkorb, A.

    2014-01-01

    Simulated gastro-intestinal digestion is widely employed in many fields of food and nutritional sciences, as conducting human trials are often costly, resource intensive, and ethically disputable. As a consequence, in vitro alternatives that determine endpoints such as the bioaccessibility of

  13. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract: health benefits, safety and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, L M T; Botes, M

    2010-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have received considerable attention as probiotics over the past few years. This concept has grown from traditional dairy products to a profitable market of probiotic health supplements and functional foods. Extensive research is done on novel potential probiotic strains, with specific emphasis on their health benefits and mode of action. Criteria for the selection of probiotic strains have only recently been formulated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Several in vitro techniques have been developed to evaluate the probiotic properties of strains. In many cases, this is followed by in vivo tests. Safety studies are also obligatory, as a few cases of bacteremia caused by LAB have been reported. This review focuses on the health benefits and safety of LAB probiotics, the criteria used to select a probiotic, mode of action and the impact these organisms have on natural microbiota in the gastro-intestinal tract.

  14. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths of faeces from in-door ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths in dogs and dog faeces collected from streets in Makurdi, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted from July-September 2013. A total of 400 faecal samples viz 300 from household dogs and 100 from streets were collected and ...

  15. Survey of gastro-intestinal protozoans of pigs slaughtered at the Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the incidence of gastro-intestinal protozoans of pigs slaughtered at the Jos Abatoir was carried out between May and November, 2007 using direct smear, floatation method and sporulation of oocysts of coccidia. Out of the 532 pigs examined 236 (44.36%) were positive for five genera of intestinal ...

  16. A study of blood and gastro-intestinal parasites in Edo state | Mordi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-year study to determine the prevalence of both blood and gastro-intestinal parasites of man was done in all the eighteen local government areas of Edo State, Nigeria. The study, which commenced in January of 2000, ended in December of 2004. Of the 136,360 samples examined, 1000 that is 0.7% had parasites.

  17. Studies on gastro-intestinal helminths of Equus acinus in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A year round study (October to September) was conducted in the districts of North Gujarat (India) to identify the gastro-intestinal helminths of donkeys (Equus acinus), determine prevalence and correlate haematological parameters with parasite burdens. A total of 1794 faecal samples of donkeys contained the following ...

  18. Microbial flora of the gastro-intestinal tract of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reports the microbial load and diversity in the gastro-intestinal tract of Clarias gariepinus caught in River Dandaru, Ibadan. A set of adult samples of Clarias gariepinus was caught from the river Dandaru, Ibadan. Determination of microbial loads and characterization of microorganisms present in the gut region of ...

  19. Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia Leaf Extract Against Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynda F. Pariñas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of ampalaya leaf extract against gastrointestinal parasites of native chicken. Specifically, it aimed to:(1to evaluate the anthelmintic property of ampalaya leaf extract in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken;(2 find out the most effective variety of ampalaya leaves as purgatives for native chicken; and(3 to compare the efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract with commercial purgative in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites. A total of fifteen (15 experimental native chickens were used in each study which was distributed into five (5 treatments. For study 1 and 2, Commercial purgative (Piperazine dihydrocloride and commercial purgative (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole were used respectively as positive control. Based on the result of the study, ampalaya leaf extract shows comparable effect to positive control (Piperazine dihydrochloride in treating and controlling gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken. However, commercial purgative with triple ingredient (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole shows more effective than the ampalaya extract. The researcher concludes that efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract as purgative is comparable to the effect of commercial purgative with single active ingreadient (Piperazine dihydrochloride, commercial purgative with triple active ingredients ( mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole excelled over the ampalaya extract because of its multi-ingredients.

  20. Myocardial infarction and gastro-intestinal bleeding risks associated with aspirin use among elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Caroline; Moisan, Jocelyne; Poirier, Paul; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    The benefit of aspirin in primary prevention of myocardial infarction and the associated gastro-intestinal bleeding risks have not been well established in the elderly population with diabetes. Using Quebec administrative databases, we conducted two nested case-control analyses within a cohort of individuals aged ≥ 66 years newly treated with an oral antidiabetes drug between 1998 and 2003. The 28,067 individuals had no cardiovascular disease recorded in the database in the year prior cohort entry. They had not used prescribed aspirin, antiplatelet, or anticoagulant drugs, and were not hospitalized for gastro-intestinal bleeding in the year prior cohort entry. The odds of myocardial infarction and gastro-intestinal bleedings were compared between individuals who were current, past, or non-users of aspirin. There were 1101 (3.9%) cases of myocardial infarction. Compared to non-users, neither aspirin users (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.71-1.13) nor aspirin past users (0.81; 0.62-1.06) showed a statistically significant lower risk of myocardial infarction. There were 373 (1.3%) cases of gastro-intestinal bleeding. Current users of aspirin had about a 2-fold greater risk of gastro-intestinal bleeding compared to non-users (2.19; 1.53-3.13). Our results suggest that individual assessment of bleeding risk and cardiovascular risk is mandatory among elderly people with diabetes before introducing aspirin therapy.

  1. Active actinidin retains function upon gastro-intestinal digestion and is more thermostable than the E-64-inhibited counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanovic, Milica M; Ostojic, Sanja; Aleksic, Ivana; Andjelkovic, Uros; Petersen, Arnd; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Actinidin is a cysteine protease and major allergen from kiwi fruit. When purified under specific native conditions, actinidin preparations from fresh kiwi fruit contain both an active and inactive form of this enzyme. In this study, biochemical and immunological properties upon simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, as well as thermal stability, were investigated for both active and E-64-inhibited actinidin. Active actinidin retained its primary structure and proteolytic activity after 2 h of simulated gastric digestion, followed by 2 h of intestinal digestion, as assessed by SDS-PAGE, zymography and mass spectroscopy. Immunological reactivity of active actinidin was also preserved, as tested by immunoelectrophoresis. The E-64 inhibited actinidin was fully degraded after 1 h of pepsin treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that active actinidin has one transition maximum temperature (Tm ) at 73.9°C, whereas in the E-64-actinidin complex the two actinidin domains unfolded independently, with the first domain having a Tm value of only 61°C. Active actinidin is capable of reaching the intestinal mucosa in a proteolytically active and immunogenic state. Inhibitor binding induces changes in the actinidin molecule that go beyond inhibition of proteolytic activity, also influencing the digestion stability and Tm values of actinidin, features important in the characterisation of food allergens. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Evaluation of parenteral nutrition use in patients undergoing major upper gastro-intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleenheer, Barbara; Declercq, Peter; Van Veer, Hans; Nafteux, Philippe; Spriet, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    After major upper gastro-intestinal surgery, enteral feeding is often hampered. There is still no consensus on which route of nutrition is preferable in patients undergoing this type of surgery. Current ESPEN guidelines recommend parenteral nutrition in undernourished patients, if caloric requirements cannot be met orally/enterally within 7 days and enteral nutrition is contraindicated. The current practice of systematic parenteral nutrition at the thoracic surgery ward of the University Hospitals Leuven was evaluated based on the ESPEN guidelines. This prospective observational study included patients undergoing upper gastro-intestinal surgery and receiving postoperative parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition use was considered appropriate when patients were undernourished and unable to obtain adequate caloric requirements by oral or enteral feeding within 7 days. Twenty-five out of 35 patients were nutritionally at risk. In 9 of 25 patients, the indication for parenteral nutrition was considered justified. As the intestinal tract below the anastomosis site remains accessible in the total studied population, enteral nutrition might be an option. Unfortunately, an appropriate jejunostomy tube was not available at our institution. In accordance to the ESPEN guidelines, enteral nutrition can replace parenteral nutrition in most thoracic surgery patients, but only if an appropriate enteral access is available.

  3. Persistence and spread of gastro-intestinal infections: the case of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldin, Barbara

    2008-10-01

    Several gastro-intestinal infections in animal husbandry not only greatly reduce the well-being of animals, but also have the potential to cause large economical damage. Understanding of the dynamics of such diseases is thus of great importance. In this paper, we focus on within-host dynamics and present a model describing the dynamics of pathogens in the intestine of a single host. Our motivation to study the problem stems from the case of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in newly weaned piglets, but the models we present offer an acceptable description of within-host dynamics of several other gastro-intestinal infections. We begin by studying the case where infection is a one-time event and derive an explicit expression for the distribution of pathogens inside the intestine at an arbitrary time after the infection took place. Since farm animals often come into contact with faeces, we furthermore investigate the reinfection case, in which a fraction of the shed pathogens is reintroduced into the intestine. We find the condition that guarantees persistence of colonization in the reinfection case and determine when the microbial distribution in the intestine obeys the so called asynchronous exponential growth. We outline possibilities for infection control and point out some challenges for further research on the subject.

  4. Endoscopic ultrasonography: Transition towards the future of gastro-intestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisi, Stefania; Giovannini, Marc

    2016-02-07

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a technique with an established role in the diagnosis and staging of gastro-intestinal tumors. In recent years, the spread of new devices dedicated to tissue sampling has improved the diagnostic accuracy of EUS fine-needle aspiration. The development of EUS-guided drainage of the bilio-pancreatic region and abdominal fluid collections has allowed EUS to evolve into an interventional tool that can replace more invasive procedures. Emerging techniques applying EUS in pancreatic cancer treatment and in celiac neurolysis have been described. Recently, confocal laser endomicroscopy has been applied to EUS as a promising technique for the in vivo histological diagnosis of gastro-intestinal, bilio-pancreatic and lymph node lesions. In this state-of-the-art review, we report the most recent data from the literature regarding EUS devices, interventional EUS, EUS-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy and EUS pancreatic cancer treatment, and we also provide an overview of their principles, clinical applications and limitations.

  5. The effect of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae extract on gastro-intestinal motility function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoonjin; Lee, Jong Mi; Wang, Yiyi; Ha, Hyun Su; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-02-17

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae is a well-known herb of traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for heat-clearing, detoxification, anti-inflammation, throat pain and gastro-intestinal (GI) disorder. In order to verify the effect of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae on GI disorder, we investigated the prokinetic effect of GC-7101 on GI motility function. GC-7101 is the standardized extract of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae. The contractile action of GC-7101 on feline esophageal smooth muscle cell (ESMC) was evaluated by measuring dispersed cell length. The isometric tension study was performed to investigate the effect of GC-7101 on feline lower esophageal sphincther (LES). The prokinetic effect of GC-7101 was investigated by gastric emptying (GE) and gastro-intestinal transit (GIT) in rats. GC-7101 produced concentration-dependent contractions in ESMCs. Pretreatment with 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor blocker (ondansetron and GR113808) inhibited the contractile responses of the GC-7101-induced ESMCs. In isometric tension study, GC-7101 recovered the HCl-induced decreased tone of LES muscle strips. The treatment of GC-7101 enhanced the carbachol-induced contractile responses and the electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced on-contraction. The oral administration of GC-7101 not only significantly accelerated GE and GIT in normal rats but also recovered the delayed GE and GIT, and its effect was more potent than that of conventional prokinetics (e.g., domperidone, a dopamine-receptor antagonist, and mosapride, a 5-HT4-receptor agonist). GC-7101 revealed a prokinetic effect through enhancing the contractile responses of ESMCs, tone increases, enhancing the carbarchol- or EFS-induced contractile responses of LES muscle strips, and the acceleration of GE and GIT. We have identified the significant potential of GC-7101 for the development of new prokinetic drugs through this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gastro-intestinal complications as one of causes of death in patients with rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Sorotskaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess frequency of gastro-intestinal (Gl bleeding and ulcer perforation as direct cause of death in pts with rheumatic diseases. Material and methods. Statistical analysis of Tula region patient care institutions documentation was performed to assess frequency and character of severe GI complications leading to death of pts. 300 cases of death which took place during 5 years (1996-2000 in 3 rheumatologic (105 cases and 10 therapeutic (195 cases departments of Tula region patient care institutions were studied. Results. Gl bleeding and ulcer perforation were the direct causes of death in 15 pts with rheumatic diseases i.e. in 5% from the whole number of died. GI complications caused death in 4 pts with chronic rheumatic heart disease (HRHD (1,7%, in 7 (15,2%with rheumatoid arthritis -, in 2 with ankylosing spondylitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (8,0 and 22,2% respectively. Pts with systemic sclerosis did not die because of GI damage. GI changes most frequently localized in duodenum (8 pts. 4 pts had complications connected with gastric ulcer and in 2 diffuse erosive damage of Gl mucosa was the source of bleeding. Conclusion. Severe Gl complications quite often lead to death of pts with rheumatic diseases in Tula region.

  7. CHEMOTHERAPY OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL NAMATODES IN COMMON PEAFOWL (PAVO CRISTATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashraf, Faisal Noman Waraich, I.G. Ahmad and K. Pervez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus at Lahore Zoo and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of albendazole, levamisole HCI and oxfendazole. Fifty-two faecal samples of the birds were examined in Medicine Laboratory, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, with direct smear method for the identification of nematode ova. Forty two samples out of 52 were found positive (80.77% for single or mixed infection of Capillaria spp., Ascaridia galliand Heterakis gallinae, and the individual percentages being 59.62, 38.46 and 13.46 respectively. Out of 42 infected birds 40 were chosen for medication and divided into four groups, each consisting of 10 birds (A= treated with albendazole, B=treated with levamisole, C = treated with oxfendazole and group D= untreated control. Faecal samples of experimental birds were examined for counting of eggs per gram of faeces on day '0' (pre-medication. Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 5 and 10 post-medication and percentage reduction of EPG was calculated. Oxfendazole was found to be the most effective (98.88% among the three anthelmintics, followed by levamisole (97.3% and albendazole (95.60%.

  8. The management of patients with new onset of upper gastro-intestinal symptoms in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosetti, Cesare; Bellentani, Stefano; Benedetto, Edoardo; Ubaldi, Enzo; Cardin, Fabrizio; Bozzani, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Data dealing with dyspepsia management in general practice are lacking, and most of the studies investigated a subset of patients with suspected peptic ulcer disease either with or without previous complaints. To evaluate the one-year management of patients presenting new onset upper abdominal symptoms without alarming features. 275 patients were enrolled by 63 Italian general practitioners. Referral to upper gastro-intestinal tract endoscopy resulted significantly higher in patients with predominant epigastric pain compared to subjects with non-painful symptoms or non-dominant symptoms. Amongst drug therapies, only prokinetics and antacids and anti-secretory therapies were prescribed differently amongst clinical subgroups. The rate and type of management and referrals resulted were not influenced by the age of patients or the use of anti-inflammatory drugs. The most frequent diagnosis at one-year follow-up was reflux oesophagitis. The absence of organic disease was less frequent in patients with dominant epigastric pain than non-painful or non-dominant symptoms. The management of these patients in primary care in Italy is mainly determined by clinical presentation, independent of age. Any judgement about appropriateness of the treatment should consider not only conventional features such as age, but the more complex individual frameworks as well. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultra-late recurrences of gastro-intestinal carcinoma after primary resection: the mechanism of dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, J F; T'Syen, M; Verhaegen, S; Spaepen, K; Verbeeck, G

    2013-06-01

    Curative resection of limited gastro-intestinal carcinoma does not always mean curation with tumor-free long-term survival. We present two cases of ultra-late recurrence 14 years after initial treatment. In the first case a 50-year-old male underwent in 1997 a subtotal esophagectomy with tubulation of the stomach for a localized Barrett carcinoma. Postoperative staging showed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, pT1N1 (stage IIB). In May 2011, 14 years after the initial resection, multiple bone metastases were diagnosed and a biopsy confirmed the poorly differentiated carcinoma with the same characteristics as the primary tumor. Investigations showed no evidence for a new primary tumor. The second case is a 52-year old man who underwent a low anterior resection for a small rectal cancer in 1997, histologically a well differentiated adenocarcinoma, stage IB (pT2NO). In December 2011 multiple metastases were diagnosed and a biopsy showed a metastasis from a mucinous carcinoma, suggestive for a colorectal carcinoma. There was also no evidence for a new primary tumor. Although the prognosis of limited esophageal and colorectal cancer is good, recurrence is always possible and an ultra-late recurrence may exceptionally occur. The mechanism of tumor dormancy is described.

  10. Aspects of surgical treatment for gastro-intestinal stromal tumors; Chirurgische Therapieaspekte gastrointestinaler Stromatumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberger, P. [Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim, Universitaet Heidelberg, Sektion Chirurgische Onkologie und Thoraxchirurgie, Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Gastro-intestinal stromal tumors (GIST) form the commonest subgroup of soft tissue sarcomas. They arise in the muscular layer of the esophagus, stomach, small intestines and rectum. Characteristic and important for the assessment of the extent of tumors is the peripheral rim vascularization of primary tumors and metastases. Indications for resection are given for tumors larger than 2 cm in size. Locally advanced GISTs can be advantageously treated with imatinib/sunitinib as neoadjuvant and it is often possible to select a low level of resection for this size of tumor and when the rim area is not hypervascularized. Even in the metastizing stage surgical treatment can be used for elimination of resistant metastases or for removal of residual tumor tissue in an attempt to counteract secondary tumor progression. The effect of this treatment is currently being tested in a randomized phase III study. (orig.) [German] Gastrointestinale Stromatumoren (GIST) stellen die haeufigste Subgruppe von Weichgewebesarkomen dar. Sie entstehen in der Muskularisschicht von Oesophagus, Magen, Duenndarm und Rektum. Charakteristisch und wichtig fuer die Einschaetzung des Tumorausmasses ist die Randvaskularisation von Primaertumoren und Metastasen. Die Indikation zur Resektion gilt fuer Tumoren ab 2 cm Groesse. Lokal fortgeschrittene GIST koennen sehr vorteilhaft mit Imatinib/Sunitinib neoadjuvant vorbehandelt werden, und es ist oft moeglich, bei der Tumorgroesse und wenn keine hypervaskularisierten Randbereiche vorliegen, ein geringeres Resektionsausmass zu waehlen. Auch im metastasierten Stadium hat die chirurgische Therapie einen Platz zur Eliminierung resistenter Metastasen bzw. zur Entfernung von Residualtumorgewebe als Versuch, einer sekundaeren Tumorprogression zu begegnen. Dieser Behandlungseffekt wird derzeit in einer randomisierten Phase-III-Studie ueberprueft. (orig.)

  11. The gastro-intestinal absorption of griseofulvin can be enhanced by encapsulation into liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, M S; Liu, K M; Yu, H S

    1993-01-01

    Liposomes are microscopic structures consisting of one or more lipid bilayers enclosing a definite aqueous space. They are widely used as a drug carrier and for the delivery of drugs through membranes. Drugs can be encapsulated into the inner water phase or lipidic wall, depending on their own hydro- or lipophilicity. The characteristics of the vesicles is fusion with cells and natural endocytosis uptake. We applied the properties of liposomes to overcome the poor gastro-intestinal (GI) absorption of griseofulvin and compared results with the traditional dosage form. In this experiment, the maximum plasma concentration obtained from griseofulvin liposomes was about 2.6 times than that from griseofulvin suspension. We used the lipids to prepare liposomes that consisted of phosphatidycholine, cholesterol, and dicetylphosphate in the molar ratio, 1:1.6:0.2, which is similar to the membrane composition of red blood cells. We examined some factors affecting the encapsulation ratin (E.R.%) and physicochemical properties of liposomes. When the lipid-to-griseofulvin weight ratio approached 38:1, the encapsulation ratio reached 94%. The different lipid/aqueous ratio (19/1 48/1 96/1) appeared to have little effect on E.R. value. The stability of griseofulvin liposomes in terms of leakage of griseofulvin was negligible over a period of 18 days at 4 degrees C. The sedimentation of vesicles bearing negative charges exhibited the best flocculation state. The plasma level-time profile of griseofulvin obtained from ingestion of liposomal dosage form showed itself to be significantly higher (P<0.01) Cmax, AUC, Ka, and t1/2 than that from suspension.

  12. Diagnosis of dysplasia in upper gastro-intestinal tract biopsies through digital microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Gui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide digital imaging (WSDI offers an alternative to glass slides for diagnostic interpretation. While prior work has concentrated on the use of whole slide digital imaging for routine diagnostic cases, this study focuses on diagnostic interpretation of digital images for a highly challenging area, upper gastro-intestinal (GI dysplasia. The aim of this study is to study the accuracy and efficiency of WSDI in the diagnosis of upper GI tract dysplasia. Materials and Methods: Forty-two hematoxylin and eosin (H and E-stained slides representing negative, indefinite, low grade and high grade dysplasia were selected and scanned at 20x (Aperio XT. Four attending GI pathologists reviewed the WSDI, then glass slides, with at least 3-4 weeks between each media; glass slides were re-reviewed 16-18 months later. Results: Intraobserver variability for three clinically relevant categories (negative, indefinite/low grade, high grade was wider for WSDI to glass (kappa range 0.36-0.78 than glass to glass (kappa range 0.58-0.75. In comparison to glass slide review, WSDI review required more time and was associated with an unexpected trend toward downgrading dysplasia. Conclusions: Our results suggest: (1 upper GI dysplasia can be diagnosed using WSDI with similar intraobserver reproducibility as for glass slides; however, this is not true for all pathologists; (2 pathologists may have a tendency to downgrade dysplasia in digital images; and (3 pathologists who use WSDI for interpretation of GI dysplasia cases may benefit from regular, on-going, re-review of paired digital and glass images to ensure the most accurate utilization of digital technology, at least in the early stages of implementation.

  13. Polyphenols from Pistacia lentiscus and Phillyrea latifolia impair the exsheathment of gastro-intestinal nematode larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaizeh, H; Halahleh, F; Abbas, N; Markovics, A; Muklada, H; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

    2013-01-16

    The infection of grazing ruminants with gastro-intestinal nematodes (GINs) is a severe problem in the Middle East. However, goats that graze the south-western slopes of the Carmel Heights in Israel have very low faecal egg counts, despite high grazing density. We hypothesized that polyphenols from Pistacia lentiscus L. and/or Phillyrea latifolia L. - both prevalent woody species of the region that are consumed by goats - have anthelmintic bioactivity. We tested this hypothesis by using the larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA). Extracts were prepared from leaves of either plant species using 70% ethanol (E70), 100% ethanol (E100), or boiling water (W). Larvae were incubated in a phosphate-buffered saline solution with or without plant extract (1200μg/ml) and then exposed to an exsheathment solution expected to elicit 100% exsheathment after one hour. All extraction methods of P. lentiscus were highly effective at inhibiting larval exsheathment, but higher potency was found for the E70 than for E100 extraction method, while W was intermediate. Only the E70 extract of P. latifolia was highly effective relative to the control. The E70 extract of P. lentiscus had more than 7 times the potency of the E70 extract of P. latifolia. Irrespective of solvent and tannin-equivalent used, P. lentiscus contained more than double the quantity of total polyphenols than P. latifolia. The polyphenols of P. lentiscus consisted mainly of galloyl derivatives (63.6%), flavonol glucosides (28.6%), and catechin (7.8%). In P. latifolia, oleuropein and its derivative tyrosol accounted for 49.3 and 23.1% of phenolics, respectively, the remainder being flavones (luteolin and quercetin) and their glucoside derivatives. Results of the LEIA test suggest that extracts of tannin-rich plants interfere with the very early stage of host invasion and that high concentration of galloylated derivatives may explain anthelmintic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

    2013-12-06

    Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of microbiota and probiotics in stress-induced gastro-intestinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgendorff, Femke; Akkermans, Louis M A; Söderholm, Johan D

    2008-06-01

    Stress has a major impact on gut physiology and may affect the clinical course of gastro-intestinal diseases. In this review, we focus on the interaction between commensal gut microbiota and intestinal mucosa during stress and discuss the possibilities to counteract the deleterious effects of stress with probiotics. Normally, commensal microbes and their hosts benefit from a symbiotic relationship. Stress does, however, reduce the number of Lactobacilli, while on the contrary, an increased growth, epithelial adherence and mucosal uptake of gram-negative pathogens, e.g. E. coli and Pseudomonas, are seen. Moreover, intestinal bacteria have the ability to sense a stressed host and up-regulate their virulence factors when opportunity knocks. Probiotics are "live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host", and mainly represented by Lactic Acid Bacteria. Probiotics can counteract stress-induced changes in intestinal barrier function, visceral sensitivity and gut motility. These effects are strain specific and mediated by direct bacterial-host cell interaction and/or via soluble factors. Mechanisms of action include competition with pathogens for essential nutrients, induction of epithelial heat-shock proteins, restoring of tight junction protein structure, up-regulation of mucin genes, secretion of defensins, and regulation of the NFkappaB signalling pathway. In addition, the reduction of intestinal pain perception was shown to be mediated via cannabinoid receptors. Based on the studies reviewed here there is clearly a rationale for probiotic treatment in patients with stress-related intestinal disorders. We are however far from being able to choose the precise combination of strains or bacterial components for each clinical setting.

  16. Genetic variation for worm burdens in laying hens naturally infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, K; Daş, G; von Borstel, U König; Gauly, M

    2015-01-01

    1. Genetic parameters were determined for the worm burden of the most common gastro-intestinal nematodes in two chicken genotypes after being exposed to free-range farming conditions for a laying period. 2. Seventeen-week-old hens of 2 brown genotypes, Lohmann Brown (LB) plus (n = 230) and LB classic (n = 230), were reared for a laying period and subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations at 79 weeks (LB plus) or 88 weeks (LB classic) of age. 3. There was no significant difference in faecal egg counts between the genotypes. Almost all hens (>99%) were infected with at least one nematode species. Species-specific nematode prevalence ranged from 85.8% to 99.1% between the two genotypes. Heterakis gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (98.5%), followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Capillaria spp. were composed of C. obsignata (79%), C. caudinflata (16%) and C. bursata (5%). 4. All phenotypic and genetic correlations among worm counts of different parasite species were positive in combined genotypes (rP ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 and rG ranged from 0.29 to 0.88). A strong genetic correlation (rG = 0.88 ± 0.34) between counts of A. galli and H. gallinarum was quantified. Heritability for total worm burden for LB plus and LB classic, respectively, were 0.55 ± 0.18 and 0.55 ± 0.34. Across both genotypes, the heritability of total worm burden was 0.56 ± 0.16. 5. In conclusion, there is a high variation attributable to genetic background of chickens in their responses to naturally acquired nematode infections. The high positive genetic correlation between counts of closely related worm species (e.g. A. galli and H. gallinarum) may indicate existence of similar genetically determined mechanism(s) in chickens for controlling these nematodes.

  17. Negative effects of divalent mineral cations on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from plant food matrices and related physical properties of gastro-intestinal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Joana; Bertucci, Marie; Soukoulis, Christos; Desmarchelier, Charles; Borel, Patrick; Richling, Elke; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2017-03-22

    Carotenoid intake and tissue levels have been frequently associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. However, their bioavailability is low and influenced by many dietary related parameters. Divalent mineral cations have been suggested to interfere with carotenoid digestion and to hamper micellarization, a prerequisite for their uptake, via complexation of bile salts and precipitation of fatty acids. In the present investigation, we have evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations of magnesium (0-300 mg L-1), calcium (0-1500 mg L-1), zinc (0-200 mg L-1), and sodium (0-1500 mg L-1; control monovalent cation), on carotenoid bioaccessibility from frequently consumed food items rich in carotenoids (tomato juice, carrot juice, apricot nectar, spinach and field salad), following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion. In addition, physicochemical parameters of digesta (macroviscosity, surface tension), micelle size, and zeta-potential were evaluated. All divalent minerals (DM) reduced bioaccessibility of total carotenoids (P effects were only seen at supplemental concentrations. The potential negative effects of DM on carotenoid bioavailability should be further studied in vivo.

  18. Hospital discharge diagnostic and procedure codes for upper gastro-intestinal cancer: how accurate are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou Efty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-level health administrative datasets such as hospital discharge data are used increasingly to evaluate health services and outcomes of care. However information about the accuracy of Australian discharge data in identifying cancer, associated procedures and comorbidity is limited. The Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC is a census of inpatient hospital discharges in the state of New South Wales (NSW. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of the APDC in identifying upper gastro-intestinal (upper GI cancer cases, procedures for associated curative resection and comorbidities at the time of admission compared to data abstracted from medical records (the ‘gold standard’. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 240 patients with an incident upper GI cancer diagnosis derived from a clinical database in one NSW area health service from July 2006 to June 2007. Extracted case record data was matched to APDC discharge data to determine sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV and agreement between the two data sources (κ-coefficient. Results The accuracy of the APDC diagnostic codes in identifying site-specific incident cancer ranged from 80-95% sensitivity. This was comparable to the accuracy of APDC procedure codes in identifying curative resection for upper GI cancer. PPV ranged from 42-80% for cancer diagnosis and 56-93% for curative surgery. Agreement between the data sources was >0.72 for most cancer diagnoses and curative resections. However, APDC discharge data was less accurate in reporting common comorbidities - for each condition, sensitivity ranged from 9-70%, whilst agreement ranged from κ = 0.64 for diabetes down to κ  Conclusions Identifying incident cases of upper GI cancer and curative resection from hospital administrative data is satisfactory but under-ascertained. Linkage of multiple population-health datasets is advisable to maximise case ascertainment and minimise false

  19. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M.; Lobera, A.; Legrand, E. (Fondation Bergorie, Bordeaux (France))

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways on upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha/sub 1/-antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state.

  20. Dose confirmation studies for monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against fourth stage gastro-intestinal nematode larvae infecting sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, B C; Dobson, D P; Stein, P A; Kaminsky, R; Bapst, B; Mosimann, D; Mason, P C; Seewald, W; Strehlau, G; Sager, H

    2009-03-23

    Monepantel is the first compound from the recently discovered amino-acetonitrile derivative (AAD) class of anthelmintics to be developed for use in sheep. Nine dose confirmation studies were conducted in Australia, New Zealand and Switzerland to confirm the minimum therapeutic oral dose of monepantel to control fourth stage (L4) gastro-intestinal nematode larvae in sheep (target species were Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Cooperia curticei, Cooperia oncophora, Nematodirusbattus, Nematodirusfilicollis, Nematodirus spathiger, Chabertia ovina and Oesophagostomum venulosum). In each study, sheep infected with a defined selection of the target nematodes were treated with 2.5mg monepantel/kg liveweight. Following euthanasia and worm counting, efficacy was calculated against worm counts from untreated control groups. The results demonstrate high (95 or =90%) in some studies. Efficacy was demonstrated against L4 stages of nematodes known to be resistant to either benzimidazole and/or levamisole anthelmintics (macrocyclic lactone resistant isolates were not available for testing). The broad-spectrum activity of monepantel against L4 larvae of common gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep and its favorable safety profile represents a significant advance in the treatment of parasitic gastro-enteritis in this animal species. No adverse effects related to treatment with monepantel were observed.

  1. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 encapsulated in chocolate during in vitro simulated passage of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klindt-Toldam, Stine; Larsen, Susanne K.; Saaby, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    of the upper gastro-intestinal tract using both a static and a dynamic gastric in vitro model. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 equalling a total concentration of 2 × 108, 2 × 109 and 2 × 1010 CFU/g chocolate were added to samples of milk chocolate, 57% and 72% dark chocolate...... dairy and juice based probiotic products, chocolate was an excellent carrier for probiotic delivery, because of very good survival of probiotics during simulated passage of the upper GI tract. The viability of B. lactis was slightly higher than Lb. acidophilus and survival rates were >6.5 log CFU...

  2. Isoenergetic Replacement of Fat by Starch in Diets for African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Effect on Water Fluxes in the Gastro Intestinal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harter, T.S.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schrama, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an isoenergetic replacement of dietary fat by starch, on chyme characteristics and water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) was assessed. Adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed a starch (SD) or fat (FD) diet and groups of fish were dissected at 2, 5 and 8 h after

  3. Time trends in socioeconomic differences in incidence rates of cancers of gastro-intestinal tract in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude of socioeconomic differences in health varies between societies, and over time within a given society. We studied the association between social class and incidence of cancers of the gastro-intestinal tract over time in a large cohort in Finland. Methods We studied social class variation among 45–69 year-old Finns during 1971–95 in incidence of cancers of the gastro-intestinal tract by means of a computerized record linkage of the Finnish Cancer Registry and the 1970 Population Census, which included social class data. Results There were 2.3 million individuals in the cohort under follow-up, with 1622 cases of cancer of the esophagus, 8069 stomach (non-cardia, 1116 cardia, 408 small intestine, 6361 colon, 5274 rectum, 1616 liver, 1756 gallbladder, and 5084 pancreas during 1971–1995. Cancers of the esophagus, stomach, cardia, gallbladder and pancreas were most common among persons belonging to a low social class. Cancers of the small intestine in males only, colon in both genders, and rectum in females were most common in the higher social classes. Incidence of stomach cancer decreased and incidence of colon cancer increased over time in both genders in all social classes, and the large differences between social classes remained unchanged over time. Incidence rates of cardia cancer did not change substantially over time. Conclusion There is a large variation in incidence of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract by social class in Finland. Although much of the observed social class differences probably could be explained by known etiological factors such as diet, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, smoking and exogenous hormone use, part of the variation is apparently attributable to largely unknown factors.

  4. The influence of lactose intolerance and other gastro-intestinal tract disorders on L-thyroxine absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchała, Marek; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Zybek, Ariadna

    2012-01-01

    The preferred treatment for hypothyroidism is oral levothyroxine (LT4) ingestion, in doses that ensure a sustained state of hormonal balance. Many different factors may significantly influence the absorption of LT4, including: interval between the ingestion of the drug and the last meal, eating habits, and different functional and organic pathologies of the gastro-intestinal tract. The main purpose of this paper is to review and systematise the available literature on the subject of the influence of different malabsorption syndromes on the effectiveness of LT4 preparations. The need to use high LT4 doses in the substitutional treatment of hypothyroidism is often the very first sign of one of the pathologies that are connected with malabsorption syndrome, which might have been asymptomatic and undiagnosed previously. Patients who require more than 2 μg/kg body weight of LT4 per day, with constantly increased thyrotropin level, should be diagnosed with the suspicion of pseudomalabsorption or real absorption disorder. An LT4 absorption test, using high doses of LT4, may be useful in the diagnosis of pseudomalabsorption. After excluding non-compliance, the differential diagnosis should include such disorders as lactose intolerance, coeliac disease, atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, bowel resection, inflammatory bowel disease, and parasite infection. Where there is a diagnosis of lactose intolerance, both a low lactose diet and a lactose-free LT4 preparation should be administered to restore euthyroidism or make it possible to decrease the dose of the LT4 preparation. In coeliac disease, a gluten-free diet usually allows a normalisation of the need for LT4, as do eradication of the H. pylori infection or parasite colonisation. In cases of atrophic gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease, treating the underlying diseases and regaining the state of remission may improve the absorption of LT4. In patients after gastro-intestinal tract surgery, a dose of

  5. Mechanisms and kinetics of tryptophan N-nitrosation in a gastro-intestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Pomélie, Diane; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Gatellier, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    The reaction of nitrite with different amino acids containing secondary amino groups was tested under simulated in-vitro conditions of the digestive tract. After treatment, tryptophan was the only amino acid that exhibited specific UV absorbance of nitrosamines at 335nm, supporting the assumption that it is the main source of endogenous nitrosamines. The combined effect of pH (from 2 to 6.5) and nitrite (from 0.1 to 20mM) was analyzed and the mechanisms and kinetic laws of tryptophan N-nitrosation were determined. The model was then completed by the addition of iron and various antioxidants in concentrations reflecting different diets. The results clearly demonstrated that, in the presence of iron, large amounts of N-nitroso-tryptophan can be formed even at neutral pH, as in the intestine. Antioxidants (ascorbic acid, trolox C, β carotene, chlorogenic acid, phytic acid and butylated-hydroxytoluene) had various impacts on the extent of N-nitrosation, depending on the iron level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance and gastro-intestinal response of broiler chickens fed on cereal grain-based foods soaked in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, S; Forbes, J M

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the addition of 1 3 kg water per kg air-dry mash diets containing high proportions (600 to 700 g/kg) of ground cereal grains (wheat, barley or oats) on broiler performance and the structure and function of the gastro-intestinal tract. 2. Chicks at the age of 7 d were fed on the wheat-, barley- or oats-based diets in the dry or wet forms for 35 d. Food and water intakes were recorded daily while body weight was measured weekly. Two birds from each treatment were killed each week to measure gut size and the viscosity of gut contents. Tissue samples from various digestive segments were histo-morphologically examined to determine the thickness of tissue layers, size of tissue glands, villa heights, crypt depths and thickness of tunica muscularis. Crypt cell proliferation rate (CCPR) for each segment was also determined using a metaphase arrest technique. 3. The results from both experiments showed that wetting food significantly (Pcereal grains caused a significant improvement in the performance of broiler chickens. The mechanism of the beneficial effects of wet feeding could be attributed to the decreased viscosity of gut contents; the greater development of the layer of villi in the digestive segments and the reduced CCPR in the crypts of the epithelium.

  7. Identification of Rothia bacteria as gluten-degrading natural colonizers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maram Zamakhchari

    Full Text Available Gluten proteins, prominent constituents of barley, wheat and rye, cause celiac disease in genetically predisposed subjects. Gluten is notoriously difficult to digest by mammalian proteolytic enzymes and the protease-resistant domains contain multiple immunogenic epitopes. The aim of this study was to identify novel sources of gluten-digesting microbial enzymes from the upper gastro-intestinal tract with the potential to neutralize gluten epitopes.Oral microorganisms with gluten-degrading capacity were obtained by a selective plating strategy using gluten agar. Microbial speciations were carried out by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Enzyme activities were assessed using gliadin-derived enzymatic substrates, gliadins in solution, gliadin zymography, and 33-mer α-gliadin and 26-mer γ-gliadin immunogenic peptides. Fragments of the gliadin peptides were separated by RP-HPLC and structurally characterized by mass spectrometry. Strains with high activity towards gluten were typed as Rothia mucilaginosa and Rothia aeria. Gliadins (250 µg/ml added to Rothia cell suspensions (OD(620 1.2 were degraded by 50% after ∼30 min of incubation. Importantly, the 33-mer and 26-mer immunogenic peptides were also cleaved, primarily C-terminal to Xaa-Pro-Gln (XPQ and Xaa-Pro-Tyr (XPY. The major gliadin-degrading enzymes produced by the Rothia strains were ∼70-75 kDa in size, and the enzyme expressed by Rothia aeria was active over a wide pH range (pH 3-10.While the human digestive enzyme system lacks the capacity to cleave immunogenic gluten, such activities are naturally present in the oral microbial enzyme repertoire. The identified bacteria may be exploited for physiologic degradation of harmful gluten peptides.

  8. Seasonal egg output of gastro-intestinal parasites in wild ungulates in a mediterranean area (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seasonal egg (or oocyst output of gastro-intestinal parasites of wild ungulates was studied in a Mediterranean protected area, the Monti Livornesi Park (Livorno, Tuscany region, Central Italy. Samples of faeces of wild boars (Sus scrofa and mouflons (Ovis ammon were collected monthly for one year. The observed trends of egg output were analysed taking into account seasonal variations of temperature and rainfall, life-cycle and survival strategy of parasites, and health condition of hosts. In our Mediterranean study area, the peaks of egg output appear in different months according to different biology and survival strategies of parasites. Riassunto Emissione stagionale di uova di parassiti gastrointestinali in cinghiali (Sus scrofa e in mufloni (Ovis ammon di un’area mediterranea (Italia centrale. E' stata studiata l'emissione stagionale di uova (o oocisti di parassiti nelle feci di ungulati selvatici in una zona mediterranea protetta, il Parco dei Monti Livornesi (Livorno, Toscana, Italia Centrale. Per un anno sono stati raccolti mensilmente campioni di feci di Cinghiale (Sus scrofa e di Muflone (Ovis ammon. Gli andamenti osservati di emissione di uova sono stati analizzati tenendo conto delle variazioni di temperatura e piovosità stagionali, del ciclo biologico e della strategia di sopravvivenza dei parassiti, e delle condizioni sanitarie dell'ospite. E’ risultato che in una zona mediterranea come quella considerata i picchi di emissione di uova appaiono in mesi differenti in relazione alla biologia e alle strategie di sopravvivenza dei diversi parassiti.

  9. The use of nemabiome metabarcoding to explore gastro-intestinal nematode species diversity and anthelmintic treatment effectiveness in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramenko, Russell W; Redman, Elizabeth M; Lewis, Roy; Bichuette, Murilo A; Palmeira, Bruna M; Yazwinski, Thomas A; Gilleard, John S

    2017-11-01

    Next-generation deep amplicon sequencing, or metabarcoding, has revolutionized the study of microbial communities in humans, animals and the environment. However, such approaches have yet to be applied to parasitic helminth communities. We recently described the first example of such a method - nemabiome sequencing - based on deep-amplicon sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA, and validated its ability to quantitatively assess the species composition of cattle gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) communities. Here, we present the first application of this approach to explore GIN species diversity and the impact of anthelmintic drug treatments. First, we investigated GIN species diversity in cow-calf beef cattle herds in several different regions, using coproculture derived L3s. A screen of 50 Canadian beef herds revealed parasite species diversity to be low overall. The majority of parasite communities were comprised of just two species; Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora. Cooperia punctata was present at much lower levels overall, but nevertheless comprised a substantive part of the parasite community of several herds in eastern Canada. In contrast, nemabiome sequencing revealed higher GIN species diversity in beef calves sampled from central/south-eastern USA and Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In these regions C. punctata predominated in most herds with Haemonchus placei predominating in a few cases. Ostertagia ostertagi and C. oncophora were relatively minor species in these regions in contrast to the Canadian herds. We also examined the impact of routine macrocyclic lactone pour-on treatments on GIN communities in the Canadian beef herds. Low treatment effectiveness was observed in many cases, and nemabiome sequencing revealed an overall increase in the proportion of Cooperia spp. relative to O. ostertagi post-treatment. This work demonstrates the power of nemabiome metabarcoding to provide a detailed picture of GIN parasite community

  10. Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Daş, Gürbüz; Moors, Eva; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor establishment and development of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in chickens over two production years (PY) on a free-range farm in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data were collected between July 2010 and June 2011 (PY1) and July 2011 and January 2013 (PY2), respectively. During PY1, Lohmann Brown classic (LB classic, N = 450) was tested, while in PY2 two different genotypes (230 LB classic, 230 LB plus) were used. The hens were kept in two mobile stalls that were moved to a new position at regular intervals. In both PY1 and PY2, 20 individual faecal samples per stall were randomly collected at monthly intervals in order to calculate the number of internal parasite eggs per gram of faeces (EPG). At the end of the laying periods, approximately 10% (N = 42) or more than 50% (N = 265) of hens were subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations in PY1 and PY2, respectively. No parasite eggs were found in the faecal samples during PY1, whereas almost all of the hens (97.6%) were infected with Heterakis gallinarum (36 worms/hen) at the end of the period. In PY2, nematode eggs in faeces were found from the third month onwards at a low level, increasing considerably towards the final three months. There was no significant difference between the two genotypes of brown hens neither for EPG (P = 0.456) or for overall prevalence (P = 0.177). Mortality rate ranged from 18.3 to 27.4% but did not differ significantly between genotypes or production years. Average worm burden was 207 worms/hen in PY2. The most prevalent species were H. gallinarum (98.5%) followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Furthermore, three Capillaria species, C. obsignata, C. bursata and C. caudinflata were differentiated. In conclusion chickens kept on free-range farms are exposed to high risks of nematode infections and have high mortality rates with no obvious link to parasite infections. Once the farm environment is contaminated

  11. Fluorescence multi-scale endoscopy and its applications in the study and diagnosis of gastro-intestinal diseases: set-up design and software implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, Pablo Aurelio; Arranz, Alicia; Fresno, Manuel; Desco, Manuel; Mahmood, Umar; Vaquero, Juan José; Ripoll, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopy is frequently used in the diagnosis of several gastro-intestinal pathologies as Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis or colorectal cancer. It has great potential as a non-invasive screening technique capable of detecting suspicious alterations in the intestinal mucosa, such as inflammatory processes. However, these early lesions usually cannot be detected with conventional endoscopes, due to lack of cellular detail and the absence of specific markers. Due to this lack of specificity, the development of new endoscopy technologies, which are able to show microscopic changes in the mucosa structure, are necessary. We here present a confocal endomicroscope, which in combination with a wide field fluorescence endoscope offers fast and specific macroscopic information through the use of activatable probes and a detailed analysis at cellular level of the possible altered tissue areas. This multi-modal and multi-scale imaging module, compatible with commercial endoscopes, combines near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) measurements (enabling specific imaging of markers of disease and prognosis) and confocal endomicroscopy making use of a fiber bundle, providing a cellular level resolution. The system will be used in animal models exhibiting gastro-intestinal diseases in order to analyze the use of potential diagnostic markers in colorectal cancer. In this work, we present in detail the set-up design and the software implementation in order to obtain simultaneous RGB/NIRF measurements and short confocal scanning times.

  12. Upper Gastro - intestinal Haemorrhage.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7%) and gastric carcinoma (5%). Almost 70% of those with oesophageal varices ... AD Harries. (b) a large haematemesis with clots, although the patient's account may be inaccurate;. (c) frequent melaena stools which are red-black in colour;.

  13. GASTRO-INTESTINAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , et al. Colorectal cancer distribution in 220. Indian patients undergoing colonoscopy. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2009;28(6):212-5. 19. Franklyn J, Mittal R, Sebastian T, Perakath B. Demographics and outcomes of surgically treated right sided ...

  14. Upper Gastro - intestinal Haemorrhage.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7%) and gastric carcinoma (5%). Almost 70% of those with oesophageal varices had ~ tosoma mansoni infection. .... venous cannulae are inserted, and a gelatin infusion. (Gelofusine or Haemocoel) is administered. The availability of blood in ...

  15. [A rare differential diagnosis of a somatoform autonomous disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract: the hepatocellular liver carcinoma in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voll, Renate

    2008-07-01

    A severely ill 11-year-old boy came to the child psychiatric outpatient department of the Fachkrankenhaus Neckargemünd with the diagnosis of a somatoform disorder. Main symptoms included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. He wished to be examined in order to enter the Stephen-Hawking-School for physically handicapped children in the town of Neckargemünd. Manual examination revealed a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, which was imaged as a tumour of the liver. During the subsequent operation, a 500 ml hepatocellular carcinoma was found. The symptoms of the hepatocellular carcinoma, which rarely occurs in childhood, can perfectly mimic those of a somatoform disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract.

  16. Effect of ageing on the gastro-intestinal transit of a lactulose-supplemented mixed solid-liquid meal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M; Börsch, G; Schaffstein, J; Lüth, I; Rickels, R; Ricken, D

    1988-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal transit of a mixed solid-liquid meal containing wheat bread, scrambled eggs, coffee labelled with 99mTc, orange juice with lactulose and indigocarmine was evaluated in 21 young control (mean age 33.5 years) and 25 elderly subjects (mean age 81.7 years) without gastrointestinal complaints or severe medical illness. The rate of gastric emptying was determined by an anterior gamma camera technique, mouth-to-caecum transit by the hydrogen breath test and whole-gut transit by the first stool passage of indigocarmine. Gastric emptying was significantly prolonged in older subjects: t1/2 = 136 +/- (SEM) 13 versus 81 +/- 4 min; p less than 0.001. Concerning mouth-to-caecum or whole-gut transit time, significant differences between the two study groups were not detected.

  17. Antioxidant activity of camel milk casein before and after in vitro simulated enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb Jrad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a successive in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin on the free radical scavenging activity of camel milk casein was investigated in order to assess the effect of gastro-intestinal digestion. Hydrolysis of camel casein was controlled by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS method. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values of camel casein and its hydrolysate were 1.6±0.12 μmol TE/mg protein and 0.25 μmol TE/μmol eq. NH2, respectively. After digestion, the scavenging activity of the casein peptides was more efficient than those reported in the literature regarding digestive hydrolysates of camel milk, colostrum and whey proteins.

  18. The efficacy of formulations of triclabendazole and ivermectin in combination against liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle and sheep and sucking lice species in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, C R; Mahoney, R H; Fisara, P; Strehlau, G; Reichel, M P

    2002-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of two formulations of triclabendazole and ivermectin in combination against liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica), gastro-intestinal nematodes and sucking louse species in cattle and sheep. A study of 540 cattle and 428 sheep at 18 sites throughout Victoria and New South Wales was undertaken. At each site, one group of cattle or sheep was treated with a combined formulation (Fasimec Cattle or Fasimec Sheep), another received ivermectin and triclabendazole separately. In trials on lice infestation, an additional group remained untreated. Samples for faecal egg counts were collected on days -7, 0 (treatment day), +7, +14 and +21 after treatment. Lice assessments were carried out on days -7, 0, +7, +14, +28, +42 and +56. Both treatments were highly efficacious (> 98% efficacy) against liver fluke in cattle and sheep, against three sucking lice species of cattle and against gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep. There was also no significant difference between treatments in efficacy. Against gastro-intestinal nematodes, Fasimec Cattle was significantly (P treatment. Mean efficacy for the Fasimec Cattle and Ivomec/Fasinex 120 groups respectively, was 97.6% and 94.2% on Day +7, 98.9% and 91% on Day +14 and 98.5% and 92.6% on Day +21. The efficacy of Fasimec' Cattle and Fasimec Sheep was at least equal to that of currently registered products (with the same active ingredients) used to control these parasites.

  19. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants: a survey of plants used in the ethnoveterinary control of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2010-06-01

    Conventional drugs have become expensive and therefore unaffordable to resource-limited farmers, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives, such as use of medicinal plants. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to document information on medicinal plants used by farmers in the control of internal parasites in goats in the Eastern Cape Province. Structured questionnaires and general conversation were used to collect the information from farmers and herbalists. The survey revealed 28 plant species from 20 families that are commonly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. The plant family Asphodelaceae was frequent in usage, comprising 21.4% of the plants, and the Aloe was the most utilized species (50%). Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (45.9%), and decoctions constituted the majority of medicinal preparations (70%). Medicinal plants are generally used in combination with other plants, and/or non-plant substances, but a few plants are used on their own. These medicinal plant remedies are administered orally, mainly by use of bottles and this is done twice in summer at intervals of one month, only once in winter and when need arises thereafter. Some of the mentioned plants have been reported in literature to possess anthelmintic properties, while others possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, purgative, anti-edema to immuno-regulation. If their safety and efficacy could be confirmed, these plants could form an alternative cost effective strategy in managing helminthiasis in the province.

  20. Gastro-intestinal helminths of goliath frogs (Conraua goliath from the localities of Loum, Yabassi and Nkondjock in the Littoral Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguiffo Nguete Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of goliath frog (Conraua goliath from the Littoral Region of Cameroon in the Localities of Loum, Yabassi and Nkondjock were surveyed. Out of the 30 goliath frogs examined (13 males and 17 females between April and May 2013, 26 (85% contained at least one helminth parasite and yielded a total of nine hundred and seventy three (973 helminths comprising: Nematodes (90.5%, Trematodes (9.4% and Pentastomids (0.1%. Nematodes included: Africana taylori (60%, Oswaldocruzia perreti (0.2%, Aplectana sp. (21%, Gendria sp. (7.1%, Amphibiophilus sp. (0.2%, Strongyluris sp. (0.1%, Physalopteroides sp. (1.6%, and Oxyuridae gen. sp. (0.3%. Trematodes comprised: Mesocoelium sp. (7.3% and Diplodiscus subclavatus (2.1%. Pentastomids were represented by Sebekia sp. (0.1%. The mean species richness and diversity were 1.97±2.12 and 0.41±0.04 respectively. The intensity of parasite infection was correlated with host body weight, positively for Africana taylori, Aplectana sp., Diplodiscus subclavatus, and Mesocoeliumsp. Infection rates were influenced by land-use pattern. Thus higher prevalences were observed in Loum (intensive agricultural area.

  1. Cytoplasmic and stromal expression of laminin γ 2 chain correlates with infiltrative invasion in ovarian mucinous neoplasms of gastro-intestinal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Emi; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Aishima, Shinichi; Kurihara, Shuichi; Nishimura, Izumi; Yasunaga, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Wake, Norio; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi

    2010-12-01

    Ovarian mucinous neoplasms of gastro-intestinal type (GI-type) are known to be a heterogeneous tumor composed of benign, borderline and non-invasive and invasive malignant lesions. The presence of infiltrative invasion is also known to be an important prognostic factor of this neoplasm. Laminin γ 2 chain, known to stimulate tumor cell invasion and migration, has not been sufficiently investigated in ovarian mucinous neoplasms. The purpose of this study was thus to clarify the role of laminin γ 2 in ovarian mucinous neoplasms of GI-type. We selected each morphological phase of tumor development from 61 cases of mucinous neoplasms of the GI-type: 55 adenoma lesions, 60 borderline lesions, 20 microinvasive lesions, 17 intraepithelial carcinoma lesions, 38 expansile invasive carcinoma lesions, 19 infiltrative invasive carcinoma lesions and 5 mural nodules lesions; and evaluated the localization of laminin γ 2 in the lesions using immunohistochemical method. The staining pattern was classified into i) basement membranous (BM), ii) cytoplasmic (CYT) and iii) stromal (S) pattern. The BM pattern was characteristic in adenoma, borderline, and interaepithelial and expansile invasive carcinoma lesions. The CYT and S patterns were characteristic in infiltrative invasive lesions. The staining pattern of mural nodules was similar to that of infiltrative invasion. The infiltrative invasion of GI-type ovarian mucinous neoplasms may be promoted by cytoplasmic and/or stromal expression of laminin γ 2 chain.

  2. In vitro assessment of adsorbents aiming to prevent deoxynivalenol and zearalenone mycotoxicoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Vilar, Monica; Malekinejad, Hassan; Selman, M H J; van der Doelen, M A M; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2007-02-01

    The high prevalence of the Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in animal feeds in mild climatic zones of Europe and North America results in considerable economic losses, as these toxins affect health and productivity particularly of pigs from all age groups. The use of mycotoxin adsorbents as feed additives is one of the most prominent approaches to reduce the risk for mycotoxicoses in farm animals, and to minimise carry-over of mycotoxins from contaminated feeds into foods of animal origin. Successful aflatoxin adsorption by means of different substances (phyllosilicate minerals, zeolites, activated charcoal, synthetic resins or yeast cell-wall-derived products) has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. However, attempts to adsorb DON and ZON have been less encouraging. Here we describe the adsorption capacity of a variety of potential binders, including compounds that have not been evaluated before, such as humic acids. All compounds were tested at realistic inclusion levels for their capacity to bind ZON and DON, using an in vitro method that resembles the different pH conditions in the gastro-intestinal tract of pigs. Mycotoxin adsorption was assessed by chemical methods and distinct bioassays, using specific markers of toxicity as endpoints of toxicity in cytological assays. Whereas none of the tested substances was able to bind DON in an appreciable percentage, some of the selected smectite clays, humic substances and yeast-wall derived products efficiently adsorbed ZON (>70%). Binding efficiency was indirectly confirmed by the reduction of toxicity in the in vitro bioassays. In conclusion, the presented test protocol allows the rapid screening of potential mycotoxin binders. Like other in vitro assays, the presented protocol combining chemical and biological assays cannot completely simulate the conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence in vivo experiments remain mandatory to assess the efficacy of mycotoxin binders

  3. Isoenergetic replacement of fat by starch in diets for African catfish (Clarias gariepinus: effect on water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till S Harter

    Full Text Available The effect of an isoenergetic replacement of dietary fat by starch, on chyme characteristics and water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract (GIT was assessed. Adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed a starch (SD or fat (FD diet and groups of fish were dissected at 2, 5 and 8 h after the consumption of a single meal. Chyme was collected quantitatively and was analysed for osmolality and dry matter (DM content. Postprandial water fluxes were calculated, while using yttrium oxide (Y(2O(3 as an inert marker to account for the absorption of DM along the GIT. The largest differences in chyme characteristics between diets were observed in the stomach and decreased towards subsequent compartments. A high initial osmotic pressure was measured in the stomach for both diets (up to 498 ± 2 mOsm kg(-1 and was likely the driver for the endogeneous water influx to this compartment. Large additions of water were recorded to the stomach and proximal intestine for both diets and absorption of water took place in the mid- and distal intestine. Interestingly, the dietary treatment had an impact on water balance in the stomach and proximal intestine of the fish, but not in the mid- and distal intestine. A strong complementary relationship suggested that 59% of the water fluxes in the proximal intestine could be explained by previous additions to the stomach. Therefore, a higher dietary inclusion of starch led to a shift in water additions from the proximal intestine to the stomach. However, the sum of water additions to the GIT was not different between diets and was on average 6.52 ± 0.85 ml water g(-1 DM. The interactions between osmoregulation and digestion, in the GIT of fed freshwater fish, deserve further attention in future research.

  4. Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 1. Genetic parameters of anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvoix Séverine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feed costs represent about 70% of the costs of raising broilers. The main way to decrease these costs is to improve feed efficiency by modification of diet formulation, but one other possibility would be to use genetic selection. Understanding the genetic architecture of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT and the impact of the selection criterion on the GIT would be of particular interest. We therefore studied the genetic parameters of AMEn (Apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen balance, feed efficiency, and GIT traits in chickens. Genetic parameters were estimated for 630 broiler chickens of the eighth generation of a divergent selection experiment on AMEn. Birds were reared until 23 d of age and fed a wheat-based diet. The traits measured were body weight (BW, feed conversion ratio (FCR, AMEn, weights of crop, liver, gizzard and proventriculus, and weight, length and density of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Results The heritability estimates of BW, FCR and AMEn were moderate. The heritability estimates were higher for the GIT characteristics except for the weights of the proventriculus and liver. Gizzard weight was negatively correlated with density (weight to length ratio of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Proventriculus and gizzard weights were more strongly correlated with AMEn than with FCR, which was not the case for intestine weight and density. Conclusions GIT traits were largely dependent on genetics and that selecting on AMEn or FCR would modify them. Phenotypic observations carried out in the divergent lines selected on AMEn were consistent with estimated genetic correlations between AMEn and GIT traits.

  5. Neuropilin-2 mediated β-catenin signaling and survival in human gastro-intestinal cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaija Samuel

    Full Text Available NRP-2 is a high-affinity kinase-deficient receptor for ligands belonging to the class 3 semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor families. NRP-2 has been detected on the surface of several types of human cancer cells, but its expression and function in gastrointestinal (GI cancer cells remains to be determined. We sought to determine the function of NRP-2 in mediating downstream signals regulating the growth and survival of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. In human gastric cancer specimens, NRP-2 expression was detected in tumor tissues but not in adjacent normal mucosa. In CNDT 2.5 cells, shRNA mediated knockdown NRP-2 expression led to decreased migration and invasion in vitro (p<0.01. Focused gene-array analysis demonstrated that loss of NRP-2 reduced the expression of a critical metastasis mediator gene, S100A4. Steady-state levels and function of β-catenin, a known regulator of S100A4, were also decreased in the shNRP-2 clones. Furthermore, knockdown of NRP-2 sensitized CNDT 2.5 cells in vitro to 5FU toxicity. This effect was associated with activation of caspases 3 and 7, cleavage of PARP, and downregulation of Bcl-2. In vivo growth of CNDT 2.5 cells in the livers of nude mice was significantly decreased in the shNRP-2 group (p<0.05. Intraperitoneal administration of NRP-2 siRNA-DOPC decreased the tumor burden in mice (p = 0.01. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor cell-derived NRP-2 mediates critical survival signaling in gastrointestinal cancer cells.

  6. Application of a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal tract model to study the availability of food mutagens, using heterocyclic aromatic amines as model compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Baan, R.; Verhagen, H.; Mohn, G.; Feron, V.; Havenaar, R.

    2000-01-01

    The TNO gastro-Intestinal tract Model (TIM) is a dynamic computer-controlled in vitro system that mimics the human physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine. In the current TIM physiological parameters such as pH, temperature, peristaltic movements, secretion of digestion enzymes,

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals (ID 646, 1224, 1238, 1339

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims....... The claimed effects are “lactose intolerance”, “decrease lactose malabsorption symptoms” and “lactose digestion”. The target population is assumed to be lactose intolerant individuals. The Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake...... in lactose intolerant individuals. The Panel considers that decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals is a beneficial physiological effect for lactose intolerant individuals. Symptoms of lactose intolerance, which may develop one to three hours after...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel ( EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno ® GOS and reducing gastro - intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort. The food constituent, Bimuno® GOS, a mixture of β-galacto-oligosaccharides, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant...... is “reduce bloating, flatulence and abdominal pain. These effects can be described collectively as abdominal discomfort” and the target population proposed by the applicant is the general adult population. Reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort is a beneficial physiological effect. A health claim on Bimuno...

  9. potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231), defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967) and increasing IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells. The food...... of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 and Lactobacillus johnsonii La-1 (ACD-1)(CLbA22) are sufficiently characterised. The evidence provided did not establish that the proposed claimed effect, increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells, is a beneficial physiological...

  10. Towards finding effective indicators (diarrhoea and anaemia scores and weight gains) for the implementation of targeted selective treatment against the gastro-intestinal nematodes in lambs in a steppic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentounsi, B; Meradi, S; Cabaret, J

    2012-06-08

    The effective application of targeted selective treatment (TST) against gastro-intestinal nematodes depends on the accurate identification of those animals in need of anthelmintic treatment. Finding cost and labour effective measures to identify such animals is paramount. This study tested the efficacy of three indicators on lambs in a farm in Eastern Algeria: anaemia score (FAMACHA(©)), diarrhoea score (DISCO) and weight gain. These were contrasted against traditional parasitological infection measures (nematode eggs per gram of faeces: EPG). Thirty lambs were used in the study; every second month they were sampled (FAMACHA(©), faecal samples for EPG and DISCO, weight gains) and two of the original 30 lambs were necropsied for adult worm counts. The main gastro-intestinal nematodes were Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli, Nematodirus helvetianus, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, and Haemonchus contortus. DISCO proved to be the most effective indicator correctly identifying 80% of the sheep in need of treatment. This was followed by FAMACHA(©) with a 50% accuracy level and finally weight gains, which were not found to be a useful indicator at all. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-1720 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 939

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim related to a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-1720 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and defence against...... pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-1720 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, defence against pathogenic gastro...... and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-1720 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms....

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 781), pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    microflora, gut integrity, digestion‖. The target population is assumed to be the general population. The Panel considers that the claimed effect, in the context of decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, might be a beneficial physiological effect. No human studies from which...... claims in relation to fructo-oligosaccharides and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from...... Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is fructo-oligosaccharides. The Panel considers that fructo-oligosaccharides are sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect is ―beneficial effect on intestinal...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to a combination of Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 41 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 26 and increasing numbers of gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 941

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    , is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed for further assessment is “beneficially affects the intestinal flora by increasing bifidobacteria”. The proposed target population is the general population. The evidence provided does not establish that the proposed claimed effect, increasing numbers...... of Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 41and Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 26 and increasing numbers of gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 41and Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 26...... of gastro-intestinal microorganisms, is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 41 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 26 and a beneficial...

  14. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-1079 and defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 913, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006:EFSA-Q-2012-00127

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-1079 and defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-...

  15. In-vitro analysis of APA microcapsules for oral delivery of live bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Ouyang, W; Jones, M; Haque, T; Lawuyi, B; Prakash, S

    2005-08-01

    Oral administration of microcapsules containing live bacterial cells has potential as an alternative therapy for several diseases. This article evaluates the suitability of the alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules for oral delivery of live bacterial cells, in-vitro, using a dynamic simulated human gastro-intestinal (GI) model. Results showed that the APA microcapsules were morphologically stable in the simulated stomach conditions, but did not retain their structural integrity after a 3-day exposure in simulated human GI media. The microbial populations of the tested bacterial cells and the activities of the tested enzymes in the simulated human GI suspension were not substantially altered by the presence of the APA microcapsules, suggesting that there were no significant adverse effects of oral administration of the APA microcapsules on the flora of the human gastrointestinal tract. When the APA microcapsules containing Lactobacillus plantarum 80 (LP80) were challenged in the simulated gastric medium (pH = 2.0), 80.0% of the encapsulated cells remained viable after a 5-min incubation; however, the viability decreased considerably (8.3%) after 15 min and dropped to 2.6% after 30 min and lower than 0.2% after 60 min, indicating the limitations of the currently obtainable APA membrane for oral delivery of live bacteria. Further in-vivo studies are required before conclusions can be made concerning the inadequacy of APA microcapsules for oral delivery of live bacterial cells.

  16. Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 2. Genetic parameters of excretion traits and correlations with anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvoix Séverine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry production has been widely criticized for its negative environmental impact related to the quantity of manure produced and to its nitrogen and phosphorus content. In this study, we investigated which traits related to excretion could be used to select chickens for lower environmental pollution. The genetic parameters of several excretion traits were estimated on 630 chickens originating from 2 chicken lines divergently selected on apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen (AMEn at constant body weight. The quantity of excreta relative to feed consumption (CDUDM, the nitrogen and phosphorus excreted, the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio and the water content of excreta were measured, and the consequences of such selection on performance and gastro-intestinal tract (GIT characteristics estimated. The genetic correlations between excretion, GIT and performance traits were established. Results Heritability estimates were high for CDUDM and the nitrogen excretion rate (0.30 and 0.29, respectively. The other excretion measurements showed low to moderate heritability estimates, ranging from 0.10 for excreta water content to 0.22 for the phosphorus excretion rate. Except for the excreta water content, the CDUDM was highly correlated with the excretion traits, ranging from -0.64 to -1.00. The genetic correlations between AMEn or CDUDM and the GIT characteristics were very similar and showed that a decrease in chicken excretion involves an increase in weight of the upper part of the GIT, and a decrease in the weight of the small intestine. Conclusion In order to limit the environmental impact of chicken production, AMEn and CDUDM seem to be more suitable criteria to include in selection schemes than feed efficiency traits.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus casei DG CNCM I-1572 and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 2949, 3061, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to Lactobacillus casei...... DG CNCM I-1572 and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, Lactobacillus casei DG CNCM I-1572, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro...... and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Lactobacillus casei DG CNCM I-1572 and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro‑intestinal microorganisms....

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225) and improving immune defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 896), and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225) and improving immune defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...... in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225). The Panel considers that Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following an application from Clasado Ltd., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, Bimuno® GOS, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is r...

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Clasado Limited, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Malta, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, Bimuno® GOS, which is a mixtur...

  1. EFSA NDA Panel ( EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno ® GOS and reducing gastro - intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2013-01-01

    Following an application from Clasado Limited, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Malta, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort. The food constituent, Bimuno® GOS, a mixture of β-galacto-oligosaccharides, which is the sub...

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Clasado Limited, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Malta, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the sc......Following an application from Clasado Limited, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Malta, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, Bimuno® GOS, which is a mixture of β‑galacto-oligosaccharides produced through conversion of lactose by enzymes from Bifidobacterium...... bifidum NCIMB 41171, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort and is considered to be a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant did not provide any studies from which data could be used for the scientific substantiation of the claimed effect...

  3. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polystyrene spheres remained in the stomach through- out the study period.19 This might have been expected as gastric emptying generally retains particles larger than 2 mm. Solid food ingested during exercise is therefore liable to remain in the stomach for some time. The over- all effect of osmolality on gastric emptying is ...

  4. Plantas medicinais usadas nos distúrbios do trato gastrintestinal no povoado Colônia Treze, Lagarto, SE, Brasil Medicinal plants used for aliments of the gastro-intestinal tract at Colonia Treze village, Lagarto Municipality, Sergipe State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silene da Silva

    2006-12-01

    medicinal plants as genetic potential for the development of new drugs, and as the primary access to health care for many communities. Using an ethnopharmacological approach in the study of medicinal plants, this work aimed to study the medicinal plants popularly used for gastro-intestinal tract ailments, at Colonia Treze village, in Lagarto/Sergipe, since this community is culturally attuned to the use of medicinal plants. Methodology consisted of field work within the community, adopting the ethnographic Rapid Assessment Procedure. The sample was composed of community leaders, plant users and practitioners of folk medicine. Based on their indications of medicinal-plant use, eight plants were selected and subject to pharmacological experimental tests. Plants tested by the Intestinal Transit Model did not provoke alterations in motility. However, those that underwent the Acute Gastric Lesion Induction Model proved to be effective in anti-ulcerogenic activity. Based on these results, strategies for local development at the community level are proposed, which will tie the conservation of medicinal flora to improvements in life quality.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    identified eight human intervention studies, two human observational studies, and three non-human studies as being pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that owing to important methodological limitations, no conclusions with respect to the scientific substantiation of the claim can be drawn from......Following an application from Clasado Ltd., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... from which conclusions can be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011...

  6. Release of 5-aminosalicylate from an MMX mesalamine tablet during transit through a simulated gastrointestinal tract system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenjarla, Srini; Romasanta, Vallente; Zeijdner, Evelijn; Villa, Roberto; Moro, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    5-Aminosalicylate (5-ASA; mesalamine) is the current first-line treatment for mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, a chronic inflammatory condition that most commonly affects the distal part of the colon. MMXtrade mark mesalamine (Lialdatrade mark [US]; Mezavanttrade mark XL [UK and Ireland]; Mezavanttrade mark [elsewhere]; Shire Pharmaceuticals Inc., Wayne, Pa, under license from Giuliani SpA, Milan, Italy) was created to be a novel, once-daily 5-ASA formulation. MMX mesalamine in tablet form has a pH-dependent, gastroresistant coating and is designed to delay the release of 5-ASA during transit through the upper gastrointestinal tract; it consists of hydrophilic and lipophilic excipients that are designed to prolong the release of 5-ASA throughout the colon. The release kinetics of 5-ASA from an MMX mesalamine tablet were assessed with the use of a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal tract system (TNO GastroIntestinal Model) that simulates physiologic conditions in the adult human gastrointestinal tract under standardized fed and fasted conditions. This system incorporates removal of released drug via dialysis and automated sampling taken at various sections of the system. Less than 1% of 5-ASA was found to be released from the tablet in the simulated stomach and small intestine (before introduction into the simulated colon). Most of the 5-ASA within each tablet was released in the simulated colon (fasted state conditions: 78.0%; fed state conditions: 68.5%). Substantial quantities were released during the 8- to 18-hour sampling period (49.6 mg/h[fasted] and 40.7 mg/h [fed]). In conclusion, with the use of an in vitro system, the investigators showed that 5-ASA release from an MMX mesalamine tablet was delayed until the tablet reached the simulated colon. Throughout the simulated colon, release of 5-ASA from an MMX mesalamine tablet was prolonged.

  7. A standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food - an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minekus, M; Alminger, M; Alvito, P; Ballance, S; Bohn, T; Bourlieu, C; Carrière, F; Boutrou, R; Corredig, M; Dupont, D; Dufour, C; Egger, L; Golding, M; Karakaya, S; Kirkhus, B; Le Feunteun, S; Lesmes, U; Macierzanka, A; Mackie, A; Marze, S; McClements, D J; Ménard, O; Recio, I; Santos, C N; Singh, R P; Vegarud, G E; Wickham, M S J; Weitschies, W; Brodkorb, A

    2014-06-01

    Simulated gastro-intestinal digestion is widely employed in many fields of food and nutritional sciences, as conducting human trials are often costly, resource intensive, and ethically disputable. As a consequence, in vitro alternatives that determine endpoints such as the bioaccessibility of nutrients and non-nutrients or the digestibility of macronutrients (e.g. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) are used for screening and building new hypotheses. Various digestion models have been proposed, often impeding the possibility to compare results across research teams. For example, a large variety of enzymes from different sources such as of porcine, rabbit or human origin have been used, differing in their activity and characterization. Differences in pH, mineral type, ionic strength and digestion time, which alter enzyme activity and other phenomena, may also considerably alter results. Other parameters such as the presence of phospholipids, individual enzymes such as gastric lipase and digestive emulsifiers vs. their mixtures (e.g. pancreatin and bile salts), and the ratio of food bolus to digestive fluids, have also been discussed at length. In the present consensus paper, within the COST Infogest network, we propose a general standardised and practical static digestion method based on physiologically relevant conditions that can be applied for various endpoints, which may be amended to accommodate further specific requirements. A frameset of parameters including the oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion are outlined and their relevance discussed in relation to available in vivo data and enzymes. This consensus paper will give a detailed protocol and a line-by-line, guidance, recommendations and justifications but also limitation of the proposed model. This harmonised static, in vitro digestion method for food should aid the production of more comparable data in the future.

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to the substantiation of health claims related to various microorganisms and changes in bowel function, and digestion and absorption of nutrients (ID 960, 961, 967, 969, 971, 975, 983, 985, 994, 996, 998, 1006, 1014), decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 960, 967, 969, 971, 975, 983, 985, 994, 996, 998, 1006, 1014), and stimulation of immunological responses (ID 962, 968, 970, 972, 976, 984, 986, 995, 997, 999, 1007, 1015) (further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and changes in bowel function, and digestion and absorption of nutrients, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and stimulation of immunological responses. The food constituents, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis THT 010801, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis THT 010201......, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum THT 010301, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum THT 010501, Lactobacillus casei THT 030401, Lactobacillus gasseri THT 031301, Lactobacillus helveticus THT 031102, Lactobacillus plantarum THT 030701, Lactobacillus plantarum THT 030707, Lactobacillus reuteri THT...

  9. Bioaccessibility of four calcium sources in different whey-based dairy matrices assessed by in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorieau, Lucie; Le Roux, Linda; Gaucheron, Frédéric; Ligneul, Amandine; Hazart, Etienne; Dupont, Didier; Floury, Juliane

    2018-04-15

    Numerous calcium sources are available to enrich food, but their behavior during digestion is still unknown. This study focused on the influence of the gastro-intestinal pH, the food structure and the calcium source on the bioaccessibility of the nutrient. Four calcium sources were studied: calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate, calcium phosphate and calcium bisglycinate. These were added to dairy matrices, containing cream and whey proteins, of different forms (liquid or gel). The kinetics of solubility and ionic calcium concentration during in vitro digestion were studied, as function of gastro-intestinal pH. All calcium sources were almost fully soluble in the gastric compartment, and then became insoluble in the intestinal phase. The level of calcium insolubilisation in the intestinal phase was not significantly influenced by the matrix structure (liquid or gel), but was more dependent on the calcium source, this effect leading to different final calcium bioaccessibility from 36% to 20%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulating pancreatic neuroplasticity: in vitro dual-neuron plasticity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Tieftrunk, Elke; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Friess, Helmut; Ceyhan, Güralp O

    2014-04-14

    Neuroplasticity is an inherent feature of the enteric nervous system and gastrointestinal (GI) innervation under pathological conditions. However, the pathophysiological role of neuroplasticity in GI disorders remains unknown. Novel experimental models which allow simulation and modulation of GI neuroplasticity may enable enhanced appreciation of the contribution of neuroplasticity in particular GI diseases such as pancreatic cancer (PCa) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Here, we present a protocol for simulation of pancreatic neuroplasticity under in vitro conditions using newborn rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and myenteric plexus (MP) neurons. This dual-neuron approach not only permits monitoring of both organ-intrinsic and -extrinsic neuroplasticity, but also represents a valuable tool to assess neuronal and glial morphology and electrophysiology. Moreover, it allows functional modulation of supplied microenvironmental contents for studying their impact on neuroplasticity. Once established, the present neuroplasticity assay bears the potential of being applicable to the study of neuroplasticity in any GI organ.

  11. Exploring the fate of liposomes in the intestine by dynamic in vitro lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmentier, Johannes; Thomas, Nicky; Müllertz, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes are generally well tolerated drug delivery systems with a potential use for the oral route. However, little is known about the fate of liposomes during exposure to the conditions in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). To gain a better understanding of liposome stability in the intestine......, a dynamic in vitro lipolysis model, which so far has only been used for the in vitro characterisation of other lipid-based drug delivery systems, was applied to different liposomal formulations. Liposome size and phospholipid (PL) digestion were determined as two markers for liposome stability. In addition...... by titration and HPLC. Size of liposomes was determined by dynamic light scattering during incubation in lipolysis medium (LM) and during lipolysis. SPC-based (soy phosphatidylcholine) liposomes were stable in LM, whereas for EPC-3-based (hydrated egg phosphatidylcholine) formulations the formation...

  12. Metagenomic Sequencing of an In Vitro-Simulated Microbial Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Jenna L.; Darling, Aaron E.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    2009-12-01

    Background: Microbial life dominates the earth, but many species are difficult or even impossible to study under laboratory conditions. Sequencing DNA directly from the environment, a technique commonly referred to as metagenomics, is an important tool for cataloging microbial life. This culture-independent approach involves collecting samples that include microbes in them, extracting DNA from the samples, and sequencing the DNA. A sample may contain many different microorganisms, macroorganisms, and even free-floating environmental DNA. A fundamental challenge in metagenomics has been estimating the abundance of organisms in a sample based on the frequency with which the organism's DNA was observed in reads generated via DNA sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings: We created mixtures of ten microbial species for which genome sequences are known. Each mixture contained an equal number of cells of each species. We then extracted DNA from the mixtures, sequenced the DNA, and measured the frequency with which genomic regions from each organism was observed in the sequenced DNA. We found that the observed frequency of reads mapping to each organism did not reflect the equal numbers of cells that were known to be included in each mixture. The relative organism abundances varied significantly depending on the DNA extraction and sequencing protocol utilized. Conclusions/Significance: We describe a new data resource for measuring the accuracy of metagenomic binning methods, created by in vitro-simulation of a metagenomic community. Our in vitro simulation can be used to complement previous in silico benchmark studies. In constructing a synthetic community and sequencing its metagenome, we encountered several sources of observation bias that likely affect most metagenomic experiments to date and present challenges for comparative metagenomic studies. DNA preparation methods have a particularly profound effect in our study, implying that samples prepared with

  13. Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Parasites of Cattle in Ogbomoso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1-2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    haemonchosis-associated mortalities have been reported in boar goat kids in Uganda. (Okwee-Acai et al., 2010). Effective control of GIN infections is essential ..... benefit of strategic anthelmintic treatment and urea-molasses block supplementation on Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions at. Onderstepoort ...

  15. Breaking Bad News for Patients with Gastro-Intestinal Malignancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No patient was told about the prognosis and the chances of cure. Conclusion: Sympathy over-ride empathy in communicating bad news to Sudanese patients suffering of cancer. Patient education and training in breaking the bad news is needed. Key words: Communication skills, breaking bad news, truth telling, Sudan.

  16. The effect of intra-abdominal hypertension on gastro- intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an adult intensive care unit (ICU) population at risk of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Methods. ... with IAH and multiple GI symptoms combined was associated with worse subsequent sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score (r=0.64 ... was performed routinely by the ICU nursing staff every 2 - 12 hours.

  17. Study of Human Gastro-Intestinal Parasites Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four different intestinal parasites were encountered. The respective infection rates of each parasite were; Ascaris lumbricoides (14.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (13.7%), Trichuris trichiura (6.9%) and hookworms (5.4%). Infections cut across the different age groups and sexes. Infection in males (40.6%) was comparable to ...

  18. Survey of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Chimpanzees and Drill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300 faecal specimens were collected from chimpanzees and drill monkeys respectively, processed and examined microscopically. Parasites, their developmental stages and prevalence, recovered from drill monkeys were; Strongyloides sp, larvae, 66 (22%), Prosther sp, ova, 48 (16%), Entamoeba sp, larval, 120 ...

  19. Minimum pathology reporting standard for gastro-intestinal cancers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: Two separate and distinct formats for reporting gastric and colorectal resection specimens presented to a group of selected pathologists with special interest in GI pathology was adopted after due editing and refinement. The final draft was recommended for use in the reporting of gastric and colorectal cancers in ...

  20. Enhanced recovery after gastro-intestinal surgery: The scientific background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, P; Slim, K

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced recovery programs (ERP) are without any doubt a major innovation in the care of surgical patients. This multimodal approach encompasses elements of both medical and surgical care. The goal of this in-depth review is to analyze the surgical aspects of ERP, underlining the scientific rationale behind each element of ERP after surgery and in particular, the role of mechanical bowel preparation before colorectal surgery, the place of minimal access surgery, the utility of nasogastric tube, abdominal drainage, bladder catheters and early re-feeding. Publication of factual data has allowed many dogmas to be discarded. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Chimpanzees and Drill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    parasite such Entamoeba histolytica, Gardia sp, Cryptosporidium sp and. Balantidium coli are frequently reported in non-human primate, apes and monkeys. (Levecke, 2007). Gastrointestinal parasites in non-human primates are regarded as major causes of gastro-enterittis, watery diarrhea, haemorrhage, dysentery and.

  2. [Positron emission tomography (PET) in gastro-intestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartski, Myriam

    2016-09-01

    The existing recommendations for fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) use in digestive cancers (excluding neuroendocrine tumours) are summarized in the present article. FDG-PET/CT is nowadays a routine imaging modality for digestive malignancies and its use is currently increasing. FDG-PET/CT is considered to be a crucial tool in pretherapeutic assessment of esophageal, localized pancreatic and anal cancer. It represents a key exam in suspicion of recurrence of colorectal cancer in case of elevated serum tumor markers. New data are emerging regarding FDG-PET/CT in therapeutic efficacy assessment, radiotherapy treatment planning and detection of recurrence in many digestive cancers. Incidental focal colonic FDG uptake has to be explored by colonoscopy, as often associated with premalignant or malignant lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasticity of gastro-intestinal vagal afferent endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Stephen J; Page, Amanda J

    2014-09-01

    Vagal afferents are a vital link between the peripheral tissue and central nervous system (CNS). There is an abundance of vagal afferents present within the proximal gastrointestinal tract which are responsible for monitoring and controlling gastrointestinal function. Whilst essential for maintaining homeostasis there is a vast amount of literature emerging which describes remarkable plasticity of vagal afferents in response to endogenous as well as exogenous stimuli. This plasticity for the most part is vital in maintaining healthy processes; however, there are increased reports of vagal plasticity being disrupted in pathological states, such as obesity. Many of the disruptions, observed in obesity, have the potential to reduce vagal afferent satiety signalling which could ultimately perpetuate the obese state. Understanding how plasticity occurs within vagal afferents will open a whole new understanding of gut function as well as identify new treatment options for obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths in school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection was also higher among pupils who used nearby bushes for defaecation than those who use pit latrine and water. Sanitation should be encouraged in order to control the disease since the high prevalence was found to be associated with unsanitary habits. There is the need to incorporate the control of intestinal ...

  5. An in vitro simulation method for the tribological assessment of complete natural hip joints

    OpenAIRE

    Groves, Dawn; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The use of hip joint simulators to evaluate the tribological performance of total hip replacements is widely reported in the literature, however, in vitro simulation studies investigating the tribology of the natural hip joint are limited with heterogeneous methodologies reported. An in vitro simulation system for the complete natural hip joint, enabling the acetabulum and femoral head to be positioned with different orientations whilst maintaining the correct joint centre of rotation, was su...

  6. In vitro simulation of in vivo pharmacokinetic model with intravenous administration via flow rate modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Cheng; Liang, Wang; Hu, Jia-Li; He, Gao-Li; Wu, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Xue-Qian

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to propose a method of flow rate modulation for simulation of in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) model with intravenous injection based on a basic in vitro PK model. According to the rule of same relative change rate of concentration per unit time in vivo and in vitro, the equations for flow rate modulation were derived using equation method. Four examples from literature were given to show the application of flow rate modulation in the simulation of PK model of antimicrobial agents in vitro. Then an experiment was performed to confirm the feasibility of flow rate modulation method using levo-ornidazole as an example. The accuracy and precision of PK simulations were evaluated using average relative deviation (ARD), mean error and root mean squared error. In vitro model with constant flow rate could mimic one-compartment model, while the in vitro model with decreasing flow rate could simulate the linear mammillary model with multiple compartments. Zero-order model could be simulated using the in vitro model with elevating flow rate. In vitro PK model with gradually decreasing flow rate reproduced the two-compartment kinetics of levo-ornidazole quite well. The ARD was 0.925 % between in vitro PK parameters and in vivo values. Results suggest that various types of PK model could be simulated using flow rate modulation method without modifying the structure. The method provides uniform settings for the simulation of linear mammillary model and zero-order model based on in vitro one-compartment model, and brings convenience to the pharmacodynamic study.

  7. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  8. Fate of polyphenols in pili (Canarium ovatum Engl.) pomace after in vitro simulated digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Hashim Arenas; Trinidad Palad Trinidad

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability and bioavailability of polyphenols in pili (Canarium ovatum Engl.) pomace during simulated in vitro digestion. Methods: Freeze-dried pili pomace was subjected to in vitro digestion simulating conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon. Total polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids and condensed tannins, and its antioxidant activity – 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid, and ferric reducing antioxid...

  9. A simulation framework to investigate in vitro viral infection dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bankhead, A.; Mancini, E.; Sims, A.C.; Baric, R.S.; McWeeney, S.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Virus infection is a complex biological phenomenon for which in vitro experiments provide a uniquely concise view where data is often obtained from a single population of cells, under controlled environmental conditions. Nonetheless, data interpretation and real understanding of viral dynamics is

  10. Dual Level Statistical Investigation of Equilibrium Solubility in Simulated Fasted and Fed Intestinal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainousah, Bayan E; Perrier, Jeremy; Dunn, Claire; Khadra, Ibrahim; Wilson, Clive G; Halbert, Gavin

    2017-12-04

    The oral route is the preferred option for drug administration but contains the inherent issue of drug absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) in order to elicit systemic activity. A prerequisite for absorption is drug dissolution, which is dependent upon drug solubility in the variable milieu of GIT fluid, with poorly soluble drugs presenting a formulation and biopharmaceutical challenge. Multiple factors within GIT fluid influence solubility ranging from pH to the concentration and ratio of amphiphilic substances, such as phospholipid, bile salt, monoglyceride, and cholesterol. To aid in vitro investigation simulated intestinal fluids (SIF) covering the fasted and fed state have been developed. SIF media is complex and statistical design of experiment (DoE) investigations have revealed the range of solubility values possible within each state due to physiological variability along with the media factors and factor interactions which influence solubility. However, these studies require large numbers of experiments (>60) and are not feasible or sensible within a drug development setting. In the current study a smaller dual level, reduced experimental number (20) DoE providing three arms covering the fasted and fed states along with a combined analysis has been investigated. The results indicate that this small scale investigation is feasible and provides solubility ranges that encompass published data in human and simulated fasted and fed fluids. The measured fasted and fed solubility ranges are in agreement with published large scale DoE results in around half of the cases, with the differences due to changes in media composition between studies. Indicating that drug specific behaviors are being determined and that careful media factor and concentration level selection is required in order to determine a physiologically relevant solubility range. The study also correctly identifies the major single factor or factors which influence solubility but it is

  11. Reactivity of Free Malondialdehyde during In Vitro Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemoortele, Angelique; Babat, Pinar; Yakubu, Mariam; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2017-03-15

    An aqueous buffer, a saturated glycerol triheptanoate oil, and a Tween 20 stabilized fully hydrogenated coconut oil-in-water emulsion, all spiked with malondialdehyde, were subjected to in vitro digestion. A dynamic equilibrium between malondialdehyde, its aldol self-condensation products, and its hydrolytic cleavage products was observed. This equilibrium depended upon the kind of sample and the temperature at which these samples were preincubated during 24 h. The presence of oil during gastric digestion protected the aldol self-condensation and cleavage products from conversion to malondialdehyde, which occurred in the aqueous acidic gastric chyme. In parallel, the presence of oil enhanced the reactivity of malondialdehyde throughout the gastrointestinal digestion process. Malondialdehyde recoveries after digestion varied between 42 and 90%, depending upon the model system studied, with the aldol self-condensation as the main reaction pathway. In conclusion, this study revealed that malondialdehyde is a very reactive molecule whose reactivity does not stop at the point of ingestion.

  12. Simulated Microgravity Using a Rotary Culture System Compromises the In Vitro Development of Mouse Preantral Follicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Zhang

    Full Text Available Growing cells in simulated weightlessness condition might be a highly promising new technique to maintain or generate tissue constructs in a scaffold-free manner. There is limited evidence that microgravity condition may affect development of ovarian follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity on the in vitro development of mouse preantral follicles.Ovarian tissue from 14-day-old mice, or preantral follicles mechanically isolated from 14-day-old mouse ovaries were cultured at a simulated microgravity condition generated using a rotating wall vessel apparatus. Follicle survival was assessed quantitatively using H&E staining. Follicle diameter and oocyte diameter were measured under an inverted microscope. Ultrastructure of oocytes was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. We observed that simulated microgravity compromised follicle survival in vitro, downregulated PCNA and GDF-9 expressions, and caused ultrastructural abnormalities in oocytes.This study showed for the first time that three-dimensional culture condition generated by simulated microgravity is detrimental to the initial stage development of mouse preantral follicles in vitro. The experimental setup provides a model to further investigate the mechanisms involved in the in vitro developmental processes of oocytes/granulosa cells under the microgravity condition.

  13. Oral Factors Affecting Titanium Elution and Corrosion: An In Vitro Study Using Simulated Body Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Hideki Suito; Yuki Iwawaki; Takaharu Goto; Yoritoki Tomotake; Tetsuo Ichikawa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Ti, which is biocompatible and resistant to corrosion, is widely used for dental implants, particularly in patients allergic to other materials. However, numerous studies have reported on Ti allergy and the in vitro corrosion of Ti. This study investigated the conditions that promote the elution of Ti ions from Ti implants. METHODS: Specimens of commercially pure Ti, pure nickel, a magnetic alloy, and a gold alloy were tested. Each specimen was immersed in a simulated body fluid (...

  14. An in vitro simulation method for the tribological assessment of complete natural hip joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Dawn; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The use of hip joint simulators to evaluate the tribological performance of total hip replacements is widely reported in the literature, however, in vitro simulation studies investigating the tribology of the natural hip joint are limited with heterogeneous methodologies reported. An in vitro simulation system for the complete natural hip joint, enabling the acetabulum and femoral head to be positioned with different orientations whilst maintaining the correct joint centre of rotation, was successfully developed for this study. The efficacy of the simulation system was assessed by testing complete, matched natural porcine hip joints and porcine hip hemiarthroplasty joints in a pendulum friction simulator. The results showed evidence of biphasic lubrication, with a non-linear increase in friction being observed in both groups. Lower overall mean friction factor values in the complete natural joint group that increased at a lower rate over time, suggest that the exudation of fluid and transition to solid phase lubrication occurred more slowly in the complete natural hip joint compared to the hip hemiarthroplasty joint. It is envisaged that this methodology will be used to investigate morphological risk factors for developing hip osteoarthritis, as well as the effectiveness of early interventional treatments for degenerative hip disease.

  15. An in vitro simulation method for the tribological assessment of complete natural hip joints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Groves

    Full Text Available The use of hip joint simulators to evaluate the tribological performance of total hip replacements is widely reported in the literature, however, in vitro simulation studies investigating the tribology of the natural hip joint are limited with heterogeneous methodologies reported. An in vitro simulation system for the complete natural hip joint, enabling the acetabulum and femoral head to be positioned with different orientations whilst maintaining the correct joint centre of rotation, was successfully developed for this study. The efficacy of the simulation system was assessed by testing complete, matched natural porcine hip joints and porcine hip hemiarthroplasty joints in a pendulum friction simulator. The results showed evidence of biphasic lubrication, with a non-linear increase in friction being observed in both groups. Lower overall mean friction factor values in the complete natural joint group that increased at a lower rate over time, suggest that the exudation of fluid and transition to solid phase lubrication occurred more slowly in the complete natural hip joint compared to the hip hemiarthroplasty joint. It is envisaged that this methodology will be used to investigate morphological risk factors for developing hip osteoarthritis, as well as the effectiveness of early interventional treatments for degenerative hip disease.

  16. Preparation and In vitro Investigation of Chitosan Compressed Tablets for Colon Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Bashardoust

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was minimizing the drug release in upper gastro intestinal tract and targeting to colon by using the principles of compression coat. Methods: Compression coated tablets of Ibuprofen were prepared by direct compression method using chitosan (300, 250, 200 & 175 mg. Tablets were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and in vitro drug release studies. In vitro drug release studies were performed with and without rat caecal contents. Results: In the rat caecal contents tablets showed enhanced drug release due to degradation of chitosan coat by colonic colonic enzymes. The in vitro release studies in pH-6.8 phosphate buffer containing 2% w/v of rat caecal contents showed the cumulative percentage release of Ibuprofen after 26h as 31.94% ±0.59, 67.89% ± 0.45 and 55.87 % ± 0.45 and 82.52 % ± 0.92 respectively. Coatthickness and amount of chitosan controls the release rate. Formulations are best fitted with Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics and mechanism of drug release was non-Fickian. FTIR studies reveals there is no drug-polysaccharide interaction. F1 formulation was a promising system for drug targeting to colon. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results chitosan as a press coat could target ibuprofen to the colon.

  17. In vitro protease cleavage and computer simulations reveal the HIV-1 capsid maturation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jiying; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Yufenyuy, Ernest L.; Wagner, Jef; Himes, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Gongpu; Aiken, Christopher; Zandi, Roya; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 virions assemble as immature particles containing Gag polyproteins that are processed by the viral protease into individual components, resulting in the formation of mature infectious particles. There are two competing models for the process of forming the mature HIV-1 core: the disassembly and de novo reassembly model and the non-diffusional displacive model. To study the maturation pathway, we simulate HIV-1 maturation in vitro by digesting immature particles and assembled virus-like particles with recombinant HIV-1 protease and monitor the process with biochemical assays and cryoEM structural analysis in parallel. Processing of Gag in vitro is accurate and efficient and results in both soluble capsid protein and conical or tubular capsid assemblies, seemingly converted from immature Gag particles. Computer simulations further reveal probable assembly pathways of HIV-1 capsid formation. Combining the experimental data and computer simulations, our results suggest a sequential combination of both displacive and disassembly/reassembly processes for HIV-1 maturation.

  18. An in vitro patient-tailored model of human cerebral artery for simulating endovascular intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Fukuda, Toshio; Negoro, Makoto; Irie, Keiko; Takahashi, Ikuo

    2005-01-01

    An in vitro patient-tailored reproduction model of cerebral artery, a hardware platform for simulating endovascular intervention for making diagnoses and surgical trainings is presented. 3-D configuration of vessel lumen is reproduced as vessel model with 13 microm modeling resolution, using CT and MRI information. Physical characteristics of cerebral artery, such as elastic modulus and friction coefficient, are also reproduced. We also propose a novel method to visualize stress condition on vessel wall using photoelastic effect. Consequently, it should be helpful for clinical applications, academic researches and other various purposes.

  19. Sweet potato leaf extract inhibits the simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of native starch

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng, Toong Long; Chiang, Yi Chen; Lai, Chia Chi; Liao, Ting Chen; Lin, Su Yue; Lin, Tzu Che; Sung, Jih Min

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported the therapeutic use of caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives in the management of hyperglycemia. This study used a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model to assess the inhibitory effects of CQA derivatives-rich sweet potato leaf extract (SPLE) and a commercially produced green coffee bean extract (GCBE), each with total polyphenols contents of 452 mg g−1 and 278 mg g−1, respectively, against starch digestion. The changes in the amounts of total polyp...

  20. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Cantilever Sensor for in-Vitro LDL Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. Hosimin Thilagar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the design, simulation and analysis of microcantilever integrated with piezoresistors in Wheatstone bridge arrangement to detect low density lipoprotein (LDL in blood, which is responsible for cholesterol accumulation in arteries. This paper uses Finite Element Method (FEM to obtain the performance of piezoresistive microcantilever sensor to measure surface stress corresponding to the adsorption of LDL molecules. The FEM results are compared with the analytical solutions. The results suggest that the designed sensor can effectively sense LDL molecules as in-Vitro with few micro-litre of blood sample.

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity of dental adhesive systems under simulated pulpal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, J; Tardieu, C; Déjou, J; Franquin, J C; Ladaique, P; Rieu, R

    1997-01-01

    Most of the devices used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of resin-based composites in vitro use a dentin barrier test. However, it is difficult to obtain the number of freshly extracted teeth, all on the same day, that is necessary for powerful statistical analysis. Tooth cryopreservation provides a way to build up a supply of teeth. This in vitro study compared cryopreserved teeth and freshly extracted teeth in an evaluation of the cytotoxicity of resin-based composites. In addition, this study also evaluated the effects of pulsatile pressure and the importance of dentin permeability on the cytotoxic response to bonding resins. Forty freshly extracted and forty cryopreserved third molars were used. A standardized Class I cavity was prepared within the dentin. The hydraulic conductance of each tooth was recorded. The cavities were filled either with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and Z 100 (3M Dental Products) or with Optibond and Herculite (Kerr). A plexiglas device was designed to permit 24 h long contact between culture medium and the roof of the pulp chamber while a pulsatile pulpal pressure was simulated. The viability of L 929 cells cultured with a control medium and evaluated by an MTT assay was compared to that of L 929 cells cultured with medium which remained for 24 h in contact with the pulp chamber of restored teeth. A three-way ANOVA was used to compare the cytotoxicity among the different groups. A simple least-squares linear regression was used to seek a relationship between the hydraulic conductance of dentin and the cytotoxicity of composite restorative materials. No significant differences in cytotoxicity were found between the freshly extracted teeth and the cryopreserved teeth (p = 0.53). The cytotoxicity of the resin adhesives was statistically higher when a pulsatile pulpal pressure was simulated (p = 0.04). A significant relationship was found between the hydraulic conductance of dentin and the cytotoxicity of resin-based composites (p = 0

  2. Identifying and tracking simulated synaptic inputs from neuronal firing: insights from in vitro experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Volgushev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurately describing synaptic interactions between neurons and how interactions change over time are key challenges for systems neuroscience. Although intracellular electrophysiology is a powerful tool for studying synaptic integration and plasticity, it is limited by the small number of neurons that can be recorded simultaneously in vitro and by the technical difficulty of intracellular recording in vivo. One way around these difficulties may be to use large-scale extracellular recording of spike trains and apply statistical methods to model and infer functional connections between neurons. These techniques have the potential to reveal large-scale connectivity structure based on the spike timing alone. However, the interpretation of functional connectivity is often approximate, since only a small fraction of presynaptic inputs are typically observed. Here we use in vitro current injection in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons to validate methods for inferring functional connectivity in a setting where input to the neuron is controlled. In experiments with partially-defined input, we inject a single simulated input with known amplitude on a background of fluctuating noise. In a fully-defined input paradigm, we then control the synaptic weights and timing of many simulated presynaptic neurons. By analyzing the firing of neurons in response to these artificial inputs, we ask 1 How does functional connectivity inferred from spikes relate to simulated synaptic input? and 2 What are the limitations of connectivity inference? We find that individual current-based synaptic inputs are detectable over a broad range of amplitudes and conditions. Detectability depends on input amplitude and output firing rate, and excitatory inputs are detected more readily than inhibitory. Moreover, as we model increasing numbers of presynaptic inputs, we are able to estimate connection strengths more accurately and detect the presence of connections more quickly. These results

  3. Unravelling the pharmacologic opportunities and future directions for targeted therapies in gastro-intestinal cancers part 2: Neuroendocrine tumours, hepatocellular carcinoma, and gastro-intestinal stromal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzillet, Cindy; de Mestier, Louis; Rousseau, Benoît; Mir, Olivier; Hebbar, Mohamed; Kocher, Hemant M; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Tournigand, Christophe

    2017-07-16

    Until the 1990s, cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of medical therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Better understanding of the cancer cell molecular biology has led to the therapeutic revolution of targeted therapies, i.e. monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors directed against proteins that are specifically overexpressed or mutated in cancer cells. These agents, being more specific to cancer cells, were expected to be less toxic than conventional cytotoxic agents. However, their effects have sometimes been disappointing, due to intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, or to an activity restricted to some tumour settings, illustrating the importance of patient selection and early identification of predictive biomarkers of response to these therapies. Targeted agents have provided clinical benefit in many GI cancer types. Particularly, some GI tumours are considered chemoresistant and targeted therapies have offered a new therapeutic base for their management. Hence, somatostatin receptor-directed strategies, sorafenib, and imatinib have revolutioned the management of neuroendocrine tumours (NET), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), respectively, and are now used as first-line treatment in many patients affected by these tumours. However, these agents face problems of resistances and identification of predictive biomarkers from imaging and/or biology. We propose a comprehensive two-part review providing a panoramic approach of the successes and failures of targeted agents in GI cancers to unravel the pharmacologic opportunities and future directions for these agents in GI oncology. In this second part, we will focus on NET, HCC, and GIST, whose treatment relies primarily on targeted therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Comparison of a Rabbit Model of Bacterial Endocarditis and an In Vitro Infection Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations

    OpenAIRE

    Hershberger, Ellie; Coyle, Elizabeth A.; Kaatz, Glenn W.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Rybak, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Animal models are commonly used to determine the efficacy of various antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial endocarditis. Previously we have utilized an in vitro infection model, which incorporates simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of various antibiotics. In the present study, we compared four experimental rabbit endocarditis protocols to an in vitro infection model in an effort to determine if these models are comparable. We have evaluated the...

  5. In vitro studies evaluating leaching of mercury from mine waste calcine using simulated human body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; Higueras, Pablo L.; Crock, James G.; Lowers, Heather A.; Witten, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) studies were carried out on samples of mercury (Hg) mine-waste calcine (roasted Hg ore) by leaching with simulated human body fluids. The objective was to estimate potential human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne calcine particulates and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing calcines. Mine waste calcines collected from Hg mines at Almadén, Spain, and Terlingua, Texas, contain Hg sulfide, elemental Hg, and soluble Hg compounds, which constitute primary ore or compounds formed during Hg retorting. Elevated leachate Hg concentrations were found during calcine leaching using a simulated gastric fluid (as much as 6200 μg of Hg leached/g sample). Elevated Hg concentrations were also found in calcine leachates using a simulated lung fluid (as much as 9200 μg of Hg leached/g), serum-based fluid (as much as 1600 μg of Hg leached/g), and water of pH 5 (as much as 880 μg of Hg leached/g). The leaching capacity of Hg is controlled by calcine mineralogy; thus, calcines containing soluble Hg compounds contain higher leachate Hg concentrations. Results indicate that ingestion or inhalation of Hg mine-waste calcine may lead to increased Hg concentrations in the human body, especially through the ingestion pathway.

  6. In vitro dissolution of calcium phosphate-mullite composite in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Ashok; Nath, Shekhar; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit

    2010-06-01

    In our recent research, we have developed novel CaP-mullite composites for bone implant applications. In order to realize such applications, the in vitro dissolution behaviour of these materials needs to be evaluated. In this perspective, the present paper reports the dissolution behavior of pure hydroxyapatite (HAp) and hydroxyapatite composites with 20-30 wt% mullite in simulated body fluid (SBF). The in vitro dissolution experiments were carried out for different time duration starting from 7 days up to 28 days. XRD and SEM results show almost no dissolution for pure HAp and HAp composite with 30 wt% mullite. However, HAp-20 wt% mullite composite exhibits considerable dissolution after 7 days. The alpha-TCP phase mainly contributes to the dissolution process. Based on the dynamic changes in pH, ionic conductivity, Ca and P ion concentration in SBF as well as microstructural observations of the bioceramic surfaces after various time frames of immersion in SBF, the differences in dissolution behaviour are discussed.

  7. [Effects of different carbohydrates on the simulation of human intestinal bacterial flora with in vitro culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, B; Yin, Y S; Sun, G; Zhu, L Y; Liu, W; Pi, X E; Fei, D B; Peng, L H; Wang, X; Yang, Y S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the optimal growth condition of human fecal bacterial flora in vitro by comparing the effect of different carbohydrates as cultural media. Three fecal samples (1, 2, 3) were collected and inoculated into a single-stage chemostat system, in which starch medium (VI) and starch polysaccharide medium(XP) were used. Samples were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. Bacterial composition and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) were then analyzed. The single stage chemostat system reached steady after operating 8 days, when evaluated by the PCR-DGGE. Bacterial 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing showed that the intestinal bacteria of these three volunteers was mainly composed of four bacterial phyla, namely, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. When the influence of bacterial abundance was considered, the similarity of bacterial composition between the original fecal samples to the harvested flora after culture was 0.847, 0.825, 0.968 in VI medium and 0.927, 0.926, 0.836 in XP medium, respectively. The similarity was decreased to 0.553, 0.580, 0.623 with VI medium and 0.617, 0.520, 0.574 with XP medium, when the number of bacterial species was considered. The variation of host individual also influenced the simulation. VI medium favored fecal sample 3, while XP medium more benefited sample 1 and 2. Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae_incertae_sedis grew in both VI and XP medium. However, some species were only detected in VI medium and some were specifically found in the XP medium. The SCFA concentration in fermenters was 15-35 mmol/L, mainly propionate and butyrate. The chemostat system works for stimulating human gut bacterial flora in vitro. The bacterial composition is affected by different carbohydrate in the culture medium yet with close simulation higher than 80%.

  8. Assemblies for in vitro measurement of bioadhesive strength and retention characteristics in simulated vaginal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermani, Kavita; Garg, Sanjay; Zaneveld, Lourens J D

    2002-10-01

    The vaginal route of administration offers a promising option for local and systemic delivery of drugs. Conventional vaginal formulations are associated with limitations of poor retention, leakage, and messiness, thereby causing inconvenience to users. To overcome these limitations, formulations that adhere to the vaginal mucosa for a sufficient period of time need to be developed. Bioadhesion and retention are desirable characteristics of a vaginal formulation to achieve desired efficacy. These properties can be built in during formulation development by the use of bioadhesive polymers. In the present study, assemblies for in vitro measurement of bioadhesive strength and retention characteristics of vaginal formulations have been developed. A modified simulated vaginal fluid (SVFM) was used to simulate vaginal conditions for bioadhesion studies. Cellophane hydrated with SVFM and isolated sheep vaginal mucosa were used as model membranes. The bioadhesive potential of various polymers and their combinations was evaluated. Among the polymers evaluated, xanthan gum (XG), sodium alginate (SA), Polycarbophil (PC), and their combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) were found to possess significant bioadhesive strength. In retention experiments, XG, SA, and combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) were retained in isolated sheep vaginal tissue, while PC exhibited poor retention under experimental conditions. Based on the results of the study conducted, XG, SA, and combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) have been proposed as potential candidates for developing bioadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems.

  9. Transformations of Phenolic Compounds in an in vitro Model Simulating the Human Alimentary Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to establish the antioxidant properties of polyphenolic compounds of selected fruits before and after their transformations during digestion. The experiment was conducted in in vitro conditions on a set of dialysis membranes which simulated the human digestive tract. Apples of the Šampion, Malinowka and Golden Delicious cultivars, black chokeberry, banana, Wegierka zwykla blue plum, melon and Lukasowka pear were chosen for examination. It was found that compounds obtained after simulated digestion of chokeberries, pears and bananas showed lower antioxidant potential than fresh fruits, while the opposite results were obtained for apples and plums. All dialysates obtained after digestion were characterized by lower content of total polyphenols in comparison with raw material (fresh fruits. It was found that the polyphenols were hydrolyzed, especially glycosides of quercetin and cyanidin. Phenolic acids and cyanidin were characterized by low availability for absorption, whereas catechin and quercetin had a very high level of accessibility in the model small intestine.

  10. A first step towards a consensus static in vitro model for simulating full-term infant digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, O; Bourlieu, C; De Oliveira, S C; Dellarosa, N; Laghi, L; Carrière, F; Capozzi, F; Dupont, D; Deglaire, A

    2018-02-01

    In vitro alternatives to clinical trials are used for studying human food digestion. For simulating infant digestion, only a few models, lacking physiological relevance, are available. Thanks to an extensive literature review of the in vivo infant digestive conditions, a gastrointestinal static in vitro model was developed for infants born at term and aged 28days. The model was applied to the digestion of a commercial infant formula. Kinetics of digestion, as well as the structural evolution, were compared with those obtained while submitting the same formula to the adult international consensus protocol of in vitro static digestion. The kinetics of proteolysis and lipolysis differed according to the physiological stage resulting mainly from the reduced level of enzymes and bile salts, as well as the higher gastric pH in the infant model. This in vitro static model of infant digestion is of interest for scientists, food or pharmaceutical manufacturers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranawana, Viren; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Nicol, Phyllis; Milne, Lesley; Duthie, Garry; Raikos, Vassilios

    2016-09-08

    The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  12. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranawana, Viren; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Nicol, Phyllis; Milne, Lesley; Duthie, Garry; Raikos, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil. PMID:28231157

  13. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  14. In vitro simulation of pathological bone conditions to predict clinical outcome of bone tissue engineered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duong Thuy Thi

    treatment strategy should focus on simulating, in vitro, a physiological bone environment to predict clinical effectiveness of engineered bone and understand cellular responses due to the proposed agents and bioactive scaffolds. An in vitro test system can be the necessary catalyst to reduce implant failures and non-unions in fragility fractures.

  15. Theory and simulation of explicit solvent effects on protein folding in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jeremy L.

    The aim of this work is to develop theoretical tools for understanding what happens to water that is confined in amphipathic cavities, and for testing the consequences of this understanding for protein folding in vitro and in vivo. We begin in the first chapter with a brief review of the theoretical and simulation literature on the hydrophobic effect and the aqueous solvation of charged species that also puts forward a simple theoretical framework within which various solvation phenomena reported in past studies may be unified. Subsequently, in the second chapter we also review past computational and theoretical work on the specific question of how chaperonin complexes assist the folding of their substrates. With the context set, we turn in Chapter 3 to the case of an open system with water trapped between hydrophobic plates that experiences a uniform electric field normal to and between the plates. Classic bulk theory of electrostriction in polarizable fluids tells us that the electric field should cause an increase in local water density as it rises, yet some simulations have suggested the opposite. We present a mean-field Potts model we have developed to explain this discrepancy, and show how such a simple, coarse-grained lattice description can capture the fundamental consequences of the fact that external electric fields can frustrate the hydrogen bond network in confined water. Chapter 4 continues to pursue the issue of solvent evacuation between hydrophobic plates, but focuses on the impact of chemical denaturants on hydrophobic effects using molecular dynamics simulations of hydrophobic dewetting. We find that while urea and guanidinium have similar qualitative effects at the bulk level, they seem to differ in the microscopic mechanism by which they denature proteins, although both inhibit the onset of dewetting. Lastly, Chapters 5 and 6 examine the potential importance of solvent-mediated forces to protein folding in vivo. Chapter 5 develops a Landau

  16. Toward computer simulation of high-LET in vitro survival curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuskin, A.-C.; Michiels, C.; Lucas, S.

    2013-09-01

    We developed a Monte Carlo based computer program called MCSC (Monte Carlo Survival Curve) able to predict the survival fraction of cells irradiated in vitro with a broad beam of high linear energy transfer particles. Three types of cell responses are studied: the usual high dose response, the bystander effect and the low-dose hypersensitivity (HRS). The program models the broad beam irradiation and double strand break distribution following Poisson statistics. The progression of cells through the cell cycle is taken into account while the repair takes place. Input parameters are experimentally determined for A549 lung carcinoma cells irradiated with 10 and 20 keV µm-1 protons, 115 keV µm-1 alpha particles and for EAhy926 endothelial cells exposed to 115 keV µm-1 alpha particles. Results of simulations are presented and compared with experimental survival curves obtained for A549 and EAhy296 cells. Results are in good agreement with experimental data for both cell lines and all irradiation protocols. The benefits of MCSC are several: the gain of time that would have been spent performing time-consuming clonogenic assays, the capacity to estimate survival fraction of cell lines not forming colonies and possibly the evaluation of radiosensitivity parameters of given individuals.

  17. Tracking the fate of pasta (T. Durum semolina) immunogenic proteins by in vitro simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mackie, Alan

    2015-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize the celiacogenic/immunogenic proteins and peptides released during digestion of pasta (Triticum durum semolina). Cooked pasta was digested using a harmonized in vitro static model of oral-gastro-duodenal digestion. The course of pasta protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE, and gluten proteins were specifically analyzed by Western blot using sera of celiac patients. Among the allergens, nonspecific lipid-transfer protein was highly resistant to gastro-duodenal hydrolysis, while other digestion-stable allergens such as α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors were not detected being totally released in the pasta cooking water. To simulate the final stage of intestinal degradation, the gastro-duodenal digesta were incubated with porcine jejunal brush-border membrane hydrolases. Sixty-one peptides surviving the brush-border membrane peptidases were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, including several gluten-derived sequences encrypting different motifs responsible for the induction of celiac disease. These results provide new insights into the persistence of wheat-derived peptides during digestion of cooked pasta samples.

  18. Experimental Validation of a Cardiac Simulator for in vitro Evaluation of Prosthetic Heart Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovandir Bazan

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This work describes the experimental validation of a cardiac simulator for three heart rates (60, 80 and 100 beats per minute, under physiological conditions, as a suitable environment for prosthetic heart valves testing in the mitral or aortic position. Methods: In the experiment, an aortic bileaflet mechanical valve and a mitral bioprosthesis were employed in the left ventricular model. A test fluid of 47.6% by volume of glycerin solution in water at 36.5ºC was used as blood analogue fluid. A supervisory control and data acquisition system implemented previously in LabVIEW was applied to induce the ventricular operation and to acquire the ventricular signals. The parameters of the left ventricular model operation were based on in vivo and in vitro data. The waves of ventricular and systemic pressures, aortic flow, stroke volume, among others, were acquired while manual adjustments in the arterial impedance model were also established. Results: The acquired waves showed good results concerning some in vivo data and requirements from the ISO 5840 standard. Conclusion: The experimental validation was performed, allowing, in future studies, characterizing the hydrodynamic performance of prosthetic heart valves.

  19. Studying furosemide solubilization using an in vitro model simulating gastrointestinal digestion and drug solubilization in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Mette; Sassene, Philip Jonas; Selen, Arzu

    2017-01-01

    -2months). METHODS: The utilized in vitro model was designed to mimic the digestion and drug solubilization processes occurring in the stomach, and the small intestine of the neonate and young infant population, using physiologically relevant media, volumes and digestive enzymes. Overall the experimental...... in the model setup, e.g. presence of food (food-effect), effect of digestion (tested with and without addition of digestive enzymes), and properties of the dosage form, it was possible to estimate the importance of these factors in vivo. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: The present in vitro data suggest......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to study the oral performance of furosemide in neonates and young infants using a newly developed in vitro model simulating digestion and drug solubilization in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the human neonate and young infant population (age 0...

  20. Exponential distance distribution of connected neurons in simulations of two-dimensional in vitro neural network development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhi-Song; Zhu, Chen-Ping; Nie, Pei; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Hui-Jie; Wang, Yan-Jun; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2017-06-01

    The distribution of the geometric distances of connected neurons is a practical factor underlying neural networks in the brain. It can affect the brain's dynamic properties at the ground level. Karbowski derived a power-law decay distribution that has not yet been verified by experiment. In this work, we check its validity using simulations with a phenomenological model. Based on the in vitro two-dimensional development of neural networks in culture vessels by Ito, we match the synapse number saturation time to obtain suitable parameters for the development process, then determine the distribution of distances between connected neurons under such conditions. Our simulations obtain a clear exponential distribution instead of a power-law one, which indicates that Karbowski's conclusion is invalid, at least for the case of in vitro neural network development in two-dimensional culture vessels.

  1. Comparison of a rabbit model of bacterial endocarditis and an in vitro infection model with simulated endocardial vegetations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, E; Coyle, E A; Kaatz, G W; Zervos, M J; Rybak, M J

    2000-07-01

    Animal models are commonly used to determine the efficacy of various antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial endocarditis. Previously we have utilized an in vitro infection model, which incorporates simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of various antibiotics. In the present study, we compared four experimental rabbit endocarditis protocols to an in vitro infection model in an effort to determine if these models are comparable. We have evaluated the activity of clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin, sparfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin in rabbit models against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. In vitro models were performed simulating the antibiotic pharmacokinetics obtained in the in vivo studies. Models were dosed the same as rabbit models, and SEVs were evaluated at the same time the rabbit vegetations were examined. Clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin were evaluated against methicillin-susceptible (MSSA1199) and -resistant (MRSA494) strains of S. aureus. Ciprofloxacin was studied against MSSA1199 and MSSA487. Sparfloxacin and clinafloxacin were evaluated against Enterococcus faecium SF2149 and Enterococcus faecalis WH245, respectively. We found that reductions in SEV bacterial density obtained in the in vitro model were similar to those obtained in rabbit vegetations, indicating that the SEV model may be a valuable tool for assessing antibiotic potential in the treatment of bacterial endocarditis.

  2. Oral factors affecting titanium elution and corrosion: an in vitro study using simulated body fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Suito

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Ti, which is biocompatible and resistant to corrosion, is widely used for dental implants, particularly in patients allergic to other materials. However, numerous studies have reported on Ti allergy and the in vitro corrosion of Ti. This study investigated the conditions that promote the elution of Ti ions from Ti implants. METHODS: Specimens of commercially pure Ti, pure nickel, a magnetic alloy, and a gold alloy were tested. Each specimen was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF whose pH value was controlled (2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.4, and 9.0 using either hydrochloric or lactic acid. The parameters investigated were the following: duration of immersion, pH of the SBF, contact with a dissimilar metal, and mechanical stimulus. The amounts of Ti ions eluted were measured using a polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Eluted Ti ions were detected after 24 h (pH of 2.0 and 3.0 and after 48 h (pH of 9.0. However, even after 4 weeks, eluted Ti ions were not detected in SBF solutions with pH values of 5.0 and 7.4. Ti elution was affected by immersion time, pH, acid type, mechanical stimulus, and contact with a dissimilar metal. Elution of Ti ions in a Candida albicans culture medium was observed after 72 h. SIGNIFICANCE: Elution of Ti ions in the SBF was influenced by its pH and by crevice corrosion. The results of this study elucidate the conditions that lead to the elution of Ti ions in humans, which results in implant corrosion and Ti allergy.

  3. Oral factors affecting titanium elution and corrosion: an in vitro study using simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suito, Hideki; Iwawaki, Yuki; Goto, Takaharu; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Ti, which is biocompatible and resistant to corrosion, is widely used for dental implants, particularly in patients allergic to other materials. However, numerous studies have reported on Ti allergy and the in vitro corrosion of Ti. This study investigated the conditions that promote the elution of Ti ions from Ti implants. Specimens of commercially pure Ti, pure nickel, a magnetic alloy, and a gold alloy were tested. Each specimen was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) whose pH value was controlled (2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.4, and 9.0) using either hydrochloric or lactic acid. The parameters investigated were the following: duration of immersion, pH of the SBF, contact with a dissimilar metal, and mechanical stimulus. The amounts of Ti ions eluted were measured using a polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Eluted Ti ions were detected after 24 h (pH of 2.0 and 3.0) and after 48 h (pH of 9.0). However, even after 4 weeks, eluted Ti ions were not detected in SBF solutions with pH values of 5.0 and 7.4. Ti elution was affected by immersion time, pH, acid type, mechanical stimulus, and contact with a dissimilar metal. Elution of Ti ions in a Candida albicans culture medium was observed after 72 h. Elution of Ti ions in the SBF was influenced by its pH and by crevice corrosion. The results of this study elucidate the conditions that lead to the elution of Ti ions in humans, which results in implant corrosion and Ti allergy.

  4. Pulse-wave propagation in straight-geometry vessels for stiffness estimation: theory, simulations, phantoms and in vitro findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Li, Ronny X; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2012-11-01

    Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method for noninvasive characterization of arterial stiffness based on pulse wave propagation. Reliable numerical models of pulse wave propagation in normal and pathological aortas could serve as powerful tools for local pulse wave analysis and a guideline for PWI measurements in vivo. The objectives of this paper are to (1) apply a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation of a straight-geometry aorta to confirm the Moens-Korteweg relationship between the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the wall modulus, and (2) validate the simulation findings against phantom and in vitro results. PWI depicted and tracked the pulse wave propagation along the abdominal wall of canine aorta in vitro in sequential Radio-Frequency (RF) ultrasound frames and estimates the PWV in the imaged wall. The same system was also used to image multiple polyacrylamide phantoms, mimicking the canine measurements as well as modeling softer and stiffer walls. Finally, the model parameters from the canine and phantom studies were used to perform 3D two-way coupled FSI simulations of pulse wave propagation and estimate the PWV. The simulation results were found to correlate well with the corresponding Moens-Korteweg equation. A high linear correlation was also established between PWV² and E measurements using the combined simulation and experimental findings (R² =  0.98) confirming the relationship established by the aforementioned equation.

  5. Antioxidative Effects of Phenolic Compounds of Mushroom Mycelia in Simulated Regions of the Human Colon, In Vitro Study

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    Vamanu Emanuel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds in mushrooms are biologically active; however, the in vivo actions of their metabolites are poorly understood. An in vitro system, GIS1, was used to simulate the fermentation action of microbiota in each colon region. We used MycoPo, a natural product obtained from the lyophilized mycelia of different Pleurotus ostreatus species to determine the biological effects in human-colon regions. Controls (Lentinula edodes mycelia; dried basidia of Agaricus brunnescens were chosen to confirm the biological activity of P. ostreatus mycelia in vitro. We measured total antioxidant capacity and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP in simulated colon regions to identify antioxidant compounds, and undertook in vitro gastrointestinal simulation and microbiological analyses. The highest FRAP was found for the ascending colon, and the antioxidant effect was higher when MycoPo was administered. A. brunnescens consumption resulted in low total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol content was correlated with the antioxidant status and microbial composition of microbiota. Total polyphenolic content was higher after A. brunnescens consumption, and four types of polyphenols were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Major phenolic acids were gentisic acid, homogentisic acid, and small amounts of caffeic acid. The Enterobacteriaceae species populations varied greatly across the three parts of the colon. We noted a significant (p0.85. These data suggest a direct relationship between favorable bacterial strains and availability of bioactive compounds, with specificity for each colon region.

  6. Alumina-alumina artificial hip joints. Part II: characterisation of the wear debris from in vitro hip joint simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipper, J L; Hatton, A; Nevelos, J E; Ingham, E; Doyle, C; Streicher, R; Nevelos, A B; Fisher, J

    2002-08-01

    Until recently it was not possible to reproduce clinically relevant wear rates and wear patterns in in vitro hip joint simulators for alumina ceramic-on-ceramic hip prostheses. The introduction of microseparation of the prosthesis components into in vitro wear simulations produced clinically relevant wear rates and wear patterns for the first time. The aim of this study was to characterise the wear particles generated from standard simulator testing and microseparation simulator testing of hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) and non-HIPed alumina ceramic-on-ceramic hip prostheses, and compare these particles to those generated in vivo. Standard simulation conditions produced wear rates of approximately 0.1 mm3 per million cycles for both material types. No change in surface roughness was detected and very few wear features were observed. In contrast, when microseparation was introduced into the wear simulation, wear rates of between 1.24 (HIPed) and 1.74 mm3 per million cycles (non-HIPed) were produced. Surface roughness increased and a wear stripe often observed clinically on retrieved femoral heads was also reproduced. Under standard simulation conditions only nanometre-sized wear particles (2-27.5 nm) were observed by TEM, and it was thought likely that these particles resulted from relief polishing of the alumina ceramic. However, when microseparation of the prosthesis components was introduced into the simulation, a bi-modal distribution of particle sizes was observed. The nanometre-sized particles produced by relief polishing were present (1-35nm). however, larger micrometre-sized particles were also observed by both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (0.021 microm) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (0.05-->10 microm). These larger particles were thought to originate from the wear stripe and were produced by trans-granular fracture of the alumina ceramic. In Part I of this study, alumina ceramic wear particles were isolated from the periprosthetic

  7. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

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    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of anthelmintic resistance (AR seems to exist in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks. This risk seems particularly high in coastal areas where high treatment frequencies in lambs were recorded.

  8. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasitic infections in Sheep of Kashmir valley of India

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    Showkat Ahmad Bhat

    Full Text Available Background: Geologically the J&K state (2, 22, 800 sq. kms is both complex and varied. Climatic conditions of the state ranges from sub-tropical (Jammu, temperate (Kashmir to cold artic (Ladakh zones and belongs to the great Himalayan mountain range, which exerts significant influence on its agro-climatic conditions. Gastrointestinal parasitism is a major problem in sheep production worldwide, these parasites cause diarrhea, anaemia, reduced weight gain and increased production costs. Materials and Methods: Five hundred fecal samples of sheep (Ovis aries were taken from two farms. All fecal samples were examined to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. Direct microscopic examination, Centrifugation floatation and Sedimentation techniques were used to examine fecal samples. Results: Overall prevalence rate was 62.9%. most commonly encountered parasites were Strongyle spp., Strongyloides spp., Eimeria spp., Nematodirus spp., and Monezia spp. was 24.61, 15.5, 9.8, 9.0 and 3.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence of G.I parasites was recorded during monsoon season (March - May followed by summer season (June – August whereas the lowest prevalence was recorded during winter season. Analysis of the data on the basis of sex revealed a significant difference (P<0.05 in the overall incidence of gastrointestinal parasites between male (75.6% and female (44.8% sheep. The maximum infection was observed in younger age groups compared to adults (P<0.05. The prevalence of different species of endoparasites also varied in sheep of different body weight groups (P<0.05. The highest infection was observed in Kashmir Marino breed than corriedale breed. Conclusion: The data obtained in this study suggest that the age, sex, body weight and breed are important factors which influence the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 667-671

  9. POTENTIALLY GRAVE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT PROBLEMS IN PREGNANCY - A CHALLENGE TO THE OBSTETRICIAN!

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    Chaitra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Acute surgical pathology may be overlooked in pregnancy. Despite advances in medical technology, preoperative diagnosis of potentially grave pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT is often delayed due to overlap with symptoms of pregnancy non-specific elevation of some laboratory parameters due to pregnancy and a dilemma for obstetricians and surgeons in ordering radiological imaging modalities given the risk associated with fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and contrast. AIMS The aim of this study is to analyse the cases of gastrointestinal tract problems encountered in pregnancy so that increasing awareness can be created among obstetricians. This is important because early diagnosis and timely intervention can significantly improve maternal and fetal outcome in these cases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN There is a retrospective case study of potentially grave GIT problems encountered at Vanivilas hospital, Bangalore, a tertiary referral institute wherein the clinical presentation was confounded by pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the included cases were analysed for age of the patient, pre-existing gastrointestinal tract disorders, gestational age at diagnosis, maternal and fetal outcome. RESULTS A total of 8 cases of GIT problems in pregnancy were studied. Though acute appendicitis is the most common cause of GIT emergency in pregnancy as quoted in literature 5, we did not encounter any case of acute appendicitis in pregnancy in the study period. Other conditions which were encountered were small bowel obstruction, stomach and bowel perforation and bleeding oesophageal varices. Whilst few of the conditions could be managed conservatively without harm to the pregnancy, others required a laparotomy and reparative procedures. Delay in diagnosis and intervention proved to be fatal in some of these women. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about potentially grave gastrointestinal tract problems during pregnancy, high index of clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis (including radiological investigations and timely intervention including laparotomy, when indicated will help to reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality.

  10. Giant Congenital Hydronephrosis Obstructing the Gastro Intestinal System and the Contralateral Kidney in a New Born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Masarwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 5 day old baby, with known left hydronephrosis which discovered by prenatal US presented with gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Laboratory work up demonstrated abnormal renal function and metabolic acidosis combined with hyperkalemia. Radiology tests showed bilateral hydronephrosis with huge left renal pelvis crossing the midline and causing deviation of the gut laterally. This acute presentation beside inability to receive oral feeding made us prefer immediate left renal drainage with pyelostomy in order to restore renal function, relieve the pressure effect of the huge renal pelvis and stabilize the baby. Dismembered pyeloplasty was done at age of 3 months.

  11. Chronic inflammation, apoptosis and (pre-)malignant lesions in the gastro-intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, CJ; Kleibeuker, JH; Jansen, PLM; Moshage, H

    Inflammatory conditions are characterized by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), resulting in the expression of NF-kappaB-regulated, inflammation-related genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). Expression of these

  12. Estimation of genetic parameters for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in pure blood Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MACRO AND MICROELEMENTS IN THE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT OF RESIDENTS OF ASTRAKHAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zaitsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. During the life, the organism continuously consumes nutrients that build tissue and produce energy. The source of nutrients is proteins, fats, carbohydrates along with minerals. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of certain elements in the tissue of the stomach, small and large intestine of residents of the Astrakhan region. Materials and methods. We have taken fragments of stomach tissue as material for the study (n = 25, small (n = 25, and large (n = 25, the material has been obtained by sectional study from deaths from acci-dents of healthy individuals aged from 40 to 68 years (average age - 54 ± 0.63 years. The study of features of a cumulative distribution of elements (EM was performed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry using atomic ab-sorption spectrometer MGA-915. The analysis results are given in mg/kg of dry matter, and were subjected to statis tic processing (Student's t-test, using software Statistica (StatSoft, USA. Identified values were considered signifi-cant at p <0.05. Results. The study revealed that with morphologically similar structures of the tissues of the sto-mach, small and large intestines, similar fluctuations of elements’ accumulation were detected. While gastric tissue accumulates elements more intensively than small and large intestine. Study revealed differences in accumulation of elements depending on gender. For men the average concentration of elements in gastrointestinal tissues was slightly higher (1.3 fold than for women. Conclusions. One possible factor that contributed to the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract is the increase of the accumulation of trace elements in the gastrointestinal system. Above all, this applies to toxic trace elements in increased amounts found in the tissues of the stomach and intestines, such as cobalt, lead and cadmium, which is an indication of significant environmental pollution. 

  14. Enterococcal colonization of the gastro-intestinal tract: role of biofilm and environmental oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabretti Francesca

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilm formation in E. faecalis is presumed to play an important role in a number of enterococcal infections. We have previously identified a genetic locus provisionally named bop that is involved in maltose metabolism and biofilm formation. A transposon insertion into the second gene of the locus (bopB resulted in loss of biofilm formation, while the non-polar deletion of this gene, together with parts of the flanking genes (bopA and bopC resulted in increased biofilm formation. A polar effect of the transposon insertion on a transcriptional regulator (bopD was responsible for the reduced biofilm formation of the transposon mutant. Results The amount of biofilm formed is related to the presence of maltose or glucose in the growth medium. While the wild-type strain was able to produce biofilm in medium containing either glucose or maltose, two mutants of this locus showed opposite effects. When grown in medium containing 1% glucose, the transposon mutant showed reduced biofilm formation (9%, while the deletion mutant produced more biofilm (110% than the wild-type. When grown in medium containing 1% maltose, the transposon mutant was able to produce more biofilm than the wild-type strain (111%, while the deletion mutant did not produce biofilm (4%. Biofilm formation was not affected by the presence of several other sugar sources. In a gastrointestinal colonization model, the biofilm-negative mutant was delayed in colonization of the mouse intestinal tract. Conclusion The biofilm-positive phenotype of the wild-type strain seems to be associated with colonization of enterococci in the gut and the presence of oligosaccharides in food may influence biofilm formation and therefore colonization of enterococci in the gastrointestinal system.

  15. Enterococcal colonization of the gastro-intestinal tract: role of biofilm and environmental oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creti, Roberta; Koch, Stefanie; Fabretti, Francesca; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Huebner, Johannes

    2006-07-11

    Biofilm formation in E. faecalis is presumed to play an important role in a number of enterococcal infections. We have previously identified a genetic locus provisionally named bop that is involved in maltose metabolism and biofilm formation. A transposon insertion into the second gene of the locus (bopB) resulted in loss of biofilm formation, while the non-polar deletion of this gene, together with parts of the flanking genes (bopA and bopC) resulted in increased biofilm formation. A polar effect of the transposon insertion on a transcriptional regulator (bopD) was responsible for the reduced biofilm formation of the transposon mutant. The amount of biofilm formed is related to the presence of maltose or glucose in the growth medium. While the wild-type strain was able to produce biofilm in medium containing either glucose or maltose, two mutants of this locus showed opposite effects. When grown in medium containing 1% glucose, the transposon mutant showed reduced biofilm formation (9%), while the deletion mutant produced more biofilm (110%) than the wild-type. When grown in medium containing 1% maltose, the transposon mutant was able to produce more biofilm than the wild-type strain (111%), while the deletion mutant did not produce biofilm (4%). Biofilm formation was not affected by the presence of several other sugar sources. In a gastrointestinal colonization model, the biofilm-negative mutant was delayed in colonization of the mouse intestinal tract. The biofilm-positive phenotype of the wild-type strain seems to be associated with colonization of enterococci in the gut and the presence of oligosaccharides in food may influence biofilm formation and therefore colonization of enterococci in the gastrointestinal system.

  16. Functional changes with feeding in the gastro-intestinal epithelia of the Burmese python (Python molurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstetter, Cécile; Reix, Nathalie; T'Flachebba, Mathieu; Pope, Robert K; Secor, Stephen M; Le Maho, Yvon; Lignot, Jean-Hervé

    2009-09-01

    The morphology of the digestive system in fasting and refed Burmese pythons was determined, as well as the localization of the proton (H(+), K(+)-ATPase) and sodium (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) pumps. In fasting pythons, oxyntopeptic cells located within the fundic glands are typically non-active, with a thick apical tubulovesicular system and numerous zymogen granules. They become active Immediately after feeding but return to a non-active state 3 days after the Ingestion of the prey. The proton pump, expressed throughout the different fasting/feeding states, is either sequestered in the tubulovesicular system in non-active cells or located along the apical digitations extending within the crypt lumen in active cells. The sodium pump is rapidly upregulated in fed animals and is classically located along the baso-lateral membranes of the gastric oxyntopeptic cells. In the Intestine, it is only expressed along the lateral membranes of the enterocytes, i.e., above the lateral spaces and not along the basal side of the cells. Thus, solute transport within the Intestinal lining is mainly achieved through the apical part of the cells and across the lateral spaces while absorbed fat massively crosses the entire height of the cells and flows into the Intercellular spaces. Therefore, in the Burmese python, the gastrointestinal cellular system quickly upregulates after feeding, due to Inexpensive cellular changes, passive mechanisms, and the progressive activation and synthesis of key enzymes such as the sodium pump. This cell plasticity also allows anticipation of the next fasting and feeding periods.

  17. Intraabdominal anastomotic leak after upper gastro-intestinal surgery: Definition, diagnosis, management and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Ramos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Cirugía. Fecha de lectura: 25-09-2015 The augmenting number of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) procedures, specially due to bariatric surgery, entails an expected increase in the absolute number of surgical complications. Among the most devastating complications is that of a postsurgical leak, increasing morbidity and mortality thus affecting long-term survival rate and treatment’s cost. C...

  18. Evaluation of new gastro-intestinal prokinetic (ENGIP-II) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwaikar, Pradeep P; Kulkarni, Sujay S; Bargaje, Rahul S

    2005-12-01

    Non-ulcer dyspepsia is a common clinical disorder characterised by reduced gastric motility. Safety concerns have restricted use of currently available prokinetic drugs. Itopride is a new safer prokinetic drug with dopamine D2 antagonism and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions. The ENGIP-II study was conducted to investigate the efficacy, and safety of itopride in patients of non-ulcer dyspepsia. There were significant reductions in upper abdominal pain, heartburn frequency, gastro-oesophageal regurgitation, nausea, bloating, early satiety after meals at day 3 only; whereas significant improvements were noted in belching, anorexia at day 6 and in vomiting at day 9. Thus, ENGIP-II study shows that itopride was well tolerated patients and appears to be the drug of choice in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.

  19. Evaluation of new gastro-intestinal prokinetic (ENGIP-I) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwaikar, Pradeep P; Kulkarni, Sujay S; Bargaje, Rahul S

    2005-10-01

    The ENGIP-I study was conducted to investigate the efficacy, and safety of itopride in patients of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. There were significant reductions in heartburn frequency, heartburn severity, gastro-oesophageal regurgitation frequency at day 3 only. ENGIP-I study concluded that itopride was well tolerated by patients and appears to be the drug of choice in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

  20. Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes in Goats in Hyderabad and Adjoining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Akhter*, A. G. Arijo, M. S. Phulan, Zafar Iqbal1 and K. B. Mirbahar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats (n=1065 in and around Hyderabad using qualitative and quantitative coprological examinations. Results revealed that 43.10% (459 goats were infected with different species of nematodes including Haemonchus contortus (14.65%, Trichuris ovis (8.17%, Trichostrongylus axei (7.61%, Trichostrongylus colubriformis (6.76%, Oesphagostomum columbianum (5.35%, Ostertagia circumcincta (5.35%, Chabertia ovina (4.79% and Strongyloides papillosus (4.51%. Infections with mixed species of nematodes were recorded in 6.54% (n=30/459; T. ovis + H. contortus, 5.23% (n=24/459; C. ovina + H. contortus, 5.88% (n=27/459; S. papillosus + C. ovina, and 12.42% (n=57/459; O. circumcincta + T. ovis goats. Of the total infected (n=459; 51.4, 38.3 and 10.2% goats had light, moderate and heavy infections, respectively. The prevalence, nature and intensity of the helminthiasis in goats warrant an immediate attention to devise strategies for its control to reduce the production losses.

  1. Frequency and risk factors of functional gastro-intestinal disorders in a rural Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Singh, Rajan

    2017-02-01

    As best estimates on functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) prevalence are expected from community studies, which are scanty from Asia, we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of FGIDs in a rural Indian community. House-to-house survey was undertaken by trained interviewers using translated-validated Rome III and hospital anxiety and depression questionnaires. Among 3426 subjects ≥ 18 years old from 3 villages in Uttar Pradesh, 84% participated, of whom 80% were finally analyzed. Of these 2774 subjects (age 38.4 ± 16.5 years, 1573 [56.7%] male), 2654 [95.7%] were vegetarian and 120 [4.3%] non-vegetarian. Socioeconomic classes were upper (16.7%), upper middle (15.1%), lower middle (22%), upper lower (22.2%), and lower (24%) using Prasad's Classification; 603 (21.7%) had FGIDs (413 [14.9%] dyspepsia, 75 [2.7%] irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 115 [4.1%] dyspepsia-IBS overlap), by Rome III criteria. In subjects with dyspepsia, 49/528 (9%) had epigastric pain, 141 (27%) postprandial distress syndromes (EPS, PDS) and 338 (64%) EPS-PDS overlap. IBS was more often diarrhea than constipation-predominant subtype. On univariate analysis, chewing tobacco, aerated drink, tea/coffee, disturbed sleep, vegetarianism, and anxiety parameters and presence of dyspepsia predicting occurrence of IBS were associated with FGIDs. On multivariate analysis, chewing tobacco, aerated soft drink, tea/coffee, vegetarianism, anxiety parameters, and presence of dyspepsia predicting IBS were significant. Functional gastrointestinal disorders, particularly dyspepsia-IBS overlap, are common in rural Indian population; the risk factors included chewing tobacco, aerated soft drink, tea/coffee, vegetarian diet, disturbed sleep, anxiety, and dyspepsia predicting occurrence of IBS. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred...... of change in the surgical procedures (2), surgical morbidity (6), medical factors (4) and psychosocial or other factors (5) all independent of pain. Pain data were incomplete in two patients and therefore excluded. In the remaining 91 patients, median time to defaecation and LOS were 24 and 48 h......, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3-6) versus low (0-2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery...

  3. The effect of intra-abdominal hypertension on gastro-intestinal function

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the impact of raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on GI function and success of enteral nutrition support in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) population at risk of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Methods. In a prospective observational study, critically ill patients in whom the IAP was monitored ...

  4. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastro-intestinal Parasites of Pigs in some parts of Wukari, Taraba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites infection of pigs (Sus scrofa) in some parts of Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. Faecal samples were collected from 305 pigs comprising 140 males and 165 females from five locations within Wukari. The samples were examined for helminthe ...

  6. Gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of fish species in Qua Iboe River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A parasitological investigation on the gastrointestinal helminth parasites of fishes in Qua Iboe River, Akwa Ibom State Nigeria was conducted from January to August 2009. A total of two hundred and twenty one fish specimens belonging to 26 species and 15 families were examined. Nine (9) out of the twenty-six (26) ...

  7. Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Pigs in Jos, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing concern for pig parasites as a bottleneck for low productivity and reduction in the market value of pork meat. The economic losses resulting from gastrointestinal parasites of pigs are quite enormous. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of pigs in Jos Plateau ...

  8. Drinking Water Quality and the Geospatial Distribution of Notified Gastro-Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilc, Eva; Gale, Ivanka; Veršič, Aleš; Žagar, Tina; Sočan, Maja

    2015-09-01

    Even brief episodes of fecal contamination of drinking water can lead directly to illness in the consumers. In water-borne outbreaks, the connection between poor microbial water quality and disease can be quickly identified. The impact of non-compliant drinking water samples due to E. coli taken for regular monitoring on the incidence of notified acute gastrointestinal infections has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to analyse the geographical distribution of notified acute gastrointestinal infections (AGI) in Slovenia in 2010, with hotspot identification. The second aim of the study was to correlate the fecal contamination of water supply system on the settlement level with the distribution of notified AGI cases. Spatial analysis using geo-information technology and other methods were used. Hot spots with the highest proportion of notified AGI cases were mainly identified in areas with small supply zones. The risk for getting AGI was drinking water contaminated with E. coli from supply zones with 50-1000 users: RR was 1.25 and significantly greater than one (p-value less than 0.001). This study showed the correlation between the frequency of notified AGI cases and non-compliant results in drinking water monitoring.

  9. The role of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 in the gastro-intestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Różańska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a review of the researches on the role of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN in gastrointestinal diseases was presented. EcN is a non-pathogenic strain of the Enterobacteriaceae family, which has probiotic properties. In a number of studies conducted among humans and experimental animals the application of EcN in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases was observed. Most studies about EcN has been devoted to this organism efficacy in ulcerative colitis treatment. Comparable results were obtained, by citied authors, in the treatment (sustaining remission of EcN and mesalazine in ulcerative colitis. Moreover, this probiotic therapy, compared to placebo, contributes to obtaining a faster remission and improvement of intestinal histopathology. The use of EcN in Crohn’s disease has not been the subject of as many studies as in the case of ulcerative colitis. Assessing the importance of EcN in treatment of other gastrointestinal disorders, authors of the studies observed, that in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, who receiving this probiotic there was a pain, nausea and bloating reduction. In studies conducted among children a positive impact of EcN in prevention and treatment of diarrhea was demonstrated. Similar results were obtained in studies conducted in experimental animals. Based on the presented review it can be concluded that the strain of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 is useful in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, especially in treatment of ulcerative colitis. This probiotic may constitute a part of treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhea. The effectiveness of this strain in treatment of Crohn’s disease is not clearly established and further research are require.

  10. The prevalence of gastro-intestinal tract parasites in the inhabitants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis Teania saginata and Enterobius vermicularis. Overall prevalence rates of 84.6% in pupils and 99.0% in adults were recorded; A, lumbricoides formed the bulk of the infections and E. vermicularis the least. Multiple infections of two-three parasite combinations were encouyragee, ...

  11. Flexible Gastro-intestinal Endoscopy — Clinical Challenges and Technical Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehls Kurniawan

    2017-01-01

    Various exchangeable accessories are available for resection, dissection, tunneling, hemostasis, treatment of stenosis and closure of defects, including dedicated suturing devices. Multiple arm flexible devices controlled via robotic platforms for complex intraluminal and transmural endoscopic procedures require further improvement.

  12. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach leading to gastric diverticulum and upper gastro-intestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Stoian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach is a rare condition. Gastric diverticulum is also a rare condition, mostly located at the fornix. Therefore, the existence of a pyloric gastric diverticulum containing a submucosal tumor proved to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach is an extremely rare condition. The patient was a young thin male with epigastralgia chronically treated for gastritis/ulcer. Following an episode of melena, he underwent gastroscopy that diagnosed antral gastric diverticulum containing a polyp. The lesion was surgically removed. The pathology report stated: heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach with secondary development of a traction diverticulum. Heterotopic pancreas tissue of the stomach is a rare condition but the association with gastric diverticulum is completely unusual. The possibility of the ectopic tissue leading to secondary diverticulum development should be considered.

  13. Gastro-intestinal nematodes and cestodes of cattle in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem A.M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the parasites of abomasa, small, and large intestines of 94 bovines conveyed to the main slaughterhouse of Ouagadougou from the central and northern part of Burkina Faso allowed the identification of nine different worm species: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Moniezia expensa, Avitellina sp., Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichuris sp. By far, Cooperia sp. was the most prevalent (89.4/, followed by H. contortus (66/, and O. radiatum (42.6/. The other worm species were much less prevalent. While only one cattle was free of parasites, it was noticed that polyparasitism was very common. There was a wide range of worm burden (0 to 42290 with however in most animals high worm numbers specially of Cooperia sp. This study confirmed that the rainy season constitutes a period of worm explosion. During the hot and dry season, H. contortus seemed primarily able to undergo arrested development in the L4 stage and secondarily to remain in the adult stage. Statistical analyses of levels of infestation did not show any significant difference according to age, sex, and weight of cattle.

  14. Gastro-intestinal nematodes and cestodes of cattle in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Belem A.M.G.; Ouedraogo O.P.; Bessin R.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of the parasites of abomasa, small, and large intestines of 94 bovines conveyed to the main slaughterhouse of Ouagadougou from the central and northern part of Burkina Faso allowed the identification of nine different worm species: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Moniezia expensa, Avitellina sp., Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichuris sp. By far, Cooperia sp. was the most prevalent (89.4/), followed...

  15. Gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in three districts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These genera include Bunostomum, Chabertia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus. Among these Trichostrongylus, Bunostomum, Haemonchus and Cooperia were the dominant genera in all the three districts. This study indicated that gastrointestinal parasites were among the ...

  16. Bacillus cereus: characteristics, behaviour in the gastro-intestinal tract, and interaction with Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; van Leusden FM; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Door het eten van voedsel dat besmet is met de bacterie Bacillus cereus kan diarree ontstaan. Onderzoek naar de bacterie zelf en het ziekmakend proces hebben geleid tot meer kennis over het optreden van de ziekte. Allereerst zijn stammen van de bacterie op grond van specifieke karakteristieken

  17. Bacillus cereus: characteristics, behaviour in the gastro-intestinal tract, and interaction with Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of food contaminated with the bacterium Bacillus cereus may lead to diarrhoea. Investigation of characteristics of the bacterium and the pathogenesis increased knowledge regarding the onset of disease. Strains of Bacillus cereus were categorised according to

  18. Does the reporting of gastro-intestinal endoscopy meet the minimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Minimal Standard Terminology (MST) was developed to standardise endoscopic reporting. This study is aimed at assessing current reporting at a tertiary hospital and whether it meets this Minimal Standard Terminology. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of upper endoscopy reports ...

  19. [Recent findings on the genetics of gastro-intestinal nematode resistance in ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, A; Scala, A

    2004-06-01

    The control of helminthiases in ruminants raised in open pasture has been mainly undertaken by using prophylactic measures in the environment, but these are often inadequate due to incorrect application. With the appearance of anthelmintics, the strategy for controlling these parasitoses, passed to pharmacological treatments which became effective in reducing their impact. However, the frequent and incorrect utilisation of these molecules resulted in resistance to anthelmintics and the presence of chemical residues in animal products for human consumption. Anthelmintic resistance is widespread throughout the world, heterogeneous and probably underestimated. This has encouraged the introduction of homeopathic agents and products derived from plants whose effectiveness has not been scientifically assessed. It is well known that it is possible to detect differences in resistance to the most important parasites between breeds. In Europe, it has been reported that some ovine autochthonous breeds, Scottish Blackface and Lacaune, showed higher resistance. The implementation of breeding strategies aimed at obtaining animals with naturally low susceptibility to nematode infestations could therefore play an increasingly important role. Standard animal breeding techniques have been largely successful in improving the performance of domestic animals in the last century. Standard quantitative selection requires field data on: i) individual phenotype performance; ii) expected covariance among animals due to blood relationship between them. The whole process of predicting the breeding value of animals in order to select subsequently the genetically superior parents of the next generation is entirely based on sophisticated computations (BLUP-animal model). In sheep, the main objective is always selecting for milk yield and sometimes, in addition, milk composition. However, due to the evolution of the EU agricultural policy and consumer demand in terms of healthy and organic food, more attention is now being given to traits related to health (resistance to EST, mastitis or parasitic diseases). Some studies conducted in New Zealand and Australia showed that nematode resistance is genetically controlled with high heritabilities and quite low genetic correlations with production traits. In this sense, some studies showed that it is possible to decrease the number of parasites in the framework of a traditional breeding programme. However, in most situations, this trait is not extensively recorded due to the high cost of individual recording. Therefore, it would be useful to implement breeding strategies based on the knowledge of the genes involved in this trait expression. Traditionally, two approaches are available to locate a gene: i) genome scan; ii) candidate gene approach. The candidate gene approach attempts to link general resistance to some particular genes. To date, genetic resistance against parasites is considered to be linked with the MHC and IgE genes. Furthermore, several gene detection studies based on the genome scan approach for this trait are currently being carried out on both crossed experimental populations (fat x lean Blackface lines and Sarda x Lacaune) and pure breeds (Churra). The preliminary results seem promising as to the use of marker assisted or genotype assisted selection for this trait, which is difficult and expensive to measure on a population scale.

  20. Targeting epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype for gastro-intestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Harn, Horng-Jyh

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (G-I) cancers are one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Symptoms relate to the organ affected in the G-I tract are non-specific, making early detection and effective treatment difficult to achieve. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a reversible and dynamical process, can disperse cells in embryos, form mesenchymal cells in injured tissues, and regulate embryonic stem cell differentiation. A variety of signaling molecules and distinct pathways are involved in the initiation and progression of EMT. Recent evidence has established that EMT may endow G-I cancer cells with the capacity to invade surrounding tissues, resist apoptosis, migrate to distant organs, and develop chemoresistance. Targeting these signaling molecules and pathways associated with EMT may provide clinicians with a new approach to the treatment of G-I malignancy.

  1. Endoscopic features of gastro-intestinal lymphomas: from diagnosis to follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetro, Calogero; Romano, Alessandra; Amico, Irene; Conticello, Concetta; Motta, Giovanna; Figuera, Amalia; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Di Raimondo, Cosimo; Giulietti, Giorgio; Bonanno, Giacomo; Palumbo, Giuseppe Alberto; Di Raimondo, Francesco

    2014-09-28

    Many progresses have been done in the management of gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas during last decades, especially after the discovery of Helicobacter pylori-dependent lymphoma development. The stepwise implementation of new endoscopic techniques, by means of echoendoscopy or double-balloon enteroscopy, enabled us to more precisely describe the endoscopic features of GI lymphomas with substantial contribution in patient management and in tailoring the treatment strategy with organ preserving approaches. In this review, we describe the recent progresses in GI lymphoma management from disease diagnosis to follow-up with a specific focus on the endoscopic presentation according to the involved site and the lymphoma subtype. Additionally, new or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the management of gastrointestinal lymphomas are reported. We here discuss the two most common subtypes of GI lymphomas: the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and the diffuse large B cell lymphoma. A general outline on the state-of-the-art of the disease and on the role of endoscopy in both diagnosis and follow-up will be performed.

  2. [At last, an effective therapy for non-differentiated GI sarcomas (gastro intestinal stromal tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Guetz, G; De Mestier, Ph; Pierga, Jean-Yves

    2002-10-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are non differentiated sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and have for a long time been confused with well differentiated tumors and classified as leiomyosarcoma. These tumors are characterized immunohistochemically by CD 117 staining. This marker represents the expression of c-kit which is a receptor for growth factor with enzymatic activity (tyrosine kinase). Recent studies have found that an inhibitor of specific tyrosine kinase is effective in the treatment of GIST with an estimated response rate of more than 60%. This new drug could significantly improve the prognosis of these aggressive chemoresistant tumors.

  3. EGFR(S) inhibitors in the treatment of gastro-intestinal cancers: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Shailender Singh; Nautiyal, Jyoti; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2010-06-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years, a considerable progress has been made in the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) related malignancies, as number of agents expanded from only one in 1995 to seven in 2006. Current review describes the recent role of targeted therapies, specifically EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of GI cancers. Importance of dietary agents in the treatment and prevention of GI cancers is also reviewed.

  4. Gastro-intestinal toxicity of chemotherapeutics in colorectal cancer:The role of inflammation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chun Seng Lee Elizabeth J Ryan Glen A Doherty

    2014-01-01

    ... culminating in distinct histopathological changes in the small intestine and colonic mucosa.Here we review the current understanding of the mechanisms behind GI toxicity and the mucositis associated with systemic treatment...

  5. [Gastroduodenal system state and levels of gastro-intestinal peptides in workers exposed to fluor compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A A; Gromov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Studies in 45 cryolite production workers (facing chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis) demonstrated that the diseases in them have moderate inflammatory activity, atrophy of gastric lining contaminated with Helicobacter pylori, hypergastrine mia, hypopancreozymine mia and hyposecretine mia in half of the examinees.

  6. UPPER GASTRO-INTESTINAL BLEEDING IN THE YOUNG - GASTRIC GIST TUMOR OR PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Atolagbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available GIST tumors is very unusual in the young and middle aged and a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis in young patients who present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Appropriate imaging such as a Computed tomographic scan (CT scan may identify this tumor which may easily be misdiagnosed as a bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease in the young. We present a case of a healthy 38 year old man with no alcohol use who presented with epigastric pain and melena and subsequent torrential bleeding uncontrolled during endoscopy necessitating an emergency exploratory laparotomy by the general surgery team. The bleeding intraluminal component of the tumor with gross splenic and pancreatic involvement was identified and surgical management consisted of a wedge resection of the greater curvature of the stomach incorporating the tumor and the spleen with successful dissection of the tumor off the tail of the pancreas. Histology was positive for C-KIT and DOG-1 markers. Postoperative course was uneventful and he is presently on Imatinib Mesylate.

  7. The prevalence of gastro-intestinal tract parasites in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple parasitism were also encountered. The age groups 5-7, 8-10 and 11-13 years recorded high prevalence rate of 54.7%, 54.3% and 57.8% respectively for hookworms and 40.0%, 39.0% and 35.6% respectively for Ascaris lumbricoides. Infection was greater among pupils who used pi latrine and water closet (WC).

  8. Gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in three districts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and to identify the genera of gastrointestinal strongyles infecting sheep goats in Chena and. Gimbo (Kaffa Zone) and Semen-Bench (Bench Maji zones) districts, Southwest. Ethiopia. A total of 800 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=492) and.

  9. Upper Gastro-Intestinal Endoscopy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: An Audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) cases and more than one pathologic condition was seen in 8(18%)cases. Conclusion: Peptic ulcer is not the most common cause of dyspepsia. Gastritis and multiple nonulcer pathologies in a patient are more common thus the need for ...

  10. Effect of antiorthostatic BedRest (BR) on GastroIntestinal Motility (GIM) of normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, L.; Hunter, R. P.; Tietze, K. J.; Cintron, N. M.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effects of postural changes, fluid shifts and diuresis associated with the absence of the gravity vector may decrease gastrointestinal motility (GIM) during space flight. GIM can be estimated from the mouth to cecum transit time (MCTT) of orally administered lactulose (LAC); this test is used to assess changes in GIM in normal subjects and in patients with GI pathology and related disease conditions. Since bedrest (BR) mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the effect of ten days of BR on GIM was evaluated from the MCTT of LAC. Methods: Subjects were 12 nonsmoking males between the ages of 35 and 50. After an 8-10 hour fast, subjects ingested Cephulac (registered) (20 g solution) with a low-fiber breakfast on four different days (45, 30, 25, and 20) before BR and on three separate days (4, 7, and 10) during BR. Breath-H2 concentrations were measured before and at 10 minute intervals for 4 hours after breakfast using a Quintron breathalyzer and MCTT was determined from these data. Results: MCTT ranged between 10 and 122 minutes during ambulation and 80 to 120 minutes during BR with means of 79 minutes and 122 minutes respectively. Conclusion: Mean MCTT during BR was 54 percent longer than during ambulation, suggesting that absorption and availability of orally administered medications and nutrients may be delayed or impaired as a result of decreased GIM during bedrest.

  11. Gastro-intestinal Mycobacterium avium complex as a cause of anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie van de Vyver

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a relatively common finding in HIV-positive patients, with rates (among females as high as 37%, compared with their HIV negative counterparts (17%. Anaemia of chronic disease plays a very important role in this population group, and is estimated to occur in 18 - 95% of cases. For this reason, it is imperative to distinguish this condition from other underlying or concurrent causes of anaemia that may warrant treatment. This clinical case illustrates the value of critically evaluating the parameters of a full blood count and haematinic screen, to so determine which patients warrant further workup.

  12. Studies on the endoparasites in the gastro-intestinal tract of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of helminth parasites of the alimentary canal of C. garienpinus was carried out in Kano, between January, 2002 and June 2002. A total of 700 fish samples were examined out of which 281 (40.14%) were infected. The parasites recovered include: Cestodes (Polyonchobothrium sp. and Monobothroids sp.) ...

  13. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred......, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3-6) versus low (0-2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery...

  14. Microencapsulation in genipin cross-linked gelatine-maltodextrin improves survival of Bifidobacterium adolescentis during exposure to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Antonela D; Annan, Nana T; Moreau, Debra L; Allan-Wojtas, Paula M; Ghanem, Amyl; Rousseau, Dérick; Paulson, Allan T; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup

    2010-01-01

    To improve survival during exposure to adverse conditions, probiotic Bifidobacterium adolescentis 15703T cells were encapsulated in novel mono-core and multi-core phase-separated gelatine-maltodextrin (GMD) microspheres where the gelatine (G) phase was cross-linked with genipin (GP). Microscopy showed that encapsulated cells were exclusively associated with maltodextrin (MD) core(s). Small (average diameter 37 microm) and large (70 microm) GMD and G microspheres were produced by modulating factors (e.g. mixing speed, surfactant, GP and G concentrations) affecting the size, structural stability and phase-separation. In vitro sequential gastro-intestinal (GI) juice challenge experiments revealed increased survival of cells encapsulated in GMD ( approximately 10(6-7) cfu mL(-1)) and G (approximately 10(5) cfu mL(-1)) microspheres as compared to free cells (approximately 10(4) cfu mL(-1)). In GMD microspheres, the bacteria derive energy from MD to survive during exposure to acid and bile salts. In conclusion, the novel food grade GMD microencapsulation formulation was shown to protect probiotic bifidobacteria from adverse conditions.

  15. Biomimetic PVPA in vitro model for estimation of the intestinal drug permeability using fasted and fed state simulated intestinal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderkhani, Elenaz; Vasskog, Terje; Flaten, Gøril Eide

    2015-06-20

    A prerequisite for successful oral drug therapy is the drug's ability to cross the gastrointestinal barrier. Considering the increasing number of new chemical entities in modern drug discovery, reliable and fast in vitro models are required for early and efficient prediction of intestinal permeability. To mimic the intestinal environment, use of biorelevant media may provide valuable information on in vivo drug permeation. The present study aims at improving the novel biomimetic phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay's (PVPAbiomimetic) biorelevance by investigating the applicability of the biorelevant media; fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and fed state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF). The FaSSIF and FeSSIF's influence on the permeability of the model drugs acyclovir, indomethacin, griseofulvin and nadolol was then assessed. The barriers' robustness in terms of storage stability was also evaluated. The barriers were found to maintain their integrity in presence of FaSSIF and FeSSIF. The model drugs showed changes in permeability in presence of the different simulated intestinal fluids that were in agreement with previous reports. Moreover, the barrier showed improved storage stability by maintaining its integrity for 6months. Altogether, this study moves the PVPAbiomimetic an important step towards a better in vitro permeability model for use in drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanoformulations for dimethyl fumarate: Physicochemical characterization and in vitro/in vivo behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Cortesi, Rita; Drechsler, Markus; Fan, Jie; Fu, Bingmei M; Calderan, Laura; Mannucci, Silvia; Boschi, Federico; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2017-06-01

    Dimethyl fumarate has been demonstrated useful in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis treatment (Tecfidera®). Nevertheless, since Tecfidera® capsules induce flushing, gastro-intestinal events and other more serious drawbacks, in this investigation a nanoparticle based system to be administered by an alternative way is proposed. In particular this study describes the preparation and characterization of dimethyl fumarate-containing solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Namely SLN based on tristearin, tristearin SLN treated with polysorbate 80 and cationic SLN constituted of tristearin in mixture with dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride were investigated. The effect of the presence of dimethyl fumarate, functionalization by polysorbate 80 and dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride was studied on morphology and dimensional distribution of SLN, by photon correlation spectroscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. Dimethyl fumarate release from SLN, studied by Franz cell, evidenced a Fickian dissolutive type kinetic in the case of SLN treated by polysorbate 80. Moreover fluorescent SLN were produced and characterized in order to investigate their in vitro permeability and in vivo biodistribution in mice. An in vitro study of fluorescent SLN permeability performed through a model of mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells, indicated that cationic SLN displayed higher permeability values with respect to neutral SLN and SLN treated by polysorbate 80. Biodistribution of polysorbate 80 treated SLN was studied by fluorescent imaging after intraperitoneal or intranasal administration in mice. The in vivo images indicate that polysorbate 80 treated SLN were able to reach the brain, even if they prevalently accumulated in liver and spleen, especially by intraperitoneal route. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of a new in vitro dynamic system to simulate infant digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Olivia; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Souchon, Isabelle; Deglaire, Amélie; Dupont, Didier; Picque, Daniel

    2014-02-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of infant formula disintegration in the infant gastrointestinal tract is a key step for developing new formulas with health benefits for the neonate. For ethical reasons, the access to in vivo data obtained on infants is limited. The use of animal models can be an alternative but these experiments are labour intensive, expensive and results obtained show high inter-individual variability, making their interpretation difficult. The aim of this work was to develop a simple in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system, for studying infant formula digestion, and to validate it by comparing the kinetics of proteolysis obtained in vitro with in vivo data collected from piglets. Results showed a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo data and confirmed the rapid hydrolysis of caseins in gastric conditions, whereas whey proteins appeared more resistant to digestion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharides and lactic acid bacteria on caecal swine fermentation: in vitro trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The expected ban for 2006 of non therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock, makes binding the development of reliable alternatives. The use of LAB and oligosaccharides (OS has sometimes produced disappointing results probably due to the inability of LAB to colonize the gastro intestinal tract or to metabolize OS...

  19. Effets strongylicides in vitro de l'extrait aqueux de feuilles de Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'extrait aqueux de feuilles de Ficus exasperata (plante tropicale de la famille des Moraceae) sur des adultes de Haemonchus contortus (parasite gastro-intestinal des ruminants). L'étude a consisté en un test de mortalité par contact. Les vers ...

  20. Distribution of Drug Molecules in Lipid Membranes: Neutron Diffraction and MD Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggara, Mohan; Mihailescu, Ella; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-03-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) e.g. Aspirin and Ibuprofen, with chronic usage cause gastro intestinal (GI) toxicity. It has been shown experimentally that NSAIDs pre-associated with phospholipids reduce the GI toxicity and also increase the therapeutic activity of these drugs compared to the unmodified ones. In this study, using neutron diffraction, the DOPC lipid bilayer structure (with and without drug) as well as the distribution of a model NSAID (Ibuprofen) as a function of its position along the membrane normal was obtained at sub-nanometer resolution. It was found that the bilayer thickness reduces as the drug is added. Further, the results are successfully compared with atomistic Molecular Dynamics simulations. Based on this successful comparison and motivated by atomic details from MD, quasi-molecular modeling of the lipid membrane is being carried out and will be presented. The above study is expected to provide an effective methodology to design drug delivery nanoparticles based on a variety of soft condensed matter such as lipids or polymers.

  1. Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, prevents flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction in vitro and in a simulated home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Heike; Young, David R; Qureshi, Tariq; Zoller, Hartmut; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2014-06-19

    Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, has both acaricidal and insecticidal activity through potent blockage of GABA- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of fluralaner exposure on flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction. Blood spiked with sub-insecticidal fluralaner concentrations (between 0.09 and 50.0 ng/mL) was fed to fleas for 10 days using a membrane system. Cessation of reproduction in exposed fleas was assessed using flea survival, egg hatchability, and control of oviposition, pupae, and flea emergence. Fluralaner efficacy for in vivo Ctenocephalides (C.) felis control on dogs was assessed using a simulated flea-infested home environment. During a pre-treatment period, dogs were infested twice on days -28 and -21 with 100 adult unfed fleas to establish a thriving population by day 0 of the study. On day 0, one group of dogs was treated with fluralaner (Bravecto™; n=10), while another group served as negative control (n=10). Following treatment, dogs were infested three times with 50 fleas on days 22, 50 and 78 to simulate new infestations. Live flea counts were conducted weekly on all dogs for 12 weeks starting 1 day before treatment. Fluralaner potently inhibited flea reproduction capacity in vitro. Oviposition ceased completely at concentrations as low as 25.0 ng/mL. While no ovicidal effect was observed, fluralaner exerted a larvicidal effect at exceptionally low concentrations (6.25 ng/mL). In the simulated flea-infested home environment, flea-control efficacy on fluralaner-treated dogs was >99% at every time point measured for 12 weeks. No adverse events were observed in fluralaner-treated dogs. Fluralaner completely controls egg laying, larval development and flea reproduction even at sub-insecticidal concentrations. Oral treatment of dogs with fluralaner is highly effective for eliminating fleas in a simulated flea-infested home environment.

  2. Hemodynamic study of TCPC using in vivo and in vitro 4D Flow MRI and numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; García-Rodríguez, Sylvana; Anagnostopoulos, Petros V; Srinivasan, Shardha; Wieben, Oliver; François, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    Altered total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) hemodynamics can cause long-term complications. Patient-specific anatomy hinders generalized solutions. 4D Flow MRI allows in vivo assessment, but not predictions under varying conditions and surgical approaches. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) improves understanding and explores varying physiological conditions. This study investigated a combination of 4D Flow MRI and CFD to assess TCPC hemodynamics, accompanied with in vitro measurements as CFD validation. 4D Flow MRI was performed in extracardiac and atriopulmonary TCPC subjects. Data was processed for visualization and quantification of velocity and flow. Three-dimensional (3D) geometries were generated from angiography scans and used for CFD and a physical model construction through additive manufacturing. These models were connected to a perfusion system, circulating water through the vena cavae and exiting through the pulmonary arteries at two flow rates. Models underwent 4D Flow MRI and image processing. CFD simulated the in vitro system, applying two different inlet conditions from in vitro 4D Flow MRI measurements; no-slip was implemented at rigid walls. Velocity and flow were obtained and analyzed. The three approaches showed similar velocities, increasing proportionally with high inflow. Atriopulmonary TCPC presented higher vorticity compared to extracardiac at both inflow rates. Increased inflow balanced flow distribution in both TCPC cases. Atriopulmonary IVC flow participated in atrium recirculation, contributing to RPA outflow; at baseline, IVC flow preferentially traveled through the LPA. The combination of patient-specific in vitro and CFD allows hemodynamic parameter control, impossible in vivo. Physical models serve as CFD verification and fine-tuning tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The importance of an oral digestion step in evaluating simulated in vitro digestibility of starch from cooked rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masatsugu; Okazaki, Yumi; Kumagai, Chisato; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effect of oral digestion step in a simulated in vitro starch digestion model, the digestibility of intact, homogenized and actual chewed cooked rice grains was investigated and analyzed. The kinetics of starch digestibility were calculated from changes in the hydrolysis percent of starch that were achieved during simulated small intestinal digestion stage. Morphological and histological microscopic tissue structures were also examined. Compared with the trend of starch hydrolysis changes of the actual chewed grain, 1.3U/ml of salivary α-amylase concentration treated for 60min was regarded as a mimicked condition to the simulate in vitro oral digestion step in this study. The results showed that the equilibrium percent of starch hydrolysis for all of the samples ranged from 84.2% to 95.9% with no significant differences observed regardless of whether the oral digestion step was included (p>0.05). In contrast, the kinetic constant, which is one of the measure of starch digestion rate during small intestinal stage, significantly increased with the degree of grain homogenization increased: 120s>actual chewed ≥1s>intact, for both the gastrointestinal and oral plus gastrointestinal processes. These results indicated that the kinetic constant was influenced by the change of cooked rice grain structure in oral digestion step that would be related to increase in enzyme accessibility to rice starch. Thus, rice grain digestibility was affected by grain-scale structural changes, including grain tissue damages which were normally observed during the oral digestion step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FTIR microspectroscopy of tissues for in-vivo and in-vitro cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waesche, Wolfgang; Bindig, Uwe; Mueller, Gerhard J.; Frege, P.; Gross, Ulrich M.

    1997-12-01

    FT-IR-microspectroscopic mapping technique has been used in combination with imaging methods for characterizing thin tissue sections of human adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum as well as carcinomas of the breast. This paper presents results of microspectroscopic measurements in vitro of 10 micrometer cryosections of healthy and tumor tissue samples of gastro-intestinal and gastro-oesophageal origin by using a minimal spatial resolution of 100 micrometers squared. This technique is not only able to detect the amount of collagen, lipids and tissue related features as well as different substructures of the tissue samples, it could also be used for the differentiation between healthy and tumor tissue. The IR-maps based on the ratio of intensities of selected wavenumbers were compared with parallel cut and HE stained cryosections which were judged by a pathologist. The method is based on differences in IR-spectra of tissues which have been already described in the literature. Several papers have shown that the main differences are to be expected in the so-called 'fingerprint region' (1500 - 1000 cm-1). Additional spectroscopic changes arise from carbonyl/amide vibrational modes. Measurements were carried out using transmission, attenuated total reflection and spatial reflectance infrared spectroscopy. IR-maps of healthy and tumor tissue specimen are presented and discussed. Different modes of spectra acquisition (transmission, ATR, diffuse reflectance) are compared. The aim of the investigations is the determination of suitable wavelengths to distinguish between healthy and tumor epithelia tissue for tumor diagnostic with an endoscopic approach in vivo.

  5. Improving porcine in vitro fertilization output by simulating the oviductal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Úbeda, Cristina; García-Vázquez, Francisco A.; Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, Jon; Matás, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Differences between the in vitro and in vivo environment in which fertilization occurs seem to play a key role in the low efficiency of porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF). This work proposes an IVF system based on the in vivo oviductal periovulatory environment. The combined use of an IVF medium at the pH found in the oviduct in the periovulatory stage (pHe 8.0), a mixture of oviductal components (cumulus-oocyte complex secretions, follicular fluid and oviductal periovulatory fluid, OFCM) and a device that interposes a physical barrier between gametes (an inverted screw cap of a Falcon tube, S) was compared with the classical system at pHe 7.4, in a 4-well multidish (W) lacking oviduct biological components. The results showed that the new IVF system reduced polyspermy and increased the final efficiency by more than 48%. This higher efficiency seems to be a direct consequence of a reduced sperm motility and lower capacitating status and it could be related to the action of OFCM components over gametes and to the increase in the sperm intracellular pH (pHi) caused by the higher pHe used. In conclusion, a medium at pH 8.0 supplemented with OFCM reduces polyspermy and improves porcine IVF output.

  6. Change of phenolics, carotenoids, and antioxidant capacity following simulated gastrointestinal digestion and dialysis of selected edible green leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D P P; Ranaweera, K K D S; Rupasinghe, H P V

    2018-04-15

    The bio-accessibility of phenolics, flavonoids, rutin, β-carotene and lutein and changes in antioxidant activities in six edible greens during simulating gastro-intestinal conditions has been investigated. It was found that the amount of dialysable phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids which potentially available for further uptake is varying depending on the leafy type. Bioavailable phenolics after the gastric-phase, intestinal-phase and in dialysable fraction were in the ranges of 13.9-71.8%, 14.4-77.4% and 3.1-12.3% respectively when compared with their fresh leaves. Total antioxidant capacities in the dialysable fractions were significantly lower than their original. Bioactives of Centella asiatica showed comparatively higher bioavailability in all phases with respect to its original content. β-carotene seems more dialysable than lutein in all leaves studied. Higher rutin contents were found in both gastric and intestinal phases than in fresh leaves. These results highlighted that gastrointestinal digestion may substantially affect the absorption of polyphenols and carotenoids present in leafy greens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic excitation states and firing patterns are controlled by sodium channel kinetics in myenteric neurons: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korogod, Sergiy M; Osorio, Nancy; Kulagina, Iryna B; Delmas, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Enteric neurons located in the gastro-intestinal tract are of particular importance to control digestive functions such as motility and secretion. In our recent publication, we showed that mouse myenteric neurons exhibit 2 types of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents: a fast inactivating Na(+) current produced by Nav1.5 channels, present in nearly all myenteric neurons, and a persistent Na(+) current attributed to Nav1.9 channels, restricted to the intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs). By combination of experimental recording and computer simulation we found that Nav1.5 contributed to the upstroke velocity of action potentials (APs), whereas Nav1.9 opposed AP repolarization. Here, we detailed the Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) currents used in our computational model of IPAN. We refined the prototype cell to reproduce the sustained firing pattern recorded in situ. As shown in experimental conditions we demonstrated that Nav1.9 channels critically determine the up-state life-time and thus, are essential to sustain tonic firing.

  8. Development of an in vitro model to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion and absorption of stabilizing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uberti Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Each step in the winemaking process must be carefully planned and controlled to optimize the quality of wine. Among others, tartaric stabilization is a critical step in enology, and although effective, the usual practices to solve it show some qualitative limitations, and important economical and environmental impacts. For the reasons reported above, the wine producers are searching for alternative practices, with particular interest in the area of organic products. Biopolymers are possible alternatives in this field. The selection, the characterization and the safety aspects of new biopolymers are the objectives of the European project STABIWINE (Use of biopolymers for sustainable stabilization of quality wines. The first group of biopolymers analyzed includes polyaminoacids and, in particular, polymers of L-aspartic acid (PAA, which can be used as enological additives for tartaric stabilization. In order to contribute in drafting the toxicological dossier, the metabolic fate of PAAs has been assessed by in vitro models, mimicking gastrointestinal digestion and absorption.

  9. Evaluation of shotgun metagenomics sequence classification methods using in silico and in vitro simulated communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Michael A; Van Rossum, Thea; Lo, Raymond; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2015-11-04

    The field of metagenomics (study of genetic material recovered directly from an environment) has grown rapidly, with many bioinformatics analysis methods being developed. To ensure appropriate use of such methods, robust comparative evaluation of their accuracy and features is needed. For taxonomic classification of sequence reads, such evaluation should include use of clade exclusion, which better evaluates a method's accuracy when identical sequences are not present in any reference database, as is common in metagenomic analysis. To date, relatively small evaluations have been performed, with evaluation approaches like clade exclusion limited to assessment of new methods by the authors of the given method. What is needed is a rigorous, independent comparison between multiple major methods, using the same in silico and in vitro test datasets, with and without approaches like clade exclusion, to better characterize accuracy under different conditions. An overview of the features of 38 bioinformatics methods is provided, evaluating accuracy with a focus on 11 programs that have reference databases that can be modified and therefore most robustly evaluated with clade exclusion. Taxonomic classification of sequence reads was evaluated using both in silico and in vitro mock bacterial communities. Clade exclusion was used at taxonomic levels from species to class-identifying how well methods perform in progressively more difficult scenarios. A wide range of variability was found in the sensitivity, precision, overall accuracy, and computational demand for the programs evaluated. In experiments where distilled water was spiked with only 11 bacterial species, frequently dozens to hundreds of species were falsely predicted by the most popular programs. The different features of each method (forces predictions or not, etc.) are summarized, and additional analysis considerations discussed. The accuracy of shotgun metagenomics classification methods varies widely. No one

  10. In vitro comparison of passive and continuous ultrasonic irrigation in simulated lateral canals of extracted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Bahillo, José; Rivas-Mundiña, Berta; Varela-Patiño, Purificación

    2012-05-01

    Complete endodontic system disinfection requires the removal of vital and necrotic pulp tissue, microorganisms, and toxins. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 ultrasonic irrigation techniques on the penetration of sodium hypochlorite into the main canal and simulated lateral canals of extracted teeth. Two simulated lateral canals each were created 2, 4, and 6 mm from the working length in 60 single-rooted teeth (6 canals/tooth, n = 360). To resemble the clinical situation, a closed system was created in each tooth. The teeth were randomly assigned to 3 experimental irrigation groups: group 1 (n = 20), positive pressure irrigation (PPI); group 2 (n = 20), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 3 (n = 20), continuous ultrasonic irrigation (CUI). Samples were evaluated by direct observation of still images recorded under a dental operating microscope. To examine irrigating solution penetration, 20% Chinese ink (Sanford Rotring GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was added to a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution and delivered into the root canals. The results showed a significantly higher (P < .05) penetration of irrigant into the lateral canals in the CUI group. PUI and CUI did not differ significantly in solution penetration into the apical thirds of the main canals. The PPI group showed a significantly lower penetration of sodium hypochlorite into the main and lateral canals compared with the CUI and PUI groups. CUI as a final rinse significantly increased the penetration of irrigating solution into simulated lateral canals. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic studies of tetrazepam based on electrochemical simulation in comparison to in vivo and in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Anne; Lohmann, Wiebke; Schubert, Birthe; Oberacher, Herbert; Karst, Uwe

    2009-04-10

    During the last 2 years, the knowledge on the metabolic pathway of tetrazepam, a muscle relaxant drug, was expanded by the fact that diazepam was identified as a degradation product of tetrazepam. The present study demonstrates that this metabolic conversion, recently discovered by in vivo studies, can also be predicted on the basis of a purely instrumental method, consisting of an electrochemical cell (EC) coupled to online liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS). By implementing a new electrochemical cell type into the EC-LC-MS set-up and by an enhanced oxidation potential range up to 2V, one limitation of the electrochemical metabolism simulation, the hydroxylation of alkanes and alkenes, has been overcome. Instead of commonly used flow-through cell with a porous glassy carbon working electrode, a wall-jet cell with exchangeable electrode material was used for this study. Thereby, the entire metabolic pathway of tetrazepam, in particular including the hydroxylation of the tetrazepam cyclohexenyl moiety, was simulated. The electrochemical results were not only compared to microsomal incubations, but also to in vivo experiments, by analysing urine samples from a patient after tetrazepam delivery. For structure elucidation of the detected metabolites, MS/MS experiments were performed. The comparison of electrochemistry to in vitro as well as to in vivo experiments underlines the high potential of electrochemistry as a fast screening tool in the prediction of metabolic transformations in drug development.

  12. Effect of in vitro digested cod liver oil of different quality on oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Karin; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upon oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, either before ingestion or, as recently shown, during the gastro-intestinal passage, a cascade of potentially cytotoxic peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, can form. In this study, we...... expression. The ratio of secreted cytokines, IL-12p40/IL-10, suggested a pro-inflammatory effect of the digested oils in relation to the blank (1.47–1.67 vs. 1.07). CONCLUSION: Gastro-intestinal digestion of cod liver oil increases the amount of oxidation products and resulting digests affect oxidation...

  13. In vitro bioactivity of 3D Ti-mesh with bioceramic coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D Ti-mesh has been coated with bioceramics under different coating conditions, such as material compositions and micro-porosity, using a dip casting method. Hydroxyapatite (HA, micro-HA particles (HAp, a bioglass (BG and their different mixtures together with polymer additives were used to control HA-coating microstructures. Layered composites with the following coating-to-substrate designs, such as BG/Ti, HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti, were fabricated. The bioactivity of these coated composites and the uncoated Ti-mesh substrate was then investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The Ti-mesh substrate and BG/Ti composite did not induce biomimetic apatite deposition when they were immersed in SBF for the selected BG, a pressable dental ceramic, used in this study. After seven days in SBF, an apatite layer was formed on both HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti composites. The difference is the apatite layer on the HAp + BG/BG/Ti composite was rougher and contained more micro-pores, while the apatite layer on the HA + BG/BG/Ti composite was dense and smooth. The formation of biomimetic apatite, being more bioresorbable, is favored for bone regeneration.

  14. Effect of Lunar Dust Simulant on Wound Healing: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monici, Monica; Cialdai, Francesca; Lulli, Matteo; Capaccioli, Sergio; Marziliano, Nicola; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2013-02-01

    Lunar dust properties are partly unknown and even less known are the effects on human health. Based on reports of the Apollo astronauts and studies performed so far, it is expected that lunar dust could cause skin, ocular and respiratory diseases. Since lunar dust is very pervasive, it could easily contaminate any injuries, abrasions, burns and alter the healing process. On the basis of this hypothesis we studied the effect of a lunar dust simulant on the behavior of dermal fibroblasts, which play a crucial role in wound healing. Cell viability, morphology, proliferation, apoptosis, ability to adhere to substrate and migrate to heal a wound, gene expression profile were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 days of treatment and compared with untreated controls. The results showed strong increase in apoptosis, decrease in cell viability and proliferation, cytoskeletal and morphological alterations. The ability to adhere to a substrate as well as migrate and heal a wound decreased. The findings indicate that, in case of wounds, ulcers or burns, lunar dust contamination could impair healing since it alters the behaviour of fibroblasts.

  15. Phytochemical properties and pharmacological effects of Quercus ilex L. aqueous extract on gastrointestinal physiological parameters in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtibi, Kaïs; Hammami, Imen; Selmi, Slimen; Grami, Dhekra; Sebai, Hichem; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2017-10-01

    Several research studies have reported on the pharmacological relevance of the medicinal plants used for treating various gastrointestinal disorders and controlling the dietary glucose uptake in the intestinal tract. Male rats were used to investigate the pharmacological effects of green oak acorn aqueous extract (GOAE) on gastrointestinal physiological parameters in vivo and in vitro. In this respect, the gastro-intestinal motility and hypersecretion essays were evaluated using a simple test meal (10% charcoal in 5% gum arabic) and castor oil induced diarrhea. However, the effect of GOAE on glucose absorption and homeostasis was assessed by the Ussing chamber system and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measures. Various doses of the Quercus ilex aqueous extract (125, 250 and 500mgkg -1 ) administered orally produced a significantly dose-related inhibition of gut meal travel distance in normal rat. The highest intestinal transit reduction of 49.34% was obtained with 500mgkg -1 compared to 58.33% caused by reference drug (clonidine, 1mgkg -1 ). In castor oil induced diarrhea in rat, Q. ilex extract reduced the frequency of defecation, fluid accumulation and electrolyte transport. These effects were associated with decreased histopathological damage and regulation of intracellular mediators disturbance in the intestinal mucosa. In addition, GOAE treatment improved glucose tolerance and significantly and dose-dependently reduced (>50%) the glucose absorption via intestinal epithelium. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of many bioactive natural compounds. These results suggest that the extract was effective towards reducing diarrhea, fluid accumulation, electrolyte transport and glucose absorption, and no toxic effects of the GOAE presented on this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of composite insertion technique on cuspal deflection using an in vitro simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Saeed; El-Badrawy, Wafa; Jazi, Hamid Salimi; McComb, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate, by simulation, the effect of conventional composite resin insertion techniques on cuspal deflection using bonded typodont artificial teeth. The deflection produced by a new low-shrinkage composite was also determined. Sixty standardized MOD preparations on ivorine maxillary premolars were prepared: group A at 4 mm depth and group B at 6 mm depth. Each group was further subdivided according to composite insertion technique (n=6), as follows: 1) bulk insertion, 2) horizontal increments, 3) tangential increments, and 4) a modified tangential technique. Preparations were microetched, acid-cleaned, and bonded with adhesive resin to provide micromechanical attachment before restoration with a conventional composite (Spectrum TPH( 3 ), Dentsply). Two additional subgroups at 4 mm and 6 mm depth (n=6) were restored in bulk using low-shrinkage composite (Filtek LS, 3M/ESPE). All groups received the same total photo-polymerization time. Cuspal deflection was measured during the restorative procedure using two Linear Variable Differential Transformers attached to a data acquisition system. The average cuspal deflections for group A were 1) 40.17 ± 1.18 μm, 2) 25.80 ± 4.98 μm, 3) 28.27 ± 5.12 μm, and 4) 27.33 ± 2.42 μm. The deflections in group B were 1) 38.82 ± 3.64 μm, 2) 50.39 ± 9.17 μm, 3) 55.62 ± 8.16 μm, and 4) 49.61 ± 8.01 μm. Cuspal flexure for the low-shrinkage composite was 11.14 ± 1.67 μm (group A: 4 mm depth) and 16.53 ± 2.79 μm (group B: 6 mm depth). All insertion techniques using conventional composite caused cuspal deformation. In general, deeper preparations showed increased cuspal deflection-except in the case of bulk insertion, which was likely affected by decreased depth of cure. Cuspal movement using low-shrinkage composite was significantly reduced.

  17. Axial transmission method for long bone fracture evaluation by ultrasonic guided waves: simulation, phantom and in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; He, Runxin; Qin, Yi-Xian; Wang, Weiqi

    2014-04-01

    Mode conversion occurs when the ultrasonic guided waves encounter fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of fracture assessment in long cortical bone using guided-mode conversion. Mode conversion behavior between the fundamental modes S0 and A0 was analyzed. The expressions proposed for modal velocity were used to identify the original and converted modes. Simulations and phantom experiments were performed using 1.0-mm-thick steel plates with a notch width of 0.5 mm and notch depths of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were carried out on nine ovine tibias with 1.0-mm-wide partial transverse gap break and cortical thickness varying from 2.10 to 3.88 mm. The study confirmed that mode conversion gradually becomes observable as fracture depth increases. Energy percentages of the converted modes correlated strongly with fracture depth, as illustrated by the frequency-sweeping experiments on steel phantoms (100-1100 kHz, r(2) = 0.97, p < 0.0069) and the fixed-frequency experiments on nine ovine tibias (250 kHz, r(2) = 0.97, p < 0.0056). The approaches described, including mode excitation, velocity expressions and energy percentage criteria, may also contribute to ultrasonic monitoring of long bone fracture healing. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro biomineralization of a novel hydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite using simulated body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Marcele Florencio; Brazil, Tayra Rodrigues; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira, E-mail: aolobo@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D,/NANOBIO/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Nanotecnologia Biomedica; Soares, Luis Eduardo Silva [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D/LEVB/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomdica; Corat, Evaldo Jose [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa Espacial (LAS/INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Sensores e Materiais

    2013-11-01

    Nano biomaterials based on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} ) are promising for their properties and bone tissue biocompatibility. VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) aim to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of this new nanocomposite due to its resemblance to bone matrix structure. This study aimed to produce in vitro biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites using simulated body fluid (SBF) with two different pHs (6.10 and 7.40) during 7 days to obtain a new surface design with higher crystallinity and better morphology of nHAp/VAMWCANT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites. The objective is to obtain biomineralized nano biomaterials to enable its applicability as 'scaffold' to cellular support and consequent bone tissue formation, accelerating the osseointegration. Layer densification has been achieved due to polycrystalline nano apatites deposition on surface and between the biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites, without any heat treatment. Therefore, through its characteristics and properties these nanocomposite applications can be considered extremely viable for acceleration of in vivo regenerative processes. (author)

  19. In vitro digestibility of bovine β-casein with simulated and human oral and gastrointestinal fluids. Identification and IgE-reactivity of the resultant peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedé, Sara; López-Expósito, Iván; Giménez, Gustavo; Grishina, Galina; Bardina, Ludmilla; Sampson, Hugh A; Molina, Elena; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2014-01-15

    Stability during digestion is considered an important feature in determining the allergenicity of food proteins. This study aimed to provide an immunological characterisation of the digestion products of the major cow's milk allergen β-casein (β-CN) produced by in vitro orogastrointestinal hydrolysis with simulated and human digestive fluids. β-CN was unaffected by oral digestion, but quickly broke down during the early stages of gastric digestion. The degradation with human fluids was faster than that with commercial enzymes. There were similarities in the peptide patterns of the hydrolysates produced in both models, showing 20 peptides in common after gastric digestion. After gastroduodenal digestion, the human fluids gave less numerous and shorter peptides. The IgE binding of most of the individual sera used to the hydrolysates produced with simulated and human fluids increased at the end of the gastric phase and decreased when the duodenal digestion was completed. Two IgE-binding synthetic peptides: β-CN (57-68) and β-CN (82-93), which matched fragments released by β-CN following in vitro digestion with simulated and human fluids, consisted of the most immunoreactive areas of the protein. The similarities found between the in vitro simulated digestion system and that using human digestive fluids suggest that the former would provide a reasonably good estimation of the potential allergenicity of protein digests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2015-06-15

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  1. Forecasting gastrointestinal precipitation and oral pharmacokinetics of dantrolene in dogs using an in vitro precipitation testing coupled with in silico modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Atsushi; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the current research was to determine the precipitation kinetics of dantrolene sodium using canine biorelevant in vitro testing and to model the precipitation kinetics by appropriately coupling the data with an in silico tool adapted for dogs. The precipitation profiles of dantrolene sodium solutions were obtained with the in vitro paddle apparatus at a revolution rate of 50rpm. The in silico prediction tool was designed using STELLA software and the predicted plasma concentration profiles of dantrolene using the in vitro precipitation data were compared with the observed in vivo pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs. The plasma profiles of dantrolene, which served as a model weakly acidic drug which precipitates in the upper gastrointestinal tract, was successfully predicted using the in vitro precipitation testing coupled with the in silico modeling and simulation approach. The approach was subsequently used to forecast the effect of pharmaceutical excipients (HPMC/PG) on the ability of the drug to supersaturate in the gut and the resulting pharmacokinetics. The agreement of the simulated pharmacokinetics with the observed values confirms the ability of canine biorelevant media to predict oral performance of enhanced dosage forms in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of pathophysiological indicators for individual decision of anthelmintic treatment of ewes against gastro-intestinal nematodes in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzir, M; Berrag, B; Benjouad, A; Cabaret, J

    2011-08-25

    The targeted selective treatments (TST) aim at reducing the number of anthelmintic treatments but also to maintain productivity of animals. The aim of this work was to assess the validity of pathophysiological indicators for detecting individually ewes in need for treatments in two regions of Morocco with different management and climatic environment (Chaouia plain-seven farms, and Middle-Atlas-three farms). Although resistance to benzimidazoles was already present the same drug was used for TST. The indicators tested were: FAMACHA(©) (associated with anaemia), DISCO (diarrhoea score), and BODCON (body condition score). Only FAMACHA(©) and DISCO indicators were well correlated to the EPGs. DISCO only did permit a substantial reduction (up to 85%) of the number of treatment and EPG (nematode eggs per gramme) remained low on average (less than 160). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastro-intestinal microbiota of two migratory shorebird species during spring migration staging in Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migratory birds travel long distances and use diverse habitats, potentially exposing them to a broad range of microbes that could negatively affect their health and survival. Gut microbiota composition has been shown to be closely related to organismal health through interactions...

  4. Immunoreactivity for thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 in the adult rat oro-gastro-intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nemolato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4 and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10 are two members of the β-thymosin family, involved in multiple cellular activities in different organs in multiple animal species. Here we report the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in rat tissues, in the gut and in annexed glands. The two peptide were differently expressed: Tβ4 was absent in salivary glands whereas Tβ10 was expressed in parotid and in submandibular glands. Tβ4 was mildly expressed in the tongue and in the oesophagus, where Tβ10 was absent. A similar expression was found in the stomach, ileum and colon mucosa. In pancreas Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the Langerhans islet cells; Tβ4 was also detected in the exocrine cells. Both peptide were not expressed in liver cells. When the rat expression pattern in rat organs was compared to reactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 in humans, marked differences were found. Our data clearly indicate a species-specific expression of Tβ4 and Tβ10, characterized by the actual unpredictability of the expression of these peptides in different cells and tissues. The common high expression of Tβ4 in mast cells, both in humans and in rats, represents one of the few similarities between these two species.

  5. [Adrenergic reactivity of the gastro-intestinal tract. II. Colon of the guinea pig and cecum of the mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, E; Zonta, F; Lucchelli, A

    1976-05-01

    A study has been made of the alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptors in the guinea pig colon and the mouse caecum using noradrenalina as agonist and alpha- and beta-adrenolytics separately or together. In the guinea pig colon alpha-adrenolytics used alone did not alter the action of noradrenalin: one beta-lytic (propranolol) used alone has slight non dose-dependent action. The alpha-lytics used together with beta-lytic strongly potential their effect. These results are interpreted as indicating that the preparation contains alpha-receptors as well as beta-receptors; activation of the alpha-receptors is observed only when the beta-mimetic effect of noradrenalin is inhibited. In the mouse caecum alpha-lytics prove devoid of effect either alone or when associated with beta-lytics; it is deduced therefore that this preparation contains only beta-receptors.

  6. Gastro-intestinal delivery of influenza subunit vaccine formulation adjuvanted with Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, V.; Visser, M.R.; van Roosmalen, M.L.; Leenhouts, K.; Huckriede, A.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a liquid formulation of influenza subunit vaccine admixed with Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles as adjuvant was delivered to upper and lower parts of intestinal tract. The aim was to determine the most effective immunization site in the intestines. Mice were vaccinated

  7. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in buffalo calves from different agro-climatic zones of Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti; Singh, N K; Juyal, P D

    2014-12-01

    Faecal samples from 1,582 buffalo calves of up to 6 months of age from 13 districts falling under four major agro-climatic zones of Punjab state, India were examined for gastrointestinal (GI) parasites for a period of one year (May 2008 to April 2009). The results revealed prevalence of GI parasitic infections as 73.58 per cent calves and Eimeria sp. (54.55 %) was the most prevalent GI parasite. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were found in overall prevalence of Toxocara vitulorum, strongyles and Strongyloides papillosus in buffalo calves of all four major agro-climatic zones of Punjab. Highest prevalence of T. vitulorum was recorded in undulating plain region (12.43 %) while lowest infection was recorded from western region (3.55 %). Further, the highest prevalence of strongyle infection was recorded in western region (32.26 %) and lowest in undulating plain region (19.46 %) thus showing a negative correlation in prevalence of T. vitulorum and strongyles. Highest and lowest infection of S. papillosus was recorded from central plain region (32.33 %) and western plain region (20.86 %), respectively whereas, the prevalence of Eimeria sp. and Moniezia expansa was comparable in all four major agro-climatic zones. The variation in prevalence recorded in the different agro-climatic zones is due to the climatic variation and thus the data generated could be of immense help in formulation of effective strategies for GI parasite control in different agro-climatic zones.

  8. USAGE OF 4TH GENERATION POLYCOMPONENT PROBIOTIC IN ORDER TO PREVENT AND TREAT DISBIOTIC DISORDERS OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Komarova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the role of intestinal microflora in maintenance and regulation of all the vital body functions. The causes of intestinal microbiocoenosis and possibilities of probiotic usage in order to correct revealed disturbances are discussed in this article.

  9. [The experimental study on melatonin gastro intestinal motility and plasma levels of stress hormones in overtraining rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hui-feng; Wang, Xiao-mei

    2015-09-01

    To study the effect of melatonin on the gastrointestinal motility and plasma levels of the stress hormone in overtraining rats. Thirty adult SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): control group, over-training group, melatonin intervention group. 30 min before each training, rats in the control and over-training groups were fed with normal saline (15 mg/kg) once a day and 5 times per week, while rats in the melatonin intervention group were administrated with melatonin, perfusion in the intervention group (15 mg/kg). Excessive training group and melatonin intervention group rats were subjected to excessive training at 5 times a week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma motilin (MTL) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), cortisol (CORT) and catecholamines (CA) were observed in all groups. Compared with the control group, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma MTL, CORT and CA were increased significantly (P melatonin, this trend was reversed, that was, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma MTL, CORT and CA were surpressed significantly (P Melatonin plays an important role in protecting gastrointestinal tract from dysfunction, in which MTL, CGRP, CORT and CA are all involved.

  10. Dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua to free range broilers and its effects on gastro-intestinal parasite infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    to treatment or genotype. A median of 3 larvae per broiler was observed. In conclusion, an integrated system for parasite management may benefit from A. annua supplementation to reduce negative effects of coccidiosis whereas it is difficult to avoid infections with A. galli, if paddocks are permanently used......In a factorial experiment, effects of dried leaves of Artemisia annua as an anti-parasitic supplement in two different broiler genotypes, raised in a free range system, were investigated. Birds were grown indoors until 29 days of age free of parasites. Twelve groups, each of 35 randomly selected...

  11. Effect of gastro-intestinal nematode infection on sheep performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrot, Fabien; Hertzberg, Hubertus; Torgerson, Paul

    2015-10-24

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections are common in domestic sheep and impact directly and indirectly on the health of infected animals as well as on the associated economic production. In this study, we aim at summarizing the current knowledge on the influence of GIN infections on sheep production by conducting a systematic review. A subsequent meta-analysis of relevant studies was performed to provide an estimate of the effect of GIN infections on weight gain, wool production and milk yield. A literature search was performed on the CAB, Pubmed and Web of Science database for the period 1960-2012. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Measurement of at least one production parameter. 2) Comparison between groups of sheep with different nematode burdens. 3) Same conditions regarding all aspects except parasite burden between groups. 4) Quantitative measurements of one or more production traits. Altogether, 88 studies describing 218 trials were included in this review. The majority of studies (86%) reported that GIN infections had a negative effect on production but this was reported to be statistically significant in only 43% of the studies. Meta-analysis indicated that performances of sheep infected with nematodes was 85, 90 and 78% of the performance in uninfected individuals for weight gain, wool production and milk yield respectively. Our results suggest a possible reporting bias or small study effect for the estimation of the impact of GIN infections on weight gain. Finally, a general linear model provided an estimate for the decrease in weight gain in relation to the increase in faecal egg count of nematodes. This study underlines the importance of GIN infections for sheep production and highlights the need to improve parasite management in sheep, in particular in face of challenges such as anthelmintic resistance.

  12. Does switching from oral to subcutaneous administration of methotrexate influence on patient reported gastro-intestinal adverse effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Charles B; Lage-Hansen, Philip R; Koefoed, Mette

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When treating patients with methotrexate (MTX) the most frequently reported adverse effects (AE) are gastrointestinal (GI) with nausea being reported by 10-20%. If intolerable AE of oral MTX persist, switching from oral to subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM) administration...... is common. However, this approach is largely empirical and the evidence is inconsistent. To our knowledge, this will be the first study to estimate the change in GI AE of switching from oral to SC MTX. METHODS: A retrospective postal survey was sent to patients who had changed from oral MTX to SC MTX. GI AE...

  13. DissolvIt: An In Vitro Method for Simulating the Dissolution and Absorption of Inhaled Dry Powder Drugs in the Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerde, Per; Malmlöf, Maria; Havsborn, Lina; Sjöberg, Carl-Olof; Ewing, Pär; Eirefelt, Stefan; Ekelund, Katarina

    The main purpose of this work was to develop an in vitro method for simulating the dissolution and absorption of inhaled dry powder drugs that also mimics systemic pharmacokinetic data. A second purpose was to evaluate this method. DissolvIt(®) was developed as a simulation of the air-blood barrier of the upper airways, constituting: "airborne" particles deposited on a glass cover slip, a mucus simulant, a polycarbonate (basal) membrane, and a pumped albumin buffer simulating the pulmonary blood flow. The PreciseInhale(®) exposure system was used to aerosolize and deposit test formulations onto cover slips. The particle dissolution was observed by optical microscopy as particle disappearance, and it was started directly when the particles came into contact with the mucus simulant. Solute from the dissolving particles diffused through the barrier and was absorbed into the perfusate. The drug concentration in the perfusate over time and the remaining drug in the barrier at the end of the experiment were quantitated by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate generated different pharmacokinetic dissolution/absorption profiles in DissolvIt. This study indicates that DissolvIt simulates dissolution and absorption of drugs in the lung, and that DissolvIt also mimics pharmacokinetic profiles and parameters.

  14. In vitro simulation of the equine hindgut as a tool to study the influence of phytosterol consumption on the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A I; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Garcia, P; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y; Vanhaecke, L

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, steroids other than testosterone are considered to be synthetic, anabolic steroids. Nevertheless, in stallions, it has been shown that β-Bol can originate from naturally present testosterone. Other precursors, including phytosterols from feed, have been put forward to explain the prevalence of low levels of steroids (including β-Bol and ADD) in urine of mares and geldings. However, the possible biotransformation and identification of the precursors has thus far not been investigated in horses. To study the possible endogenous digestive transformation, in vitro simulations of the horse hindgut were set up, using fecal inocula obtained from eight different horses. The functionality of the in vitro model was confirmed by monitoring the formation of short-chain fatty acids and the consumption of amino acids and carbohydrates throughout the digestion process. In vitro digestion samples were analyzed with a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The addition of β-Bol gave rise to the formation of ADD (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) or αT. Upon addition of ADD to the in vitro digestions, the transformation of ADD to β-Bol was observed and this for all eight horses' inocula, in line with previously obtained in vivo results, again confirming the functionality of the in vitro model. The transformation ratio proved to be inoculum and thus horse dependent. The addition of pure phytosterols (50% β-sitosterol) or phytosterol-rich herbal supplements on the other hand, did not induce the detection of β-Bol, only low concentrations of AED, a testosterone precursor, could be found (0.1 ng/mL). As such, the digestive transformation of ADD could be linked to the detection of β-Bol, and the consumption of phytosterols to low concentrations of AED, but there is no direct link between phytosterols and β-Bol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rhamnogalacturonan-I Based Microcapsules for Targeted Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svagan, Anna J; Kusic, Anja; De Gobba, Cristian; Larsen, Flemming H; Sassene, Philip; Zhou, Qi; van de Weert, Marco; Mullertz, Anette; Jørgensen, Bodil; Ulvskov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Drug targeting to the colon via the oral administration route for local treatment of e.g. inflammatory bowel disease and colonic cancer has several advantages such as needle-free administration and low infection risk. A new source for delivery is plant-polysaccharide based delivery platforms such as Rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I). In the gastro-intestinal tract the RG-I is only degraded by the action of the colonic microflora. For assessment of potential drug delivery properties, RG-I based microcapsules (~1 μm in diameter) were prepared by an interfacial poly-addition reaction. The cross-linked capsules were loaded with a fluorescent dye (model drug). The capsules showed negligible and very little in vitro release when subjected to media simulating gastric and intestinal fluids, respectively. However, upon exposure to a cocktail of commercial RG-I cleaving enzymes, ~ 9 times higher release was observed, demonstrating that the capsules can be opened by enzymatic degradation. The combined results suggest a potential platform for targeted drug delivery in the terminal gastro-intestinal tract.

  16. Rhamnogalacturonan-I Based Microcapsules for Targeted Drug Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Svagan

    Full Text Available Drug targeting to the colon via the oral administration route for local treatment of e.g. inflammatory bowel disease and colonic cancer has several advantages such as needle-free administration and low infection risk. A new source for delivery is plant-polysaccharide based delivery platforms such as Rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I. In the gastro-intestinal tract the RG-I is only degraded by the action of the colonic microflora. For assessment of potential drug delivery properties, RG-I based microcapsules (~1 μm in diameter were prepared by an interfacial poly-addition reaction. The cross-linked capsules were loaded with a fluorescent dye (model drug. The capsules showed negligible and very little in vitro release when subjected to media simulating gastric and intestinal fluids, respectively. However, upon exposure to a cocktail of commercial RG-I cleaving enzymes, ~ 9 times higher release was observed, demonstrating that the capsules can be opened by enzymatic degradation. The combined results suggest a potential platform for targeted drug delivery in the terminal gastro-intestinal tract.

  17. Release, partitioning and stability of isoflavones from enriched custards during mouth, stomach and intestine in vitro simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, T.; Luyten, J.M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Custard desserts were enriched with a soy germ extract as source of isoflavones and the influence of the thickening agent (starch or carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)) and the presence of fat on the release, partitioning and stability of the isoflavones after mouth, stomach and small intestine in vitro

  18. Effect of okadaic acid on carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) haemocytes by in vitro exposure and harmful algal bloom simulation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Alvarez, Maria; Flórez-Barrós, Fernanda; Méndez, Josefina; Fernandez-Tajes, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), produced by dinoflagellates during harmful algal blooms (HAB), belongs to the Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning toxins that cause gastrointestinal symptoms in humans after consumption. In the present work, Ruditapes decussatus haemocytes were selected to evaluate the effect of OA on cell viability, enzymatic status and immune capacity through the measure by flow cytometry of apoptosis-cell death, non-specific esterase activity and phagocytosis. In order to compare different exposure conditions, two experiments were developed: in vitro exposure to OA and HAB simulation by feeding clams with the OA producer, Prorocentrum lima. Apoptosis was not OA dose-dependent and cell death increased in both assays. Phagocytosis of latex beads and esterase activity decreased in haemocytes incubated with OA. In contrast, esterases increased during the feeding with P. lima. Our results showed that OA and the simulated HAB caused damages on haemocyte functions and viability.

  19. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and antiproliferative potential of 10 common edible flowers from China assessed using a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis process combined with cellular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weisu; Mao, Shuqin; Zhang, Liuquan; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Zhou, Fei; Zhao, Yajing; Li, Maiquan

    2017-11-01

    Phenolic compounds could be sensitive to digestive conditions, thus a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis process and cellular assays was used to determine phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials of 10 common edible flowers from China and their functional components. Gallic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin were widely present in these flowers, which demonstrated various antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CAA values) and antiproliferative potentials measured by the MTT method. Rosa rugosa, Paeonia suffruticosa and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited the best antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials against HepG2, A549 and SGC-7901 cell lines, except that Osmanthus fragrans was not the best against SGC-7901 cells. The in vitro digestion-dialysis process decreased the antioxidant potential by 33.95-90.72% and the antiproliferative potential by 13.22-87.15%. Following the in vitro digestion-dialysis process, phenolics were probably responsible for antioxidant (R2 = 0.794-0.924, P < 0.01) and antiproliferative (R2 = 0.408-0.623, P < 0.05) potential. Moreover, gallic acid may be responsible for the antioxidant potential of seven flowers rich in edible flowers. The antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of 10 edible flowers revealed a clear decrease after digestion and dialysis along with the reduction of phenolics. Nevertheless, they still had considerable antioxidant and antiproliferative potential, which merited further investigation in in vivo studies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  1. Digestive recovery of sulfur-methyl-L-methionine and its bioaccessibility in Kimchi cabbages using a simulated in vitro digestion model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Rim; Cho, Sun-Duk; Lee, Woon Kyu; Kim, Gun-Hee; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2014-01-15

    Sulfur-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) has been known to provide various biological functions such as radical scavenging effect, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and prevention of gastric mucosal damage. Kimchi cabbages are known to be a major food source providing SMM but its bioaccessibility has not been studied. The objective of current study was to determine both the digestive stability of SMM and the amount released from Kimchi cabbages under a simulated in vitro digestion model system. The in vitro digestion model system simulating a human gastrointestinal tract was carried out for measuring digestive recovery and bioaccessibility of SMM. SMM was quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Recovery of an SMM standard after digestion was 0.68 and 0.65% for fasted and fed conditions, respectively, indicating that the digestive stability of the SMM standard was not affected by dietary energy or co-ingested food matrix. The SMM standard was also significantly stable in acidic pH (P Kimchi cabbages was measured under a fasted condition, resulted in 8.83, 14.71 and 10.88%, for salivary, gastric and small intestinal phases, respectively. Results from our study suggest that SMM from Kimchi cabbages, a component of food sources, is more bioavailable than SMM by itself. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Evaluation of the isoflavone and total phenolic contents of kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Sanches Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Daniele; Handa, Cintia; Guelfi, Marcela; Garcia, Sandra; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the isoflavone and total phenolic contents in kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation (DSS). Soymilk was fermented with kefir culture (0.02UC/L) at 25°C for 15h and stored at 4°C for 4days. After the fermentation and storage, the isoflavone and total phenolic contents were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. The cell viability of lactic acid bacteria and yeast was evaluated. Fermentation promoted an increase of approximately 3log CFU/g cycles of the microorganisms and the storage process did not alter the aglycone isoflavones and total phenolic contents. The content of aglycone isoflavones increased 2-fold, and the total phenolic content increased 9-fold. Therefore, kefir-fermented soymilk is a good source of aglycone isoflavones and phenolics, since the content of these substances was increased significantly after the in vitro digestive system simulation of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microtomography evaluation of dental tissue wear surface induced by in vitro simulated chewing cycles on human and composite teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Bedini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a 3D microtomography display of tooth surfaces after in vitro dental wear tests has been obtained. Natural teeth have been compared with prosthetic teeth, manufactured by three different polyceramic composite materials. The prosthetic dental element samples, similar to molars, have been placed in opposition to human teeth extracted by paradontology diseases. After microtomography analysis, samples have been subjected to in vitro fatigue test cycles by servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine. After the fatigue test, each sample has been subjected again to microtomography analysis to obtain volumetric value changes and dental wear surface images. Wear surface images were obtained by 3D reconstruction software and volumetric value changes were measured by CT analyser software. The aim of this work has been to show the potential of microtomography technique to display very clear and reliable wear surface images. Microtomography analysis methods to evaluate volumetric value changes have been used to quantify dental tissue and composite material wear.

  4. Revealing the influence of glucocorticoid treatment on the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses through in vitro digestive simulations and an in vivo case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Anneleen; Damen, Sander; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-12-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are strictly forbidden in equine sports because of their stimulating effect on muscle growth and performance. Nevertheless, low levels of AAS have been found in some horses, untreated with AAS. Glucocorticoids (GC), used as an anti-inflammatory therapy and structurally related to AAS, might play a role in this phenomenon. In order to unravel this possible correlation the influence of glucocorticoid treatment on the excretion of AAS was studied both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo effects were investigated by analysing urine samples collected from a gelding treated with betamethasone. Additionally, multiple in vitro digestion simulations were set up, according to a previously validated protocol, to study the possibility of a direct biotransformation of glucocorticoids to AAS, by the microbiota of the equine hindgut. Urine and in vitro digestion samples were extracted and analysed with UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPLC-Orbitrap-HRMS analytical methods. A significant influence on the urinary excretion of α-testosterone (αT), β-testosterone (βT) and androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) was seen. αT-concentrations up to 20ng/mL were detected. ADD was not found before treatment but could be detected post-treatment. Cortisone and cortisol also peaked (>30ng/mL) between day 37 and 48 post-treatment. The in vitro digestion results however revealed no direct biotransformation of glucocorticoids to AAS by the microbiota of the equine hindgut. This study shows that a glucocorticoid treatment can disrupt the synthesis and excretion of AAS, not by direct biotransformation upon gastrointestinal digestion, but more likely by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Deposition Within an In Vitro Exposure System for Simulating Exposure in the Human Respiratory Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa Shinkichi; Nagata Yasufumi; Suzuki Takuya

    2016-01-01

    For the risk assessment of airborne chemicals, a variety of in vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to replicate airborne chemical exposure in vivo. Since cells at the air-liquid interface are exposed to cigarette smoke as an aerosol in direct exposure systems, it is possible to reproduce the situation of cigarette smoke exposure in the human respiratory system using this device. However it is difficult to know whether the exposed cigarette smoke in this system is consistent with...

  6. Saltelli Global Sensitivity Analysis and Simulation Modelling to Identify Intervention Strategies to Reduce the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 Contaminated Beef Carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Brookes

    Full Text Available Strains of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157 are important foodborne pathogens in humans, and outbreaks of illness have been associated with consumption of undercooked beef. Here, we determine the most effective intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated beef carcasses using a modelling approach.A computational model simulated events and processes in the beef harvest chain. Information from empirical studies was used to parameterise the model. Variance-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA using the Saltelli method identified variables with the greatest influence on the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses. Following a baseline scenario (no interventions, a series of simulations systematically introduced and tested interventions based on influential variables identified by repeated Saltelli GSA, to determine the most effective intervention strategy.Transfer of STEC O157 from hide or gastro-intestinal tract to carcass (improved abattoir hygiene had the greatest influence on the prevalence of contaminated carcases. Due to interactions between inputs (identified by Saltelli GSA, combinations of interventions based on improved abattoir hygiene achieved a greater reduction in maximum prevalence than would be expected from an additive effect of single interventions. The most effective combination was improved abattoir hygiene with vaccination, which achieved a greater than ten-fold decrease in maximum prevalence compared to the baseline scenario.Study results suggest that effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses should initially be based on improved abattoir hygiene. However, the effect of improved abattoir hygiene on the distribution of STEC O157 concentration on carcasses is an important information gap-further empirical research is required to determine whether reduced prevalence of contaminated carcasses is likely to result in reduced

  7. Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    Ross's Simulation, Fourth Edition introduces aspiring and practicing actuaries, engineers, computer scientists and others to the practical aspects of constructing computerized simulation studies to analyze and interpret real phenomena. Readers learn to apply results of these analyses to problems in a wide variety of fields to obtain effective, accurate solutions and make predictions about future outcomes. This text explains how a computer can be used to generate random numbers, and how to use these random numbers to generate the behavior of a stochastic model over time. It presents the statist

  8. In vitro dissolution methodology, mini-Gastrointestinal Simulator (mGIS), predicts better in vivo dissolution of a weak base drug, dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Susumu; Matsui, Kazuki; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-08-30

    USP apparatus I and II are gold standard methodologies for determining the in vitro dissolution profiles of test drugs. However, it is difficult to use in vitro dissolution results to predict in vivo dissolution, particularly the pH-dependent solubility of weak acid and base drugs, because the USP apparatus contains one vessel with a fixed pH for the test drug, limiting insight into in vivo drug dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs. This discrepancy underscores the need to develop new in vitro dissolution methodology that better predicts in vivo response to assure the therapeutic efficacy and safety of oral drug products. Thus, the development of the in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology is necessitated. The major goals of in vitro dissolution are to ensure the performance of oral drug products and the support of drug formulation design, including bioequivalence (BE). Orally administered anticancer drugs, such as dasatinib and erlotinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), are used to treat various types of cancer. These drugs are weak bases that exhibit pH-dependent and high solubility in the acidic stomach and low solubility in the small intestine (>pH 6.0). Therefore, these drugs supersaturate and/or precipitate when they move from the stomach to the small intestine. Also of importance, gastric acidity for cancer patients may be altered with aging (reduction of gastric fluid secretion) and/or co-administration of acid-reducing agents. These may result in changes to the dissolution profiles of weak base and the reduction of drug absorption and efficacy. In vitro dissolution methodologies that assess the impact of these physiological changes in the GI condition are expected to better predict in vivo dissolution of oral medications for patients and, hence, better assess efficacy, toxicity and safety concerns. The objective of this present study is to determine the initial conditions for a mini-Gastrointestinal Simulator (mGIS) to assess in vivo

  9. Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, prevents flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction in vitro and in a simulated home environment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Heike; Young, David R.; Qureshi, Tariq; Zoller, Hartmut; Anja R. HECKEROTH

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, has both acaricidal and insecticidal activity through potent blockage of GABA- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of fluralaner exposure on flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction. Methods Blood spiked with sub-insecticidal fluralaner concentrations (between 0.09 and 50.0 ng/mL) was fed to fleas for 10 days using a membrane system. Cessation of reproduction in exposed fleas was assesse...

  10. Effect of surfactants, gastric emptying, and dosage form on supersaturation of dipyridamole in an in vitro model simulating the stomach and duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A; Fadda, H M

    2014-08-04

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gastric emptying patterns, surfactants, and dosage form on the supersaturation of a poorly soluble weakly basic drug, dipyridamole, using an in vitro model mimicking the dynamic environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and, furthermore, to evaluate the usefulness of this model in establishing correlations to in vivo bioavailability for drugs with solubility/dissolution limited absorption. A simulated stomach duodenum model comprising four compartments was used to assess supersaturation and precipitation kinetics as a function of time. It integrates physiologically relevant fluid volumes, fluid transfer rates, and pH changes of the upper GI tract. Monoexponential gastric emptying patterns simulating the fasted state were compared to linear gastric emptying patterns simulating the fed state. The effect of different surfactants commonly used in oral preparations, specifically, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), poloxamer-188, and polysorbate-80, on dipyridamole supersaturation was investigated while maintaining surface tension of the simulated gastric fluids at physiological levels and without obtaining artificial micellar solubilization of the drug. The supersaturation behavior of different dose strengths of dipyridamole was explored. Significant levels of dipyridamole supersaturation were observed in the duodenal compartment under all the different in vivo relevant conditions explored. Dipyridamole supersaturation ratios of up to 11-fold have been observed, and supersaturation has been maintained for up to 120 min. Lower duodenal concentrations of dipyridamole were observed under linear gastric emptying patterns compared to mononexponential gastric emptying. The mean duodenal area under concentration-time curves (AUC60min) for the dipyridamole concentration profile in the duodenal compartment is significantly different for all the surfactants explored (P dosage form (solution versus suspension) on the

  11. CFD simulations of enhanced condensational growth (ECG) applied to respiratory drug delivery with comparisons to in vitro data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced condensational growth (ECG) is a newly proposed concept for respiratory drug delivery in which a submicrometer aerosol is inhaled in combination with saturated or supersaturated water vapor. The initially small aerosol size provides for very low extrathoracic deposition, whereas condensation onto droplets in vivo results in size increase and improved lung retention. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a CFD model of ECG in a simple tubular geometry with direct comparisons to in vitro results. The length (29 cm) and diameter (2 cm) of the tubular geometry were representative of respiratory airways of an adult from the mouth to the first tracheobronchial bifurcation. At the model inlet, separate streams of humidified air (25, 30, and 39 °C) and submicrometer aerosol droplets with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) of 150, 560, and 900 nm were combined. The effects of condensation and droplet growth on water vapor concentrations and temperatures in the continuous phase (i.e., two-way coupling) were also considered. For an inlet saturated air temperature of 39 °C, the two-way coupled numerical (and in vitro) final aerosol MMADs for initial sizes of 150, 560, and 900 nm were 1.75 μm (vs. 1.23 μm), 2.58 μm (vs. 2.66 μm), and 2.65 μm (vs. 2.63 μm), respectively. By including the effects of two-way coupling in the model, agreements with the in vitro results were significantly improved compared with a one-way coupled assumption. Results indicated that both mass and thermal two-way coupling effects were important in the ECG process. Considering the initial aerosol sizes of 560 and 900 nm, the final sizes were most influenced by inlet saturated air temperature and aerosol number concentration and were not largely influenced by initial size. Considering the growth of submicrometer aerosols to above 2 μm at realistic number concentrations, ECG may be an effective respiratory drug delivery approach for minimizing mouth

  12. Backside Wear Analysis of Retrieved Acetabular Liners with a Press-Fit Locking Mechanism in Comparison to Wear Simulation In Vitro

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    Ana Laura Puente Reyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backside wear due to micromotion and poor conformity between the liner and its titanium alloy shell may contribute to the high rates of retroacetabular osteolysis and consequent aseptic loosening. The purpose of our study was to understand the wear process on the backside of polyethylene liners from two acetabular cup systems, whose locking mechanism is based on a press-fit cone in combination with a rough titanium conical inner surface on the fixation area. A direct comparison between in vitro wear simulator tests (equivalent to 3 years of use and retrieved liners (average 13.1 months in situ was done in order to evaluate the backside wear characteristics and behavior of these systems. Similar wear scores between in vitro tested and retrieved liners were observed. The results showed that this locking mechanism did not significantly produce wear marks at the backside of the polyethylene liners due to micromotion. In all the analyzed liners, the most common wear modes observed were small scratches at the cranial fixation zone directly below the rough titanium inner surface of the shell. It was concluded that most of the wear marks were produced during the insertion and removal of the liner, rather than during its time in situ.

  13. Comparison of Apical Sealing Ability of Lateral Condensation Technique in Room and Body- Simulated Temperatures (An in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhnamayan, F; Sahebi, S; Moazami, F; Borhanhaghighi, M

    2013-03-01

    Studies reported that nearly 60% of endodontic failures have been attributed to inadequate obturation of the root canal system. Thus, complete obturation of the root canal system and proper apical seal are essential elements in the long-term success of root canal treatment. This study aimed to compare the apical seal of lateral condensation technique in the room and in body- simulated temperature. In this experimental study, 70 extracted, single- rooted, human premolar teeth were instrumented and divided up into four groups. All tooth's canals were obturated by lateral condensation technique except the teeth in the positive control group. Group 1and 2, each with 30 teeth, were obturated in the room and intracanal temperature respectively. The other two groups were positive and negative control group each with 5 teeth. All groups except negative control were covered by two layers of nail polish. Then linear dye penetration was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed with student-t test and also Kolmogorov- Smirnov Goodness- of- Fit test to make sure of data. RESULTS showed that dye penetration in group one (obturation in room temperature) was 0.6mm more than group 2 (obturation in simulated-body temperature) although this was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). Under the condition of this invitro study, apical sealing ability was better in the body-simulated temperature than the room temperature, although it was not statistically significant.

  14. Investigation of hemodynamics in an in vitro system simulating left ventricular support through the right subclavian artery using 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bernd; Müller, Christoph; Buchenberg, Waltraud; Ith, Michael; Reineke, David; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Benk, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    Left ventricular assist devices are an important treatment option for patients with heart failure alter the hemodynamics in the heart and great vessels. Because in vivo magnetic resonance studies of patients with ventricular assist devices are not possible, in vitro models represent an important tool to investigate flow alterations caused by these systems. By using an in vitro magnetic resonance-compatible model that mimics physiologic conditions as close as possible, this work investigated the flow characteristics using 4-dimensional flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging of a left ventricular assist device with outflow via the right subclavian artery as commonly used in cardiothoracic surgery in the recent past. An in vitro model was developed consisting of an aorta with its supra-aortic branches connected to a left ventricular assist device simulating the pulsatile flow of the native failing heart. A second left ventricular assist device supplied the aorta with continuous flow via the right subclavian artery. Four-dimensional flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging was performed for different flow rates of the left ventricular assist device simulating the native heart and the left ventricular assist device providing the continuous flow. Flow characteristics were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated in the entire vessel system. Flow characteristics inside the aorta and its upper branching vessels revealed that the right subclavian artery and the right carotid artery were solely supported by the continuous-flow left ventricular assist device for all flow rates. The flow rates in the brain-supplying arteries are only marginally affected by different operating conditions. The qualitative analysis revealed only minor effects on the flow characteristics, such as weakly pronounced vortex flow caused by the retrograde flow via the brachiocephalic artery. The results indicate that, despite the massive alterations in natural hemodynamics due to the

  15. In vitro dynamic swelling behaviors of radiation synthesized polyacrylamide with crosslinkers in the simulated physiological body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraydin, Dursun E-mail: saraydin@cumhuriyet.edu.tr; Isikver, Yasemin; Karadag, Erdener; Sahiner, Nurettin; Gueven, Olgun

    2002-03-01

    Acrylamide hydrogels, containing different amounts and types of crosslinkers, were synthesized via {gamma}-irradiation technique. Their swellings in simulated body fluids, such as physiological saline (0.89% NaCl) isoosmotic phosphate buffer at pH 7.4, gastric fluid at pH 1.1 (glycine-HCl), protein (aqueous solution of bovine serum albumin), urine (aqueous solution of urea), glucose and distilled water, were studied. Equilibrium swellings of the hydrogels were changed in the range 27-85 depending upon the fluids, type and amount of crosslinkers. The diffusion exponents were found over half for all hydrogels.

  16. In vitro dynamic swelling behaviors of radiation synthesized polyacrylamide with crosslinkers in the simulated physiological body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraydın, Dursun; Işıkver, Yasemin; Karadağ, Erdener; Sahiner, Nurettin; Güven, Olgun

    2002-03-01

    Acrylamide hydrogels, containing different amounts and types of crosslinkers, were synthesized via γ-irradiation technique. Their swellings in simulated body fluids, such as physiological saline (0.89% NaCl) isoosmotic phosphate buffer at pH 7.4, gastric fluid at pH 1.1 (glycine-HCl), protein (aqueous solution of bovine serum albumin), urine (aqueous solution of urea), glucose and distilled water, were studied. Equilibrium swellings of the hydrogels were changed in the range 27-85 depending upon the fluids, type and amount of crosslinkers. The diffusion exponents were found over half for all hydrogels.

  17. In Vitro Corrosion Study of Friction Stir Processed WE43 Magnesium Alloy in a Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genghua Cao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of friction stir processing (FSP WE43 alloy in a simulated body fluid (SBF was investigated. Micro-galvanic corrosion was the dominated corrosion behavior, and the corrosion resistance of FSP WE43 alloy was improved compared to the cast counterpart. Furthermore, due to the fine-grained and homogeneous microstructure, uniform corrosion morphology was observed on FSP WE43 alloy. According to the tensile properties of specimens with different immersion time intervals, FSP WE43 alloy shows better performance to maintain the mechanical integrity in SBF as compared to the as-cast alloy.

  18. Effect of in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion on polyphenol and polysaccharide content and their biological activities among 22 fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Minjing; Zeng, Jianyuan; Zhai, Lu; Liu, Yuguo; Wu, Hancheng; Zhang, Ruifeng; Li, Zhentao; Xia, Enqin

    2017-12-01

    Polyphenols and polysaccharides, as natural bioactive compounds from common fresh fruits, are concerned in reducing risk of developing obesity and diabetes for human in recent years. The content of polyphenol and polysaccharide, their bioactivities among 22 fruit juices were investigated before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion in present study. After digestion, contents of polyphenol, polysaccharide and their antioxidant activity, the inhibitory activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase significantly increased. Punica granatum Linn and Actinidia globosa C. F. Liang displayed maximal increment up to 2, 0.25 and 1.6 fold in contents of polyphenols and polysaccharides, and the inhibitory activity of α-amylase, respectively. The correlation coefficient between contents and inhibitory activity of α-amylase increased in range of 0.002 to 0.485. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill and Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd exhibited maximum increase in the inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase with lowest contents of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The results indicated that polyphenols and polysaccharides digested synergistically contributing to the inhibitory α-amylase activity, and other responsibly bioactive ingredients for inhibitory α-glucosidase activity would be worthy discussed future. The findings above highlighted some potential application of common fruit juices in controlling hyperglycemia and obesity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. In vitro comparison rate of dental root canal transportation using two single file systems on the simulated resin blocks

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    Mohammad Javad Etesami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important stages in endodontic treatment. Single-file systems save time and reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens. This in vitro study was aimed to compare the rate of canal transportation after the preparation of the stimulated resin root canal with two single-file systems, namely Waveone and Reciproc. Materials and Methods: Thirty stimulated resin root canal blocks with size 8/0. 02 K file were randomly divided into two study groups. The preparation in Group A and Group B was performed using Reciproc and Waveone files, respectively. Pre and post- preparation photographs were taken and the images were superimposed to evaluate the inner and outer wall’s curvature tendency at three points (apical, middle and coronal using AutoCad pragram. Data were analyzed using T-test. Results: Based on the results, the degree of transportation in the inner and outer walls of the canal was less at the level of 3 millimeters (P0.05. Conclusion: Waveone showed better performance in the middle third of canal and this system maybe recommended.

  20. Evaluation studies of persimmon plant (Diospyros kaki) for physiological benefits and bioaccessibility of antioxidants by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Las Heras, Ruth; Pinazo, Alicia; Heredia, Ana; Andrés, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the antioxidant benefits from persimmon leaf tea, fruit and fibres taking into account their changes along gastrointestinal digestion. The evolution of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity was studied using the recent harmonized in vitro protocol published by Minekus et al. (2014). The digestion was performed with and without digestive enzymes. Results showed aqueous leaf extract was richer in antioxidants than the fruit or the extracted fibres. Nevertheless, persimmon-leaf antioxidants were more sensitive to the digestive environment. In general, the oral conditions greatly affected the antioxidants, while gastric digestion led to slight additional losses. The intestinal step enhanced polyphenols and flavonoids solubility coming from the fruit and fibres. Additionally, the presence of digestive enzymes positively contributed to antioxidant release throughout digestion. Finally, the bioaccessibility of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of persimmon fruit were 1.4, 1.0 and 3.8 times higher than in aqueous leaf extract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short communication: Latin-style fresh cheese enhances lactic acid bacteria survival but not Listeria monocytogenes resistance under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C C G; Domingos-Lopes, M F P; Magalhães, V A F; Freitas, D A S R; Coelho, M C; Rosa, H J D; Dapkevicius, M L N E

    2015-07-01

    Different studies in humans have provided evidence about the health benefits of probiotics. However, most probiotic strains do not maintain good viability in the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, Latin-style fresh cheese produced with potential probiotic bacteria was tested to evaluate this cheese type as a food carrier for the delivery of viable microorganisms after exposure to simulated GIT conditions. The resistance of 28 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains and Listeria monocytogenes upon exposure to acidic conditions (pH 2.5) and bile and pancreatic enzymes (0.3% of bile salts and 0.1% of pancreatin) was evaluated in vitro. When compared with fresh cultures, fresh cheese greatly improved LAB survival to simulated GIT conditions, as no loss of viability was observed in either acidic conditions (pH 2.5) or bile salts and pancreatin environment over a 3-h period. In opposition, L. monocytogenes did not survive after 1h under acidic conditions. These data demonstrated that Latin-style fresh cheese could play an important role in probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices, enhancing delivery within the gut and thereby maximizing potential health benefits of LAB. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CPe-III-S Metabolism in Vitro and in Vivo and Molecular Simulation of Its Metabolites Using a p53-R273H Mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhaohui; Wen, Haichao; Wang, Cen; Zhai, Lijuan; Cheng, Aiqing; Kou, Xiaohong

    2016-09-28

    It was previously found that CPe-III-S, synthesized according to the chickpea peptide CPe-III (RQSHFANAQP), exhibited an antiproliferative effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative mechanism of CPe-III-S. CPe-III-S was treated by pepsin and trypsin in a simulated gastrointestinal digestion environment as well as in an animal experiment. With HPLC-ESI-MS analysis, three peptide fragments of Ser-His, His-Phe, and Ala-Asn-Ala-Gln were identified. Ser-His was the only common product from both in vitro and in vivo environments. The specific bindings between three peptides and p53-R273H were performed by molecular docking, and the molecular dynamic simulation between Ser-His and p53-R273H revealed the stability of the binding complex. The binding free energy of the complex was -12.56 ± 1.03 kcal/mol with a reliable hydrogen bond between the ligand and Thr284 of p53. Ser-His may restore mutant p53-R273H activity or inhibit its binding with a downstream signal. This metabolite is a potential anticancer factor for suppressing cell proliferation.

  3. Electrosprayed inulin microparticles for microbiota triggered targeting of colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Arvind K; Sood, Vishesh; Bora, Meghali; Vasita, Rajesh; Katti, Dhirendra S

    2014-11-04

    Inulin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, was acetylated to make it processable by electrospraying, a facile and single step method for microparticle fabrication. Electrospraying process parameters were optimized for fabrication of spherical and monodisperse indomethacin (IDM) loaded inulin acetate (INA) microparticles. The apparent entrapment efficiency of IDM was determined to be 100%, whereas working encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be 35.39 ± 1.63%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed molecular dispersion of IDM in an amorphous state within the INA matrix. Finally, the results from in vitro release study performed in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids demonstrated that IDM was released only in simulated colonic fluid that contained inulinase. Therefore, this study demonstrates that acetylation of inulin does not alter its susceptibility to inulinase and that microparticles fabricated from INA can be developed as a colon targeting drug delivery system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wear assessments of a new cervical spinal disk prosthesis: Influence of loading and kinematic patterns during in vitro wear simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Lyu, Jingtong; Liu, Hao; Rong, Xin; Wang, Beiyu; Hong, Ying; Gong, Quan; Li, Tao; Liu, Limin; Song, Yueming; Cai, Yong; Xu, Wenli

    2015-09-01

    Surgical treatment is one of the effective methods of treatment in cervical spondylosis. The traditional method of operation is decompression fusion; however, this surgery results in restricted movement of cervical vertebra and adjacent segment degeneration. Due to the deficiency of traditional surgery, scholars have widely carried out artificial cervical disk replacement surgery and have achieved good clinical effects. Comparing to the characteristics of the common artificial cervical disk which is used frequently, we developed a new artificial cervical intervertebral disk prosthesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the wear behavior in a cervical total disk replacement system. The total disk replacement system tested consists of a ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene inlay articulating between a Ti6Al4V alloy superior plate and an inferior plate, using a spine wear simulator, per the ISO 18192-1:2011 standard test methods. Three rotations and axial force were applied on each station. The specimens were removed at 5 × 10(5) and 10(6) cycles and at intervals of 10(6) cycles thereafter to determine the actual mass loss. The serum was replaced every 5 × 10(5) cycles. The specimens were changed periodically among the different stations. A mean ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene inlay wear rate of 0.53 mg per million cycles (standard = 0.13 mg per 10(6) cycles) was found after 10(7) cycles. All inferior plates showed slight scratching after 10(7) cycles. The impingement wear simulation introduced here proved to be suitable to predict in vivo impingement behavior in regard to the contact pattern seen on retrieved devices of the Pretic-I disk arthroplasty design in a preclinical test. © IMechE 2015.

  5. Preparation and in vitro-in vivo evaluation of none gastric resident dipyridamole (DIP) sustained-release pellets with enhanced bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lishuang; Luo, Yanfei; Feng, Jia; Xu, Ming; Tao, Xiaoguang; He, Haibing; Tang, Xing

    2012-01-17

    The objective of this study was to develop none gastric resident sustained-release pellets loaded with dipyridamole with a high bioavailability. Two different kinds of core pellets, one containing citric acid as a pH-modifier (CAP) and, the other without pH-modifier (NCAP) were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and then coated with mixtures of enteric soluble and insoluble polymers (referred to as CAP(1) and NCAP(1)) or insoluble polymer alone (referred to as CAP(2) and NCAP(2)). The relative bioavailability of the sustained-release pellets was studied in fasted beagle dogs after oral administration using a commercially available immediate release tablet (IRT) as a reference. The in vitro release, in vivo absorption and in vitro-in vivo correlation were also evaluated. Results revealed that the plasma drug concentrations after administration of CAP(2), NCAP(1) and NCAP(2) were undetectable, indicating that the drug release was almost zero from the preparations throughout the gastro-intestinal tract. The C(max), T(max) and AUC((0→24)) of CAP(1) were 0.78 ± 0.23 (μg/ml), 3.80 ± 0.30 (h), and 6.74 ± 0.47 (μg/mlh), respectively. While the corresponding values were 2.23 ± 0.32 (μg/ml), 3.00 ± 0.44 (h) and 9.42 ± 0.69 (μg/mlh) for IRT. The relative bioavailability of CAP(1) was 71.55% compared with IRT. By combined incorporation of a pH-modifier into the core of pellets to modify the inner micro-environment and employing mixtures of enteric soluble and insoluble polymers as a retarding layer, drugs with high solubility in stomach and limited solubility in small intestine, such as DIP, could be successfully formulated as sustained release preparations with no pH-dependence in drug release and enhanced bioavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In Vitro Dissolution of Fluconazole and Dipyridamole in Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS), Predicting in Vivo Dissolution and Drug-Drug Interaction Caused by Acid-Reducing Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kazuki; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-07-06

    Weakly basic drugs typically exhibit pH-dependent solubility in the physiological pH range, displaying supersaturation or precipitation along the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, their oral bioavailabilities may be affected by coadministration of acid-reducing agents that elevate gastric pH. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a multicompartmental in vitro dissolution apparatus, Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS), in predicting in vivo dissolution of certain oral medications. In vitro dissolution studies of fluconazole, a BCS class I, and dipyridamole, a BCS class II weak bases (class IIb), were performed in the GIS as well as United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus II and compared with the results of clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. In both USP apparatus II and GIS, fluconazole completely dissolved within 60 min regardless of pH, reflecting no DDI between fluconazole and acid-reducing agents in a clinical study. On the other hand, seven-fold and 15-fold higher concentrations of dipyridamole than saturation solubility were observed in the intestinal compartments in GIS with gastric pH 2.0. Precipitation of dipyridamole was also observed in the GIS, and the percentage of dipyridamole in solution was 45.2 ± 7.0%. In GIS with gastric pH 6.0, mimicking the coadministration of acid-reducing agents, the concentration of dipyridamole was equal to its saturation solubility, and the percentage of drug in solution was 9.3 ± 2.7%. These results are consistent with the clinical DDI study of dipyridamole with famotidine, which significantly reduced the Cmax and area under the curve. An In situ mouse infusion study combined with GIS revealed that high concentration of dipyridamole in the GIS enhanced oral drug absorption, which confirmed the supersaturation of dipyridamole. In conclusion, GIS was shown to be a useful apparatus to predict in vivo dissolution for BCS class IIb drugs.

  7. Blanching effect on the bioactive compounds and on the viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG before and after in vitro simulation of the digestive system in jabuticaba juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniane Campos de Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG in jabuticaba juices and its survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, simulated in vitro, was studied. Two juices were prepared: A - with non-blanched fruits, and B - with blanched fruits. LGG was then added and the juices maintained at 8 ºC for 28 days. The control treatment consisted of juices without the added probiotic. The following were determined in the juices: the viability and in vitro survival of LGG, fecal coliforms, Salmonella sp., pH, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS, color, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid. The sensory acceptability was also determined using a 9-point hedonic scale. Blanching interfered (p < 0.05 with the viability of LGG, juice A showing the greatest viability as compared to juice B. After in vitro simulation, the probiotic bacterial count was < 1.0 log CFU mL-1, which demonstrates the low resistance of the strain to the simulated GIT conditions. The juices were conformed to the microbiological standards established by law. The pH, acidity and TSS were influenced by blanching (p < 0.05, with values of 5.03, 0.46% and 15.38 °Brix for juice A and 5.12, 0.66% and 16.05 °Brix for juice B, respectively. The addition of LGG did not influence these characteristics. Only the pH value was influenced by the storage time (p < 0.05, increasing throughout storage. Juice B showed lower luminosity (L* and a greater value for a* as compared to juice A, indicating that the former became darker and redder due to the blanching process. Both juices showed positive values for the b* coordinate. The juice was found to be a good source of polyphenols. Neither the time nor the addition of LGG affected the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic compounds or anthocyanin contents. However, blanching contributed (p < 0.05 to an increase in the contents of these compounds in the juices. Values for antioxidant capacity of 186.20 and 2552.59 u

  8. Development of an in Vitro System to Simulate the Adsorption of Self-Emulsifying Tea (Camellia oleifera Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issara Sramala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tea (Camellia oleifera seed oil was formulated into self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF to enhance the aqueous dispersibility and intestinal retention to achieve higher bioavailability. Self-emulsifying tea seed oils were developed by using different concentrations of lecithin in combination with surfactant blends (Span®80 and Tween®80. The lecithin/surfactant systems were able to provide clear and stable liquid formulations. The SEOF were investigated for physicochemical properties including appearance, emulsion droplets size, PDI and zeta potential. The chemical compositions of tea seed oil and SEOF were compared using GC-MS techniques. In addition, the oil adsorption measurement on artificial membranes was performed using a Franz cell apparatus and colorimetric analysis. The microscopic structure of membranes was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. After aqueous dilution with fed-state simulated gastric fluid (FeSSGF, the droplet size of all SEOF was close to 200 nm with low PDI values and the zeta potential was negative. GC-MS chromatograms revealed that the chemical compositions of SEOF were not significantly different from that of the original tea seed oil. The morphological study showed that only the SEOF could form film layers. The oil droplets were extracted both from membrane treated with tea seed oil and the SEOF in order to evaluate the chemical compositions by GC-MS.

  9. An in vitro assessment of liposomal topotecan simulating metronomic chemotherapy in combination with radiation in tumor-endothelial spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Amar; Fugit, Kyle D; Sethi, Pallavi; McGarry, Ronald C; Anderson, Bradley D; Upreti, Meenakshi

    2015-10-15

    Low dose metronomic chemotherapy (LDMC) refers to prolonged administration of low dose chemotherapy designed to minimize toxicity and target the tumor endothelium, causing tumor growth inhibition. Topotecan (TPT) when administered at its maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is often associated with systemic hematological toxicities. Liposomal encapsulation of TPT enhances efficacy by shielding it from systemic clearance, allowing greater uptake and extended tissue exposure in tumors. Extended release of TPT from liposomal formulations also has the potential to mimic metronomic therapies with fewer treatments. Here we investigate potential toxicities of equivalent doses of free and actively loaded liposomal TPT (LTPT) and compare them to a fractionated low dose regimen of free TPT in tumor-endothelial spheroids (TES) with/without radiation exposure for a prolonged period of 10 days. Using confocal microscopy, TPT fluorescence was monitored to determine the accumulation of drug within TES. These studies showed TES, being more reflective of the in vivo tumor microenvironment, were more sensitive to LTPT in comparison to free TPT with radiation. More importantly, the response of TES to low-dose metronomic TPT with radiation was comparable to similar treatment with LTPT. This TES study suggests nanoparticle formulations designed for extended release of drug can simulate LDMC in vivo.

  10. In-vitro biodegradation and corrosion-assisted cracking of a coated magnesium alloy in modified-simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Sajjad; Singh Raman, R K

    2017-09-01

    A calcium phosphate coating was directly synthesized on AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy. Resistance of this coating to corrosion in a modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF) was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Mechanical properties of the bare and coated alloy were investigated using slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) and fatigue testing in air and m-SBF. Very little is reported in the literature on human-body-fluid-assisted cracking of Mg alloys, viz., resistance to corrosion fatigue (CF) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This study has a particular emphasis on the effect of bio-compatible coatings on mechanical and electrochemical degradations of Mg alloys for their applications as implants. The results suggest the coating to improve the general as well as pitting corrosion resistance of the alloy. The coating also provides visible improvement in resistance to SCC, but little improvement in CF resistance. This is explained on the basis of pitting behaviour in the presence and absence of the coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and phosphor storage plate to detect simulated occlusal secondary caries under amalgam restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shahidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT with phosphor storage plate (PSP in detection of simulated occlusal secondary caries. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro descriptive-comparative study, a total of 80 slots of class I cavities were prepared on 80 extracted human premolars. Then, 40 teeth were randomly selected out of this sample and artificial carious lesions were created on these teeth by a round diamond bur no. 1/2. All 80 teeth were restored with amalgam fillings and radiographs were taken, both with PSP system and CBCT. All images were evaluated by three calibrated observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two systems. SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was adopted for statistical analysis. The difference between Az value of bitewing and CBCT methods were compared by pairwise comparison method. The inter- and intra-operator agreement was assessed by kappa analysis (P < 0.05. Results: The mean A z value for bitewings and CBCT was 0.903 and 0.994, respectively. Significant differences were found between PSP and CBCT (P = 0.010. The kappa value for inter-observer agreement was 0.68 and 0.76 for PSP and CBCT, respectively. The kappa value for intra-observer agreement was 0.698 (observer 1, P = 0.000, 0.766 (observer 2, P = 0.000 and 0.716 (observer 3, P = 0.000 in PSP method, and 0.816 (observer 1, P = 0.000, 0.653 (observer 2, P = 0.000 and 0.744 (observer 3, P = 0.000 in CBCT method. Conclusion: This in vitro study, with a limited number of samples, showed that the New Tom VGI Flex CBCT system was more accurate than the PSP in detecting the simulated small secondary occlusal caries under amalgam restoration.

  12. Solubility of nano-sized metal oxides evaluated by using in vitro simulated lung and gastrointestinal fluids: implication for health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Laijin; Yu, Yanlin; Lian, Hong-zhen; Hu, Xin; Fu, Haomin; Chen, Yi-jun

    2017-11-01

    The solubility of nano-sized metal oxides (nZnO, nCuO, nTiO2, nCeO2, and nFe3O4, 17-42 nm) and some non-nano-mineral powders (ZnO, ZnSiO3, ZnS, and CuO) were evaluated by using gastrointestinal solubility bioavailability research consortium (SBRC), in vitro gastrointestinal (IVG) method, pulmonary artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF), and Gamble solution method, respectively. It is found that these nano-sized metal oxides aggregated more or less when suspending in the simulated biological fluids analyzed by dynamic light scattering (2 mg L-1) and UV-Vis spectrometry (100 mg L-1). The aggregation and sedimentation of nano-metal oxides in a simulated biofluid are influenced by its surface property and the ingredient of the liquid. The dissolution in fluids may decrease the aggregating radius of a nano-metal oxide. In return, the aggregative effect can influence the solubility of metal elements and result in their weakened bioaccessibility. The suspending stability was consistent in the order of nFe3O4 < nCuO < nTiO2 < nCeO2 < nZnO in all the simulated biological fluids. Nano-ZnO and nCuO showed higher gastrointestinal and pulmonary bioaccessibility than nFe3O4, nTiO2, and nCeO2. The further comparisons on the bioaccessibility for nCuO and nZnO with non-nano-powder CuO and ZnO indicated that the aggregating size in suspension could play more important role in influencing the bioaccessibility than single particle size does. The present study reveals that aggregation of all studied nano-sized metal oxides occurred in body physiologic fluids and that nZnO and nCuO were easily dissolved in simulated physiologic fluids, suggesting more potential health risks from nZnO and nCuO's exposure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. In-vitro mapping of E-fields induced near pacemaker leads by simulated MR gradient fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza Gonzalo G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers is generally contraindicated but some clinicians condone scanning certain patients. We assessed the risk of inducing unintended cardiac stimulation by measuring electric fields (E induced near lead tips by a simulated MRI gradient system. The objectives of this study are to map magnetically induced E near distal tips of leads in a saline tank to determine the spatial distribution and magnitude of E and compare them with E induced by a pacemaker pulse generator (PG. Methods We mapped magnetically induced E with 0.1 mm resolution as close as 1 mm from lead tips. We used probes with two straight electrodes (e.g. wire diameter of 0.2 mm separated by 0.9 mm. We generated magnetic flux density (B with a Helmholtz coil throughout 0.6% saline in a 24 cm diameter tank with (dB/dt of 1 T/sec (1 kHz sinusoidal waveform. Separately, we measured E near the tip of leads when connected to a PG set to a unipolar mode. Measurements were non-invasive (not altering the leads or PG under study. Results When scaled to 30 T/s (a clinically relevant value, magnetically-induced E exceeded the E produced by a PG. The magnetically-induced E only occurred when B was coincident with or within 15 msec of implantable pacemaker's pulse. Conclusions Potentially hazardous situations are possible during an MR scan due to gradient fields. Unintended stimulation can be induced via abandoned leads and leads connected to a pulse generator with loss of hermetic seal at the connector. Also, pacemaker-dependent patients can receive drastically altered pacing pulses.

  14. Fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth filled with Biodentine and white mineral trioxide aggregate - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth filled with Biodentine (BD) and white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) as pulp space barriers for regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Sixty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were divided into four groups of 15 teeth each. Positive control teeth received no treatment. The remaining teeth were prepared until a size 6 Peeso (1.7 mm) could be passed 1 mm beyond the apex. Then, an engineering twist drill of 3 mm diameter was used to extend the preparation of the canal 3 mm below CEJ. The root canals were irrigated and disinfected according to AAE considerations for REPs. The canals were filled with either BD or WMTA. The negative control canals were left unfilled. The coronal access cavities were restored with glass ionomer followed by composite resin. The teeth were placed in phosphate-buffered saline solution and stored for 12 months. Each specimen was then subjected to fracture testing using a universal testing machine. The peak load to fracture and the fracture resistance were recorded, and the data were analysed statistically. The positive control group had the highest fracture resistance and differed significantly (P  0.05). Considering the risk of cervical root fracture for pulpless infected immature teeth treated with REPs, after 12 months, there was no difference between WMTA and BD regarding the resistance to root fracture. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Fermentative digestion in the ostrich ( Struthio camelus var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was studied in vitro to assess the possible contribution of microbial fermentation to the energy economy of growing ostrich chicks. Structure, capacity and contents of the gastro-intestinal track were examined to identify major sites of microbial activity and VFA energy yield.

  16. Delineating residues for haemolytic activities of snake venom cardiotoxin 1 from Naja naja as probed by molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro validations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Biswajit; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2017-02-01

    Cardiotoxins (CTXs) are single polypeptide chain consisting of 59-62 amino acids with four disulfide bridges and globular proteins of simple β-sheet folds. The CTXs are one of principal toxic components causing haemolysis and damaging various cells and belong to three-finger toxin (TFT) superfamily of snake venoms. However, there is no natural or synthetic small molecular inhibitor to the protein toxins to date. In the present study, modes of interaction of cardiotoxin 1 (CTX1) from Indian cobra (Naja naja) with heterogeneous erythrocyte membrane (EM) model system have been extensively examined by using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in near physiological conditions and comprehensive analyses of the MD data revealed two distinct principal regions ('head groove' and 'loop groove') of the protein toxin for establishing structural interactions with the EM system. Moreover, combined analyses of data from high-throughput virtual screening of NCI small molecular database, in vitro haemolytic assays for top-hits of the chemical compounds against crude venom of Naja naja and as well CTXs purified from the venom and pharmacokinetic examinations on the chemical compounds retarding haemolytic activities of CTXs suggested that Etidronic acid and Zoledronic acid are promising prototypic chemical inhibitors to CTXs of snake venoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Iron-binding properties of sugar cane yeast peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Lucia; Ponezi, Alexandre N; Milani, Raquel F; Nunes da Silva, Vera S; Sonia de Souza, A; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The extract of sugar-cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was enzymatically hydrolysed by Alcalase, Protex or Viscozyme. Hydrolysates were fractionated using a membrane ultrafiltration system and peptides smaller than 5kDa were evaluated for iron chelating ability through measurements of iron solubility, binding capacity and dialyzability. Iron-chelating peptides were isolated using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). They showed higher content of His, Lys, and Arg than the original hydrolysates. In spite of poor iron solubility, hydrolysates of Viscozyme provided higher iron dialyzability than those of other enzymes. This means that more chelates of iron or complexes were formed and these kept the iron stable during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion in vitro, improving its dialyzability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Interaction between fed and gastric media (ensure Plus) and different hypromellose based caffeine controlled release tablets; comparison and mechanistic study of caffeine release in fed and fasted media versus water using USP dissolution apparatus 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Frans; Holm, Per; Larsen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    and fasted gastro-intestinal dissolution conditions. The effect of tablet reciprocation rate (dip speed) in dissolution media (10 and 15 dips per minute) and media (water, fed and fasted) on caffeine release rate from – and erosion rate of – 100, 4000 and 15,000 mPa s HPMC viscosity tablets was investigated....... Using fasted media instead of water slightly decreases caffeine release from 100 and 4000 mPa s HPMC viscosity tablets as well as erosion rates, while 15,000 mPa s tablets remain unaffected. Fed compared to fasted media decreases caffeine release rate, and the food effect is greater for the 100 mPa s......The aim of the study was to investigate caffeine release in fed and fasted state media from three controlled release matrix tablets containing different HPMC viscosity grades. The biorelevant in vitro dissolution methods utilize the USP 3 dissolution apparatus and biorelevant media to simulate fed...

  19. Design of lipid-based formulations for oral administration of poorly water-soluble drug fenofibrate: effects of digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Kazi

    2012-06-01

    Lipid-based drug carriers are likely to have influence on bioavailability through enhanced solubilization of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. The study was designed to investigate the lipid formulation digestibility in the simulated gastro intestinal media. Fenofibrate was formulated in representative Type II, IIIA, IIIB and IV self-emulsifying/microemulsifying lipid delivery systems (SEDDS and SMEDDS designed for oral administration) using various medium-chain glyceride components, non-ionic surfactants and cosolvents as excipients. Soybean oil was used only as an example of long-chain triglycerides to compare the effects of formulation with their counterparts. The formulations were subjected to in vitro digestion specifically to predict the fate of the drug in the gastro intestinal tract after exposure of the formulation to pancreatic enzymes and bile. In vitro digestion experiments were carried out using a pH-stat maintained at pH 7.5 for 30 min using intestinal fluids simulating the fed and fasted states. The digestion rate was faster and almost completed in Type II and IIIA systems. Most of the surfactants used in the studies are digestible. However, the high concentration of surfactant and/or cosolvent used in Type IIIB or IV systems lowered the rate of digestion. The digestion of medium-chain triglycerides was faster than long-chain triglycerides, but kept comparatively less drug in the post digestion products. Medium-chain mixed glycerides are good solvents for fenofibrate as rapidly digested but to improve fenofibrate concentration in post digestion products the use of long-chain mixed glycerides are suggested for further investigations.

  20. Investigating the impact of drug crystallinity in amorphous tacrolimus capsules on pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence using discriminatory in vitro dissolution testing and PBPK modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Hitesh S; Trasi, Niraj S; Sun, Dajun D; Chow, Edwin C Y; Wen, Hong; Zhang, Xinyuan; Gao, Yi; Taylor, Lynne S

    2017-12-28

    Delivering a drug in amorphous form in a formulated product is a strategy used to enhance the apparent solubility of a drug substance and its oral bioavailability. Drug crystallization in such products may occur during the manufacturing process or upon storage, reducing the solubility advantage of the amorphous drug. However, the impact of partial drug crystallization in the drug product on the resulting bioavailability and pharmacokinetics is unknown. In this study, dissolution testing of commercial tacrolimus capsules (which are formulated to contain amorphous drug), both fresh and those containing different amounts of crystalline drug, was conducted using both USP and non-compendial dissolution tests with different dissolution media and volumes. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption model was developed to predict the impact of crystallinity extent on the oral absorption of the products and to evaluate the discriminatory ability of the different dissolution methods. Virtual bioequivalence simulations between partially crystallized tacrolimus capsules versus fresh Prograf or generic tacrolimus capsules were performed using the PBPK model and in vitro dissolution data of the various fresh and partially crystallized capsules under USP and non-compendial dissolution conditions. The results suggest that compendial dissolution tests may not be sufficiently discriminatory with respect to the presence of crystallinity in an amorphous formulation. Non-sink dissolution tests using lower dissolution volumes generate more discriminatory profiles that predict different pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus capsules containing different extents of drug crystallinity. In conclusion, the PBPK modeling approach can be used to assess the impact of partial drug crystallinity in the formulated product and to guide the development of appropriate dissolution methods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. 3D bone mineral density distribution and shape reconstruction of the proximal femur from a single simulated DXA image: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmarsh, Tristan; Humbert, Ludovic; De Craene, Mathieu; del Río Barquero, Luis M.; Fritscher, Karl; Schubert, Rainer; Eckstein, Felix; Link, Thomas; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2010-03-01

    Area Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is an established criterion in the evaluation of hip fracture risk. The evaluation from these planar images, however, is limited to 2D while it has been shown that proper 3D assessment of both the shape and the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) distribution improves the fracture risk estimation. In this work we present a method to reconstruct both the 3D bone shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from a single DXA image. A statistical model of shape and a separate statistical model of the BMD distribution were automatically constructed from a set of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans. The reconstruction method incorporates a fully automatic intensity based 3D-2D registration process, maximizing the similarity between the DXA and a digitally reconstructed radiograph of the combined model. For the construction of the models, an in vitro dataset of QCT scans of 60 anatomical specimens was used. To evaluate the reconstruction accuracy, experiments were performed on simulated DXA images from the QCT scans of 30 anatomical specimens. Comparisons between the reconstructions and the same subject QCT scans showed a mean shape accuracy of 1.2mm, and a mean density error of 81mg/cm3. The results show that this method is capable of accurately reconstructing both the 3D shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from DXA images used in clinical routine, potentially improving the diagnosis of osteoporosis and fracture risk assessments at a low radiation dose and low cost.

  2. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with Normal Saline, Calcium Chloride or KY Jelly as Apical Plug in Simulated Open Apices: An In vitro Microleakage Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Akhavan, Hengameh; Ghasemi, Sara; Khodaei, Fatemeh; Tour Savadkouhi, Sohrab; Dianat, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) mixed with normal saline has short working time, delayed setting time, and poor consistency when used as an apical plug. A preliminary study suggested that substituting normal saline with KY Jelly or 5% calcium chloride (CaCl2) as a vehicle expedites the setting time of MTA. The present in vitro study compared the microleakage of ProRoot MTA mixed with normal saline (MS) to that of ProRoot MTA mixed with KY Jelly and/or 5% CaCl2 in simulated canals with open apices. Materials and methods: Thirty six single-rooted extracted human teeth were cleaned and shaped with ProTaper rotary system to make 36 standardized artificially created open apices. Teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=10) and two control groups (n=3). In group 1, MTA was mixed with normal saline (MS) and placed into the canals to form 4 to 5 mm apical plugs. In group 2, MTA was mixed with 5% CaCl2 (MC) and in group 3, MTA was mixed with KY Jelly (MK). The other two groups served as positive and negative controls. The remaining canal spaces in the experimental groups were backfilled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha without sealer. Dye penetration and clearing was used to evaluate the sealing ability of each group. The samples were then examined under stereomicroscope to measure the microleakage of different MTA mixtures in mm. Data were statistically analyzed using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for determination of normal distribution and then by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests to detect any significance. Results: Positive and negative controls responded as expected. The MS group showed the least mean dye penetration value. There was a significant difference between MS with other groups (PMTA has the least amount of microleakage in canals with open apices. PMID:24396375

  3. Comparative study of three kinds of fibula cutting guides in reshaping fibula for the reconstruction of mandible: An accuracy simulation study in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwei; Li, Bei; Xie, Rui; Wu, Qin; Zhang, Li; Bai, Shizhu

    2017-08-01

    In order to get predictable reassembling and higher accuracy in the reconstruction of the mandible, we designed three kinds of fibula cutting guides: (1) Two-edge wide groove guide (WGG); (2) Two-edge narrow groove guide (NGG); and (3) One-edge guide (OEG). The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of fibula remodelling using the three kinds of fibula cutting guides above in a simulation procedure in vitro. Cutting and reshaping of fibula analogs were guided by the three kinds of guides mentioned above. Then the fibula segments were glued together and scanned with CT, and finally the 3D accuracy of fibula reshaping was compared to the virtual plan. Comparisons were made with regard to planned versus actual fibula segment length and angle projections in 3 planes. There were no significant differences in length change among the WGG group, NGG group and OEG group. There were very significant differences in angle projections in 3 planes between every 2 of the 3 groups. 3 kinds of guides do not affect the length of fibula segments. Two-edge narrow groove guides (NGG) caused the smallest error among the 3 kinds of guides. The error caused by two-edge wide groove guide (WGG) was similar to that caused by one-edge guide (OEG). The conclusion was in consistent with the referred groove-restriction-effect in the section of discussion. We suggest that the two-edge narrow groove guide (NGG) is the superior choice for fibula cutting in reconstruction of the mandible. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eosinophil Infiltration of the Stomach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eosinophil infiltration of the stomach or gastro-intestinal tract is an unusual condition, in which an inflammatory infiltrative condition may present as a tumorous mass simulating a malignant growth. Although the condition was first described in 1937 and a number of cases have since been reported, not a great deal is known ...

  5. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, A.M.; Nauta, A.; van den Heuvel, E.G.H.M.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2014-01-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to

  6. Listeria monocytogenes Strains Underrepresented during Selective Enrichment with an ISO Method Might Dominate during Passage through Simulated Gastric Fluid and In Vitro Infection of Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilelidou, Evangelia; Karmiri, Christina-Vasiliki; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Drosinos, Eleftherios

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Various Listeria monocytogenes strains may contaminate a single food product, potentially resulting in simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains. However, due to bias in strain recovery, L. monocytogenes strains isolated from foods by selective enrichment (SE) might not always represent those that can better survive the immune system of a patient. We investigated the effect of cocultivation in tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract (TSB-Y) at 10°C for 8 days on (i) the detection of L. monocytogenes strains during SE with the ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 protocol and (ii) the in vitro virulence of strains toward the Caco-2 human colon epithelial cancer cell line following exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF; pH 2.0)-HCl (37°C). We determined whether the strains which were favored by SE would be effective competitors under the conditions of challenges related to gastrointestinal passage of the pathogen. Interstrain competition of L. monocytogenes in TSB-Y determined the relative population of each strain at the beginning of SE. This in turn impacted the outcome of SE (i.e., favoring survival of competitors with better fitness) and the levels exposed subsequently to SGF. However, strong growth competitors could be outcompeted after SGF exposure and infection of Caco-2 cells by strains outgrown in TSB-Y and underdetected (or even missed) during enrichment. Our data demonstrate a preferential selection of certain L. monocytogenes strains during enrichments, often not reflecting a selective advantage of strains during infection. These findings highlight a noteworthy scenario associated with the difficulty of matching the source of infection (food) with the L. monocytogenes isolate appearing to be the causative agent during listeriosis outbreak investigations. IMPORTANCE This report is relevant to understanding the processes involved in selection and prevalence of certain L. monocytogenes strains in different environments (i.e., foods or

  7. Synthesis of quinoline attached-furan-2(3H-ones having anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties with reduced gastro-intestinal toxicity and lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Mymoona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 3-[2-chloroquinolin-3-ylmethylene]-5-aryl-furan-2(3H-ones {3(a-p} were synthesized. The required 3-(substitutedbenzoyl propionic acids {2(a-d} were prepared under Friedal Craft acylation reaction conditions. The substituted 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehydes {1(a-d} were synthesized by reaction of substitutedphenylethanone-oxime with phosphorus oxychloride in presence of dimethyl formamide using the Vilsmeir Haack reaction method. These compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities along with their ulcerogenic and lipid peroxidation potentials. The compounds that showed significant anti-inflammatory activity were further screened for their analgesic activity. The compounds were less toxic in terms of ulcerogenicity as compared to a standard, which was also supported by lipid peroxidation studies. The antibacterial activities were performed against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3f, 3n and 3o showed significant activity against both S. aureus and E. coli having an MIC value of 6.25μg mL-1.

  8. Exploration of linear modelling techniques and their combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines to predict gastro-intestinal absorption of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Coomans, D; Vander Heyden, Y

    2007-01-04

    In general, linear modelling techniques such as multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS), are used to model QSAR data. This type of data can be very complex and linear modelling techniques often model only a limited part of the information captured in the data. In this study, it was tried to combine linear techniques with the flexible non-linear technique multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). Models were built using an MLR model, combined with either a stepwise procedure or a genetic algorithm for variable selection, a PCR model or a PLS model as starting points for the MARS algorithm. The descriptive and predictive power of the models was evaluated in a QSAR context and compared to the performances of the individual linear models and the single MARS model. In general, the combined methods resulted in significant improvements compared to the linear models and can be considered valuable techniques in modelling complex QSAR data. For the used data set the best model was obtained using a combination of PLS and MARS. This combination resulted in a model with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.90 and a cross-validation error, evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation of 9.9%, pointing at good descriptive and high predictive properties.

  9. The efficacy of a combined oral formulation of derquantel-abamectin against anthelmintic resistant gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Hodge, Andrew; Noé, Laura; Winstanley, Dana; Bartley, David J; Taylor, Mike; Morgan, Colin; Fraser, Sarah J; Maeder, Steven; Bartram, David

    2012-10-26

    The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the efficacy of a combined formulation (Startect(®) Dual Active Oral Solution for Sheep, Pfizer Animal Health) of derquantel (DQL) and abamectin (ABA) for the treatment of: (1) sheep experimentally infected with a moxidectin (MOX)-resistant isolate of Teladorsagia circumcincta, and (2) multi-drug resistant gastrointestinal nematode parasites under UK field conditions. In the first study, a total of 40 animals were allocated into 4 treatment groups, and were either left untreated or treated with DQL+ABA, MOX or ABA. Faecal samples were collected on days 1-5 and on day 7 after treatment to examine the reduction in faecal egg excretion and to evaluate the egg viability. On day 14 post treatment all animals were euthanised for abomasal worm counts. There was a 100% reduction in geometric mean worm counts for the DQL+ABA treated animals compared to the untreated control animals (P0.05) and ABA-treated (P=0.0004) animals was 12.4% and 71.8%, respectively. The data from the egg hatch assay (EHA) indicated that in the MOX-treated and the ABA-treated animals, the majority of the eggs hatched after treatment. In the field study, performed on four farms, animals were allocated into 6 groups of 11-15 animals each in order to conduct a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), based on arithmetic mean egg counts. One group of animals remained untreated, whereas the other animals were treated with DQL+ABA, MOX, fenbendazole (FBZ), levamisole (LV) or ivermectin (IVM). On each of the farms the reduction in egg excretion after treatment with FBZ, LV or IVM was below 95.0%, indicating anthelmintic resistance. The efficacy of DQL+ABA ranged from 99.1 to 100%, yielding significantly lower egg counts compared to the untreated control group (P ≤ 0.003). For MOX the egg counts were significantly (P ≤ 0.003) lower compared to the untreated group at each farm, with reductions varying from 98.2 to 100%. The post-treatment copro-cultures for larva identification indicated that T. circumcincta was the most abundant worm species after treatment (52-99% of the larvae). The results of these studies confirm the high efficacy of the DQL+ABA combination formulation against anthelmintic resistant nematodes in the UK. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Occurrence of Enterocin A Gene among Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Gastro-Intestinal Tract and Antimicrobial Effect of this Bacteriocin Against Clinical Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Salehi

    2014-06-01

    Materials and Methods: In this study occurrence of class II enterocin structural gene (enterocin A in a target of 42 Enterococcus faecium strains, isolated from gastrointestinal tract of animal have been surveyed. E. faecium identification and occurrence of enterocin A gene was performed by PCR method. Cell-free neutralized supernatant of gene positive strains was used to test bacteriocin production and antimicrobial spectrum of supernatant was assayed by wall diffusion method on the gram-positive and negative indicators bacteriaResults: Based on our results, 73.8% of isolated strains had enterocin A gene that they inhibited growth of indicator bacteria such as clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteric PTCC1709, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis.Conclusions: Studied enterocins have growth inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria especially against pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, these strains have the potential to explore and use as, alternative antimicrobial compound and bio-preservatives in food or feed or as probiotics.

  11. Drinking Water Quality and the Geospatial Distribution of Notified Gastro-Intestinal Infections / Kvaliteta Pitne Vode in Geoprostorska Porazdelitev Prijavljenih Črevesnih Okužb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grilc Eva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Uvod. Tudi kratkotrajna obdobja fekalne kontaminacije pitne vode lahko pri uporabnikih povzročijo bolezen. Povezavo med slabo mikrobiološko kvaliteto pitne vode in boleznijo lahko hitro odkrijemo med hidričnimi izbruhi. Vpliv zaradi prisotnosti E.coli neskladnih vodnih vzorcev, odvzetih v okviru rednega monitoringa, na incidence akutnih gastroenterokolitisov še ni raziskan.

  12. Clinical benefit of systemic treatment in patients with advanced pancreatic and gastro-intestinal neuroendocrine tumours according to ESMO-MCBS and ASCO framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hosson, L D; Veenendaal, L M van; Schuller, Y; Zandee, W T; de Herder, W W; Tesselaar, M E T; Klümpen, H J; Walenkamp, A M E

    2017-09-26

    BackgroundAssessment of clinical benefit of systemic treatments of rare diseases including gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) is challenging. Recently several tools have been developed to grade clinical benefit of cancer drugs. European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) has developed the ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS). The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) developed and revised the ASCO framework consisting of the Net Health Benefit (NHB) score juxtaposed against the costs of the treatment. In this review we graded systemic treatments for GEP-NET patients with both frameworks.MethodsThe electronic databases (PubMed, Embase) were searched for papers reporting comparative trials, conducted in adult GEP-NET patients in the English language. Papers were assessed according to the ESMO-MCBS and the NHB part of the ASCO revised Framework (NHB-ASCO-F) by 4 independent assessors, discrepancies were discussed.ResultsThe search yielded 32 trials of which 6 trials were eligible for grading with the ESMO-MCBS resulting in scores of 2 or 3. Eight trials were eligible for grading with the NHB-ASCO-F; resulting in scores between 37.6 and 57.4. Trials that were not primary assessable by the tools were analysed separately. Consensus between assessors was reached in 68% of trials with the ESMO-MCBS and in 23% of trials with the NHB-ASCO-F.ConclusionThe currently used systemic treatments for GEP-NET patients had low scores according to the NHB-ASCO-F and none could be graded as meaningful clinical beneficial according to the ESMO-MCBS. Despite the low incidence, the heterogeneous patient population and relatively long natural course of NET, future studies on new treatment modalities should aim for high clinical benefit outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James A.; Amat, Christina B.; Buret, Andre G.

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host’s immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed. PMID:26569316

  14. Pharmacokinetics of sequential intravenous and enteral fluconazole in critically ill surgical patients with invasive mycoses and compromised gastro-intestinal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijk, S L; Gyssens, I C; Mouton, J W; Verbrugh, H A; Touw, D J; Bruining, H A

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the pharmacokinetics of sequential intravenous and enteral fluconazole in the serum of surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients with deep mycoses. (2) To determine the concentrations of fluconazole reached at the site of infection. (3) To determine if enteral

  15. Associations between extreme precipitation and acute gastro-intestinal illness due to cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in an urban Canadian drinking water system (1997-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Bimal K; Takaro, Tim K; Balshaw, Robert; Otterstatter, Michael; Mak, Sunny; Lem, Marcus; Zubel, Marc; Lysyshyn, Mark; Clarkson, Len; Edwards, Joanne; Fleury, Manon D; Henderson, Sarah B; Galanis, Eleni

    2017-10-01

    Drinking water related infections are expected to increase in the future due to climate change. Understanding the current links between these infections and environmental factors is vital to understand and reduce the future burden of illness. We investigated the relationship between weekly reported cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis (n = 7,422), extreme precipitation (>90th percentile), drinking water turbidity, and preceding dry periods in a drinking water system located in greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (1997-2009) using distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression models adjusted for seasonality, secular trend, and the effect of holidays on reporting. We found a significant increase in cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis 4-6 weeks after extreme precipitation. The effect was greater following a dry period. Similarly, extreme precipitation led to significantly increased turbidity only after prolonged dry periods. Our results suggest that the risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis increases with extreme precipitation, and that the effects are more pronounced after a prolonged dry period. Given that extreme precipitation events are expected to increase with climate change, it is important to further understand the risks from these events, develop planning tools, and build resilience to these future risks.

  16. Biological control of infective larvae of a gastro-intestinal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta) and a small lungworm (Muellerius capillaris) by Duddingtonia flagrans in goat faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraud, C; Chartier, C

    2003-01-01

    The high prevalence of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes in French grazing dairy goat flocks led to a search for nematode-control schemes based on integrated approaches with non-chemical options, like vaccination, grazing management, or biological control using nematophagous fungi. The effect of the daily feeding of goats with spores of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans on third-stage larvae (L3) of Teladorsagia circumcincta was examined in faecal cultures. In addition, the effect of D. flagrans on the survival of first-stage larvae (L1) of Muellerius capillaris was tested. Twenty-two culled dairy goats previously raised in a zero-grazing system were twice infected at monthly intervals with 5,000 and then 7,500 T. circumcincta L3. Eight animals were infected with a benzimidazole-susceptible (BZs) strain while the remainder received a benzimidazole-resistant one (BZr). Six culled goats naturally infected with M. capillaris were purchased from private farms. All the goats were divided in two groups, one group receiving daily 5 x 10(5) chlamydospores of D. flagrans/kg body weight per goat for seven consecutive days in the food, the other group acting as control. For T. circumcincta-infected goats, individual egg counts and coprocultures (13 days, 25 degrees C) followed by L3 extraction with the Baermann method were performed. For M. capillaris-infected goats, extraction of L1 with the Baermann apparatus was individually performed on day 0 and after coprocultures on days 7, 10 and 14. Reductions in percentage development of T. circumcincta L3 in fungus groups compared with control groups ranged from 84% (BZs strain) to 90% (BZr strain). A decrease in M. capillaris L1 recovery was noted on days 7 and 10 (a reduction of 70% compared with day 0) and on day 14 (85%), but this pattern was similar in both groups, whether receiving the fungus or not. At the dosage of 5 x 10(5) spores/kg body weight, D. flagrans was highly effective in reducing the larval development of T. circumcincta in goats faeces. In contrast, the fungus did not reduce M. capillaris L1 survival in faeces in our conditions.

  17. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Cotton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host’s immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed.

  18. Impact of inulin and okara on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product and probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bedani, Raquel [UNESP; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio [UNESP; Isay Saad, Susana Marta

    2013-01-01

    The effect of inulin and/or okara flour on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product (FSP) and on probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated throughout 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Employing a 22 design, four FSP trials were produced from soymilk fermented with ABT-4 culture (La-5, Bb-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus): FSP (control); FSP-I (with inulin, 3 g/100 mL of soymilk); FSP-O (w...

  19. Morphological and physiological changes in mature in vitro neuronal networks towards exposure to short-, middle- or long-term simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Giuseppe; Samari, Nada; Quintens, Roel; de Saint-Georges, Louis; Meloni, Mariantonia; Baatout, Sarah; Van Oostveldt, Patrick; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the current international space programmes is to investigate the possible effects of the space environment on the crew health. The aim of this work was to assess the particular effects of simulated microgravity on mature primary neuronal networks and specially their plasticity and connectivity. For this purpose, primary mouse neurons were first grown for 10 days as a dense network before being placed in the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), simulating microgravity. These cultures were then used to investigate the impact of short- (1 h), middle- (24 h) and long-term (10 days) exposure to microgravity at the level of neurite network density, cell morphology and motility as well as cytoskeleton properties in established two-dimensional mature neuronal networks. Image processing analysis of dense neuronal networks exposed to simulated microgravity and their subsequent recovery under ground conditions revealed different neuronal responses depending on the duration period of exposure. After short- and middle-term exposures to simulated microgravity, changes in neurite network, neuron morphology and viability were observed with significant alterations followed by fast recovery processes. Long exposure to simulated microgravity revealed a high adaptation of single neurons to the new gravity conditions as well as a partial adaptation of neuronal networks. This latter was concomitant to an increase of apoptosis. However, neurons and neuronal networks exposed for long-term to simulated microgravity required longer recovery time to re-adapt to the ground gravity. In conclusion, a clear modulation in neuronal plasticity was evidenced through morphological and physiological changes in primary neuronal cultures during and after simulated microgravity exposure. These changes were dependent on the duration of exposure to microgravity.

  20. Propagation of uncertainty in nasal spray in vitro performance models using Monte Carlo simulation: Part II. Error propagation during product performance modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changning; Doub, William H; Kauffman, John F

    2010-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were applied to investigate the propagation of uncertainty in both input variables and response measurements on model prediction for nasal spray product performance design of experiment (DOE) models in the first part of this study, with an initial assumption that the models perfectly represent the relationship between input variables and the measured responses. In this article, we discard the initial assumption, and extended the Monte Carlo simulation study to examine the influence of both input variable variation and product performance measurement variation on the uncertainty in DOE model coefficients. The Monte Carlo simulations presented in this article illustrate the importance of careful error propagation during product performance modeling. Our results show that the error estimates based on Monte Carlo simulation result in smaller model coefficient standard deviations than those from regression methods. This suggests that the estimated standard deviations from regression may overestimate the uncertainties in the model coefficients. Monte Carlo simulations provide a simple software solution to understand the propagation of uncertainty in complex DOE models so that design space can be specified with statistically meaningful confidence levels. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  1. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by acarbose addition during two nutritional types of simulated severe subacute ruminal acidosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Liu, Junhua; Yin, Yuyang; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-10-01

    Little information is available on whether or not the effect of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on the prevention of ruminal acidosis is influenced by the type of diet during ruminant feeding. This study was conducted to explore the effect of acarbose addition on the prevention of severe subacute ruminal acidosis induced by either cracked wheat or beet pulp in vitro. Cracked wheat and beet pulp were fermented in vitro by rumen microorganisms obtained from three dairy cows. When cracked wheat was used as the substrate and fermented for 24 h, compared with the control, acarbose addition decreased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, and lactate (P  0.05) on the fermentation parameters and the Chao 1 value, the Shannon index, and the proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. In general, these findings indicate that acarbose had more effects on ruminal fermentation when wheat was used as the substrate, whereas it exhibited little effect on ruminal fermentation when beet pulp was used as the substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of Genipin Cross-Linked Microcapsule for Oral Delivery of Live Bacterial Cells and Other Biotherapeutics: Preparation and In Vitro Analysis in Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral therapy utilizing engineered microorganisms has shown promise in the treatment of many diseases. By microencapsulation, viable cells can overcome the harsh gastrointestinal (GI environment and secrete needed therapeutics into the gut. These engineered cells should be encased without escaping into the GI tract for safety concerns, thus robust microcapsule membrane is requisite. This paper examined the GI performance of a novel microcapsule membrane using a dynamic simulated human GI model. Results showed that the genipin cross-linked alginate-chitosan (GCAC microcapsules possessed strong resistance to structural disintegration in the simulated GI environment. Leakage of encapsulated high molecular weight dextran, a model material to be protected during the simulated GI transit, was negligible over 72 h of exposure, in contrast to considerable leakage of dextran from the non-cross-linked counterparts. These microcapsules did not alter the microflora and enzymatic activities in the simulated human colonic media. This study suggested the potential of the GCAC microcapsules for oral delivery of live microorganisms and other biotherapeutics.

  3. Effects of the acid-tolerant engineered bacterial strain Megasphaera elsdenii H6F32 on ruminal pH and the lactic acid concentration of simulated rumen acidosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M; Feng, W J; Li, P; Zhang, Y; He, R X; Yu, L H; He, J B; Jing, W Y; Li, Y M; Wang, Z; Liu, G W

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the acid-tolerant engineered bacterial strain Megasphaera elsdenii H6F32 (M. elsdenii H6F32) on ruminal pH and the lactic acid concentrations in simulated rumen acidosis conditions in vitro. A mixed culture of ruminal bacteria, buffer, and primarily degradable substrates was inoculated with equal numbers of M. elsdenii H6 or M. elsdenii H6F32. The pH and lactic acid concentrations in the mixed culture were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 h of incubation. Acid-tolerant M. elsdenii H6F32 reduced the accumulation of lactic acid and increased the pH value. These results indicate that acid-tolerant M. elsdenii H6F32 could be a potential candidate for preventing rumen acidosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, Anne Marieke; Nauta, Arjen; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2014-08-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to biogas. Model calibration was conducted using data from in vitro fermentation of the proximal colon (TIM-2), and, amongst others, supplemented with the bio kinetics of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) fermentation. The impact of water and solutes absorption by the host was also included. Hydrolysis constants of carbohydrates and proteins were estimated based on total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia production in vitro. Model validation was established using an independent dataset of a different in vitro model: an in vitro three-stage continuous culture system. The in silico model was shown to provide quantitative insight in the microbial community structure in terms of functional groups, and the substrate and product fluxes between these groups as well as the host, as a function of the substrate composition, pH and the solids residence time (SRT). The model confirms the experimental observation that methanogens are washed out at low pH or low SRT-values. The in silico model is proposed as useful tool in the design of experimental setups for in vitro experiments by giving insight in fermentation processes in the proximal human colon. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Comparative evaluation of a novel smart-seal obturating system and its homogeneity of using cone beam computed tomography: In vitro simulated lateral canal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shashank; Hegde, Vibha

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate and compare a novel polyamide polymer based obturating system and Gutta-percha and sealer in filling simulated lateral canals and their homogeneity when used for obturating the root canals. A total of 60 freshly extracted human single rooted teeth with fully formed apices were selected for this study. Teeth were de-coronated, and roots were standardized to a working length of 15 mm. Root canal preparation was carried out with rotary Protaper file system in all groups. The specimens were then randomly divided into three groups A, B, and C (n = 20). Ten samples from each group were decalcified and simulated lateral canals were made at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the root apex. Remaining ten samples from each group were maintained calcified. Group A was obturated with SmartSeal system (Prosmart-DRFP Ltd., Stamford, UK). Group B was obturated with sectional backfill method. Group C was obutrated with cold lateral compaction method (control). Decalcified samples from the respective groups were analyzed with digital radiography and photography and the measurement of the linear extension and area of lateral canal filling was done using UTHSCSA (UTHSCSA Image Tool for Windows version 3.0, San Antonio, TX, USA) software. Calcified samples were subjected to cone beam computed tomography image analysis sectioned axially. Group A 92.46 ± 19.45 showed greatest extent of filling in lateral canals and denser homogeneity of oburation, followed by Group B 78.43 ± 26.45 and Group C 52.12 ± 36.67. Polyamide polymer obturation proved to have greater efficiency when compared with Gutta-percha system, when used for obturation with regards to adaptation of the sealer and penetration into the simulated lateral canals.

  6. In Silico and In Vitro Investigation of the Piperine's Male Contraceptive Effect: Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies in Androgen-Binding Protein and Androgen Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Gopichand; Ramya Chandar Charles, Mariasoosai; Klopčič, Ivana; Sollner Dolenc, Marija; Periyasamy, Latha; Selvaraj Coumar, Mohane

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of action of traditional medicines is an important step towards developing marketable drugs from them. Piperine, an active constituent present in the Piper species, is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicines (practiced on the Indian subcontinent). Among others, piperine is known to possess a male contraceptive effect; however, the molecular mechanism of action for this effect is not very clear. In this regard, detailed docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies of piperine with the androgen-binding protein and androgen receptors were carried out. Androgen receptors control male sexual behavior and fertility, while the androgen-binding protein binds testosterone and maintains its concentration at optimal levels to stimulate spermatogenesis in the testis. It was found that piperine docks to the androgen-binding protein, similar to dihydrotestosterone, and to androgen receptors, similar to cyproterone acetate (antagonist). Also, the piperine-androgen-binding protein and piperine-androgen receptors interactions were found to be stable throughout 30 ns of molecular dynamics simulation. Further, two independent simulations for 10 ns each also confirmed the stability of these interactions. Detailed analysis of the piperine-androgen-binding protein interactions shows that piperine interacts with Ser42 of the androgen-binding protein and could block the binding with its natural ligands dihydrotestosterone/testosterone. Moreover, piperine interacts with Thr577 of the androgen receptors in a manner similar to the antagonist cyproterone acetate. Based on the in silico results, piperine was tested in the MDA-kb2 cell line using the luciferase reporter gene assay and was found to antagonize the effect of dihydrotestosterone at nanomolar concentrations. Further detailed biochemical experiments could help to develop piperine as an effective male contraceptive agent in the future. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. In vitro and in vivo assessment of direct effects of simulated solar and galactic cosmic radiation on human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, C; Almeida-Porada, G; George, S K; Moon, J; Soker, S; Pardee, T; Beaty, M; Guida, P; Sajuthi, S P; Langefeld, C D; Walker, S J; Wilson, P F; Porada, C D

    2017-06-01

    Future deep space missions to Mars and near-Earth asteroids will expose astronauts to chronic solar energetic particles (SEP) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation, and likely one or more solar particle events (SPEs). Given the inherent radiosensitivity of hematopoietic cells and short latency period of leukemias, space radiation-induced hematopoietic damage poses a particular threat to astronauts on extended missions. We show that exposing human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC) to extended mission-relevant doses of accelerated high-energy protons and iron ions leads to the following: (1) introduces mutations that are frequently located within genes involved in hematopoiesis and are distinct from those induced by γ-radiation; (2) markedly reduces in vitro colony formation; (3) markedly alters engraftment and lineage commitment in vivo; and (4) leads to the development, in vivo, of what appears to be T-ALL. Sequential exposure to protons and iron ions (as typically occurs in deep space) proved far more deleterious to HSC genome integrity and function than either particle species alone. Our results represent a critical step for more accurately estimating risks to the human hematopoietic system from space radiation, identifying and better defining molecular mechanisms by which space radiation impairs hematopoiesis and induces leukemogenesis, as well as for developing appropriately targeted countermeasures.

  8. Accuracy of 4D Flow Measurement of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in the Cervical Spine: An In Vitro Verification Against Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Pahlavian, Soroush; Bunck, Alexander C; Thyagaraj, Suraj; Giese, Daniel; Loth, Francis; Hedderich, Dennis M; Kröger, Jan Robert; Martin, Bryn A

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow are thought to play an important role in pathophysiology of various craniospinal disorders such as hydrocephalus and Chiari malformation. Three directional phase contrast MRI (4D Flow) has been proposed as one method for quantification of the CSF dynamics in healthy and disease states, but prior to further implementation of this technique, its accuracy in measuring CSF velocity magnitude and distribution must be evaluated. In this study, an MR-compatible experimental platform was developed based on an anatomically detailed 3D printed model of the cervical subarachnoid space and subject specific flow boundary conditions. Accuracy of 4D Flow measurements was assessed by comparison of CSF velocities obtained within the in vitro model with the numerically predicted velocities calculated from a spatially averaged computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on the same geometry and flow boundary conditions. Good agreement was observed between CFD and 4D Flow in terms of spatial distribution and peak magnitude of through-plane velocities with an average difference of 7.5 and 10.6% for peak systolic and diastolic velocities, respectively. Regression analysis showed lower accuracy of 4D Flow measurement at the timeframes corresponding to low CSF flow rate and poor correlation between CFD and 4D Flow in-plane velocities.

  9. Comparison of fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth with an open apex using Biodentine and composite resin: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabuawala, Murtuza Saifuddin; Nadig, Roopa R; Pai, Veena S; Gowda, Yashwanth

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the fracture resistance in simulated immature teeth that had been backfilled using composite resin and Biodentine after using Biodentine as an apical plug material immediately and after 3 months of aging. Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisors were simulated in an immature open apex. The roots of all the specimens were then standardized to a length of 10 mm and canals were instrumented to obtain the radicular dentin thickness around 1.5 mm. All the specimens were then randomly divided into three groups of twenty teeth each. Group I (control) - 4 mm apical plug of Biodentine backfilled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha. Group II - 4 mm apical plug of Biodentine and then backfilled with ParaCore. Group III - completely filled with Biodentine. Ten samples from each group were randomly divided into two subgroups. In subgroup A: Specimens were stored for 1 week. In subgroup B: Specimens were stored in phosphate-buffered saline solution for 3 months and were subjected to universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis. No significant difference in fracture resistance between the groups was observed when tested immediately. After 3 months of aging, only Biodentine group showed a significant reduction in fracture resistance without significant reduction with other two groups. Biodentine group has shown a drastic reduction in fracture resistance after 3 months of aging, and hence cannot be recommended as a reinforcement material in immature teeth with thin dentin walls.

  10. Comparison of fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth with an open apex using Biodentine and composite resin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtuza Saifuddin Zhabuawala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the fracture resistance in simulated immature teeth that had been backfilled using composite resin and Biodentine after using Biodentine as an apical plug material immediately and after 3 months of aging. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisors were simulated in an immature open apex. The roots of all the specimens were then standardized to a length of 10 mm and canals were instrumented to obtain the radicular dentin thickness around 1.5 mm. All the specimens were then randomly divided into three groups of twenty teeth each. Group I (control - 4 mm apical plug of Biodentine backfilled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha. Group II - 4 mm apical plug of Biodentine and then backfilled with ParaCore. Group III - completely filled with Biodentine. Ten samples from each group were randomly divided into two subgroups. In subgroup A: Specimens were stored for 1 week. In subgroup B: Specimens were stored in phosphate-buffered saline solution for 3 months and were subjected to universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis. Results: No significant difference in fracture resistance between the groups was observed when tested immediately. After 3 months of aging, only Biodentine group showed a significant reduction in fracture resistance without significant reduction with other two groups. Conclusion: Biodentine group has shown a drastic reduction in fracture resistance after 3 months of aging, and hence cannot be recommended as a reinforcement material in immature teeth with thin dentin walls.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the accuracy of two electronic apex locators in determining the working length in teeth with simulated apical root resorption: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, Vidya; Kedia, Archit; Purayil, Tina Puthen; Ballal, Vasudev; Saini, Aakriti

    2016-01-01

    Accurate determination of working length (WL) is a critical factor for endodontic success. This is commonly achieved using an apex locator which is influenced by the presence or absence of the apical constriction. Hence, this study was done to compare the accuracy of two generations of apex locators in teeth with simulated apical root resorption. Forty maxillary central incisors were selected and after access preparation, were embedded in an alginate mold. On achieving partial set, teeth were removed, and a 45° oblique cut was made at the apex. The teeth were replanted and stabilized in the mold, and WL was determined using two generations of apex locators (Raypex 5 and Apex NRG XFR). Actual length of teeth (control) was determined by visual method. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using the paired t-test. Raypex 5 and Apex NRG was accurate for only 33.75% and 23.75% of samples, respectively. However, with ±0.5 mm acceptance limit, they showed an average accuracy of 56.2% and 57.5%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the accuracy between the two apex locators. Neither of the two apex locators were 100% accurate in determining the WL.

  12. Evaluation of daptomycin combinations with cephalosporins or gentamicin against Streptococcus mitis group strains in an in vitro model of simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Juwon; Smith, Jordan R; Singh, Nivedita B; Rice, Seth; Stamper, Kyle; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; Bayer, Arnold S; Mishra, Nagendra N; Miró, José M; Tran, Truc T; Arias, Cesar A; Sullam, Paul; Rybak, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Among viridans group streptococcal infective endocarditis (IE), the Streptococcus mitis group is the most common aetiological organism. Treatment of IE caused by the S. mitis group is challenging due to the high frequency of β-lactam resistance, drug allergy and intolerability of mainstay antimicrobial agents such as vancomycin or gentamicin. Daptomycin has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic option in these scenarios based on its excellent susceptibility profile against S. mitis group strains . However, the propensity of many S. mitis group strains to rapidly evolve stable, high-level daptomycin resistance potentially limits this approach. We evaluated the activity of 6 mg/kg/day daptomycin alone or in combination with gentamicin, ceftriaxone or ceftaroline against two daptomycin-susceptible S. mitis group strains over 96 h in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of simulated endocardial vegetations. Daptomycin alone was not bactericidal and high-level daptomycin resistance evolved at 96 h in both organisms. Combinations of daptomycin + ceftriaxone and daptomycin + ceftaroline demonstrated enhanced killing activity compared with each antibiotic alone and prevented emergence of daptomycin resistance at 96 h. Use of gentamicin as an adjunctive agent neither improved the efficacy of daptomycin nor prevented the development of daptomycin resistance. Addition of ceftriaxone or ceftaroline to daptomycin improves the bactericidal activity against S. mitis group strains and prevents daptomycin resistance emergence. Further investigation with combinations of daptomycin and β-lactams in a large number of strains is warranted to fully elucidate the clinical implications of such combinations for treatment of S. mitis group IE.

  13. Electrochemical Corrosion and In Vitro Bioactivity of Nano-Grained Biomedical Ti-20Nb-13Zr Alloy in a Simulated Body Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed A; Kumar, Madhan; Drew, Robin; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser

    2017-12-27

    The bioactivity and the corrosion protection for a novel nano-grained Ti-20Nb-13Zr at % alloy were examined in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The effect of the SPS's temperature on the corrosion performance was investigated. The phases and microstructural details of the developed alloy were analyzed by XRD (X-ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope). The electrochemical study was investigated using linear potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a SBF, and the bioactivity was examined by immersing the developed alloy in a SBF for 3, 7, and 14 days. The morphology of the depositions after immersion was examined using SEM. Alloy surface analysis after immersion in the SBF was characterized by XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). The results of the bioactivity test in SBF revealed the growth of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the alloy. The analysis of XPS showed the formation of protective oxides of TiO₂, Ti₂O₃, ZrO₂, Nb₂O₅, and a Ca₃(PO₄)₂ compound (precursor of hydroxyapatite) deposited on the alloy surface, indicating that the presented alloy can stimulate bone formation. The corrosion resistance increased by increasing the sintering temperature and the highest corrosion resistance was obtained at 1200 °C. The improved corrosion protection was found to be related to the alloy densification. The bioactivity and the corrosion resistance of the developed nanostructured alloy in a SBF renders the nanostructured Ti-20Nb-13Zr alloy a promising candidate as an implant material.

  14. Electrochemical Corrosion and In Vitro Bioactivity of Nano-Grained Biomedical Ti-20Nb-13Zr Alloy in a Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hussein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The bioactivity and the corrosion protection for a novel nano-grained Ti-20Nb-13Zr at % alloy were examined in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The effect of the SPS’s temperature on the corrosion performance was investigated. The phases and microstructural details of the developed alloy were analyzed by XRD (X-ray Diffraction, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy, and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope. The electrochemical study was investigated using linear potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a SBF, and the bioactivity was examined by immersing the developed alloy in a SBF for 3, 7, and 14 days. The morphology of the depositions after immersion was examined using SEM. Alloy surface analysis after immersion in the SBF was characterized by XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The results of the bioactivity test in SBF revealed the growth of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the alloy. The analysis of XPS showed the formation of protective oxides of TiO2, Ti2O3, ZrO2, Nb2O5, and a Ca3(PO42 compound (precursor of hydroxyapatite deposited on the alloy surface, indicating that the presented alloy can stimulate bone formation. The corrosion resistance increased by increasing the sintering temperature and the highest corrosion resistance was obtained at 1200 °C. The improved corrosion protection was found to be related to the alloy densification. The bioactivity and the corrosion resistance of the developed nanostructured alloy in a SBF renders the nanostructured Ti-20Nb-13Zr alloy a promising candidate as an implant material.

  15. Novel 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives: design, synthesis, in vitro P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance reversal profile and molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Omolbanin; Edraki, Najmeh; Khoshneviszadeh, Mehdi; Zargari, Farshid; Ranjbar, Sara; Saso, Luciano; Firuzi, Omidreza; Miri, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Overexpression of the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the important mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) in many tumor cells. In this study, 26 novel 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives containing different nitrophenyl moieties at C4 and various carboxamide substituents at C3 were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit P-gp by measuring the amount of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation in uterine sarcoma cells that overexpress P-gp (MES-SA/Dx5) using flow cytometry. The effect of compounds with highest MDR reversal activities was further evaluated by measuring the alterations of MES-SA/Dx5 cells' sensitivity to doxorubicin (DXR) using MTT assay. The results of both biological assays indicated that compounds bearing 2-nitrophenyl at C4 position and compounds with 4-chlorophenyl carboxamide at C3 demonstrated the highest activities in resistant cells, while they were devoid of any effect in parental nonresistant MES-SA cells. One of the active derivatives, 5c, significantly increased intracellular Rh123 at 100 µM, and it also significantly reduced the IC50 of DXR by 70.1% and 88.7% at 10 and 25 µM, respectively, in MES-SA/Dx5 cells. The toxicity of synthesized compounds against HEK293 as a noncancer cell line was also investigated. All tested derivatives except for 2c compound showed no cytotoxicity. A molecular dynamics simulation study was also performed to investigate the possible binding site of 5c in complex with human P-gp, which showed that this compound formed 11 average H-bonds with Ser909, Thr911, Arg547, Arg543 and Ser474 residues of P-gp. A good agreement was found between the results of the computational and experimental studies. The findings of this study show that some 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives could serve as promising candidates for the discovery of new agents for P-gp-mediated MDR reversal.

  16. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Dominic; Rao, Roopa S; Anbu, Jayaraman; Chidambara Murthy, K N

    2017-12-01

    The earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) has shown proven antiproliferative effect against breast, liver, gastrointestinal, and brain cancer, but it is least explored in oral cancer. The present in vitro study is an attempt to investigate the antiproliferative activity of ECF on oral cancer cell line squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-9. ECF was collected from the species Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) stored at -80°C. Percentage inhibition of ECF on squamous cell carcinoma-9 cells in vitro was recorded at 24 h. Protein estimation was done using Bradford protein assay validated by the biuret method. Cytotoxicity was tested at 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/ml concentrations by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in SCC-9 cells in vitro . GraphPad Prism 7.0 software was used to calculate the inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ). Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference between samples. The test samples EE, EF, and PE inhibited the growth of SCC-9 cells significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC 50 values were found to be 4.6, 44.69, and 5.27 μg/ml, respectively. The antiproliferative effect was found to be variable among the three earthworm species with EE showing the most promising effect followed by PE and EF. Establishing the antiproliferative effect of ECF on oral cancer cells could be an initial step toward drug development and future anticancer research. The preliminary investigation has shown that ECF has a promising antiproliferative effect on oral cancer cells in vitro . The present pilot study evaluated the in vitro antiproliferative effect of earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) of Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) on squamous cell carcinoma-9 cell line. The ECF inhibitory activity was promising at inhibitory concentration values of 4.6, 44.69, and 5.27 μg/ml, respectively. Further studies pertaining to antiproliferative mechanism of EE

  17. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Jianke; He, Xiaoye; Lv, Ou; Cheng, Yujiang; Liu, Run

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the relative activities of the purified pomegranate peels polyphenols (PPPs) with some other plant polyphenols including punicalagin, ellagic acid, gallic acid, phlorizin, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the lipid metabolism regulation, and the cholesterol efflux mechanisms of PPPs and punicalagin were also investigated. In this paper, a convenient and accurate in vitro HL7702 steatosis hepatic cell model was applied to evaluate the lipid-lowering effects of the tested polyphenols. The results showed that PPPs possessed the strongest lipid-lowering effects. Prevention group (treated with polyphenols when establishing of steatosis model) was more effective than treatment group (treated with polyphenols after establishment of steatosis model). Punicalagin displayed the strongest lipid-lowering effects among all the tested components of pomegranate peel polyphenols. Moreover, PPPs and punicalagin (10, 20, 40 μg/mL) significantly increased the mRNA expression of LXRα (Liver X receptor alpha) and its target genes-ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) in a dose-dependent manner in HL7702 steatosis hepatic cells. The high mRNA expression of LXRα and ABCA1, next to lovastatin, was observed in cells treated with 40 μg/mL of PPPs. These in vitro findings suggested that PPPs might have great potential in the clinic treatment of hyperlipemia.

  18. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, M R; Abouhosseini Tabari, M; Moghadamnia, A A

    2017-01-01

    In Iranian folk medicine Artemisia sieberi has been used for treatment of parasite infections in human and animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of A. sieberi essential oil (EO) against Trichomonas gallinae . Trichomonas gallinae were recovered by wet mount method from infected native pigeons. The in vitro assays were accomplished in multi-well plates containing metronidazole (MTZ) as a standard antitrichomonal and EO in final concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 μg/ml of culture medium containing 10 4 parasites. The in vivo assay was performed on 40 experimentally infected pigeons receiving 25 and 50 mg/kg of MTZ and EO for 7 successive days. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis was performed to reveal chemical constituents of the EO. At 20 µg/ml, MTZ resulted in no viable trophozoite in culture medium after 24 h incubation period. While the 24 h MIC of EO was 10 µg/ml. Treatment with EO at dose of 50 mg/kg after 4 days led to full recovery of infected pigeons but for MTZ at the same dose 5 days were spent. Major constituents of EO were α-thujone (31.5%) and β-thujone (11.92%). Data of the present study introduced A. sieberi as a natural potent antitrichomonal agent effective against T. gallinae .

  19. Design of Lipid-Based Formulations for Oral Administration of Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Fenofibrate: Effects of Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin, Kazi

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-based drug carriers are likely to have influence on bioavailability through enhanced solubilization of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. The study was designed to investigate the lipid formulation digestibility in the simulated gastro intestinal media. Fenofibrate was formulated in representative Type II, IIIA, IIIB and IV self-emulsifying/microemulsifying lipid delivery systems (SEDDS and SMEDDS designed for oral administration) using various medium-chain glyceride components, no...

  20. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierl, Mario; Jörger, Michael; Rosker, Patrik; Reisner, Andreas

    2015-01-20

    Biofilm formation on catheters is thought to contribute to persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) which represent the most frequent nosocomial infections. Understanding of factors relevant for CAUTI pathogenesis and evaluation of new therapeutics or interference strategies requires a model system that mirrors the physico-chemical conditions prevailing in a catheterized human bladder. The described in vitro dynamic model of a catheterized bladder enables to emulate many of the characteristics of a catheterized human bladder albeit in the absence of a bladder epithelium. A minor modification compared to the original model system (Stickler, et al. , 1999) allows temperature maintenance of the top 10 cm of the catheter, thereby enabling reproducible monitoring of biofilm formation on the internal catheter surface.

  1. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    LuIs, Henrique Soares; Luis, Luis Soares; Bernardo, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Mouthrinses are used, by many of our patients, as a complement to daily dental hygiene routine. The use of a toothbrush and an interproximal cleaning method may not be enough to control dental plaque. Essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses are effective for the prevention of dental caries and gingivitis. To study the effect of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on dental plaque bacteria, an in vitro study was developed. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and aerobic and anaerobic dental plaque nonspecific bacteria. Samples of human dental plaque were collected from consenting participants and bacteria isolated. Disk-diffusion tests were performed to obtain the minimum concentration of the mouth rinses necessary to inhibit bacterial growth. The ability of the commercial mouth rinses to inhibit bacterial growth was studied in comparison to a positive control (0.2% chlorhexidine) and a negative laboratorial control (sterilized water). The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be inferior to the commercial essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses concentrations. Delmopinol and essential oils have significant antibacterial properties shown in vitro only for aerobic bacteria, and for S. mutans, Lactobacillus, and anaerobic bacteria, the results were not statistically significant. Essential oils and chlorhexidine are statistically similar and better than delmopinol for aerobic bacteria growth inhibition. For the other bacteria, essential oils and delmopinol are not statistically promising. Results show that essential oils only may help patients to maintain good oral health as a complement to daily brushing and interproximal cleaning.

  2. In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    There is a paucity of efficacious antimicrobials (especially oral) against clinically relevant species of Nocardia To date, all species of Nocardia have been susceptible to linezolid, the first commercially available oxazolidinone. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with previously reported improved in vitro and in vivo (intracellular) potency against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium sp. and Nocardia brasiliensis Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-recommended broth microdilution method, 101 isolates of Nocardia spp., including 29 Nocardia cyriacigeorgica , 17 Nocardia farcinica , 13 Nocardia nova complex, 21 Nocardia brasiliensis , 5 Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis , and 5 Nocardia wallacei isolates and 11 isolates of less common species, were tested for susceptibility to tedizolid and linezolid. For the most common clinically significant species of Nocardia , tedizolid MIC 50 values were 0.25 μg/ml for N. nova complex, N. brasiliensis , N. pseudobrasiliensis , and N. wallacei , compared to linezolid MIC 50 values of 1, 2, 0.5, and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Tedizolid and linezolid MIC 90 values were 2 μg/ml for N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis Tedizolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values for both N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica were 0.5 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively, compared to linezolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values of 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Based on MIC 90 values, this study showed that tedizolid was 2- to 3-fold more active than linezolid in vitro against most common species of Nocardia , with the exception of the N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis , for which values were the same. These results may warrant evaluation of tedizolid as a potential treatment option for Nocardia infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Impact of inulin and okara on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product and probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedani, Raquel; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio; Isay Saad, Susana Marta

    2013-06-01

    The effect of inulin and/or okara flour on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product (FSP) and on probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated throughout 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Employing a 2(2) design, four FSP trials were produced from soymilk fermented with ABT-4 culture (La-5, Bb-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus): FSP (control); FSP-I (with inulin, 3 g/100 mL of soymilk); FSP-O (with okara, 5 g/100 mL); FSP-IO (with inulin + okara, ratio 3:5 g/100 mL). Probiotic viabilities ranged from 8 to 9 log cfu/g during the 28 days of storage, and inulin and/or okara flour did not affect the viability of La-5 and Bb-12. Bb-12 resistance to the artificial gastrointestinal juices was higher than for La-5, since the Bb-12 and La-5 populations decreased approximately 0.6 log cfu/g and 3.8 log cfu/g, respectively, throughout storage period. Even though the protective effect of inulin and/or okara flour on probiotic microorganisms was not significant, when compared to a fresh culture, the FSP matrix improved Bb-12 survival on day 1 of storage and may be considered a good vehicle for Bb-12 and could play an important role in probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activity of daptomycin or linezolid in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecalis or E. faecium in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model using simulated endocardial vegetations and an in vivo survival assay using Galleria mellonella larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K; Arvanitis, Marios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2014-08-01

    Enterococci are the third most frequent cause of infective endocarditis. A high-inoculum stationary-phase in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations was used to simulate the human pharmacokinetics of daptomycin at 6 or 10 mg/kg of body weight/day or linezolid at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h), alone or in combination with gentamicin at 1.3 mg/kg q12h or rifampin at 300 mg q8h or 900 mg q24h. Biofilm-forming, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin-resistant enterococcus [VRE]) strains were tested. At 24, 48, and 72 h, all daptomycin-containing regimens demonstrated significantly more activity (decline in CFU/g) than any linezolid-containing regimen against biofilm-forming E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin to daptomycin (at 6 or 10 mg/kg) in the first 24 h significantly improved bactericidal activity. In contrast, the addition of rifampin delayed the bactericidal activity of daptomycin against E. faecalis, and the addition of rifampin antagonized the activities of all regimens against VRE at 24 h. Also, against VRE, the addition of gentamicin to linezolid at 72 h improved activity and was bactericidal. Rifampin significantly antagonized the activity of linezolid against VRE at 72 h. In in vivo Galleria mellonella survival assays, linezolid and daptomycin improved survival. Daptomycin at 10 mg/kg improved survival significantly over that with linezolid against E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin improved the efficacy of daptomycin against E. faecalis and those of linezolid and daptomycin against VRE. We conclude that in enterococcal infection models, daptomycin has more activity than linezolid alone. Against biofilm-forming E. faecalis, the addition of gentamicin in the first 24 h causes the most rapid decline in CFU/g. Of interest, the addition of rifampin decreased the activity of daptomycin against both E. faecalis and VRE. Copyright © 2014, American Society for

  5. Evaluation of two dynamic in vitro models simulating fasted and fed state conditions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (TIM-1 and tiny-TIM) for investigating the bioaccessibility of pharmaceutical compounds from oral dosage forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwei, M.; Minekus, M.; Zeijdner, E.; Schilderink, R.; Havenaar, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical research needs predictive in vitro tools for API bioavailability in humans. We evaluated two dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal models: TIM-1 and tiny-TIM. Four low-soluble APIs in various formulations were investigated in the TIM systems under fasted and fed conditions. API

  6. Evaluation of oral bioavailability and anticancer potential of raloxifene solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battani, Somashekhar; Pawar, Harish; Suresh, Sarasija

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present investigation was formulation of raloxifene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (R-SLN) for oral administration and evaluation of its anticancer potential in 7,12- dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats. Optimized R-SLN formulation prepared by modified micro-emulsion method resulted in R-SLN of 288.0±28.5 nm size and 95.56% entrapment efficiency. R-SLN exhibited in vitro prolonged release of raloxifene for 72 h in phosphate buffered saline. R-SLN was stable in simulated gastro-intestinal (GIT) fluids consisting of pH 1.2, pH 7.4, simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid. A two-fold increase was observed in raloxifene oral bioavailability from R-SLN. R-SLN exhibited enhanced efficacy and chemopreventive activity over pure raloxifene as indicated by evaluation of tumor burden (P raloxifene solid lipid nanoparticles in optimizing chemoprevention of breast cancer by R-SLN.

  7. In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lucas Pereira; Ferreira-Filho, Julio Cesar Campos; Martins, Julia Medeiros; Alves, Caroline Vieira; Santiago, Bianca Marques; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to verify in vitro adherence of E. corrodens and S. oralis to the surface of tongue piercings made of surgical steel, titanium, Bioplast, and Teflon. For this, 160 piercings were used for the count of Colony Forming Units (CFU) and 32 piercings for analysis under scanning electron microscopy. Of these, 96 (24 of each type) were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth and 50  μ L of inoculum at 37°C/24 h. The other 96 piercings formed the control group and were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth at 37°C/24 h. Plates were incubated at 37°C/48 h for counting of CFU/mL and data were submitted to statistical analysis ( p value steel showed lower bacterial adherence. The adherence of S. oralis differed among piercings, showing lower colonization ( p steel piercings. The four types of piercings were susceptible to colonization by E. corrodens and S. oralis , and bacterial adhesion was more significant in those made of Bioplast and Teflon. The piercings presented bacterial colonies on their surface, being higher in plastic piercings probably due to their uneven and rough surface.

  8. Bioavailability of seocalcitol I: Relating solubility in biorelevant media with oral bioavailability in rats--effect of medium and long chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Mette; Pedersen, Gitte P; Nielsen, Jeanet L; Müllertz, Anette

    2005-08-01

    Simulated intestinal media (SIM) containing bile salt (BS) and phospholipids (PL) with and without medium chain lipolytic products (MC-LP) or long chain lipolytic products (LC-LP) were developed to study the solubility of seocalcitol. Both MC-LP and LC-LP were studied in order to investigate the influence of fatty acid chain length on the in vitro solubility of seocalcitol. The same solubility of seocalcitol was found in media containing either MC-LP or LC-LP. The bioavailability after oral administration of seocalcitol dissolved in medium chain triglyceride (MCT), long chain triglyceride (LCT), and a reference formulation containing propylene glycol (PG) was studied in vivo in rats. The lipid formulations showed a twofold increase in bioavailability compared with the reference formulation, indicating positive effects of lipids on the bioavailability reflecting a better solubility in the intestine and protection against precipitation of seocalcitol in the gastro intestinal tract. There was no difference in the in vivo bioavailability of seocalcitol between the MCT and the LCT solutions, which correlates with the identical in vitro solubility of seocalcitol in SIM containing MC-LP or LC-LP. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  9. IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothibe, Mmamosheledi Elsie; Kahler-Venter, Christinah; Osuch, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Commercial herbal medicines (CHMs) being marketed as immune boosters or tonics, have gained widespread popularity. The many herbal mixtures sold have not been tested for efficacy and safety, despite their modern packaging and presentations. It is imperative that these herbal mixtures be investigated for their effects on human neutrophils. The selected herbal mixture (HM), Stametta ™ Body healing liquid, is common in retail outlets in Pretoria, South Africa (SA) and is used as an immune booster or intended to strengthen the body. Isolated neutrophils as well as those in whole blood phagocytes were obtained from blood samples collected from consenting healthy adult volunteers. The neutrophils were incubated with the HM at different strengths, and taken through a luminol-enhanced luminescence assay, using activators- phorbol myristate acetate and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. The HM had variable stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the luminescence activity of healthy isolated and non-isolated human neutrophils. The effects, ranging from weak to potent were either directly or inversely related to the concentration of the HM and were mediated through a direct protein kinase C activating mechanism and an indirect formyl peptide receptor-linked mechanism. The findings have shown the immunomodulatory potential of Stametta ™. The in vitro inhibitory and stimulatory effects on neutrophils which are furthermore time-based, suggest variable effects on the immune system, which may be beneficial as well as risky. The effects at different concentrations highlight the importance of appropriate dosing. It would therefore be prudent to caution users of this commercial herbal medicine accordingly.

  10. Ion channel functional protein kinase TRPM7 regulates Mg ions to promote the osteoinduction of human osteoblast via PI3K pathway: In vitro simulation of the bone-repairing effect of Mg-based alloy implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuzhi; Zu, Haiyue; Zhao, Dewei; Yang, Ke; Tian, Simiao; Yu, Xiaoming; Lu, Faqiang; Liu, Baoyi; Yu, Xiaobing; Wang, Benjie; Wang, Wei; Huang, Shibo; Wang, Yongxuan; Wang, Zihua; Zhang, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Mg-based alloys, as the potential orthopaedic implant, can self-degrade to avoid second operation for its remove, and enable to promote bone repair; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of Mg ions on osteogenesis, chemotaxis and anti-alkaline stress in hFOB1.19 human osteoblast cells to simulate bone-repairing effect of a biodegradable Mg-based alloy implant in vitro, and explored the regulatory role of the transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathway in the process of Mg ion-induced bone repair by knockdown of TRPM7 and antagonizing PI3K activity. Results indicate that Mg ions up-regulated the expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) through TRPM7/PI3K signalling pathway, which could significantly enhance the osteogenic activity of human osteoblasts. Furthermore, the expression levels of MMP2, MMP9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were increased by TRPM7/PI3K signalling pathway, which recruits osteoblasts from low- to high-Mg ion environments by inducing cell migration. Although an alkaline environment has antibacterial effects, alkaline stress can cause cytotoxicity and induce cell death. Finally, we found that Mg ions could activate PI3K phosphorylation to promote cell growth and survival, protecting cells against the alkaline-stress-induced cytotoxicity caused by the degradation of Mg-based alloy implants. Our study not only revealed the molecular mechanism of Mg in promoting bone repair but also explained the protective effects of Mg ions on osteoblasts in an alkaline environment, which provides a theoretical basis and new directions for the application of Mg-based alloy implant material in orthopaedics fixations and osteosarcoma treatment. As a potential biomaterial for orthopaedic implant, biodegradable magnesium has several advantages including self-degradation and bone repair promotion; however, the underlying

  11. Listeria monocytogenes strains which are underrepresented during selective enrichment with the ISO method might dominate during passage through simulated gastric fluid and in vitro infection of Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilelidou, Evangelia; Karmiri, Christina-Vasiliki; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Drosinos, Eleftherios; Skandamis, Panagiotis

    2016-09-16

    Various Listeria monocytogenes strains may contaminate a single food potentially resulting in simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains. However, L. monocytogenes strains isolated from foods by selective enrichment (SE) might not always represent those that can better survive a patient immune system, due to bias in strain recovery. We investigated the effect of co-cultivation in TSB-Y at 10°C for 8 days on i) the detection of L. monocytogenes strains during SE with the ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 protocol and ii) the in vitro virulence of strains towards the human colon epithelial cancer cell line Caco-2 following exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 2.0/HCl, 37°C). We determined whether the strains, which were favoured by SE, would be effective competitors under challenges related to gastrointestinal passage of the pathogen. Inter-strain competition of L. monocytogenes in TSB-Y determined the relative population of each strain at the beginning of SE. This in turn impacted the outcome of SE (i.e., favoring survival of better fitness competitors) and the levels exposed subsequently to SGF. However, strong growth competitors could be outcompeted after SGF exposure and infection of Caco-2 cells by strains outgrown in TSB-Y and underdetected (or even missed) during enrichment. Our data demonstrate a preferential selection of certain L. monocytogenes strains during enrichments, often not reflecting a selective advantage of strains during infection. These findings highlight a considerable scenario associated with the difficulty to match the source of infection (food) with the L. monocytogenes isolate appearing as the causative agent during listeriosis outbreak investigations. This study is relevant to understanding the processes involved in selection and prevalence of certain L. monocytogenes strains under different environments (i.e foods or sites of humans exposed to the pathogen). It highlights the occurrence of multiple strains in the same food

  12. Exploitation of grape marc as functional substrate for lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria growth and enhanced antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Daniela; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Fasciano, Cristina; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Scarano, Nicola; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed at using grape marc for the growth of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient having antioxidant activity. Lactobacillus plantarum 12A and PU1, Lactobacillus paracasei 14A, and Bifidobacterium breve 15A showed the ability to grow on grape marc (GM) based media. The highest bacterial cell density (>9.0 CFU/g) was found in GM added of 1% of glucose (GMG). Compared to un-inoculated and incubated control fermented GMG showed a decrease of carbohydrates and citric acid together with an increase of lactic acid. The content of several free amino acids and phenol compounds differed between samples. Based on the survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, GMG was a suitable carrier of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria strains. Compared to the control, cell-free supernatant (CFS) of fermented GMG exhibited a marked antioxidant activity in vitro. The increased antioxidant activity was confirmed using Caco-2 cell line after inducing oxidative stress, and determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity through MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively. Supporting these founding, the SOD-2 gene expression of Caco-2 cells also showed a lowest pro-oxidant effect induced by the four CFS of GMG fermented by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo and in vitro starch digestion: are current in vitro techniques adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Lavau, Gautier Cesbron; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Robert G

    2010-12-13

    The time evolution of the size distributions of (fully branched and debranched) starch molecules during in vivo and in vitro digestion was analyzed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and compared. In vivo digesta were collected from the small intestine of pigs fed with raw normal maize starch; in vitro digestion was carried out on the same diet fed to the pigs using a method simulating digestion in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. A qualitative difference was observed between the in vitro and the in vivo digestion. The former showed a degradation of starch molecules to a more uniform size, whereas the in vivo digestion preserved the size distribution of native starch before producing a multimodal distribution, the heterogeneous nature of which current in vitro methods do not reproduce. The use of in vitro digestion to infer in vivo digestion patterns and, hence, potential nutrition benefits need to take account of this phenomenon.

  14. Simulação e validação de parâmetros da cinética digestiva em novilhos mestiços suplementados a pasto, por intermédio do sistema in vitro de produção de gases Simulation and validation of digestive kinetic parameters using an in vitro gas production system in crossbred steers with pasture supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se simular e validar a degradação ruminal dos carboidratos e o fluxo nitrogenado microbiano, estimados a partir de parâmetros da cinética de degradação ruminal de amostras de extrusa esofágica e de suplementos obtidos pela técnica in vitro de produção de gases. As estimativas in vivo foram obtidas em experimento de campo, no qual foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandês x Zebu com idade e peso médios iniciais de 24 meses e 304 kg, manejados em cinco piquetes de B. decumbens (0,34 ha. Foram fornecidos suplementos (4 kg/animal/dia constituídos por fubá de milho, grão de soja integral, uréia, sulfato de amônia e mistura mineral, formulados para apresentarem níveis de 12, 16, 20 e 24% de proteína bruta, com base na matéria natural. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro períodos experimentais de 21 dias, em delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4. O quinto animal foi mantido sem suplementação, sendo utilizado como medida de comparação descritiva. A avaliação estatística foi feita por meio do ajustamento de equação de regressão linear simples de valores preditos in vitro sobre valores observados in vivo. A utilização das taxas de digestão específica obtidas in vitro implicou em sub e superestimação da degradação ruminal de carboidratos fibrosos (CF e não-fibrosos (CNF, cujos vícios globais do processo de de estimação foram de -25,27% e +33,58%, respectivamente. Os valores preditos de eficiência microbiana não mostraram relação significativa com os valores observados, refletindo falta de relação entre valores preditos e observados para o fluxo abomasal de nitrogênio microbiano. A avaliação de alimentos separadamente subestima a taxa de digestão específica de CF.The objective of this trial was simulate and validate the ruminal degradation of carbohydrates and the flow of microbial nitrogen, estimated from samples of esophageal extrusa and supplements, using an in vitro gas

  15. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Michaela E; Pruetz, Jill; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-02-01

    The exponential decline of great apes over the past 50 years has resulted in an urgent need for data to inform population viability assessment and conservation strategies. Health monitoring of remaining ape populations is an important component of this process. In support of this effort, we examined endoparasitic and commensal prevalence and richness as proxies of population health for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sympatric guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal, a site dominated by woodland-savanna at the northwestern extent of chimpanzees' geographic range. The small population size and extreme environmental pressures experienced by Fongoli chimpanzees make them particularly sensitive to the potential impact of pathogens. One hundred thirty-two chimpanzee and seventeen baboon fecal samples were processed using sodium nitrate floatation and fecal sedimentation to isolate helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoal cysts. Six nematodes (Physaloptera sp., Ascaris sp., Stronglyloides fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., an unidentified hookworm, and an unidentified larvated nematode), one cestode (Bertiella sp.), and five protozoans (Iodamoeba buetschlii, Entamoeba coli, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, and an unidentified ciliate) were detected in chimpanzee fecal samples. Four nematodes (Necator sp., S. fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., and an unidentified hookworm sp.), two trematodes (Shistosoma mansoni and an unidentified fluke), and six protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, E. coli, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli, T. abrassarti, and T. cava) were detected in baboon fecal samples. The low prevalence of pathogenic parasite species and high prevalence of symbiotic protozoa in Fongoli chimpanzees are indicative of good overall population health. However, the high prevalence of pathogenic parasites in baboons, who may serve as transport hosts, highlight the need for ongoing pathogen surveillance of the Fongoli chimpanzee population and point to the need for further research into the epidemiology and cross-species transmission ecology of zoonotic pathogens at this site. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Gastro-intestinal handling of water and solutes in three species of elasmobranch fish, the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nose skate Raja eglanteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W Gary; Dasiewicz, Patricia J; Liban, Suadi; Ryan, Calen; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    The present study reports aspects of GI tract physiology in the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nose skate, Raja eglanteria. Plasma and stomach fluid osmolality and solute values were comparable between species, and stomach pH was low in all species (2.2 to 3.4) suggesting these elasmobranchs may maintain a consistently low stomach pH. Intestinal osmolality, pH and ion values were comparable between species, however, some differences in ion values were observed. In particular Ca(2+) (19.67+/-3.65mM) and Mg(2+) (43.99+/-5.11mM) were high in L. erinacea and Mg(2+) was high (130.0+/-39.8mM) in C. palgiosum which may be an indication of drinking. Furthermore, intestinal fluid HCO(3)(-) values were low (8.19+/-2.42 and 8.63+/-1.48mM) in both skates but very high in C. plagiosum (73.3+/-16.3mM) suggesting ingested seawater may be processed by species-specific mechanisms. Urea values from the intestine to the colon dropped precipitously in all species, with the greatest decrease seen in C. plagiosum (426.0+/-8.1 to 0mM). This led to the examination of the molecular expression of both a urea transporter and a Rhesus like ammonia transporter in the intestine, rectal gland and kidney in L. erinacea. Both these transporters were expressed in all tissues; however, expression levels of the Rhesus like ammonia transporter were orders of magnitude higher than the urea transporter in the same tissue. Intestinal flux rates of solutes in L. erinacea were, for the most part, in an inward direction with the notable exception of urea. Colon flux rates of solutes in L. erinacea were all in an outward direction, although absolute rates were considerably lower than the intestine, suggestive of a much tighter epithelia. Results are discussed in the context of the potential role of the GI tract in salt and water, and nitrogen, homeostasis in elasmobranchs.

  17. Resistência de parasitos gastrintestinais de ovinos a alguns anti-helmínticos no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil Gastro-intestinal parasites resistance in sheep to some anthelmintics in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Itaqui Ramos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A atuação dos anti-helmínticos à base de ivermectin (0,2mg/kg, levamisole (10mg/kg, closantel (10mg/kg e albendazole (10mg/kg, foi avaliada em 65 rebanhos ovinos do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. As avaliações foram executadas quando o rebanho apresentava-se com o lote controle acima de 500 ovos por grama de fezes (OPG da ordem Strongylida, acompanhado do cultivo de larvas. Foram aleatoriamente formados quatro grupos de 10 animais, identificados e tratados com os respectivos anti-helmínticos. Sete a 10 dias após, foram coletadas amostras de fezes dos animais de cada grupo para a verificação do OPG e identificação das larvas e os resultados comparados com o do lote controle. Considerou-se resistência quando a eficácia da droga foi menor do que 95% e o intervalo de confiança, menor do que 90%. Dos 65 rebanhos avaliados, a resistência ao ivermectin esteve presente em 77%, sendo somente identificadas larvas de Haemonchus (100%, ao albendazole em 65%, sendo Haemonchus (74%, Ostertagia (15% e Trichostrongylus (11%, ao closantel em 13%, sendo Haemonchus (100% e em 15% ao levamisole sendo Trichostrongylus (44%, Ostertagia (39% e Haemonchus (17%. Conclui-se que a multi-resistência está presente na maioria do rebanho ovino catarinense.Sixty-five sheep flocks were studied in Santa Catarina State to determine parasites resistance to anthelmintics based on ivermectin (0.2mg/kg, levamisole (10mg/kg, closantel (10mg/kg and albendazole (10 mg/kg. The evaluation was carryed out when a particular sheep flock showed a control group with EPG (eggs per gram level above 500. Larvae culture was also performed to allow the parasite identification. Four randomized groups of 10 animals were formed and treated with one of the four anthelmintic products. Faecal samples were collected of each group seven to ten days after the treatment, aiming to perform the eggs count and larvae identification. These results were compared with results of the control group. The anthelmintics were considered to present evidence of parasite resistance when the efficacy of the product was lower than 95%. From the total of 65 sheep flock studied, seventy-seven percent presented parasite resistance to ivermectin, with Haemonchus larvae only (100%; sixty-five percent to albendazole, with Haemonchus (74%, Ostertagia (15% and Trichostrongylus (11%; thirteen percent to closantel, with Haemonchus (100%; and fifteen percent to levamisole, with Thichostrongylus (44%, Ostertagia (39% and Haemonchus (17%. The results detected the presence of a multi-resistance to anthelminthics in the great majority of the sheep flocks of Santa Catarina State.

  18. Low Apgar scores in term newborns and long-term gastro-intestinal morbidity: a population-based cohort study with up to 18 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybovitz-Haleluya, Noa; Wainstock, Tamar; Sheiner, Eyal; Segal, Idit; Landau, Daniella; Walfisch, Asnat

    2017-12-07

    Low Apgar scores (Apgar scores and neuropsychological disorders, other childhood disorders were not thoroughly studied. We aimed to study the possible association between low 5-minute Apgar scores in term newborns and their long-term childhood gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity. A population-based cohort analysis was performed comparing total and different subtypes of GI-related pediatric hospitalizations among newborns with normal (≥7) and low (Apgar scores. The analysis included all term singletons born between the years 1999 and 2014 at a single tertiary regional medical center. Infants with congenital malformations, multiple gestations, and all perinatal deaths were excluded from the analysis. GI-related morbidities included hospitalizations involving a predefined set of ICD-9 codes, as recorded in the hospital computerized files. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve was constructed to compare the cumulative GI morbidity, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to adjust for confounders. The study population, including 223 244 term singletons, was followed for an average of 10.02 ± 6.0 years (0-18 years, median 10.25) following discharge from birth hospitalization. Low 5-minute Apgar scores were recorded in 585 (0.3%) newborns. Incidence of GI-related hospitalizations was higher among the low versus the normal 5-minute Apgar score group (7.4 versus 5.2%; 8.6/1000 person years (PY) versus 5.2/1000 PY, respectively; p = .02; odds ratio =1.66, 95%CI 1.36-1.96). The association remained significant and independent while adjusting for gestational age, fetal weight, offspring gender, maternal age, maternal smoking, hypertension, and diabetes (Adjusted HR =1.57, 95%CI 1.16-2.12, p = .003). Low 5 minutes Apgar score is associated with an increased risk for long-term pediatric GI morbidity of the offspring. Our results suggest that Apgar scores can be used as a possible predictor for long-term pediatric morbidities and thus may necessitate appropriate surveillance in this vulnerable group of children.

  19. Pemberian Grit pada Ayam Buras Memperpanjang Saluran Pencernaan, Menambah Bobot Ampela, dan Bobot Tulang Karkas (PROVISION OF GRIT TO NATIVE CHICKEN IMROVED THE DEVELOMPMENT OF GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT AND INCREASE CARCAS BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cytske Sabuna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commonly, native chicken is raised in an extensive management system. The chickens were free toscavenge in the backyard, and eat a wide variety of feeds including, rice, corn, insects, or even grit. Grit is anabrasive material that can help to grind feedstuffs and use as a source of mineral for chicken. In anintensive farming system, native chickens are given full feeding program throughout the production period,without grit. The objective of this research was to study the development of gastrointestinal tract andcarcass bone of native chickens supplemented to grit. Eighty chickens were used in the study usingrandomized block design. The four treatments were: R0 = basal feeds without grit ; R1 = R0 + grit 0,25% ofbody weight ; R2 = R0 + grit 0,50% of body weight ; R3 = R0 + grit 0,75% of body weight. The results showedthat administration of grit up to the level of 0.75% body weight significantly increased grit consumption,digestive tract length, gizzard weight and carcass bone weight of native chicken.

  20. [Combination therapy of continuous venous infusion (CVI) of 5-FU and low dose consecutive cisplatin (CDDP), and the new oral anti-cancer drug S-1 for advanced gastro-intestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaka, T; Aiba, K; Araki, H; Suzuki, M; Terashima, M; Mikami, Y

    1999-03-01

    Highly effective treatment is required for patients with advanced GI cancer. Returning to the starting point for reconsideration of cancer chemotherapy, with the aim of attaining a therapy (self rescuing concept: SRC) with more potential efficacy and less toxicity than current therapy, we report two kinds of chemotherapy in the present paper. They were set up preclinically using the theory of 5-FU biochemical modulation, and demonstrated their usefulness in clinical practice. S-1 is a newly developed oral anti-cancer drug which is a combination of Tegafur (FT), a prodrug of 5-FU and two modulators (CDHP, an inhibitor of 5-FU degradation and Oxo, a selective inhibitor GI toxicity by 5-FU) at a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1. In combination with CDHP, 5-FU gradually released from FT remained longer in plasma, and consequently had high anti-tumor activity, while the combined Oxo significantly suppressed GI toxicity due to 5-FU. The response rate to S-1 of stomach cancer in a phase II study was 46.5% (60/129). Toxicity at more than G3 was less than 10%. In the combination therapy employing 5-FU by CVI (5-FU: 250-350 mg/body for 24 h, 4-6 wks) and low dose consecutive CDDP, CDDP acts mainly as a modulator of 5-FU (to increase 5-FU sensitivity for tumor by inhibition of intracellular Met incorporation). For this purpose, it was found that daily consecutive administration is required, even at low dose of CDDP (3-5 mg/body/day for 5 days). A high response rate (40-60%) was obtained for advanced GI cancer. Toxicity at more than G3 was less than 10%. On the other hand, the possibility has been suggested that so far as 5-FU is concerned, CVI every other day (500-750 mg/body/day for 3 days) is more favorable than long term CVI, with regard to decreasing GI and myelotoxicities based upon the difference in generation time between normal cell (GI mucous membrane and stem cell) and tumor cell cycles. The possibility is suggested that the above-mentioned chemotherapy can become a standard therapy for GI cancer.

  1. Response to Cetuximab With or Without Irinotecan in Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Harboring the KRAS G13D Mutation: Australasian Gastro-Intestinal Trials Group ICECREAM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelov, Eva; Thavaneswaran, Subotheni; Waring, Paul M; Desai, Jayesh; Robledo, Kristy P; Gebski, Val J; Elez, Elena; Nott, Louise M; Karapetis, Christos S; Lunke, Sebastian; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Pavlakis, Nick; Khasraw, Mustafa; Underhill, Craig; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Jefford, Michael; Wasan, Harpreet; Haydon, Andrew; Price, Timothy J; van Hazel, Guy; Wilson, Kate; Simes, John; Shapiro, Jeremy D

    2016-07-01

    RAS mutations predict lack of response to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), but preclinical studies and retrospective clinical data suggest that patients with tumors harboring the exon 2 KRAS G13D mutation may benefit from cetuximab. We aimed to assess cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan in patients with molecularly selected (G13D mutation) chemotherapy-refractory mCRC in a randomized phase II trial of this rare molecular subtype. Patients with chemotherapy-refractory KRAS G13D mutation-positive mCRC who had progressed within 6 months of irinotecan therapy were randomly assigned to cetuximab 400 mg/m(2) loading dose and then 250 mg/m(2) once per week with or without irinotecan 180 mg/m(2) once every 2 weeks. The primary end point was 6-month progression-free survival; secondary end points were response rate, overall survival, quality of life, and toxicity. Fifty-one of 53 patients recruited over 2 years were eligible. The 6-month progression-free survival rate was 10% (95% CI, 2% to 26%) for cetuximab versus 23% (95% CI, 9% to 40%) for cetuximab plus irinotecan with a hazard ratio of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.42 to 1.32). Response and stable disease rates were 0% and 58% for monotherapy versus 9% and 70% for combination treatment, respectively. Overall survival and quality of life were similar; toxicities were higher with combination therapy. In patients with G13D-mutated chemotherapy-refractory mCRC, there was no statistically significant improvement in disease control at 6 months with either cetuximab monotherapy or cetuximab plus irinotecan. No responses were seen with single-agent cetuximab. The responses observed with the combination of cetuximab and irinotecan may reflect true drug synergy or persistent irinotecan sensitivity. The ICECREAM (Irinotecan Cetuximab Evaluation and Cetuximab Response Evaluation Among Patients with a G13D Mutation) study demonstrates the need to prospectively evaluate hypotheses that were previously supported by retrospective analyses and exemplifies the value of international collaboration in trials of rare molecular subtypes. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. Food-Associated Lactobacillus plantarum and Yeasts Inhibit the Genotoxic Effect of 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Prete

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, representing the prevailing microbiota associated with different foods generally consumed without any cooking, were identified and characterized in vitro for some functional properties, such as acid-bile tolerance and antigenotoxic activity. In particular, 22 Lactobacillus plantarum strains and 14 yeasts were studied. The gastro-intestinal tract tolerance of all the strains was determined by exposing washed cell suspensions at 37°C to a simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0, containing pepsin (0.3% w/v and to a simulated small intestinal juice (pH 8.0, containing pancreatin (1 mg mL-1 and bile extract (0.5%, thus monitoring changes in total viable count. In general, following a strain-dependent behavior, all the tested strains persisted alive after combined acid-bile challenge. Moreover, many strains showed high in vitro inhibitory activity against a model genotoxin, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO, as determined by the short-term method, SOS-Chromotest. Interestingly, the supernatants from bacteria- or yeasts-genotoxin co-incubations exhibited a suppression on SOS-induction produced by 4-NQO on the tester strain Escherichia coli PQ37 (sfiA::lacZ exceeding, in general, the value of 75%. The results highlight that food associated microorganisms may reach the gut in viable form and prevent genotoxin DNA damage in situ. Our experiments can contribute to elucidate the functional role of food-associated microorganisms general recognized as safe ingested with foods as a part of the diet.

  3. In vitro performance of self-adhesive resin cements for post-and-core build-ups: influence of chewing simulation or 1-year storage in 0.5% chloramine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, M; Sterzenbach, G; Rosentritt, M; Beuer, F; Frankenberger, R

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the in vitro performance of a self-adhesive resin composite core build-up in comparison with two typical conventional etch-and-rinse composite core build-up materials, before and after 1year of storage in 0.5% chloramine solution (LTS). Sixty human maxillary central incisors were divided into three groups. Teeth were root filled and decoronated. Specimens were restored using glass fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement. Core build-ups were made with a self-adhesive (U) and two core build-up materials (C and L) applied with their corresponding bonding systems. All specimens received adhesively luted lithium disilicate crowns. Ten specimens of each group were exposed to LTS and examined monthly for cracks or other alterations. All specimens were thermocycled, mechanically loaded (TCML) and finally loaded until failure occurred. There was no statistical significant difference in regard to the number of failures during TCML without and with LTS (log rank: p = 0.225 and 0.609, respectively). The median fracture load values after static loading without LTS and with LTS did not differ significantly (Kruskal-Wallis test: p = 0.057 and 0.106, respectively), though the fracture patterns between the groups without (p = 0.024) and with LTS (p = 0.027) did. Self-adhesive cements used for core build-up have no significantly higher risk of failure compared to conventional core build-up materials in both LTS and TCML test scenarios. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery of selective dengue virus inhibitors using combination of molecular fingerprint-based virtual screening protocols, structure-based pharmacophore model development, molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Shaher Bano; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Durdagi, Serdar

    2017-10-24

    Dengue virus is a major issue of tropical and sub-tropical regions. The proliferation of virus results in immense number of deaths each year because of unavailability of on-shelf drugs. This issue necessitates the design of novel anti-Dengue drugs. The protease enzyme pathway is the critical target for drug design due to its significance in the replication, survival and other cellular activities of Dengue virus. Keeping in mind the worsening situation regarding Dengue virus, approximately eighteen million drug-like compounds from the ZINC small molecule database have been screened against Nonstructural Protein 3 (NS3) previously by our group. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of extended time of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on structural and dynamical profiles of used complexes, simulation run time is increased from 50-ns to 100-ns for the each system. In addition, a well-known Dengue virus inhibitor (MB21) from literature is used as reference structure (positive control) to compare the proposed molecules. Post-processing MD analyses including Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) calculations were conducted to predict binding free energies of inhibitors from derived trajectory frames of MD simulations. Identified compounds are further directed to Quantum-Polarized Ligand Docking (QPLD), molecular fingerprint-based virtual screening of another small molecule database (Otava Drug Like small molecule database), and Structure-based Pharmacophore Modeling (E-Pharmacophore). Finally, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity tests as well as pre- and post-treatment on HUH7 cells infected with DENV2 NGC strain are applied for four identified hit molecules (ZINC36681949, ZINC44921800, ZINC95518765 and ZINC39500661) to check whether these drugs inhibit DENV2 from entry and/or exit pathways. Based on cell-based Dengue quantification assays, there is no effect seen on pre-treatment of cells with these compounds indicating that the early

  5. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of free phenolic compounds and oligosaccharides from corn (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chips during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and simulated colonic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo-Ocampo, I; Campos-Vega, R; Gaytán-Martínez, M; Preciado-Ortiz, R; Mendoza, S; Loarca-Piña, G

    2017-10-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are alternative suitable ingredients for snacks, because of their content of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds (PC) and oligosaccharides (OS). However, there is no information about the transformation of these compounds associated with food matrix during gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, the objective of this work was to simulate the whole digestion process (mouth to colon) to estimate bioaccessibility and small intestine permeability of free PC and OS, and the antioxidant capacity of free PC. Digested nixtamalized corn-cooked common bean chips exhibited significant different quantities of free PC and OS, and higher antioxidant activity compared to methanolic extract. The free PC showed high values of apparent permeability coefficients (0.023-0.729×10 -3 ), related with their absorption in the small intestine. Both free PC and OS were retained in the non-digestible fraction of chips (10.24-64.4%) and were able to reach the colon. Our results suggest the digestion potential to increase chip bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Additional studies are required to evaluate their in vivo effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Branchial cadmium and copper binding and intestinal cadmium uptake in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from clean and metal-contaminated lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, J S; Green, W W; Mirza, R S; Nadella, S R; Chowdhury, M J; Wood, C M; Pyle, G G

    2007-08-30

    Branchial binding kinetics and gastro-intestinal uptake of copper and cadmium where examined in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from a metal-contaminated lake (Hannah Lake, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada) and an uncontaminated lake (James Lake, North Bay, Ontario, Canada). An in vivo approach was taken for gill binding comparisons while an in vitro gut binding assay was employed for gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) uptake analysis. By investigating metal uptake at the gill and the gut we cover the two main routes of metal entry into fish. Comparisons of water and sediment chemistries, metal burdens in benthic invertebrate, and metal burdens in the livers of perch from the two study lakes clearly show that yellow perch from Hannah L. are chronically exposed to a highly metal-contaminated environment compared to a reference lake. We found that metal-contaminated yellow perch showed no significant difference in gill Cd binding compared to reference fish, but they did show significant decreases in new Cd binding and absorption in their GITs. The results show that gill Cd binding may involve low-capacity, high-affinity binding sites, while gastro-intestinal Cd uptake involves binding sites that are high-capacity, low-affinity. From this we infer that Cd may be more critically controlled at the gut rather than gills. Significant differences in branchial Cu binding (increased binding) were observed in metal-contaminated yellow perch. We suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu (and/or other metals) may be the dominant influence in gill Cu binding rather than chronic exposure to high Cu diets. We give supporting evidence that Cd is taken up in the GIT, at least in part, by a similar pathway as Ca(2+), principally that elevated dietary Ca(2+) reduces Cd binding and uptake. Overall our study reveals that metal pre-exposure via water and diet can alter uptake kinetics of Cu and Cd at the gill and/or the gut.

  7. Evaluation of vancomycin and daptomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and heterogeneously vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Steven N; Rybak, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Glycopeptides have historically been the drugs of choice for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the continued selective pressure has led to the emergence of non-susceptible strains including heterogeneously vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA). Infections with hVISA have been associated with poor outcomes including vancomycin treatment failures. The objective of this study was to evaluate vancomycin and daptomycin against vancomycin-susceptible MRSA and hVISA in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model with simulated endocardial vegetations. Six clinical isolates obtained from patients at the Detroit Medical Center were used: MRSA 494, MRSA 67, hVISA R1720, hVISS R2295, hVISA R3640 and hVISA R1629. All heteroresistant strains were confirmed by a population analysis profile ratio, with Mu3 as a control strain. Vancomycin regimens of 1 g every 12 h and 2 g every 12 h and daptomycin regimens of 6, 10 and 12 mg/kg daily were utilized in a PK/PD model over 72 h. Against MRSA isolates, vancomycin displayed minimal activity and minimal-to-no activity against hVISA. In general, the use of high dose vancomycin over standard dose vancomycin did not improve activity except against one of six isolates (MRSA 494). Daptomycin was bactericidal against both MRSA and hVISA isolates, although the rate of kill was slower against hVISA. Overall, daptomycin achieved rapid and effective kill against both MRSA and hVISA while vancomycin displayed slow and minimal kill against MRSA and minimal-to-no activity against hVISA, regardless of high dose exposure.

  8. In-vitro diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2001-01-01

    This review on in-vitro diagnostic methods focuses on the use of methods to perform risk assessment on foods. Based on the International Life Science Institute (ILSI) risk decision tree, the methods are discussed and three scenarios are suggested: (i) testing for a well-known allergen; (ii) testing...

  9. Simulation reframed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Roger L

    2016-01-01

    Simulation is firmly established as a mainstay of clinical education, and extensive research has demonstrated its value. Current practice uses inanimate simulators (with a range of complexity, sophistication and cost) to address the patient 'as body' and trained actors or lay people (Simulated Patients) to address the patient 'as person'. These approaches are often separate.Healthcare simulation to date has been largely for the training and assessment of clinical 'insiders', simulating current practices. A close coupling with the clinical world restricts access to the facilities and practices of simulation, often excluding patients, families and publics. Yet such perspectives are an essential component of clinical practice. This paper argues that simulation offers opportunities to move outside a clinical 'insider' frame and create connections with other individuals and groups. Simulation becomes a bridge between experts whose worlds do not usually intersect, inviting an exchange of insights around embodied practices-the 'doing' of medicine-without jeopardising the safety of actual patients.Healthcare practice and education take place within a clinical frame that often conceals parallels with other domains of expert practice. Valuable insights emerge by viewing clinical practice not only as the application of medical science but also as performance and craftsmanship.Such connections require a redefinition of simulation. Its essence is not expensive elaborate facilities. Developments such as hybrid, distributed and sequential simulation offer examples of how simulation can combine 'patient as body' with 'patient as person' at relatively low cost, democratising simulation and exerting traction beyond the clinical sphere.The essence of simulation is a purposeful design, based on an active process of selection from an originary world, abstraction of what is criterial and re - presentation in another setting for a particular purpose or audience. This may be done within

  10. SJFHQ Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schacher, Gordon; Dailey, James; Looney, John; Saylor, Steven; Jenson, Jack; Hutchins, Susan; Gallup, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    A four level architecture has been developed for SJFHQ processes. This architecture has been used to develop a simulation of SJFHQ operations. Correct simulation performance has been verified and initial results produced. The results focus on personal work tasking and multi-tasking effects.

  11. Excel simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuuren, Gerard M

    2013-01-01

    Covering a variety of Excel simulations, from gambling to genetics, this introduction is for people interested in modeling future events, without the cost of an expensive textbook. The simulations covered offer a fun alternative to the usual Excel topics and include situations such as roulette, password cracking, sex determination, population growth, and traffic patterns, among many others.

  12. Simulation tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, simulation tools made a significant contribution to the great progress in development of power electronics. Time to market was shortened and development costs were reduced drastically. Falling costs, as well as improved speed and precision, opened new fields of application. Today, continuous and switched circuits can be mixed. A comfortable number of powerful simulation tools is available. The users have to choose the best suitable for their application. Here a simple rule applies: The best available simulation tool is the tool the user is already used to (provided, it can solve the task). Abilities, speed, user friendliness and other features are continuously being improved—even though they are already powerful and comfortable. This paper aims at giving the reader an insight into the simulation of power electronics. Starting with a short description of the fundamentals of a simulation tool as well as properties of tools, several tools are presented. Starting with simplified models ...

  13. Simulation modeling and analysis with Arena

    CERN Document Server

    Altiok, Tayfur

    2007-01-01

    Simulation Modeling and Analysis with Arena is a highly readable textbook which treats the essentials of the Monte Carlo discrete-event simulation methodology, and does so in the context of a popular Arena simulation environment.” It treats simulation modeling as an in-vitro laboratory that facilitates the understanding of complex systems and experimentation with what-if scenarios in order to estimate their performance metrics. The book contains chapters on the simulation modeling methodology and the underpinnings of discrete-event systems, as well as the relevant underlying probability, statistics, stochastic processes, input analysis, model validation and output analysis. All simulation-related concepts are illustrated in numerous Arena examples, encompassing production lines, manufacturing and inventory systems, transportation systems, and computer information systems in networked settings.· Introduces the concept of discrete event Monte Carlo simulation, the most commonly used methodology for modeli...

  14. Probiotic edible films as a new strategy for developing functional bakery products: The case of pan bread☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Yonekura, Lina; Gan, Heng-Hui; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, a novel approach for the development of probiotic baked cereal products is presented. Probiotic pan bread constructed by the application of film forming solutions based either on individual hydrogels e.g. 1% w/w sodium alginate (ALG) or binary blends of 0.5% w/w sodium alginate and 2% whey protein concentrate (ALG/WPC) containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, followed by an air drying step at 60 °C for 10 min or 180 °C for min were produced. No visual differences between the bread crust surface of control and probiotic bread were observed. Microstructural analysis of bread crust revealed the formation of thicker films in the case of ALG/WPC. The presence of WPC improved significantly the viability of L. rhamnosus GG throughout air drying and room temperature storage. During storage there was a significant reduction in L. rhamnosus GG viability during the first 24 h, viable count losses were low during the subsequent 2–3 days of storage and growth was observed upon the last days of storage (day 4–7). The use of film forming solutions based exclusive on sodium alginate improved the viability of L. rhamnosus GG under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, and there was no impact of the bread crust matrix on inactivation rates. The presence of the probiotic edible films did not modify cause major shifts in the mechanistic pathway of bread staling – as shown by physicochemical, thermal, texture and headspace analysis. Based on our calculations, an individual 30–40 g bread slice can deliver approx. 7.57–8.98 and 6.55–6.91 log cfu/portion before and after in-vitro digestion, meeting the WHO recommended required viable cell counts for probiotic bacteria to be delivered to the human host. PMID:25089068

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Inulin and Its Role in the Prevention of Human Colonic Muscle Cell Impairment Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Mucosal Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Locato, Vittoria; Cocca, Silvia; Cimini, Sara; Palma, Rossella; Alloni, Rossana; De Gara, Laura; Cicala, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Background Fructans, such as inulin, are dietary fibers which stimulate gastro-intestinal (GI) function acting as prebiotics. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impairs GI motility, through production of reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant activity of various fructans was tested and the protective effect of inulin on colonic smooth muscle cell (SMC) impairment, induced by exposure of human mucosa to LPS, was assessed in an ex vivo experimental model. Methods The antioxidant capacity of fructans was measured in an in vitro system that simulates cooking and digestion processes. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa, obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments for cancer, were sealed between two chambers, with the mucosal side facing upwards with Krebs solution with or without purified LPS from a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (O111:B4) and inulin (Frutafit IQ), and the submucosal side facing downwards into Krebs solution. The solutions on the submucosal side were collected following mucosal exposure to Krebs in the absence (N-undernatant) or presence of LPS (LPS-undernatant) or LPS+inulin (LPS+INU-undernatant). Undernatants were tested for their antioxidant activity and the effects on SMCs contractility. Inulin protective effects on mucosa and submucosa layers were assessed measuring the protein oxidation level in the experimental conditions analyzed. Results Antioxidant activity of inulin, which was significantly higher compared to simple sugars, remained unaltered despite cooking and digestion processes. Inulin protected the mucosal and submucosal layers against protein oxidation. Following exposure to LPS-undernatant, a significant decrease in maximal acetylcholine (Ach)-induced contraction was observed when compared to the contraction induced in cells incubated with the N-undernatant (4±1% vs 25±5% respectively, PInulin (35±5%). Conclusions Inulin protects the human colon mucosa from LPS-induced damage and this effect appears to be related to the

  16. In vitro effects of simulated microgravity on Sertoli cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, M. A.; Prato, P.; Scarabelli, L.; Lanza, C.; Palmero, S.; Pointis, G.; Ricci, F.; Strollo, F.

    2011-02-01

    With the advent of space flights questions concerning the effects of microgravity (0×G) on human reproductive physiology have received great attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 0×G on Sertoli cells. A Sertoli cell line from mouse testis (42GPA9) was analyzed for cytoskeletal and Sex Hormone Binding Globilin (SHBG) changes by immunohistochemistry, for antioxidant content by RT-PCR and for culture medium lactate concentrations by protein chemistry. Cells were cultured for 6, 24 and 48 h on a three-dimensional Random Positioning Machine (3D-RPM); static controls (1×G) were positioned on the supporting frame. At the end of each experiment, cultured cells were either fixed in paraformaldehyde or lysed and RNA-extracted or used for culture medium lactate measurements as needed. At 0×G, Sertoli cytoskeleton became disorganized, microtubules fragmented and SHBG undetectable already after 24 h, with alterations worsening by 48 h. It was evident that various antioxidant systems appreciably increased during the first 24 h but significantly decreased at 48 h. No changes occurred in the 1×G samples. Initially, 0×G seemed to disturb antioxidant protection strategies allowing the testes to support sperm production, thus generating an aging-like state of oxidative stress. Lactate production at 0×G slightly decreased after 24 h. Further experiments are needed in space to investigate upon steroidogenesis and germ cell differentiation within the testis, to rule out male infertility as a possible consequence, which could be a problem, as life expectancy increases.

  17. Simulation Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Pat

    1976-01-01

    Describes five simulation exercises: a problem for a student teacher, an industrial relations game, a series of student problems; an international relations crisis, and a sociological exercise on public and private opinions. (LS)

  18. Simulation of ultrasound backscatter images from fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, An Hoai; Stage, Bjarne; Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate ultrasound (US) backscatter in the MHz range from fis to develop a realistic and reliable simulation model. The long term objective of the work is to develop the needed signal processing for fis species differentiation using US. In in-vitro experiments...... images reproduce most of the important characteristics of the measured US image....

  19. Fluorescent reporter systems for tracking probiotic lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, José M; Medina, Margarita; Arqués, Juan L

    2016-07-01

    In the last two decades, there has been increasing evidence supporting the role of the intestinal microbiota in health and disease, as well as the use of probiotics to modulate its activity and composition. Probiotic bacteria selected for commercial use in foods, mostly lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, must survive in sufficient numbers during the manufacturing process, storage, and passage through the gastro-intestinal tract. They have several modes of action and it is crucial to unravel the mechanisms underlying their postulated beneficial effects. To track their survival and persistence, and to analyse their interaction with the gastro-intestinal epithelia it is essential to discriminate probiotic strains from endogenous microbiota. Fluorescent reporter proteins are relevant tools that can be exploited as a non-invasive marker system for in vivo real-time imaging in complex ecosystems as well as in vitro fluorescence labelling. Oxygen is required for many of these reporter proteins to fluoresce, which is a major drawback in anoxic environments. However, some new fluorescent proteins are able to overcome the potential problems caused by oxygen limitations. The current available approaches and the benefits/disadvantages of using reporter vectors containing fluorescent proteins for labelling of bacterial probiotic species commonly used in food are addressed.

  20. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial.

  1. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranawana, Viren; Raikos, Vassilios; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Nicol, Phyllis; Milne, Lesley; Duthie, Garry

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient) with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial.

  2. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranawana, Viren; Raikos, Vassilios; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Nicol, Phyllis; Milne, Lesley; Duthie, Garry

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient) with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial. PMID:28231114

  3. Pre-absorption physicochemical compatibility assessment of 8-drug metabolic cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, Ching Kim; Wang, Zhanbin; Dockens, Randy C; Vakkalagadda, Blisse; Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Yingru; Su, Ching Chiang; Hageman, Michael J

    2016-12-05

    A comprehensive 8-drug metabolic cocktail was designed to simultaneously target 6 Cytochrome P450 enzymes and 2 membrane transporters. This study aimed to assess the pre-absorption risk of this new metabolic cocktail which contained metoprolol, caffeine, midazolam, pravastatin, flurbiprofen, omeprazole, digoxin and montelukast. This paper describes a systematic approach to understand whether the co-administration of the 8 selected drug products, i.e., the physical mixing of these products in the human gastro-intestinal environment, will create any issue that may interfere with the individual drug dissolution which in turns modify the total amount or timing of their availability for absorption. The evaluation consisted of two steps. An initial evaluation was based on theoretical understanding of the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the gastro intestinal environment, followed by in vitro dissolution tests. The results indicated that the designer 8-drug cocktail has acceptable pre-absorption compatibility when dosed simultaneously, and recommended the progression of the cocktail into clinical validation study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear medicine in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothfeld, B. (ed.)

    1974-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following main headings: crystal scintillation counting; liquid scintillation counting; activation analysis; the in vitro nuclear medicine laboratory; blood volume in clinical practice B/sub 12/ and folate deficiency; radionuclide studies associated with abnormalities of iron; basic principles of competitive radioassay; plasma cortisol; radioimmunoassays for T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/; radioimmunoassay of estrogens; determination of androgens in biological fluids; radioimmunoassay of digitalis glycosides; growth hormone; thyrotropin; gonadotropins; radioimmunoassay of gastrin; glucagon; radioisotopic measurements of insulin; radioimmunoassay of the calcium-regulating hormones; the renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone; tumor antigens; fat absorption; protein-losing enteropathy; Australia antigen; bacteriologic cultures and sensitivities; and future pathways. (ERB)

  5. Solar simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, S.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Solar simulator comprising at least at least one high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp type,and at least one halogen lamp type, which lamps are applied simultaneously and are provided with infrared filter means to provide a mixture of light approximating radiated sunlight,wherein the infrared filter

  6. Simulating Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipinos, Savas

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…

  7. The use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy: how about the newborn?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kieviet, Noera; Dolman, Koert M; Honig, Adriaan

    2013-01-01

    .... Such symptoms are largely similar after exposure to antidepressants, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines and consist of mostly mild neurologic, autonomic, respirator and gastro-intestinal abnormalities...

  8. In vitro bioactivity of glass-ceramic/fibroin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar Radev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive composite materials were prepared by mixing 20 wt.% of silk fibroin (SF and 80 wt.% of glassceramics from CaO-SiO2-P2O5-MgO system. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared composites was evaluated in 1.5 simulated body fluid (1.5 SBF in static conditions. The obtained samples before and after in vitro tests were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The changes in 1.5 SBF solutions after soaking the samples were evaluated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. MG63 osteosarcoma cells were used for the biological experiments. The obtained experimental data proved that the synthesized composites exhibit excellent in vitro bioactivity.

  9. In vitro and in silico characterisation of Tacrolimus released under biorelevant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, A; Wu, S; Stranzinger, S; Mohr, S; Salar-Behzadi, S; Bresciani, M; Fröhlich, E

    2016-12-30

    This work aims to better understand the in vivo behaviour of modified release (MR) formulations (Envarsus® tablets and Advagraf® capsules) using in vitro properties of tacrolimus and in silico simulations. The in silico concentration profiles of tacrolimus released from the MR formulations were predicted after building a three compartments PK model with GastroPlus™, and using the experimentally determined in vitro physico-chemical properties as input parameters. In vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) were obtained after deconvolution of in vivo data from a clinical trial. The IVIVC showed that the in vitro dissolution was faster than the in vivo deconvoluted dissolution for Advagraf®, while the in vitro dissolution was slightly slower than the in vivo deconvoluted dissolution for Envarsus®. Population PK simulation showed that variability in the simulation was lower for Envarsus® compared to Advagraf®. The in silico predicted preferential absorption sites were the proximal and distal tract for Advagraf® and Envarsus®, respectively. The integration of experimental in vitro solubility, permeability and biorelevant dissolution data allowed to generate in silico tacrolimus concentrations for two different MR formulations. This permitted to compare the two formulations in a single PK profile, in a simulated population PK study and with respect to their absorption sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In-vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) have short existence in vivo because they are rapidly metabolized by NAD + -dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) to 15-ketoprostaglandins. Inhibition of 15-PGDH causes elevated level of PGE 2 in cellular system. It will be valuable for the therapeutic management of diseases requiring elevated PGE 2 levels, like wound healing. Ninety-eight plant samples were screened for the discovery of potent 15-PGDH inhibitor. Among them, top five plant extracts as potent 15-PGDH inhibitor were chosen to determine PGE 2 release from HaCaT (Keratinocyte cell line) cell line. Finally, top 15-PGDH inhibitor was selected to evaluate in vitro wound healing effect on HaCaT scratch model. The inhibitory activity for 15-PGDH inhibitors was evaluated using fluorescence spectrophotometer by measuring the formation of NADH at 468 nm following excitation at 340 nm. Cell viability assay and PGE 2 release was evaluated in HaCaT cell line after treatment of 15-PGDH inhibitors. Scratches were made using sterile 200 μL on HaCaT cell and wound-healing effect was evaluated after treatment of 15-PGDH inhibitor. 15-PGDH inhibitors elevated PGE 2 levels in concentration-dependent manner. Ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus (EEAH), the most potent 15-PGDH inhibitor (IC 50 = 0.62 µg/mL) with least cytotoxicity (IC 50 = 670 µg/ml), elevated both intracellular and extracellular PGE 2 levels. EEAH facilitated in-vitro wound healing in a HaCaT (Keratinocyte cell line) scratch model. EEAH might apply to treat dermal wounds by elevating PGE 2 levels via COX-1 induction and 15-PGDH inhibition. Biological inactivation of 15-PGDH causes elevated level of PGE 2 which will be useful for the management of disease that requires elevated level of PGE 2 . Abbreviations used: 15-PGDH: 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, COX: Cyclooxygenase, DTT: Dithiothreitol, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media, EEAH: Ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus, MRP4

  11. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuna, D S; Dey, Prasanta; Das, Shibu; Kundu, Amit; Bhakta, Tejendra

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate potential of antioxidant property of ethanolic root extract of Asparagus racemosus Linn (EEAR). In vitro evaluation antioxidant property of EEAR was done using various methods like DPPH scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and nitric oxide scavenging activity. HPTLC fingerprint analysis was performed for qualitative determination of possible number of components from the ethanolic extract. Acute toxicity study was performed in Wistar rat and an OECD guideline 423 was followed. The yield value was found 0.96% from EEAR. A concentration of 468.57 ± 3.002 μg/ml of probable antioxidant material from EEAR was required to scavenge 50% of DPPH. The IC 50 value of EEAR were found to be 508.17 ± 7.37 μg and 416.57 ± 5.08 μg when determined by hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide scavenging assay respectively. The reducing powers of EEAR was 0.295 ± 0.0037 at 125 μg/ml and increased to 0.934 ± 0.0005 at 500 μg/ml. HPTLC fingerprint data supports several basic informations like isolation, purification, quality evaluation and standardization. No sign of toxicity was observed after treated with 2000 mg/kg of EEAR. The obtained data highlight the potential role of EEAR as a source of natural antioxidants.

  12. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  13. In vitro flowering of orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Kerbauy, Gilberto B; Zeng, Songjun; Chen, Zhilin; Duan, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Flowering is the most elusive and fascinating of all plant developmental processes. The ability to induce flowering in vitro in orchids would reduce the relatively long juvenile phase and provide deeper insight into the physiological, genetic and molecular aspects of flowering. This review synthesizes all available studies that have been conducted on in vitro flowering of orchids with the objective of providing valuable clues as to the mechanism(s) that is possibly taking place.

  14. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  15. Neuromechanical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald H Edwards

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the interaction between the body and the brain for the control of behavior has been recognized in recent years with the advent of neuromechanics, a field in which the coupling between neural and biomechanical processes is an explicit focus. A major tool used in neuromechanics is simulation, which connects computational models of neural circuits to models of an animal’s body situated in a virtual physical world. This connection closes the feedback loop that links the brain, the body, and the world through sensory stimuli, muscle contractions and body movement. Neuromechanical simulations enable investigators to explore the dynamical relationships between the brain, the body, and the world in ways that are difficult or impossible through experiment alone. Studies in a variety of animals have permitted the analysis of extremely complex and dynamic neuromechanical systems, they have demonstrated that the nervous system functions synergistically with the mechanical properties of the body, they have examined hypotheses that are difficult to test experimentally, and they have explored the role of sensory feedback in controlling complex mechanical systems with many degrees of freedom. Each of these studies confronts a common set of questions: (i how to abstract key features of the body, the world and the CNS in a useful model, (ii how to ground model parameters in experimental reality, (iii how to optimize the model and identify points of sensitivity and insensitivity, and (iv how to share neuromechanical models for examination, testing, and extension by others.

  16. Comparing simulation results of SBML capable simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T.; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Simulations are an essential tool when analyzing biochemical networks. Researchers and developers seeking to refine simulation tools or develop new ones would benefit greatly from being able to compare their simulation results. Summary: We present an approach to compare simulation results between several SBML capable simulators and provide a website for the community to share simulation results. Availability: The website with simulation results and additional material can be found under: http://sys-bio.org/sbwWiki/compare. The software used to generate the simulation results is available on the website for download. Contact: fbergman@u.washington.edu PMID:18579569

  17. Plaque mineralisation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L

    1998-03-01

    Dental calculus is plaque mineralised by deposition of calcium and phosphate resulting from interactions between the oral microbial plaque flora and components of oral fluids. An artificial-mouth microcosm dental plaque culture system has been developed to study aspects of plaque mineralisation, including pH control. Five plaques were grown from saliva under simulated oral conditions in a mucin-containing medium, and sucrose was applied to mimic meals. The plaques were mineralised with a urea-based, calcium-phosphate-monofluorophosphate-urea (CPMU) mineralising solution. Alkaline pH oscillations were generated by the plaques in response to CPMU applications, and an acidic oscillation followed sucrose applications. Plaque mineralisation by the CPMU procedure was almost totally dependent on the urea present in the mineralising solution, but total mineralisation also increased as the resting pH increased as a result of urea in the medium. Following four CPMU applications with a sucrose application every 12 hours improved plaque viability and mineralisation. The plaque mineral formed resembled a carbonated hydroxyapatite; other potential calcium phosphate minerals were undetectable except for calcium carbonate. A wide range of mineral deposition patterns in plaque were seen by electron microscopy.

  18. Phospholipids reduce gastric cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Petra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nidation of floating tumour cells initiates peritoneal carcinosis and limits prognosis of gastro-intestinal tumours. Adhesion of tumour cells to extracellular matrix components is a pivotal step in developing peritoneal dissemination of intraabdominal malignancies. Since phospholipids efficaciously prevented peritoneal adhesion formation in numerous animal studies we investigated their capacity to reduce adhesions of gastric cancer cells to extracellular matrix components (ECM. Methods Human gastric cancer cells (NUGC-4, Japanese Cancer Research Resources Bank, Tokyo, Japan were used in this study. Microtiter plates were coated with collagen IV (coll, laminin (ln and fibronectin (fn. Non-specific protein binding of the coated wells was blocked by adding 1% (w/v BSA (4°C, 12 h and rinsing the wells with Hepes buffer. 50.000 tumour cells in 100 μl medium were seeded into each well. Beside the controls, phospholipids were added in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0/100 μl medium. After an incubation interval of 30 min, attached cells were fixed and stained with 0.1% (w/v crystal violet. The dye was resuspended with 50 μl of 0.2% (v/v Triton X-100 per well and colour yields were then measured by an ELISA reader at 590 nm. Optical density (OD showed a linear relationship to the amount of cells and was corrected for dying of BSA/polystyrene without cells. Results The attachment of gastric cancer cells to collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin could be significantly reduced up to 53% by phospholipid concentrations of 0.5 mg/100 μl and higher. Conclusion These results, within the scope of additional experimental studies on mice and rats which showed a significant reduction of peritoneal carcinosis, demonstrated the capacity of phospholipids in controlling abdominal nidation of tumour cells to ECM components. Lipid emulsions may be a beneficial adjunct in surgery of gastrointestinal malignancies.

  19. Simulated Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  20. Anaesthesia for In Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Jain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fertilization is an upcoming speciality. Anaesthesia during assisted reproductive technique is generally required during oocyte retrieval, which forms one of the fundamental steps during the entire procedure. Till date variety of techniques like conscious sedation, general anaesthesia and regional anaesthesia has been tried with none being superior to the other. However irrespective of the technique the key point of anaesthesia for in vitro fertilization is to provide the anaesthetic exposure for least duration so as to avoid its detrimental effects on the embryo cleavage and fertilization.

  1. In vitro placental pressure-flow behaviour is non-linear and depends on the external pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg-Lakeman, P.; Boer, K.; van Gemert, M. J.; Vergroesen, I.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study pressure-flow behaviour of in vitro placentas under normal simulated conditions and during raised external pressures, to simulate in vivo placental hemodynamic function, and as a model for polyhydramnios and the supine hypotension syndrome. DESIGN: Eleven normal term human

  2. In Vivo and In Vitro Nitinol Corrosion Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonn, Melissa K.; Metcalf, Justin M.; Choules, Brian D.

    2015-09-01

    Regulatory authorities often require in vitro testing on medical devices prior to approval. Current standardized corrosion testing methods (ASTM F2129) require testing in a non-physiologic, de-oxygenated solution for a pre-exposure time of ≤1 h; however, no correlations between the prescribed simulated environment and whole blood conditions have been elucidated. This study compared open circuit potential (OCP), breakdown potentials (Eb), Eb - OCP, and cyclic polarization curves tested in vivo (OCP only) and in vitro in whole blood to those tested in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Two oxide thicknesses of Nitinol, two solution oxygen contents (deaerated and aerated solutions), and two pre-exposure durations (acute and chronic) were investigated. The in vitro OCP in whole blood was not significantly different than the in vivo OCP, suggesting that whole blood in vitro can be used to determine baseline corrosion behavior of medical implants. Eb - OCP tested per ASTM F2129 was comparable to acute whole blood and was conservative compared to chronic whole blood for both oxide thicknesses. However, OCP, Eb, and cyclic polarization curves were not always comparable to whole blood. Testing in aerated PBS achieved Eb, Eb - OCP, and cyclic polarization curves that were comparable to or more conservative than whole blood testing, regardless of pre-exposure duration and oxide thickness.

  3. In Vitro Tests for Aerosol Deposition. V: Using Realistic Testing to Estimate Variations in Aerosol Properties at the Trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangyin; Hindle, Michael; Delvadia, Renishkumar R; Byron, Peter R

    2017-10-01

    The dose and aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of drug aerosols' exiting models of the mouth and throat (MT) during a realistic inhalation profile (IP) may be estimated in vitro and designated Total Lung Dose, TLDin vitro, and APSDTLDin vitro, respectively. These aerosol characteristics likely define the drug's regional distribution in the lung. A general method was evaluated to enable the simultaneous determination of TLDin vitro and APSDTLDin vitro for budesonide aerosols' exiting small, medium and large VCU-MT models. Following calibration of the modified next generation pharmaceutical impactor (NGI) at 140 L/min, variations in aerosol dose and size exiting MT were determined from Budelin® Novolizer® across the IPs reported by Newman et al., who assessed drug deposition from this inhaler by scintigraphy. Values for TLDin vitro from the test inhaler determined by the general method were found to be statistically comparable to those using a filter capture method. Using new stage cutoffs determined by calibration of the modified NGI at 140 L/min, APSDTLDin vitro profiles and mass median aerodynamic diameters at the MT exit (MMADTLDin vitro) were determined as functions of MT geometric size across Newman's IPs. The range of mean values (n ≥ 5) for TLDin vitro and MMADTLDin vitro for this inhaler extended from 6.2 to 103.0 μg (3.1%-51.5% of label claim) and from 1.7 to 3.6 μm, respectively. The method enables reliable determination of TLDin vitro and APSDTLDin vitro for aerosols likely to enter the trachea of test subjects in the clinic. By simulating realistic IPs and testing in different MT models, the effects of major variables on TLDin vitro and APSDTLDin vitro may be studied using the general method described in this study.

  4. Synthetic in vitro transcription circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Maximilian; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2012-01-01

    With the help of only two enzymes--an RNA polymerase and a ribonuclease--reduced versions of transcriptional regulatory circuits can be implemented in vitro. These circuits enable the emulation of naturally occurring biochemical networks, the exploration of biological circuit design principles and the biochemical implementation of powerful computational models.

  5. An In Vitro Nematic Model for Proliferating Cell Cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Pai, Sunil; Green, Morgaine; Cordeiro, Christine; Cabral, Elise; Chen, Bertha; Baer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Confluent populations of elongated cells give rise to ordered patterns seen in nematic phase liquid crystals. We correlate cell elongation and intercellular distance with intercellular alignment using an amorphous spin glass model. We compare in vitro time-lapse imaging with Monte Carlo simulation results by framing a novel hard ellipses model in terms of Boltzmann statistics. Furthermore, we find a statistically distinct alignment energy at quasi-steady state among fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and pluripotent cell populations when cultured in vitro. These findings have important implications in both non-invasive clinical screening of the stem cell differentiation process and in relating shape parameters to coupling in active crystal systems such as nematic cell monolayers.

  6. Effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the stem bark of Zizyphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zizyphus spina-christi commonly known as Kurna has often been prescribed by traditional medicine practitioners in Borno State for the control of gastro intestinal disorders. The study focused on investigating the curative potentials of the plant material on gastro intestinal motility. Fresh samples of the stem bark were ...

  7. Publications | Page 235 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cadmium and calcium transport along the gastro-intestinal tract of rainbow trout : more than "gut feelings" on mechanisms of uptake (restricted access). Teleosts take up metals by two major pathways: gills and/or gut. Past research is heavily focused on branchial uptake despite evidence that the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) is ...

  8. Malignant Gastrointestinal Tumours in South Western Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Malignant tumours of the gastro-intestinal tract are not as rare as previous studies suggest. Recent studies have indicated increasing incidence. OBJECTIVE: To document the pattern, age and sex distribution as well as histopathology characteristics of malignant tumours of the gastro-intestinal system in ...

  9. March 2010 Final for Publicat...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    discharging peri-anal sinus for which he was applying some herbs and patent medicines. ... gastro-intestinal tract, it has been shown to be relatively uncommon in the ano-rectal region . ... It primarily affects the respiratory system, but other systems including the gastro-intestinal tract can also be affected. When it does, it has ...

  10. The First Drinking Simulator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostafa Moazzami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current Thermal cycling units fail to simulate the drinking behaviors, and oral balancing temperature. They cannot also simulate other oral conditions such as drink coloring, and chemicals like tea, coffee, carbonated and noncarbonated, citrus juices as well as alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks and also saliva and milk itself. The main objective of this study is to introduce the designing and manufacturing the first Drinking Simulator Unit (DSU that reproduces the thermal, color and chemicalcycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions uniquely. Methods: The invented system generally has two parts: the hardware and the software parts. The hardware consists of the mechanical and electronic parts. The software part is responsible for controlling the heating and cooling systems, electric valves, the pumps, and automatic filling systems of tanks as well as the sensors of the machine. Results: DSU is the first unit can reproduce the thermal, color and chemical cycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions. Different kinds of colored and acidic drinks and also other chemical materials such as bleaching substances as well as detergents and antiseptics used for dentistry, industrial and medical purposes can be tested by DSU. DSU has also to be considered as an appliance performing in-vitro researches on dental structures. Conclusion: The invented system can greatly improve and validate the results of such researches.  

  11. Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Andra, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry. Certain fractions of ingested soil-Pb may not dissociate during digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence, may not be available for transport across the intestinal membrane. Therefore, this study is being currently performed to assess the geochemical forms and bioaccessibility of Pb in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. In order to elucidate the level of Pb that can be ingested and assimilated by humans, an in-vitro model that simulates the physiological conditions of the human digestive system has been developed and is being used in this study. Four different types of soils from the Immokalee (an acid sandy soil with minimal Pb retention potential), Millhopper (a sandy loam with high Fe/Al content), Pahokee (a muck soil with more than 80% soil organic matter), and Tobosa series (an alkaline soil with high clay content) were artificially contaminated with Pb as lead nitrate at the rate equivalent to 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg dry soil. Analysis of soils by a sequential extraction method at time zero (immediately after spiking) showed that Immokalee and Millhopper soils had the highest amount of Pb in exchangeable form, whereas Pahokee and Tobosa soils had higher percentages of carbonate-bound and Fe/Al-bound Pb. The results of in-vitro experiment at time zero showed that majority of Pb was dissolved in the acidic stomach environment in Immokalee, Millhopper, and Tobosa, whereas it was in the intestinal phase in Pahokee soils. Because the soil system is not in equilibrium at time zero, the effect of soil properties on Pb geochemistry is not clear as yet. The

  12. Digestion of microencapsulated oil powders: in vitro lipolysis and in vivo absorption from a food matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Luz; Rusli, Jenny Kartika; Shen, Zhiping; Cheng, Li Jiang; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Microencapsulation provides a vehicle for the incorporation of fats and oils into powders that can be used as dry ingredients in an expanded variety of food products. Microencapsulated omega-3 oils in particular are commonly incorporated into a variety of foods and numerous in vitro studies have examined the impact of individual microencapsulation technologies on the simulated digestibility of the oil core. We have exposed twelve microencapsulated canola oil-in-water emulsions, formulated with different proteins (milk or soy) or mixtures of protein and carbohydrates (sugars, oligosaccharides, resistant starch) and processed into powders by spray drying, to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in vitro. The extent of lipolysis of the canola oil in these products varied between 12-68% suggesting that the in vitro digestibility of the oil within the powders was dependent on both the formulation and the processing steps used in their manufacture. Five microencapsulated powders with differing extents of in vitro lipolysis were then incorporated into a dairy beverage for an in vivo human trial with neat oil incorporation in the beverage used as the control. Measurement of triglyceride levels in blood revealed both enhanced peak height and area under the curve (AUC) in vivo for the microencapsulated oil groups when compared to the neat oil control. The range of lipolysis efficiencies observed with the different formulations in vitro was not reflected in vivo. These observations suggest that care needs to be taken when extrapolating data from in vitro lipolysis to bioavailability in humans.

  13. Virtual Reality Simulation of Liver Biopsy with a Respiratory Component

    OpenAIRE

    Villard, Pierre-Frédéric; Boshier, Piers; Bello, Fernando; Gould, Derek

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The field of computer-based simulators has grown exponentially in the last few decades, especially in Medicine. Advantages of medical simulators include: (1) provision of a platform where trainees can practice procedures without risk of harm to patients; (2) anatomical fidelity; (3) the ability to train in an environment wherein physiological behaviour is observed, something that is not permitted where in-vitro phantoms are used; (4) flexibility regarding anatomical an...

  14. The In Vitro Stability of Circulating Tumour DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao Diaz, Emanuela; Yachnin, Jeffrey; Grönberg, Henrik; Lindberg, Johan

    2016-01-01

    DNA from apoptotic cancer cells, present in the circulation, has the potential to facilitate genomic profiling and disease monitoring. However, only low fractions of total cell-free DNA originates from cancer cells, limiting the applicability of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). Optimal sample processing is consequently of uttermost importance. Therefore, we evaluated the in vitro stability of ctDNA. Blood was collected in 10 ml EDTA or Streck tubes. Three conditions (EDTA and Streck tubes in room temperature, EDTA tubes at five degrees) and four time points (plasma harvested from blood aliquots of each 10 ml tube in a time series up to 24 h) were investigated. Each condition was evaluated in five metastatic prostate cancer patients. Subsequently, three additional patients were collected enabling investigation of the in vitro stability in EDTA tubes up to 48 h. The in vitro stability of ctDNA was interrogated by low-pass whole genome sequencing which allows for the identification of somatic copy-number alterations (CNAs). In silico simulations demonstrated that non-parametric testing could detect a 1% contamination by white blood cell DNA. Mutational profiling was performed by targeted, in-solution based hybridization capture and subsequent sequencing. The allelic fraction of individual mutations was used as an estimate of the in vitro stability. Somatic CNAs were detected in all patients. Surprisingly, the ctDNA levels at zero hours were not significantly different to 24 or 48 hour in vitro incubation in any investigated condition. Subsequently, mutational profiling corroborated the conclusions from the CNA analysis. The stability of ctDNA simplifies logistics without the requirement of immediate processing or applying fixatives to prevent white blood cell lysis.

  15. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  16. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  17. Enzymatically Degradable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for In-Vitro Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2015-06-30

    Non-aggregated dense bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanoparticles based on nature-inspired oxamide bridges are shown to degrade in simulated biological media upon cleavage with endopeptidase. Fluorescent BS nanoprobes with incorporated fluorescein dyes were applied for in-vitro imaging in cancer cells.

  18. Interlaboratory trial on the determination of the In Vitro iron dialysability from food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, J.; Crews, H.; Flynn, A.

    1996-01-01

    An in vitro method for the estimation of iron bioavailability was subjected to an interlaboratory trial. The method involved a simulated gastrointestinal digestion using pepsin for the gastric stage followed by pancreatin and bile salts for the intestinal stage. The proportion of iron diffused

  19. Modeling the microclimate inside a vessel in in vitro culture : vessel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M

    Numerical simulations show that variations in vessel internal humidity was ... Keywords : Agar, in vitro culture, microclimate, modeling, transfer coefficient. ... determining the atmospheric conditions inside .... is a function of air speed was used. .... latent heat of evaporation, R the gas constant and .... mesoscale circulation.

  20. Tissue response to partially in vitro predegraded poly-L-lactide implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, WH; Robinson, JE; Bos, RRM

    The in vivo local reaction of as-polymerized poly-L-lactide composed of 96% L-lactide and 4% D-lactide (PLA96) was investigated by histology at 2, 13 and 26 weeks after subcutaneous implantation in rats. In order to simulate possible end stage reactions the PLA96 was also predegraded in vitro until

  1. The effect of tendon loading on in-vitro carpal kinematics of the wrist joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foumani, M.; Blankevoort, L.; Stekelenburg, C.; Strackee, S. D.; Carelsen, B.; Jonges, R.; Streekstra, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of in-vitro carpal kinematics of the wrist provide valuable biomechanical data. Tendon loading is often applied during cadaver experiments to simulate natural stabilizing joint compression in the wrist joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of tendon loading on

  2. Allometric scaling in-vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Arti

    2017-02-01

    About two decades ago, West and coworkers established a model which predicts that metabolic rate follows a three quarter power relationship with the mass of an organism, based on the premise that tissues are supplied nutrients through a fractal distribution network. Quarter power scaling is widely considered a universal law of biology and it is generally accepted that were in-vitro cultures to obey allometric metabolic scaling, they would have more predictive potential and could, for instance, provide a viable substitute for animals in research. This paper outlines a theoretical and computational framework for establishing quarter power scaling in three-dimensional spherical constructs in-vitro, starting where fractal distribution ends. Allometric scaling in non-vascular spherical tissue constructs was assessed using models of Michaelis Menten oxygen consumption and diffusion. The models demonstrate that physiological scaling is maintained when about 5 to 60% of the construct is exposed to oxygen concentrations less than the Michaelis Menten constant, with a significant concentration gradient in the sphere. The results have important implications for the design of downscaled in-vitro systems with physiological relevance.

  3. In vitro reproduction of noncarious cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakovich, John J; Oslak, Robert R

    2008-07-01

    A review of the dental literature indicates that noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) are formed by erosion, abrasion, and/or abfraction of tooth structure, but their etiology remains scientifically unsubstantiated. The purpose of this study was to reproduce noncarious cervical lesions in vitro. This study was not designed to statistically quantify the amount of lost tooth structure via abrasion, but rather to attempt to create NCCLs in the various shapes and sizes that are clinically observed. Three pairs of toothbrush types (generic and name-brand) with soft, medium, or firm bristles were tested with 3 different toothpastes of varying abrasive potentials (low, medium, and high) or with water only, on mounted human teeth with and without simulated gingival tissues (6 toothbrushes x 4 brushing solutions (L, M, H, dentifrices, or water only) x 2 gingival mask conditions = 48 test/control groups of 4 teeth each = 192). The control sets, brushed in water only, demonstrated no visible loss of tooth structure. Each set brushed with toothpaste, regardless of the degree of abrasiveness or toothbrush bristle firmness, demonstrated visible wear at the level of the CEJ. Significant noncarious cervical lesions were created via horizontal brushing with common commercial toothpaste, while brushing with water only did not create these cervical lesions.

  4. Breaking sarcomeres by in vitro exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Zacharias; Gödderz, Markus P O; Soroka, Ekaterina; Gödderz, Tobias; Rumyantseva, Anastasia; van der Ven, Peter F M; Hawke, Thomas J; Fürst, Dieter O

    2016-01-25

    Eccentric exercise leads to focal disruptions in the myofibrils, referred to as "lesions". These structures are thought to contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, and to represent areas of mechanical damage and/or remodelling. Lesions have been investigated in human biopsies and animal samples after exercise. However, this approach does not examine the mechanisms behind lesion formation, or their behaviour during contraction. To circumvent this, we used electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to simulate exercise in C2C12 myotubes, combined with live microscopy. EPS application led to the formation of sarcomeric lesions in the myotubes, resembling those seen in exercised mice, increasing in number with the time of application or stimulation intensity. Furthermore, transfection with an EGFP-tagged version of the lesion and Z-disc marker filamin-C allowed us to observe the formation of lesions using live cell imaging. Finally, using the same technique we studied the behaviour of these structures during contraction, and observed them to be passively stretching. This passive behaviour supports the hypothesis that lesions contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, protecting against further damage. We conclude that EPS can be reliably used as a model for the induction and study of sarcomeric lesions in myotubes in vitro.

  5. Breaking sarcomeres by in vitro exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Zacharias; Gödderz, Markus P. O.; Soroka, Ekaterina; Gödderz, Tobias; Rumyantseva, Anastasia; van der Ven, Peter F. M.; Hawke, Thomas J.; Fürst, Dieter O.

    2016-01-01

    Eccentric exercise leads to focal disruptions in the myofibrils, referred to as “lesions”. These structures are thought to contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, and to represent areas of mechanical damage and/or remodelling. Lesions have been investigated in human biopsies and animal samples after exercise. However, this approach does not examine the mechanisms behind lesion formation, or their behaviour during contraction. To circumvent this, we used electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to simulate exercise in C2C12 myotubes, combined with live microscopy. EPS application led to the formation of sarcomeric lesions in the myotubes, resembling those seen in exercised mice, increasing in number with the time of application or stimulation intensity. Furthermore, transfection with an EGFP-tagged version of the lesion and Z-disc marker filamin-C allowed us to observe the formation of lesions using live cell imaging. Finally, using the same technique we studied the behaviour of these structures during contraction, and observed them to be passively stretching. This passive behaviour supports the hypothesis that lesions contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, protecting against further damage. We conclude that EPS can be reliably used as a model for the induction and study of sarcomeric lesions in myotubes in vitro. PMID:26804343

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (LGG) and “gastro-intestinal health” (ID 906) and maintenance of tooth mineralisation (ID 3018) pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (LGG) and “gastrointestinal health” and maintenance of tooth mineralisation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has...

  7. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-1079 and defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 913, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae var...

  8. Supplementation with protected fat to manage gastro-intestinal nematode infections in Santa Ines sheepSuplementação com gordura protegida na infecção por nematódeos gastrintestinais em ovelhas Santa Inês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to determine the influence of supplementation with protected fat on nematode infections in periparturient sheep or sheep in their final stage of pregnancy. Fifty Santa Ines ewes received 200 g of concentrate/animal/day, mineral salt and water and were grouped according to their weight, hematocrit and the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG. Two diets were used: a control treatment and a treatment consisting of supplementation with 30 g/animal/day of protected fat in the concentrate. Three monthly evaluations were performed over a total of 84 days of testing. The variables analyzed were weight, body condition, EPG and coprocultures; blood tests were performed for the determination of packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration and total plasma protein, and leukograms and eosinophil counts were performed. For weight and hemoglobin concentrations, interactions were observed between diet and collection date (P 0. 05 but did differ by collection day (P 0.05. The genus Haemonchus was predominant, followed by the genera Cooperia, Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum. The protected fat did not decrease EPG and did not improve the blood parameters of infected sheep. O objetivo do experimento foi verificar a influência da suplementação com gordura protegida na infecção por nematódeos gastrintestinais em ovelhas Santa Ines no periparto ou terço final de gestação. Cinqüenta ovelhas Santa Inês receberam 200 g de concentrado/animal/dia, sal mineral e água, sendo divididas de acordo com peso, número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e porcentagem do hematócrito em duas dietas, consideradas como tratamento controle e tratamento com suplementação de 30g/dia/animal de gordura protegida no concentrado. Duas avaliações mensais foram realizadas durante três meses, totalizando 84 dias de experimentação. As variáveis analisadas foram peso e condição corporal, OPG e coprocultura, contagem de leucócitos e eosinófilos, verificação do volume globular, concentração de hemoglobina e dosagem de proteína plasmática total. Em relação as variáveis peso e hemoglobina, houve interação entre as dietas e as coletas (P0,05 mas sim durante as coletas (P0,05. O gênero Haemonchus foi predominante, seguido pelos gêneros Cooperia, Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum A suplementação com gordura protegida na quantidade de 30g/animal/dia, não interferiu na diminuição do OPG ou melhora dos parâmetros sanguíneos em infecção parasitária nas ovelhas deste estudo.

  9. Anatomic-physiological schema of the gastrointestinal tract, to be taken in account in determining the levels of radioactive contamination; Schema anatomo-physiologique du tractus gastro-intestinal a prendre en consideration pour le calcul des niveaux de contamination Radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, Association EURATOM-CEA, Niveaux de Contamination (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Anatomical and physiological data of the gastrointestinal tract of adults and children were summarized in a standard schema, to be used in calculating the levels of radioactive contamination, in the food chain. (author) [French] Cette note a pour objet de rassembler les donnees anatomiques et physiologiques du tractus gastrointestinal, chez l'adulte et chez l'enfant, et d'en deduire un schema standard qui puisse servir de base au calcul des niveaux de contamination de la chaine alimentaire par les substances radioactives. (auteur)

  10. In vivo and in vitro studies of a cetylamine fluoride mouthrinse: evaluation of a device used for in vitro experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO Sílvia Magaly Sasso

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A mouthrinse containing cetylamine fluoride (230 ppm in fluoride was prepared for in vitro studies of fluoride clearance and adsorption by enamel and/or hydroxyapatite using a device that simulates the oral cavity. In vivo studies of fluoride clearance from this mouthrinse were conducted and compared with other fluoride sources. The amount of fluoride adsorbed to tooth blocks or powdered hydroxyapatite, both treated with this cetylamine fluoride mouthrinse once or twice a day, was determined. The results of these studies showed that it is possible to prepare a mouthrinse with cetylamine fluoride for alternative use by patients for the prevention and therapy of dental caries.

  11. Computer Simulation of Developmental Processes and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Recent progress in systems toxicology and synthetic biology have paved the way to new thinking about in vitro/in silico modeling of developmental processes and toxicities, both for embryological and reproductive impacts. Novel in vitro platforms such as 3D organotypic culture models, engineered microscale tissues and complex microphysiological systems (MPS), together with computational models and computer simulation of tissue dynamics, lend themselves to a integrated testing strategies for predictive toxicology. As these emergent methodologies continue to evolve, they must be integrally tied to maternal/fetal physiology and toxicity of the developing individual across early lifestage transitions, from fertilization to birth, through puberty and beyond. Scope: This symposium will focus on how the novel technology platforms can help now and in the future, with in vitro/in silico modeling of complex biological systems for developmental and reproductive toxicity issues, and translating systems models into integrative testing strategies. The symposium is based on three main organizing principles: (1) that novel in vitro platforms with human cells configured in nascent tissue architectures with a native microphysiological environments yield mechanistic understanding of developmental and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposures; (2) that novel in silico platforms with high-throughput screening (HTS) data, biologically-inspired computational models of

  12. In vivo effects of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on parasitic nematodes in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    2014-01-01

    Sainfoin is a fodder legume containing condensed tannins known to improve protein self-sufficiency, animal health and environment. In addition, anthelmintic effects have been demonstrated in vitro against cattle nematodes, and in vivo against nematodes of small ruminants, but in vivo effects...... against gastro-intestinal parasites (GIN) of cattle still remains to be proven. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine the in vivo effects of sainfoin against the most important trichostrongylids of cattle the brown stomach worm Ostertagia ostertagi, and the intestinal worm Cooperia...... oncophora. Jersey male calves (2-4 months) reared indoor and GIN naive, were stratified for live weight and randomly allocated into a test group (SF; n=9) which was fed 80% sainfoin (cv. Perly) pellets and hay, and a control group (CO; n=6) fed hay and compound feed. Daily intake was monitored and protein...

  13. In vivo effects of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on parasitic nematodes in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Oliver; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T.V.A.

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a fodder legume containing condensed tannins known to improve protein self-sufficiency, animal health and environment. In addition, anthelmintic effects have been demonstrated in vitro against cattle nematodes, and in vivo against nematodes of small ruminants......, but in vivo effects against gastro-intestinal parasites (GIN) of cattle still remains to be proven. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine the in vivo effects of sainfoin against the most important trichostrongylids of cattle the brown stomach worm Ostertagia ostertagi...... , and the intestinal worm Cooperia oncophora. Jersey male calves (2-4 months) reared indoor and GIN naive, were stratified for live weight and randomly allocated into a test group (SF; n=9) which was fed 80% sainfoin (cv. Perly) pellets and hay, and a control group (CO; n=6) fed hay and compound feed. Daily intake...

  14. Gut Microbiota and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Molin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local inflammation in relation to the resident microbiota of the human gastro-intestinal (GI tract and administration of probiotics are the main themes of the present review. The dominating taxa of the human GI tract and their potential for aggravating or suppressing inflammation are described. The review focuses on human trials with probiotics and does not include in vitro studies and animal experimental models. The applications of probiotics considered are systemic immune-modulation, the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and radiation-induced enteritis. When the major genomic differences between different types of probiotics are taken into account, it is to be expected that the human body can respond differently to the different species and strains of probiotics. This fact is often neglected in discussions of the outcome of clinical trials with probiotics.

  15. Parallel discrete event simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeinder, B.J.; Hertzberger, L.O.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Withagen, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    In simulating applications for execution on specific computing systems, the simulation performance figures must be known in a short period of time. One basic approach to the problem of reducing the required simulation time is the exploitation of parallelism. However, in parallelizing the simulation

  16. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...

  17. COCOA: Simulating Observations of Star Cluster Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) creates idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or N-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. The code can simulate optical observations from simulation snapshots in which positions and magnitudes of objects are known. The parameters for simulating the observations can be adjusted to mimic telescopes of various sizes. COCOA also has a photometry pipeline that can use standalone versions of DAOPHOT (ascl:1104.011) and ALLSTAR to produce photometric catalogs for all observed stars.

  18. The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P.E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De Mora, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D.V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Duren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E.J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B.J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Y.S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia Navarro, J.E.; Gardner, R.W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gautard, V.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E.N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M.H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S.M.; Gilbert, L.M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gingrich, D.M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F.M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P.F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K.W.; Glonti, G.L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Gopfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gossling, C.; Gottfert, T.; Goggi, V.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L.S.; Goncalo, R.; Gonella, L.; Gong, C.; Gonzalez de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M.L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J.J.; Goossens, L.; Gordon, H.A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M.P.; Goussiou, A.G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafstrom, P.; Grahn, K-J.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H.M.; Gray, J.A.; Graziani, E.; Green, B.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z.D.; Gregor, I.M.; Grenier, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A.A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y.V.; Groh, M.; Groll, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C.B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H.K.; Hadley, D.R.; Haefner, P.; Hartel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, J.B.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, P.H.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G.A.; Harenberg, T.; Harrington, R.D.; Harris, O.M.; Harrison, K; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hashemi, K.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.J.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayward, H.S.; Haywood, S.J.; Head, S.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Hemperek, T.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A.M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hensel, C.; Henss, T.; Hernandez Jimenez, Y.; Hershenhorn, A.D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N.P.; Higon-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, J.C.; Hiller, K.H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S.J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M.C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J.L.; Homma, Y.; Horazdovsky, T.; Hori, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horvat, S.; Hostachy, J-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howe, T.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P.J.; Hsu, S.C.; Huang, G.S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hughes, E.W.; Hughes, G.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Irles Quiles, A.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Isobe, T.; Issakov, V.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Itoh, Y.; Ivashin, A.V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J.M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J.N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M.R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D.K.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jared, R.C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jenni, P.; Jez, P.; Jezequel, S.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K.E.; Johansson, P.; Johnert, S; Johns, K.A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Jones, T.J.; Jorge, P.M.; Joseph, J.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V.V.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kaiser, S.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalinin, S.; Kalinovskaya, L.V.; Kalinowski, A.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kantserov, V.A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kar, D.; Karagounis, M.; Karagoz Unel, M.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A.N.; Kashif, L.; Kasmi, A.; Kass, R.D.; Kastanas, A.; Kastoryano, M.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kayl, M.S.; Kayumov, F.; Kazanin, V.A.; Kazarinov, M.Y.; Keates, J.R.; Keeler, R.; Keener, P.T.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Kelly, M.; Kenyon, M.; Kepka, O.; Kerschen, N.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Khakzad, M.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharchenko, D.; Khodinov, A.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, N.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.S.; Kim, P.C.; Kim, S.H.; Kind, O.; Kind, P.; King, B.T.; Kirk, J.; Kirsch, G.P.; Kirsch, L.E.; Kiryunin, A.E.; Kisielewska, D.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiyamura, H.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klemetti, M.; Klier, A.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E.B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P.F.; Klous, S.; Kluge, E.E.; Kluge, T.; Kluit, P.; Klute, M.; Kluth, S.; Knecht, N.S.; Kneringer, E.; Ko, B.R.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koblitz, B.; Kocian, M.; Kocnar, A.; Kodys, P.; Koneke, K.; Konig, A.C.; Koenig, S.; Kopke, L.; Koetsveld, F.; Koevesarki, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kohn, F.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolesnikov, V.; Koletsou, I.; Koll, J.; Kollar, D.; Kolos, S.; Kolya, S.D.; Komar, A.A.; Komaragiri, J.R.; Kondo, T.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konovalov, S.P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Koperny, S.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E.V.; Korotkov, V.A.; Kortner, O.; Kostka, P.; Kostyukhin, V.V.; Kotov, S.; Kotov, V.M.; Kotov, K.Y.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, H.; Kowalski, T.Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A.S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V.A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasny, M.W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kreisel, A.; Krejci, F.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krieger, N.; Krieger, P.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Kruger, H.; Krumshteyn, Z.V.; Kubota, T.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kuhn, D.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kummer, C.; Kuna, M.; Kunkle, J.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurata, M.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Kurochkin, Y.A.; Kus, V.; Kwee, R.; La Rotonda, L.; Labbe, J.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V.R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lamanna, M.; Lampen, C.L.; Lampl, W.; Lancon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lane, J.L.; Lankford, A.J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J.F.; Lari, T.; Larner, A.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Laycock, P.; Lazarev, A.B.; Lazzaro, A.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Menedeu, E.; Le Vine, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebel, C.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, H.; Lee, J.S.H.; Lee, S.C.; Lefebvre, M.; Legendre, M.; LeGeyt, B.C.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; 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Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.

  19. A multiscale model for heterogeneous tumor spheroid in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhan; Zou, Yuting

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a novel multiscale method is proposed for the study of heterogeneous tumor spheroid growth in vitro. The entire tumor spheroid is described by an ellipsoid-based model while nutrient and other environmental factors are treated as continua. The ellipsoid-based discrete component is capable of incorporating mechanical effects and deformability, while keeping a minimum set of free variables to describe complex shape variations. Moreover, our purely cell-based description of tumor avoids the complex mutual conversion between a cell-based model and continuum model within a tumor, such as force and mass transformation. This advantage makes it highly suitable for the study of tumor spheroids in vitro whose size are normally less than 800 μm in diameter. In addition, our numerical scheme provides two computational options depending on tumor size. For a small or medium tumor spheroid, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical model can be directly applied. For a large spheroid, we suggest the use of a 3D-adapted 2D cross section configuration, which has not yet been explored in the literature, as an alternative for the theoretical investigation to bridge the gap between the 2D and 3D models. Our model and its implementations have been validated and applied to various studies given in the paper. The simulation results fit corresponding in vitro experimental observations very well.

  20. In vitro and ex vivo corneal penetration and absorption models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Priyanka; Rupenthal, Ilva D

    2016-12-01

    Topical drug administration is the preferred route of drug delivery to the eye despite the poor bioavailability. To develop more efficient drug carriers, reliable in vitro or ex vivo models are required in the early stages of formulation development, with such methods being faster, cheaper, and more ethical alternatives to in vivo studies. In vitro cell culture models are increasingly being used for transcorneal penetration studies, with primary cell cultures and immortalized cell lines now giving way to the development of organotypic corneal constructs for studying ocular drug bioavailability. Artificially cultured human corneal equivalents are still in the early stages of development, but present tremendous potential for corneal penetration studies. Ex vivo models using excised animal tissue are also being used to study corneal penetration with promising results, although significant inter-species variations need to be considered. This review discusses the in vitro and ex vivo models currently being used to study corneal penetration and evaluates their advantages and limitations with a focus on diffusion cell assemblies. In addition to the tissue used, the diffusion cell set-up can significantly influence the penetration profile and should be cautiously adjusted to simulate clinical conditions.

  1. [Isosorbide dinitrate inhibits in vitro platelet aggregation at submicromolar concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachet, C; Guillou, J; Moog, S; Cazenave, J P

    1992-04-01

    Nitrate derivatives have in vivo and in vitro platelet anti-aggregant properties in addition to their vasodilatory effects. The mode of action is related to increased intracytoplasmic cyclic GMP concentrations. It has been shown that isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) has this type of platelet anti-aggregant activity but the reported results about the active concentrations and the inhibited pathways of activation are contradictory. This study was designed to determine whether ISDN has in vitro platelet anti-aggregant activity at low doses and to verify if this effect is selective by aggregation induced by ADP. Finally, a possible potentialisation of the inhibitors due to ISDN was looked for with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors and with agents simulating the effect of adenylate cyclase. The results showed that: 1) ISDN had platelet anti-aggregant activity in vitro at concentrations of about 10-7 M, 2) that this effect was not limited to the aggregation induced by ADP as the aggregation induced by PAF-acether was also inhibited by low dose ISDN, 3) of the cyclic nucleotide modulators tested, only quercetine (flavonoide) potentialised the effects of ISDN.

  2. Error and efficiency of simulated tempering simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Edina; Hummer, Gerhard

    2010-01-21

    We derive simple analytical expressions for the error and computational efficiency of simulated tempering (ST) simulations. The theory applies to the important case of systems whose dynamics at long times is dominated by the slow interconversion between two metastable states. An extension to the multistate case is described. We show that the relative gain in efficiency of ST simulations over regular molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is given by the ratio of their reactive fluxes, i.e., the number of transitions between the two states summed over all ST temperatures divided by the number of transitions at the single temperature of the MD or MC simulation. This relation for the efficiency is derived for the limit in which changes in the ST temperature are fast compared to the two-state transitions. In this limit, ST is most efficient. Our expression for the maximum efficiency gain of ST simulations is essentially identical to the corresponding expression derived by us for replica exchange MD and MC simulations [E. Rosta and G. Hummer, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 165102 (2009)] on a different route. We find quantitative agreement between predicted and observed efficiency gains in a test against ST and replica exchange MC simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model. Based on the efficiency formula, we provide recommendations for the optimal choice of ST simulation parameters, in particular, the range and number of temperatures, and the frequency of attempted temperature changes.

  3. Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) Simulator Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The simulation process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the SES. The Simulator Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their engineering personnel in simulation planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the simulation process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, facility interfaces, and inputs necessary to define scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  4. Stomach Simulator for Analysis and Validation of Surgical Endoluminal Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Condino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A testing environment that imitates gastric geometry and contractile activity is necessary to analyse and validate endoluminal surgical robotic devices developed for gastric pathologies. To achieve this goal, a silicone stomach model and a mechanical setup to simulate gastric contractile motion were designed and fabricated. The developed stomach simulator was validated and its usefulness was demonstrated by means of internal pressure measurements and self-assembly tests of mock-ups of capsule devices. The results demonstrated that the stomach simulator is helpful for quantitative evaluation of endoluminal robotic devices before in-vitro/in-vivo experiments.

  5. Method for in vitro recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel Glenn; Smith, Hamilton O

    2013-05-07

    The present invention relates to an in vitro method, using isolated protein reagents, for joining two double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules of interest, wherein the distal region of the first DNA molecule and the proximal region of the second DNA molecule share a region of sequence identity. The method allows the joining of a number of DNA fragments, in a predetermined order and orientation, without the use of restriction enzymes. It can be used, e.g., to join synthetically produced sub-fragments of a gene or genome of interest.

  6. In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Voriconazole Activity against Aspergillus Species in a New In Vitro Dynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saigh, R.; Elefanti, A.; Velegraki, A.; Zerva, L.

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacodynamics (PD) of voriconazole activity against Aspergillus spp. were studied using a new in vitro dynamic model simulating voriconazole human pharmacokinetics (PK), and the PK-PD data were bridged with human drug exposure to assess the percent target (near-maximum activity) attainment of different voriconazole dosages. Three Aspergillus clinical isolates (1 A. fumigatus, 1 A. flavus, and 1 A. terreus isolate) with CLSI MICs of 0.5 mg/liter were tested in an in vitro model simulating voriconazole PK in human plasma with Cmax values of 7, 3.5, and 1.75 mg/liter and a t1/2 of 6 h. The area under the galactomannan index-time curve (AUCGI) was used as the PD parameter. In vitro PK-PD data were bridged with population human PK of voriconazole exposure, and the percent target attainment was calculated. The in vitro PK-PD relationship of fAUC0-24-AUCGI followed a sigmoid pattern (global R2 = 0.97), with near-maximum activities (10% fungal growth) observed at an fAUC0-24 (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 18.9 (14.4 to 23.1) mg · h/liter against A. fumigatus, 26.6 (21.1 to 32.9) mg · h/liter against A. flavus, and 36.2 (27.8 to 45.7) mg · h/liter against A. terreus (F test; P voriconazole dosages was 24% (11 to 45%), 80% (32 to 97%), and 93% (86 to 97%) for A. fumigatus, 12% (5 to 26%), 63% (17 to 93%), and 86% (73 to 94%) for A. flavus, and 4% (2 to 11%), 36% (6 to 83%), and 68% (47 to 83%) for A. terreus. Based on the in vitro exposure-effect relationships, a standard dosage of voriconazole may be adequate for most patients with A. fumigatus but not A. flavus and A. terreus infections, for which a higher drug exposure may be required. This could be achieved using a higher voriconazole dosage, thus highlighting the usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring in patients receiving a standard dosage. PMID:22869563

  7. A Computational Approach to Understand In Vitro Alveolar Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sean H. J.; Yu, Wei; Mostov, Keith; Matthay, Michael A.; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Primary human alveolar type II (AT II) epithelial cells maintained in Matrigel cultures form alveolar-like cysts (ALCs) using a cytogenesis mechanism that is different from that of other studied epithelial cell types: neither proliferation nor death is involved. During ALC formation, AT II cells engage simultaneously in fundamentally different, but not fully characterized activities. Mechanisms enabling these activities and the roles they play during different process stages are virtually unknown. Identifying, characterizing, and understanding the activities and mechanisms are essential to achieving deeper insight into this fundamental feature of morphogenesis. That deeper insight is needed to answer important questions. When and how does an AT cell choose to switch from one activity to another? Why does it choose one action rather than another? We report obtaining plausible answers using a rigorous, multi-attribute modeling and simulation approach that leveraged earlier efforts by using new, agent and object-oriented capabilities. We discovered a set of cell-level operating principles that enabled in silico cells to self-organize and generate systemic cystogenesis phenomena that are quantitatively indistinguishable from those observed in vitro. Success required that the cell components be quasi-autonomous. As simulation time advances, each in silico cell autonomously updates its environment information to reclassify its condition. It then uses the axiomatic operating principles to execute just one action for each possible condition. The quasi-autonomous actions of individual in silico cells were sufficient for developing stable cyst-like structures. The results strengthen in silico to in vitro mappings at three levels: mechanisms, behaviors, and operating principles, thereby achieving a degree of validation and enabling answering the questions posed. We suggest that the in silico operating principles presented may have a biological counterpart and that a

  8. Validation of an in vitro digestive system for studying macronutrient decomposition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Schwander, Flurina; Gijs, Martin; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti

    2012-02-01

    The digestive process transforms nutrients and bioactive compounds contained in food to physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion systems have proven to be powerful tools for understanding and monitoring the complex transformation processes that take place during digestion. Moreover, the investigation of the physiological effects of certain nutrients demands an in vitro digestive process that is close to human physiology. In this study, human digestion was simulated with a 3-step in vitro process that was validated in depth by choosing pasteurized milk as an example of a complex food matrix. The evolution and decomposition of the macronutrients was followed over the entire digestive process to the level of intestinal enterocyte action, using protein and peptide analysis by SDS-PAGE, reversed-phase HPLC, size exclusion HPLC, and liquid chromatography-MS. The mean peptide size after in vitro digestion of pasteurized milk was 5-6 amino acids (AA). Interestingly, mostly essential AA (93.6%) were released during in vitro milk digestion, a significantly different relative distribution compared to the total essential AA concentration of bovine milk (44.5%). All TG were degraded to FFA and monoacylglycerols. Herein, we present a human in vitro digestion model validated for its ability to degrade the macronutrients of dairy products comparable to physiological ranges. It is suited to be used in combination with a human intestinal cell culture system, allowing ex vivo bioavailability measurements and assessment of the bioactive properties of food components.

  9. In Vitro Tumor Models: Advantages, Disadvantages, Variables, and Selecting the Right Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katt, Moriah E; Placone, Amanda L; Wong, Andrew D; Xu, Zinnia S; Searson, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    In vitro tumor models have provided important tools for cancer research and serve as low-cost screening platforms for drug therapies; however, cancer recurrence remains largely unchecked due to metastasis, which is the cause of the majority of cancer-related deaths. The need for an improved understanding of the progression and treatment of cancer has pushed for increased accuracy and physiological relevance of in vitro tumor models. As a result, in vitro tumor models have concurrently increased in complexity and their output parameters further diversified, since these models have progressed beyond simple proliferation, invasion, and cytotoxicity screens and have begun recapitulating critical steps in the metastatic cascade, such as intravasation, extravasation, angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, and tumor cell dormancy. Advances in tumor cell biology, 3D cell culture, tissue engineering, biomaterials, microfabrication, and microfluidics have enabled rapid development of new in vitro tumor models that often incorporate multiple cell types, extracellular matrix materials, and spatial and temporal introduction of soluble factors. Other innovations include the incorporation of perfusable microvessels to simulate the tumor vasculature and model intravasation and extravasation. The drive toward precision medicine has increased interest in adapting in vitro tumor models for patient-specific therapies, clinical management, and assessment of metastatic potential. Here, we review the wide range of current in vitro tumor models and summarize their advantages, disadvantages, and suitability in modeling specific aspects of the metastatic cascade and drug treatment.

  10. In vitro determination of dietary protein and amino acid digestibility for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Christine A; Monro, John A; Moughan, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    The development, refinement and validation of in vitro digestibility assays for dietary protein and amino acids for single stomached mammals are reviewed. The general principles of in vitro digestibility assays and their limitations are discussed. In vitro protein digestibility assays must be accurate, rapid, cheap, simple, robust, adaptable and relevant to the processes of digestion, absorption, and metabolism. Simple in vitro methods have the potential to give useful measures of in vivo amino acid and protein digestibility for humans. In vitro methods, including the complex multi-component models of digestion simulating the various physical and chemical processes, require independent validation with in vivo data from the target species or an acceptable animal model using the most appropriate in vivo measure of digestibility. For protein sources devoid of anti-nutritional factors or plant fibre, true ileal digestibility is the recommended in vivo baseline, while for plant proteins the recommended in vivo assay is real ileal digestibility. More published comparative studies are required to adequately validate in vitro digestibility assays.

  11. An in vitro--in silico--in vivo approach in biopharmaceutical drug characterization: metformin hydrochloride IR tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloica, S; Cvijić, S; Homšek, I; Bogataj, M; Parojčić, J

    2015-07-01

    The integrated in vitro--in silico--in vivo approach has emerged into a biopharmaceutical toolkit that could accelerate drug development and improve drug product clinical performance in patients. In the present study, the influence of physiologically based media and dynamic dissolution testing on drug release from two metformin hydrochloride immediate release products with proven bioequivalence was tested. Metformin-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed based on a range of literature or in silico predicted data using gastrointestinal simulation technology implemented in the Simcyp software package. Various approaches were employed in order to estimate the human effective permeability which was used as input for metformin plasma profile simulation. Influence of the rate and extent of metformin dissolution on drug absorption was evaluated. Both convolution and deconvolution approaches were used in order to establish a correlation between the in vitro and in vivo data. The results obtained indicate that physiologically based dissolution media and glass bead dissolution device exhibit certain advantages over the compendial dissolution apparatus and simple buffers which tended to be over-discriminative. Gastrointestinal simulation technology implemented in the Simcyp Simulator was successfully used in developing drug-specific PBPK model for metformin. Simulations indicate that in vitro dissolution kinetics has no significant effect on metformin absorption, if more than 65% of drug is released in 1 hour. Level A in vitro-in vivo correlation was obtained using both convolution and deconvolution approaches.

  12. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  13. USU Patient Simulation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — he National Capital Area (NCA) Medical Simulation Center is a state-of-the-art training facility located near the main USU campus. It uses simulated patients (i.e.,...

  14. Design by simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the contributions of the Dutch National Aerospace laboratory to the development of simulation research methodology. Issues to consider in the development of measuring instruments; Simulator networking; Use of subjective data to validate research.

  15. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  16. Eye Disease Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

  17. Ride Motion Simulator (RMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The RMS is a simulator designed for crew station and man-in-the-loop experimentation. The simulator immerses users in a synthetic battlefield to experience realistic...

  18. Airflow Simulation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The paper describes the development in airflow simulations in rooms . The research is, as other areas of flow research, influenced by the decreasing cost of computation which seems to indicate an increased use of airflow simulation in the coming years....

  19. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  20. Discrete Event Simulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 1. Discrete Event Simulation. Matthew Jacob ... Keywords. Simulation; modelling; computer programming. Author Affiliations. Matthew Jacob1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012.

  1. Simulation Interoperability (Interoperabilite de la simulation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    relatives aux environnements de simulation distribuée se concentrent principalement sur les niveaux technique, syntaxique et (dans une certaine mesure...l’automatisation relative du développement, de l’intégration et de la mise en œuvre des environnements de simulation distribuée. Cela exige une...normalisation des applicatifs créés pendant le développement d’un environnement de simulation, à la suite, par exemple, du DSEEP. Ces produits normalisés

  2. EMC Simulation and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takehiro; Schibuya, Noboru

    The EMC simulation is now widely used in design stage of electronic equipment to reduce electromagnetic noise. As the calculated electromagnetic behaviors of the EMC simulator depends on the inputted EMC model of the equipment, the modeling technique is important to obtain effective results. In this paper, simple outline of the EMC simulator and EMC model are described. Some modeling techniques of EMC simulation are also described with an example of the EMC model which is shield box with aperture.

  3. Distribution system simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, K. A.; Kirkham, H.; Rahman, S.

    1986-01-01

    In a series of tests performed under the Department of Energy auspices, power line carrier propagation was observed to be anomalous under certain circumstances. To investigate the cause, a distribution system simulator was constructed. The simulator was a physical simulator that accurately represented the distribution system from below power frequency to above 50 kHz. Effects such as phase-to-phase coupling and skin effect were modeled. Construction details of the simulator, and experimental results from its use are presented.

  4. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Maria Olbrich dos Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC, glycocholic acid (GC, and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC, although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT. When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results.

  5. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results. PMID:26221113

  6. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results.

  7. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  8. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  9. Teaching with simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on whole-class science teaching with computer simulations. Computer simulations display dynamic, visual representations of natural phenomena and can make a great contribution to the science classroom. Simulations can be used in multiple ways. Teachers who have an

  10. Influence of supplemental aminooligosaccharides on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jannes

    Effects of chicory inulin on ruminal fermentation in vitro. Ankara Üniv. Vet. Fak. Derg. 56, 171-175. Shibata, T.H., 1985. Studies on the utilization of pasture herbage nitrogen by rumen microorganisms 2. Effects of carbohydrate and lipid material on the microbial utilization of rumen ammonia in vitro. Grassl. Sci. 31, 322-331.

  11. Nanoparticles in paints: A new strategy to protect façades and surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, J.-P.; Diener, L.; Wick, P.

    2013-04-01

    The paint and lacquer industries consider the use of nanosilver, photocatalytic active nanotitanium dioxide or nanosilica dioxide as additives for the protection of surfaces, against microbial, physical and chemical deterioration, as alternative to conventional organic based additives. Nowadays it is not clear, if nanoparticles in paints will achieve the proposed effects, since there are no long time studies available. Another fact is that the potential risks of nanoparticles for the environment and the human health is still controversial discussed. The most sensitive entry port for nanomaterials is the lung. However other human organs/systems may also be affected by nanoparticles. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the potential hazard effects of the three most interesting particles for paints on the gastro-intestinal tract and the immune system in vitro. In our study we could show that: i) Nanosilver (TEM size 25 nm) was far less toxic than silver ions of comparable concentrations tested with cells representing the gastro-intestinal tract (CaCo-2) and immune cells (Jurkat, T-lymphocytes). A significant amount of necrotic cells could be observed after exposure of CaCo-2 cells to 27 μg/ml nanosilver for 48 h. ii) Nanotitanium dioxide can adsorb UV-light and in the presence of water hydroxyl radicals are generated photocatalytically. The exposure of CaCo-2 cells and Jurkat cells to photocatalytically active nanotitanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100, TEM-size 15 nm) under dark conditions, didn't affected the cells significantly. However, the cells were able to incorporate nanotitanium dioxide, especially when cells were exposed to higher concentrations. iii) Nanosilica dioxide improves the properties of the paints by increasing the water repellence. When cells were exposed to 243 μg/ml nanosilica dioxide (TEM-size 19 nm) for up to 48 h no cytotoxic effect could be observed.

  12. Antiproliferative activity of New Zealand propolis and phenolic compounds vs human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Owen; Mitchell, Kevin; Bloor, Stephen; Davis, Paul; Suddes, Amanda

    2015-10-01

    New Zealand propolis is a "European" type propolis obtained by honey bees mainly from exudates of poplar. European type propolis is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties and this activity has been attributed to some of the main constituents such as chrysin and CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester). As part of our studies on how New Zealand propolis might benefit gastro-intestinal health, we carried out in vitro bioactivity-guided fractionation of "Bio30™" propolis using both anti-inflammatory (TNF-α, COX-1, COX-2) and anti-colon cancer (DLD-1 colon cancer cell viability) assays; and determined the phenolic compounds responsible for the activity. The New Zealand wax-free Bio30™ propolis tincture solids had very high levels of the dihydroflavonoids pinocembrin and pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, and high levels of the dimethylallyl, benzyl and 3-methyl-3-butenyl caffeates relative to CAPE. The DLD-1 assays identified strong anti-proliferative activity associated with these components as well as chrysin, galangin and CAPE and a number of lesser known or lower concentration compounds including benzyl ferulate, benzyl isoferulate, pinostrobin, 5-phenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid and tectochrysin. The phenolic compounds pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, tectochrysin, dimethylallyl caffeate, 3-methyl-3-butenyl caffeate, benzyl ferulate and benzyl isoferulate also showed good broad spectrum activity in anti-proliferative assays against three other gastro-intestinal cancer cell lines; HCT-116 colon carcinoma, KYSE-30 oesophageal squamous cancer, and NCI-N87 gastric carcinoma. Activity is also observed in anti-inflammatory assays although it appears to be limited to one of the first cytokines in the inflammatory cascade, TNF-α. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Resolution exchange simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Edward; Ytreberg, F Marty; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2006-01-20

    We extend replica-exchange simulation in two ways and apply our approaches to biomolecules. The first generalization permits exchange simulation between models of differing resolution--i.e., between detailed and coarse-grained models. Such "resolution exchange" can be applied to molecular systems or spin systems. The second extension is to "pseudoexchange" simulations, which require little CPU usage for most levels of the exchange ladder and also substantially reduce the need for overlap between levels. Pseudoexchanges can be used in either replica or resolution exchange simulations. We perform efficient, converged simulations of a 50-atom peptide to illustrate the new approaches.

  14. Simulation modeling and arena

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti, Manuel D

    2015-01-01

    Emphasizes a hands-on approach to learning statistical analysis and model building through the use of comprehensive examples, problems sets, and software applications With a unique blend of theory and applications, Simulation Modeling and Arena®, Second Edition integrates coverage of statistical analysis and model building to emphasize the importance of both topics in simulation. Featuring introductory coverage on how simulation works and why it matters, the Second Edition expands coverage on static simulation and the applications of spreadsheets to perform simulation. The new edition als

  15. NS simulator for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    NS-2 is an open-source discrete event network simulator which is widely used by both the research community as well as by the people involved in the standardization protocols of IETF. The goal of this book is twofold: on one hand to learn how to use the NS-2 simulator, and on the other hand, to become acquainted with and to understand the operation of some of the simulated objects using NS-2 simulations. The book is intended to help students, engineers or researchers who need not have much background in programming or who want to learn through simple examples how to analyse some simulated obje

  16. Synthesis of polymeric derivatives of isoniazid: characterization and in vitro release from a water-soluble adduct with polysuccinimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammona, G; Giannola, L I; Carlisi, B

    1989-04-01

    Coupling of isoniazid with polysuccinimide afforded a water-insoluble polymeric pro-drug; by reaction with ethanolamine it was chemically transformed in a water-soluble adduct. The in vitro release of isoniazid from the drug-polymer adduct was studied by using an artificial stomach wall lipid membrane. The transfer rate constant from simulated gastric juice to simulated plasma was defined and compared with that of an equivalent dose of pure drug.

  17. In vitro shoot proliferation and in vitro and ex vitro root formation of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Ahmet; Dumanoglu, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Shoot-tip cultures of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas, an important gene source for drought and chlorosis resistance in pear rootstock breeding, were established from a wild mature tree originated from seed. Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combination with auxin was used in the study. In the initial culture, the highest percentages (>80%) of shoot proliferation were obtained in the mediums supplemented with 9.0 μM BA and 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid. In the subcultures, the highest shoot proliferation rates were obtained in the medium containing 4.5 and 9.0 μM BA. The shoot proliferation rates ranged from 91.1 ± 2.4 to 96.4 ± 2.0% in the second subculture and from 76.7 ± 7.8 to 89.4 ± 3.3% in the third subculture. In the second subculture, the shoots grown on 9.0 μM BA without auxin produced the best proliferation (10.6 ± 1.6). For the in vitro rooting experiments, the highest rooting rate (54.2 ± 10.4%), root length (10.5 ± 2.4 mm), and root number (2.5 ± 0.6) were obtained from 10 days dark treatment on the medium containing half strength of macronutrients supplemented with 5 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). For the ex vitro rooting experiments, shoot rooting was significantly influenced by 10 mM IBA applied as quick-dip method. The percentage of rooting was 55 ± 9.6% and root number was 1.8 ± 0.3 at this concentration.

  18. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard practice for assessing developmental toxicity is the observation of apical endpoints (intrauterine death, fetal growth retardation, structural malformations) in pregnant rats/rabbits following exposure during organogenesis. EPA’s computational toxicology research program (ToxCast) generated vast in vitro cellular and molecular effects data on >1858 chemicals in >600 high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. The diversity of assays has been increased for developmental toxicity with several HTS platforms, including the devTOX-quickPredict assay from Stemina Biomarker Discovery utilizing the human embryonic stem cell line (H9). Translating these HTS data into higher order-predictions of developmental toxicity is a significant challenge. Here, we address the application of computational systems models that recapitulate the kinematics of dynamical cell signaling networks (e.g., SHH, FGF, BMP, retinoids) in a CompuCell3D.org modeling environment. Examples include angiogenesis (angiodysplasia) and dysmorphogenesis. Being numerically responsive to perturbation, these models are amenable to data integration for systems Toxicology and Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs). The AOP simulation outputs predict potential phenotypes based on the in vitro HTS data ToxCast. A heuristic computational intelligence framework that recapitulates the kinematics of dynamical cell signaling networks in the embryo, together with the in vitro profiling data, produce quantitative predic

  19. Calcification in vitro of Biomineralized nanohydroxyapatite / superhydrophilic vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Marcele Florencio; Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Brazil, Tayra Rodrigues; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira, E-mail: loboao@yahoo.com, E-mail: aolobo@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nanotecnologia Biomedica; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Dinamica de Compartimentos Celulares

    2013-11-01

    Nanocomposites based on superhydrophilic vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O{sub 2}) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) are of great interest in bone regenerative medicine. The biomineralization using simulated body fluid (SBF) has been extensively studied to evaluate the bioactivity of biomaterials. Thus, the combination of nHAp and VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} is attractive and promising. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro calcification of nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites before and after the period of biomineralization in SBF. In vitro calcification of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of HOB cells in culture after 24 hours was investigated through the assay of alkaline phosphatase. These promising in vitro results validate biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} as possible scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. (author)

  20. Calcification in vitro of biomineralizated nanohydroxyapatite/superydrophilic vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Florencio Neves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites based on superhydrophilic vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O2 and nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp are of great interest in bone regenerative medicine. The biomineralization using simulated body fluid (SBF has been extensively studied to evaluate the bioactivity of biomaterials. Thus, the combination of nHAp and VAMWCNT-O2 is attractive and promising. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro calcification of nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites before and after the period of biomineralization in SBF. In vitro calcification of the extracellular matrix (ECM of HOB cells in culture after 24 hours was investigated through the assay of alkaline phosphatase. These promising in vitro results validate biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 as possible scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

  1. Antioxidant activity of inulin and its role in the prevention of human colonic muscle cell impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide mucosal exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pasqualetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fructans, such as inulin, are dietary fibers which stimulate gastro-intestinal (GI function acting as prebiotics. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS impairs GI motility, through production of reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant activity of various fructans was tested and the protective effect of inulin on colonic smooth muscle cell (SMC impairment, induced by exposure of human mucosa to LPS, was assessed in an ex vivo experimental model. METHODS: The antioxidant capacity of fructans was measured in an in vitro system that simulates cooking and digestion processes. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa, obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments for cancer, were sealed between two chambers, with the mucosal side facing upwards with Krebs solution with or without purified LPS from a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (O111:B4 and inulin (Frutafit IQ, and the submucosal side facing downwards into Krebs solution. The solutions on the submucosal side were collected following mucosal exposure to Krebs in the absence (N-undernatant or presence of LPS (LPS-undernatant or LPS+inulin (LPS+INU-undernatant. Undernatants were tested for their antioxidant activity and the effects on SMCs contractility. Inulin protective effects on mucosa and submucosa layers were assessed measuring the protein oxidation level in the experimental conditions analyzed. RESULTS: Antioxidant activity of inulin, which was significantly higher compared to simple sugars, remained unaltered despite cooking and digestion processes. Inulin protected the mucosal and submucosal layers against protein oxidation. Following exposure to LPS-undernatant, a significant decrease in maximal acetylcholine (Ach-induced contraction was observed when compared to the contraction induced in cells incubated with the N-undernatant (4±1% vs 25±5% respectively, P<0.005 and this effect was completely prevented by pre-incubation of LPS with Inulin (35±5%. CONCLUSIONS: Inulin protects

  2. Sunscreen standards tested with differently filtered solar simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, R M; Stanfield, J; Bush, A J; Lott, D L

    2001-12-01

    The COLIPA standard for solar simulators permits a range of spectral filtration. Published studies comparing the SPFs of sunscreen formulas show that a range of SPFs is generally expected between laboratories. Specifically, three studies determining the SPFs of sunscreen standards have been performed in a series of laboratories and differences exceeding 50% have been reported. No studies to date have specifically examined potential differences in performance of Standard Sunscreen Test Formulas with varying solar simulator spectra within the permitted range of optical filtration. In a paired clinical trial, two SPF standard sunscreen formulas were tested using two solar simulators that complied with the COLIPA standard for solar simulators but were filtered differently. One solar simulator was filtered as supplied by the manufacturer and delivered a high percentage of UVB; the other solar simulator was modified by removing the visible absorbing filter to deliver energy more closely resembling sunlight in the UVA-1 part of the spectrum, with a lower percentage of UVB. The result was that the SPF of each standard sunscreen was almost 50% greater with the unmodified solar simulator than with the modified solar simulator. In vitro evaluation of the sunscreen standards predicted similar differences due to the spectral differences of the solar simulators, which appears to rule out reciprocity failure. However, reciprocity failure of the control MEDs was observed. The total intensity of the modified lamp was approximately 3 times that of the unmodified lamp.

  3. Proposed phase 2/ step 2 in-vitro test on basis of EN 14561 for standardised testing of the wound antiseptics PVP-iodine, chlorhexidine digluconate, polihexanide and octenidine dihydrochloride

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schedler, Kathrin; Assadian, Ojan; Brautferger, Uta; Müller, Gerald; Koburger, Torsten; Classen, Simon; Kramer, Axel

    2017-01-01

    .... In the present study, a standardised in-vitro test is proposed, which allows to test potential antiseptics in a more realistically simulation of conditions found in wounds as in a suspension test...

  4. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza

    2017-12-01

    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Rotary Blood Pumps in a Pulsatile In Vitro Flow Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, sacrificing animals to develop medical devices and receive regulatory approval has become more common, which increases ethical concerns. Although in vivo tests are necessary for development and evaluation of new devices, nonetheless, with appropriate in vitro setups and mathematical models, a part of the validation process can be performed using these models to reduce the number of sacrificed animals. The main aim of this study is to present a mathematical model simulating the hydrodynamic function of a rotary blood pump (RBP) in a pulsatile in vitro flow environment. This model relates the pressure head of the RBP to the flow rate, rotational speed, and time derivatives of flow rate and rotational speed. To identify the model parameters, an in vitro setup was constructed consisting of a piston pump, a compliance chamber, a throttle, a buffer reservoir, and the CentriMag RBP. A 40% glycerin-water mixture as a blood analog fluid and deionized water were used in the hydraulic circuit to investigate the effect of viscosity and density of the working fluid on the model parameters. First, model variables were physically measured and digitally acquired. Second, an identification algorithm based on regression analysis was used to derive the model parameters. Third, the completed model was validated with a totally different set of in vitro data. The model is usable for both mathematical simulations of the interaction between the pump and heart and indirect pressure measurement in a clinical context. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. In Vitro Assembly of Catalase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process. PMID:25148685

  7. In vitro assembly of catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars

    2014-10-10

    Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Regeneration of Pelargonium in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wojtania

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pelargonium sp. has been a subject of numerous studies to deterimine the effec tiveness of in vitro techniques to produce a large number of pathogen-free plants. Regeneration of pelargonium plants from the different initial explants as well via organogenesis as via somatic embryogenesis has been obtained. The most effective adventitious shoot formation has been achieved from shoot tips and axillary buds using cytokinin or cytokinin/auxin combinations. Leaf explants, whose general have lower organogenic potency, regenerate better in the presence of thidiazuron. This growth regulator stimulate the somatic embryos production from hypocotyl and cotyledone explants too. The main problem in tissue culture propagation of Pelargonium has been the high tendency to formation of vigorously growing callus with low organogenic potency and rapid senescence of cultures. Moreover, the significant differen ces in requirements to the medium composition (minerals, organic compounds and growth regulators between Pelargonium cultivars has been observed. This makes difficult to develop an universaI method of Pelargonium micropropagation.

  9. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  10. Continuous "in vitro" Evolution of a Ribozyme Ligase: A Model Experiment for the Evolution of a Biomolecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Michael P.; Hwang, Tony W.; Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Evolution is a defining criterion of life and is central to understanding biological systems. However, the timescale of evolutionary shifts in phenotype limits most classroom evolution experiments to simple probability simulations. "In vitro" directed evolution (IVDE) frequently serves as a model system for the study of Darwinian…

  11. 3D highly heterogeneous thermal model of pineal gland in-vitro study for electromagnetic exposure using finite volume method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Wei; Hoppe, Ralph; Lu, Rongbo; Cai, Zhaoquan; Gu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the relationship between electromagnetic power absorption and temperature distributions inside highly heterogeneous biological samples was accurately determinated using finite volume method. An in-vitro study on pineal gland that is responsible for physiological activities was for the first time simulated to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. In vitro dentine remineralization with a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Maria Jacinta Rosario H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2016-08-01

    Advantages of introducing a salivary phosphoprotein homologue under standardized in vitro conditions to simulate the mineral-stabilizing properties of saliva have been proposed. This study longitudinally investigates the effects of casein, incorporated as a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue in artificial saliva (AS) solutions with/without fluoride (F) on in vitro dentine lesion remineralization. Thin sections of bovine root dentine were demineralized and allocated randomly into 6 groups (n=18) having equivalent mineral loss (ΔZ) after transverse microradiography (TMR). The specimens were remineralized using AS solutions containing casein 0μg/ml, F 0ppm (C0-F0); casein 0μg/ml, F 1ppm (C0-F1); casein 10μg/ml, F 0ppm (C10-F0); casein 10μg/ml, F 1ppm (C10-F1); casein 100μg/ml, F 0ppm (C100-F0) or casein 100μg/ml, F 1ppm (C100-F1) for 28days with TMR taken every 7 days. Surface mineral precipitation, evident in group C0-F1, was apparently inhibited in groups with casein incorporation. Repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction revealed higher ΔZ for non-F and non-casein groups than for their counterparts (p<0.001). Subsequent multiple comparisons showed that mineral gain was higher (p<0.001) with 10μg/ml casein than with 100μg/ml when F was present in the earlier stages of remineralization, with both groups achieving almost complete remineralization after 28 days. Casein is a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue that could be employed for in vitro dentine remineralization studies. Concentration related effects may be clinically significant and thus must be further examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parallel Atomistic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEFFELFINGER,GRANT S.

    2000-01-18

    Algorithms developed to enable the use of atomistic molecular simulation methods with parallel computers are reviewed. Methods appropriate for bonded as well as non-bonded (and charged) interactions are included. While strategies for obtaining parallel molecular simulations have been developed for the full variety of atomistic simulation methods, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo have received the most attention. Three main types of parallel molecular dynamics simulations have been developed, the replicated data decomposition, the spatial decomposition, and the force decomposition. For Monte Carlo simulations, parallel algorithms have been developed which can be divided into two categories, those which require a modified Markov chain and those which do not. Parallel algorithms developed for other simulation methods such as Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo, grand canonical molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo methods for protein structure determination are also reviewed and issues such as how to measure parallel efficiency, especially in the case of parallel Monte Carlo algorithms with modified Markov chains are discussed.

  14. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  15. Developing Software Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Programs in education and business often require learners to develop and demonstrate competence in specified areas and then be able to effectively apply this knowledge. One method to aid in developing a skill set in these areas is through the use of software simulations. These simulations can be used for learner demonstrations of competencies in a specified course as well as a review of the basic skills at the beginning of subsequent courses. The first section of this paper discusses ToolBook, the software used to develop our software simulations. The second section discusses the process of developing software simulations. The third part discusses how we have used software simulations to assess student knowledge of research design by providing simulations that allow the student to practice using SPSS and Excel.

  16. Prediction of Ketoconazole absorption using an updated in vitro transfer model coupled to physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Aaron; Fiolka, Tom; Kostewicz, Edmund S

    2017-03-30

    The aim of this study was to optimize the in vitro transfer model and to increase its biorelevance to more accurately mimic the in vivo supersaturation and precipitation behaviour of weak basic drugs. Therefore, disintegration of the formulation, volumes of the stomach and intestinal compartments, transfer rate, bile salt concentration, pH range and paddle speed were varied over a physiological relevant range. The supersaturation and precipitation data from these experiments for Ketoconazole (KTZ) were coupled to physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model using Stella® software, which also incorporated the disposition kinetics of KTZ taken from the literature, in order to simulate the oral absorption and plasma profile in humans. As expected for a poorly soluble weak base, KTZ demonstrated supersaturation followed by precipitation under various in vitro conditions simulating the proximal small intestine with the results influenced by transfer rate, hydrodynamics, volume, bile salt concentration and pH values. When the in vitro data representing the "average" GI conditions was coupled to the PBPK model, the simulated profiles came closest to the observed mean plasma profiles for KTZ. In line with the high permeability of KTZ, the simulated profiles were highly influenced by supersaturation whilst precipitation was not predicted to occur in vivo. A physiological relevant in vitro "standard" transfer model setup to investigate supersaturation and precipitation was established. For translating the in vitro data to the in vivo setting, it is important that permeability is considered which can be achieved by coupling the in vitro data to PBPK modelling. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Can in vitro assessment provide relevant end points for cognitive drug programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albensi, Benedict C

    2008-12-01

    Several start-up biotechnology companies have been created with the primary intent of developing cognitive enhancers. In addition, established pharmaceutical companies also frequently focus their efforts on cognitive drug discovery. In many instances, the rationale and evidence for these endeavors are based largely on in vitro assessments. In particular, the experimental paradigm, know as long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular model of synaptic plasticity and memory encoding, is being increasing used preclinically for assessing potential nootropic drugs in vitro. Central to this thinking is the idea that the modulation of LTP and/or glutamate receptors are the key criteria that must be met for the development of cognitive enhancers. However, programs targeting the NMDA receptor, a glutamate receptor subtype, over the years have been less than fruitful. In addition, skeptics criticize the relevance of some in vitro tests such as LTP for simulating human cognitive function. Given these considerations, one may wonder if in vitro assessments in general, and the LTP paradigm in particular, provide relevant end points for cognitive drug discovery and development programs. The focus of this article is to address this question and to present evidence as to why in vitro assessment is still critical to the success of any cognitive drug program.

  18. Multiscale Simulations Using Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore

    We are developing particle methods as a general framework for large scale simulations of discrete and continuous systems in science and engineering. The specific application and research areas include: discrete element simulations of granular flow, smoothed particle hydrodynamics and particle...... vortex methods for problems in continuum fluid dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics for flow at the meso scale, and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of nanofluidic systems. We employ multiscale techniques to breach the atomistic and continuum scales to study fundamental problems in fluid...

  19. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  20. Compact simulator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fray, R.; Divakaruni, M. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    In its work to expand and enhance simulator-based training in the fossil generation industry, EPRI is developing compact simulator technology for training power plant operators. These personal computer-based systems are more flexible and much less expensive than conventional, mainframe-based simulators, and their use can dramatically increase operator effectiveness. The potential benefits for utilities include improved plant performance, availability, life, and environmental compliance and thus significantly lower O and M costs.