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Sample records for vitro non-mucoid revertants

  1. Investigation of the algT operon sequence in mucoid and non-mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 115 Scandinavian patients with cystic fibrosis and in 88 in vitro non-mucoid revertants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Lee, Baoleri; Johannesson, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominant pathogen causing chronic lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). After an initial phase characterized by intermittent colonizations, a chronic infection is established upon conversion of P. aeruginosa from the non-mucoid to the mucoid, alginate...

  2. Stress conditions triggering mucoid morphotype variation in Burkholderia species and effect on virulence in Galleria mellonella and biofilm formation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês N Silva

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc bacteria are opportunistic pathogens causing chronic respiratory infections particularly among cystic fibrosis patients. During these chronic infections, mucoid-to-nonmucoid morphotype variation occurs, with the two morphotypes exhibiting different phenotypic properties. Here we show that in vitro, the mucoid clinical isolate Burkholderia multivorans D2095 gives rise to stable nonmucoid variants in response to prolonged stationary phase, presence of antibiotics, and osmotic and oxidative stresses. Furthermore, in vitro colony morphotype variation within other members of the Burkholderia genus occurred in Bcc and non-Bcc strains, irrespectively of their clinical or environmental origin. Survival to starvation and iron limitation was comparable for the mucoid parental isolate and the respective nonmucoid variant, while susceptibility to antibiotics and to oxidative stress was increased in the nonmucoid variants. Acute infection of Galleria mellonella larvae showed that, in general, the nonmucoid variants were less virulent than the respective parental mucoid isolate, suggesting a role for the exopolysaccharide in virulence. In addition, most of the tested nonmucoid variants produced more biofilm biomass than their respective mucoid parental isolate. As biofilms are often associated with increased persistence of pathogens in the CF lungs and are an indicative of different cell-to-cell interactions, it is possible that the nonmucoid variants are better adapted to persist in this host environment.

  3. Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Colistin and Imipenem on Mucoid and Nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengzhuang, Wang; Wu, Hong; Ciofu, Oana

    2011-01-01

    The time course activity of Colistin and Imipenem on mucoid and non-mucoid biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa showed that compared with planktonic bacteria, the kinetics of Colistin and Imipenem retained the concentration- and time-dependent killings, respectively but higher doses of antibiotics and f...

  4. Radiological study of bronchial mucoid impaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoyi; Yan Hongzhen; Wang Tongde; Gan Chunlan; Liu Wei; Wang Linhui

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the radiological findings of bronchial mucoid impaction in 28 patients in order to improve diagnostic efficacy. Methods: Standard posteroanterior high voltage radiographs were performed in all 28 cases. Among them CT scans were taken in 14 cases, while 3 patients underwent HRCT examination at the same time. Twenty-two patients had a history of expectoration of mucous plugs; in one case with pulmonary atelectasis, a mucous plug was picked out through bronchoscopy. The other 5 cases experienced a lung operation, and a tumor and bronchial mucoid impaction were discovered. Results: Radiographs showed most mucoid impaction as thick, branching structures resembling branches of tree; others were in the shapes of spherical, small clubs, and cuttle fish. In one patient, pulmonary atelectasis was the only radiographic finding. Similarly on CT, most bronchial mucoid impaction were likened to tree branches; the rest presented as small clubs and bunches of grape. A prominent feature of bronchial mucoid impaction, either on plain radiograph or on CT, was that its axis pointed to the hilum, completely consistent with the branching and distribution of the bronchi, and accompanied by bronchiectasis. Conclusions: It is an optimal approach to exploit plain radiograph combined with CT to find out bronchial mucoid impaction. An awareness of its clinical and radiological features may improve better understanding and recognition of the disease

  5. Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates maintain the biofilm formation capacity and the gene expression profiles during the chronic lung infection of CF patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Bao le ri; Schjerling, Charlotte K.; Kirkby, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic diversifications of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) promote long-term survival of bacteria during chronic lung infection. Twelve clonally related, sequential mucoid and non-mucoid paired P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from three......-mucoid isolates observed in this particular P. aeruginosa clone reflects different adaptation strategies used by these two phenotypes in the different niches of the CF lung environment....

  6. A case report of mucoid retention cyst in maxillary sinus

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    Kim, Han Pyoung [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-11-15

    The author have observed mucoid retention cyst in the right maxillary sinus of the patient, 41 year old woman, complained discharging of purulent exudate on the right maxillary molar area, and obtained the following conclusions; 1. The mucoid retention cyst in maxillary sinus casts a faint dome shaped shadow into the radiolucent image of maxillary sinus. 2. The mucoid retention cyst in maxillary sinus may occurred without the history of trauma. 3. Intraoral standard films are also valuable for the interpretation of the lesions in maxillary sinus but only extraoral roentgenograms.

  7. Psl Produced by Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa Contributes to the Establishment of Biofilms and Immune Evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher J; Wozniak, Daniel J

    2017-06-20

    Despite years of research and clinical advances, chronic pulmonary infections with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain the primary concern for cystic fibrosis patients. Much of the research on these strains has focused on the contributions of the polysaccharide alginate; however, it is becoming evident that the neutral polysaccharide Psl also contributes to biofilm formation and the maintenance of chronic infections. Here, we demonstrate that Psl produced by mucoid strains has significant roles in biofilm structure and evasion of immune effectors. Though mucoid strains produce less Psl than nonmucoid strains, the Psl that is produced is functional, since it mediates adhesion to human airway cells and epithelial cell death. Additionally, Psl protects mucoid bacteria from opsonization and killing by complement components in human serum. Psl production by mucoid strains stimulates a proinflammatory response in the murine lung, leading to reduced colonization. To determine the relevance of these data to clinical infections, we tested Psl production and biofilm formation of a panel of mucoid clinical isolates. We demonstrated three classes of mucoid isolates, those that produce Psl and form robust biofilms, those that did not produce Psl and have a poor biofilm phenotype, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) redundant strains. Collectively, these experimental results demonstrate that Psl contributes to the biofilm formation and immune evasion of many mucoid strains. This is a novel role for Psl in the establishment and maintenance of chronic pulmonary infections by mucoid strains. IMPORTANCE Cystic fibrosis patients are engaged in an ongoing battle against chronic lung infections by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa One key factor contributing to the maintenance of chronic infections is the conversion to a mucoid phenotype, where the bacteria produce copious amounts of the polysaccharide alginate. Once the bacteria become mucoid, existing treatments are poorly effective. We

  8. Polysaccharides serve as scaffold of biofilms formed by mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Hengzhuang, Wang; Wu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lung infection by mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathologic features in patients with cystic fibrosis. Mucoid P. aeruginosa is notorious for its biofilm forming capability and resistance to immune attacks. In this study, the roles of extracellular polymeric substances f...

  9. Mucoid conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by hydrogen peroxide: a mechanism for virulence activation in the cystic fibrosis lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathee, Kalai; Ciofu, Oana; Sternberg, Claus

    1999-01-01

    leukocytes (PMNs), which release free oxygen radicals such as H(2)O(2) The mucoid phenotype among the strains infecting CF patients indicates overproduction of a linear polysaccharide called alginate. To mimic the inflammatory environment of the CF lung, P. aeruginosa PAO1, a typical non-mucoid strain....... These findings indicate that gene activation in bacteria by toxic oxygen radicals, similar to that found in plants and mammalian cells, may serve as a defence mechanism for the bacteria. This suggests that mucoid conversion is a response to oxygen radical exposure and that this response is a mechanism of defence...... by the bacteria. This is the first report to show that PMNs and their oxygen radicals can cause this phenotypic and genotypic change which is so typical of the intractable form of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung. These findings may provide a basis for the development of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy...

  10. Mucoid impaction presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, L.D.; Lambie, N.K.; Wilsher, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Mucoid impaction has been described as a complication of asthma and more commonly in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. In such cases, the impacted pools of mucus may present as discrete nodules on chest X-ray and hence simulate the appearance of metastatic malignancy. A case of mucoid impaction presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules in a patient with cystic fibrosis is described. The chest X-ray showed hyperinfiltration and scattered changes consistent with bronchiectasis. Computed tomography scan confirmed these and additional intra-pulmonary nodular densities. This report illustrates that mucus impaction as a cause of pulmonary nodules should be considered in any patient with chronic lung disease characterised by excess mucus production. 6 refs., 3 figs

  11. Chronic infection of cystic fibrosis patient airways by a single clone of Burkholderia cepacia: replacement of non-mucoid to mucoid morphotype Infecção pulmonar crônica por um único clone de Burkholderia cepacia: substituição do morfotipo não mucóide por mucóide

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    Ana Paula D'Alincourt Carvalho

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucoid Burkholderia cepacia morphotype emerged within a nine year follow-up of a cystic fibrosis patient. Clinical data suggested a linkage between the mucoid phenotype isolation and the deterioration of the patient's condition. Despite of the phenotypic variation, molecular typing showed that the patient was chronically infected with B. cepacia complex isolates belonging to a same genetic clone.O presente trabalho descreve a emergência de cepas mucoides do complexo B. cepacia em um paciente com Fibrose Cística dentro de um acompanhamento bacteriológico prospectivo de nove anos. Os dados clínicos sugerem a associação entre o isolamento do morfotipo mucoide e a deterioração clínica do paciente. Apesar da variação fenotípica, os testes moleculares mostraram que o paciente manteve-se cronicamente infectado por cepas de mesma origem clonal.

  12. Methods of detecting and controlling mucoid Pseudomonas biofilm production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei D. (Inventor); Qiu, Dongru (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Compositions and methods for detecting and controlling the conversion to mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are disclosed. The present invention provides for detecting the switch from nonmucoid to mucoid state of P. aeruginosa by measuring mucE expression or MucE protein levels. The interaction between MucE and AlgW controls the switch to mucoidy in wild type P. aeruginosa. Also disclosed is an alginate biosynthesis heterologous expression system for use in screening candidate substances that inhibit conversion to mucoidy.

  13. Mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament with erosion of the lateral femoral condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melloni, Pietro; Valls, Rafael; Yuguero, Mariano; Saez, Amparo

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that produced osseous erosion of the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle. The MRI findings and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Quantifying low-frequency revertants in oral poliovirus vaccine using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcey, Eric; Serres, Aurélie; Tindy, Fabrice; Chareyre, Audrey; Ng, Siemon; Nicolas, Marine; Vetter, Emmanuelle; Bonnevay, Thierry; Abachin, Eric; Mallet, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    Spontaneous reversion to neurovirulence of live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) serotype 3 (chiefly involving the n.472U>C mutation), must be monitored during production to ensure vaccine safety and consistency. Mutant analysis by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme cleavage (MAPREC) has long been endorsed by the World Health Organization as the preferred in vitro test for this purpose; however, it requires radiolabeling, which is no longer supported by many laboratories. We evaluated the performance and suitability of next generation sequencing (NGS) as an alternative to MAPREC. The linearity of NGS was demonstrated at revertant concentrations equivalent to the study range of 0.25%-1.5%. NGS repeatability and intermediate precision were comparable across all tested samples, and NGS was highly reproducible, irrespective of sequencing platform or analysis software used. NGS was performed on OPV serotype 3 working seed lots and monovalent bulks (n=21) that were previously tested using MAPREC, and which covered the representative range of vaccine production. Percentages of 472-C revertants identified by NGS and MAPREC were comparable and highly correlated (r≥0.80), with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.95585 (p<0.0001). NGS demonstrated statistically equivalent performance to that of MAPREC for quantifying low-frequency OPV serotype 3 revertants, and offers a valid alternative to MAPREC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reverted austenite in PH 13-8 Mo maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzer, Ronald; Radis, Rene; Noehrer, Matthias; Schober, Michael; Hochfellner, Rainer; Zinner, Silvia; Povoden-Karadeniz, E.; Kozeschnik, Ernst; Leitner, Harald

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of maraging steels are strongly influenced by the presence of reverted austenite. In this study, the morphology and chemical composition of reverted austenite in a corrosion resistant maraging steel was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). Two types of austenite, i.e. granular and elongated, are present after aging at 575 o C, whereby the content of the latter increases during aging. The investigations revealed that the austenite phase is enriched in Ni, which prevents the transformation to martensite during cooling. Inside and next to the austenitc areas, Mo and Cr-rich carbides, which form during the aging treatment, were found. Various aging treatments were performed to obtain the activation energy for the formation of reverted austenite. Additionally, the experimental data are compared with thermodynamic and kinetic simulations. Based on these results and the chemical composition changes of the phases, a model for the formation of reverted austenite is presented. It is concluded that precipitation of B2-ordered NiAl and formation of reverted austenite take place simultaneously during aging and that dissolution of precipitates is not essential for the initial formation of reverted austenite.

  16. Thermoresistant revertants of an Escherichia coli strain carrying tif-1 and ruv mutations: non-suppressibility of ruv by sfi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuji, N.; Iyehara-Ogawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    Spontaneous thermoresistant revertants were isolated from Tif1 Ruv - and Tif1 Ruv + strains of Escherichia coli K-12. They were divided into five groups; backmutants to tif + and recA structural gene mutants accounted for at least two of these groups. Mutations with an unconditional RecA - phenotype were detected at a higher frequency in the Tif1 Ruv - strains (65%) than in the Tif1 Ruv + strains (25%). A third group consisted of revertants exhibiting a RecA - phenotype at low temperature. Revertants with normal recombination ability and uv resistance, but with a thermosensitive defect in propagating lambda bio11 phage, were also isolated (group 4). The alleles responsible for this property were cotransducible with the srl gene, suggesting that they are located at the recA locus. Other revertants, which might carry lexA, lexB, or zab mutations, were uv sensitive and were able to propagate lambda bio11 phage (group 5). The sfi mutation, which suppresses filamentation in the Tif1 and uv-sensitive Lon - strains, does not restore uv resistance of the Ruv - mutant

  17. Mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament: Management and outcome

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    Vivek Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucoid degeneration (MD is a rare pathological affection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL. Mucinous material within the substance of ACL produces pain and limited motion in the knee. This series describes the clinicoradiological presentation of patients with mucoid ACL, partial arthroscopic debridement of ACL and outcomes. Materials and Methods: During a period of 3 years, 11 patients were included based upon the clinical suspicion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, arthroscopic features and histopathologic confirmation of MD of ACL. Result: Six patients were male and five were female with median age of 40 years (range 21-59 years. All patients complained of knee pain with median duration of 5 months (range 1-24 months. All patients had painful deep flexion with 63.6% (N = 7 reporting trivial trauma before the onset of symptoms. MRI revealed MD of ACL in all with associated cyst in three patients. Partial debridement of ACL was done in ten and complete in one patient. None of them required notchplasty. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis in all of them. At the mean followup of 13.81 months (range 6-28 months, all patients regained complete flexion and none complained of instability. Conclusion: Prior knowledge of condition with high index of suspicion and careful interpretation of MRI can establish the diagnosis preoperatively. It responds well to partial debridement of ACL and mucinous material without development of instability.

  18. Mean-Reverting Portfolio With Budget Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziping; Palomar, Daniel P.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the mean-reverting portfolio design problem arising from statistical arbitrage in the financial markets. We first propose a general problem formulation aimed at finding a portfolio of underlying component assets by optimizing a mean-reversion criterion characterizing the mean-reversion strength, taking into consideration the variance of the portfolio and an investment budget constraint. Then several specific problems are considered based on the general formulation, and efficient algorithms are proposed. Numerical results on both synthetic and market data show that our proposed mean-reverting portfolio design methods can generate consistent profits and outperform the traditional design methods and the benchmark methods in the literature.

  19. The use of fluorescence microscopy and image analysis for rapid detection of non-producing revertant cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Katja; Lang, Imke; Enke, Heike; Grohme, Diana; Frohme, Marcus

    2015-04-17

    Ethanol production via genetically engineered cyanobacteria is a promising solution for the production of biofuels. Through the introduction of a pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase direct ethanol production becomes possible within the cells. However, during cultivation genetic instability can lead to mutations and thus loss of ethanol production. Cells then revert back to the wild type phenotype. A method for a rapid and simple detection of these non-producing revertant cells in an ethanol producing cell population is an important quality control measure in order to predict genetic stability and the longevity of a producing culture. Several comparable cultivation experiments revealed a difference in the pigmentation for non-producing and producing cells: the accessory pigment phycocyanin (PC) is reduced in case of the ethanol producer, resulting in a yellowish appearance of the culture. Microarray and western blot studies of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 confirmed this PC reduction on the level of RNA and protein. Based on these findings we developed a method for fluorescence microscopy in order to distinguish producing and non-producing cells with respect to their pigmentation phenotype. By applying a specific filter set the emitted fluorescence of a producer cell with a reduced PC content appeared orange. The emitted fluorescence of a non-producing cell with a wt pigmentation phenotype was detected in red, and dead cells in green. In an automated process multiple images of each sample were taken and analyzed with a plugin for the image analysis software ImageJ to identify dead (green), non-producing (red) and producing (orange) cells. The results of the presented validation experiments revealed a good identification with 98 % red cells in the wt sample and 90 % orange cells in the producer sample. The detected wt pigmentation phenotype (red cells) in the producer sample were either not fully induced yet (in 48 h induced

  20. Trichosporon inkin and Trichosporon mucoides as unusual causes of white piedra of scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendolkar, Uma; Shinde, Alka; Baveja, Sujata; Dhurat, Rachita; Phiske, Meghana

    2014-01-01

    White piedra of scalp hair is considered a rare entity. We report three cases of this disorder all of whom presented with nodules on the hair. Potassium hydroxide preparations of the hair revealed clustered arthrospores and mature, easily detachable nodules. Cultures grew Trichosporon inkin in 2 patients and Trichosporon mucoides in one patient. Both these fungi are unusual causes of white piedra.

  1. Plant height revertants of Dominant Semidwarf mutant rice created by low-energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Binmei [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)], E-mail: yjwu@ipp.ac.cn; Xu Xue; Song, M.; Zhao, M. [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fu, X.D. [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2008-04-15

    Dominant Semidwarf mutant rice (Sdd) was obtained from its wild type (WT) by irradiation with a low-energy ion beam. Six tall revertants of Sdd were induced by irradiation. The revertants restored the plant height to that of WT plants. Investigation of the agronomic character and genetic analysis indicate that the revertants are similar to WT plants with putative different inherited mutations. The revertants were checked for DNA differences using the simple sequence repeat technique. Among 408 such primers used, only 2 primers detected mutation sites in the revertants, which provided the molecular evidence for the revertants induced from Sdd. This study indicates that ion irradiation may be used as a mutagen to create revertants for plant architecture studies and could be a new application.

  2. Trichosporon inkin and Trichosporon mucoides as unusual causes of white piedra of scalp hair

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    Uma Tendolkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White piedra of scalp hair is considered a rare entity. We report three cases of this disorder all of whom presented with nodules on the hair. Potassium hydroxide preparations of the hair revealed clustered arthrospores and mature, easily detachable nodules. Cultures grew Trichosporon inkin in 2 patients and Trichosporon mucoides in one patient. Both these fungi are unusual causes of white piedra.

  3. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain DK1-NH57388A, a Stable Mucoid Cystic Fibrosis Isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Ciofu, Oana; Amador Hierro, Cristina Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with chronic pulmonary infections and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of stable mucoid P. aeruginosa strain DK1-NH57388A, a CF isolate which has previously been used...

  4. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain DK1-NH57388A, a Stable Mucoid Cystic Fibrosis Isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Ciofu, Oana; Amador Hierro, Cristina Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with chronic pulmonary infections and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of stable mucoid P. aeruginosa strain DK1-NH57388A, a CF isolate which has previously been used ...

  5. Two-line hybrid rice male sterile line 'NHR111S' with a marker of green-revertible albino leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Liu Xin; Shu Xiaoli; Shu Qingyao; Xia Yingwu; Wu Dianxing

    2006-01-01

    NHR111S is a new two-line male sterile line with a marker of green-revertible albino leave that was bred from in vitro mutagens is of the thermo/photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line 'Guangzhan63S' by 60 Co γ-rays. It has the same desired agronomic traits, fertility characteristics and combining ability as characteristics of the parent. It is convenient to develop leaf color marker-aided elimination strategy in the multiplication and production of hybrid rice seeds. (authors)

  6. Augmented effect of early antibiotic treatment in mice with experimental lung infections due to sequentially adapted mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gennip, M; Moser, Claus; Christensen, Louise D

    2009-01-01

    : A significant reduction in the number of bacteria was observed when initiating treatment 1 h post-infection compared with initiating treatment after 24 h, although the latest isolate avoided complete clearance. Early antibiotic treatment directed at the mucoid phenotype in mice also reduced the inflammation and......Background: Effects of treatment with tobramycin initiated 1 or 24 h post-infection were investigated in a new version of a pulmonary infection model in mice. The model reflects the differentiated behaviour of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid strains isolated from the lungs of one chronically infected......, histopathology, and measurement of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2). Results: There was a significant reduction of bacteria when comparing treatment initiated 1 h post-infection with treatment initiated after 24 h for isolates 1997 and 2003. Treatment...

  7. Submucosal lipoma of the sigmoid colon as a rare cause of mucoid diarrhea: a case report

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    Dassanayake, S. U. B.; Dinamithra, N. P.; Nawarathne, N. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Symptomatic presentations of colonic lipomas are very rare in clinical practice, and may mimic colonic malignancy. The likelihood of presenting symptoms has been shown to depend on the size of the lesion. Case presentation We describe the case of a 72-year-old Sinhalese man presenting with worsening mucoid diarrhea who was subsequently diagnosed to have a lipoma of the sigmoid colon. His disease was successfully managed with endoscopic resection. Conclusion Confidently establishing...

  8. Are Current Accounts of Asian Economies Mean-reverting?: Nonlinear Unit Root Test Approach

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    Bonghan Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the mean reverting property of current account in the financial crisis-affected 5 counties of southeast Asia using nonlinear unit root tests of Park and shintani(2004. Our approach is based on the idea that a conventional unit root test has lower power in detecting the nonlinear mean reverting behavior if the current account follows a nonlinear mean reversion process. We obtained following empirical results. First, for the pre-crisis period (1981Q1-1996Q4, the current accounts of Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines are mean-reverting but those of Korea and Thailand are not mean-reverting. Second, for the full sample period (1981Q1-2003Q4, the ADF test fails to reject the unit root of the current account in all countries except Philippines. However, unit root is rejected in favor of nonlinear mean reversion except Thailand. This nonlinear unit root test result implies that crisis-affected Asian countries except Thailand have sustainable paths of current accounts. Third, when the current accounts of East Asian countries are nonlinear mean-reverting, the mean reverting process can be well described by the ESTAR model, instead of the DTAR or DLSTAR model. The nonlinear unit root test results imply smooth nonlinear mean-reversion behaviors of East Asian current accounts. Finally, the shape of estimated impulse response functions becomes steeper as the size of shock increases, which is the very characteristic of the nonlinear process.

  9. Effect of Cr Contents and Heat Treating on Reverted Austenite in Maraging Steel Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. W.; Lee, H. W.

    2018-05-01

    By conducting flux cored arc welding (FCAW) on maraging steels with Cr contents of 1.4 and 5.2 wt%, this study observed the effects of Cr content and heat treating on reverted austenite formation in welded maraging steel. Aging treatment was carried out at the temperatures of 450, 480 and 530 °C for 3 h in each condition. As the aging temperature increased, reverted austenite was formed along the interdendritic and intercellular grain boundaries, and the proportion of reverted austenite increased with increasing Cr addition. The aging process led to the segregation of Ti and Mo along the interdendritic and intercellular grain boundaries. Some of the welded specimens were subjected to solution heat treatment at 820 and 1250 °C for 1 h after welding, resulting in a decrease in reverted austenite fraction.

  10. Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous forest ... Harvesting operations were planned to make the transition from high open ... Key words: Strip-cutting, Cable yarding, Participatory planning, Shelterwood, Urban forests ...

  11. Transport of mucoid mucus in healthy individuals and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis

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    J. Lima Afonso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize and compare the in vitro transport properties of respiratory mucoid secretion in individuals with no lung disease and in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and bronchiectasis. Methodology: Samples of mucus were collected from 21 volunteers presenting no lung disease who had undergone surgery, from 10 patients presenting chronic COPD, and from 16 patients with bronchiectasis. Mucociliary transport (MCT, transport by cough (SCM, and contact angle (CAM were evaluated. Results: MCT was found to be greater in healthy individuals (1.0 ± 0.19 than in COPD (0.91 ± 0.17 and bronchiectasis (0.76 ± 0.23 patients (p < 0.05, whereas SCM was greater in COPD patients (16.31 ± 7.35 cm than in patients with bronchiectasis (12.16 ± 6.64 cm and healthy individuals (10.50 ± 25.8 cm (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding CAM. Conclusion: Mucus from healthy individuals allows better mucociliary transport compared to that from patients with lung diseases. However, the mucus from COPD patients allows a better transport by coughing, demonstrating that these individuals have adapted to a defence mechanism compared to patients with bronchiectasis, who have impairment in their ciliary and cough transport mechanisms. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar e comparar as propriedades de transporte in vitro da secreção respiratória de aspeto mucoide (M de indivíduos sem doença respiratória e de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC e bronquiectasias estáveis. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 21 amostras de indivíduos sem doença pulmonar submetidos a processos cirúrgicos, 10 amostras de pacientes com DPOC e 16 amostras de pacientes com bronquiectasias quanto ao transporte mucociliar (TMC, deslocamento na máquina simuladora de tosse (MST e ângulo de contacto (AC. Resultados: Maior TMC das amostras de indivíduos sem doença respiratória (1,0

  12. Submucosal lipoma of the sigmoid colon as a rare cause of mucoid diarrhea: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, S U B; Dinamithra, N P; Nawarathne, N M M

    2016-01-20

    Symptomatic presentations of colonic lipomas are very rare in clinical practice, and may mimic colonic malignancy. The likelihood of presenting symptoms has been shown to depend on the size of the lesion. We describe the case of a 72-year-old Sinhalese man presenting with worsening mucoid diarrhea who was subsequently diagnosed to have a lipoma of the sigmoid colon. His disease was successfully managed with endoscopic resection. Confidently establishing the rare diagnosis of a colonic lipoma usually requires a combination of endoscopic, radiological, and histological evaluation, and is therefore very challenging. With the advancement of endoscopic procedures, endoscopic resection is widely practiced as the definitive management of these cases.

  13. Dynamic in vivo mutations within the ica operon during persistence of Staphylococcus aureus in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Schwartbeck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is associated with chronic bacterial airway infections leading to lung insufficiency and decreased life expectancy. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens isolated from the airways of CF patients. Mucoid colony morphology has been described for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the most common pathogen in CF, but not for S. aureus. From the airways of 8 of 313 CF patients (2.5% mucoid S. aureus isolates (n = 115 were cultured with a mean persistence of 29 months (range 1 month, 126 months. In contrast to non-mucoid S. aureus, mucoid isolates were strong biofilm formers. The upstream region of the ica operon, which encodes the proteins responsible for the synthesis of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA, of mucoid isolates was sequenced. Spa-types of mucoid and non-mucoid strains were identical, but differed between patients. Mucoid isolates carried a 5 bp deletion in the intergenic region between icaR and icaA. During long-term persistence, from two patients subsequent non-mucoid isolates (n = 12 with 5 bp deletions were cultured, which did not produce biofilm. Sequencing of the entire ica operon identified compensatory mutations in various ica-genes including icaA (n = 7, icaD (n = 3 and icaC (n = 2. Six sequential isolates of each of these two patients with non-mucoid and mucoid phenotypes were subjected to whole genome sequencing revealing a very close relationship of the individual patient's isolates. Transformation of strains with vectors expressing the respective wild-type genes restored mucoidy. In contrast to the non-mucoid phenotype, mucoid strains were protected against neutrophilic killing and survived better under starvation conditions. In conclusion, the special conditions present in CF airways seem to facilitate ongoing mutations in the ica operon during S. aureus persistence.

  14. Revertant mosaicism in epidermolysis bullosa caused by mitotic gene conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, MF; Scheffer, H; Stulp, R; Pas, HH; Nijenhuis, Albertine; Heeres, K; Owaribe, K; Pulkkinen, L; Uitto, J

    1997-01-01

    Mitotic gene conversion acting as reverse mutation has not been previously demonstrated in human. We report here that the revertant mosaicism of a compound heterozygous proband with an autosomal recessive genodermatosis, generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa, is caused by mitotic gene

  15. Extinction Partially Reverts Structural Changes Associated with Remote Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetere, Gisella; Restivo, Leonardo; Novembre, Giovanni; Aceti, Massimiliano; Lumaca, Massimo; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Structural synaptic changes occur in medial prefrontal cortex circuits during remote memory formation. Whether extinction reverts or further reshapes these circuits is, however, unknown. Here we show that the number and the size of spines were enhanced in anterior cingulate (aCC) and infralimbic (ILC) cortices 36 d following contextual fear…

  16. Postoperative respiratory outcomes in laparoscopic bariatric surgery: comparison of a prospective group of patients whose neuromuscular blockade was reverted with sugammadex and a historical one reverted with neostigmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauradó, S; Sabaté, A; Ferreres, E; Camprubí, I; Cabrera, A

    2014-12-01

    Bariatric surgery patients are at high risk of perioperative respiratory adverse events. We hypothesized that the use of sugammadex to reverse neuromuscular blockade could improve postoperative respiratory outcomes. Prospective observational series of consecutive patients scheduled for laparoscopic bariatric surgery in whom neuromuscular blockade was reverted with sugammadex were compared with a historical matched cohort of patients reverted with neostigmines. The necessity of postoperative mechanical ventilation or pathological changes in postoperative chest X-ray were two of the comparisons done. We enrolled 160 patients in each group (Sugammadex - SG and Historical - HG). Two patients (mean, CI 95%), (1.25, 0.34-4.4) in the SG and five patients in the HG (mean, CI 95%), (3.13, 1.34-7.11) required mechanical ventilation immediately after surgery (p=0.38, chi-square test). Significantly less chest X-ray postoperative changes were observed in the SG: 11 patients (6.9%) versus 26 patients (16.3%) in the HG (Odds ratio OR, CI 95%) (0.36, 0.18-0.8). Requirement of mechanical ventilation is not associated to the reversal agent employed. Less pathological postoperative chest X-ray changes were found in the group of patients whose neuromuscular blockade was reverted with sugammadex. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Revertant Mosaicism in Heritable Skin Diseases - Mechanisms of Natural Gene Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasmooij, Anna M. G.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Uitto, Jouni

    Revertant mosaicism (RM) refers to the co-existence of cells carrying disease-causing mutations with cells in which the inherited mutation is genetically corrected by a spontaneous event. It has been discovered in an increasing number of heritable skin diseases: ichthyosis with confetti and

  18. Revertant fibers in the mdx murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an age- and muscle-related reappraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Pigozzo

    Full Text Available Muscles in Duchenne dystrophy patients are characterized by the absence of dystrophin, yet transverse sections show a small percentage of fibers (termed "revertant fibers" positive for dystrophin expression. This phenomenon, whose biological bases have not been fully elucidated, is present also in the murine and canine models of DMD and can confound the evaluation of therapeutic approaches. We analyzed 11 different muscles in a cohort of 40 mdx mice, the most commonly model used in pre-clinical studies, belonging to four age groups; such number of animals allowed us to perform solid ANOVA statistical analysis. We assessed the average number of dystrophin-positive fibers, both absolute and normalized for muscle size, and the correlation between their formation and the ageing process. Our results indicate that various muscles develop different numbers of revertant fibers, with different time trends; besides, they suggest that the biological mechanism(s behind dystrophin re-expression might not be limited to the early development phases but could actually continue during adulthood. Importantly, such finding was seen also in cardiac muscle, a fact that does not fit into the current hypothesis of the clonal origin of "revertant" myonuclei from satellite cells. This work represents the largest, statistically significant analysis of revertant fibers in mdx mice so far, which can now be used as a reference point for improving the evaluation of therapeutic approaches for DMD. At the same time, it provides new clues about the formation of revertant fibers/cardiomyocytes in dystrophic skeletal and cardiac muscle.

  19. Extinction partially reverts structural changes associated with remote fear memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetere, Gisella; Restivo, Leonardo; Novembre, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Structural synaptic changes occur in medial prefrontal cortex circuits during remote memory formation. Whether extinction reverts or further reshapes these circuits is, however, unknown. Here we show that the number and the size of spines were enhanced in anterior cingulate (aCC) and infralimbic...... the remote memory network, suggesting that the preserved network properties might sustain reactivation of extinguished conditioned fear....

  20. In vitro biofilm forming capacity on abiotic contact surfaces by outbreak-associated Vibrio harveyi strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallaval Veera Bramha Chari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vitro biofilm forming capacity on abiotic food contact surfaces by Vibrio harveyi (V. harveyi strains. Methods: Thirty six Gram-negative V. harveyi strains were isolated from various street vended seafood outlets in a food processing line and evaluated for their ability to produce mucoid biofilms on food contact surfaces using a microplate assay. Phenotypic characterization of mucoid biofilm producing V. harveyi strains were screened on Congo red agar, thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar and tryptic soy agar, respectively. Results: Only five V. harveyi strains (14% were mucoid biofilm producers characterized by formation of black colonies, whereas the remaining 31 strains (86% were not capable of producing biofilm characterized by formation of red colonies or pinkish-red colonies with darkening at the centre. The morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of these isolates were studied using standard protocols. Strain identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction targeted to species-specific polymerase chain reaction primers VH-1 and VH-2 corresponding to variable regions of V. harveyi 16S rRNA sequence. All the biofilm-forming strains showed resistance to at least three antimicrobial compounds tested. V. harveyi strains isolated from various seafood were able to form biofilms of different capacity, and the strains VB267, VB238 and VB166 isolated from cat fish, shrimp and eel fish exhibited significantly greater biofilm forming ability compared to other isolates. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the present study that the strain VB166 was able to better attach and form subsequent biofilms on glass and stainless steel compared to high density polyethylene. These properties allow these bacteria to survive, proliferate and persist in street vended seafood outlets.

  1. Investigation on the crystallography of the transformation products of reverted austenite in intercritically reheated coarse grained heat affected zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yang; Shang, Chengjia; Chen, Liang; Subramanian, Sundaresa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Area of reverted austenite is traced out by crystallographic information. ► Bainite and martensite regions were confirmed within it. ► The martensite region is considered as the blocky MA particles. ► Martensite region has high deformation to initiate fracture. ► More uniform transformation of the reverted austenite is good for toughness. -- Abstract: In present study the intercritically reheated coarse grained heat affected zone (ICCGHAZ) showing the worst impact toughness in the heat affected zone of multi-pass welding was simulated by Gleeble-1500, and its microstructure was investigated in detail by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). With the crystallographic information from EBSD scanning the area of a single reverted austenite grain which formed during the thermal cycles of second pass simulation was traced out. Within it two regions with different characteristic both in morphology and crystallography were found out, showing an un-uniform transformation of the reverted austenite. The region I is a bainitic region containing larger bainitic ferrite grains, while the region II is made up of several clusters containing tiny grains. Based on the crystallographic information each cluster was determined as martensite island thereby should be considered as blocky Martensite/Austenite constituent (M/A), which is hard phase and harmful for toughness. Analysis on the level of deformation shows that the region II is much higher deformed than the region I, indicating there is high stress concentration within the region II. The possible influence of the region I and the region II on fracture is discussed under the early proposed M/A’s fracture-initiating mechanisms. It suggests that the main cause of the toughness reduction is the un-uniform transformation of the reverted austenite, and the toughness performance of the ICCGHAZ could be improved if the transformation of the reverted

  2. Amino acid substitutions in subunit 9 of the mitochondrial ATPase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sequence analysis of a series of revertants of an oli1 mit- mutant carrying an amino acid substitution in the hydrophilic loop of subunit 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, T A; Nagley, P

    1987-09-01

    This work concerns a biochemical genetic study of subunit 9 of the mitochondrial ATPase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subunit 9, encoded by the mitochondrial oli1 gene, contains a hydrophilic loop connecting two transmembrane stems. In one particular oli1 mit- mutant 2422, the substitution of a positively charged amino acid in this loop (Arg39----Met) renders the ATPase complex non-functional. A series of 20 revertants, selected for their ability to grow on nonfermentable substrates, has been isolated from mutant 2422. The results of DNA sequence analysis of the oli1 gene in each revertant have led to the recognition of three groups of revertants. Class I revertants have undergone a same-site reversion event: the mutant Met39 is replaced either by arginine (as in wild-type) or lysine. Class II revertants maintain the mutant Met39 residue, but have undergone a second-site reversion event (Asn35----Lys). Two revertants showing an oligomycin-resistant phenotype carry this same second-site reversion in the loop region together with a further amino acid substitution in either of the two membrane-spanning segments of subunit 9 (either Gly23----Ser or Leu53----Phe). Class III revertants contain subunit 9 with the original mutant 2422 sequence, and additionally carry a recessive nuclear suppressor, demonstrated to represent a single gene. The results on the revertants in classes I and II indicate that there is a strict requirement for a positively charged residue in the hydrophilic loop close to the boundary of the lipid bilayer. The precise location of this positive charge is less stringent; in functional ATPase complexes it can be found at either residue 39 or 35. This charged residue is possibly required to interact with some other component of the mitochondrial ATPase complex. These findings, together with hydropathy plots of subunit 9 polypeptides from normal, mutant and revertant strains, led to the conclusion that the hydrophilic loop in normal subunit 9

  3. Reverters from PD-MCI to cognitively intact are at risk for future cognitive impairment: Analysis of the PPMI cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacob D; Kuhn, Taylor P; Szymkowicz, Sarah M

    2018-02-01

    Past studies have shown that a large portion of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) will revert to a cognitively intact (CI) status in the future. Aging studies have shown that individuals who revert from MCI to CI are at increased risk for reconverting to MCI or dementia in the future. The current study examined if individuals who revert from PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) to CI will be at increased risk for future PD-MCI and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). The study utilized data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). The sample included 364 newly diagnosed PD participants who were followed annually for up to 4 years. Based on the first and second assessments, we identified individuals who were CI at each assessment (CI-Stable) and individuals who were PD-MCI at baseline but then reverted to CI (Reversion). Analyses examined if participants in the Reversion group were at greater risk, relative to the CI-Stable group, for cognitive impairment at future assessments. Participants in the Reversion group were at greater risk for future cognitive impairment (PD-MCI or PDD) at the 2nd, 3rd and 4th annual follow-up, relative to the CI-Stable group. The Reversion group continued to be at increased risk for future cognitive impairment when adjusting for age, gender, education, depressive symptoms, and motor severity. A large proportion of individuals with PD-MCI will not show evidence of cognitive impairment within a year. However, these "reverters" continue to be at risk for future development of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of alginate in Azotobacter vinelandii aggregation in submerged culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Coronado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of strain LA21, a non-mucoid strain of Azotobacter vinelandii derivative of ATCC 9046, revealed that alginate is not necessary for aggregate formation. In fact, the non-mucoid strain LA21 developed aggregates significantly larger than those of the mucoid strain (ATCC 9046, which suggests that alginate has a detrimental effect on the aggregate size, due to its properties as a surface active agent. Treating the aggregates with a protease caused a decrease in the equivalent diameter of the structures, suggesting the participation of extracellular proteins in the aggregation. Key words: Aggregation; Azotobacter vinelandii; alginate; mutant strain; mucoid.

  5. Mutation types and aging differently affect revertant fiber expansion in dystrophic mdx and mdx52 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Echigoya

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, one of the most common and lethal genetic disorders, and the mdx mouse myopathies are caused by a lack of dystrophin protein. These dystrophic muscles contain sporadic clusters of dystrophin-expressing revertant fibers (RFs, as detected by immunohistochemistry. RFs are known to arise from muscle precursor cells with spontaneous exon skipping (alternative splicing and clonally expand in size with increasing age through the process of muscle degeneration/regeneration. The expansion of revertant clusters is thought to represent the cumulative history of muscle regeneration and proliferation of such precursor cells. However, the precise mechanisms by which RFs arise and expand are poorly understood. Here, to test the effects of mutation types and aging on RF expansion and muscle regeneration, we examined the number of RFs in mdx mice (containing a nonsense mutation in exon 23 and mdx52 mice (containing deletion mutation of exon 52 with the same C57BL/6 background at 2, 6, 12, and 18months of age. Mdx mice displayed a significantly higher number of RFs compared to mdx52 mice in all age groups, suggesting that revertant fiber expansion largely depends on the type of mutation and/or location in the gene. A significant increase in the expression and clustering levels of RFs was found beginning at 6months of age in mdx mice compared with mdx52 mice. In contrast to the significant expansion of RFs with increasing age, the number of centrally nucleated fibers and embryonic myosin heavy chain-positive fibers (indicative of cumulative and current muscle regeneration, respectively decreased with age in both mouse strains. These results suggest that mutation types and aging differently affect revertant fiber expansion in mdx and mdx52 mice.

  6. Extinction partially reverts structural changes associated with remote fear memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetere, Gisella; Restivo, Leonardo; Novembre, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Structural synaptic changes occur in medial prefrontal cortex circuits during remote memory formation. Whether extinction reverts or further reshapes these circuits is, however, unknown. Here we show that the number and the size of spines were enhanced in anterior cingulate (aCC) and infralimbic...... (ILC) cortices 36 d following contextual fear conditioning. Upon extinction, aCC spine density returned to baseline, but the enhanced proportion of large spines did not. Differently, ILC spine density remained elevated, but the size of spines decreased dramatically. Thus, extinction partially erases...

  7. User's guide to REVERT. A CDC 7600 program for converting Spent Fuel Test - Climax data to engineering units, with corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hage, G.

    1984-10-01

    A CDC 7600 computer program, REVERT, can revise Spent Fuel Test - Climax data files using one of several algorithms, depending on the type of data. The algorithms use coefficients from a separate file organized by data type identifiers. REVERT can also make that file of coefficients, using data from tapes made by Hewlett-Packard equipment employed for data acquisition on the spent Fuel Test - Climax at NTS. 12 references

  8. Relationship between mucoid hypertrophy of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and morphologic change of the intercondylar notch: MRI and arthroscopy correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Myung Jin; Choi, Byeong Kyoo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Bin, Sung Il

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mucoid hypertrophy of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and morphologic change of the intercondylar notch. We retrospectively reviewed the 105 patients with knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with or without knee arthroscopy [group 1: patients with arthroscopic notchplasty (N = 47), group 2: knee arthroscopy demonstrating intact ACL (N = 33), and group 3: patients with normal knee MRI but no arthroscopy (N = 25)]. Groups 2 and 3 served as an arthroscopic and MR control group, respectively. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed all MR examinations. The intercondylar notch width, notch index (width of intercondylar notch/width of femoral condyle), transverse notch angle (TNA), sagittal notch angle (SNA), and notch area were recorded on axial and sagittal MR images at the midpoint of Blumensaat's line which was identified on sagittal images. The diameter of the ACL was recorded on coronal MR images at the posterior end of Blumensaat's line. The mean values of the intercondylar notch width, notch index, TNA, SNA, notch area, and ACL diameter for the three groups were 16.0 mm/0.2/50.3 /36.5 /249.0 mm 2 /7.7 mm (group 1); 19.3 mm/0.3/52.9 /40.2 /323.4 mm 2 /4.8 mm (group 2); and 20.3 mm/0.3/51.4 /39.1 /350.8 mm 2 /4.5 mm (group 3). The intercondylar notch width, notch index, SNA, and notch area were smaller, and ACL diameter was thicker in group 1 compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). Patients with mucoid ACL hypertrophy show a narrower notch, a steeper notch angle, and a smaller notch area than control groups. (orig.)

  9. Non-invasive Assessments of Adipose Tissue Metabolism In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Borowsky, Francis E; Quinn, Kyle P; Bernstein, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with non-invasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored.

  10. Revertant mosaicism in a human skin fragility disorder results from slipped mispairing and mitotic recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiritsi, Dimitra; He, Yinghong; Pasmooij, Anna M. G.; Onder, Meltem; Happle, Rudolf; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Has, Cristina

    Spontaneous gene repair, also called revertant mosaicism, has been documented in several genetic disorders involving organs that undergo self-regeneration, including the skin. Genetic reversion may occur through different mechanisms, and in a single individual, the mutation can be repaired in

  11. Proteome analysis of human Wharton's jelly cells during in vitro expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulpizio Marilisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human umbilical cord contains mucoid connective tissue and fibroblast-like cells. These cells named Wharton's jelly cells, (WJCs display properties similar to mesenchymal stem cells therefore representing a rich source of primitive cells to be potentially used in regenerative medicine. Results To better understand their self-renewal and potential in vitro expansion capacity, a reference 2D map was constructed as a proteomic data set. 158 unique proteins were identified. More than 30% of these proteins belong to cytoskeleton compartment. We also found that several proteins including Shootin1, Adenylate kinase 5 isoenzyme and Plasminogen activator-inhibitor 2 are no longer expressed after the 2nd passage of in vitro replication. This indicates that the proliferative potency of these cells is reduced after the initial stage of in vitro growing. At the end of cellular culturing, new synthesized proteins, including, ERO1-like protein alpha, Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase and Prolyl-4-hydroxylase were identified. It is suggested that these new synthesized proteins are involved in the impairment of cellular surviving during replication and differentiation time. Conclusions Our work represents an essential step towards gaining knowledge of the molecular properties of WJCs so as to better understand their possible use in the field of cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  12. P. aeruginosa in the paranasal sinuses and transplanted lungs have similar adaptive mutations as isolates from chronically infected CF lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Aanaes, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells are present as biofilms in the paranasal sinuses and the lungs of chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Since different inflammatory responses and selective antibiotic pressures are acting in the sinuses compared with the lungs, we compared...... the adaptive profiles of mucoid and non-mucoid isolates from the two locations. METHODS: We studied the genetic basis of phenotypic diversification and gene expression profiles in sequential lung and sinus P. aeruginosa isolates from four chronically infected CF patients, including pre- and post-lung...... transplantation isolates. RESULTS: The same phenotypes caused by similar mutations and similar gene expression profiles were found in mucoid and non-mucoid isolates from the paranasal sinuses and from the lungs before and after transplantation. CONCLUSION: Bilateral exchange of P. aeruginosa isolates between...

  13. Soyamilk fermented with riboflavin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 2130 reverts and prevents ariboflavinosis in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez Del Valle, M; Laiño, J E; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Savoy de Giori, G; LeBlanc, J G

    2016-10-01

    It has been previously shown that Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 2130 is able to produce riboflavin in soyamilk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of this riboflavin-bio-enriched soyamilk to revert and/or prevent the nutritional deficiency of riboflavin using different animal models. When used to supplement the diets of previously depleted animals, it was shown that the growth, riboflavin status and morphology of the small intestines reverted to normal parameters and were similar to animals supplemented with commercial riboflavin. In the prevention model, the same tendency was observed, where animals that received soyamilk fermented with L. plantarum CRL 2130 did not show signs of riboflavin deficiency. This new bio-fortified soya-based product could be used as part of normal diets to provide a more natural alternative to mandatory fortification with riboflavin for the prevention of its deficiency.

  14. In Vitro Toxicological Evaluation of Cigarette Smoke Particulate Matter: Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO as Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential to minimize the cytotoxic or genotoxic effects that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, when used as solvent, has on the in vitro interleukin-8 (IL-8 release, mammalian cell cytotoxicity and micronuclei formation, and bacterial mutagenesis induced by cigarette smoke wet total particulate matter (WTPM. The use of DMSO as a solvent vehicle for test articles of limited water solubility is widely applied in in vitro assays due to its moderate toxicity to test organisms and its excellent solvent properties for both polar and non-polar compounds, such as WTPM. A significant DMSO dose-dependent depletion in the IL-8 release was observed, with or without the addition of WTPM, at concentrations spanning those typically employed in in vitro assays. DMSO at 3.6% reduced cell viability 40-50%. Overall, DMSO at final concentrations of 0.5% and 4.0% resulted in about 50% and 90% depletion of final IL-8 levels, respectively. DMSO-induced cytotoxicity was evident only at concentrations of 1.5% or more, a concentration higher than that typically employed in such testing. The WTPM-induced cytotoxicity was equivalent at low ranges of DMSO concentrations. DMSO concentrations of 3.6% or higher resulted in an increase of cytotoxicity by 20-25%. DMSO alone did not give rise to bacterial mutagenicity at doses from 0% to 3.9%; however, WTPM exposure with increasing levels of DMSO resulted in increased toxicity of the WTPM at doses of DMSO greater than 6.9%, as indicated by lower revertant counts. This effect suggests that for Ames assay analysis of WTPM collected in DMSO, the level of DMSO should be minimized to prevent lower revertant counts due to DMSO-induced toxicity. DMSO alone gave a dose-dependent increase in the background micronuclei percentage, with a statistically significant increase at 4%. In the presence of WTPM, DMSO at 3% concentration resulted in a significantly higher micro-nucleus frequency, suggesting a possible clastogenic

  15. A survey of prosthetic eye wearers to investigate mucoid discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Keith Pine1, Brian Sloan2, Joanna Stewart3, Robert J Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, 2Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, 3Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: This study aimed to better understand the causes and treatments of mucoid discharge associated with prosthetic eye wear by reviewing the literature and surveying anophthalmic patients.Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 429 prosthetic eye wearers who used visual analog scales to self-measure their discharge experience for four discharge characteristics: frequency, color, volume, and viscosity. These characteristics were analyzed with age, ethnicity, years wearing a prosthesis, eye loss cause, removal and cleaning regimes, hand-washing behavior, age of current prosthesis, and professional repolishing regimes as explanatory variables. Eighteen ocularists’ Web sites containing comments on the cause and treatment of discharge were surveyed.Results: Associations were found between discharge frequency and cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaning accompanying more frequent discharge. Color was associated with years of wearing and age, with more years of wearing and older people having less colored discharge. Volume was associated with cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaners having more volume. Viscosity was associated with cleaning regimes and years of wearing with more frequent cleaning and shorter wearing time accompanying more viscous discharge. No associations were found between discharge characteristics and ethnicity, eye loss cause, hand washing, age of current prosthesis, or repolishing regimes. Forty-seven percent of ocularists’ Web sites advised that discharge was caused by surface deposits on the prosthesis, 29% by excessive handling of the prosthesis, and 24% by other causes.Conclusions: A standardized treatment

  16. Stochastic price modeling of high volatility, mean-reverting, spike-prone commodities: The Australian wholesale spot electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, Helen; Worthington, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly known that wholesale spot electricity markets exhibit high price volatility, strong mean-reversion and frequent extreme price spikes. This paper employs a basic stochastic model, a mean-reverting model and a regime-switching model to capture these features in the Australian national electricity market (NEM), comprising the interconnected markets of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria. Daily spot prices from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2004 are employed. The results show that the regime-switching model outperforms the basic stochastic and mean-reverting models. Electricity prices are also found to exhibit stronger mean-reversion after a price spike than in the normal period, and price volatility is more than fourteen times higher in spike periods than in normal periods. The probability of a spike on any given day ranges between 5.16% in NSW and 9.44% in Victoria

  17. Non-parametric Estimation of Diffusion-Paths Using Wavelet Scaling Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    In continuous time, diffusion processes have been used for modelling financial dynamics for a long time. For example the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process (the simplest mean-reverting process) has been used to model non-speculative price processes. We discuss non--parametric estimation of these processes...

  18. Non-Parametric Estimation of Diffusion-Paths Using Wavelet Scaling Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2003-01-01

    In continuous time, diffusion processes have been used for modelling financial dynamics for a long time. For example the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process (the simplest mean--reverting process) has been used to model non-speculative price processes. We discuss non--parametric estimation of these processes...

  19. Phenotypic shift in Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations from cystic fibrosis lungs after 2-week antipseudomonal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Barat, Laia; Ciofu, Oana; Kragh, Kasper N.

    2017-01-01

    ) colony-forming units (CFU/mL), b) frequency of mucoids and non-mucoids, c) resistance pattern to anti-pseudomonal drugs, d) hypermutability, e) transcriptomic profiles, and f) presence of biofilms. Results We collected 23 sputum samples (12 before antibiotic treatment and 11 after) and 77 P. aeruginosa...

  20. Estimation of mean-reverting oil prices: a laboratory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerksund, P.; Stensland, G.

    1993-12-01

    Many economic decision support tools developed for the oil industry are based on the future oil price dynamics being represented by some specified stochastic process. To meet the demand for necessary data, much effort is allocated to parameter estimation based on historical oil price time series. The approach in this paper is to implement a complex future oil market model, and to condense the information from the model to parameter estimates for the future oil price. In particular, we use the Lensberg and Rasmussen stochastic dynamic oil market model to generate a large set of possible future oil price paths. Given the hypothesis that the future oil price is generated by a mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, we obtain parameter estimates by a maximum likelihood procedure. We find a substantial degree of mean-reversion in the future oil price, which in some of our decision examples leads to an almost negligible value of flexibility. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Caffeine Reverts Memory But Not Mood Impairment in a Depression-Prone Mouse Strain with Up-Regulated Adenosine A2A Receptor in Hippocampal Glutamate Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nuno J; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Silva, Henrique B; Ardais, Ana Paula; Kaster, Manuella P; Garção, Pedro; Rodrigues, Diana I; Pochmann, Daniela; Santos, Ana Isabel; Araújo, Inês M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Tomé, Ângelo R; Köfalvi, Attila; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Agostinho, Paula; El Yacoubi, Malika; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gomes, Catarina A

    2017-03-01

    Caffeine prophylactically prevents mood and memory impairments through adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) antagonism. A 2A R antagonists also therapeutically revert mood and memory impairments, but it is not known if caffeine is also therapeutically or only prophylactically effective. Since depression is accompanied by mood and memory alterations, we now explored if chronic (4 weeks) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L) reverts mood and memory impairment in helpless mice (HM, 12 weeks old), a bred-based model of depression. HM displayed higher immobility in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, greater anxiety in the elevated plus maze, and poorer memory performance (modified Y-maze and object recognition). HM also had reduced density of synaptic (synaptophysin, SNAP-25), namely, glutamatergic (vGluT1; -22 ± 7 %) and GABAergic (vGAT; -23 ± 8 %) markers in the hippocampus. HM displayed higher A 2A R density (72 ± 6 %) in hippocampal synapses, an enhanced facilitation of hippocampal glutamate release by the A 2A R agonist, CGS21680 (30 nM), and a larger LTP amplitude (54 ± 8 % vs. 21 ± 5 % in controls) that was restored to control levels (30 ± 10 %) by the A 2A R antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM). Notably, caffeine intake reverted memory deficits and reverted the loss of hippocampal synaptic markers but did not affect helpless or anxiety behavior. These results reinforce the validity of HM as an animal model of depression by showing that they also display reference memory deficits. Furthermore, caffeine intake selectively reverted memory but not mood deficits displayed by HM, which are associated with an increased density and functional impact of hippocampal A 2A R controlling synaptic glutamatergic function.

  2. Immunosuppression in irradiated breast cancer patients: In vitro effect of cyclooxygenase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, J.; Blomgren, H.; Rotstein, S.; Petrini, B.; Hammarstroem, S.

    1989-01-01

    We have documented in previous studies that local irradiation therapy for breast cancer caused severe lymphopenia with reduction of both T and non-T lymphocytes. Non-T cells were relatively more depressed but recovered within six months. The recovery of T cells, on the other hand, remained incomplete 10-11 years after irradiation. Several lymphocyte functions were also severely impaired. An association was found between prognosis and postirradiation mitogen reactivity of lymphocytes from these patients. Mortality up to eight years after irradiation was significantly higher in patients with low postirradiation phytohemagglutinin and PPD reactivity. The radiation induced decrease in mitogenic response seemed mainly to be caused by immunosuppressive monocytes, which suggests that the underlying mechanism might be mediated by increased production of prostaglandins by monocytes. For this reason we examined the effect of some cyclooxygenase products on different lymphocyte functions and found that prostaglandins A2, D2, and E2 inhibited phytohemagglutinin response in vitro. Natural killer cell activity was also reduced by prostaglandins D2 and E2. The next step was to examine various inhibitors of cyclooxygenase in respect to their capacity to revert irradiation-induced suppression of in vitro mitogen response in lymphocytes from breast cancer patients. It was demonstrated that Diclofenac Na (Voltaren), Meclofenamic acid, Indomethacin, and lysin-mono-acetylsalicylate (Aspisol) could enhance mitogen responses both before and after radiation therapy. This effect was most pronounced at completion of irradiation. On a molar basis, Diclofenac Na was most effective followed by Indomethacin, Meclofenamic acid, and lysin-monoacetylsalicylate

  3. Immunosuppression in irradiated breast cancer patients: In vitro effect of cyclooxygenase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, J.; Blomgren, H.; Rotstein, S.; Petrini, B.; Hammarstroem, S.

    1989-01-01

    We have documented in previous studies that local irradiation therapy for breast cancer caused severe lymphopenia with reduction of both T and non-T lymphocytes. Non-T cells were relatively more depressed but recovered within six months. The recovery of T cells, on the other hand, remained incomplete 10-11 years after irradiation. Several lymphocyte functions were also severely impaired. An association was found between prognosis and postirradiation mitogen reactivity of lymphocytes from these patients. Mortality up to eight years after irradiation was significantly higher in patients with low postirradiation phytohemagglutinin and PPD reactivity. The radiation induced decrease in mitogenic response seemed mainly to be caused by immunosuppressive monocytes, which suggests that the underlying mechanism might be mediated by increased production of prostaglandins by monocytes. For this reason we examined the effect of some cyclooxygenase products on different lymphocyte functions and found that prostaglandins A2, D2, and E2 inhibited phytohemagglutinin response in vitro. Natural killer cell activity was also reduced by prostaglandins D2 and E2. The next step was to examine various inhibitors of cyclooxygenase in respect to their capacity to revert irradiation-induced suppression of in vitro mitogen response in lymphocytes from breast cancer patients. It was demonstrated that Diclofenac Na (Voltaren), Meclofenamic acid, Indomethacin, and lysin-mono-acetylsalicylate (Aspisol) could enhance mitogen responses both before and after radiation therapy. This effect was most pronounced at completion of irradiation. On a molar basis, Diclofenac Na was most effective followed by Indomethacin, Meclofenamic acid, and lysin-monoacetylsalicylate.

  4. Inhibition of muscle fibrosis results in increases in both utrophin levels and the number of revertant myofibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Oshrat; Genin, Olga; Angelini, Corrado; Halevy, Orna; Pines, Mark

    2015-09-15

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is characterized by: near absence of dystrophin in skeletal muscles; low percentage of revertant myofibers; up-regulation of utrophin synthesis; and a high degree of muscle fibrosis. In patient quadriceps femoris biopsies (n = 6, ages between 3-9 years) an inverse correlation was observed between the levels of collagen type I - representing fibrosis - and the levels of utrophin. This correlation was independent of the patient's age and was observed in the entire muscle biopsy sections. In the mdx mice diaphragm (n = 6/group), inhibition of fibrosis by halofuginone resulted in increases in the levels of utrophin. The utrophin/fibrosis relationships were not limited to collagen type I, but also applied to other constituents of the fibrosis machinery. The inverse correlation was found also in old mdx mice with established fibrosis. In addition, inhibition of collagen type I levels was associated with increases in the numbers of revertant myofibers, both as single myofibers and in clusters in the diaphragm and the gastrocnemius. In summary, our results demonstrate an inverse correlation between the level of muscle fibrosis and the level of utrophin and that of the number of revertant myofibers. These findings may reveal common links between the fibrotic and utrophin-synthesis pathways and offer new insights into the regulation of utrophin synthesis.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate is refractory to Th1 immune response and impedes host immune clearance in a mouse model of acute lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Wu, Hong; Ciofu, Oana

    2003-01-01

    . The effect of alginate production on pathogenicity was investigated by using an acute lung infection mouse model that compared a non-mucoid P. aeruginosa strain, PAO1, to its constitutive alginate-overproducing derivative, Alg(+) PAOmucA22, and an alginate-defective strain, Alg(-) PAOalgD. Bacterial......Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic respiratory pathogen that accounts for most of the morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In CF-affected lungs, the bacteria undergo conversion from a non-mucoid to a non-tractable mucoid phenotype, due to overproduction of alginate...... suspensions were instilled into the left bronchus and examined 24 and 48 h post-infection. The highest bacterial loads and the most severe lung pathology were observed with strain Alg(-) PAOalgD at 24 h post-infection, which may have been due to an increase in expression of bacterial elastase by the mutant...

  6. Comparison of radiation-induced proteins in two revertants with those in a radiation sensitive mutant of Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qian; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Nozawa, Ranko; Watanabe, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In order to search proteins responsible for DNA repair, the intracellular proteins in gamma-irradiated cells of D.radiodurans R1 and its three mutants were analyzed by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Two new proteins, P35 (M.W. 35 kDa) and P92 (M.W. 92 kDa), were found in the cells of the radioresistant revertant (KH8401-1-5) and D.radiodurans R1. However, only P92 was detected in the moderately radioresistant revertant (KH8401-10-7). Both proteins were not detected in the cells of the radiosensitive mutant (KH8401). On the other hand, one protein, P25 (M.W. 25 kDa), which was detected either before or after gamma-irradiation, was only found in KH8401-10-7. These results suggest that these special induced proteins, P35 and P92, might be directly responsible for radiation resistance. The analyses of similar proteins in the cells of E.coli B/r and Deinobactor grandis KS0460 were also carried out. (author)

  7. Lessons Learned from Surveillance of Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a Large Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett H. Heintz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research report assessed the differences in resistance rates and antimicrobial usage-versus-susceptibility relationships of Pseudomonas aeruginosa found in various hospital patient care areas. A simplified case control study was also performed to identify patient-specific risk factors associated with cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Last, we determined the consequence of combining mucoid and non-mucoid derived antimicrobial susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa into hospital antibiograms. Overall, susceptibility rates remained lower in the intensive care units (ICUs compared to the non-ICU patient care areas, except for cefepime over the last time period. Cefepime utilization and antimicrobial-resistance rates among P. aeruginosa isolates had a significant relationship. Decreased meropenem exposure was associated with lower resistance rates relative to cefepime. Risk factors independently associated with cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa were structural lung disease, ICU admission, recent third generation cephalosporin use, frequent hospital admission and non-urine isolates. Large and statistically significant differences were observed between non-mucoid and combined percent susceptibility data for aminoglycosides. To control antimicrobial resistance and optimize initial empiric antimicrobial therapy, antimicrobial susceptibility and utilization patterns in specific patient care areas should be monitored and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance should be assessed. Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa should not be included into antimicrobial susceptibility data as this may underestimate activity of most antipseudomonal agents.

  8. The image, medium and objective in the painter of battles of Arturo Perez Reverte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Isla García

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The essay's purpose is to contemplate the relationship between the image (as an experience and as a memory as well as its role and exposure in El pintor de batallas', a story written by Arturo Pérez-Reverte (2006. Supporting our statements in the text, we will deduce this relationship to have as the main consequences the assumed limits of the space and time, as well as the creation, with the resources and constructions of the fiction, of a fragmented and subjective image that the reader will need to rebuild to better perceive the universality the novel aims at.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection. Mechanism of antibiotic resistance and target of the humoral immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana

    2003-01-01

    the development of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and the occurrence of high beta-lactamase producing strains and between the MIC of the beta-lactams and the levels of beta-lactamase expression. Partially derepressed mutants, characterized by high basal levels of beta-lactamase with the possibility...... of induction to even higher levels during treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics, were the most frequent phenotype found among resistant Danish P. aeruginosa CF isolates. We have also shown that the high alginate producing P. aeruginosa isolates, that characterize the chronic lung infection in CF patients......, are more susceptible to antibiotics and produce less beta-lactamase than the non-mucoid paired isolates. We propose that the non-mucoid isolates are exposed to a relatively higher antibiotic pressure than the mucoid isolates and therefore, they become easily antibiotic resistant and in consequence produce...

  10. Clinical and demographic features of vertigo: findings from the REVERT registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam eAgus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDespite being a common disease, data on vertigo management in a real-world setting are scarce. AimsTo provide information on the vertigo and its management in a real-world setting.Materials and MethodsData were collected from 4,294 patients with vertigo in 13 countries over 28 months via a multi-national, non-interventional observational study (the so-called REVERT registry. Data included medical history and details of anti-vertigo therapy. ‘Clinical global impression’ (CGI of severity (CGI-S was assessed at baseline (V1 and then at 6 months follow-up (V2 along with CGI change (CGI-C. All variables were analysed descriptively. ResultsThe majority of patients were female, >40 years of age, and almost half had co-morbid cardiovascular disease. Diagnoses were split into 4 categories: 37.2% ‘other vertigo of peripheral vestibular origin’, 26.9% benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, 20.5% ‘peripheral vestibular vertigo of unknown origin’ and 15.4% Menière’s disease (MD. Betahistine was the most commonly prescribed therapy prior to and after enrolment, and was followed by piracetam, ginkgo biloba and diuretics. MD had the highest proportion of betahistine treated patients. Almost half of patients were ‘moderately ill’ at V1 based on CGI-S. At V2, patient distribution moved towards ‘less severe illness’ (91.0% improved.The greatest improvements were in the more severely ill, and those with BPPV or ‘other vertigo of peripheral origin’. ConclusionsThere was a reduction in illness severity over the course of the study, some of which is likely to be due to pharmacological intervention. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  11. Clinical and Demographic Features of Vertigo: Findings from the REVERT Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Sam; Benecke, Heike; Thum, Cornelia; Strupp, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite being a common disease, data on vertigo management in a real-world setting are scarce. Aims: To provide information on the vertigo and its management in a real-world setting. Methods: Data were collected from 4,294 patients with vertigo in 13 countries over 28 months via a multi-national, non-interventional observational study (the so-called REVERT registry). Data included medical history and details of anti-vertigo therapy. “Clinical global impression” (CGI) of severity (CGI-S) was assessed at baseline (V1) and then at 6 months follow-up (V2) along with CGI change (CGI-C). All variables were analyzed descriptively. Results: The majority of patients were female, >40 years of age, and almost half had co-morbid cardio-vascular disease. Diagnoses were split into four categories: 37.2% “other vertigo of peripheral vestibular origin,” 26.9% benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), 20.5% “peripheral vestibular vertigo of unknown origin,” and 15.4% Ménière’s disease (MD). Betahistine was the most commonly prescribed therapy prior to and after enrollment, and was followed by piracetam, ginkgo biloba, and diuretics. MD had the highest proportion of betahistine treated patients. Almost half of patients were “moderately ill” at V1 based on CGI-S. At V2, patient distribution moved toward “less severe illness” (91.0% improved). The greatest improvements were in the more severely ill, and those with BPPV or “other vertigo of peripheral origin.” Conclusion: There was a reduction in illness severity over the course of the study, some of which is likely to be due to pharmacological intervention. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:23675366

  12. The Lifestyle Carbon Dividend: Assessment of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Grasslands and Pasturelands Reverted to Native Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S.; Jain, A. K.; Shu, S.

    2015-12-01

    What is the potential of a global transition to a vegan lifestyle to sequester carbon and mitigate climate change? To answer this question, we use an Earth System Model (ESM), the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). ISAM is a fully coupled biogeochemistry (carbon and nitrogen cycles) and biogeophysics (hydrology and thermal energy) ESM, which calculates carbon sources and sinks due to land cover and land use change activities, such as reforestation and afforestation. We calculate the carbon sequestration potential of grasslands and pasturelands that can be reverted to native forests as 265 GtC on 1.96E+7 km2 of land area, just 41% of the total area of such lands on Earth. The grasslands and pasturelands are assumed to revert back to native forests which existed prior to any human intervention and these include tropical, temperate and boreal forests. The results are validated with above ground regrowth measurements. Since this carbon sequestration potential is greater than the 240 GtC of that has been added to the atmosphere since the industrial era began, it shows that such global lifestyle transitions have tremendous potential to mitigate and even reverse climate change.

  13. Evaluation of the in vitro ocular toxicity of the fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA], and the Hen’s Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used

  14. Non-Coding RNAs are Differentially Expressed by Nocardia brasiliensis in Vitro and in Experimental Actinomycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rabadán, Josué S; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Espín-Ocampo, Guadalupe; Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Maya-Pineda, Héctor Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are common soil-inhabiting bacteria that frequently infect humans through traumatic injuries or inhalation routes and cause infections, such as actinomycetoma and nocardiosis, respectively. Nocardia brasiliensis is the main aetiological agent of actinomycetoma in various countries. Many bacterial non-coding RNAs are regulators of genes associated with virulence factors. The aim of this work was to identify non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) expressed during infection conditions and in free-living form ( in vitro ) in Nocardia brasiliensis . The N. brasiliensis transcriptome (predominately brasiliensis infection compared with the in vitro conditions. The results of this work suggest a possible role for these transcripts in the regulation of virulence genes in actinomycetoma pathogenesis.

  15. Non-invasive assessment of in-vitro embryo quality to improve transfer success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Although IVF has been performed routinely for many years to help couples with fertility problems and in relation to modern breeding of farm animals, pregnancy rates after transfer to a recipient have not improved during the last decade. Early prediction of the viability of in-vitro developed...... subjectively. The simple morphological approach is, however, inadequate for the prediction of embryo quality, and several studies have focused on developing new non-invasive methods using molecular approaches based particularly on proteomics, metabolomics and most recently small non-coding RNA, including micro...

  16. The burden and impact of vertigo: findings from the REVERT patient registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike eBenecke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite the high prevalence of vertigo globally and an acknowledged, but underreported, effect on an individual’s wellbeing, few studies have evaluated the burden on healthcare systems and society. This study was aimed to quantitatively determine the impact of vertigo on healthcare resource use and work productivity. Methods: The economic burden of vertigo was assessed through a multi-country, non-interventional, observational registry of vertigo patients: the Registry to Evaluate the Burden of Disease in Vertigo (REVERT. Patients included were those with a new diagnosis of Meniere’s disease (MD, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, other vertigo of peripheral vestibular origin or peripheral vestibular vertigo of unknown origin. Results: A total of 4,294 patients at 618 centers in 13 countries were included during the registry. Of the 4,105 patients analyzed, only half were in employment. Among this working patient population, 69.8% had reduced their workload, 63.3% had lost working days and 4.6% had changed and 5.7% had quit their jobs, due to vertigo symptoms. Use of healthcare services among patients was high. In the 3 months preceding Visit 1, patients used emergency services 0.4 ± 0.9 times, primary care consultations 1.6 ± 1.8 times and specialist consultations 1.4 ± 2.0 times (all mean ± SD. A mean of 2.0 ± 5.4 days/patient was also spent in hospital due to vertigo.Conclusions: In addition to the negative impact on the patient from a humanistic perspective, vertigo has considerable impact on work productivity and healthcare resource use.

  17. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 1. Chlorophyll Mutations in Allelic tw Mutants and Their Revertants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaitkuniene, V.

    1995-01-01

    Genotypical environment is an essential factor determining the mutability of mutants of the same type. Decreased chlorophyll mutant frequency was a common characteristic of all tested tw type (tw, tw 1 , tw 2 ) mutants induced in barley c. 'Auksiniai II'. The mutability of all the tested revertants was close to that of the initial c. 'Auksiniai II'. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Final Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Thornton C [SCRA Appiled R& D

    2014-03-31

    Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) is a balanced portfolio of R&D tasks that address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry. E-SMARRT was created to: • Improve important capabilities of castings • Reduce carbon footprint of the foundry industry • Develop new job opportunities in manufacturing • Significantly reduce metalcasting process energy consumption and includes R&D in the areas of: • Improvements in Melting Efficiency • Innovative Casting Processes for Yield Improvement/Revert Reduction • Instrumentation and Control Improvement • Material properties for Casting or Tooling Design Improvement The energy savings and process improvements developed under E-SMARRT have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the E-SMARRT partnership. The E-SMARRT team consisted of DOE’s Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical associations in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders’ Society of America; and SCRA Applied R&D, doing business as the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. This team provided collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,000 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration, these new processes and technologies that enable energy efficiencies and environment-friendly improvements would have been slow to develop and had trouble obtaining a broad application. The E-SMARRT R&D tasks featured low-threshold energy efficiency improvements that are attractive to the domestic industry because they do not require major capital investment. The results of this portfolio of projects are significantly reducing metalcasting process energy consumption while improving the important capabilities of metalcastings. Through June

  19. A laminar flow model of aerosol survival of epidemic and non-epidemic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from people with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denton Miles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited multi-system disorder characterised by chronic airway infection with pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acquisition of P. aeruginosa by patients with CF is usually from the environment, but recent studies have demonstrated patient to patient transmission of certain epidemic strains, possibly via an airborne route. This study was designed to examine the survival of P. aeruginosa within artificially generated aerosols. Results Survival was effected by the solution used for aerosol generation. Within the aerosols it was adversely affected by an increase in air temperature. Both epidemic and non-epidemic strains of P. aeruginosa were able to survive within the aerosols, but strains expressing a mucoid phenotype had a survival advantage. Conclusion This would suggest that segregating individuals free of P. aeruginosa from those with chronic P. aeruginosa infection who are more likely to be infected with mucoid strains may help reduce the risk of cross-infection. Environmental factors also appear to influence bacterial survival. Warming and drying the air within clinical areas and avoidance of humidification devices may also be beneficial in reducing the risk of cross-infection.

  20. Influence of uvrB and pKM101 on the spectrum of spontaneous, UV- and gamma-ray-induced base substitutions that revert hisG46 in Salmonella typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstadt, E; Kahng, L -S; Miller, J K; Barnes, W M

    1989-01-01

    Oligonucleotide probes were used to identify base substitutions in 1089 revertants of hisG46 in Salmonella typhimurium that arose spontaneously or following irradiation with UV- or ..gamma..-rays. The hisG46 allele, carrying a mutant CCC codon (Pro) in place of the wild-type codon CTC (Leu69) reverted via 6 distinguishable mutational events: C to T transitions at codon sites 1 or 2, C to A or C to G transversions at codon site 1, C to A at codon site 2, and an extragenic suppressor mutation. The distribution of hisG46 revertants differed among treatments and was influenced by the DNA-repair capacity of the bacteria. Plasmid pKM101 enhanced the frequencies of both spontaneous adn induced mutations; transversion events were enhanced more efficiently by pKM101 than were transition events. Compared to Uvr/sup +/ bacteria, Uvr/sup -/ bacteria had higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced mutations; transition mutations were enhanced more efficiently than were transversion mutations. The inflence of DNA-repair activiteis on the mutational spectra provides some insights on the origins of spontaneous and UV-induced mutations. (author). 75 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs.

  1. El Club Dumas de Arturo Pérez-Reverte como paradigma de la narrativa posmoderna española

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Gómez Laguna

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo ofrece un análisis de los diferentes rasgos posmodernistas que aparecen de manera explícita en El Club Dumas, novela insignia de la narrativa posmoderna en España, en torno a tres ejes centrales: a) género de la obra e intertextualidad, b) indeterminación e irrealidad, y c) individuo y sociedad. Mediante esta reflexión pretendemos evidenciar que su autor, Arturo Pérez-Reverte, no solo crea una novela puramente posmoderna, sino que su obra le sirve para teorizar acerca del...

  2. An agent-based approach with collaboration among agents. Estimation of wholesale electricity price on PJM and artificial data generated by a mean reverting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the performance of MAIS (Multi-Agent Intelligent Simulator) equipped with various learning capabilities. In addition to the learning capabilities, the proposed MAIS incorporates collaboration among agents. The proposed MAIS is applied to estimate a dynamic change of wholesale electricity price in PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Mainland) and an artificial data set generated by a mean reverting model. Using such different types of data sets, the methodological validity of MAIS is confirmed by comparing it with other well-known alternatives in computer science. This study finds that the MAIS needs to incorporate both the mean reverting model and the collaboration behavior among agents in order to enhance its estimation capability. The MAIS discussed in this study will provide research on energy economics with a new numerical capability that can investigate a dynamic change of not only wholesale electricity price but also speculation and learning process of traders. (author)

  3. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: I. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    A long-standing dogma in the radiation sciences is that energy from radiation must be deposited in the cell nucleus to elicit a biological effect. A number of non-targeted, delayed effects of ionizing radiation have been described that challenge this dogma and pose new challenges to evaluating potential hazards associated with radiation exposure. These effects include induced genomic instability and non-targeted bystander effects. The in vitro evidence for non-targeted effects in radiation biology will be reviewed, but the question as to how one extrapolates from these in vitro observations to the risk of radiation-induced adverse health effects such as cancer remains open.

  4. Monitoring the progress of non-enzymatic glycation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.M.; Crabbe, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The progress of in vitro non-enzymatic glycation of bovine serum albumin was followed by using 14 C-glucose and a nitroblue tetrazolium assay, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, SDS gel electrophoresis and protease digestion. The number of adducts detectable using both 14 C-tracers and a fructosamine assay remained low at physiological glucose concentrations, fewer than five adducts being detectable. When glucose concentrations > 1.0 M were used the number of adducts was found to greatly exceed the number of lysyl residues available in BSA, indicative of cross-linking between Maillard products. Incubation of BSA with glucose concentrations of up to 160 mM for one month produced no observable increase in molecular weight by SDS gel electrophoresis, showing that at physiological glucose concentrations, increases in molecular weight were minimal for short incubation periods. Increases in absorption were proportial to both the glucose concentration and the incubation time. Several absorption peaks, at 370, 488 and 554 nm, were consistent in appearance throughout the course of each incubation. Fluorescence spectroscopy of the modified proteins showed a disappearance of the fluorescence associated with peptide bonds and aromatic residues and the appearance of a broad peak at longer wavelengths due to the wide range of absorptive/fluorescent wavelengths of the developing Maillard products. Protease digestion gave similar patterns with non-glycated and glycated protein, suggesting that glycation did not block digestion sites, and that partial digestion did not cause significant further exposure of susceptible sites. Our results show that while glycation ultimately results in protein conformational changes and the formation of large molecular weight species, these occur at a relatively late stage in the maturation of protein Maillard products, after ≥ nine months of incubation with glucose concentration of ≥ 20 mM. Monitoring of AGE maturation in vitro is better

  5. El Club Dumas de Arturo Pérez-Reverte como paradigma de la narrativa posmoderna española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Gómez Laguna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ofrece un análisis de los diferentes rasgos posmodernistas que aparecen de manera explícita en El Club Dumas, novela insignia de la narrativa posmoderna en España, en torno a tres ejes centrales: a género de la obra e intertextualidad, b indeterminación e irrealidad, y c individuo y sociedad. Mediante esta reflexión pretendemos evidenciar que su autor, Arturo Pérez-Reverte, no solo crea una novela puramente posmoderna, sino que su obra le sirve para teorizar acerca del posmodernismo.

  6. When should adenoviral non-gonococcal urethritis be suspected? Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Manuela; De Rosa, Rita; Modolo, Maria Luisa; Stano, Paola; Camporese, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Adenovirus as agent of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is still poorly documented in the literature. We describe two cases showing that adenoviral infection should be reasonably hypothesized in men with dysuria and scant urethral discharge in addition to meatus inflammation and/or edema (meatitis) or conjunctivitis. Case 1: a 55-year-old man came to our observation in July 2012 referring a 5-day-history of intense dysuria and scant mucoid urethral discharge. Physical examination revealed the urethral discharge referred, but also modest meatitis and an intense conjunctival hyperemia on his right eye. Adenoviral infection was investigated and Adenovirus DNA (type 37) was detected in both the urethral and conjunctival swabs. Case 2: a 43-year-old man with intense dysuria, started 4-5 days earlier, came to our attention with his wife in August 2012. Scant urethral mucoid secretions, severe meatal inflammation of the male patient were revealed during physical examination. His wife instead complained of a 2-day history of intense burning eyes. Adenoviral infection was investigated and Adenovirus DNA (type 37) was positive both in the male urethral swab and in his wife's conjunctival swab. Adenovirus seems to cause a distinct and recognisable clinical syndrome in men presenting with urethritis. Studies on the prevalence and role of Adenovirus as a causative agent of urethritis are limited. Moreover, as rapid advanced molecular microbiology is now available, we believe that extending the search to Adenovirus in sexually active men with dysuria, scant discharge in addition to meatitis or conjunctivitis, should be a useful approach improving our understanding about adenoviral NGU, and especially avoiding or stopping unnecessary empirical antibiotic therapy.

  7. JUNE ISSUE 2008 FINAL.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bowel motions were watery, non-mucoid, non-bloody and not associated with fever or abdominal pain. He presented in ... episodes of diarrhoea after eating at similar ... Some of these risk factors are ... Necrotising colitis in patients with cancer.

  8. A new in vitro screening system for anticancer drugs for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanauske, U.; Hanauske, A.R.; Clark, G.M.; Tsen, D.; Buchok, J.; Hoff, D.D. von

    1989-01-01

    We have evaluated a semiautomated radiometric assay (BACTEC 460 system) for screening of activity of anticancer drugs against human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Cells from seven cell lines were exposed to standard antineoplastic agents at four different concentrations using a 1-h incubation. Alpha 2-interferon was tested using a continuous incubation. In vitro drug activity was analyzed as a function of the clinically achievable serum concentration. Our results indicate that two cell lines (CALU-3, SK-MES-1) exhibit in vitro drug sensitivity patterns closest to those observed in clinical studies. These two cell lines might therefore be most useful for screening new anticancer compounds for activity against non-small cell lung cancer. The radiometric assay is a semiautomated system which has advantages over other, more time-consuming screening systems

  9. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) reverts behavioral alterations and brainstem BDNF level increase induced by neuropathic pain model: Long-lasting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Paulo Ricardo Marques; Vercelino, Rafael; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Souza, Andressa; Rozisky, Joanna Ripoll; Quevedo, Alexandre da Silva; Adachi, Lauren Naomi Spezia; Sanches, Paulo Roberto S; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2016-01-04

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is a chronic pain modality that usually results of damage in the somatosensory system. NP often shows insufficient response to classic analgesics and remains a challenge to medical treatment. The transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique, which induces neuroplastic changes in central nervous system of animals and humans. The brain derived neurotrophic factor plays an important role in synaptic plasticity process. Behavior changes such as decreased locomotor and exploratory activities and anxiety disorders are common comorbidities associated with NP. Evaluate the effect of tDCS treatment on locomotor and exploratory activities, and anxiety-like behavior, and peripheral and central BDNF levels in rats submitted to neuropathic pain model. Rats were randomly divided: Ss, SsS, SsT, NP, NpS, and NpT. The neuropathic pain model was induced by partial sciatic nerve compression at 14 days after surgery; the tDCS treatment was initiated. The animals of treated groups were subjected to a 20 minute session of tDCS, for eight days. The Open Field and Elevated Pluz Maze tests were applied 24 h (phase I) and 7 days (phase II) after the end of tDCS treatment. The serum, spinal cord, brainstem and cerebral cortex BDNF levels were determined 48 h (phase I) and 8 days (phase II) after tDCS treatment by ELISA. The chronic constriction injury (CCI) induces decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities, increases in the behavior-like anxiety, and increases in the brainstem BDNF levels, the last, in phase II (one-way ANOVA/SNK, PtDCS treatment already reverted all these effects induced by CCI (one-way ANOVA/SNK, PtDCS treatment decreased serum and cerebral cortex BDNF levels and it increased these levels in the spinal cord in phase II (one-way ANOVA/SNK, PtDCS reverts behavioral alterations associated to neuropathic pain, indicating possible analgesic and anxiolytic tDCS effects. tDCS treatment induces changes in the BDNF levels

  10. Non-multipotent stroma inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu-Myles, Michael; Fair, Joel; Pearce, Nelson; Mehic, Jelica

    2010-10-01

    The ability to expand and maintain bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vitro is an important aspect of their therapeutic potential. Despite this, the exact composition of stromal cell types within these cultures and the potential effects of non-stem cells on the maintenance of MSC are poorly understood. C57BL/6J BM stroma was investigated as a model to determine the relationship between MSC and non-multipotent cells in vitro. Whole BM and single-cell derived cultures were characterized using flow cytometry and cell sorting combined with multipotent differentiation. Proliferation of individual stromal populations was evaluated using BrdU. At a single-cell level, MSC were distinguished from committed progenitors, and cells lacking differentiation ability, by the expression of CD105 (CD105+). A 3-fold reduction in the percentage of CD105+ cells was detected after prolonged culture and correlated with loss of MSC. Depletion of CD105+ cells coincided with a 10-20% increase in the frequency of proliferating CD105(-) cells. Removal of CD105(-) stroma caused increased proliferation in CD105+ cells, which could be diminished by conditioned media from parent cultures. Comparison of the multipotent differentiation potential in purified and non-purified CD105+ cells determined that MSC were detectable for at least 3 weeks longer when cultured in the absence of CD105(-) cells. This work identifies a simple model for characterizing the different cellular components present in BM stromal cultures and demonstrates that stromal cells lacking multipotent differentiating capacity greatly reduce the longevity of MSC.

  11. Reverting antibiotic tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 persister cells by (Z-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene-3-methylfuran-2(5H-one.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachuan Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteria are well known to form dormant persister cells that are tolerant to most antibiotics. Such intrinsic tolerance also facilitates the development of multidrug resistance through acquired mechanisms. Thus persister cells are a promising target for developing more effective methods to control chronic infections and help prevent the development of multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, control of persister cells is still an unmet challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show in this report that (Z-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene-3-methylfuran-2(5H-one (BF8 can restore the antibiotic susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 persister cells at growth non-inhibitory concentrations. Persister control by BF8 was found to be effective against both planktonic and biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Interestingly, although BF8 is an inhibitor of quorum sensing (QS in Gram-negative bacteria, the data in this study suggest that the activities of BF8 to revert antibiotic tolerance of P. aeruginosa PAO1 persister cells is not through QS inhibition and may involve other targets. CONCLUSION: BF8 can sensitize P. aeruginosa persister cells to antibiotics.

  12. In vitro optimization of non-small cell lung cancer activity with troxacitabine, L-1,3-dioxolane-cytidine, prodrugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radi, Marco; Adema, Auke D.; Daft, Jonathan R.; Cho, Jong H.; Hoebe, Eveline K.; Alexander, Lou-Ella M. M.; Peters, Godefridus J.; Chu, Chung K.

    2007-01-01

    l-1,3-Dioxolane-cytidine, a potent anticancer agent against leukemia, has limited efficacy against solid tumors, perhaps due to its hydrophilicity. Herein, a library of prodrugs were synthesized to optimize in vitro antitumor activity against non-small cell lung cancer. N4-Substituted fatty acid

  13. The in vitro and in vivo validation of a mobile non-contact camera-based digital imaging system for tooth colour measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard N; Collins, Luisa Z; Naeeni, Mojgan; Joiner, Andrew; Philpotts, Carole J; Hopkinson, Ian; Jones, Clare; Lath, Darren L; Coxon, Thomas; Hibbard, James; Brook, Alan H

    2008-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility of a mobile non-contact camera-based digital imaging system (DIS) for measuring tooth colour under in vitro and in vivo conditions. One in vitro and two in vivo studies were performed using a mobile non-contact camera-based digital imaging system. In vitro study: two operators used the DIS to image 10 dry tooth specimens in a randomised order on three occasions. In vivo study 1:25 subjects with two natural, normally aligned, upper central incisors had their teeth imaged using the DIS on four consecutive days by one operator to measure day-to-day variability. On one of the four test days, duplicate images were collected by three different operators to measure inter- and intra-operator variability. In vivo study 2:11 subjects with two natural, normally aligned, upper central incisors had their teeth imaged using the DIS twice daily over three days within the same week to assess day-to-day variability. Three operators collected images from subjects in a randomised order to measure inter- and intra-operator variability. Subject-to-subject variability was the largest source of variation within the data. Pairwise correlations and concordance coefficients were > 0.7 for each operator, demonstrating good precision and excellent operator agreement in each of the studies. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for each operator indicate that day-to-day reliability was good to excellent, where all ICC's where > 0.75 for each operator. The mobile non-contact camera-based digital imaging system was shown to be a reproducible means of measuring tooth colour in both in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  14. In vitro and in vivo development of mice morulae after storage in non-frozen conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Dios Hourcade Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interchange of genetically modified (GM mice between laboratories using embryos provides several advantages. Not only is transport stress avoided, but also the health status of the recipient colony is not compromised. Embryos do not need to be shipped in frozen stage, which requires expensive packaging in addition to a certain degree of expertise in order to freeze and thaw them correctly. The aim of this study was to examine different storage conditions and their effect on embryo viability in order to establish the feasibility of practical, non-frozen conditions for embryo shipment. Methods Mouse morulae developed in vivo (collected from donors 2.5d post coitum or in vitro (zygotes cultured until morulae stage were stored, combining two different media (KSOMeq or KSOM-H and temperatures (4 degrees C, 15 degrees C and 37 degrees C throughout 24 or 48 hours. After storage in vitro viability was assessed determining percentage of development to blastocyst and total cell number. In vivo viability was determined based on the number of implantations and living fetuses after embryo transfer of stored embryos. The storage effect at the molecular level was assessed by studying a gene pool involved in early development by quantitative RT-PCR. Results In vivo-produced morulae stored for 24 hours did not show differences in development up to the blastocyst stage, regardless of the storage type. Even though a decrease in the total cell number in vivo was observed, embryo development after embryo transfer was not affected. All 24 hour storage conditions tested provided a similar number of implantations and fetuses at day 14 of pregnancy. Morulae obtained from in vitro embryo culture collected at the 1-cell stage showed a decreased ability to develop to blastocyst after 24 hours of storage at 15degrees C both in KSOMeq and KSOM-H. Concomitantly, a significant decrease of embryo implantation rates after transfer to recipients was

  15. Keeping it simple: flowering plants tend to retain, and revert to, simple leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeta, R; Dávalos, Liliana M; Levy, André; Bohs, Lynn; Lavin, Mathew; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Sinha, Neelima; Wojciechowski, Martin F

    2012-01-01

    • A wide range of factors (developmental, physiological, ecological) with unpredictable interactions control variation in leaf form. Here, we examined the distribution of leaf morphologies (simple and complex forms) across angiosperms in a phylogenetic context to detect patterns in the directions of changes in leaf shape. • Seven datasets (diverse angiosperms and six nested clades, Sapindales, Apiales, Papaveraceae, Fabaceae, Lepidium, Solanum) were analysed using maximum likelihood and parsimony methods to estimate asymmetries in rates of change among character states. • Simple leaves are most frequent among angiosperm lineages today, were inferred to be ancestral in angiosperms and tended to be retained in evolution (stasis). Complex leaves slowly originated ('gains') and quickly reverted to simple leaves ('losses') multiple times, with a significantly greater rate of losses than gains. Lobed leaves may be a labile intermediate step between different forms. The nested clades showed mixed trends; Solanum, like the angiosperms in general, had higher rates of losses than gains, but the other clades had higher rates of gains than losses. • The angiosperm-wide pattern could be taken as a null model to test leaf evolution patterns in particular clades, in which patterns of variation suggest clade-specific processes that have yet to be investigated fully. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Effect of revert addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of M951 Ni-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.H.; Yu, J.J.; Sun, X.F.; Jin, T.; Guan, H.R.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The microstructure is not influenced by the additions of recycled alloy. ► The stress rupture life significantly decreases with addition of recycled alloy. ► The stress rupture life is remarkably dependent on various revert additions. ► The stress rupture life has been significantly improved after filtration. ► The melt filtered through 20 ppi shows the lowest stress rupture life. - Abstract: The effect of recycled alloy proportion on the composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of M951 alloy has been investigated. With the addition of the recycled alloy proportion, the concentrations of boron and carbon obviously decrease. The microstructure is not influenced by the additions of recycled alloy. The stress rupture life significantly decreases with the addition of recycled alloy proportion. Because of the removal of oxide inclusions by filtration, the stress rupture life has been significantly improved, and it also shows a clear dependence upon passage size of the filter. The melt filtered through passage size of 20 ppi shows the lowest stress rupture life.

  17. Optimization of culture conditions (sucrose, pH, and photoperiod) for in vitro regeneration and early detection of somaclonal variation in ginger lime (Citrus assamensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Mahmad, Noraini; Mat Taha, Rosna; Mohamed, Normadiha; Mad Yussof, Anis Idayu; Saleh, Azani

    2014-01-01

    Various explants (stem, leaf, and root) of Citrus assamensis were cultured on MS media supplemented with various combinations and concentrations (0.5-2.0 mg L(-1)) of NAA and BAP. Optimum shoot and root regeneration were obtained from stem cultures supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) NAA and 2.0 mg L(-1) BAP, respectively. Explant type affects the success of tissue culture of this species, whereby stem explants were observed to be the most responsive. Addition of 30 gL(-1) sucrose and pH of 5.8 was most optimum for in vitro regeneration of this species. Photoperiod of 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness was most optimum for shoot regeneration, but photoperiod of 24 hours of darkness was beneficial for production of callus. The morphology (macro and micro) and anatomy of in vivo and in vitro/ex vitro Citrus assamensis were also observed to elucidate any irregularities (or somaclonal variation) that may arise due to tissue culture protocols. Several minor micromorphological and anatomical differences were observed, possibly due to stress of tissue culture, but in vitro plantlets are expected to revert back to normal phenotype following full adaptation to the natural environment.

  18. Amoxicillin functionalized gold nanoparticles reverts MRSA resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, Sanjeeb; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Sharma, Kaustav Kalyan; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Deka, Manab; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have described the biosynthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from aqueous extract of the aerial parts of a pteridophyte, “Adiantum philippense” by microwave irradiation and its surface functionalization with broad spectrum beta lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin (Amox). The functionalization of amoxicillin on GNPs (GNP-Amox) was carried out via electrostatic interaction of protonated amino group and thioether moiety mediated attractive forces. The synthesized GNPs and GNP-Amox were physicochemically characterized. UV–Vis spectroscopy, Zeta potential, XRD, FTIR and SERS (surface enhanced raman spectra) results confirmed the loading of Amox into GNPs. Loading of Amox to GNPs reduce amoxicillin cytotoxicity, whereas GNPs were found to be nontoxic to mouse fibroblast cell line (L929) as evident from MTT and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) live/dead cell assays. The GNP-Amox conjugates demonstrated enhanced broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, in-vitro and in-vivo assays of GNP-Amox revealed potent anti-MRSA activity and improved the survival rate. This indicates the subversion of antibiotic resistance mechanism by overcoming the effect of high levels of β-lactamase produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Taken together, this study demonstrates the positive attributes from GNP-Amox conjugates as a promising antibacterial therapeutic agent against MRSA as well as other pathogens. - Highlights: • Aqueous extract of A. phillippens was used as a reducing and capping agent for synthesis of microwave irradiated gold nanoparticles. • GNPs were loaded with amoxicillin for restoration in antibacterial activity of amoxicillin against MRSA strains. • Gold nanoparticles and GNP-Amox were found biocompitable as tested on L929 cell line. • The nanoparticle antibiotic conjugates exhibited restoration of amoxicillin activity against MRSA in

  19. Amoxicillin functionalized gold nanoparticles reverts MRSA resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalita, Sanjeeb; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Sharma, Kaustav Kalyan [Drug Discovery Lab, Life Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST), Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Kataki, Amal Chandra [Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati, Assam (India); Department of Applied Sciences, Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar, Jalukbari, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Deka, Manab [Department of Applied Sciences, Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar, Jalukbari, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Kotoky, Jibon, E-mail: jkotoky@gmail.com [Drug Discovery Lab, Life Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST), Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India)

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have described the biosynthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from aqueous extract of the aerial parts of a pteridophyte, “Adiantum philippense” by microwave irradiation and its surface functionalization with broad spectrum beta lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin (Amox). The functionalization of amoxicillin on GNPs (GNP-Amox) was carried out via electrostatic interaction of protonated amino group and thioether moiety mediated attractive forces. The synthesized GNPs and GNP-Amox were physicochemically characterized. UV–Vis spectroscopy, Zeta potential, XRD, FTIR and SERS (surface enhanced raman spectra) results confirmed the loading of Amox into GNPs. Loading of Amox to GNPs reduce amoxicillin cytotoxicity, whereas GNPs were found to be nontoxic to mouse fibroblast cell line (L929) as evident from MTT and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) live/dead cell assays. The GNP-Amox conjugates demonstrated enhanced broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, in-vitro and in-vivo assays of GNP-Amox revealed potent anti-MRSA activity and improved the survival rate. This indicates the subversion of antibiotic resistance mechanism by overcoming the effect of high levels of β-lactamase produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Taken together, this study demonstrates the positive attributes from GNP-Amox conjugates as a promising antibacterial therapeutic agent against MRSA as well as other pathogens. - Highlights: • Aqueous extract of A. phillippens was used as a reducing and capping agent for synthesis of microwave irradiated gold nanoparticles. • GNPs were loaded with amoxicillin for restoration in antibacterial activity of amoxicillin against MRSA strains. • Gold nanoparticles and GNP-Amox were found biocompitable as tested on L929 cell line. • The nanoparticle antibiotic conjugates exhibited restoration of amoxicillin activity against MRSA in

  20. Co-ordinate loss of protein kinase C and multidrug resistance gene expression in revertant MCF-7/Adr breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budworth, J; Gant, T W; Gescher, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the link between protein kinase C (PKC) and multidrug resistance (mdr) phenotype. The expression of both was studied in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Adr cells as they reverted to the wild-type phenotype when cultured in the absence of drug. The following parameters were measured in cells 4, 10, 15, 20 and 24 weeks after removal of doxorubicin; (1) sensitivity of the cells towards doxorubicin; (2) levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MDR1 mRNA; (3) levels and cellular localization of PKC isoenzyme proteins alpha, theta and epsilon; and (4) gene copy number of PKC-alpha and MDR1 genes. Cells lost their resistance gradually with time, so that by week 24 they had almost completely regained the drug sensitivity seen in wild-type MCF-7 cells. P-gp levels measured by Western blot mirrored the change in doxorubicin sensitivity. By week 20, P-gp had decreased to 18% of P-gp protein levels at the outset, and P-gp was not detectable at week 24. Similarly, MDR1 mRNA levels had disappeared by week 24. MCF-7/Adr cells expressed more PKCs-alpha and -theta than wild-type cells and possessed a different cellular localization of PKC-epsilon. The expression and distribution pattern of these PKCs did not change for up to 20 weeks, but reverted back to that seen in wild-type cells by week 24. MDR1 gene amplification remained unchanged until week 20, but then was lost precipitously between weeks 20 and 24. The PKC-alpha gene was not amplified in MCF-7/Adr cells. The results suggest that MCF-7/Adr cells lose MDR1 gene expression and PKC activity in a co-ordinate fashion, consistent with the existence of a mechanistic link between MDR1 and certain PKC isoenzymes.

  1. Fluoxetine reverts chronic restraint stress-induced depression-like behaviour and increases neuropeptide Y and galanin expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren Hofman Oliveira; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2011-01-01

    Stressful life events and chronic stress are implicated in the development of depressive disorder in humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin have been shown to modulate the stress response, and exert antidepressant-like effects in rodents. To further investigate these neuropeptides in depression......-like behaviour, NPY and galanin gene expression was studied in brains of mice subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS) and concomitant treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX). CRS caused a significant increase in depression-like behaviour that was associated with increased NPY mRNA levels...... in the medial amygdala. Concomitant FLX treatment reverted depression-like effects of CRS and led to significant increases in levels of NPY and galanin mRNA in the dentate gyrus, amygdala, and piriform cortex. These findings suggest that effects on NPY and galanin gene expression could play a role...

  2. [Comparision of in vitro maturation applied in PCOS and non-PCOS patients undergo stimulated and unstimulated protocols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiyu; Zhao, Junzhao; Jin, Congcong; Yu, Rong; Lin, Jia; Zhu, Ruru; Wu, Yonggen

    2014-12-01

    To compare the laboratory and clinical results between unstimulated in vitro maturation (IVM) and IVM converted from in vitro fertilization (IVF) in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and non-PCOS patients. We divided 591 IVM cycles in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical Univesity from Jan. 2008 to Dec. 2013 into 4 groups: group A1B1, PCOS patients underwent unstimulated IVM protocol, 240 cycles; group A1B2, PCOS patients underwent IVM converted from conventional stimulated IVF protocol, 153 cycles; group A2B1, non-PCOS patients underwent unstimutlated IVM protocol, 103 cycles; group A2B2, non-PCOS patient underwent IVM converted from conventional stimulated IVF protocol, 95 cycles. Multiple linear regression method and binary logistic regression method were used to assess the influence of PCOS and protocols for IVM on laboratory and clinical outcomes. The mean number of oocytes retrieved was positively related with PCOS [partial regression coefficient (B) = 3.37, P PCOS and IVM converted from IVF (B = 0.08, P = 0.010; B = 0.09, P = 0.001), as well as implantation rate related with them (B = 0.07, P = 0.010; B = 0.10, P PCOS and IVM converted from IVF improved hCG positive (hCG>10 U/L) rate (OR = 1.636, 95%CI: 1.113-2.204, P PCOS condition and protocol used (P > 0.05). PCOS and IVM converted from IVF protocol improved the high-quality embryo rate, implantation rate, hCG positive rate and clinical pregnancy rate. IVM converted from IVF protocol reduced the spontaneous abortion rate. PCOS patients may be more suitable for the IVM treatment. No matter PCOS or non-PCOS patients, IVM converted from IVF protocol had better pregnancy outcome than that of unstimulated cycle.

  3. A new pathway for developing in vitro nanostructured non-viral gene carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Benjamin [Chemistry Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Liang Dehai [Chemistry Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Hadjiargyrou, Michael [Biomedical Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Hsiao, Benjamin S [Chemistry Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States)

    2006-09-13

    Extracellular and intracellular barriers typically prevent the efficient transfection of non-viral gene vectors. The formulation of a gene delivery carrier that can overcome the barriers would be a key for successful gene therapy. We have developed a novel pathway for the preparation of core-shelled DNA nanoparticles by invoking solvent-induced condensation of plasmid DNA ({beta}-galactosidase) in a poor solvent mixture and subsequent encapsulation of the condensed DNA globule in a tri-block copolymer (e.g. polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide, L{sub 8}E{sub 78}L{sub 8}). The polylactide shell can protect the encapsulated DNA from degradation during electrospinning of a mixture of encapsulated DNA nanoparticles and biodegradable PLGA (a random copolymer of lactide and glycolide) to form a non-woven nanofibrous DNA-containing scaffold. The bioactive plasmid DNA can then be released in an intact form and in sufficient quantity from the scaffold with a controlled release rate and to transfect cells in vitro. Further consideration of the stability of the DNA in extracellular and intracellular environments is proposed. In particular, the use of block copolymers with a positively charged block and a hydrophilic block, as well as tri-arm block copolymers with an additional hydrophobic, biodegradable block to stabilize the DNA chain of interest, is discussed.

  4. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar 'Daisy' carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant 'Daisy-VPR' lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar '06-LA' and a deep-colored cultivar 'Spectrum' produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the 'Spectrum' parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century.

  5. Stability of the phenotypic reversion of x-ray transformed C3H/10T1/2 cells depends on cellular proliferation after subcultivation at low cell density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouty-Boye, D.; Gresser, I.; Bandu, M.T.

    1982-01-01

    Reversion from the transformed to the non-transformed phenotype could be obtained by seeding X-ray transformed C3H/10T1/2 cells at low cell density. Cloned revertant cells of varying degrees of reversion were obtained depending on the time they were isolated after one subculture at low cell density. Most of the revertants isolated 7 and 10 days after seeding at very low cell density eventually returned to the transformed phenotype when passaged serially at high cell density. In contrast, 25-35% of the revertants isolated 17-20 days after seeding at low cell density maintained the non-transformed phenotype despite subsequent serial passages at high cell density. The finding that there was a direct relationship between the time during which transformed cells seeded at low cell density multiplied and the number of stable revertant clones obtained, suggests the possibility that reversion from the transformed to the non-transformed phenotype may be a multistep process. Revertant cells displayed a chromosomal pattern characteristic of the transformed cells rather than that of the parental non-transformed 10T1/2 cells. (author)

  6. Prevalence of genital Mycoplasmas among patients with discharge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (20- 24 years of age), married, nonemployed and non educated. The main complaint was whitish mucoid urethral or vaginal discharge without other significant symptoms or signs. Amongst patients with Mycoplasma infection, gonorrhoea was detected in 3 patients, syphilis in 3 and trichomonas vaginalis in one patient.

  7. One-step purification and characterization of alginate lyase from a clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa with destructive activity on bacterial biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Ghadam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pseudomonas aeruginosais a Gram-negative and aerobic rod bacterium that displays mucoid and non-mucoid phenotype. Mucoid strains secrete alginate, which is the main agent of biofilms in chronic P. aeruginosa infections, show high resistance to antibiotics; consequently, the biological disruption of mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms is an attractive area of study for researchers. Alginate lyase gene (algl is a member of alginate producing operon which by glycosidase activity produces primer for other enzymes in this cluster. Also this activity can destroy the extracellular alginate; therefore this enzyme participates in alginate production and destruction pathway. Alginate lyase causes detachment of a biofilm by reducing its adhesion to the surfaces, and increases phagocytosis and antibiotic susceptibility. In this study, alginate lyase was purified in just one step and its properties were investigated. Materials and Methods: The purification was done by affinity chromatography, analysed by SDS-PAGE, and its effect on P. aeruginosa biofilms was surveyed by micro titer plate assay and SEM. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was determined by PCR. Results: Alginate lyase from isolate 48 was purified in one step. It is more thermally resistant than alginate lyase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and poly M, poly G and poly MG alginate were the substrate of this enzyme. Moreover, it has an eradication effect on biofilms from P. aeruginosa 48 and PAO1. Conclusion: In this study an alginate lyase with many characteristics suitable in medicine such as thermal stability, effective on poly M alginate, and bacterial biofilm destructive was introduced and purified.

  8. Use of early phenotypic in vivo markers to assess human relevance of an unusual rodent non-genotoxic carcinogen in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boess, Franziska; Lenz, Barbara; Funk, Juergen; Niederhauser, Urs; Bassett, Simon; Zhang, Jitao David; Singer, Thomas; Roth, Adrian B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • RG3487 induced foci of altered hepatocytes and subsequent liver tumors in rats. • Early phenotypic markers preceding foci appearance in rats were identified. • These early foci markers could be recapitulated in cellular rat liver models. • A species comparison using rat, mouse and dog liver cell models qualified the approach. • In vitro human data support non-human-relevance for RG3487 induced foci formation. - Abstract: Foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH) are considered putative, pre-neoplastic lesions that can occur spontaneously in aging rodents, but can also be induced by chemicals or drugs. Progression of FAH to hepatocellular neoplasms has been reported repeatedly but increases in foci in rodents do not necessarily lead to tumors in carcinogenicity studies and the relevance for humans often remains unclear. Here we present the case of RG3487, a molecule which induced FAH and, later on, tumors in rats. Because the molecule was negative in genotoxicity assays it was classified as a non-genotoxic carcinogen. In order to assess the potential for liver tumor formation in humans, we analyzed treatment-induced changes in vivo to establish a possible mode of action (MoA). In vivo and in vitro gene expression analysis revealed that nuclear receptor signaling was unlikely to be the relevant MoA and no other known mechanism could be established. We therefore took an approach comparing phenotypic markers, including mRNA changes, proliferation and glycogen accumulation, in vitro using cells of different species to assess the human relevance of this finding. Since the alterations observed in rats were not seen in the liver of mice or dogs in vivo, we could validate the relevance of the cell models chosen by use of hepatocytes from these species in vitro. This ultimately allowed for a cross-species comparison, which suggested that the formation of FAH and liver tumors was rat specific and unlikely to translate to human. Our work showed that phenotypic

  9. Agarose hydrogel induced MCF-7 and BMG-1 cell line progressive 3D and 3D revert cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyan, Aishwarya; Ravi, Maddaly

    2018-04-01

    3D culture systems have enhanced the utility of cancer cell lines as they are considered closer to the in vivo systems. A variety of changes are induced in cells cultured in 3D systems; an apparent and striking feature being the spontaneous acquisition of distinct morphological entities. 3D reverts (3DRs) can be obtained by introducing 3D aggregates in scaffold/matrix-free culture units. It could be seen that the two cell lines used in this study exhibited differences in 3DR structures, though both were cultured on agarose hydrogels. Also, differences in 3DR formation, growth and survival were different. While 3D aggregates of several cell lines have been reported for a variety of studies, there are no studies that describe or utilize 3DRs. 3DRs can provide insights into complex events that can occur in cancer cells; especially as material to study metastasis, migration, and invasion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Triazole RGD antagonist reverts TGFβ1-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endothelial precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Francesca; Peppicelli, Silvia; Fabbrizzi, Pierangelo; Biagioni, Alessio; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Menchi, Gloria; Calorini, Lido; Pupi, Alberto; Trabocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Fibrosis is the dramatic consequence of a dysregulated reparative process in which activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) play a central role. When exposed to TGFβ1, fibroblast and epithelial cells differentiate in myofibroblasts; in addition, endothelial cells may undergo endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and actively participate to the progression of fibrosis. Recently, the role of αv integrins, which recognize the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide, in the release and signal transduction activation of TGFβ1 became evident. In this study, we present a class of triazole-derived RGD antagonists that interact with αvβ3 integrin. Above different compounds, the RGD-2 specifically interferes with integrin-dependent TGFβ1 EndoMT in Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells (ECPCs) derived from circulating Endothelial Precursor Cells (ECPCs). The RGD-2 decreases the amount of membrane-associated TGFβ1, and reduces both ALK5/TGFβ1 type I receptor expression and Smad2 phosphorylation in ECPCs. We found that RGD-2 antagonist reverts EndoMT, reducing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin expression in differentiated ECPCs. Our results outline the critical role of integrin in fibrosis progression and account for the opportunity of using integrins as target for anti-fibrotic therapeutic treatment.

  11. Dietary shift and dysbiosis may trigger mucous stools in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace L Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary shifts can result in dysbiosis between the host and its gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiota, leading to negative outcomes including inflammation. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca are physiologically classified as carnivores; however, they consume a herbivorous diet with dramatic seasonal feeding shifts and episodes of chronic GIT distress with symptoms including abdominal pain, loss of appetite and the excretion of mucous stools (mucoids. These episodes adversely affect the overall nutritional and health status of giant pandas. Here, we examined the fecal microbiota of two giant pandas’ normal and mucoid stools and compared these microbiota to baseline samples from a season with historically few episodes. To identify the microbiota present, we isolated and sequenced 16S rRNA using next-generation sequencing. Mucoids occurred following a seasonal feeding switch from predominately bamboo culm (stalk to leaves. All fecal samples displayed low diversity and were dominated by bacterial in the phyla Firmicutes and to a lesser extent, the Proteobacteria. Fecal samples immediately prior to mucoid episodes had lower microbial diversity compared to baseline samples, followed by increased diversity in mucoids. Mucoids were mostly comprised of common mucosal-associated taxa including Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, and exhibited increased abundance for bacteria in the family Pasteurellaceae. Taken together, these findings indicate that diet-induced intestinal dysbiosis in giant pandas likely results in an expulsion of the mucosal lining in the form of mucoids. We suggest that these occurrences serve to reset their GIT microbiota, as giant pandas have retained a carnivorous GIT anatomy while shifting to an herbivorous diet.

  12. Adipose tissue-deprived stem cells acquire cementoblast features treated with dental follicle cell conditioned medium containing dentin non-collagenous proteins in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xiujie; Nie, Xin; Zhang, Li; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study we examine the effects of dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) containing dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs) on differentiation of ADSCs. → We examined that ADSCs treated with dNCPs/DFCCM underwent morphological changes and significantly lost their proliferative capacity. → dNCPs/DFCCM enhanced the mineralization behaviour and mineralization-related marker expression of ADSCs. → ADSCs acquired cementoblast features in vitro with dNCPs/DFCCM treatment. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which are easily harvested and show excellent pluripotency potential, have generated considerable interest in regenerative medicine. In this study, the differentiation of ADSCs was assessed after treatment with dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) containing dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs). ADSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and high proliferative capacity. However, after treatment with dNCPs/DFCCM, ADSCs changed from a fibroblast-like to cementoblast-like morphology and significantly lost their proliferative capacity. Alkaline phosphatase activity and in vitro mineralization behaviour of ADSCs were significantly enhanced. Mineralization-related markers including cementum attachment protein, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin and osteonectin were detected at mRNA or protein levels, whereas dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin sialoprotein were not detected, implying a cementoblast-like phenotype. These results demonstrate that ADSCs acquired cementoblast features in vitro with dNCPs/DFCCM treatment and could be a potential source of cementogenic cells for periodontal regeneration.

  13. Adipose tissue-deprived stem cells acquire cementoblast features treated with dental follicle cell conditioned medium containing dentin non-collagenous proteins in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xiujie; Nie, Xin; Zhang, Li [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, 10 Daping Changjiang Branch Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042 (China); Liu, Luchuan, E-mail: liuluchuan1957@126.com [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, 10 Daping Changjiang Branch Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042 (China); Deng, Manjing, E-mail: iradeng@163.com [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, 10 Daping Changjiang Branch Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} In this study we examine the effects of dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) containing dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs) on differentiation of ADSCs. {yields} We examined that ADSCs treated with dNCPs/DFCCM underwent morphological changes and significantly lost their proliferative capacity. {yields} dNCPs/DFCCM enhanced the mineralization behaviour and mineralization-related marker expression of ADSCs. {yields} ADSCs acquired cementoblast features in vitro with dNCPs/DFCCM treatment. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which are easily harvested and show excellent pluripotency potential, have generated considerable interest in regenerative medicine. In this study, the differentiation of ADSCs was assessed after treatment with dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) containing dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs). ADSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and high proliferative capacity. However, after treatment with dNCPs/DFCCM, ADSCs changed from a fibroblast-like to cementoblast-like morphology and significantly lost their proliferative capacity. Alkaline phosphatase activity and in vitro mineralization behaviour of ADSCs were significantly enhanced. Mineralization-related markers including cementum attachment protein, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin and osteonectin were detected at mRNA or protein levels, whereas dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin sialoprotein were not detected, implying a cementoblast-like phenotype. These results demonstrate that ADSCs acquired cementoblast features in vitro with dNCPs/DFCCM treatment and could be a potential source of cementogenic cells for periodontal regeneration.

  14. Arachidonic acid and lipoxinA4 attenuate streptozotocin-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Naveen K V; Naidu, Vegi G M; Das, Undurti N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to observe whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5 F) cells against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) in vivo and if so, what would be the mechanism of this action. RIN5 F cells were used for the in vitro study, whereas the in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. STZ was used to induce apoptosis of RIN5 F cells in vitro and T1- and T2DM in vivo. The effect of PUFAs: γ-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (AA) of ω-6 series, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of ω-3 series; cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors and antiinflammatory metabolite of AA and DHA, lipoxin A4 (LXA4), and resolvin D2 and protectin, respectively against STZ-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro and LXA4 against T1- and T2DM in vivo was studied. Changes in the antioxidant content, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and expression of PDX1, P65, nuclear factor-κb (NF-κb), and IKB genes in STZ-treated RIN5 F cells in vitro and Nrf2, GLUT2, COX2, iNOS protein levels in the pancreatic tissue of T1- and T2DM and LPCLN2 (lipocalin 2), NF-κb, IKB I in adipose tissue of T2DM after LXA4 treatment were studied. Plasma glucose, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels also were measured in STZ-induced T1- and T2DM Wistar rats. Among all PUFAs tested, AA and EPA are the most effective against STZ-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro. Neither COX nor LOX inhibitors blocked the cytoprotective action of AA in vitro and T1- and T2DM by STZ. LXA4 production by RIN5 F cells in vitro and plasma LXA4 levels in STZ-induced T1- and T2DM animals were decreased by STZ that reverted to normal after AA treatment. AA prevented both T1- and T2DM induced by STZ. Antiinflammatory metabolite of AA and LXA4 prevented both T1- and T2DM induced by STZ. The expression of Pdx1, NF-κb, IKB genes in the

  15. Investigations on the effects of triazole group fungicides on some important antagonistic fungi and non-pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht) in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci, A.; Katırcıoğlu, Z.; Demirci, F.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of eight triazole fungicides (cyproconazole, diniconazole, flusilazole hexaconazole, myclobutanil, penconazole, tebuconazole and triticinazole) on some important antagonistic fungi [Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai), T. viride (Pers. ex Gray), T. pseudokoningii (Rifai), T. hamatum (Bonard), Gliociadium viride (Matrouchot), Aspergillus niger (Tieghem), Penicillium verrııcosum (Dierckx)] and non-pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht) were investigated on PDA in vitro. EC5 0 values ...

  16. In vitro drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, P; Hagberg, H; Glimelius, B; Sundström, C; Kristensen, J; Christiansen, I; Larsson, R

    1994-01-01

    Tumor cell drug sensitivity is an important determinant of chemotherapy response. Its measurement in vitro would aid in therapy individualization and new drug development. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), based on production by viable cells of fluorescent fluorescein after 3 days of culture, was used for cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of 73 samples of tumor cells from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The technical success rate was 92%, and FMCA data showed good correlation to the Disc assay. NHL samples were considerably more drug sensitive than were samples from in vivo resistant tumors. There was no obvious difference in drug sensitivity for high- vs. low-grade or untreated vs. previously treated low-grade NHL. For 26 patients, clinical outcome was correlated to in vitro response giving a sensitivity and specificity of 93 and 48%, respectively. Cross-resistance between standard drugs was frequent in vitro. Resistance modulators potentiated the effect of vincristine and doxorubicin in 10-29% of the samples, most frequently from previously treated patients. The FMCA seems to report clinically relevant drug sensitivity data for NHL, and thus it could serve as a tool for optimization of chemotherapy in the future.

  17. Regulatory T cell levels and cytokine production in active non-infectious uveitis: in-vitro effects of pharmacological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, B; Mesquida, M; Lee, R W J; Llorenç, V; Pelegrín, L; Adán, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg ) and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with active non-infectious uveitis, and to evaluate the effect of in-vitro treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A on Treg levels and cytokine production in PBMCs from uveitis patients and healthy subjects. We included a group of 21 patients with active non-infectious uveitis and 18 age-matched healthy subjects. The proportion of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) Treg cells and intracellular tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in CD4(+) T cells was determined by flow cytometry. PBMCs were also either rested or activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone, cyclosporin A and infliximab. Supernatants of cultured PBMCs were collected and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant differences were observed in nTreg levels between uveitis patients and healthy subjects. However, PBMCs from uveitis patients produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α and lower amounts of IL-10. Dexamethasone treatment in vitro significantly reduced FoxP3(+) Treg levels in PBMCs from both healthy subjects and uveitis patients, and all tested drugs significantly reduced TNF-α production in PBMCs. Dexamethasone and cyclosporin A significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production in PBMCs and dexamethasone up-regulated IL-10 production in activated PBMCs from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that PBMCs from patients with uveitis express more TNF-α and less IL-10 than healthy subjects, and this is independent of FoxP3(+) Treg levels. Treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A in vitro modulates cytokine production, but does not increase the proportion of FoxP3(+) Treg cells. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  18. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein composition. A simple, efficient, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from petiole explants of non-toxic J. curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ). The best induction of shoot buds (57.61%), and number of shoot buds (4.98) per explant were obtained when in vitro petiole explants were placed horizontally on MS medium supplemented with 2.27 mu M TDZ. The Induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 mu M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 mu M 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA), and 5.5 mu M alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation and subsequent elongation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 mu M BA and 8.5 mu M IAA. The elongated shoots could be rooted on half-strength MS medium with 15 mu M IBA, 11.4 mu M IAA and 5.5 mu M NAA with more than 90% survival rate. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes consume oxygen in sputum from chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Hansen, C. R.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most severe complication for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This infection is characterised by endobronchial mucoid biofilms surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). The mucoid phenotype offers protection...

  20. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated ... Key words: Chicken embryonic stem cells, in vitro, directional differentiation, .... synthesized by using the Revert Aid first strand cDNA synthesis kit.

  1. Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract induces apoptosis through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway and inhibits migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yali; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Weidong; Hu, Mingxing; Wang, Juanxiu; Ma, Sisi; Deng, Yuanle; Luo, Yi; Ye, Tinghong; Yin, Wenya

    2016-05-01

    Most conventional treatments on non-small cell lung carcinoma always accompany with awful side effects, and the incidence and mortality rates of this cancer are increasing rapidly worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the anticancer effects of extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract (PLE) on the non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, H1299 and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cell line LL/2 in vitro, and explore its mechanisms of action. Our results have shown that PLE inhibited cell proliferation in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry (FCM) assay showed that PLE affected H1299 cell survival by arresting cell cycle progression in G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, PLE could also decrease the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm), indicating that PLE may induce apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, PLE blocked H1299 cell migration and invasion, and the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were also observed in vitro. These results suggested that PLE could be an effective and safe chemotherapeutic agent in non-small cell lung carcinoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and impairing cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. An in vitro study on the risk of non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity to Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagkan, Rahsan Ilikci

    2013-10-26

    Momordica charantia (MC) is a tropical plant that is extensively used in folk medicine. However, the knowledge about side effects of this plant is relatively little according to knowledge about its therapeutic effects. The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity to MC by an experiment which was designed in vitro. In the present study, the expression of CD63 and CD203c on peripheral blood basophils against different dilutions of MC extracts was measured using flow cytometry and compared with one another. In addition to this, intra-assay CV's of testing extracts were calculated for precision on reproducibility of test results. It was observed that the fruit extract of MC at 1/100 and 1/1000 dilutions significantly increased active basophils compared to same extract at 1/10000 dilution. In conclusion, Momordica charantia may elicit a non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity reaction in especially susceptible individuals.

  3. An insight of in vitro transport of PEGylated non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs) across the intestinal polarized enterocyte monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Rosita; Palumbo, Paola; Celia, Christian; Cinque, Benedetta; Carata, Elisabetta; Carafa, Maria; Paolino, Donatella; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Di Marzio, Luisa

    2018-06-01

    PEGylated non-ionic surfactant-based vesicles (NSVs) are promising drug delivery systems for the local, oral and systemic administrations of therapeutics. The aim of this study was to test the cellular biocompatibility and transport of Nile Red-loaded NSVs (NR-NSVs) across the Caco-2-cell monolayers, which represent an in vitro model of human intestinal epithelium. The NR-NSVs assumed a spherical shape with a mean size of 140 nm, and a narrow size distribution. The NR-NSVs did not modify Caco-2 cell viability, which remained unaltered in vitro up to a concentration of 1 mM. The transport studies demonstrated that the NR-NSVs moved across the Caco-2 monolayers without affecting the transepithelial electrical resistance. These results were supported by flow cytometry analysis, which demonstrated that NR-NSVs were internalized inside the Caco-2 cells. Nanoparticle tracking and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis showed the presence of NR-NSVs in the basolateral side of the Caco-2 monolayers. TEM images also showed that NSVs were transported intact across the Caco-2 monolayers, thus demonstrating a predominant transcytosis mechanism of transport through endocytosis. The NSVs did not affect the integrity of the membrane barrier in vitro, and can potentially be used in clinics to increase the oral bioavailability and delivery of therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro binding of selenium by rat liver mitochondrial selenium-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brian, W.R.; Hoekstra, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    Last year the authors reported that upon freezing and thawing mitochondria from rats injected with [ 75 Se]Na 2 SeO 3 ( 75 Se-selenite), a 75 Se-binding protein (SeBP) was released. They have studied further in vitro labelling of SeBP. This matrix protein was labelled in vitro when lysed mitochondria (containing non-matrix material) were incubated with 75 Se-selenite but not when matrix material alone was incubated with 75 Se-selenite. Thus, there are one or more promoters of in vitro SeBP labelling in the non-matrix fraction. SeBP was also labelled in vitro when 75 Se-selenite was added to matrix alone and dialyzed. Dialysis tubing, and not the dialysis process, promoted labelling by affecting SeBP and not by affecting 75 Se-selenite. Labelling did not occur when matrix alone and 75 Se-selenite were incubated (not dialyzed) in a glass test tube but did occur in a polystyrene test tube. They hypothesize that non-covalent interactions occur between SeBP and dialysis tubing or polystyrene that expose Se binding sites on the protein. A similar mechanism involving mitochondrial non-matrix material may function in vivo. Non-denaturing disc gel electrophoresis of partially purified SeBP labelled in vivo or in vitro suggested that the same protein was labelled in both conditions. Using in vitro binding techniques, SeBP was also found in sheep liver mitochondrial matrix. This supports the theory that SeBP is important in Se metabolism

  5. Efeito da inibição da óxido nítrico sintase induzível na capacitação in vitro de espermatozoides bovinos Effect of inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase on in vitro capacitation of bovine spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.P. Ferreira-Berbari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o papel do óxido nítrico (NO por meio da inibição da enzima óxido nítrico sintase induzível (iNOS, após a adição da aminoguanidina (AG, na motilidade, no vigor e na integridade da membrana plasmática nos tempos de 15, 60, 120, 180, 240 e 300min e a atividade mitocondrial e a capacitação de espermatozoides bovinos após 300min de cultivo. Adicionaram-se diferentes concentrações (0,001, 0,01 e 0,1M de AG durante a capacitação induzida pela heparina e 500μM de nitroprussiato de sódio (SNP, doador de NO à concentração deletéria. A adição de 0,1M de AG diminuiu a motilidade e o vigor espermático e a integridade da membrana (PThe role of nitric oxide (NO was evaluated by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, with aminoguanidine (AG on motility, vigor, and plasmatic membrane integrity of bovine spermatozoa culture after 15, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300min and on mitochondrial activity and capacitation after 300min, respectively. Different concentrations, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1M of AG were added during the heparin induced capacitation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor-500μM to the deleterious concentration. The addition of 0.1M of AG diminished progressive motility, spermatic vigor, and membrane integrity (P<0.05. SNP addition to the 0.1M of AG did revert only plasmatic membrane integrity after 300min. Mitochondrial activity was not influenced by addition of AG. Percentage of penetrated oocytes after addition of 0.01 and 0.1M of AG diminished, 20.3 and 100%, respectively, in relation to the control oocytes (P<0.05. However, an increase of 15% was observed when denuded oocytes were used with 0.1M AG treated sperm (P<0.05. It was concluded that the inhibition of NO synthesis with aminoguanidine diminished sperm quality during in vitro capacitation of bovine spermatozoa, except the mitochondrial activity. Only membrane integrity was reverted with the addition of NO to culture medium, suggesting

  6. A complex multilevel attack on Pseudomonas aeruginosa algT/U expression and AlgT/U activity results in the loss of alginate production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sautter, Robert; Ramos, Damaris; Schneper, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Infection by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This is mainly due to the genotypic and phenotypic changes of the bacteria that cause conversion from a typical nonmucoid to a mucoid form in the CF...... lung. Mucoid conversion is indicative of overproduction of a capsule-like polysaccharide called alginate. The alginate-overproducing (Alg+) mucoid phenotype seen in the CF isolates is extremely unstable. Low oxygen tension growth of mucoid variants readily selects for nonmucoid variants. The switching...... complementation and sequencing of one Group B sap mutant, sap22, revealed that the nonmucoid phenotype was due to the presence of a mutation in PA3257. PA3257 encodes a putative periplasmic protease. Mutation of PA3257 resulted in decreased algT/U expression. Thus, inhibition of algT/U is a primary mechanism...

  7. Lysine deacetylase inhibition prevents diabetes by chromatin-independent immunoregulation and beta-cell protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, D.P.; Gysemans, C.; Lundh, M.; Dahllof, M.S.; Noesgaard, D.; Schmidt, S.F.; Mandrup, S; Birkbak, N.; Workman, C.T.; Piemonti, L.; Blaabjerg, L.; Monzani, V.; Fossati, G.; Mascagni, P.; Paraskevas, S.; Aikin, R.A.; Billestrup, N.; Grunnet, L.G.; Dinarello, C.A.; Mathieu, C.; Mandrup-Poulsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is due to destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Lysine deacetylase inhibitors (KDACi) protect beta-cells from inflammatory destruction in vitro and are promising immunomodulators. Here we demonstrate that the clinically well-tolerated KDACi vorinostat and givinostat revert diabetes

  8. Flagellar motility confers epiphytic fitness advantages upon Pseudomonas syringae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, D.M.; Lindow, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    The role of flagellar motility in determining the epiphytic fitness of an ice-nucleation-active strain of Pseudomonas syringae was examined. The loss of flagellar motility reduced the epiphytic fitness of a normally motile P. syringae strain as measured by its growth, survival, and competitive ability on bean leaf surfaces. Equal population sizes of motile parental or nonmotile mutant P. syringae strains were maintained on bean plants for at least 5 days following the inoculation of fully expanded primary leaves. However, when bean seedlings were inoculated before the primary leaves had expanded and bacterial populations on these leaves were quantified at full expansion, the population size of the nonmotile derivative strain reached only 0.9% that of either the motile parental or revertant strain. When fully expanded bean primary leaves were coinoculated with equal numbers of motile and nonmotile cells, the population size of a nonmotile derivative strain was one-third of that of the motile parental or revertant strain after 8 days. Motile and nonmotile cells were exposed in vitro and on plants to UV radiation and desiccating conditions. The motile and nonmotile strains exhibited equal resistance to both stresses in vitro. However, the population size of a nonmotile strain on leaves was less than 20% that of a motile revertant strain when sampled immediately after UV irradiation. Epiphytic populations of both motile and nonmotile P. syringae declined under desiccating conditions on plants, and after 8 days, the population size of a nonmotile strain was less than one-third that of the motile parental or revertant strain

  9. Investigations on the effects of triazole group fungicides on some important antagonistic fungi and non-pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht) in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci, A.; Katırcıoğlu, Z.; Demirci, F.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of eight triazole fungicides (cyproconazole, diniconazole, flusilazole hexaconazole, myclobutanil, penconazole, tebuconazole and triticinazole) on some important antagonistic fungi [Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai), T. viride (Pers. ex Gray), T. pseudokoningii (Rifai), T. hamatum (Bonard), Gliociadium viride (Matrouchot), Aspergillus niger (Tieghem), Penicillium verrııcosum (Dierckx)] and non-pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht) were investigated on PDA in vitro. EC5 0 values ...

  10. Baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfect home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Dana; Callan, Deborah A; Farrel, Patricia A; Egan, Marie E; Murray, Thomas S

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of bacterial infection but no single method is universally accepted for disinfection. We hypothesized that baby-bottle steam sterilizers effectively disinfect home nebulizers. Home nebulizers were inoculated with the common CF respiratory pathogens methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, mucoid and non mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The nebulizers were swabbed for bacterial growth, treated with either the AVENT (Philips), the NUK Quick & Ready (Gerber) or DRY-POD (Camera Baby) baby bottle steam sterilizer and reswabbed for bacterial growth. All steam sterilizers were effective at disinfecting all home nebulizers. Viable bacteria were not recovered from any inoculated site after steam treatment, under any conditions tested. Steam treatment is an effective disinfection method. Additional studies are needed to confirm whether these results are applicable to the clinical setting. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic Virulence Profile of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Danish Children with Either Acute or Persistent Diarrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Poulsen, Anja; Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    targeting the genes sat, sepA, pic, sigA, pet, astA, aatA, aggR, aaiC, aap, agg3/4C, ORF3, aafA, aggA, agg3A, agg4A, and agg5A. Furthermore, the distribution of EAEC genes in strains collected from cases of bloody, mucoid, and watery diarrhea was investigated. The classification and regression tree analysis...... was associated with the combination of the genes aatA and astA (p = 0.03). Non-mucoid diarrhea was associated with strains lacking the aatA gene (p = 0.004). Acute diarrhea was associated with the genes aggR, aap, and aggA by individual odds ratios. Resistance toward gentamicin and ciprofloxacin was observed......-negative-to identify additional factors predisposing to disease. The duration of breastfeeding was positively correlated with the likelihood of belonging to the EAEC-negative group of children....

  12. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced efficacy and sensory properties of an anti-dandruff shampoo containing zinc pyrithione and climbazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G A; Matheson, J R; Li, G-Z; Fei, X-Q; Zhu, D; Baines, F L

    2013-02-01

    Dandruff is a common complaint and is suffered by as much as half of the population at some time post puberty. The condition is characterized by the presence of flakes on the scalp and in the hair, and is often accompanied by itch. The most common treatment for dandruff is the use of shampoo formulations that contain fungistatic agents such as zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and octopirox. Whilst most antidandruff shampoos are effective in resolving the symptoms of dandruff these shampoos can often result in hair condition that is less than acceptable to consumers which can lead to a tendency for them to revert to use of a non-antidandruff shampoo. This can result in a rapid return of dandruff symptoms. The aim of this investigation was to study the impact of using a combination of antidandruff actives and silicones on the resolution of dandruff and to deliver superior sensory properties to the hair. We have demonstrated that shampoo containing the dual active system of ZPT/Climbazole deposits both active agents onto a model skin surface (VitroSkin) and reduces Malassezia furfur regrowth in vitro. Clinical evaluation of the dual active shampoo demonstrated superior efficacy and retained superiority during a regression phase where all subjects reverted to using a non-antidandruff shampoo. We have also demonstrated that it is possible to deposit silicone materials from antidandruff shampoo uniformly over both virgin and damaged hair fibres that results in smoother hair fibres (as evidenced by reduced dry friction). This combination of antidandruff agents and conditioning silicones delivered from a shampoo provides subjects with superior antidandruff efficacy and desired end sensory benefits ensuring compliance and longer term dandruff removal. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Effect of fenspiride, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, on neurogenic mucus secretion in ferret trachea in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, A M; Liu, Y C; Rogers, D F

    1999-01-01

    Neural mechanisms contribute to control of mucus secretion in the airways. Fenspiride is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent which has a variety of actions, including inhibition of neurogenic bronchoconstriction. The effect of fenspiride on neurally-mediated mucus secretion was investigated in vitro in electrically-stimulated ferret trachea, using(35)SO(4)as a mucus marker. Cholinergic secretory responses were isolated using adrenoceptor and tachykinin receptor antagonists. Tachykinin responses were isolated using cholinoceptor and adrenoceptor antagonists. Electrical stimulation increased cholinergic secretion by;90% and tachykininergic secretion by;40%. Fenspiride (1 microM-1 mM) tended to inhibit cholinergic secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, although only at 1 mM was inhibition (by 87%) significant. Inhibition by fenspiride of tachykininergic secretion was not concentration-dependent, and again significant inhibition (by 85%) was only at 1 mM. Inhibition was not due to loss of tissue viability, as assessed by restitution of secretory response after washout. Fenspiride also inhibited secretion induced by acetylcholine, but did not inhibit substance P-induced secretion. Histamine receptor antagonists increased basal secretion by 164%, whereas fenspiride did not affect basal secretion. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, fenspiride inhibits neurally-mediated mucus secretion, with antimuscarinic action the most plausible mechanism of action, but not necessarily the only mechanism. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Lack of a differential radiation response for proliferative and non-proliferative rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosing, J.W.; Giese, W.L.; Mulcahy, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    FRTL-5 rat thyroid epithelial cells maintain normal thyroid function and morphology in vitro, exhibit an absolute requirement for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) for proliferation and display radiation dose response characteristics indistinguishable from those of rat thyroid epithelial cells in vivo. In TSH-free medium cells remain in a non-proliferative, yet viable, state for prolonged periods of time and respond to TSH re-stimulation by a return to exponential growth. Flow cytometric analysis using two-step acridine orange (AO) staining revealed an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle accompanied by a pronounced reduction in red fluorescence (indicative of RNA content) in FRTL-5 cells cultured in the absence of TSH. The response of proliferative and non-proliferative FRTL-5 cells to single dose, split dose and fractionated radiation was compared to determine whether proliferative status was an important response determinant. The response of FRTL-5 cells was not influenced by proliferative status at the time of irradiation. Additionally, dose response was not altered by variable (12 hr-8 days) non-proliferative intervals before or after irradiation. As revealed by split dose experiments, the rate and extent of sublethal damage repair was likewise similar for proliferative and non-proliferative cells. Multifraction experiments employing three fractions separated by 6 hr intervals indicate that non-proliferative FRTL-5 cells completely repair sublethal damage between fractions. These results indicate that the radiation response of FRTL-5 cells is not influenced by the proliferative status of the cells prior to or post-irradiation

  16. Non-invasive transcranial ultrasound therapy based on a 3D CT scan: protocol validation and in vitro results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, F; Pernot, M; Aubry, J-F; Montaldo, G; Tanter, M; Fink, M; Marsac, L

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive protocol for transcranial brain tissue ablation with ultrasound is studied and validated in vitro. The skull induces strong aberrations both in phase and in amplitude, resulting in a severe degradation of the beam shape. Adaptive corrections of the distortions induced by the skull bone are performed using a previous 3D computational tomography scan acquisition (CT) of the skull bone structure. These CT scan data are used as entry parameters in a FDTD (finite differences time domain) simulation of the full wave propagation equation. A numerical computation is used to deduce the impulse response relating the targeted location and the ultrasound therapeutic array, thus providing a virtual time-reversal mirror. This impulse response is then time-reversed and transmitted experimentally by a therapeutic array positioned exactly in the same referential frame as the one used during CT scan acquisitions. In vitro experiments are conducted on monkey and human skull specimens using an array of 300 transmit elements working at a central frequency of 1 MHz. These experiments show a precise refocusing of the ultrasonic beam at the targeted location with a positioning error lower than 0.7 mm. The complete validation of this transcranial adaptive focusing procedure paves the way to in vivo animal and human transcranial HIFU investigations.

  17. Non-invasive transcranial ultrasound therapy based on a 3D CT scan: protocol validation and in vitro results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquet, F; Pernot, M; Aubry, J-F; Montaldo, G; Tanter, M; Fink, M [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI, Universite Paris VII, UMR CNRS 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Marsac, L [Supersonic Imagine, Les Jardins de la Duranne, 510 rue Rene Descartes, 13857 Aix-en-Provence (France)], E-mail: fabrice.marquet@espci.org

    2009-05-07

    A non-invasive protocol for transcranial brain tissue ablation with ultrasound is studied and validated in vitro. The skull induces strong aberrations both in phase and in amplitude, resulting in a severe degradation of the beam shape. Adaptive corrections of the distortions induced by the skull bone are performed using a previous 3D computational tomography scan acquisition (CT) of the skull bone structure. These CT scan data are used as entry parameters in a FDTD (finite differences time domain) simulation of the full wave propagation equation. A numerical computation is used to deduce the impulse response relating the targeted location and the ultrasound therapeutic array, thus providing a virtual time-reversal mirror. This impulse response is then time-reversed and transmitted experimentally by a therapeutic array positioned exactly in the same referential frame as the one used during CT scan acquisitions. In vitro experiments are conducted on monkey and human skull specimens using an array of 300 transmit elements working at a central frequency of 1 MHz. These experiments show a precise refocusing of the ultrasonic beam at the targeted location with a positioning error lower than 0.7 mm. The complete validation of this transcranial adaptive focusing procedure paves the way to in vivo animal and human transcranial HIFU investigations.

  18. The sequence spectrum of frameshift reversions obtained with a novel adaptive mutation assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Heidenreich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the mechanisms of adaptive mutagenesis in resting, i.e. non-replicating cells relies on appropriate mutation assays. Here we provide a novel procedure for the detection of frameshift-reverting mutations in yeast. Proliferation of non-reverted cells in this assay is suppressed by the lack of a fermentable carbon source. The test allele was constructed in a way that the reversions mimic microsatellite instability, a condition often found in cancer cells. We show the cell numbers during these starvation conditions and provide a DNA sequence spectrum of a representative set of revertants. The data in this article support the publication "Glucose starvation as a selective tool for the study of adaptive mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (Heidenreich and Steinboeck, 2016 [1].

  19. Tween 20 increases intestinal transport of doxorubicin in vitro but not in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sharaf, Amal; Holm, Rene; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2016-01-01

    co-administered with P-gp inhibitors (non-ionic surfactants) in vitro and in vivo . The aim of the present study was thus to investigate if different non-ionic surfactants would have a similar effect on the in vitro and in vivo absorption of doxorubicin. This was investigated in vitro in Caco-2 cells...... and by oral co-administration of doxorubicin together with tween 20 to male Sprague Dawley rats. 200 μM (0.025%) tween 20 increased the intestinal absorptive permeability of doxorubicin in vitro by 48 ± 4% from 8.8 × 10(-6)cm/s to 13.0 × 10(-6)cm/s. Further, the efflux ratio was reduced from 2.2 ± 0.06 to 1.2...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seeding dispersal is an active detachment exhibit in aging Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. Yet, effect factors of this process in the biofilm of clinical isolated mucoid P. aeruginosa strain remain to be better characterized. In our previous work, one mucoid P. earuginosa strain PA17 was isolated from a patient with recurrent ...

  1. Effects of the radiation factor upon the structure of the gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukova, N M [Voenno-Meditsinskaya Akademiya, Leningrad (USSR)

    1975-12-01

    The mucous membrane of the stomach is extremely sensitive to the effects of total irradiation. Its reaction is largely non-specific. As is the case with many extreme factors, irradiation causes an increase in the mucoid secretion of the epithelium. The granules of the mucoid secretion are discovered even in main cells. Some of the highly specialized components of the epithelium are destroyed. Cells that have retained their viability change their structure and flatten, and their secretory activity is reduced. A sharp drop in the mitotic activity of the cambial zones of the stomach epithelium, enlargement of the nuclei accompanied by changes in the composition of their chromatine, and an increase in the number of amitotic divisions in the epithelium should be considered specific reactions of the mucous membrane to the action of total irradiation. Depletion of the connecting tissue by wandering and alien cells and a coarsening of the intermediate substance should be considered specific reactions of the connecting tissue to total irradiation.

  2. The misconception of mean-reversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I; Cohen, Morrel H

    2012-01-01

    The notion of random motion in a potential well is elemental in the physical sciences and beyond. Quantitatively, this notion is described by reverting diffusions—asymptotically stationary diffusion processes which are simultaneously (i) driven toward a reversion level by a deterministic force, and (ii) perturbed off the reversion level by a random white noise. The archetypal example of reverting diffusions is the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process, which is mean-reverting. In this paper we analyze reverting diffusions and establish that: (i) if the magnitude of the perturbing noise is constant then the diffusion's stationary density is unimodal and the diffusion is mode-reverting; (ii) if the magnitude of the perturbing noise is non-constant then, in general, neither is the diffusion's stationary density unimodal, nor is the diffusion mode-reverting. In the latter case we further establish a result asserting when unimodality and mode-reversion do hold. In particular, we demonstrate that the notion of mean-reversion, which is fundamental in economics and finance, is a misconception—as mean-reversion is an exception rather than the norm. (fast track communication)

  3. Improved receptor analysis in PET using a priori information from in vitro binding assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litton, J.-E.; Hall, H.; Blomqvist, G. [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    An accurate determination of non-specific binding is required for the analysis of in vitro and in vivo receptor binding data. For some radioligands the non-specific binding is of the same magnitude as the specific binding. Furthermore, in vitro measurements have shown that the non-specific binding can be different in different brain regions. If this is the case in a PET study for determining B{sub max} and K{sub d}, a correction for the non-specific binding has to be applied. The aim of the present communication is to present a means for determining corrected B{sub max} and K{sub d} with Scatchard analysis using in vitro binding studies. The influence of non-specific binding on the free and specifically bound radioligand is expressed with the aid of a correction factor, which can be calculated from measurable quantities. Introduction of the corrected free and specifically bound radioligand should give binding parameters closer to reality than previously obtained results. (author)

  4. The Nutraceutic Silybin Counteracts Excess Lipid Accumulation and Ongoing Oxidative Stress in an In Vitro Model of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Vecchione

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, are major consequences of hepatic lipid overload, which can contribute to progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Also, mitochondria are involved in the NAFLD pathogenesis for their role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Definitive treatments for NAFLD/NASH are lacking so far. Silybin, the extract of the milk thistle seeds, has previously shown beneficial effects in NAFLD. Sequential exposure of hepatocytes to high concentrations of fatty acids (FAs and TNFα resulted in fat overload and oxidative stress, which mimic in vitro the progression of NAFLD from simple steatosis (SS to steatohepatitis (SH. The exposure to 50 µM silybin for 24 h reduced fat accumulation in the model of NAFLD progression. The in vitro progression of NAFLD from SS to SH resulted in reduced hepatocyte viability, increased apoptosis and oxidative stress, reduction in lipid droplet size, and up-regulation of IκB kinase β-interacting protein and adipose triglyceride lipase expressions. The direct action of silybin on SS or SH cells and the underlying mechanisms were assessed. Beneficial action of silybin was sustained by changes in expression/activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and enzymes for FA oxidation. Moreover, silybin counteracted the FA-induced mitochondrial damage by acting on complementary pathways: (i increased the mitochondrial size and improved the mitochondrial cristae organization; (ii stimulated mitochondrial FA oxidation; (iii reduced basal and maximal respiration and ATP production in SH cells; (iv stimulated ATP production in SS cells; and (v rescued the FA-induced apoptotic signals and oxidative stress in SH cells. We provide new insights about the direct protective effects of the nutraceutic silybin on hepatocytes

  5. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, T; Golan, H; Schiby, G; PriChen, S; Smoum, R; Moshe, I; Peshes-Yaloz, N; Castiel, A; Waldman, D; Gallily, R; Mechoulam, R; Toren, A

    2016-03-01

    Neuroblastoma (nbl) is one of the most common solid cancers in children. Prognosis in advanced nbl is still poor despite aggressive multimodality therapy. Furthermore, survivors experience severe long-term multi-organ sequelae. Hence, the identification of new therapeutic strategies is of utmost importance. Cannabinoids and their derivatives have been used for years in folk medicine and later in the field of palliative care. Recently, they were found to show pharmacologic activity in cancer, including cytostatic, apoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects. We investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the anti-nbl effect of the most active compounds in Cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (thc) and cannabidiol (cbd). We set out to experimentally determine the effects of those compounds on viability, invasiveness, cell cycle distribution, and programmed cell death in human nbl SK-N-SH cells. Both compounds have antitumourigenic activity in vitro and impeded the growth of tumour xenografts in vivo. Of the two cannabinoids tested, cbd was the more active. Treatment with cbd reduced the viability and invasiveness of treated tumour cells in vitro and induced apoptosis (as demonstrated by morphology changes, sub-G1 cell accumulation, and annexin V assay). Moreover, cbd elicited an increase in activated caspase 3 in treated cells and tumour xenografts. Our results demonstrate the antitumourigenic action of cbd on nbl cells. Because cbd is a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid that appears to be devoid of side effects, our results support its exploitation as an effective anticancer drug in the management of nbl.

  6. Pentamidine is active in vitro against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S; Lewis, Russell E; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2003-10-01

    Fusariosis is an emerging opportunistic mycosis against which currently used antifungals have limited activity. Here, we investigated the in vitro activities of pentamidine (PNT) against 10 clinical isolates of Fusarium species (five Fusarium solani isolates and five non-F. solani isolates) by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microdilution method in three different media (RPMI, RPMI-2, and a yeast nitrogen base medium), disk diffusion testing, and viability dye staining. PNT had significant activities against all 10 Fusarium isolates. Non-F. solani isolates were more susceptible than F. solani isolates (P Fusarium isolates was confirmed microscopically after staining of PNT-treated Fusarium oxysporum hyphae with the fluorescent viability dyes 5,(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC). The MICs at which 50% of the isolates were inhibited (2 micro g/ml for non-F. solani isolates and 4 micro g/ml for F. solani isolates) and the minimum fungicidal concentration at which 50% of the isolates were killed (8 micro g/ml for non-F. solani isolates) were much lower than the PNT tissue concentrations previously reported in humans using conventional daily intravenous PNT dosing. Finally, PNT was more active against Fusarium isolates in a hypoxic environment of in vitro growth (P Fusarium, an angiotropic mold, causes tissue infarcts with resultant low tissue perfusion. Our findings suggest that PNT may have a role in the management of Fusarium infections. Future in vivo studies are needed to verify these in vitro findings.

  7. Use of bone marrow derived stem cells in a fracture non-union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod C. Raulo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt of using in vitro cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from bone marrow in joining of a fracture non-union. Bone marrow cells were obtained and differentially centrifuged for MSCs that were grown in vitro in mesenchymal stem cell basal medium aseptically, for 10 d. The cell mass was injected around the fracture non-union. Healthy conditions of development of tissue regeneration at the trauma site and due bone joining were recorded. It is concluded that in vitro cultured MSCs had a blithesome effect on the fracture non-union.

  8. The In Vitro Anti-Tumor Activity of Phycocyanin against Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin, a type of functional food colorant, is shown to have a potent anti-cancer property. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the most aggressive form of cancers with few effective therapeutic options. Previous studies have demonstrated that phycocyanin exerts a growth inhibitory effect on NSCLC A549 cells. However, its biological function and underlying regulatory mechanism on other cells still remain unknown. Here, we investigated the in vitro function of phycocyanin on three typical NSCLC cell lines, NCI-H1299, NCI-H460, and LTEP-A2, for the first time. The results showed that phycocyanin could significantly induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, as well as suppress cell migration, proliferation, and the colony formation ability of NSCLC cells through regulating multiple key genes. Strikingly, phycocyanin was discovered to affect the cell phenotype through regulating the NF-κB signaling of NSCLC cells. Our findings demonstrated the anti-neoplastic function of phycocyanin and provided valuable information for the regulation of phycocyanin in NSCLC cells.

  9. Synthesis and in Vitro and in Vivo Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Activities of Amidino- and Non-Amidinobenzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three amidino- and ten non-amidinobenzamides were synthesized as 3-aminobenzoic acid scaffold-based anticoagulant and antiplatelet compounds. The anticoagulant activities of thirteen synthesized compounds 1–13, and 2b and 3b as prodrugs were preliminary evaluated by screening the prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT and prothrombin time (PT in vitro. From the aPTT results obtained, two amidinobenzamides, N-(3′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (1, 33.2 ± 0.7 s and N-(4′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (2, 43.5 ± 0.6 s were selected to investigate the further anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities. The aPTT results of 1 (33.2 ± 0.7 s and 2 (43.5 ± 0.6 s were compared with heparin (62.5 ± 0.8 s in vitro at 30 μM. We investigated the effect of 1 and 2 on blood anticoagulant activity (ex vivo and on tail bleeding time (in vivo on mice. A tail cutting/bleeding time assay revealed that both 1 and 2 prolonged bleeding time in mice at a dose of 24.1 g/mouse and above. Compounds 1 and 2 dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. In addition, 1 and 2 were evaluated on the inhibitory activities of thrombin and FXa as well as the generation of thrombin and FXa in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Collectively, 1 and 2 possess some antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities and offer a basis for development of a novel antithrombotic product.

  10. Ebola virus genome plasticity as a marker of its passaging history: a comparison of in vitro passaging to non-human primate infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Kugelman

    Full Text Available To identify polymorphic sites that could be used as biomarkers of Ebola virus passage history, we repeatedly amplified Ebola virus (Kikwit variant in vitro and in vivo and performed deep sequencing analysis of the complete genomes of the viral subpopulations. We then determined the sites undergoing selection during passage in Vero E6 cells. Four locations within the Ebola virus Kikwit genome were identified that together segregate cell culture-passaged virus and virus obtained from infected non-human primates. Three of the identified sites are located within the glycoprotein gene (GP sequence: the poly-U (RNA editing site at position 6925, as well as positions 6677, and 6179. One site was found in the VP24 gene at position 10833. In all cases, in vitro and in vivo, both populations (majority and minority variants were maintained in the viral swarm, with rapid selections occurring after a few passages or infections. This analysis approach will be useful to differentiate whether filovirus stocks with unknown history have been passaged in cell culture and may support filovirus stock standardization for medical countermeasure development.

  11. Survival of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) serum in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2002-01-01

    Virulent and non-virulent strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum of different serotypes were examined for survival and growth in non-immune and immune rainbow trout serum, in vitro. A majority of the examined strains consumed complement of non-immune serum, but the complement cascade was not able...

  12. Discordance between bovine leukemia virus tax immortalization in vitro and oncogenicity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twizere, J C; Kerkhofs, P; Burny, A; Portetelle, D; Kettmann, R; Willems, L

    2000-11-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein, a transcriptional activator of viral expression, is essential for viral replication in vivo. Tax is believed to be involved in leukemogenesis because of its second function, immortalization of primary cells in vitro. These activities of Tax can be dissociated on the basis of point mutations within specific regions of the protein. For example, mutation of the phosphorylation sites at serines 106 and 293 abrogates immortalization potential in vitro but maintains transcriptional activity. This type of mutant is thus particularly useful for unraveling the role of Tax immortalization activity during leukemogenesis independently of viral replication. In this report, we describe the biological properties of BLV recombinant proviruses mutated in the Tax phosphorylation sites (BLVTax106+293). Titration of the proviral loads by semiquantitative PCR revealed that the BLV mutants propagated at wild-type levels in vivo. Furthermore, two animals (sheep 480 and 296) infected with BLVTax106+293 developed leukemia or lymphosarcoma after 16 and 36 months, respectively. These periods of time are within the normal range of latencies preceding the onset of pathogenesis induced by wild-type viruses. The phenotype of the mutant-infected cells was characteristic of a B lymphocyte (immunoglobulin M positive) expressing CD11b and CD5 (except at the final stage for the latter marker), a pattern that is typical of wild-type virus-infected target cells. Interestingly, the transformed B lymphocytes from sheep 480 also coexpressed the CD8 marker, a phenotype rarely observed in tumor biopsies from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Finally, direct sequencing of the tax gene demonstrated that the leukemic cells did not harbor revertant proviruses. We conclude that viruses expressing a Tax mutant unable to transform primary cells in culture are still pathogenic in the sheep animal model. Our data thus provide a clear example of the discordant conclusions

  13. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial...... insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used...... to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets...

  14. Emerging, Non-PCV13 Serotypes 11A and 35B of Streptococcus pneumoniae Show High Potential for Biofilm Formation In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Domenech

    Full Text Available Since the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines PCV7 and PCV13 in children became widespread, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD has dramatically decreased. Nevertheless, there has been a rise in incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae non-vaccine serotypes (NVT colonising the human nasopharynx. Nasopharyngeal colonisation, an essential step in the development of S. pneumoniae-induced IPD, is associated with biofilm formation. Although the capsule is the main pneumococcal virulence factor, the formation of pneumococcal biofilms might, in fact, be limited by the presence of capsular polysaccharide (CPS.We used clinical isolates of 16 emerging, non-PCV13 serotypes as well as isogenic transformants of the same serotypes. The biofilm formation capacity of isogenic transformants expressing CPSs from NVT was evaluated in vitro to ascertain whether this trait can be used to predict the emergence of NVT. Fourteen out of 16 NVT analysed were not good biofilm formers, presumably because of the presence of CPS. In contrast, serotypes 11A and 35B formed ≥45% of the biofilm produced by the non-encapsulated M11 strain.This study suggest that emerging, NVT serotypes 11A and 35B deserve a close surveillance.

  15. Pharmacological targeting of the ephrin receptor kinase signalling by GLPG1790 in vitro and in vivo reverts oncophenotype, induces myogenic differentiation and radiosensitizes embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Megiorni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EPH (erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptors are clinically relevant targets in several malignancies. This report describes the effects of GLPG1790, a new potent pan-EPH inhibitor, in human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS cell lines. Methods EPH-A2 and Ephrin-A1 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time PCR in 14 ERMS tumour samples and in normal skeletal muscle (NSM. GLPG1790 effects were tested in RD and TE671 cell lines, two in vitro models of ERMS, by performing flow cytometry analysis, Western blotting and immunofluorescence experiments. RNA interfering experiments were performed to assess the role of specific EPH receptors. Radiations were delivered using an x-6 MV photon linear accelerator. GLPG1790 (30 mg/kg in vivo activity alone or in combination with irradiation (2 Gy was determined in murine xenografts. Results Our study showed, for the first time, a significant upregulation of EPH-A2 receptor and Ephrin-A1 ligand in ERMS primary biopsies in comparison to NSM. GLPG1790 in vitro induced G1-growth arrest as demonstrated by Rb, Cyclin A and Cyclin B1 decrease, as well as by p21 and p27 increment. GLPG1790 reduced migratory capacity and clonogenic potential of ERMS cells, prevented rhabdosphere formation and downregulated CD133, CXCR4 and Nanog stem cell markers. Drug treatment committed ERMS cells towards skeletal muscle differentiation by inducing a myogenic-like phenotype and increasing MYOD1, Myogenin and MyHC levels. Furthermore, GLPG1790 significantly radiosensitized ERMS cells by impairing the DNA double-strand break repair pathway. Silencing of both EPH-A2 and EPH-B2, two receptors preferentially targeted by GLPG1790, closely matched the effects of the EPH pharmacological inhibition. GLPG1790 and radiation combined treatments reduced tumour mass by 83% in mouse TE671 xenografts. Conclusions Taken together, our data suggest that altered EPH signalling plays a key role in ERMS development and that

  16. Water-soluble non-aggregating zinc phthalocyanine and in vitro studies for photodynamic therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makhseed, S.; Macháček, M.; Alfadly, W.; Tuhl, A.; Vinodh, M.; Šimůnek, T.; Nováková, V.; Kubát, Pavel; Rudolf, E.; Zimčík, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 95 (2013), s. 11149-11151 ISSN 1359-7345 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : photosensitizers * in vitro studies * substituents Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.718, year: 2013

  17. Non-Imidazole Histamine H₃ Ligands. Part VII. Synthesis, In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of 5-Substituted-2-thiazol-4-n-propylpiperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guryn, Roman; Staszewski, Marek; Stasiak, Anna; McNaught Flores, Daniel; Fogel, Wiesława Agnieszka; Leurs, Rob; Walczyński, Krzysztof

    2018-02-03

    H₃ receptors present on histaminergic and non-histaminergic neurons, act as autoreceptors or heteroreceptors controlling neurotransmitter release and synthesis. Previous, studies have found that the compound N -methyl- N -3-phenylalkyl-2-[2-(4-n-propylpiperazin-1-yl)-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]ethan-1-amine ( ADS-531, 2c ) exhibits high in vitro potency toward H₃ guinea pig jejunal receptors, with pA₂ = 8.27. To optimize the structure of the lead compound ADS-531 , a series of 5-substituted-2-thiazol-4- n -propylpiperazines 3 were synthesized and subjected to in vitro pharmacological characterization; the alkyl chain between position 2 of the thiazole ring and the terminal secondary N -methylamino function was elongated from three to four methylene groups and the N -methylamino functionality was substituted by benzyl-, 2-phenylethyl-, and 3-phenyl-propyl- moieties. SAR studies on novel non-imidazole, 5-substituted-2-thiazol-4- n -propyl-piperazines 3 showed that the most active compound 3a (pA₂ = 8.38), additionally possessed a weak competitive H₁-antagonistic activity. Therefore, compound ADS-531 , which did not exhibit any H₁-antagonistic activity, was chosen for further evaluation for its affinity to the recombinant rat and human histamine H₃ receptors (rH₃R and hH₃R, respectively). ADS-531 exhibited nanomolar affinity for both rH₃R and hH₃R receptors. It was also shown that, ADS-531 given subchronically to rats (s.c. 3 mg/kg, 5 days) penetrated the brain, where it affected dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin concentration; however, it did not affect histamine concentration nor feeding behavior.

  18. The osteogenic potential of mesoporous bioglasses/silk and non-mesoporous bioglasses/silk scaffolds in ovariectomized rats: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cheng

    Full Text Available Silk-based scaffolds have been introduced to bone tissue regeneration for years, however, their local therapeutic efficiency in bone metabolic disease condition has been seldom reported. According to our previous report, mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG/silk scaffolds exhibits superior in vitro bioactivity and in vivo osteogenic properties compared to non-mesoporous bioactive glass (BG/silk scaffolds, but no information could be found about their efficiency in osteoporotic (OVX environment. This study investigated a biomaterial-based approach for improving MSCs behavior in vitro, and accelerating OVX defect healing by using 3D BG/silk and MBG/silk scaffolds, and pure silk scaffolds as control. The results of SEM, CCK-8 assay and quantitative ALP activity showed that MBG/silk scaffolds can improve attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of both O-MSCs and sham control. In vivo therapeutic efficiency was evaluated by μCT analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining, safranin O staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, indicating accelerated bone formation with compatible scaffold degradation and reduced osteoclastic response of defect healing in OVX rats after 2 and 4 weeks treatment, with a rank order of MBG/silk > BG/silk > silk group. Immunohistochemical markers of COL I, OPN, BSP and OCN also revealed that MBG/silk scaffolds can better induce accelerated collagen and non-collagen matrix production. The findings of this study suggest that MBG/silk scaffolds provide a better environment for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and act as potential substitute for treating local osteoporotic defects.

  19. Early aggressive eradication therapy for intermittent Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway colonization in cystic fibrosis patients: 15 years experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.R.; Pressler, T.; Høiby, Niels

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1989, CF-patients intermittently colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been treated with inhaled colistin and oral ciprofloxacin in the Copenhagen CF-centre. The study evaluates 15 years results of this treatment. METHODS: All isolates of P. aeruginosa from CF-patients inte......BACKGROUND: Since 1989, CF-patients intermittently colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been treated with inhaled colistin and oral ciprofloxacin in the Copenhagen CF-centre. The study evaluates 15 years results of this treatment. METHODS: All isolates of P. aeruginosa from CF......-patients intermittently colonized with P. aeruginosa from 1989 to 2003 were identified All anti-P. aeruginosa treatments were evaluated for antibiotics used, treatment duration, pseudomonas-free interval and development of chronic infection. All P. aeruginosa isolates were assessed for resistance and for non......-mucoid or mucoid phenotype. RESULTS: 146 CF-patients were included in the study (1106 patient-years). 99 patients had first ever isolate during the study period. Median observation time 7 years (0.1-14.9). 12 patients developed chronic infection. A Kaplan Meyer plot showed protection from chronic infection in up...

  20. Serum-Induced Differentiation of Glioblastoma Neurospheres Leads to Enhanced Migration/Invasion Capacity That Is Associated with Increased MMP9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin V Joseph

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is a highly infiltrative brain tumor in which cells with properties of stem cells, called glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs, have been identified. In general, the dominant view is that GSCs are responsible for the initiation, progression, invasion and recurrence of this tumor. In this study, we addressed the question whether the differentiation status of GBM cells is associated with their invasive capacity. For this, several primary GBM cell lines were used, cultured either as neurospheres known to enrich for GSCs or in medium supplemented with 10% FCS that promotes differentiation. The differentiation state of the cells was confirmed by determining the expression of stem cell and differentiation markers. The migration/invasion potential of these cells was tested using in vitro assays and intracranial mouse models. Interestingly, we found that serum-induced differentiation enhanced the invasive potential of GBM cells, which was associated with enhanced MMP9 expression. Chemical inhibition of MMP9 significantly reduced the invasive potential of differentiated cells in vitro. Furthermore, the serum-differentiated cells could revert back to an undifferentiated/stem cell state that were able to form neurospheres, although with a reduced efficiency as compared to non-differentiated counterparts. We propose a model in which activation of the differentiation program in GBM cells enhances their infiltrative potential and that depending on microenvironmental cues a significant portion of these cells are able to revert back to an undifferentiated state with enhanced tumorigenic potential. Thus, effective therapy should target both GSCs and differentiated offspring and targeting of differentiation-associated pathways may offer therapeutic opportunities to reduce invasive growth of GBM.

  1. Proliferative vitreo-retinal disorders: experimental models in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, B

    1992-01-01

    on RPE cells and fibroblasts. The combined effect of the two stimuli was additive, but not synergistic, on both cell lines. When incubated with macrophage-conditioned culture medium or vitreous humor, RPE cells exhibited a metaplastic transformation towards fusiform, spindle-shaped cells that were morphologically indistinguishable from fibroblasts. The extracellular matrices of RPE cells modulated by macrophage-conditioned medium also appeared converted to a more striated pattern as compared to non-modulated controls. The metaplastic transformation of cultured RPE cells reverted when experimental stimuli, macrophage-conditioned medium or vitreous humor, were withdrawn. A new in vitro method for evaluating fibrous protein deposition in the extracellular matrix by RPE cells was also described. RPE cells, that were modulated by macrophage-conditioned medium or vitreous humor, deposited less fibrous proteins per cell.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  2. Evaluating In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation of Toxicokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, John F; Hughes, Michael F; Ring, Caroline L; MacMillan, Denise K; Ford, Jermaine; Fennell, Timothy R; Black, Sherry R; Snyder, Rodney W; Sipes, Nisha S; Wetmore, Barbara A; Westerhout, Joost; Setzer, R Woodrow; Pearce, Robert G; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Thomas, Russell S

    2018-05-01

    Prioritizing the risk posed by thousands of chemicals potentially present in the environment requires exposure, toxicity, and toxicokinetic (TK) data, which are often unavailable. Relatively high throughput, in vitro TK (HTTK) assays and in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) methods have been developed to predict TK, but most of the in vivo TK data available to benchmark these methods are from pharmaceuticals. Here we report on new, in vivo rat TK experiments for 26 non-pharmaceutical chemicals with environmental relevance. Both intravenous and oral dosing were used to calculate bioavailability. These chemicals, and an additional 19 chemicals (including some pharmaceuticals) from previously published in vivo rat studies, were systematically analyzed to estimate in vivo TK parameters (e.g., volume of distribution [Vd], elimination rate). For each of the chemicals, rat-specific HTTK data were available and key TK predictions were examined: oral bioavailability, clearance, Vd, and uncertainty. For the non-pharmaceutical chemicals, predictions for bioavailability were not effective. While no pharmaceutical was absorbed at less than 10%, the fraction bioavailable for non-pharmaceutical chemicals was as low as 0.3%. Total clearance was generally more under-estimated for nonpharmaceuticals and Vd methods calibrated to pharmaceuticals may not be appropriate for other chemicals. However, the steady-state, peak, and time-integrated plasma concentrations of nonpharmaceuticals were predicted with reasonable accuracy. The plasma concentration predictions improved when experimental measurements of bioavailability were incorporated. In summary, HTTK and IVIVE methods are adequately robust to be applied to high throughput in vitro toxicity screening data of environmentally relevant chemicals for prioritizing based on human health risks.

  3. X-ray sensitivity of human tumor cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Nove, J.; Little, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Clonally-derived cells from ten human malignant tumors considered radiocurable (breast, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma) or non-radiocurable (osteosarcoma, hypernephroma, glioblastoma, melanoma) were studied in cell culture and their in vitro x-ray survival curve parameters determined (anti n, D 0 ). There were no significant differences among the tumor cell lines suggesting that survival parameters in vitro do not explain differences in clinical radiocurability. Preliminary investigation with density inhibited human tumor cells indicate that such an approach may yield information regarding inherent cellular differences in radiocurability

  4. Two-stage in vitro digestibility assay, a tool for formulating non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme combinations for commonly used feed ingredients of poultry rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramana Reddy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt was made to assess the effect of pure enzyme combinations with the objective of formulating customized enzyme mixtures based on sugar release when subjected to two-stage in vitro digestion assay. Materials and Methods: A two-stage in vitro digestibility assay was carried out for commonly used feed ingredients for poultry viz., maize, soy bean meal, sunflower cake, and de-oiled rice bran supplemented with three concentrations of xylanase (5000; 7500 and 10000 IU/kg, cellulase (50; 100 and 400 IU/kg and â-D-glucanase (100; 200 and 400 IU/kg were used to formulate various NSP enzymes combinations. In total 27 NSP enzyme combinations (3x3x3 were formulated and the sugar released due to NSP digestion was quantified by phenol sulphuric acid method. Results: The total sugar release was significantly (P<0.05 higher with supplementation of various enzymes combinations for maize, sunflower cake and de-oiled rice bran where as no significant (P<0.05 interaction of various NSP enzymes combinations was observed for soy bean meal. The NSP digestibility was highest in combination (xylanase-5000, cellulase-50 and â-D-glucanase-400 IU/kg, (xylanase-10000, cellulase-50 and â-D-glucanase-200 IU/kg and (xylanase-7500, cellulase- 100 and â-D-glucanase-100 IU/kg for maize, sunflower cake and de-oiled rice bran respectively. In case of sunflower cake, significant (P<0.01 three way interaction was observed among the xylanase, cellulose, and â-D-glucanase enzymes and the two-way interactions between the enzymes were also significant (P<0.01. Conclusion: It is concluded that 'n' number of non-starch Polysaccharide enzymes combinations can be screened for their efficiency to digest non-starch Polysaccharides present in various feed ingredients commonly used in poultry rations by employing two-stage in vitro digestibility assay as a tool. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 525-529

  5. Post-thaw non-cultured and post-thaw cultured equine cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells equally suppress lymphocyte proliferation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn B Williams

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are receiving increased attention for their non-progenitor immunomodulatory potential. Cryopreservation is commonly used for long-term storage of MSC. Post-thaw MSC proliferation is associated with a lag-phase in vitro. How this lag-phase affect MSC immunomodulatory properties is unknown. We hypothesized that in vitro there is no difference in lymphocyte suppression potential between quick-thawed cryopreserved equine cord blood (CB MSC immediately included in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and same MSC allowed post-thaw culture time prior to inclusion in MLR. Cryopreserved CB-MSC from five unrelated foals were compared using two-way MLR. For each of the five unrelated MSC cultures, paired MLR assays of MSC allowed five days of post-thaw culture and MSC included in MLR assay immediately post-thawing were evaluated. We report no difference in the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by CB-MSC that had undergone post-thaw culture and MSC not cultured post-thaw (p<0.0001. Also, there was no inter-donor variability between the lymphocyte suppressive properties of MSC harvested from the five different donors (p = 0.13. These findings suggest that cryopreserved CB-MSC may have clinical utility immediately upon thawing. One implication hereof is the possibility of using cryopreserved CB-MSC at third party locations without the need for cell culture equipment or competencies.

  6. Anti·red cell activity of lymphocytotoxic antibodies: and in vitro and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to obtain non-toxic antilymphocyre sera (ALS) led to the in vitro and in vivo evaluarion of its crossreactivity for red cells. The findings showed thar the antibodies coating the erythrocytes in vitro are idenrical with the antibodies that sensitize lymphocytes by the cytotoxicity rest. It would appear that rhe observed ...

  7. Measuring intestinal fluid transport in vitro: Gravimetric method versus non-absorbable marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Genz, Janet; Grosell, Martin; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-04-01

    The gut sac is a long-standing, widely used in vitro preparation for studying solute and water transport, and calculation of these fluxes requires an accurate assessment of volume. This is commonly determined gravimetrically by measuring the change in mass over time. While convenient this likely under-estimates actual net water flux (Jv) due to tissue edema. We evaluated whether the popular in vivo volume marker [(14)C]-PEG 4000, offers a more representative measure of Jvin vitro. We directly compared these two methods in five teleost species (toadfish, flounder, rainbow trout, killifish and tilapia). Net fluid absorption by the toadfish intestine based on PEG was significantly higher, by almost 4-fold, compared to gravimetric measurements, compatible with the latter under-estimating Jv. Despite this, PEG proved inconsistent for all of the other species frequently resulting in calculation of net secretion, in contrast to absorption seen gravimetrically. Such poor parallelism could not be explained by the absorption of [(14)C]-PEG (typically gravimetric method therefore remains the most reliable measure of Jv and we urge caution in the use of PEG as a volume marker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of radiation and in vitro techniques for development of salt tolerant mutants in sugarcane and potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif-Ur-Rasheed, M.; Asad, S.; Zafar, Y.; Waheed, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Sugarcane and potato are propagated vegetatively and are important crops in Pakistan. Protocols were established to initiate callus and regenerate plants in sugarcane and to multiply potato in- vitro from nodal segments. Cultures of potato and sugarcane were irradiated with 5, 20, 40, and 60 Gy. Increase in radiation dose above 20 Gy reduced regeneration capacity of sugarcane callus. Doses higher than 20 Gy were lethal to micropropagated plants of potato. Culture of irradiated sugarcane callus on media containing salt was tried, but no regeneration was obtained. Variants for tolerance to salinity were selected, and evaluated under saline field conditions at four locations. The study showed that the selected variants of both sugarcane and potato were sensitive to high levels of salinity. Variants tested within the same salinity treatment did not differ significantly from each other in the traits investigated. Only boron uptake in the variants was much higher on saline soil than on the normal soil. Polymorphism was detected among the variants by DNA fingerprinting using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. RAPD analysis showed that most of the variants reverted back to normal type. It is concluded that a large number of variants need be screened to obtain the desired mutants. (author)

  9. A comparison of non-homogeneous Markov regression models with application to Alzheimer’s disease progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, R. A.; Zhou, X.H.

    2011-01-01

    Markov regression models are useful tools for estimating the impact of risk factors on rates of transition between multiple disease states. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an example of a multi-state disease process in which great interest lies in identifying risk factors for transition. In this context, non-homogeneous models are required because transition rates change as subjects age. In this report we propose a non-homogeneous Markov regression model that allows for reversible and recurrent disease states, transitions among multiple states between observations, and unequally spaced observation times. We conducted simulation studies to demonstrate performance of estimators for covariate effects from this model and compare performance with alternative models when the underlying non-homogeneous process was correctly specified and under model misspecification. In simulation studies, we found that covariate effects were biased if non-homogeneity of the disease process was not accounted for. However, estimates from non-homogeneous models were robust to misspecification of the form of the non-homogeneity. We used our model to estimate risk factors for transition to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD in a longitudinal study of subjects included in the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s Uniform Data Set. Using our model, we found that subjects with MCI affecting multiple cognitive domains were significantly less likely to revert to normal cognition. PMID:22419833

  10. In vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum in neonatal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerzopf, Ulrich; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Adgenika, Ayôla A; Feugap, Elianne N; Ngoma, Ghyslain Mombo; Mackanga, Jean-Rodolphe; Lötsch, Felix; Loembe, Marguerite M; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael

    2014-11-18

    Children below the age of six months suffer less often from malaria than older children in sub-Saharan Africa. This observation is commonly attributed to the persistence of foetal haemoglobin (HbF), which is considered not to permit growth of Plasmodium falciparum and therefore providing protection against malaria. Since this concept has recently been challenged, this study evaluated the effect of HbF erythrocytes and maternal plasma on in vitro parasite growth of P. falciparum in Central African Gabon. Umbilical cord blood and peripheral maternal blood were collected at delivery at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Gabon. Respective erythrocyte suspension and plasma were used in parallel for in vitro culture. In vitro growth rates were compared between cultures supplemented with either maternal or cord erythrocytes. Plasma of maternal blood and cord blood was evaluated. Parasite growth rates were assessed by the standard HRP2-assay evaluating the increase of HRP2 concentration in Plasmodium culture. Culture of P. falciparum using foetal erythrocytes led to comparable growth rates (mean growth rate = 4.2, 95% CI: 3.5 - 5.0) as cultures with maternal red blood cells (mean growth rate =4.2, 95% CI: 3.4 - 5.0) and those from non-malaria exposed individuals (mean growth rate = 4.6, 95% CI: 3.8 - 5.5). Standard in vitro culture of P. falciparum supplemented with either maternal or foetal plasma showed both significantly lower growth rates than a positive control using non-malaria exposed donor plasma. These data challenge the concept of HbF serving as intrinsic inhibitor of P. falciparum growth in the first months of life. Erythrocytes containing HbF are equally permissive to P. falciparum growth in vitro. However, addition of maternal and cord plasma led to reduced in vitro growth which may translate to protection against clinical disease or show synergistic effects with HbF in vivo. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of innate and acquired

  11. Phenotypic and Genotypic Comparison of Epidemic and Non-Epidemic Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Duong

    Full Text Available Epidemic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been found worldwide among the cystic fibrosis (CF patient population. Using pulse-field gel electrophoresis, the Prairie Epidemic Strain (PES has recently been found in one-third of patients attending the Calgary Adult CF Clinic in Canada. Using multi-locus sequence typing, PES isolates from unrelated patients were found to consistently have ST192. Though most patients acquired PES prior to enrolling in the clinic, some patients were observed to experience strain replacement upon transitioning to the clinic whereby local non-epidemic P. aeruginosa isolates were displaced by PES. Here we genotypically and phenotypically compared PES to other P. aeruginosa epidemic strains (OES found around the world as well as local non-epidemic CF P. aeruginosa isolates in order to characterize PES. Since some epidemic strains are associated with worse clinical outcomes, we assessed the pathogenic potential of PES to determine if these isolates are virulent, shared properties with OES, and if its phenotypic properties may offer a competitive advantage in displacing local non-epidemic isolates during strain replacement. As such, we conducted a comparative analysis using fourteen phenotypic traits, including virulence factor production, biofilm formation, planktonic growth, mucoidy, and antibiotic susceptibility to characterize PES, OES, and local non-epidemic isolates. We observed that PES and OES could be differentiated from local non-epidemic isolates based on biofilm growth with PES isolates being more mucoid. Pairwise comparisons indicated that PES produced significantly higher levels of proteases and formed better biofilms than OES but were more susceptible to antibiotic treatment. Amongst five patients experiencing strain replacement, we found that super-infecting PES produced lower levels of proteases and elastases but were more resistant to antibiotics compared to the displaced non-epidemic isolates. This

  12. Kinetic discrimination of self/non-self RNA by the ATPase activity of RIG-I and MDA5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louber, Jade; Brunel, Joanna; Uchikawa, Emiko; Cusack, Stephen; Gerlier, Denis

    2015-07-28

    The cytoplasmic RIG-like receptors are responsible for the early detection of viruses and other intracellular microbes by activating the innate immune response mediated by type I interferons (IFNs). RIG-I and MDA5 detect virus-specific RNA motifs with short 5'-tri/diphosphorylated, blunt-end double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and >0.5-2 kb long dsRNA as canonical agonists, respectively. However, in vitro, they can bind to many RNA species, while in cells there is an activation threshold. As SF2 helicase/ATPase family members, ATP hydrolysis is dependent on co-operative RNA and ATP binding. Whereas simultaneous ATP and cognate RNA binding is sufficient to activate RIG-I by releasing autoinhibition of the signaling domains, the physiological role of the ATPase activity of RIG-I and MDA5 remains controversial. A cross-analysis of a rationally designed panel of RNA binding and ATPase mutants and truncated receptors, using type I IFN promoter activation as readout, allows us to refine our understanding of the structure-function relationships of RIG-I and MDA5. RNA activation of RIG-I depends on multiple critical RNA binding sites in its helicase domain as confirmed by functional evidence using novel mutations. We found that RIG-I or MDA5 mutants with low ATP hydrolysis activity exhibit constitutive activity but this was fully reverted when associated with mutations preventing RNA binding to the helicase domain. We propose that the turnover kinetics of the ATPase domain enables the discrimination of self/non-self RNA by both RIG-I and MDA5. Non-cognate, possibly self, RNA binding would lead to fast ATP turnover and RNA disassociation and thus insufficient time for the caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) to promote downstream signaling, whereas tighter cognate RNA binding provides a longer time window for downstream events to be engaged. The exquisite fine-tuning of RIG-I and MDA5 RNA-dependent ATPase activity coupled to CARD release allows a robust IFN response

  13. Isolation of Pseudomonas cepacia in cystic fibrosis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de Andrade Marques

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infection on cystic fibrosis (CF patients are associated with a limited qualitative number of microorganisms. During the colonization process, Staphylococcus aureus usually preceedes Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This latter is at first non-mucoid, being replaced or associated to a mucoid morphotype which is rare in other diseases. In 1980, Pseudomonas cepacia appeared as an important agent in CF pulmonary infections with a mean frequency of about 6.1% isolations in different parts of the world. The primus colonization mainly occurs in the presence of pre-existent tissue lesions and the clinical progress of the disease is variable. In some patients it can be fulminant; in others it can cause a gradual and slow decrease in their pulmonary functions. The concern with this germ isolation is justified by its antibiotic multiple resistence and the possibility of direct transmission from a colonized patient to a non-colonized one. We reported the first case of P. cepacia infection in a CF patient in our area. The microbiological attendance to this patient had been made from 1986 to 1991 and the first positive culture appeared in 1988. The sensitivity profile showed that the primus colonization strain was sensitive to 9 of 17 tested antibiotics, however in the last culture the strain was resistent to all antibiotics. These data corroborate the need for monitoring the bacterial flora on CF patients respiratory system.

  14. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ACE and SGLT2 inhibitors: the future for non-diabetic and diabetic proteinuric renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, Norberto; Ruggenenti, Piero; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Most chronic nephropathies progress relentlessly to end-stage kidney disease. Research in animals and humans has helped our understanding of the mechanisms of chronic kidney disease progression. Current therapeutic strategies to prevent or revert renal disease progression focus on reduction of urinary protein excretion and blood pressure control. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers is the most effective treatment to achieve these purposes in non-diabetic and diabetic proteinuric renal diseases. For those individuals in which nephroprotection by RAS blockade is only partial, sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors could be a promising new class of drugs to provide further renoprotective benefit when added on to RAS blockers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diode laser-induced tissue effects: in vitro tissue model study and in vivo evaluation of wound healing following non-contact application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havel, Miriam; Betz, Christian S; Leunig, Andreas; Sroka, Ronald

    2014-08-01

    The basic difference between the various common medical laser systems is the wavelength of the emitted light, leading to altered light-tissue interactions due to the optical parameters of the tissue. This study examines laser induced tissue effects in an in vitro tissue model using 1,470 nm diode laser compared to our standard practice for endonasal applications (940 nm diode laser) under standardised and reproducible conditions. Additionally, in vivo induced tissue effects following non-contact application with focus on mucosal healing were investigated in a controlled intra-individual design in patients treated for hypertrophy of nasal turbinate. A certified diode laser system emitting the light of λ = 1470 nm was evaluated with regards to its tissue effects (ablation, coagulation) in an in vitro setup on porcine liver and turkey muscle tissue model. To achieve comparable macroscopic tissue effects the laser fibres (600 µm core diameter) were fixed to a computer controlled stepper motor and the laser light was applied in a reproducible procedure under constant conditions. For the in vivo evaluation, 20 patients with nasal obstruction due to hyperplasia of inferior nasal turbinates were included in this prospective randomised double-blinded comparative trial. The endoscopic controlled endonasal application of λ = 1470 nm on the one and λ = 940 nm on the other side, both in 'non-contact' mode, was carried out as an outpatient procedure under local anaesthesia. The postoperative wound healing process (mucosal swelling, scab formation, bleeding, infection) was endoscopically documented and assessed by an independent physician. In the experimental setup, the 1,470 nm laser diode system proved to be efficient in inducing tissue effects in non-contact mode with a reduced energy factor of 5-10 for highly perfused liver tissue to 10-20 for muscle tissue as compared to the 940 nm diode laser system. In the in vivo evaluation scab formation

  17. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  18. N-acetyl cysteine reverts the proinflammatory state induced by cigarette smoke extract in lung Calu-3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel G. Valdivieso

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF are lethal pulmonary diseases. Cigarette consumption is the main cause for development of COPD, while CF is produced by mutations in the CFTR gene. Although these diseases have a different etiology, both share a CFTR activity impairment and proinflammatory state even under sterile conditions. The aim of this work was to study the extent of the protective effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC over the proinflammatory state (IL-6 and IL-8, oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species, ROS, and CFTR levels, caused by Cigarette Smoke Extract (CSE in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells. CSE treatment (100 µg/ml during 24 h decreased CFTR mRNA expression and activity, and increased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. The effect on these cytokines was inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, 5 mM or the NF-kB inhibitor, IKK-2 (10 µM. CSE treatment also increased cellular and mitochondrial ROS levels. The cellular ROS levels were normalized to control values by NAC treatment, although significant effects on mitochondrial ROS levels were observed only at short times (5´ and effects on CFTR levels were not observed. In addition, CSE reduced the mitochondrial NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (mCx I-III activity, an effect that was not reverted by NAC. The reduced CFTR expression and the mitochondrial damage induced by CSE could not be normalized by NAC treatment, evidencing the need for a more specific reagent. In conclusion, CSE causes a sterile proinflammatory state and mitochondrial damage in Calu-3 cells that was partially recovered by NAC treatment. Keywords: Cigarette smoke extract, Mitochondria, CFTR, ROS, COPD, Cystic fibrosis

  19. Inhibiting Vimentin or beta 1-integrin Reverts Prostate Tumor Cells in IrECM and Reduces Tumor Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V.; Ware, Joy L.; Bissell, Mina J.; Zehner, Zendra E.

    2009-07-27

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphological changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional (3D) lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the parental prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin or {alpha}6-, {beta}4- and {beta}1-integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via siRNA interference or {beta}1-integrin expression by the addition of the blocking antibody, AIIB2, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by subcutaneous injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in 3D lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1-integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acini in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis.

  20. Theophylline is able to partially revert cachexia in tumour-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivan Mireia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims The aim of the present investigation was to examine the anti-wasting effects of theophylline (a methylxantine present in tea leaves on a rat model of cancer cachexia. Methods The in vitro effects of the nutraceuticals on proteolysis were examined on muscle cell cultures submitted to hyperthermia. Individual muscle weights, muscle gene expression, body composition and cardiac function were measured in rats bearing the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma, following theophylline treatment. Results Theophylline treatment inhibited proteolysis in C2C12 cell line and resulted in an anti-proteolytic effect on muscle tissue (soleus and heart, which was associated with a decrease in circulating TNF-alpha levels and with a decreased proteolytic systems gene expression. Treatment with the nutraceutical also resulted in an improvement in body composition and cardiac function. Conclusion Theophylline - alone or in combination with drugs - may be a candidate molecule for the treatment of cancer cachexia.

  1. Clarifying mammalian RISC assembly in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzler David

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Argonaute, the core component of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC, binds to mature miRNAs and regulates gene expression at transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. We recently reported that Argonaute 2 (Ago2 also assembles into complexes with miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs. These Ago2:pre-miRNA complexes are catalytically active in vitro and constitute non-canonical RISCs. Results The use of pre-miRNAs as guides by Ago2 bypasses Dicer activity and complicates in vitro RISC reconstitution. In this work, we characterized Ago2:pre-miRNA complexes and identified RNAs that are targeted by miRNAs but not their corresponding pre-miRNAs. Using these target RNAs we were able to recapitulate in vitro pre-miRNA processing and canonical RISC loading, and define the minimal factors required for these processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that Ago2 and Dicer are sufficient for processing and loading of miRNAs into RISC. Furthermore, our studies suggest that Ago2 binds primarily to the 5'- and alternatively, to the 3'-end of select pre-miRNAs.

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalovidouris, A.E.; Papayannis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function was investigated in vitro. Platelet-rich plasma (300x10 9 /l) was irradiated with doses of 1, 4, 10, 20 and 50 Gy. Platelet function tests were performed on both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) platelet samples. The platelet function tests were (1) platelet aggregation by ADP (1, 2, 4 μmol final concentration), adrenaline and collagen, (2) ADP-release from platelets, (3) clot retraction and (4) platelet factor-3 availability. It was found that roentgen irradiation of platelets in vitro did not affect these platelet function tests. (Auth.)

  3. Recent advances in 2D and 3D in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes, alternative hepatocyte sources and non-parenchymal liver cells and their use in investigating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, cell signaling and ADME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godoy, Patricio; Hewitt, Nicola J.; Albrecht, Ute; Andersen, Melvin E.; Ansari, Nariman; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Bode, Johannes Georg; Bolleyn, Jennifer; Borner, Christoph; Boettger, Jan; Braeuning, Albert; Budinsky, Robert A.; Burkhardt, Britta; Cameron, Neil R.; Camussi, Giovanni; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Rowlands, J. Craig; Dahmen, Uta; Damm, Georg; Dirsch, Olaf; Teresa Donato, Maria; Dong, Jian; Dooley, Steven; Drasdo, Dirk; Eakins, Rowena; Ferreira, Karine Sa; Fonsato, Valentina; Fraczek, Joanna; Gebhardt, Rolf; Gibson, Andrew; Glanemann, Matthias; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Jose Gomez-Lechon, Maria; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Gustavsson, Lena; Guyot, Christelle; Hallifax, David; Hammad, Seddik; Hayward, Adam; Haeussinger, Dieter; Hellerbrand, Claus; Hewitt, Philip; Hoehme, Stefan; Holzhuetter, Hermann-Georg; Houston, J. Brian; Hrach, Jens; Ito, Kiyomi; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Keitel, Verena; Kelm, Jens M.; Park, B. Kevin; Kordes, Claus; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A.; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Lu, Peng; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer; Lutz, Anna; Maltman, Daniel J.; Matz-Soja, Madlen; McMullen, Patrick; Merfort, Irmgard; Messner, Simon; Meyer, Christoph; Mwinyi, Jessica; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Nussler, Andreas K.; Olinga, Peter; Pampaloni, Francesco; Pi, Jingbo; Pluta, Linda; Przyborski, Stefan A.; Ramachandran, Anup; Rogiers, Vera; Rowe, Cliff; Schelcher, Celine; Schmich, Kathrin; Schwarz, Michael; Singh, Bijay; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Stieger, Bruno; Stoeber, Regina; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Tetta, Ciro; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Weiss, Thomas S.; Widera, Agata; Woods, Courtney G.; Xu, Jinghai James; Yarborough, Kathy M.; Hengstler, Jan G.

    This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being

  4. Food-grade TiO2 is trapped by intestinal mucus in vitro but does not impair mucin O-glycosylation and short-chain fatty acid synthesis in vivo: implications for gut barrier protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Pauline; Radziwill-Bienkowska, Joanna M; Kamphuis, Jasper B J; Steenkeste, Karine; Bettini, Sarah; Robert, Véronique; Noordine, Marie-Louise; Mayeur, Camille; Gaultier, Eric; Langella, Philippe; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Houdeau, Eric; Thomas, Muriel; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel

    2018-06-19

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles are commonly used as a food additive (E171 in the EU) for its whitening and opacifying properties. However, the risk of gut barrier disruption is an increasing concern because of the presence of a nano-sized fraction. Food-grade E171 may interact with mucus, a gut barrier protagonist still poorly explored in food nanotoxicology. To test this hypothesis, a comprehensive approach was performed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo interactions between TiO 2 and intestinal mucus, by comparing food-grade E171 with NM-105 (Aeroxyde P25) OECD reference nanomaterial. We tested E171-trapping properties of mucus in vitro using HT29-MTX intestinal epithelial cells. Time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed without labeling to avoid modification of the particle surface. Near-UV irradiation of E171 TiO 2 particles at 364 nm resulted in fluorescence emission in the visible range, with a maximum at 510 nm. The penetration of E171 TiO 2 into the mucoid area of HT29-MTX cells was visualized in situ. One hour after exposure, TiO 2 particles accumulated inside "patchy" regions 20 µm above the substratum. The structure of mucus produced by HT29-MTX cells was characterized by MUC5AC immunofluorescence staining. The mucus layer was thin and organized into regular "islands" located approximately 20 µm above the substratum. The region-specific trapping of food-grade TiO 2 particles was attributed to this mucus patchy structure. We compared TiO 2 -mediated effects in vivo in rats after acute or sub-chronic oral daily administration of food-grade E171 and NM-105 at relevant exposure levels for humans. Cecal short-chain fatty acid profiles and gut mucin O-glycosylation patterns remained unchanged, irrespective of treatment. Food-grade TiO 2 is trapped by intestinal mucus in vitro but does not affect mucin O-glycosylation and short-chain fatty acid synthesis in vivo, suggesting the absence of a mucus barrier impairment under "healthy gut

  5. Assessing nanotoxicity in cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegass, Jedd M; Shukla, Arti; Lathrop, Sherrill A; MacPherson, Maximilian B; Fukagawa, Naomi K; Mossman, Brooke T

    2010-01-01

    Nanomaterials are commonly defined as particles or fibers of less than 1 microm in diameter. For these reasons, they may be respirable in humans and have the potential, based upon their geometry, composition, size, and transport or durability in the body, to cause adverse effects on human health, especially if they are inhaled at high concentrations. Rodent inhalation models to predict the toxicity and pathogenicity of nanomaterials are prohibitive in terms of time and expense. For these reasons, a panel of in vitro assays is described below. These include cell culture assays for cytotoxicity (altered metabolism, decreased growth, lytic or apoptotic cell death), proliferation, genotoxicity, and altered gene expression. The choice of cell type for these assays may be dictated by the procedure or endpoint selected. Most of these assays have been standardized in our laboratory using pathogenic minerals (asbestos and silica) and non-pathogenic particles (fine titanium dioxide or glass beads) as negative controls. The results of these in vitro assays should predict whether testing of selected nanomaterials should be pursued in animal inhalation models that simulate physiologic exposure to inhaled nanomaterials. Conversely, intrathoracic or intrapleural injection of nanomaterials into rodents can be misleading because they bypass normal clearance mechanisms, and non-pathogenic fibers and particles can test positively in these assays.

  6. Sudden endotracheal tube block in a patient of Achalasia Cardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal tube block due to various mechanical causes such as mucous, blood clot, denture, and ampoules have been reported. A patient of achalasia cardia with chronic passive aspiration pneumonitis developed mucoid mass in the respiratory passage which dislodged during the surgical procedure. The episode occurred almost an hour after induction of anesthesia and the dislodged mucoid mass blocked the lumen of endotracheal tube, leading to hypoxia and impending cardiac arrest. However, the patient was salvaged by replacing the tube.

  7. Opposing Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Equine Corpus Luteum Regulation: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Galvão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP, Ghrelin (GHR and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4, prostaglandin (PG E2 and PGF2α, nitric oxide (nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF; macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation, in equine corpus luteum (CL from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2α, nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated.

  8. MicroRNA and protein profiles in invasive versus non-invasive oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korvala, Johanna, E-mail: johanna.korvala@oulu.fi [Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, The Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Aapistie 5A, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Jee, Kowan [Department of Pathology, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Porkola, Emmi [Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, The Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Aapistie 5A, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Almangush, Alhadi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Mosakhani, Neda [Department of Pathology, HUSLAB, Helsinki (Finland); Bitu, Carolina [Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, The Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Aapistie 5A, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Cervigne, Nilva K. [Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, 901 – Bairro Areião, CEP: 13414-903 Piracicaba, São Paulo (Brazil); Department of Clinical and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiai - FMJ, Jundiai, SP (Brazil); Zandonadi, Flávia S.; Meirelles, Gabriela V.; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes [Laboratório Nacional de Biociências, LNBio, CNPEM, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000, Polo II de Alta Tecnologia de Campinas, Campinas/SP, P.O.Box 6192, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Coletta, Ricardo D. [Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, 901 – Bairro Areião, CEP: 13414-903 Piracicaba, São Paulo (Brazil); and others

    2017-01-01

    Complex molecular pathways regulate cancer invasion. This study overviewed proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) invasion. The human highly aggressive OTSCC cell line HSC-3 was examined in a 3D organotypic human leiomyoma model. Non-invasive and invasive cells were laser-captured and protein expression was analyzed using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and miRNA expression by microarray. In functional studies the 3D invasion assay was replicated after silencing candidate miRNAs, miR-498 and miR-940, in invasive OTSCC cell lines (HSC-3 and SCC-15). Cell migration, proliferation and viability were also studied in the silenced cells. In HSC-3 cells, 67 proteins and 53 miRNAs showed significant fold-changes between non-invasive vs. invasive cells. Pathway enrichment analyses allocated “Focal adhesion” and “ECM-receptor interaction” as most important for invasion. Significantly, in HSC-3 cells, miR-498 silencing decreased the invasion area and miR-940 silencing reduced invasion area and depth. Viability, proliferation and migration weren’t significantly affected. In SCC-15 cells, down-regulation of miR-498 significantly reduced invasion and migration. This study shows HSC-3 specific miRNA and protein expression in invasion, and suggests that miR-498 and miR-940 affect invasion in vitro, the process being more influenced by mir-940 silencing in aggressive HSC-3 cells than in the less invasive SCC-15.

  9. Genetic pathway in acquisition and loss of vancomycin resistance in a methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain of clonal type USA300.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gardete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An isolate of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA clone USA300 with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (SG-R (i.e, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, VISA and its susceptible "parental" strain (SG-S were recovered from a patient at the end and at the beginning of an unsuccessful vancomycin therapy. The VISA phenotype was unstable in vitro generating a susceptible revertant strain (SG-rev. The availability of these 3 isogenic strains allowed us to explore genetic correlates of antibiotic resistance as it emerged in vivo. Compared to the susceptible isolate, both the VISA and revertant strains carried the same point mutations in yycH, vraG, yvqF and lspA genes and a substantial deletion within an intergenic region. The revertant strain carried a single additional frameshift mutation in vraS which is part of two component regulatory system VraSR. VISA isolate SG-R showed complex alterations in phenotype: decreased susceptibility to other antibiotics, slow autolysis, abnormal cell division and increased thickness of cell wall. There was also altered expression of 239 genes including down-regulation of major virulence determinants. All phenotypic properties and gene expression profile returned to parental levels in the revertant strain. Introduction of wild type yvqF on a multicopy plasmid into the VISA strain caused loss of resistance along with loss of all the associated phenotypic changes. Introduction of the wild type vraSR into the revertant strain caused recovery of VISA type resistance. The yvqF/vraSR operon seems to function as an on/off switch: mutation in yvqF in strain SG-R turns on the vraSR system, which leads to increase in vancomycin resistance and down-regulation of virulence determinants. Mutation in vraS in the revertant strain turns off this regulatory system accompanied by loss of resistance and normal expression of virulence genes. Down-regulation of virulence genes may provide VISA strains with a "stealth

  10. PlantSize Offers an Affordable, Non-destructive Method to Measure Plant Size and Color in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Faragó

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant size, shape and color are important parameters of plants, which have traditionally been measured by destructive and time-consuming methods. Non-destructive image analysis is an increasingly popular technology to characterize plant development in time. High throughput automatic phenotyping platforms can simultaneously analyze multiple morphological and physiological parameters of hundreds or thousands of plants. Such platforms are, however, expensive and are not affordable for many laboratories. Moreover, determination of basic parameters is sufficient for most studies. Here we describe a non-invasive method, which simultaneously measures basic morphological and physiological parameters of in vitro cultured plants. Changes of plant size, shape and color is monitored by repeated photography with a commercial digital camera using neutral white background. Images are analyzed with the MatLab-based computer application PlantSize, which simultaneously calculates several parameters including rosette size, convex area, convex ratio, chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents of all plants identified on the image. Numerical data are exported in MS Excel-compatible format. Subsequent data processing provides information on growth rates, chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents. Proof-of-concept validation of the imaging technology was demonstrated by revealing small but significant differences between wild type and transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the HSFA4A transcription factor or the hsfa4a knockout mutant, subjected to different stress conditions. While HSFA4A overexpression was associated with better growth, higher chlorophyll and lower anthocyanin content in saline conditions, the knockout hsfa4a mutant showed hypersensitivity to various stresses. Morphological differences were revealed by comparing rosette size, shape and color of wild type plants with phytochrome B (phyB-9 mutant. While the technology was developed with Arabidopsis plants

  11. The acidity of the tumor microenvironment is a mechanism of immune escape that can be overcome by proton pump inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, Matteo; Calcinotto, Arianna; Filipazzi, Paola; De Milito, Angelo; Fais, Stefano; Rivoltini, Licia

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that lowering the pH to values that are frequently detected in tumors causes reversible anergy in both human and mouse CD8+ T lymphocytes in vitro. The same occurs in vivo, in the tumor microenvironment and the administration of proton pump inhibitors, which buffer tumor acidity, can revert T-cell anergy and increase the efficacy of immunotherapy. PMID:23483769

  12. Challenges with current inhaled treatments for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greally, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is the predominant pathogen infecting the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial colonization is usually transient and associated with non-mucoid strains, which can be eradicated if identified early. This strategy can prevent, or at least delay, chronic Pa infection, which eventually develops in the majority of patients by their late teens or early adulthood. This article discusses the management and latest treatment developments of Pa lung infection in patients with CF, with a focus on nebulized antibiotic therapy.

  13. The effect of uncertainty and aggregate investments on crude oil price dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvedt, Jostein

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a study of the dynamics of the oil industry and we derive a mean reverting process for the crude oil price. Oil is supplied by a market leader, OPEC, and by an aggregate that represents non-OPEC producers. The non-OPEC producers take the oil price as given. The cost of non-OPEC producers depends on past investments. Shifts in these investments are influenced by costs of structural change in the construction industry. A drop in the oil price to below a given level triggers lower investments, but if the oil price reverts back to a high level investments may not immediately expand. In an uncertain oil demand environment cost of structural change creates a value of waiting to invest. This investment behaviour influences the oil price process

  14. Lessons from elective in vitro fertilization (IVF in, principally, non-infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicher Norbert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We here report the first investigation of exclusively elective in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles in women with no apparent history of infertility. Since IVF outcome in women with infertility are always influenced by underlying causes of infertility, a study on non-infertile women may offer new insights. Methods We investigated 88 females without history of infertility in 109 consecutive elective IVF cycles, almost exclusively performed for purposes of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS; i.e., elective gender selection. The following questions were addressed: (i impact of PGS on IVF pregnancy chances; (ii impact of transfer of 1 vs. ≥2 embryos on IVF pregnancy chances; (iii correlation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels to embryo ploidy (iv effect of gonadotropin dosage used in stimulation on available embryos for transfer; and (v in form of a 1:1 case control study, compared 33 elective PGS cycles with matched control cycles without PGS, performed in couples with either prior tubal ligations and/or severe male factor infertility as indication of IVF. Results The overall clinical pregnancy rate for the group was 36.7%; pregnancy was associated with number of euploid (P = 0.009 and number of embryos transferred (P = 0.001. Odds of pregnancy were 3.4-times higher if ≥4 euploid embryos were produced in comparison to Conclusions This study suggests that outcomes of elective IVF cycles may significantly deviate from infertility-associated cycles. Affirming proof of concept for PGS, utilizing day-3 embryo biopsy and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, both widely held responsible for earlier failures to establish such proof, suggests that the principal cause of prior failures were likely not insufficient laboratory techniques but poor patient selection for PGS. Such a conclusion questions the current reintroduction of PGS with improved techniques and technologies in absence of prior determination of suited

  15. Resistance gene expression determines the in vitro chemosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaysher, Sharon; Modi, Paul; Rahamim, Joe; Smith, Mark E; Amer, Khalid; Addis, Bruce; Poole, Matthew; Narayanan, Ajit; Gulliford, Tim J; Andreotti, Peter E; Cree, Ian A; Yiannakis, Dennis; Gabriel, Francis G; Johnson, Penny; Polak, Marta E; Knight, Louise A; Goldthorpe, Zoe; Peregrin, Katharine; Gyi, Mya

    2009-01-01

    NSCLC exhibits considerable heterogeneity in its sensitivity to chemotherapy and similar heterogeneity is noted in vitro in a variety of model systems. This study has tested the hypothesis that the molecular basis of the observed in vitro chemosensitivity of NSCLC lies within the known resistance mechanisms inherent to these patients' tumors. The chemosensitivity of a series of 49 NSCLC tumors was assessed using the ATP-based tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA) and compared with quantitative expression of resistance genes measured by RT-PCR in a Taqman Array™ following extraction of RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. There was considerable heterogeneity between tumors within the ATP-TCA, and while this showed no direct correlation with individual gene expression, there was strong correlation of multi-gene signatures for many of the single agents and combinations tested. For instance, docetaxel activity showed some dependence on the expression of drug pumps, while cisplatin activity showed some dependence on DNA repair enzyme expression. Activity of both drugs was influenced more strongly still by the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes by the tumor for both docetaxel and cisplatin. The doublet combinations of cisplatin with gemcitabine and cisplatin with docetaxel showed gene expression signatures incorporating resistance mechanisms for both agents. Genes predicted to be involved in known mechanisms drug sensitivity and resistance correlate well with in vitro chemosensitivity and may allow the definition of predictive signatures to guide individualized chemotherapy in lung cancer

  16. Non-pathogenic Fusarium solani represses the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds in vitro and reduces the biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica by Pseudomonas fluorescens in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of various Fusarium solani strains on the production of nematicidal agent(s) in vitro and biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains CHA0 and CHA0/pME3424. Culture filtrates (CF) of P. fluorescens strain CHA0 and its diacetylphloroglucinol-overproducing derivative CHA0/pME3424 caused substantial mortality of M. javanica juveniles in vitro. Bacterial growth medium amended with the growth medium of F. solani repressed the nematicidal activity of the bacteria. Methanol extract of F. solani CF resulting from Czapek's Dox liquid (CDL) medium without zinc amendment repressed the nematicidal activity of the bacteria while the CF obtained from CDL medium amended with zinc did not. Conidial suspension of F. solani strain Fs5 (repressor strain for the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds in P. fluorescens) reduced biocontrol potential of the bacterial inoculants against M. javanica in tomato while strain Fs3 (non-repressor) did not. Fusarium solani strains with increased nematicidal activity repress the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds by P. fluorescens strains in vitro and greatly alter its biocontrol efficacy against root-knot nematode under natural conditions. Fusarium solani strains are distributed worldwide and found in almost all the agricultural fields which suggest that some mycotoxin-producing strains will also be found in almost any soil sample taken. Besides the suppressive effect of these metabolite-producing strains on the production of nematicidal compound(s) critical in biocontrol, F. solani strains may also affect the performance of mycotoxin-sensitive biocontrol bacteria effective against plant-parasitic nematodes.

  17. Enhanced efficacy of gemcitabine in combination with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody against CD20+ non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines in vitro and in scid mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Fang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite exciting new targeted therapeutics against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, chemotherapy remains a cornerstone of therapy. While purine nucleoside analogs have significant activity in low grade NHL, the pyrimidine nucleoside analog gemcitabine has been less extensively studied, but has important activity. Use of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in combination with chemotherapy for B-NHL is becoming prevalent in clinical practice, but has not been extensively studied in pre-clinical models. Methods We have tested the activity of gemcitabine ± rituximab in vitro and in scid/human NHL xenograft models. We used two t(14;18+, CD20+ follicular B cell NHL cell lines, DoHH2 a transformed NHL line and WSU-FSCCL isolated from pleural fluid of a patient with indolent NHL. Results Gemcitabine is cytotoxic to DoHH2 and WSU-FSCCL cells in vitro, and the IC50 is 2–3 fold lower in the presence of rituximab. Apoptosis is also enhanced in the presence of rituximab. Clearance of NHL cells from ascites in scid mice is prolonged by the combination, as compared with either agent alone. Most importantly, survival of scid mice bearing human NHL cells is significantly prolonged by the combination of gemcitabine + rituximab. Conclusion Based on our pre-clinical data showing prolonged survival of mice bearing human lymphoma cell line xenografts after treatment with gemcitabine + anti-CD20 antibody, this combination, expected to have non-overlapping toxicity profiles, should be explored in clinical trials.

  18. In vitro efficacy of a gene-activated nerve guidance conduit incorporating non-viral PEI-pDNA nanoparticles carrying genes encoding for NGF, GDNF and c-Jun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackington, William A; Raftery, Rosanne M; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2018-06-07

    Despite the success of tissue engineered nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) for the treatment of small peripheral nerve injuries, autografts remain the clinical gold standard for larger injuries. The delivery of neurotrophic factors from conduits might enhance repair for more effective treatment of larger injuries but the efficacy of such systems is dependent on a safe, effective platform for controlled and localised therapeutic delivery. Gene therapy might offer an innovative approach to control the timing, release and level of neurotrophic factor production by directing cells to transiently sustain therapeutic protein production in situ. In this study, a gene-activated NGC was developed by incorporating non-viral polyethyleneimine-plasmid DNA (PEI-pDNA) nanoparticles (N/P 7 ratio, 2μg dose) with the pDNA encoding for nerve growth factor (NGF), glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or the transcription factor c-Jun. The physicochemical properties of PEI-pDNA nanoparticles, morphology, size and charge, were shown to be suitable for gene delivery and demonstrated high Schwann cell transfection efficiency (60±13%) in vitro. While all three genes showed therapeutic potential in terms of enhancing neurotrophic cytokine production while promoting neurite outgrowth, delivery of the gene encoding for c-Jun showed the greatest capacity to enhance regenerative cellular processes in vitro. Ultimately, this gene-activated NGC construct was shown to be capable of transfecting both Schwann cells (S42 cells) and neuronal cells (PC12 and dorsal root ganglia) in vitro, demonstrating potential for future therapeutic applications in vivo. The basic requirements of biomaterial-based nerve guidance conduits have now been well established and include being able to bridge a nerve injury to support macroscopic guidance between nerve stumps, while being strong enough to withstand longitudinal tension and circumferential compression, in addition to being mechanically sound to facilitate

  19. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. © 2013.

  20. A novel in-vitro method for assessing contact lens surface dewetting: Non-invasive keratograph dry-up time (NIK-DUT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Sebastian; Sickenberger, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    This study was designed to develop a novel technique called non-invasive keratograph dry-up time (NIK-DUT), which used an adapted corneal topographer, to analyse in-vitro contact lens surface dewetting and the effects of combinations of lenses and lens care solutions on dewetting. Variables were assessed to optimise sensitivity and reproducibility. To validate the method, in-vitro dewetting of silicone hydrogel contact lenses (balafilcon A, comfilcon A, lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B and senofilcon A) was tested. All lens types were soaked in OPTI-FREE ® PureMoist ® Multipurpose Disinfecting Solution (OFPM) and Sensitive Eyes ® Saline Solution. The mean NIK-DUT, defined as drying of 25% of the placido ring measurement segments (NIK-DUT_S25), was calculated for each lens/lens solution combination and a visual map constructed representing the time and location of the dry-up event. Optimal conditions for NIK-DUT measurement included mounting onto a glass stage with a surface geometry of r=8.5mm, e=0, and measuring with high intensity red or white illumination. This method detected significant differences in contact lens dewetting with different lens soaking solutions. NIK-DUT_S25 for all lenses was longer when pre-soaked in OFPM versus saline. Visual analysis showed that dewetting of contact lenses was not uniform across surfaces and differed between test solutions. NIK-DUT is suitable for detecting differences in dewetting among various contact lenses and lens-care combinations. NIK-DUT can quantify the dewetting of large areas of lens surfaces with little subjective influence. Lens care solutions containing surface-active wetting agents were found to delay surface dewetting of silicone hydrogel lenses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The potentiation effect makes the difference: Non-toxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles enhance Cu nanoparticle toxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Conde, Estefanía; Fernández, Marta [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Garching 85747 (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    Here we examined whether the addition of a non-toxic concentration (6.25 μg/mL) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs: 19, 35 and 57 nm, respectively) modulates the cytotoxicity of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs, 63 nm in size) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cytotoxic effect of CuNPs on HepG2 cells was markedly enhanced by the ZnONPs, the largest ZnONPs causing the highest increase in toxicity. However, CuNPs cytotoxicity was not affected by co-incubation with medium containing only zinc ions, indicating the increase in toxicity might be attributed to the particle form of ZnONPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of CuNPs and ZnONPs inside the cells co-exposed to both types of NP and outflow of cytoplasm through the damaged cell membrane. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determined an increase in the concentration of zinc and a decrease in that of copper in co-exposed cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that accumulation of large numbers of ZnONPs in the cells alters cellular membranes and the cytotoxicity of CuNPs is increased. - Highlights: • ZnONPs at non-toxic concentrations increased the toxicity of CuNPs in vitro. • ZnONPs of larger size provoked a stronger synergistic effect with CuNPs. • The synergistic effect was attributed to the particle fraction of ZnONPs.

  2. First observations of partially neutralized and quasineutral plasmas in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasola, Xabier; Brenner, Paul; Hahn, Michael; Pedersen, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) is the first stellarator devoted to the study of pure electron, partially neutralized and positron-electron plasmas. To date, CNT usually operates with electron rich plasmas (with negligible ion density) [1], but a stellarator can also confine plasmas of arbitrary degree of neutralization. In CNT the accumulation of ions alters the equilibrium of electron plasmas and a global instability has been observed when the ion fraction exceeds 10 %. A characterization of this instability is presented in [2], analyzing its parameter dependence and spatial structure (non- resonant with rational surfaces). A new set of experiments is currently underway studying plasmas of arbitrary degree of neutralization, ranging from pure electron to quasineutral plasmas. Basic observations show that the plasma potential decouples from emitter bias when we increase the degree of the neutralization of our plasmas. Partially neutralized plasmas are also characterized by multiple mode behavior with dominant modes between 20 and 200 kHz. When the plasma becomes quasineutral, it reverts to single mode behavior. The first results on partially neutralized plasmas confined on magnetic surfaces will be presented. [1] J. Kremer, PRL 97, (2006) 095003 [2] Q. Marksteiner, PRL 100 (2008) 065002

  3. Parameters necessary for in vitro hydroponic pea plantlet flowering and fruiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, the development of culture systems to stimulate the reproductive and fruiting processes in vitro has not been earnestly exploited. Nonetheless, the ability to promote sterile flowering and fruiting would have commercial applications in the agricultural, food and medical industries. Non-ir...

  4. Resistance gene expression determines the in vitro chemosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Khalid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NSCLC exhibits considerable heterogeneity in its sensitivity to chemotherapy and similar heterogeneity is noted in vitro in a variety of model systems. This study has tested the hypothesis that the molecular basis of the observed in vitro chemosensitivity of NSCLC lies within the known resistance mechanisms inherent to these patients' tumors. Methods The chemosensitivity of a series of 49 NSCLC tumors was assessed using the ATP-based tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA and compared with quantitative expression of resistance genes measured by RT-PCR in a Taqman Array™ following extraction of RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. Results There was considerable heterogeneity between tumors within the ATP-TCA, and while this showed no direct correlation with individual gene expression, there was strong correlation of multi-gene signatures for many of the single agents and combinations tested. For instance, docetaxel activity showed some dependence on the expression of drug pumps, while cisplatin activity showed some dependence on DNA repair enzyme expression. Activity of both drugs was influenced more strongly still by the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes by the tumor for both docetaxel and cisplatin. The doublet combinations of cisplatin with gemcitabine and cisplatin with docetaxel showed gene expression signatures incorporating resistance mechanisms for both agents. Conclusion Genes predicted to be involved in known mechanisms drug sensitivity and resistance correlate well with in vitro chemosensitivity and may allow the definition of predictive signatures to guide individualized chemotherapy in lung cancer.

  5. Effects of ginseng on Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Lee, Baoleri; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    protected animal models from developing chronic lung infection by P. aeruginosa. In the present study, the effects of ginseng on the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms were further investigated in vitro and in vivo. Ginseng aqueous extract at concentrations of 0.5-2.0% did not inhibit the growth of P......Biofilm-associated chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis are virtually impossible to eradicate with antibiotics because biofilm-growing bacteria are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Previously, we found that ginseng treatments....... aeruginosa, but significantly prevented P. aeruginosa from forming biofilm. Exposure to 0.5% ginseng aqueous extract for 24 h destroyed most 7-day-old mature biofilms formed by both mucoid and nonmucoid P. aeruginosa strains. Ginseng treatment enhanced swimming and twitching motility, but reduced swarming...

  6. Urine mutagenicity of steel workers exposed to coke oven emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.P.; Dumenil, G.; Botta, A.H.; Laget, M.; Zabaloueff, V.; Mathias, A.

    1987-03-01

    Urine mutagenicity of 19 individuals was investigated at a steel mill. All the subjects worked on the coal processing unit. Urine samples were collected at the end of a working day. Urine samples of two exposed workers were collected at the end of two periods of rest and two periods of working. Mutagens were extracted on XAD-2 resin and tested by the Salmonella microsomal assay and the SOS spot test. Mutagenic potencies of exposed smokers and exposed non-smokers were 8.62 +/- 6.56 and 1.1 +/- 0.48 revertants/mg creatinine respectively with Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 + S9. Both values were significantly higher than those of unexposed smokers and non-smokers (5.07 +/- 3.33 and 0.47 +/- 0.72 revertants/mg creatinine respectively). The urinary mutagenic potency of the two exposed individuals increased at the end of periods of working (15.97 +/- 2.57 revertants/mg creatinine) and decreased at the end of periods of rest (12.31 +/- 2.45 revertants/mg creatinine). Urinary mutagens were detected with S. typhimurium strain TA100 + S9 to a lesser extent. No direct-acting mutagens were detected by the SOS spot test. Atmospheric benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were also measured by h.p.l.c. on the coke battery. BaP concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 0.6 microgram/m3 air at the different working sites. Biological monitoring with short-term tests is discussed.

  7. Gamma-ray mutagenesis of cultured mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Norio; Okada, Shigefumi

    1977-01-01

    The in vitro assay system used to study the reversion of L5178Y-Ala32 cells from an alanine requiring state to a non-requiring state, has been modified in order to be of use in selected in vivo systems. Gamma-ray induced mutations were compared between cells cultured in vitro and those grown in vivo in the intraperitoneal cavity of mice. The expression time was chosen to be 2 days for cells grown in vitro and 5 days for those grown in vivo. The dose-response curve can be described as cumulative for cells grown in vitro and linear for those grown in vivo. A doserate effect was observed in both systems. The cells grown in vivo were less sensitive to γ-rays with respect to both mutation rate per rad and cell killing as compared to cells grown in vitro. The delayed expression and reduced sensitivity of cells in vivo with respect to induced mutation may be due to factors such as hypoxia and/or reduced availability of essential nutrients. Sensitization in vitro by BUdR was detectable at a concentration as low as 10 -6 M, using an exposure time of 15 h. Under these conditions, BUdR alone did not induce any observable mutations

  8. Autoradiographic study of the penetration of radiolabelled dextrans and inulin through non-keratinized oral mucosa in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfano, M.C.; Chasens, A.I.; Masi, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Although a well known barrier effect against the penetration of macromolecules exists at the basement membrane region of epithelial tissues, recent reports suggest that the penetration of smaller molecules may be impeded by this region. Considering the probable importance of the permeability of gingival crevicular tissues in the etiology of inflammatory periodontal disease, the present study was designed to evaluate the barrier function of the basement membrane region of non-keratinized oral mucosal epithelium to a series of radiolabelled penetrating molecules of increasing molecular weight. Tritium labeled inulin (Mw 5,000), dextran 20 (Mw 20,000) and dextran 70 (Mw 70,000) were used as penetrating molecules, and autoradiographic tracer techniques were used to evaluate the barrier function. The study was conducted in vitro to eliminate vascular ''wash-out'' effects and to facilitate study of penetration across the basement membrane region in both directions. The results indicated that although the penetration of inulin and dextran 70 was impeded by the basement membrane region, the penetration of dextran 20 was not affected. Therefore, the barrier function of the basement membrane region is not solely dependent on the molecular weight of the penetration molecule. Mechanisms to account for the findings are described and the significance to periodontal disease is discussed. (author)

  9. Autoradiographic study of the penetration of radiolabelled dextrans and inulin through non-keratinized oral mucosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, M C; Chasens, A I; Masi, C W [Block Periodontal Research Laboratories, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Fairleigh Dickinson University, School of Dentistry, Hackensack, New Jersey, U.S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although a well known barrier effect against the penetration of macromolecules exists at the basement membrane region of epithelial tissues, recent reports suggest that the penetration of smaller molecules may be impeded by this region. Considering the probable importance of the permeability of gingival crevicular tissues in the etiology of inflammatory periodontal disease, the present study was designed to evaluate the barrier function of the basement membrane region of non-keratinized oral mucosal epithelium to a series of radiolabelled penetrating molecules of increasing molecular weight. Tritium labeled inulin (Mw 5,000), dextran 20 (Mw 20,000) and dextran 70 (Mw 70,000) were used as penetrating molecules, and autoradiographic tracer techniques were used to evaluate the barrier function. The study was conducted in vitro to eliminate vascular ''wash-out'' effects and to facilitate study of penetration across the basement membrane region in both directions. The results indicated that although the penetration of inulin and dextran 70 was impeded by the basement membrane region, the penetration of dextran 20 was not affected. Therefore, the barrier function of the basement membrane region is not solely dependent on the molecular weight of the penetration molecule. Mechanisms to account for the findings are described and the significance to periodontal disease is discussed.

  10. An electron microscopy study of the diversity of Streptococcus sanguinis cells induced by lysozyme in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yuqing; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xuedong; Lu, Junjun

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial virulence could be altered by the antimicrobial agents of the host. Our aim was to identify the damage and survival of Streptococcus sanguinis induced by lysozymes in vitro and to analyse the potential of oral microorganisms to shirk host defences, which cause infective endocarditis. S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 received lysozyme at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml. Cells were examined by electron microscopy. The survival was assessed by colony counting and construction of a growth curve. Challenged by lysozymes, cells mainly exhibited cell wall damage, which seemed to increase with increasing lysozyme concentration and longer incubation period in the presence of ions. Cells with little as well as apparent lesion were observed under the same treatment set, and anomalous stick and huge rotund bodies were occasionally observed. After the removal of the lysozyme, some damaged cells could be reverted to its original form with brain heart infusion (BHI), and their growth curve was similar to the control cells. After further incubation in BHI containing lysozyme, S. sanguinis cell damage stopped progressing, and their growth curve was also similar to the control cells. The results suggested that the S. sanguinis lesions caused by the lysozyme in the oral cavity may be nonhomogeneous and that some damaged cells could self-repair and survive. It also indicated that S. sanguinis with damaged cell walls may survive and be transmitted in the bloodstream.

  11. Enzymatically Degradable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for In-Vitro Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2015-06-30

    Non-aggregated dense bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanoparticles based on nature-inspired oxamide bridges are shown to degrade in simulated biological media upon cleavage with endopeptidase. Fluorescent BS nanoprobes with incorporated fluorescein dyes were applied for in-vitro imaging in cancer cells.

  12. Evaluation of chromatin integrity of motile bovine spermatozoa capacitated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckova, Z; Machatkova, M; Rybar, R; Horakova, J; Hulinska, P; Machal, L

    2008-08-01

    The efficiency of in vitro embryo production is highly variable amongst individual sires in cattle. To eliminate that this variability is not caused by sperm chromatin damage caused by separation or capacitacion, chromatin integrity was evaluated. Seventeen of AI bulls with good NRRs but variable embryo production efficiency were used. For each bull, motile spermatozoa were separated on a Percoll gradient, resuspended in IVF-TALP medium and capacitated with or incubated without heparin for 6 h. Samples before and after separation and after 3-h and 6-h capacitacion or incubation were evaluated by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) and the proportion of sperm with intact chromatin structure was calculated. Based on changes in the non-DFI-sperm proportion, the sires were categorized as DNA-unstable (DNA-us), DNA-stable (DNA-s) and DNA-most stable (DNA-ms) bulls (n=3, n=5 and n=9, respectively). In DNA-us bulls, separation produced a significant increase of the mean non-DFI-sperm proportion (p Capacitacion produced a significant decrease in the mean non-DFI-sperm proportion in H+ sperm (p capacitacion, the mean non-DFI-sperm proportion remained almost unchanged. In DNA-ms bulls, neither separation nor capacitacion had any effect on the mean non-DFI-sperm proportion. It can be concluded that, although separation and capacitacion may produce some changes in sperm chromatin integrity, these are not associated with different in vitro fertility of the bulls involved.

  13. Non-animal approaches for toxicokinetics in risk evaluations of food chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Ans; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to review the availability and predictive value of non-animal toxicokinetic approaches and to evaluate their current use in European risk evaluations of food contaminants, additives and food contact materials, as well as pesticides and medicines. Results revealed little use of quantitative animal or human kinetic data in risk evaluations of food chemicals, compared with pesticides and medicines. Risk evaluations of medicines provided sufficient in vivo kinetic data from different species to evaluate the predictive value of animal kinetic data for humans. These data showed a relatively poor correlation between the in vivo bioavailability in rats and dogs versus that in humans. In contrast, in vitro (human) kinetic data have been demonstrated to provide adequate predictions of the fate of compounds in humans, using appropriate in vitro-in vivo scalers and by integration of in vitro kinetic data with in silico kinetic modelling. Even though in vitro kinetic data were found to be occasionally included within risk evaluations of food chemicals, particularly results from Caco-2 absorption experiments and in vitro data on gut-microbial conversions, only minor use of in vitro methods for metabolism and quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation methods was identified. Yet, such quantitative predictions are essential in the development of alternatives to animal testing as well as to increase human relevance of toxicological risk evaluations. Future research should aim at further improving and validating quantitative alternative methods for kinetics, thereby increasing regulatory acceptance of non-animal kinetic data.

  14. Effect of periodontal dressings on human gingiva fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eber, R.M.; Shuler, C.F.; Buchanan, W.; Beck, F.M.; Horton, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity studies of periodontal dressings have not generally produced a result consistent with in vivo observations. These prior in vitro studies have not used human intraoral cell lines. We tested the effects of two eugenol containing and two non-eugenol periodontal dressings on cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) (ATCC No. 1292). Replicate HGF cultures grown in microtiter plates were exposed to stock, 1:4 and 1:16 dilutions of extracts made from each of the four periodontal dressings. The HGF cultures were pulse labelled with tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Incorporations of the labelled thymidine were measured using liquid scintillation counting and expressed as counts per minute. The results showed that undiluted extracts from all four periodontal dressings totally inhibited 3HTdR uptake (P less than 0.05). The 1:4 dilution of eugenol dressings inhibited 3HTdR uptake significantly more than non-eugenol dressings (P less than 0.05). Interestingly, at 72 hours the 1:16 dilution of the non-eugenol dressings caused significantly increased 3HTdR uptake which was not observed with the eugenol dressings. The present results suggest that the use of a human fibroblastic cell line for testing the effects of periodontal dressings may provide information about the relative biological effects of these dressings. Using this cell line, we have found that eugenol dressings inhibit fibroblast proliferation to a greater extent than non-eugenol dressings

  15. In vitro effects of monophthalates on cytokine expression in the monocytic cell line THP-1 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic and non-allergic donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glue, C; Millner, A; Bødtger, Uffe

    2002-01-01

    It has recently been shown that plasticizers are present in indoor air dust, which may lead to human exposure via the inhalation route. Moreover, studies have indicated that plasticizers may possess adjuvant effects increasing the health damaging potential of allergens. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the in vitro effect of metabolites of phthalate plastisizers, such as whether an adjuvant effect is paralleled by changes of the cytokine expression in the monocytic cell line THP-1 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergics and non-allergics. The toxicity monitored by cell...... viability was determined by incubating THP-1 cells with a 10-fold dilution series of monophthalates for 24 h. At different points in time cytokine expression (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12alpha (p35)) in THP-1 cells incubated with non-toxic concentrations of monophthalate (2-20 microg/ml)+/-LPS (1 microg/ml) were...

  16. Novel mouse model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2005-01-01

    (NH57388C) from the mucoid isolate (NH57388A) and a nonmucoid isolate (NH57388B) deficient in AHL were almost cleared from the lungs of the mice. This model, in which P. aeruginosa is protected against the defense system of the lung by alginate, is similar to the clinical situation. Therefore...... pulmonary mouse model without artificial embedding. The model is based on a stable mucoid CF sputum isolate (NH57388A) with hyperproduction of alginate due to a deletion in mucA and functional N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum-sensing systems. Chronic lung infection could be established in both CF...

  17. Mutagenic activation and detoxification of benzo[a]pyrene in vitro by hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 and phase II enzymes in three meat-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, W; Ikenaka, Y; Eldaly, E; Ishizuka, M

    2010-01-01

    The mutagenic activation activity of hepatic microsomes from three meat-producing animals (cattle, deer and horses) was compared with those of rats as a reference species. In the Ames Salmonella typhimurium TA98 assay, the liver microsomes of all examined animals mutagenically activated benzo[a]pyrene, an ideal promutagens, in terms of production of histidine-independent revertant colonies. The microsomes of horses had the highest ability to produce revertant colonies of the examined animals under both low and high substrate concentrations. Inhibition of this mutagenic activity using alpha-naphthoflavone, anti-rat CYP1A1, CYP3A2 and CYP2E1 antibodies suggests that this activity was mainly because of CYP1A1 in these animals as well as in rats. The addition of co-factors for two phase II enzymes, microsomal UDP glucoronosyl transferase and cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase, reduced the production of the revertant colonies in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, horses had the highest reduction rate among the examined animals, suggesting that phase II enzymes play a great role in producing a state of balance between the bioactivation and detoxification of xenobiotics in these meat-producing animals. This report is the first to investigate the mutagenic activation activity of the hepatic microsomes and the role of phase II enzymes against this activity in meat-producing animals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The proangiogenic phenotype of tumor-derived endothelial cells is reverted by the overexpression of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, Sophie; Ceretto, Monica; Lupia, Enrico; Bravo, Stefania; Bussolati, Benedetta; Camussi, Giovanni

    2007-10-01

    We previously reported that human tumor-derived endothelial cells (TEC) have an angiogenic phenotype related to the autocrine production of several angiogenic factors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether an enhanced synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) might contribute to the proangiogenic characteristics of TEC and whether its inactivation might inhibit angiogenesis. To address the potential role of PAF in the proangiogenic characteristics of TEC, we engineered TEC to stably overexpress human plasma PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), the major PAF-inactivating enzyme, and we evaluated in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. TECs were able to synthesize a significantly enhanced amount of PAF compared with normal human microvascular endothelial cells when stimulated with thrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor, or soluble CD154. Transfection of TEC with PAF-AH (TEC-PAF-AH) significantly inhibited apoptosis resistance and spontaneous motility of TEC. In addition, PAF and vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation enhanced the motility and adhesion of TEC but not of TEC-PAF-AH. In vitro, TEC-PAF-AH lost the characteristic ability of TEC to form vessel-like structures when plated on Matrigel. Finally, when cells were injected s.c. within Matrigel in severe combined immunodeficiency mice or coimplanted with a renal carcinoma cell line, the overexpression of PAF-AH induced a significant reduction of functional vessel formation. These results suggest that inactivation of PAF, produced by TEC, by the overexpression of plasma PAF-AH affects survival, migration, and the angiogenic response of TEC both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. ENRAIZAMENTO DE CRAVO (Dianthus caryophyllus L. IN VITRO E EX VITRO

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    G.R.F CUZZUOL

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus micropropagadas durante várias gerações pelo período de um ano, foram enraizadas in vitro com AIA, ANA e AIB nas concentrações de 0,0; 0,25; 0,5 e 1,0 mg/l, em fatorial do tipo 3 x 4, com todos os tratamentos promovendo a formação de raízes, mas não diferindo do controle. Foi confrontado em condição autotrófica, o desempenho entre plântulas enraizadas in vitro na presença e ausência do regulador AIA 0,5 mg/l e plântulas enraizadas ex vitro, sem nenhuma diferença quanto ao comprimento da parte aérea. Para a variável produção de massa de matéria seca os melhores resultados foram proporcionados pelas plantas que passaram pela fase de enraizamento in vitro, tendo o sistema radicular efeito sinergístico no crescimento da parte aérea.Plantlets of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. micropropagated through several generations during one year, were observed with respect to rooting in vitro, in the presence of IAA , NAA and IBA, at the following concentrations: 0,0; 0,25; 0,5 and 1,0 mg/l. All treatments promoted root formation, however no differences were detected in comparison to control. As far as the lenght of the aerial part is concerned no difference was observed between in vitro rooting. in the presence or absence of IAA 0,5 mg/l, and ex vitro rooting. Plantlets which were rooted in vitro conditions showed higher production of fresh matter then those rooted ex vitro. The root system had a synergistic effect on the growth of the aerial part.

  20. In Vitro vs In Silico Detected SNPs for the Development of a Genotyping Array: What Can We Learn from a Non-Model Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoittevin, Camille; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Garnier-Géré, Pauline; Salin, Franck; Cervera, María-Teresa; Vornam, Barbara; Harvengt, Luc; Plomion, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in the high-throughput discovery and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to accelerate genetic mapping and enable association studies. This study provides an assessment of EST-derived and resequencing-derived SNP quality in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), a conifer characterized by a huge genome size (∼23.8 Gb/C). Methodology/Principal Findings A 384-SNPs GoldenGate genotyping array was built from i/ 184 SNPs originally detected in a set of 40 re-sequenced candidate genes (in vitro SNPs), chosen on the basis of functionality scores, presence of neighboring polymorphisms, minor allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium and ii/ 200 SNPs screened from ESTs (in silico SNPs) selected based on the number of ESTs used for SNP detection, the SNP minor allele frequency and the quality of SNP flanking sequences. The global success rate of the assay was 66.9%, and a conversion rate (considering only polymorphic SNPs) of 51% was achieved. In vitro SNPs showed significantly higher genotyping-success and conversion rates than in silico SNPs (+11.5% and +18.5%, respectively). The reproducibility was 100%, and the genotyping error rate very low (0.54%, dropping down to 0.06% when removing four SNPs showing elevated error rates). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that ESTs provide a resource for SNP identification in non-model species, which do not require any additional bench work and little bio-informatics analysis. However, the time and cost benefits of in silico SNPs are counterbalanced by a lower conversion rate than in vitro SNPs. This drawback is acceptable for population-based experiments, but could be dramatic in experiments involving samples from narrow genetic backgrounds. In addition, we showed that both the visual inspection of genotyping clusters and the estimation of a per SNP error rate should help identify markers that are not suitable to the GoldenGate technology in species

  1. In vitro vs in silico detected SNPs for the development of a genotyping array: what can we learn from a non-model species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lepoittevin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the high-throughput discovery and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to accelerate genetic mapping and enable association studies. This study provides an assessment of EST-derived and resequencing-derived SNP quality in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait., a conifer characterized by a huge genome size ( approximately 23.8 Gb/C.A 384-SNPs GoldenGate genotyping array was built from i/ 184 SNPs originally detected in a set of 40 re-sequenced candidate genes (in vitro SNPs, chosen on the basis of functionality scores, presence of neighboring polymorphisms, minor allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium and ii/ 200 SNPs screened from ESTs (in silico SNPs selected based on the number of ESTs used for SNP detection, the SNP minor allele frequency and the quality of SNP flanking sequences. The global success rate of the assay was 66.9%, and a conversion rate (considering only polymorphic SNPs of 51% was achieved. In vitro SNPs showed significantly higher genotyping-success and conversion rates than in silico SNPs (+11.5% and +18.5%, respectively. The reproducibility was 100%, and the genotyping error rate very low (0.54%, dropping down to 0.06% when removing four SNPs showing elevated error rates.This study demonstrates that ESTs provide a resource for SNP identification in non-model species, which do not require any additional bench work and little bio-informatics analysis. However, the time and cost benefits of in silico SNPs are counterbalanced by a lower conversion rate than in vitro SNPs. This drawback is acceptable for population-based experiments, but could be dramatic in experiments involving samples from narrow genetic backgrounds. In addition, we showed that both the visual inspection of genotyping clusters and the estimation of a per SNP error rate should help identify markers that are not suitable to the GoldenGate technology in species characterized by a large and complex genome.

  2. N-Acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor, reverts vascular dysfunction and endothelial epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restricted guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio A; Cifuentes-Zúñiga, Francisca; Figueroa, Esteban; Villanueva, Cristian; Hernández, Cherie; Alegría, René; Arroyo-Jousse, Viviana; Peñaloza, Estefania; Farías, Marcelo; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola; Krause, Bernardo J

    2017-02-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial epigenetic programming of the umbilical vessels. There is no evidence that this epigenetic programming is occurring on systemic fetal arteries. In IUGR guinea pigs we studied the functional and epigenetic programming of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (Nos3 gene) in umbilical and systemic fetal arteries, addressing the role of oxidative stress in this process by maternal treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the second half of gestation. The present study suggests that IUGR endothelial cells have common molecular markers of programming in umbilical and systemic arteries. Notably, maternal treatment with NAC restores fetal growth by increasing placental efficiency and reverting the functional and epigenetic programming of eNOS in arterial endothelium in IUGR guinea pigs. In humans, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial programming in umbilical vessels. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on fetal endothelial function and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) programming in IUGR guinea pigs. IUGR was induced by implanting ameroid constrictors on uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs at mid gestation, half of the sows receiving NAC in the drinking water (from day 34 until term). Fetal biometry and placental vascular resistance were followed by ultrasound throughout gestation. At term, umbilical arteries and fetal aortae were isolated to assess endothelial function by wire-myography. Primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) from fetal aorta, femoral and umbilical arteries were used to determine eNOS mRNA levels by quantitative PCR and analyse DNA methylation in the Nos3 promoter by pyrosequencing. Doppler ultrasound measurements showed that NAC reduced placental vascular resistance

  3. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Santina; Battaglia, Florinda; Mannino, Elena; Parodi, Alessia; Fruscione, Floriana; Basile, Giovanna; Salis, Annalisa; Sturla, Laura; Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Stringara, Silvia; Filaci, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. ► ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. ► UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. ► SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-β, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  4. Transport rankings of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs across blood-brain barrier in vitro models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Novakova

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to conduct a comprehensive study about the transport properties of NSAIDs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB in vitro. Transport studies with celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, meloxicam, piroxicam and tenoxicam were accomplished across Transwell models based on cell line PBMEC/C1-2, ECV304 or primary rat brain endothelial cells. Single as well as group substance studies were carried out. In group studies substance group compositions, transport medium and serum content were varied, transport inhibitors verapamil and probenecid were added. Resulted permeability coefficients were compared and normalized to internal standards diazepam and carboxyfluorescein. Transport rankings of NSAIDs across each model were obtained. Single substance studies showed similar rankings as corresponding group studies across PBMEC/C1-2 or ECV304 cell layers. Serum content, glioma conditioned medium and inhibitors probenecid and verapamil influenced resulted permeability significantly. Basic differences of transport properties of the investigated NSAIDs were similar comparing all three in vitro BBB models. Different substance combinations in the group studies and addition of probenecid and verapamil suggested that transporter proteins are involved in the transport of every tested NSAID. Results especially underlined the importance of same experimental conditions (transport medium, serum content, species origin, cell line for proper data comparison.

  5. In vitro proliferation of adult human beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rutti

    Full Text Available A decrease in functional beta-cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 analogues induce proliferation of rodent beta-cells. However, the proliferative capacity of human beta-cells and its modulation by GLP-1 analogues remain to be fully investigated. We therefore sought to quantify adult human beta-cell proliferation in vitro and whether this is affected by the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide.Human islets from 7 adult cadaveric organ donors were dispersed into single cells. Beta-cells were purified by FACS. Non-sorted cells and the beta-cell enriched ("beta-cells" population were plated on extracellular matrix from rat (804G and human bladder carcinoma cells (HTB9 or bovine corneal endothelial ECM (BCEC. Cells were maintained in culture+/-liraglutide for 4 days in the presence of BrdU.Rare human beta-cell proliferation could be observed either in the purified beta-cell population (0.051±0.020%; 22 beta-cells proliferating out of 84'283 beta-cells counted or in the non-sorted cell population (0.055±0.011%; 104 proliferating beta-cells out of 232'826 beta-cells counted, independently of the matrix or the culture conditions. Liraglutide increased human beta-cell proliferation on BCEC in the non-sorted cell population (0.082±0.034% proliferating beta-cells vs. 0.017±0.008% in control, p<0.05.These results indicate that adult human beta-cell proliferation can occur in vitro but remains an extremely rare event with these donors and particular culture conditions. Liraglutide increases beta-cell proliferation only in the non-sorted cell population and only on BCEC. However, it cannot be excluded that human beta-cells may proliferate to a greater extent in situ in response to natural stimuli.

  6. Pentamidine Is Active In Vitro against Fusarium Species

    OpenAIRE

    Lionakis, Michail S.; Lewis, Russell E.; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2003-01-01

    Fusariosis is an emerging opportunistic mycosis against which currently used antifungals have limited activity. Here, we investigated the in vitro activities of pentamidine (PNT) against 10 clinical isolates of Fusarium species (five Fusarium solani isolates and five non-F. solani isolates) by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microdilution method in three different media (RPMI, RPMI-2, and a yeast nitrogen base medium), disk diffusion testing, and viability dye s...

  7. Electrocardiogram as an important tool in Preventive & Community Medicine - A rare case report of asymptomatic non paroxysmal accelerated junctional rhythm detected on routine ECG

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    Raghavendra Deolalikar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty four year old asymptomatic employee was detected to have Inverted P waves with normal QRS complex on Electrocardiogram [ECG] during his Annual Medical Examination. The ECG reverted to normal after few days. Inverted P is suggestive of retrograde conduct of impulse from A-V Node. Case of Non Paroxysmal Accelerated Junctional Rhythm. Causes are inferior wall myocardial infarction, myocarditis or recent open heart surgery. Troponin T Test was negative, Treadmill test was negative, and 2D Echo showed 55 % ejection fraction with no regional wall motion abnormalities. It needs no treatment if underlying causes are ruled out. Case would have gone un-noticed as patient was asymptomatic, thus emphasizing the importance of ECG in preventive and community medicine.

  8. Genistein genotoxicity: Critical considerations of in vitro exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Catherine B.; King, Audrey A.

    2007-01-01

    The potential health benefits of soy-derived phytoestrogens include their reported utility as anticarcinogens, cardioprotectants and as hormone replacement alternatives in menopause. Although there is increasing popularity of dietary phytoestrogen supplementation and of vegetarian and vegan diets among adolescents and adults, concerns about potential detrimental or other genotoxic effects persist. While a variety of genotoxic effects of phytoestrogens have been reported in vitro, the concentrations at which such effects occurred were often much higher than the physiologically relevant doses achievable by dietary or pharmacologic intake of soy foods or supplements. This review focuses on in vitro studies of the most abundant soy phytoestrogen, genistein, critically examining dose as a crucial determinant of cellular effects. In consideration of levels of dietary genistein uptake and bioavailability we have defined in vitro concentrations of genistein > 5 μM as non-physiological, and thus 'high' doses, in contrast to much of the previous literature. In doing so, many of the often-cited genotoxic effects of genistein, including apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, topoisomerase inhibition and others become less obvious. Recent cellular, epigenetic and microarray studies are beginning to decipher genistein effects that occur at dietarily relevant low concentrations. In toxicology, the well accepted principle of 'the dose defines the poison' applies to many toxicants and can be invoked, as herein, to distinguish genotoxic versus potentially beneficial in vitro effects of natural dietary products such as genistein

  9. Anatomia comparada das folhas e raízes de Cymbidium Hort. (Orchidaceae cultivadas ex vitro e in vitro Comparative leaf and root anatomy of ex vitro and in vitro cultured Cymbidium Hort. plants

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    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de cultivo in vitro, as plantas são mantidas em ambiente com alta umidade relativa do ar, baixa luminosidade e trocas gasosas restritas, o que resulta em taxa de transpiração reduzida. Portanto, quando essas mudas são expostas ao meio ex vitro, sofrem estresse que pode causar a morte. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar a estrutura anatômica das mudas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' cultivadas ex vitro (planta matriz e aclimatizada e in vitro e verificar se a estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro influencia no processo de aclimatização. As plantas ex vitro foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos individuais com o substrato fibra de coco em pó combinada com fibra de coco, e as plantas in vitro foram mantidas em meio de cultura MS. Para a análise anatômica qualitativa foram coletadas amostras de folhas e raízes de plantas ex vitro e in vitro. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram estrutura morfoanatômica semelhante à da planta matriz. A estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro não influenciou a sobrevivência das mudas durante a aclimatização devido à plasticidade fenotipica desse cultivar. As plantas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' possuem grande capacidade de aclimatização ao ambiente, sendo provavelmente este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sobrevivência de 100% das mudas.During in vitro culture plants are kept in an atmosphere with high relative humidity, low light intensity and reduced gas exchange, resulting in low transpiration rates. Therefore, when these plants are exposed to ex vitro conditions, they suffer stress, which can induce mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomical structure of Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants from ex vitro (mother plant and acclimatized plants and in vitro cultures and to verify if the anatomical structure of in vitro cultured plants affects acclimatization. The ex vitro plants were kept in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of coconut-fiber powder and

  10. Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient: pharmacodynamic evaluation and comparison with isogenic normal-phenotype and revertant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Denis, Olivier; Vergison, Anne; Theunis, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M; Struelens, Marc J; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-04-01

    Small-colony variant (SCV) strains of Staphylococcus aureus show reduced antibiotic susceptibility and intracellular persistence, potentially explaining therapeutic failures. The activities of oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, telavancin, and oritavancin have been examined in THP-1 macrophages infected by a stable thymidine-dependent SCV strain in comparison with normal-phenotype and revertant isogenic strains isolated from the same cystic fibrosis patient. The SCV strain grew slowly extracellularly and intracellularly (1- and 0.2-log CFU increase in 24 h, respectively). In confocal and electron microscopy, SCV and the normal-phenotype bacteria remain confined in acid vacuoles. All antibiotics tested, except tigecycline, caused a net reduction in bacterial counts that was both time and concentration dependent. At an extracellular concentration corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum (total drug), oritavancin caused a 2-log CFU reduction at 24 h; rifampin, moxifloxacin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin caused a similar reduction at 72 h; and all other antibiotics had only a static effect at 24 h and a 1-log CFU reduction at 72 h. In concentration dependence experiments, response to oritavancin was bimodal (two successive plateaus of -0.4 and -3.1 log CFU); tigecycline, moxifloxacin, and rifampin showed maximal effects of -1.1 to -1.7 log CFU; and the other antibiotics produced results of -0.6 log CFU or less. Addition of thymidine restored intracellular growth of the SCV strain but did not modify the activity of antibiotics (except quinupristin-dalfopristin). All drugs (except tigecycline and oritavancin) showed higher intracellular activity against normal or revertant phenotypes than against SCV strains. The data may help rationalizing the design of further studies with intracellular SCV strains.

  11. Polyurethane acrylates as effective substrates for sustained in vitro culture of human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Yosephine; Chua, Jason Min-Wen; Chua, Benjamin Yan-Jiang; Phang, In Yee; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Tan, Wui Siew

    2017-07-15

    Muscular disease has debilitating effects with severe damage leading to death. Our knowledge of muscle biology, disease and treatment is largely derived from non-human cell models, even though non-human cells are known to differ from human cells in their biochemical responses. Attempts to develop highly sought after in vitro human cell models have been plagued by early cell delamination and difficulties in achieving human myotube culture in vitro. In this work, we developed polyurethane acrylate (PUA) materials to support long-term in vitro culture of human skeletal muscle tissue. Using a constant base with modulated crosslink density we were able to vary the material modulus while keeping surface chemistry and roughness constant. While previous studies have focused on materials that mimic soft muscle tissue with stiffness ca. 12kPa, we investigated materials with tendon-like surface moduli in the higher 150MPa to 2.4GPa range, which has remained unexplored. We found that PUA of an optimal modulus within this range can support human myoblast proliferation, terminal differentiation and sustenance beyond 35days, without use of any extracellular protein coating. Results show that PUA materials can serve as effective substrates for successful development of human skeletal muscle cell models and are suitable for long-term in vitro studies. We developed polyurethane acrylates (PUA) to modulate the human skeletal muscle cell growth and maturation in vitro by controlling surface chemistry, morphology and tuning material's stiffness. PUA was able to maintain muscle cell viability for over a month without any detectable signs of material degradation. The best performing PUA prevented premature cell detachment from the substrate which often hampered long-term muscle cell studies. It also supported muscle cell maturation up to the late stages of differentiation. The significance of these findings lies in the possibility to advance studies on muscle cell biology, disease and

  12. In vitro and in vivo anti-microbial activity evaluation of inactivated cells of Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713 against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo, Ana I; Luque, Roberto; Díaz-Ropero, Mª Paz; Fonollá, Juristo; Bañuelos, Óscar

    2017-12-01

    Defining the etiology of dental caries is a complex problem. The microbiological approach has included Streptococcus mutans as one of the bacterial species involved in this disease. This research investigates the inhibitory effects of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713 against S. mutans using in vitro and in vivo assays. On the one hand, the effect of non-viable L. salivarius CECT 5713 on the in vitro adhesion of S. mutans to hydroxyapatite discs was evaluated. On the other hand, levels of Streptococcus mutans, amount of salivary flow and salivary pH before and after taking the rinse with the non-viable L. salivarius CECT 5713 in healthy volunteers were assessed (self-controlled open-label pilot study). The levels of S. mutans seemed to decrease in the in vitro and in vivo assays (p<0.05). The in vitro effect of non-viable L. salivarius was maintained until 36 months of storage. In addition, the reduction of S. mutans salivary concentration in the volunteers was statistically significant from the third day until two weeks of treatment. Heat-inactivated L. salivarius CECT 5713 prevents S. mutans adhesion to hydroxyapatite and could be used as a strategy to reduce the salivary concentration of this oral pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In silico-designed novel non-peptidic ABAD LD hot spot mimetics reverse Aβ-induced mitochondrial impairments in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Ambily Nath Indu; Kim, TaeHun; Jung, Seo Yun; Lim, Sang Min; Pae, Ae Nim

    2017-12-01

    Present work aimed to introduce non-peptidic ABAD loop D (L D ) hot spot mimetics as ABAD-Aβ inhibitors. A full-length atomistic model of ABAD-Aβ complex was built as a scaffold to launch the lead design and its topology later verified by cross-checking the computational mutagenesis results with that of in vitro data. Thereafter, the interactions of prime Aβ-binding L D residues-Tyr101, Thr108, and Thr110-were translated into specific pharmacophore features and this hypothesis subsequently used as a virtual screen query. ELISA-based screening of 20 hits identified two promising lead candidates, VC15 and VC19 with an IC 50 of 4.4 ± 0.3 and 9.6 ± 0.1 μm, respectively. They productively reversed Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions such as mitochondrial membrane potential loss (JC-1 assay), toxicity (MTT assay), and ATP reduction (ATP assay) in addition to increased cell viabilities. This is the first reporting of L D hot spot-centric in silico scheme to discover novel compounds with promising ABAD-Aβ inhibitory potential. These chemotypes are proposed for further structural optimization to derive novel Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Regulation of Peripheral Myelination through Transcriptional Buffering of Egr2 by an Antisense Long Non-coding RNA

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    Margot Martinez-Moreno

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise regulation of Egr2 transcription is fundamentally important to the control of peripheral myelination. Here, we describe a long non-coding RNA antisense to the promoter of Egr2 (Egr2-AS-RNA. During peripheral nerve injury, the expression of Egr2-AS-RNA is increased and correlates with decreased Egr2 transcript and protein levels. Ectopic expression of Egr2-AS-RNA in dorsal root ganglion (DRG cultures inhibits the expression of Egr2 mRNA and induces demyelination. In vivo inhibition of Egr2-AS-RNA using oligonucleotide GapMers released from a biodegradable hydrogel following sciatic nerve injury reverts the EGR2-mediated gene expression profile and significantly delays demyelination. Egr2-AS-RNA gradually recruits H3K27ME3, AGO1, AGO2, and EZH2 on the Egr2 promoter following sciatic nerve injury. Furthermore, expression of Egr2-AS-RNA is regulated through ERK1/2 signaling to YY1, while loss of Ser184 of YY1 regulates binding to Egr2-AS-RNA. In conclusion, we describe functional exploration of an antisense long non-coding RNA in peripheral nervous system (PNS biology.

  15. The in vitro transcription and translation of bluetongue virus mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.A.

    1985-12-01

    The review of the literature on BTV and related viruses indicates that a detailed knowledge of the in vitro synthesis of BTV proteins is still lacking. A primary objective of this investigation was therefore to study this process. In order to achieve this objective, the in vitro transcription reaction also had to be investigated, since BTV mRNAs were required for the translational studies. Sulfur 35 and phosphorus 32 were used in this study. It was considered of particular importance to investigate factors that influence the efficiency of the in vitro transcription reaction, such as core concentration and incubation temperature. Knowledge of the in vitro translation of BTV mRNAs opens the possibility to obtain further detailed information on BTV as such, and BTV related aspects. The aim of the in vitro translation study of BTV was to identify all the proteins that are encoded by the 10 BTV mRNA species, and prove the viral origin of the non-structural proteins, as well as determinig the coding assignments of the 10 dsRNA genome segments. The last aspect of the study was to investigate whether in vitro synthesised NS2 differed from its in vivo synthesised counterpart with respect to phosphorylation and affinity for ssRNA, and to carry out experiments in order to identify the kinase phosphorylating NS2. The significance of the results obtained for each of these objectives is discussed in detail at the end of the relevent chapter. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented relating the overall findings of this investigation, as well as suggestions for future investigations

  16. The Role of Speculative Factor in the Indonesian Stock Price Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soemarso Slamet Rahardjo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study observes the speculative element in the price determination and its mean reverting pattern. The existence of speculative element in the Indonesian stock market price determination was proven. Exponential Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (EGARCH method indicates the non-stationary process of the residuals. There are systematic as well as unsystematic component embedded in the speculative behavior. Vector Error Correction Model (VECM concludes that prices contain volatilities in the short run, but, it will revert to the mean in the long run. Investors’ behavior are neutral toward expected gain vis a vis losses in a stock trading.

  17. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Benjamin A.; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R.; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C.; Vargas, Marcelo R.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) participates in redox reactions and NAD+-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD+-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD+ as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1–7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD+ salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD+ from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD+ levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD+ salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD+ precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD+ levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1–2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD+ content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD+ salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. PMID:27002158

  18. Anionic hexadeca-carboxylate tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine: synthesis and in vitro photodynamic studies of a water-soluble, non-aggregating photosensitizer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháček, M.; Kollár, J.; Miletin, M.; Kučera, R.; Kubát, Pavel; Šimůnek, T.; Nováková, V.; Zimčík, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, JAN 2016 (2016), s. 10064-10077 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : synthesis * in vitro photodynamic studies * phthalocyanines Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  19. Radiation Effect on Secondary Cancerization by Tumour Cell Grafts. Take of Irradiated Tumour Cells in Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costachel, O.; Sandru, Gh.; Kitzulescu, I. [Oncological Institute, Bucharest (Romania)

    1969-11-15

    This study was designed to determine the ability of haemocytoblastoma, SME and Jensen tumours, which had been irradiated in vitro, to take in C{sub 57}BL/6 mice or Wistar rats that were whole-body irradiated at 0.4 kR and 0.6 kR respectively. It was found-that the take of tumour cell grafts irradiated in vitro increased in whole-body irradiated mice and rats but not in non-irradiated ones. When Wistar rats, that had been whole-body irradiated with 0.7 and 0.8 kR 1 - 7 months earlier and survived after treatment, were grafted with Jensen tumour cells irradiated in vitro with 3 kR they were found to develop tumours and lung metastases (in contrast to non-irradiated rats). A cross resistance against non-irradiated Jensen tumour cells was obtained in non- irradiated Wistar rats by grafting irradiated Jensen tumour cells. Chromosomal analysis showed two supplementary giant markers in the Jensen tumour cells that had been irradiated in vitro before grafting. (author)

  20. The novel oral glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 shows in vitro activity against sessile and planktonic Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Gómez-Perosanz, Marta; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2017-07-01

    We studied the antifungal activity of SCY-078 (an orally bioavailable 1,3-β -d- glucan synthesis inhibitor), micafungin and fluconazole against the planktonic and sessile forms of 178 Candida and non- Candida isolates causing fungaemia in patients recently admitted to a large European hospital. The in vitro activity of SCY-078, micafungin and fluconazole against the planktonic form of the isolates was assessed using EUCAST EDef 7.3 and CLSI M27-A3. Antibiofilm activity was assessed using the XTT reduction assay. SCY-078 and micafungin showed potent in vitro activity against Candida and non- Candida isolates. The in vitro activity of both drugs was similar, but SYC-078 displayed significantly lower MIC values than micafungin against Candida parapsilosis and non- Candida isolates, whereas micafungin displayed significantly lower MIC values for the remaining species ( P  Candida glabrata , in which the micafungin sessile MIC values were significantly lower ( P  Candida isolates in both sessile and planktonic forms is comparable to that of micafungin. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Non-antibiotic agent ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 enhanced the antibacterial effects of ciprofloxacin in vitro and in vivo as a potential NorA inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Sun, Yuan; Wang, Yaoyao; Lu, Meng; He, Jichao; Liu, Jiali; Chen, Qianying; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhou, Fang; Wang, Guangji; Sun, Xianqiang

    2014-10-05

    The aim of this study is to explore the potential enhancing effect of ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 (Rh2) towards ciprofloxacin (CIP) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection in vitro and in vivo, and analyze the possible mechanisms through NorA inhibition from a target cellular pharmacokinetic view. In combination with non-toxic dosage of Rh2, the susceptibilities of S. aureus strains to CIP were significantly augmented, and the antibacterial kinetics of CIP in the S. aureus strains were markedly promoted. This enhancing effect of Rh2 towards CIP was also observed in S. aureus infected peritonitis mice, with elevated survival rate and reduced bacteria counts in blood. However, Rh2 did not influence the plasma concentrations of CIP. Further analysis indicated that Rh2 significantly promoted the accumulations of CIP in S. aureus, and inhibited the NorA mediated efflux of pyronin Y. The expressions of NorA gene on S. aureus were positively correlated with the enhancing effect of Rh2 with CIP. This is the first report of the enhancing effect of Rh2 with CIP for S. aureus infection in vitro and in vivo, of which it is probably that Rh2 inhibited NorA-mediated efflux and promoted the accumulation of CIP in the bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Accumulation of 111In-neutrophils in rabbit skin in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory reactions in vivo. Inhibition by neutrophil pretreatment in vitro with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the CD18 antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourshargh, S.; Rampart, M.; Hellewell, P.G.; Jose, P.J.; Harlan, J.M.; Edwards, A.J.; Williams, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The mAb 60.3 recognizes the neutrophil CD18 Ag. We have investigated the effect of in vitro pretreatment of radiolabeled neutrophils with mAb 60.3 on their accumulation in vivo. Further, we have compared the in vivo effects of mAb 60.3 with its effects on neutrophil adherence in vitro. Neutrophil accumulation in vivo was measured in response to: (1) exogenous mediators FMLP, C5a des Arg, LTB4 and IL-1; (2) endogenous mediators generated in a non-allergic inflammatory reaction induced by zymosan; and (3) endogenous mediators generated in two allergic inflammatory reactions, a passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction and a reversed passive Arthus reaction in rabbit skin. Pretreatment of neutrophils with mAb 60.3 inhibited their accumulation in all the responses. The results demonstrate that there is a common mechanism mediating neutrophil accumulation in these inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils pretreated with mAb 60.3 were also unresponsive to chemoattractants in in vitro adherence assays. However, the antibody-treated neutrophils responded normally to FMLP and C5a with respect to granular enzyme release. These results suggest that the basal expression of CD18 Ag is important for the adherence of neutrophils to microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by the local generation, or administration, of chemical mediators in vivo. Despite the fact that mediators such as FMLP can increase CD18 expression in vitro, it appears more likely that such mediators act in vivo by inducing a conformational change in the basally expressed neutrophil adhesive molecules

  3. [Non-enzymatic glycosylation of dietary protein in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednykh, B S; Evdokimov, I A; Sokolov, A I

    2015-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins, based on discovered by Mayarn reaction of carbohydrate aldehyde group with a free amino group of a protein molecule, is well known to experts in biochemistry of food industry. Generated brown solid in some cases give the product marketable qualities--crackling bread--in others conversely, worsen the product. The biological effects of far-advanced products of non-enzymatic protein glycosylation reaction have not been studied enough, although it was reported previously that they are not split by digestive enzymes and couldn't be absorbed by animals. The objective of this work was to compare the depth of glycosylation of different food proteins of animal and vegetable origin. The objects of the study were proteins of animal (casein, lactoglobulin, albumin) and vegetable (soy isolate, proteins of rice flour, buckwheat, oatmeal) origin, glucose and fructose were selected as glycosylation agents, exposure 15 days at 37 degrees C. Lactoglobulin was glycosylated to a lesser extent among the proteins of animal origin while protein of oatmeal was glycosylated in the least degree among vegetable proteins. Conversely, such proteins as casein and soya isolate protein bound rather large amounts of carbohydrates. Fructose binding with protein was generally higher than the binding of glucose. The only exception was a protein of oatmeal. When of glucose and fructose simultaneously presented in the incubation medium, glucose binding usually increased while binding of fructose, in contrast, reduced. According to the total amount of carbohydrate (mcg), which is able to attach a protein (mg) the studied food proteins located in the following order: albumin (38) > soy protein isolate (23) > casein (15,) > whey protein rice flour protein (6) > protein from buckwheat flour (3) > globulin (2) > protein of oatmeal (0.3). The results obtained are to be used to select the optimal combination of proteins and carbohydrates, in which the glycosylation

  4. Prevalência de bactérias potencialmente patogênicas em espécimes respiratórios de fibrocísticos do Recife Prevalence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in respiratory specimens of cystic fibrosis patients from Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Magalhães

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre 147 espécimes respiratórios (114 escarros e 33 swabs faríngeos coletados de 36 portadores de fibrose cística durante consultas de rotina ou na exacerbação de seus sintomas respiratórios, no período de dezembro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002, isolaram-se: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (65,3%, Staphylococcus aureus (29,9%, Burkholderia cepacia (29,2% e Haemophilus influenzae (20,4%. Entre os isolados de S. aureus e H. influenzae, 6,8% foram resistentes à oxacilina e 6,7% foram produtores de beta-lactamase, respectivamente. Das 96 linhagens de P. aeruginosa encontradas, 59,4% foram do fenótipo mucóide. Em 12 espécimes, ambos os biótipos, mucóide e não-mucóide, estiveram presentes. Bactérias gram-negativas emergentes, tais como Stenotrophomonas maltophilia e Achromobacter xylosoxidans, foram isoladas em pequeno número. Com exceção do H. influenzae, mais freqüente nas crianças entre seis e 12 anos, não se encontrou diferença entre espécie bacteriana isolada e grupo etário.Of 147 respiratory specimens (114 sputum and 33 pharyngeal swabs collected from 36 cystic fibrosis patients during routine visits or exacerbation of their respiratory symptoms, from December 2000 to December 2002, the following bacterial species were recovered: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (65.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (29.9%, Burkholderia cepacia (29.2%, and Haemophilus influenzae (20.4%. Among the S. aureus and H. influenzae isolates, 6.8% were oxacillin resistant and 6.7% were beta-lactamase producers, respectively. Of 96 isolates of P. aeruginosa, 59.4% belonged to the mucoid phenotype. Both mucoid and non-mucoid morphotypes were simultaneously found in 12 specimens. Emerging gram-negative bacteria, such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans, were present at a low number. H. influenzae was more prevalent in the cystic fibrosis children between six and 12 years old. Concerning the other bacterial species there was not preference for age

  5. In vitro antimycobacterial and antilegionella activity of licochalcone A from Chinese licorice roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Chen, Ming; Fuursted, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Licochalcone A, extracted and purified from Chinese licorice roots, showed in vitro inhibitory effect on human pathogenic Mycobacteria species and Legionella species. M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and BCG were inhibited by < 20 mg/l licochalcone A, whereas all non- M. tuberculosis complex species wer...

  6. Stimulation of lymphocytes in vitro by Bacteroides intermedius and Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis sonicates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Zeijlemaker, W. P.; Meinesz, A. A.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether the in vitro stimulation of lymphocytes by sonicates of Bacteroides intermedius and Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis is antigen specific or non-specific. In addition, the role of T and B lymphocytes in these responses was assessed. Peripheral

  7. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzone, Santina, E-mail: santina.bruzzone@unige.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Battaglia, Florinda [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Mannino, Elena [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Parodi, Alessia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Fruscione, Floriana [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Basile, Giovanna [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Salis, Annalisa; Sturla, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Stringara, Silvia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Filaci, Gilberto [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Department of Internal Medicine, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-{beta}, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  8. Genetically Thermo-Stabilised, Immunogenic Poliovirus Empty Capsids; a Strategy for Non-replicating Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fox

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While wild type polio has been nearly eradicated there will be a need to continue immunisation programmes for some time because of the possibility of re-emergence and the existence of long term excreters of poliovirus. All vaccines in current use depend on growth of virus and most of the non-replicating (inactivated vaccines involve wild type viruses known to cause poliomyelitis. The attenuated vaccine strains involved in the eradication programme have been used to develop new inactivated vaccines as production is thought safer. However it is known that the Sabin vaccine strains are genetically unstable and can revert to a virulent transmissible form. A possible solution to the need for virus growth would be to generate empty viral capsids by recombinant technology, but hitherto such particles are so unstable as to be unusable. We report here the genetic manipulation of the virus to generate stable empty capsids for all three serotypes. The particles are shown to be extremely stable and to generate high levels of protective antibodies in animal models.

  9. Biological effects of polyacrylic acid-coated and non-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in in vitro and in vivo experimental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Diana Manuel Mocho de Bastos

    As piroxenas sao um vasto grupo de silicatos minerais encontrados em muitas rochas igneas e metamorficas. Na sua forma mais simples, estes silicatos sao constituidas por cadeias de SiO3 ligando grupos tetrahedricos de SiO4. A formula quimica geral das piroxenas e M2M1T2O6, onde M2 se refere a catioes geralmente em uma coordenacao octaedrica distorcida (Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Li+, Ca2+, Na+), M1 refere-se a catioes numa coordenacao octaedrica regular (Al3+, Fe3+, Ti4+, Cr3+, V3+, Ti3+, Zr4+, Sc3+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+), e T a catioes em coordenacao tetrahedrica (Si4+, Al3+, Fe3+). As piroxenas com estrutura monoclinica sao designadas de clinopiroxenes. A estabilidade das clinopyroxenes num espectro de composicoes quimicas amplo, em conjugacao com a possibilidade de ajustar as suas propriedades fisicas e quimicas e a durabilidade quimica, tem gerado um interesse mundial devido a suas aplicacoes em ciencia e tecnologia de materiais. Este trabalho trata do desenvolvimento de vidros e de vitro-cerâmicos baseadas de clinopiroxenas para aplicacoes funcionais. O estudo teve objectivos cientificos e tecnologicos; nomeadamente, adquirir conhecimentos fundamentais sobre a formacao de fases cristalinas e solucoes solidas em determinados sistemas vitro-cerâmicos, e avaliar a viabilidade de aplicacao dos novos materiais em diferentes areas tecnologicas, com especial enfase sobre a selagem em celulas de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC). Com este intuito, prepararam-se varios vidros e materiais vitro-cerâmicos ao longo das juntas Enstatite (MgSiO3) - diopsidio (CaMgSi2O6) e diopsidio (CaMgSi2O6) - Ca - Tschermak (CaAlSi2O6), os quais foram caracterizados atraves de um vasto leque de tecnicas. Todos os vidros foram preparados por fusao-arrefecimento enquanto os vitro-cerâmicos foram obtidos quer por sinterizacao e cristalizacao de fritas, quer por nucleacao e cristalizacao de vidros monoliticos. Estudaram-se ainda os efeitos de varias substituicoes ionicas em composicoes de

  10. Inhibition and reversal of nickel-induced transformation by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qunwei; Salnikow, Konstantin; Kluz, Thomas; Chen, L.C.; Su, W.C.; Costa, Max

    2003-01-01

    The carcinogenic process initiated by nongenotoxic carcinogens involves modulation of gene expression. Nickel compounds have low mutagenic activity, but are highly carcinogenic. In vitro both mouse and human cells can be efficiently transformed by soluble and insoluble nickel compounds to anchorage-independent growth. Because previous studies have shown that carcinogenic nickel compounds silence genes by inhibiting histone acetylation and enhancing DNA methylation, we investigated the effect of enhancing histone acetylation on cell transformation. The exposure of nickel-transformed cells to the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) resulted in the appearance of significant number of revertants measured by their inability to grow in soft agar. Using the Affymetrix GeneChip we found that the level of expression of a significant number of genes was changed (suppressed or upregulated) in nickel-transformed clones but returned to a normal level in revertants obtained following TSA treatment. Moreover, we found that treatment of cells with TSA inhibited the ability of nickel to transform mouse PW cells to anchorage-independent growth. Treatment with TSA also inhibited the ability of nickel to transform human HOS cells, although to a lesser extent. In contrast, treatment with TSA was not able to revert established cancer cell lines as readily as the nickel-transformed cells. These data indicated that modulation of gene expression is important for nickel-induced transformation

  11. Prophage induction and cell division in E. coli. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.; Castellazzi, M.; Buttin, G.

    1975-01-01

    In E. coli K12, cell filamentation promoted by tif is enhanced by the lon mutation; in contrast, prophage induction and repair of UV-irradiated phage lambda, also promoted by tif, are not affected by lon. From a tif lon double mutant, 'revertants' having recovered the ability to divide at 41 0 were isolated, among which most (95%) had also lost heir Lon filamentous phenotype after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. From these 95% of revertants 94% are suppressed for the whole Tif phenotype, by additional mutations that render them deficient in DNA repair, as judged from their high UV sensitivity; some have been characterized as recA mutants. 1% have recovered a control on cell division at 41% or after UV irradiation by means of secondary mutations altering neither the other phenotypic properties of tif and lon, nor the repair and recombination ability of the cells: in particular, this class of 'revertants' remains thermoinducible upon lysogenisation; the mutations which specifically supress filamentation have been mapped at two loci, sfiA and sfiB, cotransducible respectively with pyrD and leu. In the remaining 5% of revertants that still exhibit an UV-induced filamentous growth, 3% can be tentatively classified as true tif + revertants; 2% behave as tif thermodependent revertants, showing suppression of Tif (and Lon) phenotype only at 41 0 : 2 recAts have been identified in this class. Non-lysogenic tif lon sfi and tif sfi strains remain viable during prolonged growth at 41 0 . Under these conditions, tif expresses mutator properties, which can be conveniently analyzed in this sfi background. The action of tif, lon and sfi mutations is tentatively interpreted on the basis of a negative control of cell division specifically associated with DNA repair. (orig.) [de

  12. 1H NMR and SPME-GC/MS study of hydrolysis, oxidation and other reactions occurring during in vitro digestion of non-oxidized and oxidized sunflower oil. Formation of hydroxy-octadecadienoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Manzanos, María J; Guillén, María D

    2017-01-01

    Both fresh and slightly oxidized sunflower oils, as models of omega-6 rich lipids, were submitted to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and studied by 1 H NMR and SPME-GC/MS. Changes in lipolysis degree, lipid composition and oxidative level were studied by 1 H NMR. Three quantitative approaches were used and several equations were newly developed. In oxidized oil digestates slightly lower hydrolysis and a higher advance of oxidation took place during digestion. This latter was evidenced by a greater decrease of lipid unsaturation degree and enhanced generation of oxidation products (cis,trans-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoates, cis,trans- and trans,trans-hydroxy-octadecadienoates). For the first time, the generation of hydroxy-octadecadienoates during in vitro digestion is reported. Furthermore, SPME-GC/MS study of non-digested and digested samples headspaces confirmed that lipid oxidation occurred: abundances of volatile markers increased (including potentially toxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes), especially in oxidized oils digestates. Markers of Maillard-type and esterification reactions were also detected in the digestates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  14. Sequence-specific DNA binding by MYC/MAX to low-affinity non-E-box motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allevato

    Full Text Available The MYC oncoprotein regulates transcription of a large fraction of the genome as an obligatory heterodimer with the transcription factor MAX. The MYC:MAX heterodimer and MAX:MAX homodimer (hereafter MYC/MAX bind Enhancer box (E-box DNA elements (CANNTG and have the greatest affinity for the canonical MYC E-box (CME CACGTG. However, MYC:MAX also recognizes E-box variants and was reported to bind DNA in a "non-specific" fashion in vitro and in vivo. Here, in order to identify potential additional non-canonical binding sites for MYC/MAX, we employed high throughput in vitro protein-binding microarrays, along with electrophoretic mobility-shift assays and bioinformatic analyses of MYC-bound genomic loci in vivo. We identified all hexameric motifs preferentially bound by MYC/MAX in vitro, which include the low-affinity non-E-box sequence AACGTT, and found that the vast majority (87% of MYC-bound genomic sites in a human B cell line contain at least one of the top 21 motifs bound by MYC:MAX in vitro. We further show that high MYC/MAX concentrations are needed for specific binding to the low-affinity sequence AACGTT in vitro and that elevated MYC levels in vivo more markedly increase the occupancy of AACGTT sites relative to CME sites, especially at distal intergenic and intragenic loci. Hence, MYC binds diverse DNA motifs with a broad range of affinities in a sequence-specific and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that MYC overexpression has more selective effects on the tumor transcriptome than previously thought.

  15. Analysis of clonogenic human brain tumour cells: preliminary results of tumour sensitivity testing with BCNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, M L; Dougherty, D A; Deen, D F; Hoshino, T; Wilson, C B [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Neurology

    1980-04-01

    Biopsies from 6 patients with glioblastoma multiforme were disaggregated and single cells were treated in vitro with various concentrations of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso urea (BCNU) and plated for cell survival. One patient's cells were sensitive to BCNU in vitro; after a single dose of BCNU her brain scan reverted to normal and she was clinically well. Five tumours demonstrated resistance in vitro. Three of these tumours progressed during the first course of chemotherapy with a nitrosourea and the patients died at 21/2, 4 and 81/2 months after operation. Two patients who showed dramatic responses to radiation therapy were considered unchanged after the first course of nitrosourea therapy (although one demonstrated tumour enlargement on brain scan). The correlation of in vitro testing of tumour cell sensitivity with actual patient response is encouraging enough to warrant further work to determine whether such tests should weigh in decisions on patient therapy.

  16. Characterization of aging-induced microstructural changes in M250 maraging steel using magnetic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, K.V. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Vaidyanathan, S. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kumar, Anish [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)]. E-mail: tjk@igcar.gov.in; Raj, Baldev [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Ray, K.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2007-05-15

    The best combinations of mechanical properties (yield stress and fracture toughness) of M250 maraging steel is obtained through short-term thermal aging (3-10 h) at 755 K. This is attributed to the microstructure containing precipitation of intermetallic phases in austenite-free low-carbon martensite matrix. Over-aged microstructure, containing reverted austenite degrades the mechanical properties drastically. Hence, it necessitates identification of a suitable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting any reverted austenite unambiguously during aging. The influence of aging on microstructure, room temperature hardness and non-destructive magnetic parameters such as coercivity (H {sub c}), saturation magnetization (M {sub s}) and magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) RMS peak voltage is studied in order to derive correlations between these parameters in aged M250 maraging steel. Hardness was found to increase with precipitation of intermetallics during initial aging and decrease at longer durations due to austenite reversion. Among the different magnetic parameters studied, MBE RMS peak voltage was found to be very sensitive to austenite reversion (non-magnetic phase) as they decreased drastically up on initiation of austenite reversion. Hence, this parameter can be effectively utilized to detect and quantify the reverted austenite in maraging steel specimen. The present study clearly indicates that the combination of MBE RMS peak voltage and hardness can be used for unambiguous characterization of microstructural features of technological and practical importance (3-10 h of aging duration at 755 K) in M250 grade maraging steel.

  17. Characterization of aging-induced microstructural changes in M250 maraging steel using magnetic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkumar, K.V.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Ray, K.K.

    2007-01-01

    The best combinations of mechanical properties (yield stress and fracture toughness) of M250 maraging steel is obtained through short-term thermal aging (3-10 h) at 755 K. This is attributed to the microstructure containing precipitation of intermetallic phases in austenite-free low-carbon martensite matrix. Over-aged microstructure, containing reverted austenite degrades the mechanical properties drastically. Hence, it necessitates identification of a suitable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting any reverted austenite unambiguously during aging. The influence of aging on microstructure, room temperature hardness and non-destructive magnetic parameters such as coercivity (H c ), saturation magnetization (M s ) and magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) RMS peak voltage is studied in order to derive correlations between these parameters in aged M250 maraging steel. Hardness was found to increase with precipitation of intermetallics during initial aging and decrease at longer durations due to austenite reversion. Among the different magnetic parameters studied, MBE RMS peak voltage was found to be very sensitive to austenite reversion (non-magnetic phase) as they decreased drastically up on initiation of austenite reversion. Hence, this parameter can be effectively utilized to detect and quantify the reverted austenite in maraging steel specimen. The present study clearly indicates that the combination of MBE RMS peak voltage and hardness can be used for unambiguous characterization of microstructural features of technological and practical importance (3-10 h of aging duration at 755 K) in M250 grade maraging steel

  18. Characterization of aging-induced microstructural changes in M250 maraging steel using magnetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K. V.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Ray, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    The best combinations of mechanical properties (yield stress and fracture toughness) of M250 maraging steel is obtained through short-term thermal aging (3-10 h) at 755 K. This is attributed to the microstructure containing precipitation of intermetallic phases in austenite-free low-carbon martensite matrix. Over-aged microstructure, containing reverted austenite degrades the mechanical properties drastically. Hence, it necessitates identification of a suitable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting any reverted austenite unambiguously during aging. The influence of aging on microstructure, room temperature hardness and non-destructive magnetic parameters such as coercivity ( Hc), saturation magnetization ( Ms) and magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) RMS peak voltage is studied in order to derive correlations between these parameters in aged M250 maraging steel. Hardness was found to increase with precipitation of intermetallics during initial aging and decrease at longer durations due to austenite reversion. Among the different magnetic parameters studied, MBE RMS peak voltage was found to be very sensitive to austenite reversion (non-magnetic phase) as they decreased drastically up on initiation of austenite reversion. Hence, this parameter can be effectively utilized to detect and quantify the reverted austenite in maraging steel specimen. The present study clearly indicates that the combination of MBE RMS peak voltage and hardness can be used for unambiguous characterization of microstructural features of technological and practical importance (3-10 h of aging duration at 755 K) in M250 grade maraging steel.

  19. In vitro and in vivo corrosion evaluation of nickel-chromium- and copper-aluminum-based alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, O F; Miranda, W G; Muench, A

    2000-09-01

    The low resistance to corrosion is the major problem related to the use of copper-aluminum alloys. This in vitro and in vivo study evaluated the corrosion of 2 copper-aluminum alloys (Cu-Al and Cu-Al-Zn) compared with a nickel-chromium alloy. For the in vitro test, specimens were immersed in the following 3 corrosion solutions: artificial saliva, 0.9% sodium chloride, and 1.0% sodium sulfide. For the in vivo test, specimens were embedded in complete dentures, so that one surface was left exposed. The 3 testing sites were (1) close to the oral mucosa (partial self-cleaning site), (2) surface exposed to the oral cavity (self-cleaning site), and (3) specimen bottom surface exposed to the saliva by means of a tunnel-shaped perforation (non-self-cleaning site). Almost no corrosion occurred with the nickel-chromium alloy, for either the in vitro or in vivo test. On the other hand, the 2 copper-aluminum-based alloys exhibited high corrosion in the sulfide solution. These same alloys also underwent high corrosion in non-self-cleaning sites for the in vivo test, although minimal attack was observed in self-cleaning sites. The nickel-chromium alloy presented high resistance to corrosion. Both copper-aluminum alloys showed considerable corrosion in the sulfide solution and clinically in the non-self-cleaning site. However, in self-cleaning sites these 2 alloys did not show substantial corrosion.

  20. Xylanase and Protease Increase Solubilization of Non-Starch Polysaccharides and Nutrient Release of Corn- and Wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arent, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The use of distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as alternative to conventional animal feed for non-ruminants is challenged by the high content of non-starch polysaccharides and varying protein quality. In this study the enzymatic degradation of corn- and wheat DDGS was evaluated, in vitro...... of this xylanase. The current in vitro results indicate a high potential of xylanase in combination with protease to efficiently degrade DDGS and promote nutrient release in diets for non-ruminant animals....

  1. Towards an in vitro model of Plasmodium hypnozoites suitable for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Laurent; Gego, Audrey; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Franetich, Jean-François; Silvie, Olivier; Rametti, Armelle; Le Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Sauerwein, Robert; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, Alan W; Snounou, Georges; Kocken, Clemens H M; Mazier, Dominique

    2011-03-31

    Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single drug effective against hypnozoites, primaquine, is available, but its deployment is curtailed by its haemolytic potential in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient persons. Novel compounds are thus urgently needed to replace primaquine. Discovery of compounds active against hypnozoites is restricted to the in vivo P. cynomolgi-rhesus monkey model. Slow growing hepatic parasites reminiscent of hypnozoites had been noted in cultured P. vivax-infected hepatoma cells, but similar forms are also observed in vitro by other species including P. falciparum that do not produce hypnozoites. P. falciparum or P. cynomolgi sporozoites were used to infect human or Macaca fascicularis primary hepatocytes, respectively. The susceptibility of the slow and normally growing hepatic forms obtained in vitro to three antimalarial drugs, one active against hepatic forms including hypnozoites and two only against the growing forms, was measured. The non-dividing slow growing P. cynomolgi hepatic forms, observed in vitro in primary hepatocytes from the natural host Macaca fascicularis, can be distinguished from similar forms seen in P. falciparum-infected human primary hepatocytes by the differential action of selected anti-malarial drugs. Whereas atovaquone and pyrimethamine are active on all the dividing hepatic forms observed, the P. cynomolgi slow growing forms are highly resistant to treatment by these drugs, but remain susceptible to primaquine. Resistance of the non-dividing P. cynomolgi forms to atovaquone and pyrimethamine, which do not prevent relapses, strongly suggests that these slow growing forms are hypnozoites. This represents a first step towards the development of a practical medium

  2. Towards an in vitro model of Plasmodium hypnozoites suitable for drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dembele

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single drug effective against hypnozoites, primaquine, is available, but its deployment is curtailed by its haemolytic potential in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient persons. Novel compounds are thus urgently needed to replace primaquine. Discovery of compounds active against hypnozoites is restricted to the in vivo P. cynomolgi-rhesus monkey model. Slow growing hepatic parasites reminiscent of hypnozoites had been noted in cultured P. vivax-infected hepatoma cells, but similar forms are also observed in vitro by other species including P. falciparum that do not produce hypnozoites.P. falciparum or P. cynomolgi sporozoites were used to infect human or Macaca fascicularis primary hepatocytes, respectively. The susceptibility of the slow and normally growing hepatic forms obtained in vitro to three antimalarial drugs, one active against hepatic forms including hypnozoites and two only against the growing forms, was measured.The non-dividing slow growing P. cynomolgi hepatic forms, observed in vitro in primary hepatocytes from the natural host Macaca fascicularis, can be distinguished from similar forms seen in P. falciparum-infected human primary hepatocytes by the differential action of selected anti-malarial drugs. Whereas atovaquone and pyrimethamine are active on all the dividing hepatic forms observed, the P. cynomolgi slow growing forms are highly resistant to treatment by these drugs, but remain susceptible to primaquine.Resistance of the non-dividing P. cynomolgi forms to atovaquone and pyrimethamine, which do not prevent relapses, strongly suggests that these slow growing forms are hypnozoites. This represents a first step towards the development of a

  3. The blood-brain barrier in vitro using primary culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart

    The brain is protected from the entry of unwanted substances by means of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by the brain microvasculature. This BBB is composed of non-fenestrated brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) with their intermingling tight junctions. The presence of the BBB is a huge...... obstacle for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, as many potentially CNS active drugs are unable to reach their site of action within the brain. In vitro BBB models are, therefore, being developed to investigate the BBB permeability of a drug early in its development. The first part...... of the thesis involves the establishment and characterization of an in vitro BBB models based on primary cells isolated from the rat brain. Co-culture and triple culture models with astrocytes and pericytes were found to be the superior to mono cultured BCECs with respect to many important BBB characteristics...

  4. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Benjamin A; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2016-05-13

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in redox reactions and NAD(+)-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD(+)-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD(+) as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD(+) salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD(+) from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD(+) precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1-2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD(+) content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  5. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF VARIOUS FEEDSTUFFS FOR LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION USING IN VITRO GAS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. KHANUM, T. YAQOOB1, S. SADAF1, M. HUSSAIN, M. A. JABBAR1, H. N. HUSSAIN, R. KAUSAR AND S. REHMAN1

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional quality of some conventional and non-conventional feed resources by using in vitro gas method. Samples of various feedstuffs were analyzed chemically, as well as by in vitro gas method. The feedstuffs having different digestibilities showed significant (P<0.05 differences in the rate and amount of gas production, metabolizable energy (ME and digestibility of organic matter. Predicted metabolizable energy values were very low in feedstuffs having high fiber and low protein contents. These feedstuffs included various grasses, crop residues and wheal straw. Lowest ME value of 4.7 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM was found in wheat straw. Many of the roughages (Sorghum vulgare, Kochia indica, Leptochloa fusca studied were found to be deficient in fermentable carbohydrates, resulting in low organic matter digestibility. Concentrate feed stuffs like cotton seed meal, sunflower meal, cotton seed cakes, rice polish, rapeseed meal and Zea mays (maize grains had higher ME values (9.27 – 12.44 MJ/kg DM. The difference of ME of various feedstuffs reflects different contents of fermentable carbohydrates and available nitrogen in cereals and protein supplements. Among the non-conventional feedstuffs, Acacia ampliceps, Acacia nilotica, Sesbania aculeata, Leptochloa fusca and Prosopis juliflora were found potential fodders. Extensive use of in vitro gas method proved its potential as a tool to evaluate various ruminant feeds for energy component.

  6. Microbial pathogenesis in cystic fibrosis: co-ordinate regulation of heat-shock response and conversion to mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, M J; Deretic, V

    1997-04-01

    Conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the mucoid phenotype plays a major role in the pathogenesis of respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). One mechanism responsible for mucoidy is based on mutations that inactivate the anti-sigma factor, MucA, which normally inhibits the alternative sigma factor, AIgU. The loss of MucA allows AIgU to freely direct transcription of the genes responsible for the production of the exopolysaccharide alginate resulting in mucoid colony morphology. In Escherichia coli, a close homologue of AIgU, sigma(E), directs transcription of several genes under conditions of extreme heat shock. Here we examined whether AIgU, besides its role in controlling alginate production, affects the heat-shock response in P. aeruginosa. The P. aeruginosa rpoH gene encoding a homologue of the major heat-shock sigma factor, sigma32, was found to be transcribed by AIgU containing RNA polymerase from one of its promoters (P3) identified in this study. Transcription of rpoH from P3 was elevated upon exposure to extreme heat shock in an aIgU-dependent manner. Importantly, the AIgU-dependent promoter of rpoH was found to be activated in mucoid mucA mutants. In keeping with this observation, introduction of a wild-type mucA gene abrogated AIgU-dependent rpoH transcription in mucoid P. aeruginosa laboratory isolates and CF isolates. These results suggest that conversion to mucoidy and the heat-shock response are co-ordinately regulated in P. aeruginosa. The simultaneous activation of both systems in mucA mutants, selected in the lungs of CF patients, may have significance for the inflammatory processes characteristic of the establishment of chronic infection and ensuing clinical deterioration in CF.

  7. Inhibition of Akt activity induces the mesenchymal-to-epithelial reverting transition with restoring E-cadherin expression in KB and KOSCC-25B oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sam-Pyo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Akt/PKB family of kinases is frequently activated in human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Akt-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT involves downregulation of E-cadherin, which appears to result from upregulation of the transcription repressor Snail. Recently, it was proposed that carcinoma cells, especially in metastatic sites, could acquire the mesenchymal-to-epithelial reverting transition (MErT in order to adapt the microenvironments and re-expression of E-cadherin be a critical indicator of MErT. However, the precise mechanism and biologic or clinical importance of the MErT in cancers have been little known. This study aimed to investigate whether Akt inhibition would restore the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, reduce that of Vimentin, and induce the MErT in OSCC cells with low or negative expression of E-cadherin. We also investigate whether inhibition of Akt activity would affect the E-cadherin repressors and signaling molecules like NF-κB, ERK, and p38. Methods We screened several OSCC cell lines in order to select suitable cell line models for inducing MErT, using immunoblotting and methylation specific-PCR. We examined whether Akt inhibitor phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogues (PIA treatment would restore the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, reduce that of Vimentin, and induce the MErT in KB and KOSCC-25B cells using RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence analysis, and in vitro migration assay. We also investigated whether inhibition of Akt activity would affect the E-cadherin repressors, including Snail, Twist, and SIP-1/ZEB-2 and signaling molecules like NF-κB, ERK, JNK, and p38 using RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analysis. Results Of the 7 OSCC cell lines, KB and KOSCC-25B showed constitutively activated phosphorylated Akt and low or negative expression of E-cadherin. Inhibition of Akt activity by PIA decreased NF-κB signaling

  8. Acculturation impact on some metabolic parameters of the Lacandon communities from Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Islas-Andrade

    2017-07-01

    The study showed the need to implement public health programs to revert the obesity tendency in the young Lacandon population to avoid in long term the burden of non-communicable diseases that would affect most of their productive life.

  9. [Elaboration of Pseudo-natural Products Using Artificial In Vitro Biosynthesis Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuki

    2018-01-01

     Peptidic natural products often consist of not only proteinogenic building blocks but also unique non-proteinogenic structures such as macrocyclic scaffolds and N-methylated backbones. Since such non-proteinogenic structures are important structural motifs that contribute to diverse bioactivity, we have proposed that peptides with non-proteinogenic structures should be attractive candidates as artificial bioactive peptides mimicking natural products, or so-called pseudo-natural products. We previously devised an engineered translation system for pseudo-natural peptides, referred to as the flexible in vitro translation (FIT) system. This system enabled "one-pot" synthesis of highly diverse pseudo-natural peptide libraries, which can be rapidly screened by mRNA display technology for the discovery of pseudo-natural peptides with diverse bioactivities.

  10. Targeting nanoparticles to M cells with non-peptidic ligands for oral vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievez, Virginie; Plapied, Laurence; des Rieux, Anne; Pourcelle, Vincent; Freichels, Hélène; Wascotte, Valentine; Vanderhaeghen, Marie-Lyse; Jerôme, Christine; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Préat, Véronique

    2009-09-01

    The presence of RGD on nanoparticles allows the targeting of beta1 integrins at the apical surface of human M cells and the enhancement of an immune response after oral immunization. To check the hypothesis that non-peptidic ligands targeting intestinal M cells or APCs would be more efficient for oral immunization than RGD, novel non-peptidic and peptidic analogs (RGD peptidomimitic (RGDp), LDV derivative (LDVd) and LDV peptidomimetic (LDVp)) as well as mannose were grafted on the PEG chain of PCL-PEG and incorporated in PLGA-based nanoparticles. RGD and RGDp significantly increased the transport of nanoparticles across an in vitro model of human M cells as compared to enterocytes. RGD, LDVp, LDVd and mannose enhanced nanoparticle uptake by macrophages in vitro. The intraduodenal immunization with RGDp-, LDVd- or mannose-labeled nanoparticles elicited a higher production of IgG antibodies than the intramuscular injection of free ovalbumin or intraduodenal administration of either non-targeted or RGD-nanoparticles. Targeted formulations were also able to induce a cellular immune response. In conclusion, the in vitro transport of nanoparticles, uptake by macrophages and the immune response were positively influenced by the presence of ligands at the surface of nanoparticles. These targeted-nanoparticles could thus represent a promising delivery system for oral immunization.

  11. Yeast Ivy1p Is a Putative I-BAR-domain Protein with pH-sensitive Filament Forming Ability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Kida, Kazuki; Hanawa-Suetsugu, Kyoko; Suetsugu, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs161/167 (BAR) domains mold lipid bilayer membranes into tubules, by forming a spiral polymer on the membrane. Most BAR domains are thought to be involved in forming membrane invaginations through their concave membrane binding surfaces, whereas some members have convex membrane binding surfaces, and thereby mold membranes into protrusions. The BAR domains with a convex surface form a subtype called the inverse BAR (I-BAR) domain or IRSp53-MIM-homology domain (IMD). Although the mammalian I-BAR domains have been studied, those from other organisms remain elusive. Here, we found putative I-BAR domains in Fungi and animal-like unicellular organisms. The fungal protein containing the putative I-BAR-domain is known as Ivy1p in yeast, and is reportedly localized in the vacuole. The phylogenetic analysis of the I-BAR domains revealed that the fungal I-BAR-domain containing proteins comprise a distinct group from those containing IRSp53 or MIM. Importantly, Ivy1p formed a polymer with a diameter of approximately 20 nm in vitro, without a lipid membrane. The filaments were formed at neutral pH, but disassembled when pH was reverted to basic. Moreover, Ivy1p and the I-BAR domain expressed in mammalian HeLa cells was localized at a vacuole-like structure as filaments as revealed by super-resolved microscopy. These data indicate the pH-sensitive polymer forming ability and the functional conservation of Ivy1p in eukaryotic cells.

  12. In vitro and ex vivo evaluations on transdermal delivery of the HIV inhibitor IQP-0410.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S Ham

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and in vitro/ex vivo characteristics of the pyrmidinedione IQP-0410 formulated into transdermal films. IQP-0410 is a potent therapeutic anti-HIV nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that would be subjected to extensive first pass metabolism, through conventional oral administration. Therefore, IQP-0410 was formulated into ethyl cellulose/HPMC-based transdermal films via solvent casting. In mano evaluations were performed to evaluate gross physical characteristics. In vitro release studies were performed in both Franz cells and USP-4 dissolution vessels. Ex vivo release and permeability assays were performed on human epidermal tissue models, and the permeated IQP-0410 was collected for in vitro HIV-1 efficacy assays in CEM-SS cells and PBMCs. Film formulation D3 resulted in pliable, strong transdermal films that were loaded with 2% (w/w IQP-0410. Composed of 60% (w/w ethyl cellulose and 20% (w/w HPMC, the films contained < 1.2% (w/w of water and were hygroscopic resulting in significant swelling under humid conditions. The water permeable nature of the film resulted in complete in vitro dissolution and drug release in 26 hours. When applied to ex vivo epidermal tissues, the films were non-toxic to the tissue and also were non-toxic to HIV target cells used in the in vitro efficacy assays. Over a 3 day application, the films delivered IQP-0410 through the skin tissue at a zero-order rate of 0.94 ± 0.06 µg/cm(2/hr with 134 ± 14.7 µM collected in the basal media. The delivered IQP-0410 resulted in in vitro EC50 values against HIV-1 of 2.56 ± 0.40 nM (CEM-SS and 0.58 ± 0.03 nM (PBMC. The film formulation demonstrated no significant deviation from target values when packaged in foil pouches under standard and accelerated environmental conditions. It was concluded that the transdermal film formulation was a potentially viable method of administering IQP-0410 that warrants

  13. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørli, Jorid B; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie; Hansen, Jitka S; Zuo, Yi Y; Frederiksen, Marie; Nørgaard, Asger W; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Larsen, Søren T; Hougaard, Karin S

    2018-01-01

    Private consumers and professionals may experience acute inhalation toxicity after inhaling aerosolized impregnation products. The distinction between toxic and non-toxic products is difficult to make for producers and product users alike, as there is no clearly described relationship between the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21 impregnation products using the constant flow through set-up of the constrained drop surfactometer to determine if the products inhibited surfactant function or not. The same products were tested in a mouse inhalation bioassay to determine their toxicity in vivo. The sensitivity was 100%, i.e., the in vitro method predicted all the products that were toxic for mice to inhale. The specificity of the in vitro test was 63%, i.e., the in vitro method found three false positives in the 21 tested products. Six of the products had been involved in accidental human inhalation where they caused acute inhalation toxicity. All of these six products inhibited lung surfactant function in vitro and were toxic to mice.

  14. Study in vitro of origin radioprotective food the radioprotective effect in vitro of food borne; Estudio in vitro de radioprotectores de origen alimentario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soraino, J. M.; Sebastia, N.; Almonacid, M.; Alonso, O.; Cervera, J.; Such, E.; Silla, M. A.; Villaescusa, J. I.; Montoro, A.

    2012-07-01

    Study in vitro of origin radioprotective food the radioprotective effect in vitro of food borne substances studied is a first step in developing effective radioprotectors that can prevent radiation damage to healthy tissue., cannot forget that these studies must be accompanied by in vitro studies of toxicity and bioavailability to profile designing radioprotective substance.

  15. Development of a confocal ultrasound device using an inertial cavitation control for transfection in-vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestas, J. L.; Chettab, K.; Roux, S.; Prieur, F.; Lafond, M.; Dumontet, C.; Lafon, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sonoporation using low-frequency high-pressure ultrasound (US) is a non-viral approach for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. We developed a new sonoporation device designed for spatial and temporal control of ultrasound cavitation. This device was evaluated for the in vitro transfection efficiency of a plasmid coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (peGFP- C1) in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. The frequency spectrum of the signal receive by a hydrophone is used to compute a cavitation index (CI) representative of the inertial cavitation activity. The influence of the CI on transfection efficiency, as well as reproducibility were determined. A real-time feedback loop control on CI was integrated in the process to regulate the cavitation level during sonoporation. In both adherent and non-adherent cell lines, the sonoporation device produced a highly efficient transfection of peGFP-C1 (40-80%), as determined by flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression, along with a low rate of mortality assessed by propidium iodide staining. Moreover, the sonoporation of non-adherent cell lines Jurkat and K562 was found to be equivalent to nucleofection in terms of efficiency and toxicity while these two cell lines were resistant to transfection with lipofection.

  16. Characterization of microbial metabolism of Syrah grape products in an in vitro colon model using targeted and non-targeted analytical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Aura, Anna-Marja; Mattila, Ismo; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Cheynier, Veronique; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Bes, Magali; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Guyot, Sylvain; Orešič, Matej

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Syrah red grapes are used in the production of tannin-rich red wines. Tannins are high molecular weight molecules, proanthocyanidins (PAs), and poorly absorbed in the upper intestine. In this study, gut microbial metabolism of Syrah grape phenolic compounds was investigated. Methods Syrah grape pericarp was subjected to an enzymatic in vitro digestion model, and red wine and grape skin PA fraction were prepared. Microbial conversion was screened using an in vitro colon model with faec...

  17. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo studies, and molecular modeling of N-alkylated dextromethorphan derivatives as non-competitive inhibitors of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Kozak, Joanna; Ligeza, Agnieszka; Szacon, Elzbieta; Wrobel, Tomasz M; Budzynska, Barbara; Biala, Grazyna; Fornal, Emilia; Poso, Antti; Wainer, Irving W; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2014-12-15

    9 N-alkylated derivatives of dextromethorphan are synthesized and studied as non-competitive inhibitors of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In vitro activity towards α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is determined using a patch-clamp technique and is in the micromolar range. Homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics of ligand-receptor complexes in POPC membrane are used to find the mode of interactions of N-alkylated dextromethorphan derivatives with α3β4 nAChR. The compounds, similarly as dextromethorphan, interact with the middle portion of α3β4 nAChR ion channel. Finally, behavioral tests confirmed potential application of the studied compounds for the treatment of addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do bacteria isolated from ICU patients 'ESKAPE' antibiotic treatment? In vitro susceptibility of the Enterobacteriaceae family to tigecycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga-Ćwiertnia, Katarzyna; Krzyściak, Paweł; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae are currently causing the majority of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and simultaneously expressing increasing levels of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study is to assess the in vitro sensitivity of MDR strains from the family Enterobacteriaceae to tigecycline in relation to their origin from patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICUs. The study involved 156 clinically significant strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from patients with complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAIs) and/or complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) hospitalized in ICUs and other surgical departments. Tigecycline MICs were determined by Etest. The highest percentage of tigecycline non-susceptible (intermediate + resistant strains) in vitro strains among the Enterobacteriaceae species were observed for Serratia spp. 77.3%, followed by Citrobacter spp. (76.9%) and Enterobacter spp. (70%); whereas K. pneumoniae and E. coli showed 73-73.8% tigecycline susceptibility rates. Tigecycline demonstrates a high level of antimicrobial in vitro activity when tested against E. coli and K. pneumoniae, even those with the ESBL-phenotype. Tigecycline retained activity against merely 22-30% of Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Serratia genera.

  19. In vitro study on the schedule-dependency of the interaction between pemetrexed, gemcitabine and irradiation in non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, An; Pauwels, Bea; Lardon, Filip; Pattyn, Greet GO; Lambrechts, Hilde AJ; Baay, Marc; Meijnders, Paul; Vermorken, Jan B

    2010-01-01

    Based on their different mechanisms of action, non-overlapping side effects and radiosensitising potential, combining the antimetabolites pemetrexed (multitargeted antifolate, MTA) and gemcitabine (2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine, dFdC) with irradiation (RT) seems promising. This in vitro study, for the first time, presents the triple combination of MTA, dFdC and irradiation using various treatment schedules. The cytotoxicity, radiosensitising potential and cell cycle effect of MTA were investigated in A549 (NSCLC) and CAL-27 (SCCHN) cells. Using simultaneous or sequential exposure schedules, the cytotoxicity and radiosensitising effect of 24 h MTA combined with 1 h or 24 h dFdC were analysed. Including a time interval between MTA exposure and irradiation seemed favourable to MTA immediately preceding or following radiotherapy. MTA induced a significant S phase accumulation that persisted for more than 8 h after drug removal. Among different MTA/dFdC combinations tested, the highest synergistic interaction was produced by 24 h MTA followed by 1 h dFdC. Combined with irradiation, this schedule showed a clear radiosensitising effect. Results from our in vitro model suggest that the sequence 24 h MTA → 1 h dFdC → RT is the most rational design and would, after confirmation in an in vivo setting, possibly provide the greatest benefit in the clinic

  20. In vitro exposure to X-radiation of stimulated and non-stimulated human B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. In vitro Roentgenbestrahlung stimulierter und unstimulierter menschlicher B- und T-Lymphozyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krystossek, H.

    1986-09-25

    The sensitivity of human type B and type T lymphocytes to 130 kV X-radiation was investigated in vitro. The degree to which 3H thymidine was incorporated into the DNA of these cells was taken as a measure of cellular viability. The results led to the conclusion that the in vitro reactions to X-rays following stimulation and radiation are considerably more pronounced in human B lymphocytes than in human T lymphocytes. The rapid radiation-induced lessening of thymidine incorporation into stimulated B lymphocytes was interpreted as a sign that cellular decay occurred during the interphase. The relative increases in the thymidine incorporation rates seen following radiation of T cells in the presence of hydroxyurea or caffeinemust, however, not be mistaken for an augmentation of resistance that was brought about by these inhibitors. The latter effect is believed to be rather due to an overreaction of the repair mechanisms of DNA which is characterised by short chains.

  1. In vitro disposition profiling of heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keemink, Janneke; Wuyts, Benjamin; Nicolaï, Johan; Jonghe, Steven De; Stella, Alessandro; Herdewijn, Piet; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2015-08-01

    Compound libraries that are screened for biological activity commonly contain heterocycles. Besides potency, drug-like properties need to be evaluated to ensure in vivo efficacy of test compounds. In this context, we determined hepatic and intestinal disposition profiles for 17 heterocyclic compounds. All studied compounds showed rapid uptake in suspended rat hepatocytes, whereas metabolism was poor and the rate-limiting step in hepatic elimination. In vitro assays demonstrated a relatively low solubility and high intestinal permeability. Based on these in vitro data, heterocycles were categorized in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) to predict disposition characteristics before clinical data are available. Our findings emphasized the importance to use hepatocytes in addition to microsomes to study metabolism, since the latter lack non-microsomal enzymes and cellular context. Moreover, intracellular exposure should be considered to gain insight in the relevant fraction of the compound available at the enzymatic site. Finally, the study reveals discrepancies associated with the classification of heterocycles in BCS versus BDDCS. These probably originate from the binary character of both systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using in vitro derived enzymatic reaction rates of metabolism to inform pesticide body burdens in amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. To assess the potential metabolic activation of broad use pesticides in amphibians, in vitro and in vivo metabolic rate cons...

  3. Concanavalin A-mediated in vitro activation of a secondary cytotoxic T-cell response in virus-primed splenocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Jensen, B L

    1980-01-01

    In a recent report it was shown that what appeared to be secondary cytotoxic T cells could be obtained from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-primed splenocytes after stimulation in vitro with the non-specific T cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). The present experiments attempt to chara......In a recent report it was shown that what appeared to be secondary cytotoxic T cells could be obtained from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-primed splenocytes after stimulation in vitro with the non-specific T cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). The present experiments attempt...... to characterize further these effector cells and, in particular, to establish whether the Con A-activated cytotoxic effectors are qualitatively different from the secondary cytotoxic T cells induced by restimulation with the homologous antigen. It was found that: (1) in vitro activation with Con A could......, since no evidence was found to indicate a role for other cell types or soluble (cytotoxic or arming) factors; (4) cytotoxicity was specific with regard to both virus and 'self'. By comparison with previous data on LCMV-induced cytotoxic T cells, it is concluded that Con A induces the generation...

  4. Non-invasive analysis of bovine embryo metabolites during in vitro embryo culture using nuclear magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Rubessa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify embryos that have the highest developmental potential from a cohort would significantly increase the chances of achieving pregnancy. Metabolic analysis is a well-established analytical approach in biological systems. Starting from this idea, we chose to use high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy. The aim of this study was to determine if it is possible to select viable embryos after 48 h of culture using metabolic activity as the parameter. We evaluated embryo metabolism after the first 48 h of culture and compared the activity of cleaved embryos that became blastocysts to cleaved embryos that did not develop to blastocysts, and in vitro fertilized (IVF blastocysts and parthenogenetic-activated (PA blastocysts. Our results show that citrate, pyruvate, myo-inositol and lysine have great impact on predicting embryo development. When we compared IVF and PA blastocysts, we found that acetate and phenylalanine concentrations are excellent parameters for evaluating blastocyst quality. Combining all these results, we were able to create a formula that predicts zygote development after 2 days of culture. In conclusion, we found that it is possible predict the future development of in vitro produced bovine embryos after only 2 days of culture using 1H-NMR.

  5. Relative Effects of the Dollar and Yen on East Asian Currency Values: Focusing on the Post-Crisis Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonghan Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically analyzes the relative effects of the dollar and yen on the value of East Asian currencies. We focus especially on countries that have chosen to adopt floating regimes in the post-financial crisis period, such as South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. First, we calculate a exchange rate flexibility index and carry out a regression using Frankel and Wei's (1994 methodology. The results confirm an increase in the coupling of East Asian currencies vis-a-vis the yen since the 1997 financial crisis. In addition to coupling, we calculate using a non-linear unit root test the exchange rates for four currencies vis-a-vis the yen, excluding the Philippine peso, which has a band-reverting tendency. As a second step, we examine the band-reverting tendency in more detail using the Markov-regime switching model and a three-regime threshold vector error correction model. As the results indicate, band-reverting tendencies are verifiable for all currencies, except for the Philippine peso. In particular, symmetrical band-reverting tendencies are observed whether exchange rates are beyond the upper boundary or below the lower boundary of the band. In the case of the Korean won and Taiwanese dollar, when these two currency exchange rates (measured against the yen deviate from a certain band, an adjustment process takes place in order to return toward the band.

  6. Acclimatization of in Vitro-derived Dendrobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The successful ex vitro establishment of Dendrobium plantlets raised in vitro determines the quality of the end product (cut flowers or potted plants in commercial production for economic gain. When in vitro Dendrobium plantlets are transplanted from the culture room to greenhouse conditions, they may desiccate or wilt rapidly and can die as a result of changes in the environment, unless substantial precautions are taken to adapt plantlets to a new environment. The acclimatization of in vitro-grown Dendrobium plantlets to an ex vitro environment by gradually weaning them towards ambient relative humidity and light levels facilitates better survival of young and physiologically sensitive plantlets. Dendrobium plantlets raised in vitro must thus undergo a period of acclimatization or transitional development to correct anatomical abnormalities and to enhance their physiological performance to ensure survival under ex vitro conditions. The most common approach to improve the survival of Dendrobium plantlets upon transfer to an ex vitro environment is their gradual adaptation to that environment. Under such conditions, plants convert rapidly from a heterotrophic or photomixotrophic state to an autotrophic growth, develop a fully functional root system, and better control their stomatal and cuticular transpiration. Gradual adaptation is carried out in a greenhouse by decreasing relative humidity using fog or mist chambers and by increasing light intensity using shading techniques. This review details the acclimatization and ex vitro survival of Dendrobium plants produced in vitro. This advice is also useful for other orchids.

  7. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Anti-glication Effects of the Hexane Extract from Piper auritum Leaves in Vitro and Beneficial Activity on Oxidative Stress and Advanced Glycation End-Product-Mediated Renal Injury in Streptozotocin-Treated Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Neira Gonzalez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of hexane extracts from leaves of Piper auritum (HS. Eight complementary in vitro test methods were used, including inhibition of DPPH· radicals, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, ion-chelating, ABTS, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, β-carotene bleaching and peroxy radical scavenging. The results indicated that HS possesses high antioxidant activity. To add to these finding we tested the effect against oxidative stress in liver, pancreas and kidney in diabetic rats. Low levels of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in diabetic rats were reverted to near normal values after treatment with HS. These results suggest that P. auritum prevents oxidative stress, acting as a suppressor of liver cell damage. Given the link between glycation and oxidation, we proposed that HS might possess significant in vitro antiglycation activity. Our data confirmed the inhibitory effect of HS on bovine serum albumin, serum glycosylated protein, glycation of LDL, and glycation hemoglobin. The effect of HS on diabetic renal damage was investigated using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of HS at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days significantly reduced advanced glycation endproduct (AGE formation, elevated renal glucose and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in the kidneys of diabetic rats. This implies that HS would alleviate the oxidative stress under diabetes through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that oxidative stress is increased in the diabetic rat kidney and that HS can prevent renal damage associated with diabetes by attenuating the oxidative stress.

  8. Impact of cadmium, cobalt and nickel on sequence-specific DNA binding of p63 and p73 in vitro and in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adámik, Matej; Bažantová, Pavla; Navrátilová, Lucie; Polášková, Alena; Pečinka, Petr; Holaňová, Lucie; Tichý, Vlastimil; Brázdová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DNA binding of p53 family core domains is inhibited by cadmium, cobalt and nickel. • Binding to DNA protects p53 family core domains from metal induced inhibition. • Cadmium, cobalt and nickel induced inhibition was reverted by EDTA in vitro. - Abstract: Site-specific DNA recognition and binding activity belong to common attributes of all three members of tumor suppressor p53 family proteins: p53, p63 and p73. It was previously shown that heavy metals can affect p53 conformation, sequence-specific binding and suppress p53 response to DNA damage. Here we report for the first time that cadmium, nickel and cobalt, which have already been shown to disturb various DNA repair mechanisms, can also influence p63 and p73 sequence-specific DNA binding activity and transactivation of p53 family target genes. Based on results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assay, we conclude that cadmium inhibits sequence-specific binding of all three core domains to p53 consensus sequences and abolishes transactivation of several promoters (e.g. BAX and MDM2) by 50 μM concentrations. In the presence of specific DNA, all p53 family core domains were partially protected against loss of DNA binding activity due to cadmium treatment. Effective cadmium concentration to abolish DNA–protein interactions was about two times higher for p63 and p73 proteins than for p53. Furthermore, we detected partial reversibility of cadmium inhibition for all p53 family members by EDTA. DTT was able to reverse cadmium inhibition only for p53 and p73. Nickel and cobalt abolished DNA–p53 interaction at sub-millimolar concentrations while inhibition of p63 and p73 DNA binding was observed at millimolar concentrations. In summary, cadmium strongly inhibits p53, p63 and p73 DNA binding in vitro and in cells in comparison to nickel and cobalt. The role of cadmium inhibition of p53 tumor suppressor family in carcinogenesis is discussed

  9. Impact of cadmium, cobalt and nickel on sequence-specific DNA binding of p63 and p73 in vitro and in cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adámik, Matej [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Bažantová, Pavla [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 701 03 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Navrátilová, Lucie; Polášková, Alena [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Pečinka, Petr [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 701 03 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Holaňová, Lucie [Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1/3, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic); Tichý, Vlastimil [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Brázdová, Marie, E-mail: maruska@ibp.cz [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1/3, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • DNA binding of p53 family core domains is inhibited by cadmium, cobalt and nickel. • Binding to DNA protects p53 family core domains from metal induced inhibition. • Cadmium, cobalt and nickel induced inhibition was reverted by EDTA in vitro. - Abstract: Site-specific DNA recognition and binding activity belong to common attributes of all three members of tumor suppressor p53 family proteins: p53, p63 and p73. It was previously shown that heavy metals can affect p53 conformation, sequence-specific binding and suppress p53 response to DNA damage. Here we report for the first time that cadmium, nickel and cobalt, which have already been shown to disturb various DNA repair mechanisms, can also influence p63 and p73 sequence-specific DNA binding activity and transactivation of p53 family target genes. Based on results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assay, we conclude that cadmium inhibits sequence-specific binding of all three core domains to p53 consensus sequences and abolishes transactivation of several promoters (e.g. BAX and MDM2) by 50 μM concentrations. In the presence of specific DNA, all p53 family core domains were partially protected against loss of DNA binding activity due to cadmium treatment. Effective cadmium concentration to abolish DNA–protein interactions was about two times higher for p63 and p73 proteins than for p53. Furthermore, we detected partial reversibility of cadmium inhibition for all p53 family members by EDTA. DTT was able to reverse cadmium inhibition only for p53 and p73. Nickel and cobalt abolished DNA–p53 interaction at sub-millimolar concentrations while inhibition of p63 and p73 DNA binding was observed at millimolar concentrations. In summary, cadmium strongly inhibits p53, p63 and p73 DNA binding in vitro and in cells in comparison to nickel and cobalt. The role of cadmium inhibition of p53 tumor suppressor family in carcinogenesis is discussed.

  10. The role of metabolism in diclofenac-induced intestinal toxicity in rat and human in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; Makkinje, Miriam; de Graaf, Inge; Groothuis, Genoveva

    The use of Diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is associated with severe gastro-intestinal side-effects. The mechanisms of drug-induced intestinal toxicity are largely unknown due to the lack of in vitro models. In vivo rat studies suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF

  11. Virulence of luminescent and non-luminescent isogenic vibrios towards gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae and specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, L H; Defoirdt, T; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to test the virulence of luminescent (L) and non-luminescent (NL) isogenic strains of Vibrio campbellii LMG21363, Vibrio harveyi BB120 (wild type) and quorum-sensing mutant strains derived from the wild type such as Vibrio harveyi BB152, BB170, MM30 and BB886. The NL strains could be obtained by culturing rifampicin-resistant luminescent strains in the dark under static condition. The virulence of the L and NL strains was tested in gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae challenged with 10(4) CFU ml(-1) of bacteria. All luminescent isogenic tested strains showed higher virulence compared to the NL strains. The virulence of L and NL V. campbellii and V. harveyi BB120 was also tested in specific pathogen-free juvenile shrimp upon intramuscular injection with 10(6) CFU of bacteria. In contrast with Artemia, there was no significant difference in mortality between the groups challenged with L and NL strains (P > 0.05). The non-luminescent strains were not able to revert back to the luminescent state and quorum sensing did not influence this phenotypic shift. Luminescent Vibrio strains can switch to a non-luminescent state by culturing them in static conditions. The NL strains become less virulent as verified in Artemia. The luminescent state of Vibrio cells in a culture needs to be verified in order to assure maintenance of virulence.

  12. In vitro remineralization of in vivo and in vitro formed enamel lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iijima, Y; Takagi, O; Ruben, J; Arends, J

    1999-01-01

    Thin sections of natural white spot enamel lesions (WS) and of artificial in vitro lesions (VL) were remineralized simultaneously in vitro. The sections, clamped in a PMMA holder, were microradiographed at baseline and after remineralization in a calcium- and phosphate-containing solution (pH = 7.0;

  13. In vitro biology of fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus and host cells in Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Balazs, George H.; Schumacher, Joanne; Lewis, Teresa D.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Casey, Rufina N.; Casey, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of green turtles has a global distribution and causes debilitating tumours of the skin and internal organs in several species of marine turtles. FP is associated with a presently non-cultivable alphaherpesvirus Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV). Our aims were to employ quantitative PCR targeted to pol DNA of CFPHV to determine (i) if DNA sequesters by tumour size and/or cell type, (ii) whether subculturing of cells is a viable strategy for isolating CFPHV and (iii) whether CFPHV can be induced to a lytic growth cycle in vitro using chemical modulators of replication (CMRs), temperature variation or co-cultivation. Additional objectives included determining whether non-tumour and tumour cells behave differently in vitro and confirming the phenotype of cultured cells using cell-type-specific antigens. CFPHV pol DNA was preferentially concentrated in dermal fibroblasts of skin tumours and the amount of viral DNA per cell was independent of tumour size. Copy number of CFPHV pol DNA per cell rapidly decreased with cell doubling of tumour-derived fibroblasts in culture. Attempts to induce viral replication in known CFPHV-DNA-positive cells using temperature or CMR failed. No significant differences were seen in in vitro morphology or growth characteristics of fibroblasts from tumour cells and paired normal skin, nor from CFPHV pol-DNA-positive intestinal tumour cells. Tumour cells were confirmed as fibroblasts or keratinocytes by positive staining with anti-vimentin and anti-pancytokeratin antibodies, respectively. CFPHV continues to be refractory to in vitro cultivation.

  14. The Absence of a Mature Cell Wall Sacculus in Stable Listeria monocytogenes L-Form Cells Is Independent of Peptidoglycan Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Patrick; Borisova, Marina; Schneider, Alexander; Ayala, Juan A; Mayer, Christoph; Schuppler, Markus; Loessner, Martin J; Briers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    L-forms are cell wall-deficient variants of otherwise walled bacteria that maintain the ability to survive and proliferate in absence of the surrounding peptidoglycan sacculus. While transient or unstable L-forms can revert to the walled state and may still rely on residual peptidoglycan synthesis for multiplication, stable L-forms cannot revert to the walled form and are believed to propagate in the complete absence of peptidoglycan. L-forms are increasingly studied as a fundamental biological model system for cell wall synthesis. Here, we show that a stable L-form of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes features a surprisingly intact peptidoglycan synthesis pathway including glycosyl transfer, in spite of the accumulation of multiple mutations during prolonged passage in the cell wall-deficient state. Microscopic and biochemical analysis revealed the presence of peptidoglycan precursors and functional glycosyl transferases, resulting in the formation of peptidoglycan polymers but without the synthesis of a mature cell wall sacculus. In conclusion, we found that stable, non-reverting L-forms, which do not require active PG synthesis for proliferation, may still continue to produce aberrant peptidoglycan.

  15. F(ab'2 antibody fragments against Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin inhibit its interaction with the first component of human complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA AGUILAR

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT, described in our laboratory, retains several important functional features from its vertebrate homologues. We have shown that recombinant TcCRT inhibits the human complement system when it binds to the collagenous portion of C1q. The generation of classical pathway convertases and membrane attack complexes is thus strongly inhibited. In most T. cruzi-infected individuals, TcCRT is immunogenic and mediates the generation of specific antibodies. By reverting the C1q / TcCRT interaction, a parasite immune evasion strategy, these antibodies contribute to the host / parasite equilibrium. In an in vitro correlate of this situation, we show that the C1q / TcCRT interaction is inhibited by F(ab'2 polyclonal anti-TcCRT IgG fragments. It is therefore feasible that in infected humans anti-TcCRT antibodies participate in reverting an important parasite strategy aimed at inhibiting the classical complement pathway. Thus, membrane-bound TcCRT interacts with the collagenous portion C1q, and this C1q is recognized by the CD91-bound host cell CRT, thus facilitating parasite internalization. Based on our in vitro results, it could be proposed that the in vivo interaction between TcCRT and vertebrate C1q could be inhibited by F(ab'2 fragments anti-rTcCRT or against its S functional domain, thus interfering with the internalization process

  16. In vitro evolution and affinity-maturation with Coliphage qβ display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Skamel

    Full Text Available The Escherichia coli bacteriophage, Qβ (Coliphage Qβ, offers a favorable alternative to M13 for in vitro evolution of displayed peptides and proteins due to high mutagenesis rates in Qβ RNA replication that better simulate the affinity maturation processes of the immune response. We describe a benchtop in vitro evolution system using Qβ display of the VP1 G-H loop peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. DNA encoding the G-H loop was fused to the A1 minor coat protein of Qβ resulting in a replication-competent hybrid phage that efficiently displayed the FMDV peptide. The surface-localized FMDV VP1 G-H loop cross-reacted with the anti-FMDV monoclonal antibody (mAb SD6 and was found to decorate the corners of the Qβ icosahedral shell by electron microscopy. Evolution of Qβ-displayed peptides, starting from fully degenerate coding sequences corresponding to the immunodominant region of VP1, allowed rapid in vitro affinity maturation to SD6 mAb. Qβ selected under evolutionary pressure revealed a non-canonical, but essential epitope for mAb SD6 recognition consisting of an Arg-Gly tandem pair. Finally, the selected hybrid phages induced polyclonal antibodies in guinea pigs with good affinity to both FMDV and hybrid Qβ-G-H loop, validating the requirement of the tandem pair epitope. Qβ-display emerges as a novel framework for rapid in vitro evolution with affinity-maturation to molecular targets.

  17. Negative effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ciprofloxacin, a second generation fluoroquinolone is often co-administered with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in life threatening situations in which Staphylococcus aureus infections are accompanied with pain and inflammation. This study was carried out to investigate possible in vitro interactions in co ...

  18. Bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for non-viral gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and development of bioreducible poly(amido amine)s as non-viral vectors for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. The structural influences of these polymers on their physico-chemical properties and gene delivery properties, transfection capability and cytotoxicity in

  19. In vitro and in vivo suppository studies with perturbed angular correlation and external scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, M.; Beihn, R.M.; Snyder, G.A.; McClanahan, J.S.; Digenis, G.A.; Caldwell, L.; Mlodozeniec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the rectal delivery of drugs as an alternative to parenteral administration. Because of their complexity, little is known about the release behavior of drugs from suppositories in vivo, and the universal applicability of most in vitro tests developed to date awaits broad acceptance. A novel technique has recently been utilized for the measurement of both in vitro and in vivo dissolution profiles of solid oral dosage forms. This technique, known as perturbed angular correlation (PAC), utilizes the property of cascading decay exhibited by indium-111. The authors now wish to report on the application of this technique for in vitro studies measuring the dissolution of an [ 111 In]salicylate coprecipitate incorporated in a suppository base. The PAC technique was also used in combination with external scintigraphic techniques for the in vivo measurement of the deformation and liquefaction of a suppository containing 111 In in humans in a totally non-invasive manner. (Auth.)

  20. In vitro and in vivo suppository studies with perturbed angular correlation and external scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, M.; Beihn, R.M.; Snyder, G.A.; McClanahan, J.S.; Digenis, G.A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA). College of Pharmacy and Medicine); Caldwell, L.; Mlodozeniec, A. (INTER Research Corporation, Lawrence, KS (USA). Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories)

    1983-04-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the rectal delivery of drugs as an alternative to parenteral administration. Because of their complexity, little is known about the release behavior of drugs from suppositories in vivo, and the universal applicability of most in vitro tests developed to date awaits broad acceptance. A novel technique has recently been utilized for the measurement of both in vitro and in vivo dissolution profiles of solid oral dosage forms. This technique, known as perturbed angular correlation (PAC), utilizes the property of cascading decay exhibited by indium-111. The authors now wish to report on the application of this technique for in vitro studies measuring the dissolution of an (/sup 111/In)salicylate coprecipitate incorporated in a suppository base. The PAC technique was also used in combination with external scintigraphic techniques for the in vivo measurement of the deformation and liquefaction of a suppository containing /sup 111/In in humans in a totally non-invasive manner.

  1. Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Ates, Gamze; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-02-01

    The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. This could have a major impact on the cosmetic industry in Europe, seen the imposed animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetics and their ingredients. Afflicted, but safe substances could therefore be lost. Using the example of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, we describe here the potential applicability of a human toxicogenomics-based in vitro assay as a potential mechanistically based follow-up test for positive in vitro genotoxicity results. Triclosan shows a positive in vitro chromosomal aberration test, but is negative during in vivo follow-up tests. Toxicogenomics analysis unequivocally shows that triclosan is identified as a compound acting through non-DNA reactive mechanisms. This proof-of-principle study illustrates the potential of genome-wide transcriptomics data in combination with in vitro experimentation as a possible weight-of-evidence follow-up approach for de-risking a positive outcome in a standard mutagenicity/genotoxicity battery. As such a substantial number of cosmetic compounds wrongly identified as genotoxicants could be saved for the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pyrogen release in vitro by lymphoid tissues from patients with Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodel, P

    1974-01-01

    The mechanism of fever in patients with Hodgkin's disease was investigated by examining endogenous pyrogen production by blood, spleen, and lymph node cells incubated in vitro. Blood leucocytes from febrile or afebrile patients with Hodgkin's disease did not produce pyrogen spontaneously. Spleen cells, however, frequently released pyrogen during initial incubations, unlike spleen cells from patients with non-malignant diseases. Pyrogen production occurred from spleens without observed pathologic infiltrates of Hodgkin's disease. Lymph nodes involved with Hodgkin's disease produced pyrogen more frequently than did nodes involved with other diseases. Pyrogen production by tissue cells was prolonged, required protein synthesis, and in some cases was due to mononuclear cells; it did not correlate with fever in the patient. These studies demonstrate spontaneous production of endogenous pyrogen in vitro by lymphoid tissue cells from patients with Hodgkin's disease.

  3. In vitro degradation behaviour of biodegradable soy plastics : effects of crosslinking with glyoxal and thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, C.M.; Graaf, de L.A.; Reis, R.L.; Cunha, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In-vitro degradation of soy-derived protein materials, non-crosslinked (SItp), crosslinked with glyoxal (X-SItp) or submitted to heat treatment (24TT-SItp), was studied with either an isotonic saline solution without enzymatic activity or containing bacterial collagenase. The changes in weight of

  4. In-vitro and in-vivo imaging of MMP activity in cartilage and joint injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Tenborg, Elizabeth; Yik, Jasper H.N.; Haudenschild, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of cartilage-degrading activities represents an advance in osteoarthritis (OA) research, with implications in studies of OA pathogenesis, progression, and intervention strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are principal cartilage degrading enzymes that contribute to OA pathogenesis. MMPSense750 is an in-vivo fluorimetric imaging probe with the potential to continuously and non-invasively trace real-time MMP activities, but its use in OA-related research has not been reported. Our objective is to detect and characterize the early degradation activities shortly after cartilage or joint injury with MMPSense750. We determined the appropriate concentration, assay time, and linear range using various concentrations of recombinant MMPs as standards. We then quantified MMP activity from cartilage explants subjected to either mechanical injury or inflammatory cytokine treatment in-vitro. Finally, we performed in-vivo MMP imaging of a mouse model of post-traumatic OA. Our in-vitro results showed that the optimal assay time was highly dependent on the MMP enzyme. In cartilage explant culture media, mechanical impact or cytokine treatment increased MMP activity. Injured knees of mice showed significantly higher fluorescent signal than uninjured knees. We conclude that MMPSense750 detects human MMP activities and can be used for in-vitro study with cartilage, as well as in-vivo studies of knee injury, and can offering real-time insight into the degradative processes that occurring within the joint before structural changes become evident radiographically. - Highlights: • MMPSense750 is near-infrared fluorescent probe which can detect MMP activity. • MMPSense750 can detect human MMP-3, -9, and -13. • The reaction kinetics with MMPSense750 were different for the three MMPs. • MMPSense750 can visualized real time MMP activity in mouse injured knees. • MMPSense750 is convenient tool to evaluate real-time MMP activity non-invasively

  5. In-vitro and in-vivo imaging of MMP activity in cartilage and joint injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Tenborg, Elizabeth; Yik, Jasper H.N.; Haudenschild, Dominik R., E-mail: DRHaudenschild@ucdavis.edu

    2015-05-08

    Non-destructive detection of cartilage-degrading activities represents an advance in osteoarthritis (OA) research, with implications in studies of OA pathogenesis, progression, and intervention strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are principal cartilage degrading enzymes that contribute to OA pathogenesis. MMPSense750 is an in-vivo fluorimetric imaging probe with the potential to continuously and non-invasively trace real-time MMP activities, but its use in OA-related research has not been reported. Our objective is to detect and characterize the early degradation activities shortly after cartilage or joint injury with MMPSense750. We determined the appropriate concentration, assay time, and linear range using various concentrations of recombinant MMPs as standards. We then quantified MMP activity from cartilage explants subjected to either mechanical injury or inflammatory cytokine treatment in-vitro. Finally, we performed in-vivo MMP imaging of a mouse model of post-traumatic OA. Our in-vitro results showed that the optimal assay time was highly dependent on the MMP enzyme. In cartilage explant culture media, mechanical impact or cytokine treatment increased MMP activity. Injured knees of mice showed significantly higher fluorescent signal than uninjured knees. We conclude that MMPSense750 detects human MMP activities and can be used for in-vitro study with cartilage, as well as in-vivo studies of knee injury, and can offering real-time insight into the degradative processes that occurring within the joint before structural changes become evident radiographically. - Highlights: • MMPSense750 is near-infrared fluorescent probe which can detect MMP activity. • MMPSense750 can detect human MMP-3, -9, and -13. • The reaction kinetics with MMPSense750 were different for the three MMPs. • MMPSense750 can visualized real time MMP activity in mouse injured knees. • MMPSense750 is convenient tool to evaluate real-time MMP activity non-invasively.

  6. Study of the in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of medicinal plants from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Massarani, Shaza; Matheeussen, An; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2012-09-25

    The present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC₅₀ Albizia lebbeck pericarp, Caralluma sinaica, Periploca aphylla and Prosopius juliflora. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in Prosopis juliflora. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC₅₀ < 10 μg/mL) and hence non-specific activities were observed for Conocarpus lancifolius.

  7. Bovine pericardium coated with biopolymeric films as an alternative to prevent calcification: In vitro calcification and cytotoxicity results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Grinia M.; Rodas, Andrea C.D.; Weska, Raquel F.; Aimoli, Cassiano G.; Higa, Olga Z.; Maizato, Marina; Leiner, Adolfo A.; Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M.; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw; Beppu, Marisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine pericardium, for cardiac valve fabrication, was coated with either chitosan or silk fibroin film. In vitro calcification tests of coated and non coated bovine pericardium were performed in simulated body fluid solution in order to investigate potential alternatives to minimize calcification on implanted heart valves. Complementary, morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy - SEM; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) were performed for structural characterization of coatings and biocompatibility of chitosan. Silk fibroin films were assayed by in vitro cytotoxicity and endothelial cell growth tests. Bovine pericardium coated with silk fibroin or chitosan did not present calcification during in vitro calcification tests, indicating that these biopolymeric coatings do not induce bovine pericardium calcification. Chitosan and silk fibroin films were characterized as non cytotoxic and silk fibroin films presented high affinity to endothelial cells. The results indicate that bovine pericardium coated with silk fibroin is a potential candidate for cardiac valve fabrication, since the affinity of silk fibroin to endothelial cells can be explored to induce the tissue endothelization and therefore, increase valve durability by increasing their mechanical resistance and protecting them against calcification.

  8. Autophagy in the test tube: In vitro reconstitution of aspects of autophagosome biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yijian; Matscheko, Nena; Wollert, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is a versatile recycling pathway that delivers cytoplasmic contents to lysosomal compartments for degradation. It involves the formation of a cup-shaped membrane that expands to capture cargo. After the cargo has been entirely enclosed, the membrane is sealed to generate a double-membrane-enclosed compartment, termed the autophagosome. Depending on the physiological state of the cell, the cargo is selected either specifically or non-specifically. The process involves a highly conserved set of autophagy-related proteins. Reconstitution of their action on model membranes in vitro has contributed tremendously to our understanding of autophagosome biogenesis. This review will focus on various in vitro techniques that have been employed to decipher the function of the autophagic core machinery. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake and Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro germination in both ...

  10. Propagação in vitro de Sacha inchi In vitro propagation of Sacha inchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Ricardo Bordignon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar in vitro a relação auxina:citocinina a fim de obter propágulos nos segmentos distintos do epicótilo e hipocótilo de sementes germinadas in vitro de Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis Linneo. Os segmentos apical (A, mediano (B e o basal (C foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS, semi sólido (2,0g L-1 Phytagel, suplementado com vitaminas de MS, sacarose (30,0g L-1 e submetidos a três doses da auxina ácido indolbutírico - IBA (0; 0,1; 0,5mg L-1, associadas a quatro doses da citocinina benzilaminopurina - BAP (0; 0,1; 0,5; 1,0mg L-1, totalizando 36 tratamentos. Após nove semanas de cultivo in vitro, o segmento apical (A apresentou formação de brotações por organogênese direta nas concentrações de 0,5 e 1,0 de BAP, associado a 0,0 e 0,1 de IBA. O emprego do cultivo in vitro é viável na produção de mudas, utilizando como explante a região apical de sementes germinadas in vitro.The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro evaluation of the auxin:cytokinine ratio in different segments of the epicotyl and hypocotyl of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis Linneo seeds germinated in vitro. The segments apical (A, median (B and basal (C were introduced into semi-solid MS culture medium (2.0g L-1 Phytagel, supplemented with MS vitamins, sucrose (30.0g L-1 and submitted to three doses of auxin indolebutyric acid - IBA (0; 0.1; 0.5mg L-1, associated with four doses of the cytokinine benzylaminopurine - BAP (0; 0.1; 0.5; 1.0mg L-1, totaling 36 treatments. After nine weeks of in vitro cultivation, the apical segment (A presented shoot formation by direct organogenesis at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 of BAP associated with 0.0 and 0.1 of IBA. It is feasible to use in vitro cultivation with the apical region of seeds germinated in vitro used as explants.

  11. Rapid and non-enzymatic in vitro retrieval of tumour cells from surgical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mack

    Full Text Available The study of tumourigenesis commonly involves the use of established cell lines or single cell suspensions of primary tumours. Standard methods for the generation of short-term tumour cell cultures include the disintegration of tissue based on enzymatic and mechanical stress. Here, we describe a simple and rapid method for the preparation of single cells from primary carcinomas, which is independent of enzymatic treatment and feeder cells. Tumour biopsies are processed to 1 mm(3 cubes termed explants, which are cultured 1-3 days on agarose-coated well plates in specified medium. Through incisions generated in the explants, single cells are retrieved and collected from the culture supernatant and can be used for further analysis including in vitro and in vivo studies. Collected cells retain tumour-forming capacity in xenotransplantation assays, mimic the phenotype of the primary tumour, and facilitate the generation of cell lines.

  12. Concerted action of sphingomyelinase and non-hemolytic enterotoxin in pathogenic Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria M Doll

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus causes food poisoning and serious non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. Non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe, which is present in most B. cereus strains, is considered to be one of the main virulence factors. However, a B. cereus ΔnheBC mutant strain lacking Nhe is still cytotoxic to intestinal epithelial cells. In a screen for additional cytotoxic factors using an in vitro model for polarized colon epithelial cells we identified B. cereus sphingomyelinase (SMase as a strong inducer of epithelial cell death. Using single and double deletion mutants of sph, the gene encoding for SMase, and nheBC in B. cereus we demonstrated that SMase is an important factor for B. cereus cytotoxicity in vitro and pathogenicity in vivo. SMase substantially complemented Nhe induced cytotoxicity in vitro. In addition, SMase but not Nhe contributed significantly to the mortality rate of larvae in vivo in the insect model Galleria mellonella. Our study suggests that the role of B. cereus SMase as a secreted virulence factor for in vivo pathogenesis has been underestimated and that Nhe and SMase complement each other significantly to cause full B. cereus virulence hence disease formation.

  13. A Trichosporonales genome tree based on 27 haploid and three evolutionarily conserved 'natural' hybrid genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Masako; Sriswasdi, Sira; Manabe, Ri-Ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Sugita, Takashi; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2018-01-01

    To construct a backbone tree consisting of basidiomycetous yeasts, draft genome sequences from 25 species of Trichosporonales (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota) were generated. In addition to the hybrid genomes of Trichosporon coremiiforme and Trichosporon ovoides that we described previously, we identified an interspecies hybrid genome in Cutaneotrichosporon mucoides (formerly Trichosporon mucoides). This hybrid genome had a gene retention rate of ~55%, and its closest haploid relative was Cutaneotrichosporon dermatis. After constructing the C. mucoides subgenomes, we generated a phylogenetic tree using genome data from the 27 haploid species and the subgenome data from the three hybrid genome species. It was a high-quality tree with 100% bootstrap support for all of the branches. The genome-based tree provided superior resolution compared with previous multi-gene analyses. Although our backbone tree does not include all Trichosporonales genera (e.g. Cryptotrichosporon), it will be valuable for future analyses of genome data. Interest in interspecies hybrid fungal genomes has recently increased because they may provide a basis for new technologies. The three Trichosporonales hybrid genomes described in this study are different from well-characterized hybrid genomes (e.g. those of Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces bayanus) because these hybridization events probably occurred in the distant evolutionary past. Hence, they will be useful for studying genome stability following hybridization and speciation events. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The in vitro secretome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis induces cell death in banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuc-Uc, José; Brito-Argáez, Ligia; Canto-Canché, Blondy; Tzec-Simá, Miguel; Rodríguez-García, Cecilia; Peraza-Echeverría, Leticia; Peraza-Echeverría, Santy; James-Kay, Andrew; Cruz-Cruz, Carlos Alberto; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Islas-Flores, Ignacio

    2011-06-01

    The hemibiotrophic filamentous fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes the banana foliar disease known as black Sigatoka, responsible for major worldwide losses in the banana fruit industry. In this work the in vitro secretome of M. fijiensis was characterized. Native and denaturant polyacrylamide gel protease assays showed the M. fijiensis secretome contains protease activity capable of degrading gelatin. Necrotic lesions on leaves were produced by application of the in vitro secretome to the surface of one black Sigatoka-resistant banana wild species, one susceptible cultivar and the non-host plant Carica papaya. To distinguish if necrosis by the secretome is produced by phytotoxins or proteins, the latter ones were precipitated with ammonium sulfate and applied in native or denatured forms onto leaves of the same three plant species. Proteins applied in both preparations were able to produce necrotic lesions. Application of Pronase, a commercial bacterial protease suggested that the necrosis was, at least in part, caused by protease activity from the M. fijiensis secretome. The ability to cause necrotic lesions between M. fijiensis secreted- and ammonium sulfate-precipitated proteins, and purified lipophilic or hydrophilic phytotoxins, was compared. The results suggested that leaf necrosis arises from the combined action of non-host specific hydrolytic activities from the secreted proteins and the action of phytotoxins. This is the first characterization of the M. fijiensis protein secretome produced in vitro but, more importantly, it is also the first time the M. fijiensis secretome has been shown to contain virulence factors capable of causing necrosis to its natural host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Control of Cavitation Allows High In Vitro Transfection Efficiency in the Absence of Transfection Reagents or Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettab, Kamel; Roux, Stéphanie; Mathé, Doriane; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Lafond, Maxime; Lafon, Cyril; Dumontet, Charles; Mestas, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Sonoporation using low-frequency high-pressure ultrasound (US) is a non-viral approach for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. In this study, we developed a new sonoporation device designed for spatial and temporal control of ultrasound cavitation. The regulation system incorporated in the device allowed a real-time control of the cavitation level during sonoporation. This device was evaluated for the in vitro transfection efficiency of a plasmid coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (pEGFP-C1) in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. The transfection efficiency of the device was compared to those observed with lipofection and nucleofection methods. In both adherent and non-adherent cell lines, the sonoporation device allowed high rate of transfection of pEGFP-C1 (40-80%), as determined by flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression, along with a low rate of mortality assessed by propidium iodide staining. The transfection efficiency and toxicity of sonoporation on the non-adherent cell lines Jurkat and K562 were similar to those of nucleofection, while these two cell lines were resistant to transfection by lipofection. Moreover, sonoporation was used to produce three stably transfected human lymphoma and leukemia lines. Significant transfection efficiency was also observed in two fresh samples of human acute myeloid leukemia cells. In conclusion, we developed a user-friendly and cost-effective ultrasound device, well adapted for routine in vitro high-yield transfection experiments and which does not require the use of any transfection reagent or gas micro-bubbles.

  16. In Vitro Desensitization of Human Skin Mast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Gomez, Gregorio; Macey, Matthew; Kepley, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Desensitization is a clinical procedure whereby incremental doses of a drug are administered over several hours to a sensitive patient until a therapeutic dose and clinical tolerance are achieved. Clinical tolerance may occur in part by attenuating the mast cell response. In the present study, primary human skin mast cells were used to establish and characterize an in vitro model of desensitization. Mast cells in culture were armed with allergen-specific (4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenylacety and Der p2) and non-specific IgE antibodies, and then desensitized by incremental exposures to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacety-BSA. This desensitization procedure abrogated the subsequent degranulation response to the desensitizing allergen, to an unrelated allergen, and to IgG anti-FcεRI, but not to C5a, substance P, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore. Desensitized cells regained their FcεRI-dependent degranulation capability by 24–48 h after free allergen had been removed. Therefore, sensitized human skin mast cells are reversibly desensitized in vitro by exposure to incremental doses of that allergen, which also cross-desensitizes them to an unrelated allergen. PMID:22009002

  17. In vitro invasion of small-cell lung cancer cell lines correlates with expression of epidermal growth factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rude Voldborg, B; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    receptor (EGFR) in a panel of 21 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines. We have previously reported that ten of these cell lines expressed EGFR protein detected by radioreceptor and affinity labelling assays. In 11 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, EGFR mRNA was detected by Northern blot...... analysis. In vitro invasion in a Boyden chamber assay was found in all EGFR-positive cell lines, whereas no invasion was detected in the EGFR-negative cell lines. Quantification of the in vitro invasion in 12 selected SCLC cell lines demonstrated that, in the EGFR-positive cell lines, between 5% and 16......-PCR). However, in vitro invasive SCLC cell lines could not be distinguished from non-invasive cell lines based on the expression pattern of these molecules. In six SCLC cell lines, in vitro invasion was also determined in the presence of the EGFR-neutralizing monoclonal antibody mAb528. The addition...

  18. In vitro antioxidant, antiinflammatory and in silico molecular docking studies of thiosemicarbazones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashree, G. R.; Haribabu, J.; Saranya, S.; Yuvaraj, P.; Anantha Krishnan, D.; Karvembu, R.; Gayathri, D.

    2017-10-01

    A series of 5-methoxysalicylaldehyde appended thiosemicarbazones (1-4) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde appended thiosemicarbazones (5-8) was obtained from the reactions between 5-methoxysalicylaldehyde/2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and (un)substituted thiosemicarbazides with the view to ascertain their biological properties brought about by the change in substitution at N-terminal position of the thiosemicarbazide derivatives. The compounds were fully characterized by elemental analyses, and various spectroscopic techniques (UV-Visible, FT-IR, NMR and mass). The solid-state structure of three compounds (1, 2 and 7) was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The compounds (1, 2 and 7) have adopted a monoclinic crystal system with P21/c (1 and 2) or C2/c (7) space group. Antioxidant and non-haemolysis activities of the compounds (1-8) were analyzed by in vitro DPPH and haemolysis assays, respectively. Antiinflammatory potential was verified by in vitro PLA2 inhibition assay and in silico molecular docking study. In vitro and in silico studies revealed promising antiinflammatory potential of the thiosemicarbazone derivatives. Compounds 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 showed significant antiinflammatory activity.

  19. Advances toward the elucidation of hypertonic saline effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Michon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nebulized hypertonic saline (HTS has beneficial effects including reducing pulmonary exacerbations in Cystic Fibrosis (CF patients. Several mechanisms may explain these effects but antimicrobial activity of NaCl remains largely unexplored. We aimed to measure the antimicrobial effect of NaCl on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the respiratory tract in CF patients. METHODS: NaCl minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for strains characterized for mucoidy, antimicrobial resistance, and ability to form biofilm using 0,9% to 15% NaCl solutions. NaCl effects on biofilm formation, preformed biofilm, and mobility were evaluated. Kinetics of antimicrobial effects was studied. RESULTS: The growth of all isolates (n = 85 from 34 patients was inhibited by 6% NaCl solution. A 10% concentration had a bactericidal activity on 90% of the isolates. Mucoid and multidrug resistant (MDR isolates displayed lower MICs compared to non-mucoid and to non-MDR isolates, respectively. Time-kill kinetics showed that NaCl exhibited a rapid, dose and growth phase dependent bactericidal effect. Three percent or more of NaCl inhibited biofilm formation for 69% of strongly adherent isolates. A dose-dependent decrease of preformed biofilm viability and an inhibitory activity on bacterial motility were observed. CONCLUSIONS: NaCl inhibited the growth of all isolates and killed 38% of tested isolates within concentration range currently used in therapeutics. Our results suggest that anti-pseudomonal activity is another mechanism of action of HTS to add to those already established. Clinical trials are needed to compare diverse HTS conditions of use (rhythm, dose and mode of delivery to obtain efficient and optimized anti-P. aeruginosa effects. More generally, NaCl effect on other opportunistic pathogens as well as on global microbiotae recovered during polymicrobial diseases warrants further investigations.

  20. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and

  1. Overexpression of SAMD9 suppresses tumorigenesis and progression during non small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qing; Yu, Tao; Ren, Yao-Yao; Gong, Ting; Zhong, Dian-Sheng, E-mail: zhongdsyx@126.com

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • SAMD9 is down-regulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). • Knockdown of SAMD9 expression is increased the invasion, migration and proliferation in H1299 cells in vitro. • Overexpression of SAMD9 suppressed proliferation and invasion in A549 cells in vitro. • Depletion of SAMD9 increases tumor formation in vivo. - Abstract: The Sterile Alpha Motif Domain-containing 9 (SAMD9) gene has been recently emphasized during the discovery that it is expressed at a lower level in aggressive fibromatosis and some cases of breast and colon cancer, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that SAMD9 is down-regulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Furthermore, knockdown of SAMD9 expression is increased the invasion, migration and proliferation in H1299 cells in vitro and overexpression of SAMD9 suppressed proliferation and invasion in A549 cells. Finally, depletion of SAMD9 increases tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking NSCLC tumorigenesis and progression.

  2. Diversity of condensed tannin structures affects rumen in vitro methane production in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Hayot Carbonero, C.; Stringano, E.; Sales, L. F.; Smith, L. M J; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Hendriks, W. H.; Pellikaan, W. F.

    2015-01-01

    Sainfoin is a non-bloating temperate forage legume with a moderate-to-high condensed tannin (CT) content. This study investigated whether the diversity of sainfoin accessions in terms of CT structures and contents could be related to rumen in vitro gas and methane (CH4) production and fermentation

  3. Latency in vitro using irradiated Herpes simplex virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Y.; Rapp, F.

    1981-01-01

    Human embryonic fibroblasts infected with u.v.-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, strain 186) and maintained at 40.5 0 C did not yield detectable virus. Virus synthesis was induced by temperature shift-down to 36.5 0 C. The induced virus grew very poorly and was inactivated very rapidly at 40.5 0 C. Non-irradiated virus failed to establish latency at 40.5 0 C in infected cells. Enhanced reactivation of HSV-2 was observed when latently infected cultures were superinfected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or irradiated with a small dose of u.v. light at the time of temperature shift-down. HCMV did not enhance synthesis of HSV-2 during a normal growth cycle but did enhance synthesis of u.v.-irradiated HSV-2. These observations suggest that in this in vitro latency system, some HSV genomes damaged by u.v. irradiation were maintained in a non-replicating state without being destroyed or significantly repaired. (author)

  4. The Use and Efficacy of Mucolytic Agents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-28

    Aug 28, 1971 ... Specimens of purulent and mucoid sputum from patients with chronic chest ..... preparation contains ethylene diamine tetracetic acid. (EDTA) to prevent .... is an experimental means for producing anatomic emphy- sema in ...

  5. Expression of nucleolar-related proteins in porcine preimplantation embryos produced in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Wrenzycki, Christine; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2004-01-01

    The expression of nucleolar-related proteins was studied as an indirect marker of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene activation in porcine embryos up to the blastocyst stage produced in vivo and in vitro. A group of the in vivo-developed embryos were cultured with alpha-amanitin to block the de novo...... proteins pRb and p130, which are involved in cell-cycle regulation, was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR up to the blastocyst stage. Toward the end of third cell cycle, the nuclei in non-alpha-amanitin-treated, in vivo-produced embryos displayed different stages of transformation of the nuclear...... was delayed in porcine embryos produced in vitro compared to the in vivo-derived counterparts with respect to mRNAs encoding PAF53 and UBF. Moreover, differences existed in the mRNA expression patterns of pRb between in vivo- and in vitro-developed embryos. These findings show, to our knowledge for the first...

  6. Effect of LET and microdistribution of radiation on the transformation in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The objective is to learn more about the mechanisms which determine the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, particularly as they relate to high LET radiation exposure. The approach is an in vitro one, involving the study of malignant transformation and the induction of specific gene mutations in mammalian cells. The study was focused on the basic characteristics of alpha radiation transformation in vitro. A particular goal was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of focal vs diffuse irradiation in the induction of transformation. More emphasis was placed on the study of mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis by studying the events evolved in the process of radiation-induced malignant transformation. This included an investigation of the effects of non-carcinogenic secondary factors and promoting agents on radiation transformation in vitro. We also propose at this time to initiate the studies of the effects of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides as another approach to the examination of the role of the distribution of radiant energy within cells and tissues

  7. Effect of LET and microdistribution of radiation on the transformation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.

    1983-09-01

    The objective is to learn more about the mechanisms which determine the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, particularly as they relate to high LET radiation exposure. The approach is an in vitro one, involving the study of malignant transformation and the induction of specific gene mutations in mammalian cells. The study was focused on the basic characteristics of alpha radiation transformation in vitro. A particular goal was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of focal vs diffuse irradiation in the induction of transformation. More emphasis was placed on the study of mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis by studying the events evolved in the process of radiation-induced malignant transformation. This included an investigation of the effects of non-carcinogenic secondary factors and promoting agents on radiation transformation in vitro. We also propose at this time to initiate the studies of the effects of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides as another approach to the examination of the role of the distribution of radiant energy within cells and tissues.

  8. Estimation of non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema using dual-frequency electrical impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, E.; Faes, T. J.; Meijer, J. M.; Kunst, P. W.; Bakker, J.; Goovaerts, H. G.; Heethaar, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The study investigates the effects of non-cardiogenic oedema, especially the accumulation of protein in extracellular fluid, on thoracic impedance and proposes a new method of oedema measurement based on an impedance ratio from a dual-frequency measurement. In vitro measurements in a cell containing

  9. Feasibility assessment of Micro electrode chip assay (MEA as a method of detecting neurotoxicity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eDefranchi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection and characterization of chemically-induced toxic effects in the nervous system represent a challenge for the hazard assessment of chemicals. In vivo, neurotoxicological assessments exploit the fact that the activity of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system has functional consequences. And so far, no in vitro method for evaluating the neurotoxic hazard has yet been validated and accepted for regulatory purpose.The microelectrode array (MEA assay consists of a culture chamber into which an integrated array of microelectrodes is capable of measuring extracellular electrophysiology (spikes and bursts from electro-active tissues. A wide variety of electrically excitable biological tissues may be placed onto the chips including primary cultures of nervous system tissue. Recordings from this type of in vitro cultured system are non invasive, give label free evaluations and provide a higher throughput than conventional electrophysiological techniques. In this paper, twenty substances were tested in a blinded study for their toxicity and dose-response curves were obtained from foetal rat cortical neuronal networks coupled to MEAs. The experimental procedure consisted of evaluating the firing activity (spiking rate and modification/reduction in response to chemical administration. Native/reference activity, 30 minutes of activity recording per dilution, plus the recovery points (after 24 hours were recorded. The preliminary data, using a set of chemicals with different mode-of-actions (13 known to be neurotoxic, 2 non-neuroactive and not toxic and 5 non-neuroactive but toxic show good predictivity (sensitivity: 0.77; specificity: 0.86; accuracy: 0.85. Thus, the MEA with a neuronal network has the potency to become an effective tool to evaluate the neurotoxicity of substances in vitro.

  10. Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: Factors affecting the efficiency of in vitro regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.; Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2011-01-01

    Factors influencing in vitro regeneration through direct shoot bud induction from hypocotyl explants of Jatropha curcas were studied in the present investigation. Regeneration in J. curcas was found to be genotype dependent and out of four toxic and one non-toxic genotype studied, non-toxic was least responsive. The best results irrespective of genotype were obtained on the medium containing 0.5mgL-1 TDZ (Thidiazuron) and in vitro hypocotyl explants were observed to have higher regeneration efficiency as compared to ex vitro explant in both toxic and non-toxic genotypes. Adventitious shoot buds could be induced from the distal end of explants in all the genotypes. The number of shoot buds formed and not the number of explants responding to TDZ treatment were significantly affected by the position of the explant on the seedling axis. Explants from younger seedlings (≤15 days) were still juvenile and formed callus easily, whereas the regeneration response declined with increase in age of seedlings after 30 days. Transient reduction of Ca2+ concentrations to 0.22gL-1 in the germination medium increased the number of responding explants.Induced shoot buds, upon transfer to MS medium containing 2mgL-1 Kn (Kinetin) and 1mgL-1 BAP (6-benzylamino purine) elongated. These elongated shoots were further proliferated on MS medium supplemented with 1.5mgL-1 IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and 0.5mgL-1 BAP and 3.01-3.91cm elongation was achieved after 6 weeks. No genotype specific variance in shoot elongation was observed among the toxic genotypes except the CSMCRI-JC2, which showed reduced response. And for proliferation among the toxic genotypes, CSMCRI-JC4 showed highest number of shoots formed. Among the rest, no significant differences were observed. The elongated shoot could be rooted by pulse treatment on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 3mgL-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), 1mgL-1 IAA, 1mgL-1 NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and subsequent transfer on 0

  11. Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: Factors affecting the efficiency of in vitro regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.

    2011-07-01

    Factors influencing in vitro regeneration through direct shoot bud induction from hypocotyl explants of Jatropha curcas were studied in the present investigation. Regeneration in J. curcas was found to be genotype dependent and out of four toxic and one non-toxic genotype studied, non-toxic was least responsive. The best results irrespective of genotype were obtained on the medium containing 0.5mgL-1 TDZ (Thidiazuron) and in vitro hypocotyl explants were observed to have higher regeneration efficiency as compared to ex vitro explant in both toxic and non-toxic genotypes. Adventitious shoot buds could be induced from the distal end of explants in all the genotypes. The number of shoot buds formed and not the number of explants responding to TDZ treatment were significantly affected by the position of the explant on the seedling axis. Explants from younger seedlings (≤15 days) were still juvenile and formed callus easily, whereas the regeneration response declined with increase in age of seedlings after 30 days. Transient reduction of Ca2+ concentrations to 0.22gL-1 in the germination medium increased the number of responding explants.Induced shoot buds, upon transfer to MS medium containing 2mgL-1 Kn (Kinetin) and 1mgL-1 BAP (6-benzylamino purine) elongated. These elongated shoots were further proliferated on MS medium supplemented with 1.5mgL-1 IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and 0.5mgL-1 BAP and 3.01-3.91cm elongation was achieved after 6 weeks. No genotype specific variance in shoot elongation was observed among the toxic genotypes except the CSMCRI-JC2, which showed reduced response. And for proliferation among the toxic genotypes, CSMCRI-JC4 showed highest number of shoots formed. Among the rest, no significant differences were observed. The elongated shoot could be rooted by pulse treatment on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 3mgL-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), 1mgL-1 IAA, 1mgL-1 NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and subsequent transfer on 0

  12. The in vitro isolated whole guinea pig brain as a model to study epileptiform activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Curtis, Marco; Librizzi, Laura; Uva, Laura

    2016-02-15

    Research on ictogenesis is based on the study of activity between seizures and during seizures in animal models of epilepsy (chronic condition) or in in vitro slices obtained from naïve non-epileptic brains after treatment with pro-convulsive drugs, manipulations of the extracellular medium and specific stimulation protocols. The in vitro isolated guinea pig brain retains the functional connectivity between brain structures and maintains interactions between neuronal, glial and vascular compartments. It is a close-to-in vivo preparation that offers experimental advantages not achieved with the use of other experimental models. Neurophysiological and imaging techniques can be utilized in this preparation to study brain activity during and between seizures induced by pharmacological or functional manipulations. Cellular and network determinants of interictal and ictal discharges that reproduce abnormal patterns observed in human focal epilepsies and the associated changes in extracellular ion and blood-brain permeability can be identified and analyzed in the isolated guinea pig brain. Ictal and interictal patterns recorded in in vitro slices may show substantial differences from seizure activity recorded in vivo due to slicing procedure itself. The isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion combines the typical facilitated access of in vitro preparations, that are difficult to approach during in vivo experiments, with the preservation of larger neuronal networks. The in vitro whole isolated guinea pig brain preparation offers an unique experimental model to study systemic and neurovascular changes during ictogenesis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. In vitro activity of three different antimicrobial agents against ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae blood isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizirgil, Ahmet; Demirdag, Kutbettin; Ozden, Mehmet; Bulut, Yasemin; Yakupogullari, Yusuf; Toraman, Zulal Asci

    2005-01-01

    Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) usually associated with multiple drug resistance, including beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam antibiotics. This resistance can cause Limitation in the choice of drugs appropriate for using in clinical practice, especially in life-threatening infections. In this study we aimed to investigate in vitro activity of meropenem, ciprofloxacine and amikacin against ESBL-producing and non-producing blood isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Fifty-eight E. coli (21 ESBL-producing, 37 non-ESBL producing) and 99 K. pneumoniae (54 ESBL-producing, 45 non-ESBL producing) strains were included in the study. The presence of ESBL was investigated by double disk synergy test and E-test methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by microdilution method according to NCCLS guideline. In vitro susceptibilities of ESBL producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains were found as 100% for meropenem, 33.3% and 25.9% for ciprofloxacine, 94.5% and 83.3% for amikacin. It was observed that; meropenem was equally active agent in both ESBL-producing and non-producing strains, and its activity was not affected by ESBL production. Whereas amikacin activity was minimally affected and ciprofloxacine activity was markedly decreased by ESBL production. In conclusion, meropenem seems to be better choice of antibiotic should be used for ESBL positive life-threatening infections, because of remaining highest activity.

  14. Early adaptive developments of Pseudomonas aeruginosa after the transition from life in the environment to persistent colonization in the airways of human cystic fibrosis hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rau, Martin Holm; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Johansen, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen ubiquitous to the natural environment but with the capability of moving to the host environment. Long-term infection of the airways of cystic fibrosis patients is associated with extensive genetic adaptation of P. aeruginosa, and we have studied...... cases of the initial stages of infection in order to characterize the early adaptive processes in the colonizing bacteria. A combination of global gene expression analysis and phenotypic characterization of longitudinal isolates from cystic fibrosis patients revealed well-known characteristics...... such as conversion to a mucoid phenotype by mucA mutation and increased antibiotic resistance by nfxB mutation. Additionally, upregulation of the atu operon leading to enhanced growth on leucine provides a possible example of metabolic optimization. A detailed investigation of the mucoid phenotype uncovered profound...

  15. Sacarose e período de cultivo in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de ginseng brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata Spreng. Pedersen Sucrose and duration of in vitro growth on ex vitro acclimatization of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata Spreng. Pedersen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiane Caldeira Skrebsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen é uma planta extensivamente usada na medicina popular em decorrência de possuir propriedades fitoterápicas. Devido à sua baixa capacidade fotossintética, as plantas cultivadas in vitro requerem uma fonte extra de carboidratos para suprir suas necessidades metabólicas. O tempo de cultivo in vitro influencia as taxas de crescimento das raízes e da parte aérea de P. glomerata. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar os efeitos da sacarose e do período de cultivo in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de plântulas de P. glomerata. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma combinação bifatorial (5x2 entre cinco concentrações de sacarose (15, 30, 45, 60 e 75g L-1 e dois períodos de cultivo in vitro (25 e 32 dias após a inoculação. No cultivo in vitro, a parcela experimental consistiu de um tubo de ensaio contendo 10mL de meio MS e um segmento nodal, obtidos de plântulas mantidas in vitro, de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas. O procedimento de aclimatização consistiu de quatro fases sucessivas de cultivo ex vitro: (i abertura dos tubos de ensaio e exposição das plântulas ao ambiente de câmara climatizada por três dias; (ii transplantio para substrato Plantmax e cultivo em condições de câmara climatizada por 21 dias; (iii transferência das mudas para ambiente natural parcialmente sombreado, com duração de 24 dias; e (iv transplantio para solo em condições de cultivo a campo. O maior crescimento das plantas obtido pelo aumento da disponibilidade de sacarose (concentrações entre 45 e 60g L-1 no cultivo in vitro contribuiu para a aclimatização. Independente do período de retirada das plantas do cultivo in vitro, as mudas obtiveram adequada aclimatização. O procedimento de aclimatização foi 100% eficiente na produção de mudas de P. glomerata.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen is an extensively used plant in popular medicine due to its phytotherapic characteristics. Due to low

  16. Development of novel non agoinst PPAR-gamma ligands for lung cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0165 TITLE: Development of novel non-agoinst PPAR-gamma ligands for lung cancer treatment . PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...factor PPARγ, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), synergized with carboplatin treatment of lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Unfortunately, the use of TZDs...novel therapeutics with potential in lung cancer , we have explored the role of these non- agonist PPARγ ligands in cancer treatment . We have

  17. The comet assay: assessment of in vitro and in vivo DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpayee, Mahima; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dhawan, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Rapid industrialization and pursuance of a better life have led to an increase in the amount of chemicals in the environment, which are deleterious to human health. Pesticides, automobile exhausts, and new chemical entities all add to air pollution and have an adverse effect on all living organisms including humans. Sensitive test systems are thus required for accurate hazard identification and risk assessment. The Comet assay has been used widely as a simple, rapid, and sensitive tool for assessment of DNA damage in single cells from both in vitro and in vivo sources as well as in humans. Already, the in vivo comet assay has gained importance as the preferred test for assessing DNA damage in animals for some international regulatory guidelines. The advantages of the in vivo comet assay are its ability to detect DNA damage in any tissue, despite having non-proliferating cells, and its sensitivity to detect genotoxicity. The recommendations from the international workshops held for the comet assay have resulted in establishment of guidelines. The in vitro comet assay conducted in cultured cells and cell lines can be used for screening large number of compounds and at very low concentrations. The in vitro assay has also been automated to provide a high-throughput screening method for new chemical entities, as well as environmental samples. This chapter details the in vitro comet assay using the 96-well plate and in vivo comet assay in multiple organs of the mouse.

  18. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  19. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion increases the translocation of polystyrene nanoparticles in an in vitro intestinal co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Agata P; Kramer, Evelien; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Helsdingen, Richard; van der Zande, Meike; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The conditions of the gastrointestinal tract may change the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) and therewith the bioavailability of orally taken NPs. Therefore, we assessed the impact of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the protein corona of polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs) and their subsequent translocation across an in vitro intestinal barrier. A co-culture of intestinal Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells was exposed to 50 nm PS-NPs of different charges (positive and negative) in two forms: pristine and digested in an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. In vitro digestion significantly increased the translocation of all, except the "neutral", PS-NPs. Upon in vitro digestion, translocation was 4-fold higher for positively charged NPs and 80- and 1.7-fold higher for two types of negatively charged NPs. Digestion significantly reduced the amount of protein in the corona of three out of four types of NPs. This reduction of proteins was 4.8-fold for "neutral", 3.5-fold for positively charged and 1.8-fold for one type of negatively charged PS-NPs. In vitro digestion also affected the composition of the protein corona of PS-NPs by decreasing the presence of higher molecular weight proteins and shifting the protein content of the corona to low molecular weight proteins. These findings are the first to report that in vitro gastrointestinal digestion significantly affects the protein corona and significantly increases the in vitro translocation of differently charged PS-NPs. These findings stress the importance of including the in vitro digestion in future in vitro intestinal translocation screening studies for risk assessment of orally taken NPs.

  20. Preparation & in vitro evaluation of 90Y-DOTA-rituximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Pandey, Usha; Dash, Ashutosh; Samuel, Grace; Venkatesh, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Radioimmunotherapy is extensively being used for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Use of rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody directed against the CD20 antigen in combination with suitable beta emitters is expected to result in good treatment response by its cross-fire and bystander effects. The present work involves the conjugation of p-isothiocyanatobenzyl DOTA (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA) to rituximab, its radiolabelling with 90Y and in vitro and in vivo evaluation to determine its potential as a radioimmunotherapeutic agent. Methods: Rituximab was conjugated with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA at 1:1 antibody: DOTA molar ratio. The number of DOTA molecules linked to one molecule of rituximab was determined by radioassay and spectroscopic assay. Radiolabelling of rituximab with 90Y was carried out and its in vitro stability was evaluated. In vitro cell binding studies were carried out in Raji cells expressing CD20 antigen. Biodistribution studies were carried out in normal Swiss mice. Results: Using both radioassay and spectroscopic method, it was determined that about five molecules of DOTA were linked to rituximab. Radiolabelling of the rituximab conjugate with 90Y and subsequent purification on PD-10 column gave a product with radiochemical purity (RCP) > 98 per cent which was retained at > 90 per cent up to 72 h when stored at 37°C. In vitro cell binding experiments of 90Y-DOTA-rituximab with Raji cells exhibited specific binding of 20.7 ± 0.1 per cent with 90Y-DOTA-rituximab which reduced to 15.5 ± 0.2 per cent when incubated with cold rituximab. The equilibrium constant Kd for 90Y-DOTA-Rituximab was determined to be 3.38 nM. Radiolabelled antibody showed clearance via hepatobiliary and renal routes and activity in tibia was found to be quite low indicating in vivo stability of 90Y-DOTA-rituximab. Interpretation & conclusions: p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was conjugated with rituximab and radiolabelling with 90Y was carried out. In vitro studies carried

  1. Investigation of volatile organic biomarkers derived from Plasmodium falciparum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Rina PM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There remains a need for techniques that improve the sensitive detection of viable Plasmodium falciparum as part of diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in clinical studies and usual-care management of malaria infections. A non-invasive breath test based on P. falciparum-associated specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs could fill this gap and provide insights into parasite metabolism and pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to determine whether VOCs are present in the headspace above in vitro P. falciparum cultures. Methods A novel, custom-designed apparatus was developed to enable efficient headspace sampling of infected and non-infected cultures. Conditions were optimized to support cultures of high parasitaemia (>20% to improve the potential detection of parasite-specific VOCs. A number of techniques for VOC analysis were investigated including solid phase micro-extraction using two different polarity fibres, and purge and trap/thermal desorption, each coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Each experiment and analysis method was performed at least on two occasions. VOCs were identified by comparing their mass spectra against commercial mass spectral libraries. Results No unique malarial-specific VOCs could be detected relative to those in the control red blood cell cultures. This could reflect sequestration of VOCs into cell membranes and/or culture media but solvent extractions of supernatants and cell lysates using hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate also showed no obvious difference compared to control non-parasitized cultures. Conclusions Future in vivo studies analysing the breath of patients with severe malaria who are harbouring a parasite biomass that is significantly greater than achievable in vitro may yet reveal specific clinically-useful volatile chemical biomarkers.

  2. Estimation of γ irradiation induced genetic damage by Ames test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Eiko

    1999-01-01

    Mutation by 60 Co γ irradiation was studied in five different histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium. The strains TA98 (sensitive to frameshift) and TA100 (sensitive to base-pair substitution) were irradiated (10-84 Gy and 45-317 Gy, respectively) and revertants were counted. TA98 exhibited radiation-induced revertants, 2.8 fold of spontaneous revertants, although no significant increase was detected in TA100. Then, three other frameshift-sensitive strains TA1537, TA1538 and TA94 were irradiated in a dose of 61-167 Gy. Only in TA94, revertants increased 3.5 fold. Since spontaneous revertants are known to be independent of cell density, a decrease of bacterial number by γ irradiation was confirmed not to affect the induced revertants by dilution test. Thus the standard Ames Salmonella assay identified γ irradiation was confirmed not to affect the induced revertants by dilution test. Thus the standard Ames Salmonella assay identified γ irradiation as a mutagenetic agent. The mutagenicity of dinitropyrene, a mutagen widely existing in food, and dismutagenicity of boiling water insoluble fraction of Hizikia fusiforme, edible marine alga, were tested on γ induced revertant formation in TA98 and TA94. Dinitropyrene synergistically increased γ induced revertants and Hizikia insoluble fraction reduced the synergistic effect of dinitropyrene dependently on the concentration. (author)

  3. Effect of in vitro irradiation and cell cycle-inhibitory drugs on the spontaneous human IgE synthesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Prete, G.F.; Vercelli, D.; Tiri, A.; Maggi, E.; Rossi, O.; Romagnani, S.; Ricci, M.

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro effects of radiation, diterpine forskolin (FK), and hydrocortisone (HC) on the in vitro spontaneous IgE synthesis by peripheral blood B-lymphocytes from atopic patients were investigated. Without affecting cell viability, in vitro irradiation inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion de novo IgE synthesis in vitro by B cells from all patients examined with a mean 40% reduction of in vitro IgE product after treatment with 100 rads. In contrast, the in vitro IgE production by the U266 myeloma cell line was unaffected, even by irradiation with 1600 rads. The addition to B cell cultures from atopic patients of FK consistently resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous IgE production in vitro. The addition to cultures of 10(-5) and 10(-6) molar concentrations of HC was also usually inhibitory, whereas lower HC concentrations were uneffective or even enhanced the spontaneous in vitro IgE synthesis. When 10(-6) molar concentrations of both HC and FK were combined in culture, a summation inhibitory effect on the spontaneous IgE synthesis was observed. In contrast, neither FK nor HC had inhibitory effect on the in vitro spontaneous IgE synthesis by the U266 myeloma cell line. The spontaneous in vitro IgE synthesis by B cells from patients with Hodgkin's disease, demonstrating high levels of serum IgE, was strongly reduced or virtually abolished after patients underwent total nodal irradiation to prevent the spread of the disease. In addition, the in vitro spontaneous IgE synthesis by B cells from atopic patients was markedly decreased or abolished by in vivo administration of betamethasone

  4. In vitro flow investigations in the aortic arch during cardiopulmonary bypass with stereo-PIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsen, Martin; Kaufmann, Tim A S; Neidlin, Michael; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Sonntag, Simon J

    2015-07-16

    The cardiopulmonary bypass is related to complications like stroke or hypoxia. The cannula jet is suspected to be one reason for these complications, due to the sandblast effect on the vessel wall. Several in silico and in vitro studies investigated the underlying mechanisms, but the applied experimental flow measurement techniques were not able to address the highly three-dimensional flow character with a satisfying resolution. In this work in vitro flow measurements in a cannulated and a non-cannulated aortic silicone model are presented. Stereo particle image velocimetry measurements in multiple planes were carried out. By assembling the data of the different measurement planes, quasi 3D velocity fields with a resolution of~1.5×1.5×2.5 mm(3) were obtained. The resulting velocity fields have been compared regarding magnitude, streamlines and vorticity. The presented method shows to be a suitable in vitro technique to measure and address the three-dimensional aortic CPB cannula flow with a high temporal and spatial resolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In Vitro Fermentative Production of Plant Lignans from Cereal Products in Relationship with Constituents of Non-Starch Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bartkiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently special attention has been paid to dietary fibre-associated phytoestrogens such as plant lignans, which are related to the prevention of different hormone-dependent diseases. Therefore, phytoestrogens associated with dietary fibre and their metabolites are of interest for investigation. The aim of this work is to investigate the formation of enterolignans: enterolactone (ENL and enterodiol (END from their precursors by the action of intestinal microflora and their relationship with non-starch polysaccharides (NSP in various cereal products from wheat, rye, barley and oats. For the investigation of the bioconversion of plant lignans, a technique of in vitro fermentation was used and the quantitative analysis of their metabolites ENL and END was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with coulometric electrode array detection. The enterolignan formation in various cereal products ranged from 78.3 to 321.9 nmol/g depending on the product type: END from 8.7 to 149.3 nmol/g and ENL from 64.4 to 278.3 nmol/g. The lignan production in bran was about two times higher than that in whole flour of the same kind of cereals. Close correlations were found between the total NSP content and the total amount of enterolignans and ENL; between pentoses and the total amount of enterolignans and ENL; between arabinose or xylose and ENL; and between galactose and END values. Considering the correlations between hexoses and END as well as between pentoses and ENL found in cereals, it can be assumed that pentoses are closely related to the quantities of plant lignans in cereal products and their conversion to enterolignans.

  6. Mutagenic action of non-ionizing radiations: its implication in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.; Subrahmanyam, P.; Sankaranarayanan, N.; Singh, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Mutagenic effects of non-ionizing radiations except in the ultraviolet and near ultraviolet region are just not known. Results of the investigation carried out using a sensitive diploid yeast system, are presented. The arginine requiring mutant yeast strain BZ34 reverts to prototrophy following exposure to ionizing radiation. Reversion frequencies were determined following exposure to UV (254 nm), near ultraviolet (313, 353 nm) visible region (480 nm), neodymium laser (1.01 μm) and microwave (2450 MHz) radiations. An Aminco - Bowman Spectrophotofluorimeter was used to obtain wavelengths from UV to visible region. Yeast suspensions (concentration of 10 7 cells/ml) were irradiated to doses ranging from 10 7 to 10 9 erg/cm 3 as determined with potassium ferri-oxalate system. Exposure to laser pulses and microwave radiation ranged up to 45 J/cm 2 and 60 mW-h/cm 2 respectively. Results showed that the reversion induction efficiency decreased by six orders of magnitude from ionizing radiations to ultraviolet for the same absorbed dose and this efficiency has further decreased by a factor of fifteen when the wavelength is increased from 254 nm to 313 nm. Although killing could be effected with laser beams (45 J/cm 2 for 50% survival) no increase in the reversion was observed than the background level. It is concluded that radiation of wavelengths higher than 450 nm up to 12 cm studied is not mutagenic and with sufficient intensities of these radiations only killing of cells is possible due to thermal effects. This finding is compared with other known functional and morphological effects at cellular level due to low-level exposures of non-ionizing radiations

  7. Clomiphene citrate versus high doses of gonadotropins for in vitro fertilisation in women with compromised ovarian reserve: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragni Guido

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present randomised controlled non-inferiority trial is to test whether in women with compromised ovarian reserve requiring in vitro fertilisation, a protocol of ovarian stimulation using exclusively clomiphene citrate performs similarly to a regimen with high doses of gonadotropins. Methods Women with day 3 serum FSH > 12 IU/ml on at least two occasions or previous poor response to hyper-stimulation were recruited at four Italian infertility units. Selected women were allocated to clomiphene citrate 150 mg/day from day 3 to day 7 of the cycle (n=145 or to a short protocol with GnRH agonist 0.1 mg and recombinant FSH 450 IU daily (n=146. They were randomised by means of a computer-generated list into two groups. The study was not blinded. The main outcome of the study was the delivery rate per started cycle. Results The study was interrupted after the scheduled two years of recruitment before reaching the sample size. 148 women were allocated to clomiphene citrate and 156 to the short protocol with high doses of gonadotropins; 124 and 125 participants were analysed in the groups, respectively. Women allocated to high doses of gonadotropins retrieved more oocytes and had a higher probability to perform embryo-transfer. However, the chances of success were similar. The delivery rate per started cycle in women receiving clomiphene citrate and high-dose gonadotropins was 3% (n=5 and 5% (n=7, respectively (p=0.77. The mean estimated cost per delivery in the two groups was 81,294 and 113,107 Euros, respectively. No side-effects or adverse events were observed. Conclusions In women with compromised ovarian reserve selected for in vitro fertilisation, ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate or high-dose gonadotropins led to similar chances of pregnancy but the former is less expensive. Trial registration Trial registered on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01389713

  8. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the optimized in vitro comet assay using HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoon-Hee; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Ko, Kyung Yuk; Kim, Joohwan; Yi, Jung-Sun; Ahn, Ilyoung; Kim, Tae Sung; Lee, Jong Kwon

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation of DNA damage is critical during the development of new drugs because it is closely associated with genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The in vivo comet assay to assess DNA damage is globally harmonized as OECD TG 489. However, a comet test guideline that evaluates DNA damage without sacrificing animals does not yet exist. The goal of this study was to select an appropriate cell line for optimization of the in vitro comet assay to assess DNA damage. We then evaluated the predictivity of the in vitro comet assay using the selected cell line. In addition, the effect of adding S9 was evaluated using 12 test chemicals. For cell line selection, HepG2, Chinese hamster lung (CHL/IU), and TK6 cell lines were evaluated. We employed a method for the in vitro comet assay based on that for the in vivo comet assay. The most appropriate cell line was determined by% tail DNA increase after performing in vitro comet assays with 6 test chemicals. The predictivity of the in vitro comet assay using the selected cell line was measured with 10 test chemicals (8 genotoxins and 2 non-genotoxic chemicals). The HepG2 cell line was found to be the most appropriate, and in vitro comet assays using HepG2 cells exhibited a high accuracy of 90% (9/10). This study suggests that HepG2 is an optimal cell line for the in vitro comet assay to assess DNA damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Control of Cavitation Allows High In Vitro Transfection Efficiency in the Absence of Transfection Reagents or Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettab, Kamel; Roux, Stéphanie; Mathé, Doriane; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Lafond, Maxime; Lafon, Cyril; Dumontet, Charles; Mestas, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Sonoporation using low-frequency high-pressure ultrasound (US) is a non-viral approach for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. In this study, we developed a new sonoporation device designed for spatial and temporal control of ultrasound cavitation. The regulation system incorporated in the device allowed a real-time control of the cavitation level during sonoporation. This device was evaluated for the in vitro transfection efficiency of a plasmid coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (pEGFP-C1) in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. The transfection efficiency of the device was compared to those observed with lipofection and nucleofection methods. In both adherent and non-adherent cell lines, the sonoporation device allowed high rate of transfection of pEGFP-C1 (40–80%), as determined by flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression, along with a low rate of mortality assessed by propidium iodide staining. The transfection efficiency and toxicity of sonoporation on the non-adherent cell lines Jurkat and K562 were similar to those of nucleofection, while these two cell lines were resistant to transfection by lipofection. Moreover, sonoporation was used to produce three stably transfected human lymphoma and leukemia lines. Significant transfection efficiency was also observed in two fresh samples of human acute myeloid leukemia cells. In conclusion, we developed a user-friendly and cost-effective ultrasound device, well adapted for routine in vitro high-yield transfection experiments and which does not require the use of any transfection reagent or gas micro-bubbles. PMID:26274324

  10. Spatial and Temporal Control of Cavitation Allows High In Vitro Transfection Efficiency in the Absence of Transfection Reagents or Contrast Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Chettab

    Full Text Available Sonoporation using low-frequency high-pressure ultrasound (US is a non-viral approach for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. In this study, we developed a new sonoporation device designed for spatial and temporal control of ultrasound cavitation. The regulation system incorporated in the device allowed a real-time control of the cavitation level during sonoporation. This device was evaluated for the in vitro transfection efficiency of a plasmid coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (pEGFP-C1 in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. The transfection efficiency of the device was compared to those observed with lipofection and nucleofection methods. In both adherent and non-adherent cell lines, the sonoporation device allowed high rate of transfection of pEGFP-C1 (40-80%, as determined by flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression, along with a low rate of mortality assessed by propidium iodide staining. The transfection efficiency and toxicity of sonoporation on the non-adherent cell lines Jurkat and K562 were similar to those of nucleofection, while these two cell lines were resistant to transfection by lipofection. Moreover, sonoporation was used to produce three stably transfected human lymphoma and leukemia lines. Significant transfection efficiency was also observed in two fresh samples of human acute myeloid leukemia cells. In conclusion, we developed a user-friendly and cost-effective ultrasound device, well adapted for routine in vitro high-yield transfection experiments and which does not require the use of any transfection reagent or gas micro-bubbles.

  11. Prevalence of Candida species in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydia Rajakumari, M; Saravana Kumari, P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Candida in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry, India and to analyse the antifungal susceptibility profile of the selected isolates. A total of 400 buccal samples, 200 each from diabetic and non-diabetic healthy individuals were included in the study. Sabouraud's dextrose agar was used for isolation of Candida species. Identification was performed through microscopy, germ tube test, sugar fermentation test, sugar assimilation test and by using Hichrome agar. Distinct and phenotypically representative colonies were selected and subjected to ITS analysis. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing for the isolated Candida species was performed using E-test. Results revealed that the prevalence of Candida species in diabetic individuals was higher when compared with non-diabetic healthy individuals. The most predominantly isolated species in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals from buccal cavity was Candida albicans. C. tropicalis was predominant among the non-albicans Candida isolated from both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Among denture wearers C. glabrata was predominant. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing shows that ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole were effective against the isolated Candida species. The rate of candidal carriage in diabetic individuals is higher. Different species of Candida are present in the oral cavity of diabetic individuals. There may be a positive correlation between glycemic control and candidal colonization. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candia species are required for proper management and treatment of candidal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos: a meta-analysis related to transfers, pregnancies and piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter; Schmidt, Mette; Larsen, Knud; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets. The techniques of nuclear transfer have been developed markedly through the increasing number of studies performed, and the results have become more stable. Prolonged in vitro culture period did not lead to any negative effect on nuclear transfer embryos after their transfer and it resulted in a similar or even higher litter size. More complete information is needed in future scientific articles about these in vitro manipulation techniques to establish a more solid basis for the evaluation of their status and to reveal and further investigate any eventual problems.

  13. The Effect of Irradiation Treatment on the Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Legume Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation treatment, at room temperature, on the non-enzymatic browning reaction (Millerd reaction products, MRPs) generated in soybeans, broad beans and dried peas seeds at dose levels of 10, 30 and 60 kGy and their effects on the chemical constituents, soluble protein, available lysine and in vitro protein digestibility. The formation of MRPs in the studied legumes was assayed by monitoring the formation of brown pigments (browning intensity) by spectrophotometric method. The results revealed that the chemical composition of irradiated legumes showed non-significant differences relative to the raw one. A dose dependent decrease in soluble proteins and available lysine in the three legumes were observed. The non-enzymatic browning reaction was significantly increased with increasing the radiation dose, which was proved by changes in browning index tests. At the same time, the in vitro protein digestibility was increased after irradiation up to 60 kGy. Irradiation of dried peas with 60 kGy produced higher browning index than the other legumes. A positive correlation was observed between the radiation dose and the browning index for soybeans (R2= 0.96), broad beans (R2 = 0.81) and dried peas (R2 = 0.97) which means that 96%, 81% and 97 of the variation in the incidence of non-enzymatic browning reaction in soybean, broad bean and dried peas, respectively, are due to the effect of irradiation treatments. The present study suggests that the formation of non-enzymatic browning reaction did not impair the nutritional quality of legumes, therefore, the process of irradiation was helpful in increasing the in vitro protein digestibility of studied legumes. These results clearly indicated that gamma irradiation processing at the studied doses can add valuable effects to the studied legumes

  14. Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi Faezeh; Dini Salome; Dadkhah Abolfazl; Zolfaghari Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities. - Highlights: • Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil has potential in vitro antimicrobial effect. • Z. multiflora oil has potential antimicrobial effect in vivo system. • The antibacterial activities of the oil remained after irradiation treatments

  15. A chemically inert drug can stimulate T cells in vitro by their T cell receptor in non-sensitised individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, Olivier B.; Strasser, Ingrid; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Cerny, Andreas; Pichler, Werner J.

    2004-01-01

    Drugs can interact with T cell receptors (TCR) after binding to peptide-MHC structures. This binding may involve the formation of a stable, covalent bond between a chemically reactive drug and MHC or the peptide embedded within. Alternatively, if the drug is chemically inert, the binding may be non-covalent and readily reversible. Both types of drug presentation account for a substantial number of adverse side effects to drugs. Presently no tests are available to predict the ability of chemically inert drugs to stimulate an immune response. Here we present data on the successful induction of a primary T cell immune response in vitro against a chemically inert drug using blood from healthy individuals, previously not exposed to the drug. Blood lymphocytes were stimulated by the chemically inert drug sulfamethoxazole and the protein-reactive drug-metabolite sulfamethoxazole-nitroso in the presence of IL-2. 9/10 individuals reacted in response to sulfamethoxazole-nitroso, but only three reacted to the chemically inert compound sulfamethoxazole. Drug reactive T cells could be detected after 14-35 days of cell culture by drug-specific proliferation or cytotoxicity, which was MHC-restricted. These cells were CD4, CD8 positive or CD4/CD8 double positive and T cell clones generated secreted Th0 type cytokines. Drug interaction lead to down-regulation of specific TCR. These data confirm the ability of chemically inert drugs to stimulate certain T cells by their TCR and may provide the opportunity to screen new drugs for their ability to interact with TCRs

  16. In vitro hemocompatibility of sulfonated polypropylene non-woven fabric prepared via a facile γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wu, Guozhong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Ye, Yin, E-mail: yeyin@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated PP{sub NWF} was successfully fabricated via γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of SSS method with the aid of AAm. • Compared with the pristine PP{sub NWF}, the sulfonated PP{sub NWF} material presented outstanding hydrophilicity. • The sulfonated PP{sub NWF} exhibited good hemocompatibility. - Abstract: Sulfonated polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP{sub NWF}) was successfully prepared via γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of sodium styrenesulfonate (SSS) and acrylamide (AAm). The effect of pre-irradiation dose, reaction temperature, reaction time and concentration of binary monomer on the degree of grafting (DG) was studied. The chemical structure of the original and modified PP{sub NWF} materials were investigated by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the successful introduction of sulfonated (−SO{sub 3}{sup −}) group. The wettability was examined via measurement of de-ionized water adsorption percentage, which demonstrated that the hydrophilicity of PP{sub NWF} was greatly enhanced after graft modification. A little amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption and nearly no platelet adhesion on the surface of modified PP{sub NWF} and low hemolytic ratio of the modified PP{sub NWF} revealed that the sulfonated PP{sub NWF} exhibited good hemocompatibility. Besides, blood clotting time measurement indicated that the anticoagulant property of PP{sub NWF} was effectively enhanced via SSS modification. Consequently, the hydrophilicity, in vitro hemocompatibility and anticoagulant effect of PP{sub NWF} were significantly improved by γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of SSS.

  17. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Bonding Agent on the Tensile Bond Strength of Two Pit and Fissure Sealants Using Invasive and Non-invasive Techniques: An in-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shamsher; Adlakha, Vivek; Babaji, Prashant; Chandna, Preetika; Thomas, Abi M; Chopra, Saroj

    2013-10-01

    Newer technologies and the development of pit and fissure sealants have shifted the treatment philosophy from 'drill and fill' to that of 'seal and heal'. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the effects of bonding agents on the tensile bond strengths of two pit and fissure sealants by using invasive and non-invasive techniques. One hundred and twenty bicuspids were collected and teeth were divided into two groups: Group-I (Clinpro) and Group-II (Conseal f) with 60 teeth in each group. For evaluating tensile bond strengths, occlusal surfaces of all the teeth were flattened by reducing buccal and lingual cusps without disturbing fissures. Standardised polyvinyl tube was bonded to occlusal surfaces with respective materials. Sealants were applied, with or without bonding agents, in increments and they were light cured. Tensile bond strengths were determined by using Universal Testing Machine. Data were then statistically analysed by using Student t-test for comparison. A statistically significant difference was found in tensile bond strength in invasive with bonding agent group than in non-invasive with bonding agent group. This study revealed that invasive techniques increase the tensile bond strengths of sealants as compared to non- invasive techniques and that the use of a bonding agent as an intermediate layer between the tooth and fissure sealant is beneficial for increasing the bond strength.

  18. Toxicity of polymeric nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Nadine; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Kockentiedt, Sarah; Hintz, Werner; Tomas, Jürgen; Sabel, Bernhard A.

    2014-06-01

    Polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PBCA NPs) are candidates for a drug delivery system, which can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Because little is known about their toxicity, we exposed cells to PBCA NPs in vitro and in vivo and monitored their life and death assays. PBCA NPs were fabricated with different surfactants according to the mini-emulsion technique. Viabilities of HeLa and HEK293 cells after NP incubation were quantified by analysing cellular metabolic activity (MTT-test). We then repetitively injected i.v. rhodamine-labelled PBCA NP variations into rats and monitored the survival and morphology of retrogradely labelled neurons by in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) for five weeks. To test for carrier-efficacy and safety, PBCA NPs loaded with Kyotorphin were injected in rats, and a hot plate test was used to quantify analgesic effects. In vitro, we found dose-dependent cell death which was, however, only detectable at very high doses and mainly seen in the cultures incubated with NPs fabricated with the tensids SDS and Tween. However, the in vivo experiments did not show any NP-induced neuronal death, even with particles which were toxic at high dose in vitro, i.e. NPs with Tween and SDS. The increased pain threshold at the hot plate test demonstrated that PBCA NPs are able to cross the BBB and thus comprise a useful tool for drug delivery into the central nervous system (CNS). Our findings showing that different nanoparticle formulations are non-toxic have important implications for the value of NP engineering approaches in medicine.

  19. Anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Ganoderma capense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunyan; Kong, Fansheng; Zhang, Dezhi; Cui, Jiangxia

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma capense is a Ganoderma species and is widely used, especially in Asia, as a well-known medicinal mushroom for health-promoting effect and for treatment of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, aging, etc. G. capense is rich of polysaccharide. To isolate the polysaccharides from G. capense and evaluate their anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro. The dried powder of submerged fermentation culturing mycelium of G. capense was defatted, extracted with water/alkaline water followed by ethanol precipitation and deproteinated. And four crude polysaccharides, named as GC50, GC70, GC90 and GCB, were obtained. For the first time, the in vitro anti-glycated activities of the four samples were studied by non-enzymatic glycation reaction. Then, the DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical assays were established to estimate the antiradical capacity of the four samples. Meanwhile the contents of polysaccharides were determined by phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetry. Preliminary antiradical in vitro studies indicated that the four crude polysaccharides showed concentration-dependent scavenging abilities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The evaluation of anti-glycation activity suggested that GC70 had good potential for inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products. Time- and dose-dependent effects were also observed for all GC70 samples.

  20. Spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletions: mechanistic studies in Salmonella tester strain TA102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.E.; Marnett, L.J.; Ames, B.N.

    1984-01-01

    Salmonella tester strain TA102 carries the hisG428 ochre mutation on the multicopy plasmid pAQ1. DNA sequence analysis of 45 spontaneous revertants of hisG428 on the chromosome in the presence of pKM101 (strain TA103) indicates that hisG428 revertants fall into three major categories: (i) small, in-frame deletions (3 or 6 base pairs) that remove part or all of the ochre triplet; (ii) base substitution mutations at the ochre site; (iii) extragenic ochre suppressors. Deletion revertants are identified in a simple phenotypic screen by their resistance to the inhibitory histidine analog thiazolealanine, which feedback inhibits the wild-type hisG enzyme but not the enzyme resulting from the deletions. The effect of various genetic backgrounds on the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants was examined. The presence of a uvrB mutation or a recA mutation suppressed the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants to approximately 1/2.5. When hisG428 was in multiple copies on pAQ1, the frequency of spontaneous deletion revertants increased by 40-fold, which is the approximate copy number of pAQ1. Mutagenic agents that induce single-strand breaks in DNA (e.g., x-rays, bleomycin, and nalidixic acid) induced deletion revertants in TA102. These agents induced deletion revertants only in hisG428 on pAQ1 and only in the presence of pKM101. Deletion revertants were not induced by frameshift mutagens (i.e., ICR-191 and 9aminoacridine). These results indicate that different pathways exist for the generation of spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletion revertants of hisG428. 41 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  1. New potential markers of in vitro tomato morphogenesis identified by mRNA differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, A; Soragni, E; Bolchi, A; Petrucco, S; Ottonello, S; Branca, C

    1996-12-01

    The identification of plant genes involved in early phases of in vitro morphogenesis can not only contribute to our understanding of the processes underlying growth regulator-controlled determination, but also provide novel markers for evaluating the outcome of in vitro regeneration experiments. To search for such genes and to monitor changes in gene expression accompanying in vitro regeneration, we have adapted the mRNA differential display technique to the comparative analysis of a model system of tomato cotyledons that can be driven selectively toward either shoot or callus formation by means of previously determined growth regulator supplementations. Hormone-independent transcriptional modulation (mainly down-regulation) has been found to be the most common event, indicating that a non-specific reprogramming of gene expression quantitatively predominates during the early phases of in vitro culture. However, cDNA fragments representative of genes that are either down-regulated or induced in a programme-specific manner could also be identified, and two of them (G35, G36) were further characterized. One of these cDNA fragments, G35, corresponds to an mRNA that is down-regulated much earlier in callus- (day 2) than in shoot-determined explants (day 6). The other, G36, identifies an mRNA that is transiently expressed in shoot-determined explants only, well before any macroscopic signs of differentiation become apparent, and thus exhibits typical features of a morphogenetic marker.

  2. Edible Scaffolds Based on Non-Mammalian Biopolymers for Myoblast Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Enrione

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro meat has recently emerged as a new concept in food biotechnology. Methods to produce in vitro meat generally involve the growth of muscle cells that are cultured on scaffolds using bioreactors. Suitable scaffold design and manufacture are critical to downstream culture and meat production. Most current scaffolds are based on mammalian-derived biomaterials, the use of which is counter to the desire to obviate mammal slaughter in artificial meat production. Consequently, most of the knowledge is related to the design and control of scaffold properties based on these mammalian-sourced materials. To address this, four different scaffold materials were formulated using non-mammalian sources, namely, salmon gelatin, alginate, and additives including gelling agents and plasticizers. The scaffolds were produced using a freeze-drying process, and the physical, mechanical, and biological properties of the scaffolds were evaluated. The most promising scaffolds were produced from salmon gelatin, alginate, agarose, and glycerol, which exhibited relatively large pore sizes (~200 μm diameter and biocompatibility, permitting myoblast cell adhesion (~40% and growth (~24 h duplication time. The biodegradation profiles of the scaffolds were followed, and were observed to be less than 25% after 4 weeks. The scaffolds enabled suitable myogenic response, with high cell proliferation, viability, and adequate cell distribution throughout. This system composed of non-mammalian edible scaffold material and muscle-cells is promising for the production of in vitro meat.

  3. Implications of a Non-Unified Command System and the Need for a Unified Command System in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    aspects. It has been found that Zambia’s two attempts to unify its system happened during the one party participatory democracy era. Since the coming...and its Implication for Democracy ,” in Ourselves to Know: Civil Military Relations and Defence Transformation in Southern Africa, eds. Rocky Williams...adopted a multiparty system of government under the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) which decided to revert to independent commands. As

  4. In vitro eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Robert

    2014-11-01

    A series of recent scientific results suggest that, in the not-too-distant future, it will be possible to create viable human gametes from human stem cells. This paper discusses the potential of this technology to make possible what I call 'in vitro eugenics': the deliberate breeding of human beings in vitro by fusing sperm and egg derived from different stem-cell lines to create an embryo and then deriving new gametes from stem cells derived from that embryo. Repeated iterations of this process would allow scientists to proceed through multiple human generations in the laboratory. In vitro eugenics might be used to study the heredity of genetic disorders and to produce cell lines of a desired character for medical applications. More controversially, it might also function as a powerful technology of 'human enhancement' by allowing researchers to use all the techniques of selective breeding to produce individuals with a desired genotype. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Non-covalent interaction between polyubiquitin and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 dictates its degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    Full Text Available GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1 is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4. GTPCH1 protein degradation has been reported in animal models of several diseases, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GTPCH1 is degraded remain uncharacterized. Here we report a novel non-covalent interaction between polyubiquitin and GTPCH1 in vitro and in vivo. The non-covalent binding of GTPCH1 to polyubiquitin via an ubiquitin-binding domain (UBD results in ubiquitination and degradation. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin in cultured cells accelerated GTPCH1 degradation. In cultured cells and in vitro assays, Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains, but not Lys63-linked chains, interacted with GTPCH1 and targeted it for degradation. Consistently, proteasome inhibition attenuated GTPCH1 degradation. Finally, direct mutagenesis of an isoleucine (Ile131 in the hydrophobic patch of the GTPCH1 UBD affected its ubiquitin binding and the enzyme stability. Taken together, we conclude that GTPCH1 non-covalently interacts with polyubiquitin via an ubiquitin-binding domain. The polyubiquitin binding directs GTPCH1 ubiquitination and proteasome degradation.

  6. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Escherichia coli Uropathogenesis In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas E; Khandige, Surabhi; Madelung, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    -stage infection events have not been replicated in vitro. We have established an in vitro model of human bladder cell infection by the use of a flow chamber (FC)-based culture system, which allows investigation of steps subsequent to initial invasion. Short-term bacterial colonization on the FC-BEC layer led...... to rods that could invade other BECs. Hence, under growth conditions established to resemble those present in vivo, the elements of the proposed uropathogenic cascade were inducible in a human BEC model system. Here, we describe the model and show how these characteristics are reproduced in vitro....

  8. IN VITRO MODELS TO EVALUATE DRUG-INDUCED HYPERSENSITIVITY: POTENTIAL TEST BASED ON ACTIVATION OF DENDRITIC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Galbiati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity drug reactions (HDRs are the adverse effect of pharmaceuticals that clinically resemble allergy. HDRs account for approximately 1/6 of drug-induced adverse effects, and include immune-mediated ('allergic' and non immune-mediated ('pseudo allergic' reactions. In recent years, the severe and unpredicted drug adverse events clearly indicate that the immune system can be a critical target of drugs. Enhanced prediction in preclinical safety evaluation is, therefore, crucial. Nowadays, there are no validated in vitro or in vivo methods to screen the sensitizing potential of drugs in the pre-clinical phase. The problem of non-predictability of immunologically-based hypersensitivity reactions is related to the lack of appropriate experimental models rather than to the lack of -understanding of the adverse phenomenon.We recently established experimental conditions and markers to correctly identify drug associated with in vivo hypersensitivity reactions using THP-1 cells and IL-8 production, CD86 and CD54 expression. The proposed in vitro method benefits from a rationalistic approach with the idea that allergenic drugs share with chemical allergens common mechanisms of cell activation. This assay can be easily incorporated into drug development for hazard identification of drugs, which may have the potential to cause in vivo hypersensitivity reactions. The purpose of this review is to assess the state of the art of in vitro models to assess the allergenic potential of drugs based on the activation of dendritic cells.

  9. Regulation of the Na,K-ATPase gamma-subunit FXYD2 by Runx1 and Ret signaling in normal and injured non-peptidergic nociceptive sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Ventéo

    Full Text Available Dorsal root ganglia (DRGs contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons which relay nociceptive, thermoceptive, mechanoceptive and proprioceptive information from peripheral tissues toward the central nervous system. These neurons establish constant communication with their targets which insures correct maturation and functioning of the somato-sensory nervous system. Interfering with this two-way communication leads to cellular, electrophysiological and molecular modifications that can eventually cause neuropathic conditions. In this study we reveal that FXYD2, which encodes the gamma-subunit of the Na,K-ATPase reported so far to be mainly expressed in the kidney, is induced in the mouse DRGs at postnatal stages where it is restricted specifically to the TrkB-expressing mechanoceptive and Ret-positive/IB4-binding non-peptidergic nociceptive neurons. In non-peptidergic nociceptors, we show that the transcription factor Runx1 controls FXYD2 expression during the maturation of the somato-sensory system, partly through regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret. Moreover, Ret signaling maintains FXYD2 expression in adults as demonstrated by the axotomy-induced down-regulation of the gene that can be reverted by in vivo delivery of GDNF family ligands. Altogether, these results establish FXYD2 as a specific marker of defined sensory neuron subtypes and a new target of the Ret signaling pathway during normal maturation of the non-peptidergic nociceptive neurons and after sciatic nerve injury.

  10. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reisinger, K.; Hoffmann, S.; Alépée, N.; Ashikaga, T.; Barroso, J.; Elcombe, C.; Gellatly, N.; Galbiati, V.; Gibbs, S.; Groux, H.; Hibatallah, J.; Keller, D.; Kern, P.; Klaric, M.; Kolle, S.; Kuehnl, J.; Lambrechts, N.; Lindstedt, M.; Millet, M.; Martinozzi-Teissier, S.; Natsch, A.; Petersohn, D.; Pike, I.; Sakaguchi, H.; Schepky, A.; Tailhardat, M.; Templier, M.; van Vliet, E; Maxwell, G.

    2015-01-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has

  11. Multidrug reverting activity toward leukemia cells in a group of new verapamil analogues with low cardiovascular activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biscardi, Monica; Teodori, Elisabetta; Caporale, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    36, CTS 27 and CTS 41, that are the most interesting compounds as MDR inhibitors, followed this course: MM 36>CTS 27>CTS 41, the last one presenting no cardiovascular activity. Chemosensivity to IDA in K-562/doxR cells and AML blasts could be enhanced in vitro by the adjuvant use of the six new VRP...... of these proteins, several attempts have been made to modulate their expression and activity (protein kinase C inhibitors, anti-MDR-1 oligonucleotides, pharmacological competitors and transcriptional inhibitors). Six new compounds (MM 36, CTS 4, CTS 9, CTS 12, CTS 27 and CTS 41), derived from verapamil (VRP), were......), in the presence or absence of inhibitors, showed that these compounds function well. All the resistance modifying agents potentiated IDA activity inducing a significant reduction (P

  12. The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; Cattenoz, Thomas; Clemente, Alfonso; Comi, Irene; Dupont, Didier; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús; Feunteun, Le Steven; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Karakaya, Sibel; Lesmes, Uri; Mackie, Alan R.; Martins, Carla; Meynier, Anne; Miralles, Beatriz; Murray, B.S.; Pihlanto, Anne; Picariello, Gianluca; Santos, C.N.; Simsek, Sebnem; Recio, Isidra; Rigby, Neil; Rioux, Laurie Eve; Stoffers, Helena; Tavares, Ana; Tavares, Lucelia; Turgeon, Sylvie; Ulleberg, E.K.; Vegarud, G.E.; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary

  13. A novel in vitro method for the detection and characterization of photosensitizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Karschuk

    Full Text Available Photoactivation and binding of photoactive chemicals to proteins is a known prerequisite for the formation of immunogenic photoantigens and the induction of photoallergy. The intensive use of products and the availability of new chemicals, along with an increasing exposure to sun light contribute to the risk of photosensitizing adverse reactions. Dendritic cells (DC play a pivotal role in the induction of allergic contact dermatitis. Human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells (PBMDC were thus perceived as an obvious choice for the development of a novel in vitro photosensitization assay using the modulation of cell surface protein expression in response to photosensitizing agents. In this new protocol, known chemicals with photosensitizing, allergenic or non-allergenic potential were pre-incubated with PBMDCs prior to UVA irradiation (1 J/cm(2. Following a 48 h incubation, the expression of the cell surface molecules CD86, HLA-DR and CD83 was measured by flow cytometry. All tested photosensitizers induced a significant and dose-dependent increase of CD86 expression after irradiation compared to non-irradiated controls. Moreover, the phototoxicity of the chemicals could also be determined. In contrast, (i CD86 expression was not affected by the chosen irradiation conditions, (ii increased CD86 expression induced by allergens was independent of irradiation and (iii no PBMDC activation was observed with the non-allergenic control. The assay proposed here for the evaluation of the photoallergenic potential of chemicals includes the assessment of their allergenic, phototoxic and toxic potential in a single and robust test system and is filling a gap in the in vitro photoallergenicity test battery.

  14. Duration of senescent cell survival in vitro as a characteristic of organism longevity, an additional to the proliferative potential of fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorov, Yegor E; Zelenin, Alexander V

    2003-04-24

    More than 40 years have passed since the original publication by Hayflick and Moorhead led to the concept of the 'Hayflick limit' of the maximum number of divisions which somatic cells undergo in vitro. This concept is still regarded as a fundamental characteristic of species longevity. Here we want to emphasize another characteristic of somatic cells, namely, the duration of their survival in vitro in the non-dividing state after cessation of proliferation. This is suggested on the basis of results of recent experiments with so-called Japanese accelerated senescent mice. Results of these experiments reveal a good correlation between the longevity of the mice, the number of duplications of their fibroblasts in vitro, and the survival time of these cells in the non-dividing state. In routine culture conditions, cell survival time may be very long, as much as a few years. However, when the cells are grown under conditions of oxidative stress, cellular longevity is markedly shortened. This new test may serve as an additional marker of organismic longevity. The comparative value of both tests, the classical 'Hayflick limit' and the new test, is discussed.

  15. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation: estimation of human serum concentrations of chemicals equivalent to cytotoxic concentrations in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelden, Michael; Seibert, Hasso

    2003-01-01

    In the present study an extrapolation model for estimating serum concentrations of chemicals equivalent to in vitro effective concentrations is developed and applied to median cytotoxic concentrations (EC 50 ) determined in vitro. Nominal concentrations of a chemical in serum and in vitro are regarded as equivalent, if they result in the same aqueous concentration of the unbound form. The algorithm used is based on equilibrium distribution and requires albumin binding data, the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow ), and the albumin concentrations and lipid volume fractions in vitro and in serum. The chemicals studied cover wide ranges of cytotoxic potency (EC 50 : 2.5-530000 μM) and lipophilicity (log K ow : -5 to 7). Their albumin binding characteristics have been determined by means of an in vitro cytotoxicity test as described previously. The equivalent serum concentrations of 19 of the 33 compounds investigated, having high protein binding and/or lipophilicity, were substantially higher than the EC 50 -values, by factors of 2.5-58. Prominent deviations between the equivalent nominal concentrations in serum and in vitro were largely restricted to chemicals with higher cytotoxic potency (EC 50 ≤1000 μM). The results suggest that estimates of equivalent serum concentrations based on in vitro data are robust for chemicals with low lipophilicity (log K ow ≤2) and low potency (EC 50 >1000 μM). With more potent chemicals or those with higher lipophilicity partitioning into lipids and/or binding to serum proteins have to be taken into account when estimating in vivo serum concentrations equivalent to in vitro effective concentrations

  16. A novel approach for in vitro meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-07-01

    The present review describes the possibility of in vitro meat production with the help of advanced co-culturing methods. In vitro meat production method could be a possible alternative for the conventional meat production. Originally, the research on in vitro meat production was initiated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for space voyages. The required key qualities for accepting in vitro meat for consumption would be good efficiency ratio, increased protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscles, and mimicking the conventional meat qualities. In vitro culturing of meat is possible with the use of skeletal muscle tissue engineering, stem cell, cell co-culture, and tissue culture methods. Co-culture of myoblast and fibroblast is believed as one of the major techniques for in vitro meat production. In our lab, we have co-cultured myoblast and fibroblast. We believe that a billion pounds of in vitro meat could be produced from one animal for consumption. However, we require a great deal of research on in vitro meat production.

  17. Apoptosis induced by cold shock in vitro is dependent on cell growth phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, B L; Nagle, W A; Moss, A J; Henle, K J; Crawford, J T

    1987-06-15

    Chinese hamster V79 fibroblast cells were exposed to brief periods of cold but non-freezing temperatures at different points on the population growth curve. Upon rewarming, cells at the transition from logarithmic to stationary growth exhibited apoptosis (programmed cell death). Cells in other stages of growth, or after reentry into logarithmic growth by refeeding, did not exhibit apoptosis. Apoptosis was expressed by marked cytoplasmic blebbing, by a characteristic non-random fragmentation of DNA into nucleosomal-sized pieces, and by loss of colony-forming ability. The data suggest that cold shock served as a stimulus for susceptible cells to undergo apoptosis. Thus, the experiments describe a new in vitro system for studying the mechanisms of apoptosis.

  18. HSPB1 facilitates the formation of non-centrosomal microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Almeida-Souza

    Full Text Available The remodeling capacity of microtubules (MT is essential for their proper function. In mammals, MTs are predominantly formed at the centrosome, but can also originate from non-centrosomal sites, a process that is still poorly understood. We here show that the small heat shock protein HSPB1 plays a role in the control of non-centrosomal MT formation. The HSPB1 expression level regulates the balance between centrosomal and non-centrosomal MTs. The HSPB1 protein can be detected specifically at sites of de novo forming non-centrosomal MTs, while it is absent from the centrosomes. In addition, we show that HSPB1 binds preferentially to the lattice of newly formed MTs in vitro, suggesting that its function occurs by stabilizing MT seeds. Our findings open new avenues for the understanding of the role of HSPB1 in the development, maintenance and protection of cells with specialized non-centrosomal MT arrays.

  19. Preparation & in vitro evaluation of ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Pandey, Usha; Dash, Ashutosh; Samuel, Grace; Venkatesh, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is extensively being used for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Use of rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody directed against the CD20 antigen in combination with suitable beta emitters is expected to result in good treatment response by its cross-fire and bystander effects. The present work involves the conjugation of p-isothiocyanatobenzyl DOTA (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA) to rituximab, its radiolabelling with [90] Y and in vitro and in vivo evaluation to determine its potential as a radioimmunotherapeutic agent. Rituximab was conjugated with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA at 1:1 antibody: DOTA molar ratio. The number of DOTA molecules linked to one molecule of rituximab was determined by radioassay and spectroscopic assay. Radiolabelling of rituximab with 90 Y was carried out and its in vitro stability was evaluated. In vitro cell binding studies were carried out in Raji cells expressing CD20 antigen. Biodistribution studies were carried out in normal Swiss mice. Using both radioassay and spectroscopic method, it was determined that about five molecules of DOTA were linked to rituximab. Radiolabelling of the rituximab conjugate with [90] Y and subsequent purification on PD-10 column gave a product with radiochemical purity (RCP) > 98 per cent which was retained at > 90 per cent up to 72 h when stored at 37°C. In vitro cell binding experiments of 90 Y-DOTA-rituximab with Raji cells exhibited specific binding of 20.7 ± 0.1 per cent with [90] Y-DOTA-rituximab which reduced to 15.5 ± 0.2 per cent when incubated with cold rituximab. The equilibrium constant K d for 90 Y-DOTA-Rituximab was determined to be 3.38 nM. Radiolabelled antibody showed clearance via hepatobiliary and renal routes and activity in tibia was found to be quite low indicating in vivo stability of [90] Y-DOTA-rituximab. p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was conjugated with rituximab and radiolabelling with 90 Y was carried out. In vitro studies carried out in Raji cells showed the specificity of the

  20. Chemical and biological evaluation of the nutritive value of Algerian green seaweed Ulva lactuca using in vitro gas production technique fior ruminant animals

    OpenAIRE

    Zitouni, Hind; Arhab, Rabah; Boudry, Christelle; Bousseboua, Hacène; Beckers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the nutritive value of seaweed Ulva lactuca collected from the Algerian coast by estimation of its chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, comparatively to vetch-oat hay (control), using in vitro gas production technique. Seaweed and control were incubated with rumen liquor taken from fistulated and non lactating cows. Gas production was recorded at: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72h. The in vitro rumen fermentation parameters were measured after 24h ...

  1. Controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Sadhu, N; Srinivas, A; Prasad, R G

    2016-01-01

    In the present study controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) were designed using HPMC as rate controlling and bioadhesive polymer by direct compression method. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were used in varying amounts as effervescence forming agents. Carbon dioxide evolved due to reaction of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was explored for its potential as buccal permeation enhancer. The designed buccal discs were evaluated for physical characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Bioadhesive behavior of designed buccal discs was assessed using texture analyzer. In vivo animal studies were performed in rabbits to study bioavailability of BS in the designed buccal discs and to establish permeation enhancement ability of carbon dioxide. It was observed that effervescent buccal discs have faster drug release compared to non-effervescent buccal discs in vitro and effervescent buccal discs demonstrated significant increase in bioavailability of drug when compared to non-effervescent formulation. Hence, effervescent buccal discs can be used as an alternative to improve the drug permeation resulting in better bioavailability. However, the amount of acid and base used for generation of carbon dioxide should be selected with care as this may damage the integrity of bioadhesive dosage form.

  2. Factors Affecting the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets - a Review of In Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhadher, Waleed; Halawany, Hassan; Talic, Nabeel; Abraham, Nimmi; Jacob, Vimal

    2015-01-01

    The adhesive material used to bond orthodontic brackets to teeth should neither fail during the treatment period, resulting in treatment delays, untoward expenses or patient inconvenience nor should it damage the enamel on debonding at the end of the treatment. Although the effectiveness of a bonding system and any unfavorable effects on the enamel may be studied by conducting in-vivo studies, it is nearly impossible to independently analyze different variables that influence a specific bonding system in the oral environment. In-vitro studies, on the other hand, may utilize more standardized protocols for testing different bonding systems and materials available. Thus, the present review focused attention on in-vitro studies and made an attempt to discuss material-related, teeth-related (fluorotic vs non-fluorotic teeth) and other miscellaneous factors that influences the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Within the limitations of this review, using conventional acid-etch technique, ceramic brackets and bonding to non-fluorotic teeth was reported to have a positive influence on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets, but higher shear bond strength found on using ceramic brackets can be dangerous for the enamel.

  3. Cochlear implant with a non-removable magnet: preliminary research at 3-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrulle, F; Sufana Iancu, A; Vincent, C; Tourrel, G; Ernst, O

    2013-06-01

    To perform preliminary tests in vitro and with healthy volunteers to determine the 3-T MRI compatibility of a cochlear implant with a non-removable magnet. In the in vitro phase, we tested six implants for temperature changes and internal malfunctioning. We measured the demagnetisation of 65 internal magnets with different tilt angles between the implant's magnetic field (bi) and the main magnetic field (b0). In the in vivo phase, we tested 28 operational implants attached to the scalps of volunteers with the head in three different positions. The study did not find significant temperature changes or electronic malfunction in the implants tested in vitro. We found considerable demagnetisation of the cochlear implant magnets in the in vitro and in vivo testing influenced by the position of the magnet in the main magnetic field. We found that if the bi/b0 angle is 90°, there is demagnetisation in almost 60 % of the cases. When the angle is around 90°, the risk of demagnetisation is low (6.6 %). The preliminary results on cochlear implants with non-removable magnets indicate the need to maintain the contraindication of passage through 3-T MRI. • Magnetic resonance imaging can affect cochlear implants and vice versa. • Demagnetisation of cochlear implant correlates with the angle between bi and b0. • The position of the head in the MRI influences the demagnetisation. • Three-Tesla MRI for cochlear implants is still contraindicated. • However some future solutions are discussed.

  4. In vitro and in vivo spin echo diffusion imaging characteristics of synovial fluid: potential non-invasive differentiation of inflammatory and degenerative arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustace, S.; DiMasi, M.; Adams, J.; Ward, R.; Caruthers, S.; McAlindon, T.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to analyse the diffusion characteristics of synovial fluid in degenerative and inflammatory arthropathies.Design and patients. Ten in vitro specimens of synovial fluid from patients with both degenerative and inflammatory arthropathy were studied at body temperature with a navigator-corrected spin echo diffusion sequence (B values 0-512 s/mm 2 ), on a Philips 1.5-T Gyroscan. Subsequently synovial fluid from knee joint effusions of 25 patients (10 patients with osteoarthritis, 10 patients with effusions following trauma and 5 patients with effusions secondary to inflammatory arthritis) was evaluated with the same navigator-corrected spin echo diffusion sequence.Results. Both in vitro and in vivo study demonstrated decreased diffusion in patients with effusions secondary to degenerative joint disease (less than 2.40 x 10 -5 cm 2 /s) relative to patients with effusions accompanying knee trauma (greater than 2.75 x 10 -5 cm 2 /s) and inflammatory arthritis (in vitro and in vivo greater than 3.00 x 10 -5 cm 2 /s).Conclusion. Synovial fluid in degenerative arthritis shows less diffusion or free water movement than synovial fluid in inflammatory arthritis. Diffusion characteristics of synovial fluid may be used to predict the nature of the underlying form of arthritis in patients presenting with knee joint effusions. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of in vitro COPD models for tobacco regulatory science: Workshop proceedings, conclusions and paths forward for in vitro model use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrsing, Holger; Raabe, Hans; Manuppello, Joseph; Bombick, Betsy; Curren, Rodger; Sullivan, Kristie; Sethi, Sanjay; Phipps, Richard; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Yan, Sherwin; D'Ruiz, Carl; Tarran, Robert; Constant, Samuel; Phillips, Gary; Gaça, Marianna; Hayden, Patrick; Cao, Xuefei; Mathis, Carole; Hoeng, Julia; Braun, Armin; Hill, Erin

    2016-05-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 established the Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products (FDA-CTP), and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed 'modified risk'. On 8-10 December 2014, IIVS organised a workshop conference, entitled Assessment of In Vitro COPD Models for Tobacco Regulatory Science, to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia, industry and animal protection, to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA-CTP. Specific topics were covered to assess the status of current in vitro technologies as they are applied to understanding the adverse pulmonary events resulting from tobacco product exposure, and in particular, the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The four topics covered were: a) Inflammation and Oxidative Stress; b) Ciliary Dysfunction and Ion Transport; c) Goblet Cell Hyperplasia and Mucus Production; and d) Parenchymal/Bronchial Tissue Destruction and Remodelling. The 2.5 day workshop included 18 expert speakers, plus poster sessions, networking and breakout sessions, which identified key findings and provided recommendations to advance the in vitro technologies and assays used to evaluate tobacco-induced disease etiologies. The workshop summary was reported at the 2015 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting, and the recommendations led to an IIVS-organised technical workshop in June 2015, entitled Goblet Cell Hyperplasia, Mucus Production, and Ciliary Beating Assays, to assess these assays and to conduct a proof-of-principle multi-laboratory exercise to determine their suitability for standardisation. Here, we report on the proceedings, recommendations and outcomes of the December 2014 workshop, including paths forward to continue the development of non-animal methods to evaluate tissue responses that model the disease processes that may lead to COPD, a

  6. Cellular responses of A549 alveolar epithelial cells to serially collected Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients at different stages of pulmonary infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawdon, Nicole A; Aval, Pouya Sadeghi; Barnes, Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major cause of chronic pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa lose certain virulence factors, transform into a mucoid phenotype, and develop antibiotic resistance. We hypothesized that these genetic and phenotypic ...

  7. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-02-13

    Feb 13, 2015 ... mucoid, T.inkin, T. cutaneum) a rate of 11.15%. This rate confirms the one recorded by Pini G & al ... The authors declare no competing interest. Authors' ... due to Trichosporonasahii,first two cases in Chile. Rev. IberoamMicol.

  8. AN EFFECTIVE WAY TO CARRY OUT MASS IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF POTENTILLA ALBA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Tikhomirova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the plant’s extensive area of distribution, Potentilla alba L. natural resources are scarce and cannot meet the modern needs of the pharmaceutical industry. Because of the mass preparation of medical raw materials by using P. alba, it entered into the list of rare and endangered species plants of the Red Data Book of the Republic of Belarus. This plant is not represented in the wild flora of Western Siberia, but there is a great need for developing a method for the mass propagation of P. alba using in vitro culture in order to obtain a high-quality planting material. At the explant stage, the technique of the P. alba introduction into in vitro culture is developed. This paper reveals the morphogenetic features of the development of P. alba explants of different types and the regenerative capacity of the tissue culture. At the micropropagation stage, the optimum culture media and the growth conditions for the regenerated plants are selected. At the stage of test-tube plants rooting and transferring them into ex vitro conditions, the most effective means of adaptation to non-sterile conditions in hydroponics are proposed.

  9. Evaluation of the potential of Trichoderma viride in the control of fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad Parizi, T; Ansaria, Mehdi; Elaminejad, Tahereh

    2012-04-01

    The potential of Trichoderma viride as a bio-control agent was evaluated in vitro against Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani[1] using the dual culture technique. Volatile and non-volatile inhibitors of Trichoderma were also evaluated for this purpose. T. viride[2] was shown to have a marked inhibitory effect on the tested pathogens in vitro. Maximum inhibition occurred against P. exigua, with 71.76% reduction in mycelial radial growth. The three pathogens, P. exigua, F. nygamai and R. solani were also found to be susceptible to the volatile inhibitors produced by T. viride, giving rise to growth inhibition of about 68% in each case. When T. viride non-volatile metabolites were tested against the pathogens, maximum inhibition occurred against R. solani (73.95% mycelial growth inhibition), followed by P. exigua (37.17% inhibition). The inhibitory effect of the non-volatile metabolites on F. nygamai was, however, minimal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA Length Modulates the Affinity of Fragments of Genomic DNA for the Nuclear Matrix In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vilchis, David; Aranda-Anzaldo, Armando

    2017-12-01

    Classical observations have shown that during the interphase the chromosomal DNA of metazoans is organized in supercoiled loops attached to a compartment known as the nuclear matrix (NM). Fragments of chromosomal DNA able to bind the isolated NM in vitro are known as matrix associated/attachment/addressed regions or MARs. No specific consensus sequence or motif has been found that may constitute a universal, defining feature of MARs. On the other hand, high-salt resistant DNA-NM interactions in situ define true DNA loop anchorage regions or LARs, that might correspond to a subset of the potential MARs but are not necessarily identical to MARs characterized in vitro, since there are several examples of MARs able to bind the NM in vitro but which are not actually bound to the NM in situ. In the present work we assayed the capacity of two LARs, as well as of shorter fragments within such LARs, for binding to the NM in vitro. Paradoxically the isolated (≈2 kb) LARs cannot bind to the NM in vitro while their shorter (≈300 pb) sub-fragments and other non-related but equally short DNA fragments, bind to the NM in a high-salt resistant fashion. Our results suggest that the ability of a given DNA fragment for binding to the NM in vitro primarily depends on the length of the fragment, suggesting that binding to the NM is modulated by the local topology of the DNA fragment in suspension that it is known to depend on the DNA length. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4487-4497, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Phytotherapeutics oridonin and ponicidin show additive effects combined with irradiation in pancreatic cancer in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liermann Jakob

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemoradiation of locally advanced non-metastatic pancreatic cancer can lead to secondary operability by tumor mass reduction. Here, we analyzed radiomodulating effects of oridonin and ponicidin in pancreatic cancer in vitro. Both agents are ent-kaurane diterpenoids, extracted from Isodon rubescens, a plant that is well known in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Cytotoxic effects have recently been shown in different tumor entities for both agents.

  12. Fetal microglial in vitro phenotype depends on prior in vivo inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingju eCao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Neuroinflammation in utero may result in life-long neurological disabilities. The molecular mechanisms whereby microglia contribute to this response remain incompletely understood. Methods. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS or saline were administered intravenously to non-anesthetized chronically instrumented near-term fetal sheep to model fetal inflammation in vivo. Microglia were then isolated from in vivo LPS and saline (naïve exposed animals. To mimic the second hit of neuroinflammation, these microglia were then re-exposed to LPS in vitro. Cytokine responses were measured in vivo and subsequently in vitro in the primary microglia cultures derived from these animals. We sequenced the whole transcriptome of naïve and second hit microglia and profiled their genetic expression to define molecular pathways disrupted during neuroinflammation.Results. In vivo LPS exposure resulted in IL-6 increase in fetal plasma 3 h post LPS exposure. Even though not histologically apparent, microglia acquired a pro-inflammatory phenotype in vivo that was sustained and amplified in vitro upon second hit LPS exposure as measured by IL-1β response in vitro and RNAseq analyses. While NFKB and Jak-Stat inflammatory pathways were up regulated in naïve microglia, heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 and Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP genes were uniquely differentially expressed in the second hit microglia. Microglial calreticulin/LRP genes implicated in microglia-neuronal communication relevant for the neuronal development were up regulated in second hit microglia.Discussion. We identified a unique HMOX1down and FBPup phenotype of microglia exposed to the double-hit suggesting interplay of inflammatory and metabolic pathways as a memory of prior inflammatory insult. These findings suggest new therapeutic targets for early postnatal intervention to prevent brain injury.

  13. Toxicity effect of Auxemma oncocalyx fraction and its active principle oncocalyxone A on in vitro culture of caprine secondary follicles and in vitro oocyte maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Leiva-Revilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract of the heartwood of Auxemma oncocalyx (A. oncocalyx and its main component i.e., Oncocalyxone A (onco A, have elevated antioxidant and anti-tumoral activity, but studies on the action of these drugs regarding folliculogenesis are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of A. oncocalyx and onco A on the in vitro culture of isolated secondary follicles and on the in vitro maturation of oocytes from caprine antral follicles grown in vivo. Isolated secondary follicles were randomly distributed in six groups; the non-cultured control was immediately fixed upon isolation. The remaining follicles were cultured for 7 days in ?-MEM+ alone (control or supplemented with DMSO, doxorrubicin, A. oncocalyx or onco A. After culture, follicles were evaluated for antrum formation, growth rate, apoptosis (TUNEL and cellular proliferation (PCNA, as well as gene expression of Bcl2 and Bax. Additionally, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were aspirated and allocated into five treatments for in vitro maturation: control, cultured only in maturation base medium (TCM 199+; or supplemented with DMSO; DXR; A. oncocalyx or onco A. After in vitro maturation, oocyte chromatin configuration and viability were assessed. After 7 days of culture, there was a reduction (P < 0.05 in the percentage of morphologically intact follicles, antrum formation, growth rate and number of PCNA positive granulosa cells in DXR treatment compared to the other treatments. In the DXR treatment a higher percentage (P < 0.05 of TUNEL positive follicles and higher (P < 0.05 relative BAX:BCL2 mRNA ratio’s were observed. After in vitro maturation of the COCs DXR, A. oncocalyx and onco A treatments had a greater (P < 0.05 percentage of abnormal oocytes and a lower (P < 0.05 percentage of viable oocytes as compared with the control group. However, only DXR and onco A treatments increased (P < 0.05 the percentage of alive oocytes with

  14. Functional cure of SIVagm infection in rhesus macaques results in complete recovery of CD4+ T cells and is reverted by CD8+ cell depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Pandrea

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism of infection control in elite controllers (EC may shed light on the correlates of control of disease progression in HIV infection. However, limitations have prevented a clear understanding of the mechanisms of elite controlled infection, as these studies can only be performed at randomly selected late time points in infection, after control is achieved, and the access to tissues is limited. We report that SIVagm infection is elite-controlled in rhesus macaques (RMs and therefore can be used as an animal model for EC HIV infection. A robust acute infection, with high levels of viral replication and dramatic mucosal CD4(+ T cell depletion, similar to pathogenic HIV-1/SIV infections of humans and RMs, was followed by complete and durable control of SIVagm replication, defined as: undetectable VLs in blood and tissues beginning 72 to 90 days postinoculation (pi and continuing at least 4 years; seroreversion; progressive recovery of mucosal CD4(+ T cells, with complete recovery by 4 years pi; normal levels of T cell immune activation, proliferation, and apoptosis; and no disease progression. This "functional cure" of SIVagm infection in RMs could be reverted after 4 years of control of infection by depleting CD8 cells, which resulted in transient rebounds of VLs, thus suggesting that control may be at least in part immune mediated. Viral control was independent of MHC, partial APOBEC restriction was not involved in SIVagm control in RMs and Trim5 genotypes did not impact viral replication. This new animal model of EC lentiviral infection, in which complete control can be predicted in all cases, permits research on the early events of infection in blood and tissues, before the defining characteristics of EC are evident and when host factors are actively driving the infection towards the EC status.

  15. Laser-assisted cartilage reshaping: in vitro and in vivo animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Pankratov, Michail M.; Perrault, Donald F., Jr.; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1995-05-01

    Correction of cartilaginous defects in the head and neck area remains a challenge for the surgeon. This study investigated a new technique for laser-assisted cartilage reshaping. The pulsed 1.44 micrometers Nd:YAG laser was used in vitro and in vivo experiments to irradiate cartilage to change it's shape without carbonization or vaporization of tissue. Two watts of average power in non contact manner was used to irradiate and reshape the cartilage. The extracted reshaped cartilage specimens underwent testing of elastic force with a computer assisted measurement system that recorded the changes in elastic force in the specimens from 1 hr to 11 days post-irradiation. An animal model of defective tracheal cartilage (collapsed tracheal wall) was created, allowed to heal for 6 weeks and then corrected endoscopically with the laser-assisted technique. The results of the in vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrated that it was possible to alter the cartilage and that cartilage would retain its new shape. The clinical significance of the technique is evident and warrants further animal studies and clinical trials.

  16. Involvement of adrenal hormones in tissue respiration of sub-tropical hibernating and non-hibernating species of frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B B; Mahanta, A

    1997-03-01

    Effects of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EP), corticosterone and cortisol were studied both in vivo and in vitro on the rate of oxygen consumption of tissues (liver, skeletal muscle and kidney) of sub-tropical Indian frogs Rana limnocharis (a hibernating species) and Rana cyanophlyctis (a non-hibernating species) exposed to natural climatic conditions during winter and summer/rainy seasons. Further, the effects of NE and EP were also studied in vitro in the presence of specific beta- and alpha-adrenergic antagonists (propranolol and prazosin). NE, EP and corticosterone, when administered in vivo or in vitro, significantly stimulated the respiratory rate of the tissues of both the species irrespective of the seasons/temperature. Results suggest that NE, EP and corticosterone are directly involved in regulation of the energy metabolism of both hibernating and non-hibernating species of sub-tropical frogs. The calorigenic action of NE and EP seems to be mediated by both beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors. However, the temporal involvement of beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors seems to be tissue-dependent.

  17. Comparison of cytotoxicity in vitro and irritation in vivo for aqueous and oily solutions of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Wolska, Eliza; Chorążewicz, Juliusz; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo model on rabbit eyes and the in vitro cytotoxicity on fibroblasts were used to compare irritation effect of aqueous and oily (Miglyol 812) solutions of surfactants. Tween 20, Tween 80 and Cremophor EL were tested in different concentrations (0.1, 1 or 5%) and the in vitro test demonstrated that surfactants in oil are less cytotoxic than in aqueous solutions. In the in vivo study, the aqueous solutions of surfactants were characterized as non-irritant while small changes in conjunctiva were observed after application the oily solutions of surfactants and the preparations were classified as slightly irritant, however this effect was similar when Miglyol was applied alone. In conclusion, it is reported that the MTT assay does not correlate well with the Draize scores.

  18. Relaxation of soman-induced contracture of airway smooth muscle in vitro. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filbert, M.G.; Moore, D.H.; Adler, M.

    1992-12-31

    A possible role for beta-adrenergic agonists in the management of bronchoconstriction resulting from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds was investigated in vitro in canine tracheal smooth muscle. Norepinephrine, salbutamol and isoproterenol produced partial relaxation of soman-induced contractures. However, the relaxation induced was not sustained; muscle tensions returned to pretreatment levels within minutes despite the continued presence of beta-agonists. Increasing cAMP levels with the non beta-agonist bronchodilators such as thoophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, or forskolin, a specific stimulator of adenylate cyclase, resulted in more complete and longer lasting relaxation, suggesting that beta-adrenoceptor desensitization may contribute to the failure by beta-agonists to produce sustained relaxation. Nerve agents, Soman, Toxicity, Airway smooth muscle, In vitro, Physiology, Effects.

  19. Discovery of potent, novel, non-toxic anti-malarial compounds via quantum modelling, virtual screening and in vitro experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaludov Nikola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing resistance towards existing anti-malarial therapies emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Additionally, many malaria drugs in use today have high toxicity and low therapeutic indices. Gradient Biomodeling, LLC has developed a quantum-model search technology that uses quantum similarity and does not depend explicitly on chemical structure, as molecules are rigorously described in fundamental quantum attributes related to individual pharmacological properties. Therapeutic activity, as well as toxicity and other essential properties can be analysed and optimized simultaneously, independently of one another. Such methodology is suitable for a search of novel, non-toxic, active anti-malarial compounds. Methods A set of innovative algorithms is used for the fast calculation and interpretation of electron-density attributes of molecular structures at the quantum level for rapid discovery of prospective pharmaceuticals. Potency and efficacy, as well as additional physicochemical, metabolic, pharmacokinetic, safety, permeability and other properties were characterized by the procedure. Once quantum models are developed and experimentally validated, the methodology provides a straightforward implementation for lead discovery, compound optimizzation and de novo molecular design. Results Starting with a diverse training set of 26 well-known anti-malarial agents combined with 1730 moderately active and inactive molecules, novel compounds that have strong anti-malarial activity, low cytotoxicity and structural dissimilarity from the training set were discovered and experimentally validated. Twelve compounds were identified in silico and tested in vitro; eight of them showed anti-malarial activity (IC50 ≤ 10 μM, with six being very effective (IC50 ≤ 1 μM, and four exhibiting low nanomolar potency. The most active compounds were also tested for mammalian cytotoxicity and found to be non-toxic, with a

  20. Effect of radiotherapy on lymphocyte cytotoxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, J; Melen, B [Central Microbiological Laboratory, Stockholm County Council (Sweden); Blomgren, H; Glas, U; Perlmann, P

    1975-11-01

    The cytotoxic functions of highly purified blood lymphocytes from patients with breast cancer were studied before and after radiotherapy. Addition of PHA or of rabbit antibodies to target cells (chicken erythrocytes) were chosen as two means of inducing lymphocyte cytotoxicity in vitro. The proportion of T and non-T lymphocytes was determined by means of E and EAC rosette tests. The antibody-induced cytotoxicity of lymphocytes decreased following radiotherapy while that mediated by PHA remained unchanged. There was some reduction in the percentage of EAC rosette-forming cells. These results, as well as earlier observations, suggest that the decrease in the peripheral blood of the proportion of lymphocytes with receptors for activated complement is responsible for changes in the antibody-mediated lymphocyte cytotoxicity.

  1. A non-electrostatic spacer for aerosol delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Anhøj, J; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    to 6 years, suspected to have asthma the non-electrostatic spacer delivered a mean total dose of budesonide aerosol of 39% of the nominal dose, which was significantly higher than the Babyhaler (28%), the Nebuhaler (21%), and the AeroChamber (19%). These differences were most pronounced in children......A pear shaped non-electrostatic spacer, composed of steel with a volume of 250 ml and equipped with a facemask containing integrated inlet and outlet valves for inspiration and expiration, was compared with three plastic spacers. The plastic spacers were primed with repeated puffs from a budesonide...... was 27 seconds and independent of the use of p-MDI. In vitro the maximum dose of budesonide from a p-MDI, expressed as a percentage of the nominal dose, was 56% from the non-electrostatic spacer, 61% from the Nebuhaler, 45% from the Babyhaler, and 30% from the AeroChamber. In 124 children, age 6 months...

  2. Non-animal methods to predict skin sensitization (II): an assessment of defined approaches *.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Allen, David; Ashikaga, Takao; Casey, Warren; Clouet, Elodie; Cluzel, Magalie; Desprez, Bertrand; Gellatly, Nichola; Göbel, Carsten; Kern, Petra S; Klaric, Martina; Kühnl, Jochen; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Mewes, Karsten; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Strickland, Judy; van Vliet, Erwin; Zang, Qingda; Petersohn, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    Skin sensitization is a toxicity endpoint of widespread concern, for which the mechanistic understanding and concurrent necessity for non-animal testing approaches have evolved to a critical juncture, with many available options for predicting sensitization without using animals. Cosmetics Europe and the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods collaborated to analyze the performance of multiple non-animal data integration approaches for the skin sensitization safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force (STTF) collected and generated data on 128 substances in multiple in vitro and in chemico skin sensitization assays selected based on a systematic assessment by the STTF. These assays, together with certain in silico predictions, are key components of various non-animal testing strategies that have been submitted to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development as case studies for skin sensitization. Curated murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and human skin sensitization data were used to evaluate the performance of six defined approaches, comprising eight non-animal testing strategies, for both hazard and potency characterization. Defined approaches examined included consensus methods, artificial neural networks, support vector machine models, Bayesian networks, and decision trees, most of which were reproduced using open source software tools. Multiple non-animal testing strategies incorporating in vitro, in chemico, and in silico inputs demonstrated equivalent or superior performance to the LLNA when compared to both animal and human data for skin sensitization.

  3. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza

    2017-12-01

    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inbreeding effects on in vitro embryo production traits in Guzerá cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, B C; Balieiro, J C C; Ventura, R V; Bruneli, F A T; Peixoto, M G C D

    2017-11-01

    Inbreeding has been associated with the impairment of reproductive performance in many cattle breeds. Although the usage of reproductive biotechnologies has been increasing in bovine populations, not much attention has been given to the impact of inbreeding over cow's performance on artificial reproduction. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of inbreeding on in vitro embryo production in a Guzerá breed population. The inbreeding coefficient (F), calculated as half of the co-ancestry of the individual's parents, was used as an estimate of inbreeding. The inbreeding coefficients of the donor, sire (used on in vitro fertilization) and of the embryos were included, separately, in the proposed models either as classificatory or continuous variables (linear and quadratic effects). The percentage of non-inbred individuals (or embryos) and mean F of donors, embryos and sires were 29.38%; 35.76%; 42.86% and 1.98±2.68; 1.32±3.13; 2.08±2.79, respectively. Two different models were considered, one for oocyte production traits and other for embryo production traits. The increase of F of the donor significantly (P0.05) effects were observed for the sire (father of the embryos) inbreeding coefficient over the traits analysed. Embryo's F influenced (Ptechnology. High levels of inbreeding should be avoided when selecting Guzerá female donors and planning in vitro fertilization mating.

  5. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles as Radiosensitisers: An In vitro and Phantom-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youkhana, Esho Qasho; Feltis, Bryce; Blencowe, Anton; Geso, Moshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Radiosensitisation caused by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) is investigated using phantoms (PRESAGE ® dosimeters) and in vitro using two types of cell lines, cultured human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and prostate cancer (DU145) cells. Methods: Anatase TiO 2 -NPs were synthesised, characterised and functionalised to allow dispersion in culture-medium for in vitro studies and halocarbons (PRESAGE ® chemical compositions). PRESAGE ® dosimeters were scanned with spectrophotometer to determine the radiation dose enhancement. Clonogenic and cell viability assays were employed to determine cells survival curves from which the dose enhancement levels "radiosensitisation" are deduced. Results: Comparable levels of radiosensitisation were observed in both phantoms and cells at kilovoltage ranges of x-ray energies (slightly higher in vitro) . Significant radiosensitisation (~67 %) of control was also noted in cells at megavoltage energies (commonly used in radiotherapy), compared to negligible levels detected by phantoms. This difference is attributed to biochemical effects, specifically the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals ( • OH), which are only manifested in aqueous environments of cells and are non-existent in case of phantoms. Conclusions: This research shows that TiO 2 -NPs improve the efficiency of dose delivery, which has implications for future radiotherapy treatments. Literature shows that Ti 2 O 3 -NPs can be used as imaging agents hence with these findings renders these NPs as theranostic agents.

  6. Discharge and infection in retinoblastoma post-enucleation sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourits DL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Daphne L Mourits,1 Dyonne T Hartong,1 Andries E Budding,2 Machteld I Bosscha,1 H Stevie Tan,1 Annette C Moll1 1Department of Ophthalmology, VU University Medical Center, 2Department of Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: To investigate the causes and treatment options for socket discharge and infection in patients enucleated for retinoblastoma (Rb. Methods: A questionnaire was filled out by (parents of ocular prosthesis-wearing patients with a history of enucleation as treatment for Rb. We collected data on patients’ characteristics, cleaning habits of the prosthesis, frequency of socket irritation, discharge, and infection, and use of antibiotics. With ordinal logistic regression analysis, factors related to the outcome parameters (frequency of irritation, mucoid and purulent discharge were identified. In a subset of young asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, a swab culture of the socket was performed to determine the presence of microorganisms. Results: A total of 186 patients or their parents (mean age of the patients: 17.3 years, ranging from 0.8 to 88.3 years filled out the questionnaire. Irritation, mucoid discharge, and purulent discharge were frequently (once a month or more often experienced in 75 (39.5%, 127 (66.8%, and 15 (13.2% sockets, respectively. Younger age was associated with a higher frequency of mucoid and purulent discharge. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, gender, age at surgery, cleaning frequency, and nocturnal wear were not associated with the outcome parameters. In a subgroup of 26 patients, the sockets were swabbed and cultured. All symptomatic patients had a positive bacterial culture versus 15% (2/13 of the asymptomatic patients (P<0.001. Common cold was correlated with both symptoms and presence of bacteria. Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus were the species most frequently cultured. Conclusion: Ocular prosthesis-wearing patients often experienced mucoid

  7. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs;Efeito da radiacao gama em proteina alergenica de ovos de galinhas poedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-07-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of {sup 60}Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation

  8. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-01-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of 60 Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such

  9. An In Vitro Potency Assay for Monitoring the Immunomodulatory Potential of Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Pachler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative and immunomodulatory activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is partially mediated by secreted vesicular factors. Extracellular vesicles (EVs exocytosed by MSCs are gaining increased attention as prospective non-cellular therapeutics for a variety of diseases. However, the lack of suitable in vitro assays to monitor the therapeutic potential of EVs currently restricts their application in clinical studies. We have evaluated a dual in vitro immunomodulation potency assay that reproducibly reports the inhibitory effect of MSCs on induced T-cell proliferation and the alloantigen-driven mixed leukocyte reaction of pooled peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a dose-dependent manner. Phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-cell proliferation was inhibited by MSC-derived EVs in a dose-dependent manner comparable to MSCs. In contrast, inhibition of alloantigen-driven mixed leukocyte reaction was only observed for MSCs, but not for EVs. Our results support the application of a cell-based in vitro potency assay for reproducibly determining the immunomodulatory potential of EVs. Validation of this assay can help establish reliable release criteria for EVs for future clinical studies.

  10. Alterations in phosphatidylcholine synthesis are associated with taxol resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorbara, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    A taxol resistant variant (J7/TAX-50) of the murine macrophage-like cell line J774.2 has been developed in vitro. The LD 50 of taxol for the resistant cells is 800-fold greater than that for the parental cell line. The J7/TAX-50 cells display phenotypic traits which are associated with multidrug resistance. J7/TAX-50 is unstably resistant and must be maintained in the presence of taxol. Cells grown in the absence of taxol for 30 days revert to drug sensitivity, and the membrane phosphoglycoprotein is lost. In contrast, the return to a normal level of drug accumulation is prolonged and requires over 8 months of growth in the absence of taxol. To characterize further the parental, resistant and revertant cell lines, the major lipids have been analyzed by 2D-chromatography and HPLC. The steady-state level of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in J7/TAX-50 is greater than in the parental or revertant cell lines. Pulse-chase studies performed with 14 C-choline or 32 P-orthophosphate demonstrated an increase in the turnover of PC in J7/TAX-50. Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the composition of the major phospholipids indicated that fatty acids attached to the sn1- and 2-positions of PC are the same in the resistant and parental cell lines. These studies suggest that an increased level of PC in the membrane may be related to drug resistance and responsible for the prolonged decrease in steady-state drug association in J7/TAX-50 grown in the absence of taxol

  11. Structural identifiability analyses of candidate models for in vitro Pitavastatin hepatic uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Thomas R B; Chappell, Michael J; Yates, James W T; Evans, Neil D

    2014-05-01

    In this paper a review of the application of four different techniques (a version of the similarity transformation approach for autonomous uncontrolled systems, a non-differential input/output observable normal form approach, the characteristic set differential algebra and a recent algebraic input/output relationship approach) to determine the structural identifiability of certain in vitro nonlinear pharmacokinetic models is provided. The Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) substrate, Pitavastatin, is used as a probe on freshly isolated animal and human hepatocytes. Candidate pharmacokinetic non-linear compartmental models have been derived to characterise the uptake process of Pitavastatin. As a prerequisite to parameter estimation, structural identifiability analyses are performed to establish that all unknown parameters can be identified from the experimental observations available. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Results of in vitro chemosensitivity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Nobuhiko; Morimoto, Hideki; Akita, Toshiaki; Inoue, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Takeo.

    1986-01-01

    The authors reviewed their experiences to date with chemosensitivity testing of 629 tumors by human tumor clonogenic assay (HTCA) and of 199 tumors by scintillation assay (SA). HTCA and SA were both performed using a double-layer-soft-agar system with continuous exposure of cells to one concentration of standard anticancer drugs. Overall, 60 % of specimens in HTCA and 58 % in SA produced significant growth in vitro. HTCA was 52 % (13/25) reliable for predicting in vivo sensitivity, and 95 % (36/38) reliable for in vivo resistance, whereas SA was 40 % (8/20) reliable for in vivo sensitivity and 88 % (21/24) for in vivo resistance. In vitro success rates were variable, depending on the tumor histology. In vitro growth of gastric cancer specimens was characteristically lower than that of colon cancer specimens (48 % and 60 % in HTCA, and 46 % and 68 % in SA, respectively). (p < 0.005). Optimal in vitro-in vivo drug concentrations and culture conditions are still being defined. Correlation studies of in vitro-in vivo responses of gastrointestinal cancers suggested that in vitro concentrations of 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C used in this study were considerably higher than their optimal doses. Tumor cell heterogeneity poses significant problems in the clinical use of chemosensitivity assays. In this last study, we sought evidence of tumor heterogeneity by comparing chemosensitivity responses between : 1) different portions of a single tumor, 2) a primary and a metastatic biopsy taken from a patient on the same day, and 3) different metastases from a patient taken on the same day. The results demonstrated the presence of considerable heterogeneity of response to chemotherapy among different tumors from the same patient, and even within the same tumor. The reported discrepancies of in vitro and in vivo sensitivity may be due to such therapeutic heterogeneity among tumors. (J.P.N.)

  13. Biofilm Filtrates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis Patients Inhibit Preformed Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilms via Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Fazal; Ferreira, Jose A G; Stevens, David A; Clemons, Karl V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) colonize cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airways. Pa culture filtrates inhibit Af biofilms, and Pa non-CF, mucoid (Muc-CF) and nonmucoid CF (NMuc-CF) isolates form an ascending inhibitory hierarchy. We hypothesized this activity is mediated through apoptosis induction. One Af and three Pa (non-CF, Muc-CF, NMuc-CF) reference isolates were studied. Af biofilm was formed in 96 well plates for 16 h ± Pa biofilm filtrates. After 24 h, apoptosis was characterized by viability dye DiBAc, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, DNA fragmentation and metacaspase activity. Muc-CF and NMuc-CF filtrates inhibited and damaged Af biofilm (pbiofilms (3.7- fold) compared to treatment with filtrates from Muc-CF- (2.5- fold) or non-CF Pa (1.7- fold). Depolarization of mitochondrial potential was greater upon exposure to NMuc-CF (2.4-fold) compared to Muc-CF (1.8-fold) or non-CF (1.25-fold) (pbiofilm, compared to control, mediated by metacaspase activation. In conclusion, filtrates from CF-Pa isolates were more inhibitory against Af biofilms than from non-CF. The apoptotic effect involves mitochondrial membrane damage associated with metacaspase activation.

  14. In-vitro and in-vivo phenotype of type Asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses utilizing two non-RGD receptor recognition sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    clinical disease and viremia. Conclusions FMDV quasispecies evolving in a different biological environment gained the capability of selecting different receptor recognition site. The RDD-containing FMD viral genome can accommodate substitutions in the receptor binding site without additional changes in the capsid. The viruses expressing non-RGD receptor binding sites can replicate stably in vitro and produce typical FMD clinical disease in susceptible animals. PMID:21711567

  15. In-vitro and in-vivo phenotype of type Asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses utilizing two non-RGD receptor recognition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hong

    2011-06-01

    developed typical clinical disease and viremia. Conclusions FMDV quasispecies evolving in a different biological environment gained the capability of selecting different receptor recognition site. The RDD-containing FMD viral genome can accommodate substitutions in the receptor binding site without additional changes in the capsid. The viruses expressing non-RGD receptor binding sites can replicate stably in vitro and produce typical FMD clinical disease in susceptible animals.

  16. Características morfoanatômicas da epiderme foliar de plantas variantes e não variantes somaclonais de bananeiras (Musa sp. Colla cv. Prata-anã cultivadas in vitro Morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaf epidermis of variant plants and somaclonal non-variants of banana trees (Musa sp. Colla cv. Prata-anã cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Araújo Lacerda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A variação somaclonal corresponde ao aparecimento de plantas anormais durante o processo de multiplicação in vitro, principalmente relacionada à estatura, no caso o gigantismo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi averiguar as diferenças morfoanatômicas da epiderme foliar na tentativa de diferenciar as plantas de 'Prata-anã' em relação aos seus variantes somaclonais. A análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou uma diferença significativa entre o diâmetro polar dos estômatos da 'Prata-anã' não variante e suas variantes, ambas em condições in vitro, observando-se que o mesmo não ocorre para as plantas in vivo. O número médio de estômatos é menor nas plantas variantes somaclonais, porém sem diferenças significativas a não ser para a planta PIII. A descamação de cera é evidente somente nas plantas variantes de ambos os materiais (in vitro e in vivo. Conclui-se que os caracteres morfoanatômicos da epiderme foliar, como densidade estomática, diâmetro estomático polar e a uniformidade da cera atuam como marcadores morfológicos para caracterizar as plantas micropropagadas de 'Prata-anã' em relação aos seus variantes somaclonais para a característica gigantismo.Somaclonal variation corresponds to the emergence of abnormal plants during the process of multiplication in vitro, mainly related to stature, in the case the gigantism. The aim of this work was to discover morphoanatomical differences of the leaf epidermis in an attempt to differentiate plants of "Prata-anã" from their somaclonal variants. Analysis by scanning electronic microscopy showed significant difference between the polar diameter of the stomata of the "Prata-anã" non-variant and its variants, both in vitro. The same does not happen for plants in vivo. The average number of stomata is lower in the somaclonal variant plants, but without significant differences except for plant PIII. Wax peeling is only evident in the variant plants of both the

  17. UV-induced tandem double mutations in the trpA gene of E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechocki, R.; Langhammer, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ultraviolet light induction of tandem double mutations in a reverse mutation system was shown using trpA mutants which are characterized by the codon sequences GAA and AAG in codon position 211. Among 597 Trp + independent revertants of the trpA (AAG211) strain 3 full revertants were detected arising from UV-induced tandem double base exchanges. In the codon unit 211 full revertants due to single base exchanges are at least 20 times as frequent as full revertants due to tandem double base exchanges. (author)

  18. Significance of in vitro adventitious bud techniques for mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1982-01-01

    It was investigated whether in vitro propagation techniques are of significance for the production of solid, non-chimeric mutants in mutation breeding programmes of vegetatively propagated crops. Irradiated explants of chrysanthemum, potato, begonia and carnation were used for the production of (adventitious) shoots and plantlets to determine the number and frequency of solid mutants and chimeras respectively. It was demonstrated that by the methods described high numbers of solid, non-chimeric mutants can be obtained and that the percentage of chimeras is comparable to the low figures reported after use of in vivo adventitious bud techniques. Consequently, the micro-propagation techniques seem very promising for the commercial plant breeder of vegetatively propagated crops. (author)

  19. An in vitro human skin test for assessing sensitization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S S; Wang, X N; Fielding, M; Kerry, A; Dickinson, I; Munuswamy, R; Kimber, I; Dickinson, A M

    2016-05-01

    Sensitization to chemicals resulting in an allergy is an important health issue. The current gold-standard method for identification and characterization of skin-sensitizing chemicals was the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, for a number of reasons there has been an increasing imperative to develop alternative approaches to hazard identification that do not require the use of animals. Here we describe a human in-vitro skin explant test for identification of sensitization hazards and the assessment of relative skin sensitizing potency. This method measures histological damage in human skin as a readout of the immune response induced by the test material. Using this approach we have measured responses to 44 chemicals including skin sensitizers, pre/pro-haptens, respiratory sensitizers, non-sensitizing chemicals (including skin-irritants) and previously misclassified compounds. Based on comparisons with the LLNA, the skin explant test gave 95% specificity, 95% sensitivity, 95% concordance with a correlation coefficient of 0.9. The same specificity and sensitivity were achieved for comparison of results with published human sensitization data with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The test also successfully identified nickel sulphate as a human skin sensitizer, which was misclassified as negative in the LLNA. In addition, sensitizers and non-sensitizers identified as positive or negative by the skin explant test have induced high/low T cell proliferation and IFNγ production, respectively. Collectively, the data suggests the human in-vitro skin explant test could provide the basis for a novel approach for characterization of the sensitizing activity as a first step in the risk assessment process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Non-animal photosafety assessment approaches for cosmetics based on the photochemical and photobiochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Hirota, Morihiko; Nishida, Hayato; Kitagaki, Masato; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Yamada, Shizuo

    2013-12-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to establish a non-animal photosafety assessment approach for cosmetics using in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical screening systems. Fifty-one cosmetics, pharmaceutics and other chemicals were selected as model chemicals on the basis of animal and/or clinical photosafety information. The model chemicals were assessed in terms of photochemical properties by UV/VIS spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). Most phototoxins exhibited potent UV/VIS absorption with molar extinction coefficients of over 1000M(-1)cm(-1), although false-negative prediction occurred for 2 cosmetic phototoxins owing to weak UV/VIS absorption. Among all the cosmetic ingredients, ca. 42% of tested chemicals were non-testable in the ROS assay because of low water solubility; thereby, micellar ROS (mROS) assay using a solubilizing surfactant was employed for follow-up screening. Upon combination use of ROS and mROS assays, the individual specificity was 88.2%, and the positive and negative predictivities were estimated to be 94.4% and 100%, respectively. In the 3T3 NRU PT, 3 cosmetics and 4 drugs were incorrectly predicted not to be phototoxic, although some of them were typical photoallergens. Thus, these in vitro screening systems individually provide false predictions; however, a systematic tiered approach using these assays could provide reliable photosafety assessment without any false-negatives. The combined use of in vitro assays might enable simple and fast non-animal photosafety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Light-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of a Sunscreen Agent, 2-Phenylbenzimidazole in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and HaCaT Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available 2-Phenylbenzimidazole (PBI is an ingredient found in sunscreen agents. PBI can absorb the UV portion of the solar light and undergo a series of light-induced reactions to cause adverse effects in humans. Therefore, chemical and photochemical toxicity of PBI were investigated in the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and human skin keratinocyte cells. There is no appreciable bacteria death due to the exposure to PBI alone, indicating that PBI is not chemically toxic to the bacteria at a dose as high as 625μM. However, exposure to PBI and a solar simulator light (300-W Xe/Hg lamp, 30 min, 18.6 J/cm2, equivalent to 30 min outdoor sunlight causes significant bacteria death: 35% at 25μM and 55% at 625μM PBI. Exposure of the bacteria to light and PBI at doses 5-25μM causes the bacteria to revert, an indication of mutation. In the presence of PBI but without light irradiation, the number of revertant bacteria colonies is around 200 due to spontaneous mutation. Combination of light irradiation and PBI causes the number of revertant TA 102 colonies to increase in a dose dependent manner, reaching a maximum of around 1700 revertant colonies at 25 μM PBI. At higher PBI concentrations, the number of revertant colonies remains constant. This result clearly indicates that PBI is photomutagenic in TA 102. Exposure of the human skin HaCaT keratinocytes in aqueous solution in the presence of PBI causes the cell to lose its viability with or without light irradiation. There is no significant difference in cell viability for the light irradiated or non-irradiated groups, indication PBI is not photocytotoxic. However, exposure of the cells to both PBI and light irradiation causes cellular DNA damage, while exposure to PBI alone does not cause DNA damage.

  2. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines.

  3. Temperature response of biological materials to pulsed non-ablative CO2 laser irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugmans, M. J.; Kemper, J.; Gijsbers, G. H.; van der Meulen, F. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents surface temperature responses of various tissue phantoms and in vitro and in vivo biological materials in air to non-ablative pulsed CO2 laser irradiation, measured with a thermocamera. We studied cooling off behavior of the materials after a laser pulse, to come to an

  4. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  5. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing : Application of a generic PBK modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at

  6. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing: Application of a generic PBK modelling approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at

  7. Establishment and Analysis of Cancer Stem-Like and Non-Cancer Stem-Like Clone Cells from the Human Colon Cancer Cell Line SW480.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akari Takaya

    Full Text Available Human cancer stem-like cells (CSCs/cancer-initiating cells (CICs can be isolated as side population (SP cells, aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDHhigh cells or cell surface marker-positive cells including CD44+ cells and CD133+ cells. CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs are unstable in in vitro culture, and CSCs/CICs can differentiate into non-CSCs/CICs and some non-CSCs/CICs can dedifferentiate into CSCs/CICs. Therefore, experiments using a large amount of CSCs/CICs are technically very difficult. In this study, we isolated single cell clones from SP cells and main population (MP cells derived from the human colon cancer cell line SW480. SP analysis revealed that SP clone cells had relatively high percentages of SP cells, whereas MP clone cells showed very few SP cells, and the phenotypes were sustainable for more than 2 months of in vitro culture. Xenograft transplantation revealed that SP clone cells have higher tumor-initiating ability than that of MP clone cells and SP clone cell showed higher chemo-resistance compared with MP clone cells. These results indicate that SP clone cells derived from SW480 cells are enriched with CSCs/CICs, whereas MP clone cells are pure non-CSCs/CICs. SP clone cells and MP clone cells are a very stable in vitro CSC/CIC-enriched and non-CSC/CIC model for further analysis.

  8. Establishment and Analysis of Cancer Stem-Like and Non-Cancer Stem-Like Clone Cells from the Human Colon Cancer Cell Line SW480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Akari; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Aiko; Morita, Rena; Saijo, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Eri; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Tamura, Yasuaki; Takemasa, Ichiro; Kondo, Toru; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Human cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) can be isolated as side population (SP) cells, aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDHhigh) cells or cell surface marker-positive cells including CD44+ cells and CD133+ cells. CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs are unstable in in vitro culture, and CSCs/CICs can differentiate into non-CSCs/CICs and some non-CSCs/CICs can dedifferentiate into CSCs/CICs. Therefore, experiments using a large amount of CSCs/CICs are technically very difficult. In this study, we isolated single cell clones from SP cells and main population (MP) cells derived from the human colon cancer cell line SW480. SP analysis revealed that SP clone cells had relatively high percentages of SP cells, whereas MP clone cells showed very few SP cells, and the phenotypes were sustainable for more than 2 months of in vitro culture. Xenograft transplantation revealed that SP clone cells have higher tumor-initiating ability than that of MP clone cells and SP clone cell showed higher chemo-resistance compared with MP clone cells. These results indicate that SP clone cells derived from SW480 cells are enriched with CSCs/CICs, whereas MP clone cells are pure non-CSCs/CICs. SP clone cells and MP clone cells are a very stable in vitro CSC/CIC-enriched and non-CSC/CIC model for further analysis.

  9. Degeneration of the long biceps tendon: comparison of MRI with gross anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Florian M; Grehn, Holger; Hilbe, Monika; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Manzanell, Silvana; Hodler, Jürg

    2009-11-01

    The objective of our study was to relate alterations in biceps tendon diameter and signal on MR images to gross anatomy and histology. T1-weighted, T2-weighted fat-saturated, and proton density-weighted fat-saturated spin-echo sequences were acquired in 15 cadaveric shoulders. Biceps tendon diameter (normal, flattened, thickened, and partially or completely torn) and signal intensity (compared with bone, fat, muscle, and joint fluid) were graded by two readers independently and in a blinded fashion. The distance of tendon abnormalities from the attachment at the glenoid were noted in millimeters. MRI findings were related to gross anatomic and histologic findings. On the basis of gross anatomy, there were six normal, five flattened, two thickened, and two partially torn tendons. Reader 1 graded nine diameter changes correctly, missed two, and incorrectly graded four. The corresponding values for reader 2 were seven, one, and five, respectively, with kappa = 0.75. Histology showed mucoid degeneration (n = 13), lipoid degeneration (n = 7), and fatty infiltration (n = 6). At least one type of abnormality was found in each single tendon. Mucoid degeneration was hyperintense compared with fatty infiltration on T2-weighted fat-saturated images and hyperintense compared with magic-angle artifacts on proton density-weighted fat-saturated images. MRI-based localization of degeneration agreed well with histologic findings. Diameter changes are specific but not sensitive in diagnosing tendinopathy of the biceps tendon. Increased tendon signal is most typical for mucoid degeneration but should be used with care as a sign of tendon degeneration.

  10. Pulsed cavitational ultrasound for non-invasive chordal cutting guided by real-time 3D echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemain, Olivier; Kwiecinski, Wojciech; Bel, Alain; Robin, Justine; Bruneval, Patrick; Arnal, Bastien; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu; Messas, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Basal chordae surgical section has been shown to be effective in reducing ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). Achieving this section by non-invasive mean can considerably decrease the morbidity of this intervention on already infarcted myocardium. We investigated in vitro and in vivo the feasibility and safety of pulsed cavitational focused ultrasound (histotripsy) for non-invasive chordal cutting guided by real-time 3D echocardiography. Experiments were performed on 12 sheep hearts, 5 in vitro on explanted sheep hearts and 7 in vivo on beating sheep hearts. In vitro, the mitral valve (MV) apparatus including basal and marginal chordae was removed and fixed on a holder in a water tank. High-intensity ultrasound pulses were emitted from the therapeutic device (1-MHz focused transducer, pulses of 8 µs duration, peak negative pressure of 17 MPa, repetition frequency of 100 Hz), placed at a distance of 64 mm under 3D echocardiography guidance. In vivo, after sternotomy, the same therapeutic device was applied on the beating heart. We analysed MV coaptation and chordae by real-time 3D echocardiography before and after basal chordal cutting. After sacrifice, the MV apparatus were harvested for anatomical and histological post-mortem explorations to confirm the section of the chordae. In vitro, all chordae were completely cut after a mean procedure duration of 5.5 ± 2.5 min. The procedure duration was found to increase linearly with the chordae diameter. In vivo, the central basal chordae of the anterior leaflet were completely cut. The mean procedure duration was 20 ± 9 min (min = 14, max = 26). The sectioned chordae was visible on echocardiography, and MV coaptation remained normal with no significant mitral regurgitation. Anatomical and histological post-mortem explorations of the hearts confirmed the section of the chordae. Histotripsy guided by 3D echo achieved successfully to cut MV chordae in vitro and in vivo in beating heart. We hope that this technique will

  11. In vitro propagation of Paphiopedilum orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Songjun; Huang, Weichang; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Duan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Paphiopedilum is one of the most popular and rare orchid genera. Members of the genus are sold and exhibited as pot plants and cut flowers. Wild populations of Paphiopedilum are under the threat of extinction due to over-collection and loss of suitable habitats. A reduction in their commercial value through large-scale propagation in vitro is an option to reduce pressure from illegal collection, to attempt to meet commercial needs and to re-establish threatened species back into the wild. Although they are commercially propagated via asymbiotic seed germination, Paphiopedilum are considered to be difficult to propagate in vitro, especially by plant regeneration from tissue culture. This review aims to cover the most important aspects and to provide an up-to-date research progress on in vitro propagation of Paphiopedilum and to emphasize the importance of further improving tissue culture protocols for ex vitro-derived explants.

  12. Synthesis and anti-angiogenic effect of conjugates between serum albumin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Birgitte; Struve, Casper; Friis, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis. Covalent linkage of naproxen to human serum albumin (HSA) has been shown to target it efficiently to the liver and this may potentially be exploited for liver-selective inhibition of angiogenesis. With the aim...... effect on endothelial cells at or above the level of the non-conjugated NSAIDs in an in vitro angiogenesis assay....

  13. An integrated approach for the in vitro dosimetry of engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a great need for screening tools capable of rapidly assessing nanomaterial toxicity. One impediment to the development of reliable in vitro screening methods is the need for accurate measures of cellular dose. We present here a methodology that enables accurate determination of delivered to cell dose metrics. This methodology includes (1) standardization of engineered nanomaterial (ENM) suspension preparation; (2) measurement of ENM characteristics controlling delivery to cells in culture; and (3) calculation of delivered dose as a function of exposure time using the ISDD model. The approach is validated against experimentally measured doses, and simplified analytical expressions for the delivered dose (Relevant In Vitro Dose (RID)f function) are derived for 20 ENMs. These functions can be used by nanotoxicologists to accurately calculate the total mass (RIDM), surface area (RIDSA), or particle number (RIDN) delivered to cells as a function of exposure time. Results The proposed methodology was used to derive the effective density, agglomerate diameter and RID functions for 17 industrially-relevant metal and metal oxide ENMs, two carbonaceous nanoparticles, and non-agglomerating gold nanospheres, for two well plate configurations (96 and 384 well plates). For agglomerating ENMs, the measured effective density was on average 60% below the material density. We report great variability in delivered dose metrics, with some materials depositing within 24 hours while others require over 100 hours for delivery to cells. A neutron-activated tracer particle system was employed to validate the proposed in vitro dosimetry methodology for a number of ENMs (measured delivered to cell dose within 9% of estimated). Conclusions Our findings confirm and extend experimental and computational evidence that agglomerate characteristics affect the dose delivered to cells. Therefore measurement of these characteristics is critical for effective use of in vitro systems

  14. In vitro utilization of lime treated olive cake as a component of complete feed for small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishfaq, A; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, A; Malla, B A; Farooq, J

    2015-01-01

    The current in vitro study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and inclusion level of lime treated olive cake on acid detergent fiber (ADF) replacement basis in adult male goats. Crude olive cake was collected and evaluated for proximate composition and protein fractionation. It was treated with 6% lime and incubated for 1 week under room temperature in 2 kg sealed polythene bags and was evaluated for proximate composition after incubation. Different isonitrogenous complete diets containing 0-50% of lime treated olive cake on ADF replacement basis were formulated as per the requirement of adult male goats. In ADF replacement, fiber and concentrate sources were replaced by lime treated olive cake by replacing the 0-50% ADF percentage of the total 40% ADF value of complete feed. The formulated complete diets were tested for in vitro degradation parameters. Treatment of olive cake with 6% slaked lime increased availability of cellulose and alleviated digestibility depression caused by high ether extract percentage. Organic matter, nitrogen free extract, ADF and neutral detergent fiber were significantly lowered by lime treatment of olive cake. The cornell net carbohydrate and protein system analysis showed that non-degradable protein represented by acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) was 21.71% whereas the non-available protein represented by neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) was 38.86% in crude olive cake. The in vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) values were comparable at all replacement levels. However, a point of inflection was observed at 40% ADF replacement level, which was supported by truly degradable organic matter (TDOM), microbial biomass production (MBP), efficiency of MBP and partitioning factor values (PF). In our study, we concluded that there is comparable difference in composition of Indian olive cake when compared with European olive cake. The most important finding was that about 78% of nitrogen present in Indian

  15. In vitro utilization of lime treated olive cake as a component of complete feed for small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ishfaq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current in vitro study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and inclusion level of lime treated olive cake on acid detergent fiber (ADF replacement basis in adult male goats. Materials and Methods: Crude olive cake was collected and evaluated for proximate composition and protein fractionation. It was treated with 6% lime and incubated for 1 week under room temperature in 2 kg sealed polythene bags and was evaluated for proximate composition after incubation. Different isonitrogenous complete diets containing 0-50% of lime treated olive cake on ADF replacement basis were formulated as per the requirement of adult male goats. In ADF replacement, fiber and concentrate sources were replaced by lime treated olive cake by replacing the 0-50% ADF percentage of the total 40% ADF value of complete feed. The formulated complete diets were tested for in vitro degradation parameters. Results: Treatment of olive cake with 6% slaked lime increased availability of cellulose and alleviated digestibility depression caused by high ether extract percentage. Organic matter, nitrogen free extract, ADF and neutral detergent fiber were significantly lowered by lime treatment of olive cake. The cornell net carbohydrate and protein system analysis showed that non-degradable protein represented by acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN was 21.71% whereas the non-available protein represented by neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN was 38.86% in crude olive cake. The in vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD values were comparable at all replacement levels. However, a point of inflection was observed at 40% ADF replacement level, which was supported by truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, microbial biomass production (MBP, efficiency of MBP and partitioning factor values (PF. Conclusion: In our study, we concluded that there is comparable difference in composition of Indian olive cake when compared with European olive cake. The most

  16. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mahima,; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0....

  17. Thyroid hormone stimulated glucose uptake in human mononuclear blood cells from normal persons and from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1989-01-01

    Thyroxine and T3 induced oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were studied in vitro in mononuclear blood cells isolated from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and from non-diabetic control persons. Cellular oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were promptly increased...

  18. Fermentation of Arabinoxylan-Oligosaccharides, Oligofructose and their Monomeric Sugars by Hindgut Bacteria from Siberian Sturgeon and African Catfish in Batch Culture in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraylou, Z.; Rurangwa, E.; Wiele, van der T.; Courtin, C.M.; Delcour, J.A.; Buyse, J.; Ollevier, F.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation of two Non-Digestible Oligosaccharide (NDO) preparations, Arabinoxylan- Oligosaccharides (AXOS) and Oligofructose (OF), and their respective monomeric sugars, xylose and fructose, were investigated by hindgut microbiota of two major aquaculture fish species, Siberian

  19. Dynamics of Disagreement: Large-Scale Temporal Network Analysis Reveals Negative Interactions in Online Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Yasseri, Taha

    2016-11-01

    Disagreement and conflict are a fact of social life. However, negative interactions are rarely explicitly declared and recorded and this makes them hard for scientists to study. In an attempt to understand the structural and temporal features of negative interactions in the community, we use complex network methods to analyze patterns in the timing and configuration of reverts of article edits to Wikipedia. We investigate how often and how fast pairs of reverts occur compared to a null model in order to control for patterns that are natural to the content production or are due to the internal rules of Wikipedia. Our results suggest that Wikipedia editors systematically revert the same person, revert back their reverter, and come to defend a reverted editor. We further relate these interactions to the status of the involved editors. Even though the individual reverts might not necessarily be negative social interactions, our analysis points to the existence of certain patterns of negative social dynamics within the community of editors. Some of these patterns have not been previously explored and carry implications for the knowledge collection practice conducted on Wikipedia. Our method can be applied to other large-scale temporal collaboration networks to identify the existence of negative social interactions and other social processes.

  20. In vitro aggregation behavior of a non-amyloidogenic λ light chain dimer deriving from U266 multiple myeloma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Arosio

    Full Text Available Excessive production of monoclonal light chains due to multiple myeloma can induce aggregation-related disorders, such as light chain amyloidosis (AL and light chain deposition diseases (LCDD. In this work, we produce a non-amyloidogenic IgE λ light chain dimer from human mammalian cells U266, which originated from a patient suffering from multiple myeloma, and we investigate the effect of several physicochemical parameters on the in vitro stability of this protein. The dimer is stable in physiological conditions and aggregation is observed only when strong denaturating conditions are applied (acidic pH with salt at large concentration or heating at melting temperature T(m at pH 7.4. The produced aggregates are spherical, amorphous oligomers. Despite the larger β-sheet content of such oligomers with respect to the native state, they do not bind Congo Red or ThT. The impossibility to obtain fibrils from the light chain dimer suggests that the occurrence of amyloidosis in patients requires the presence of the light chain fragment in the monomer form, while dimer can form only amorphous oligomers or amorphous deposits. No aggregation is observed after denaturant addition at pH 7.4 or at pH 2.0 with low salt concentration, indicating that not a generic unfolding but specific conformational changes are necessary to trigger aggregation. A specific anion effect in increasing the aggregation rate at pH 2.0 is observed according to the following order: SO(4(-≫Cl(->H(2PO(4(-, confirming the peculiar role of sulfate in promoting protein aggregation. It is found that, at least for the investigated case, the mechanism of the sulfate effect is related to protein secondary structure changes induced by anion binding.

  1. A source of artifact in the lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, George R; Gray, Carol L; Lange, Paulina B; Marando, Christie I

    2015-06-01

    The lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli measures point mutations that occur by specific base substitutions and frameshift mutations. The tester strains cannot use lactose as a carbon source (Lac(-)), and revertants are easily detected by growth on lactose medium (Lac(+)). Six strains identify the six possible base substitutions, and five strains measure +G, -G, -CG, +A and -A frameshifts. Strong mutagens give dose-dependent increases in numbers of revertants per plate and revertant frequencies. Testing compounds that are arguably nonmutagens or weakly mutagenic, we often noted statistically significant dose-dependent increases in revertant frequency that were not accompanied by an absolute increase in numbers of revertants. The increase in frequency was wholly ascribable to a declining number of viable cells owing to toxicity. Analysis of the conditions revealed that the frequency of spontaneous revertants is higher when there are fewer viable cells per plate. The phenomenon resembles "adaptive" or "stress" mutagenesis, whereby lactose revertants accumulate in Lac(-) bacteria under starvation conditions in the absence of catabolite repression. Adaptive mutation is observed after long incubation and might be expected to be irrelevant in a standard assay using 48-h incubation. However, we found that elevated revertant frequencies occur under typical assay conditions when the bacterial lawn is thin, and this can cause increases in revertant frequency that mimic chemical mutagenesis when treatments are toxic but not mutagenic. Responses that resemble chemical mutagenesis were observed in the absence of mutagenic treatment in strains that revert by different frameshift mutations. The magnitude of the artifact is affected by cell density, dilution, culture age, incubation time, catabolite repression and the age and composition of media. Although the specific reversion assay is effective for quickly distinguishing classes of mutations induced by potent mutagens, its

  2. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Overduin

    2015-04-01

    Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY] responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein. Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1 pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2 pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

  3. Assembly and multiple gene expression of thermophilic enzymes in Escherichia coli for in vitro metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninh, Pham Huynh; Honda, Kohsuke; Sakai, Takaaki; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In vitro reconstitution of an artificial metabolic pathway is an emerging approach for the biocatalytic production of industrial chemicals. However, several enzymes have to be separately prepared (and purified) for the construction of an in vitro metabolic pathway, thereby limiting the practical applicability of this approach. In this study, genes encoding the nine thermophilic enzymes involved in a non-ATP-forming chimeric glycolytic pathway were assembled in an artificial operon and co-expressed in a single recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Gene expression levels of the thermophilic enzymes were controlled by their sequential order in the artificial operon. The specific activities of the recombinant enzymes in the cell-free extract of the multiple-gene-expression E. coli were 5.0-1,370 times higher than those in an enzyme cocktail prepared from a mixture of single-gene-expression strains, in each of which a single one of the nine thermophilic enzymes was overproduced. Heat treatment of a crude extract of the multiple-gene-expression cells led to the denaturation of indigenous proteins and one-step preparation of an in vitro synthetic pathway comprising only a limited number of thermotolerant enzymes. Coupling this in vitro pathway with other thermophilic enzymes including the H2 O-forming NADH oxidase or the malate/lactate dehydrogenase facilitated one-pot conversion of glucose to pyruvate or lactate, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Serological response of cattle to Brucella allergen after repeated intradermal applications of this allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.A.M.; Bercovich, Z.; Damen, C.P.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether an allergen that has been prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus triggers a serum antibody response that interferes with the interpretation of serologic tests results. Fifteen cattle seronegative for Brucella antigen were tested with the SDTH

  5. Escherichia coli Surface Characters of Ettawah Cross Breed Goats Milk on the Adhession Ability of Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Prasiddhanti

    2015-11-01

    thin polysaccharide capsule, positive hemagglutination , and hydrophobic, which had the ability to stick more on the udder epithelial cells after birth. Meanwhile, those with mucoid surface characters, had a thick polysaccharide capsule, negative hemagglutination, and hydrophilic which had a lower adhesion ability.

  6. Non-exponential growth of Mycobacterium leprae Thai-53 strain cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Kazunobu; Iida, Ken-Ichiro; Saito, Mitsumasa; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, attempts were made to culture this bacterium in media supplemented with a variety of biological materials to determine why cultivation of Mycobacterium leprae in vitro has not this far been successful. A slight increase in the number of cells in medium supplemented with human blood plasma and an extract of nude mouse tissue as observed after more than 3 months of cultivation at 30 °C. To ascertain whether this increase was real growth, the growth was analyzed by droplet digital PCR, which showed a slow increase in the copy number of cell-associated DNA and the release of a large amount of DNA into the culture medium from bacterial cells during cultivation. These results were supported by electron microscopic examination of M. leprae in infected mouse tissues, which showed that most of the replicated bacteria had degenerated and only a few cells survived. Based on these results, it was postulated that many of the replicated cells degenerate during M. leprae growth and that only a few cells remain to participate in the next growth stage. This means that, unlike other cultivable bacteria, the growth of M. leprae is not exponential and the number of cells therefore increase extremely slowly. Thus, accurate judging of the success of M. leprae cultivation requires observation of growth over a long period of time and careful measurement of the increase in number of viable cells. © 2016 The Authors. Microbiology and Immunology published by The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Genotoxicity Assessment of Chlorotrifluoroethylene Tetramer Acid using a Battery of In Vitro and In Vivo/In Vitro Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    hypolipidemic ixgent, clofibrate (Lalwani et al., 1983). However, numerous industrial chemicals such as phthalate eater plasticizers and phenoxy acid ...AD-A240 492 AA..MRL-TR-90-069 ~l~iiIIi1111fl GENOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF CHLOROTRIFLUOROETHYLENE TETRAMER ACID USING A BATTERY OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO... Acid Using a Battery of In Vitro and In Vivo,/n Vitro Assays PE 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR 6302 TA 630201 C. S. Godin, B. C. Myhr, T. E. Lawlor, R. R. Young

  8. Formulation of gastroretentive floating drug delivery system using hydrophilic polymers and its in vitro characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Srikanth Meka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to formulate and evaluate the gastroretentive floating drug delivery system of antihypertensive drug, propranolol HCl. Gastroretentive floating tablets (GRFT were prepared by using a synthetic hydrophilic polymer polyethylene oxide of different grades such as PEO WSR N-12 K and PEO 18 NF as release retarding polymers and calcium carbonate as gas generating agent. The GRFT were compressed by direct compression strategy and the tablets were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, in vitro buoyancy, swelling studies, in vitro dissolution studies and release mechanism studies. From the dissolution and buoyancy studies, F 9 was selected as an optimized formulation. The optimized formulation followed zero order rate kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The optimized formulation was characterised with FTIR studies and observed no interaction between the drug and the polymers.

  9. Nuclear techniques and in vitro culture for plant improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The continuous series of food shortages in many parts of the world have led scientists to consider the possibilities of using the new techniques to develop better varieties of plants. The basis for plant breeding is suitable genetic variability and mutation induction as the means to create additional variation. In vitro techniques are a relatively new tool in practical plant breeding. These Proceedings contain 62 papers and posters presented at the symposium, as well as excerpts from the discussions. The Symposium presentations are divided into the following sessions: Genetic variation from in vitro culture; Genetic stability of in vitro cultures; In vitro culture with application of mutagens; Haploids; In vitro mutant selection; Use of genetic variation derived by in vitro culture; In vitro techniques as aids in mutation breeding and Genetic engineering. A separate abstract is prepared for each of these papers and posters

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of clopidogrel non-response among Saudi patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham I. Sakr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of clopidogrel non-response and identify its risk factors among Saudi patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Prince Sultan Cardiac Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January and June 2013, to assess the degree of platelet inhibition using the VerifyNow assay (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA, USA after receiving clopidogrel standard loading dose. Clopidogrel resistance was defined as ≤15% platelet inhibition or greater than 213 P2Y12 reaction units (PRU. Results: Three hundred and four patients were included in the study. The mean age was 60.3 ± 11.4 years, and 73% were males. Clopidogrel doses were 300 mg (57%, 600 mg (27%, and 75 mg (16%. All patients used aspirin (81 mg in 94%. Approximately 66% (200/304 showed in vitro clopidogrel non-response, 54% had low platelet inhibitions, and 61% had high post-loading PRU. Using multivariate regression analysis that included all significant characteristics; only diabetes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-4.27, p=0.005 and higher preloading PRU (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.40-4.11, p=0.002 remained significantly associated with higher clopidogrel non-response while myocardial infarction (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15-0.81, p=0.014 remained significantly associated with lower clopidogrel non-response. The associations of morbid obesity and diuretics use with higher clopidogrel non-response were slightly attenuated. Conclusion: Our findings indicate a high rate of clopidogrel in-vitro non-response among Saudi patients undergoing coronary angiography.

  11. An adjustable gas-mixing device to increase feasibility of in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K Bei

    Full Text Available A challenge to conducting high-impact and reproducible studies of the mechanisms of P. falciparum drug resistance, invasion, virulence, and immunity is the lack of robust and sustainable in vitro culture in the field. While the technology exists and is routinely utilized in developed countries, various factors-from cost, to supply, to quality-make it hard to implement in malaria endemic countries. Here, we design and rigorously evaluate an adjustable gas-mixing device for the in vitro culture of P. falciparum parasites in the field to circumvent this challenge. The device accurately replicates the gas concentrations needed to culture laboratory isolates, short-term adapted field isolates, cryopreserved previously non-adapted isolates, as well as to adapt ex vivo isolates to in vitro culture in the field. We also show an advantage over existing alternatives both in cost and in supply. Furthermore, the adjustable nature of the device makes it an ideal tool for many applications in which varied gas concentrations could be critical to culture success. This adjustable gas-mixing device will dramatically improve the feasibility of in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in malaria endemic countries given its numerous advantages.

  12. Stable cytotoxic T cell escape mutation in hepatitis C virus is linked to maintenance of viral fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Uebelhoer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV evades cellular immunity to establish persistence in chronically infected individuals are not clear. Mutations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I-restricted epitopes targeted by CD8(+ T cells are associated with persistence, but the extent to which these mutations affect viral fitness is not fully understood. Previous work showed that the HCV quasispecies in a persistently infected chimpanzee accumulated multiple mutations in numerous class I epitopes over a period of 7 years. During the acute phase of infection, one representative epitope in the C-terminal region of the NS3/4A helicase, NS3(1629-1637, displayed multiple serial amino acid substitutions in major histocompatibility complex (MHC anchor and T cell receptor (TCR contact residues. Only one of these amino acid substitutions at position 9 (P9 of the epitope was stable in the quasispecies. We therefore assessed the effect of each mutation observed during in vivo infection on viral fitness and T cell responses using an HCV subgenomic replicon system and a recently developed in vitro infectious virus cell culture model. Mutation of a position 7 (P7 TCR-contact residue, I1635T, expectedly ablated the T cell response without affecting viral RNA replication or virion production. In contrast, two mutations at the P9 MHC-anchor residue abrogated antigen-specific T cell responses, but additionally decreased viral RNA replication and virion production. The first escape mutation, L1637P, detected in vivo only transiently at 3 mo after infection, decreased viral production, and reverted to the parental sequence in vitro. The second P9 variant, L1637S, which was stable in vivo through 7 years of follow-up, evaded the antigen-specific T cell response and did not revert in vitro despite being less optimal in virion production compared to the parental virus. These studies suggest that HCV escape mutants emerging early in infection are not necessarily

  13. Hepatitis B virus infection on male partner has negative impact on in-vitro fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, H. P.; Halim, B.; Adenin, I.; Rusda, M.; Prasetiawan, E.

    2018-03-01

    It is common to see HBV-infected couple seeking for fertility treatment in reproductive medical centers. The effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on pregnancy outcome after In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) treatment has been a controversy. The study aims this was to evaluate the outcome of in vitro fertilization in couples with the male partner being HBsAg-seropositive. A retrospective analytic study was in HBV-infected and non-HBV infected male partner groups who have been treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) from October 2016 until May 2017 in HFC IVF Center. From 101 couples, 17 (16.83%) male partners were HBV seropositive. They had similar semen parameters compared to thenon-HBV infected group. Couples with the male partner being HBsAg-seropositive had significantly lower fertilized oocytes and cleaved embryos compared to thenon-HBV infected group. We also found lower clinical pregnancy rate in infected male partner group compared to control group (23.52% vs 51% respectively). Statistically, there was a significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between HBV-infected group and control group (p<0.05). An hbv-infected male partner may lower the clinical pregnancy rate in couple undergoing IVF treatment. Therefore, the mechanism of impact of HBV infection on IVF outcome needs further exploration.

  14. In vitro susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum ?-lactamase producing gram negative bacilli against tetracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Extended Spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are emerging as common nosocomial pathogens and important cause of mortality and morbidity, if not treated properly. The need of the hour is to find effective treatment options for dealing with ESBL producing organisms. This study was aimed to evaluate in vitro susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers against tetracyclines. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, National University of Sciences and Technology over a period of 6 months. Seventy eight non-duplicate isolates were included in the study. ESBL detection was done using Jarlier et al method. In vitro susceptibility of tetracyclines like tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline and tigecycline was then tested using Modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. The zones of inhibition were measured after completion of incubation period and interpreted as per CLSI and FDA guidelines. Results: Approximately 56.4% of the isolates were Escherichia coli, 28.2% were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 10.26% were Enterobacter species, and 2.6% were each Klebsiella oxytoca and Acinetobacter species. ESBLs were found to be most sensitive to tigecycline, intermediate in susceptibility to minocycline while least sensitive to doxycycline and tetracycline. Conclusion: Among tetracyclines, tigecycline has best in vitro susceptibility against ESBL producing Gram negative rods. (author)

  15. Inhibition of vimentin or B1 integrin reverts morphology of prostate tumor cells grown in laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels and reduces tumor growth in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V; Ware, Joy L; Bissell, Mina J; Yacoub, Adly; Zehner, Zendra E

    2008-06-12

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphologic changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the immortalized, prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in athymic, nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the parental, nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin, or {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via small interfering RNA interference or the expression of {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins by the addition of blocking antibodies, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by s.c. injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in three-dimensional lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1 integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acinus in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis. [Mol Cancer Ther 2009;8(3):499-508].

  16. 21 CFR 201.119 - In vitro diagnostic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro diagnostic products. 201.119 Section 201...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.119 In vitro diagnostic products. (a) “In vitro diagnostic products” are those reagents, instruments and systems intended for use...

  17. In vitro determination of cytotoxic drug response in ovarian carcinoma using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, K; Tholander, B; Gerdin, E; de la Torre, M; Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1997-09-17

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), a short-term in vitro assay based on the concept of total tumor cell kill, was used for testing the cytotoxic drug sensitivity of tumor cells from patients with ovarian carcinoma. A total of 125 fresh specimens was obtained, 98 (78%) of which were analyzed successfully. Data from 45 patients were available for clinical correlations. The FMCA appeared to yield clinically relevant cytotoxic drug sensitivity data for ovarian carcinoma as indicated by a comparison with tumor samples obtained from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or kidney carcinoma. Considering the most active single agent in vitro actually given in vivo, and using the median drug activity among all ovarian carcinoma samples as a cut-off, the sensitivity of the assay and its specificity were 75 and 52%, respectively. Cross-resistance in vitro was frequently observed between standard drugs but not between standard drugs and Taxol. Ten percent of the specimens showed an extreme resistance for at least 4 of 6 of the drugs investigated.

  18. In vitro Solubility of Copper(II) Sulfate and Dicopper Chloride Trihydroxide for Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C S; Kim, B G

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the solubility of copper (Cu) in two sources of copper(II) sulfate (CuSO 4 ) including monohydrate and pentahydrate and three sources of dicopper chloride trihydroxide (dCCTH) including α-form (dCCTH-α), β-form (dCCTH-β), and a mixture of α- and β-form (dCCTH-αβ) at different pH and a 3-step in vitro digestion assay for pigs. In Exp. 1, Cu sources were incubated in water-based buffers at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.8, and 6.8 for 4 h using a shaking incubator at 39°C. The CuSO 4 sources were completely dissolved within 15 min except at pH 6.8. The solubility of Cu in dCCTH-α was greater (pCopper in dCCTH sources were non-soluble at pH 6.8. In Exp. 2, the solubility of Cu was determined during the 3-step in vitro digestion assay for pigs. All sources of Cu were completely dissolved in step 1 which simulated digestion in the stomach. In Exp. 3, the solubility of Cu in experimental diets including a control diet and diets containing 250 mg/kg of additional Cu from five Cu sources was determined during the in vitro digestion assay. The solubility of Cu in diets containing additional Cu sources were greater (p<0.05) than the control diet in step 1. In conclusion, the solubility of Cu was influenced by pH of digesta but was not different among sources based on the in vitro digestion assay.

  19. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of xanthan gum facilitated superabsorbent polymeric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Mazahir, Farhan; Banerjee, Subham; Verma, Anurag; Ghosh, Amitava

    2013-10-15

    Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel microspheres of xanthan gum (XG) based superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion crosslinking method for sustained release of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO). The microspheres were prepared with various ratios of hydrolyzed SAP to PVA and extent of crosslinking density. The prepared microspheres with loose and rigid surfaces were evidenced by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the IPN formation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study was performed to understand the dispersion nature of drug after encapsulation. The in vitro drug release study was extensively evaluated depending on the process variables in both acidic and alkaline media. All the formulations exhibited satisfactory physicochemical and in vitro release characteristics. Release data indicated a non-Fickian trend of drug release from the formulations. Based on the results, this study suggest that CIPRO loaded IPN microspheres were suitable for sustained release application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity of alpha conjugates for human pancreatic cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, C.; Li, Y.; Rizvi, M.A.; Allen, B.; Samra, J.; Smith, R.

    2003-01-01

    Targeted Alpha therapy (TAT) can inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the cytotoxicity of different alpha conjugates in vitro to human metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines (CAPAN-1, CFPAN-1 and PANC-1). We are labeling the C595 and J591 (non-specific controls) monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with 213 Bi were performed according to the standard methods in our laboratory. 213 Bi-C595 is specifically cytotoxic to CAPAN-1, CFPAN-1 and PANC-1cell lines in a concentration-dependent fashion. While non-specific alpha conjugates only killed very small fractions of pancreatic cancer cells. These alpha conjugates might be useful agents for the treatment of micro-metastases in pancreatic cancer patients with over-expression of the targeted receptors

  1. 21 CFR 801.119 - In vitro diagnostic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro diagnostic products. 801.119 Section 801...) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.119 In vitro diagnostic products. A product intended for use in the diagnosis of disease and which is an in vitro diagnostic...

  2. Skin sensitisation--moving forward with non-animal testing strategies for regulatory purposes in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Alépée, Nathalie; Casati, Silvia; Crozier, Jonathan; Eigler, Dorothea; Griem, Peter; Hubesch, Bruno; de Knecht, Joop; Landsiedel, Robert; Louekari, Kimmo; Manou, Irene; Maxwell, Gavin; Mehling, Annette; Netzeva, Tatiana; Petry, Thomas; Rossi, Laura H

    2013-12-01

    In a previous EPAA-Cefic LRI workshop in 2011, issues surrounding the use and interpretation of results from the local lymph node assay were addressed. At the beginning of 2013 a second joint workshop focused greater attention on the opportunities to make use of non-animal test data, not least since a number of in vitro assays have progressed to an advanced position in terms of their formal validation. It is already recognised that information produced from non-animal assays can be used in regulatory decision-making, notably in terms of classifying a substance as a skin sensitiser. The evolution into a full replacement for hazard identification, where the decision is not to classify, requires the generation of confidence in the in vitro alternative, e.g. via formal validation, the existence of peer reviewed publications and the knowledge that the assay(s) are founded on key elements of the Adverse Outcome Pathway for skin sensitisation. It is foreseen that the validated in vitro assays and relevant QSAR models can be organised into formal testing strategies to be applied for regulatory purposes by the industry. To facilitate progress, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to animal testing (EPAA) provided the platform for cross-industry and regulatory dialogue, enabling an essential and open debate on the acceptability of an in vitro based integrated strategy. Based on these considerations, a follow up activity was agreed upon to explore an example of an Integrated Testing Strategy for skin sensitisation hazard identification purposes in the context of REACH submissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rosette growth of shoots in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) as a result of in vitro propagation of plants and gamma irradiation used for mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerzy, M.; Zalewska, M.; Lema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rosette growth of chrysanthemum shoots in 'Mrs. R.C. Puling' was observed after in vitro propagation with explants obtained from vernalised and non-vernalised stock plants. The phenomenon was also observed as a result of the exposure of leaf explants to gamma radiation used for in vitro regeneration of plants in mutation induction. The higher the irradiation dose, the more considerable the rosette growth. Following the 4th pinching of shoot tips, only elongating growth of plants was observed

  4. Non-viral delivery systems for CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Hu, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-07-01

    In recent years, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) genome editing systems have become one of the most robust platforms in basic biomedical research and therapeutic applications. To date, efficient in vivo delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to the targeted cells remains a challenge. Although viral vectors have been widely used in the delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in vitro and in vivo, their fundamental shortcomings, such as the risk of carcinogenesis, limited insertion size, immune responses and difficulty in large-scale production, severely limit their further applications. Alternative non-viral delivery systems for CRISPR/Cas9 are urgently needed. With the rapid development of non-viral vectors, lipid- or polymer-based nanocarriers have shown great potential for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery. In this review, we analyze the pros and cons of delivering CRISPR/Cas9 systems in the form of plasmid, mRNA, or protein and then discuss the limitations and challenges of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. Furthermore, current non-viral vectors that have been applied for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery in vitro and in vivo are outlined in details. Finally, critical obstacles for non-viral delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 system are highlighted and promising strategies to overcome these barriers are proposed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Mechanism of Gefitinib Resistance Induced by Hepatocyte Growth Factor 
in Sensitive Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglan XUAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Previous studies have reported that Met might be related to gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The present study aims to explore the mechanism of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-induced gefitinib resistance in different gene types of sensitive NSCLC in vitro. Methods The PC-9 and H292 cell lines were chosen and induced by HGF. The cell survival was measured using MTT assay, the cell cycle distribution was measured using PI assay, and cell apoptosis with an Annexin V-PE assay, respectively. The c-Met and p-Met protein expression was determined via Western blot analysis. Results Gefitinib inhibited the growth of PC-9 and H292 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration-survival curves of both cell lines shifted to the right when induced with HGF. HGF did not affect PC-9 and H292 cell proliferation. The cell also had a higher cell survival rate when treated with HGF and gefitinib compared with that under gefitinib alone (P<0.05. The apoptotic rate and cell cycle progression showed no significant difference between the HG and G group (P>0.05. HGF stimulated Met phosphorylation in the PC-9 and H292 cells. Gefitinib inhibited the HGF-induced Met phosphorylation in PC-9 cells, but not in H292 cells. Conclusion HGF induces gefitinib resistance in PC-9 and H292 cells. HGF-induced Met phosphorylation may be an important mechanism of gefitinib resistance in sensitive NSCLC.

  6. In vitro stimulation of rabbit T lymphocytes by cells expressing herpes simplex antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, A K; Ling, N R; Nash, A A; Bachan, A; Wildy, P

    1982-04-01

    Lymphocyte stimulation responses to herpes antigens were studied using virus-infected X-irradiated cells. Rabbits were immunized with herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain HFEM) grown in RK 13 cells. For in vitro stimulation assay BHK21 cells were X-irradiated (15 000 rad) and infected with a high m.o.i. of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant (N102) of HFEM strain at the non-permissive temperature (38.5 degrees C) of virus. Virus antigens were expressed on the infected cells and there was no leakage of infectious virus into the medium at 38.5 degrees C. T lymphocytes from rabbits immunized with herpes simplex virus were specifically activated by herpesvirus-infected X-irradiated cells; lymph node cells from rabbits immunized with RK13 cells and from non-immune rabbits showed no proliferative response.

  7. Injectible candidate sealants for fetal membrane repair: Bonding and toxicity in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilic, Grozdana; Brubaker, Carrie; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Mallik, Ajit S.; Quinn, Thomas M.; Haller, Claudia; Done, Elisa; Gucciardo, Leonardo; Zeisberger, Steffen M.; Zimmermann, Roland; Deprest, Jan; Zisch, Andreas H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was undertaken to test injectible surgical sealants that are biocompatible with fetal membranes, eventually for closure of iatrogenic membrane defects. Study Design Dermabond, Histoacryl, Tissucol fibrin glue, and three types of in situ forming poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymer hydrogels were tested for acute toxicity upon direct contact with fetal membranes for 24h. For determination of elution toxicity, extracts of sealants were incubated on amnion cell cultures for 72h. Bonding and toxicity was assessed through morphological and/or biochemical analysis. Results Extracts of all adhesives were non-toxic for cultured cells. However, only Tissucol and one type of poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel, mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive, showed efficient, non-disruptive, non-toxic bonding to fetal membranes. Mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive applied over membrane defects created with a 3.5 mm trocar accomplished leak-proof closure that withstood membrane stretch in an in vitro model. Conclusion A synthetic hydrogel-type tissue adhesive emerged as potential sealing modality for iatrogenic membrane defects that merits further evaluation in vivo. PMID:20096254

  8. Studies on the virulence and attenuation of Trypanosoma cruzi using immunodeficient animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basombrío Miguel Ángel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasion and pathology by Trypanosoma cruzi result from an interaction between parasite virulence and host immunity. Successive in vivo generations of the parasite select populations with increasing ability to invade the host. Conversely, prolonged in vitro selection of the parasite produces attenuated sublines with low infectivity for mammals. One such subline (TCC clone has been extensively used in our laboratory as experimental vaccine and tested in comparative experiments with its virulent ancestor (TUL. The experiments here reviewed aimed at the use of immunodeficient mice for testing the infectivity of TCC parasites. It has not been possible to obtain virulent, revertant sublines by prolonged passaged in such mice.

  9. Self-incompatibility system of Oenothera organesis for the detection of genetic effects at low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramulu, K.S.; Schibilla, H.; Dijkhuis, P.

    1981-01-01

    The self-incompatibility system of Oenothera organesis is used to analyze the frequency of S locus mutations induced by low doses of fast neutrons and x-rays. The principles and methods of the screening system for detection of low dose effects have been presented. The results show that low doses induced significantly higher frequencies of seeds and seedlings than those produced spontaneously. The analyses of part of the progenies derived from the control and treated series suggested that they were due to revertible mutations. A modified in vitro method of culturing pollinated cut styles has been developed for rapid screening of compatible pollen tubes

  10. Deducing the kinetics of protein synthesis in vivo from the transition rates measured in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Rudorf

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular machinery of life relies on complex multistep processes that involve numerous individual transitions, such as molecular association and dissociation steps, chemical reactions, and mechanical movements. The corresponding transition rates can be typically measured in vitro but not in vivo. Here, we develop a general method to deduce the in-vivo rates from their in-vitro values. The method has two basic components. First, we introduce the kinetic distance, a new concept by which we can quantitatively compare the kinetics of a multistep process in different environments. The kinetic distance depends logarithmically on the transition rates and can be interpreted in terms of the underlying free energy barriers. Second, we minimize the kinetic distance between the in-vitro and the in-vivo process, imposing the constraint that the deduced rates reproduce a known global property such as the overall in-vivo speed. In order to demonstrate the predictive power of our method, we apply it to protein synthesis by ribosomes, a key process of gene expression. We describe the latter process by a codon-specific Markov model with three reaction pathways, corresponding to the initial binding of cognate, near-cognate, and non-cognate tRNA, for which we determine all individual transition rates in vitro. We then predict the in-vivo rates by the constrained minimization procedure and validate these rates by three independent sets of in-vivo data, obtained for codon-dependent translation speeds, codon-specific translation dynamics, and missense error frequencies. In all cases, we find good agreement between theory and experiment without adjusting any fit parameter. The deduced in-vivo rates lead to smaller error frequencies than the known in-vitro rates, primarily by an improved initial selection of tRNA. The method introduced here is relatively simple from a computational point of view and can be applied to any biomolecular process, for which we have

  11. Role of bisphenol A as environmental factor in the promotion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: in vitro and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallio, M; Masarone, M; Errico, S; Gravina, A G; Nicolucci, C; Di Sarno, R; Gionti, L; Tuccillo, C; Persico, M; Stiuso, P; Diano, N; Loguercio, C; Federico, A

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A is an endocrine disrupting chemical associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and liver enzyme abnormalities. To evaluate bisphenol A plasma and urine levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we evaluated, in human HepG2 cells, the effects of exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A on both oxidative stress induction and cell proliferation. We enrolled 60 patients with histological diagnosis of NAFLD with or without T2DM and sixty healthy subjects. In vitro, the proliferation of bisphenol A-exposed HepG2 cells at two different concentrations (0.025 and 0.05 μM) was evaluated, both at high (H-HepG2) and at low (L-HepG2) glucose concentrations for 48 h. Lipoperoxidation was assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Bisphenol A levels were significantly higher in 60 NAFLD subjects, both in urine and in plasma (P bisphenol A-free diet for 1 month, NAFLD patients showed a significant reduction in bisphenol A circulating levels (P bisphenol A (0.05 μM) increased proliferation compared to controls at 48 h (P Bisphenol A increased TBARS levels at 48 h versus controls. Our study reveals a possible role of bisphenol A as an environmental factor involved in the promotion of NAFLD, particularly in T2DM patients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Elasticity in Elastics-An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisetty, Supradeep Kumar; Nimagadda, Chakrapani; Begam, Madhoom Ponnachi; Nalamotu, Raghuveer; Srivastav, Trilok; Gs, Shwetha

    2014-04-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement results from application of forces to teeth. Elastics in orthodontics have been used both intra-orally and extra- orally to a great effect. Their use, combined with good patient co-operation provides the clinician with the ability to correct both anteroposterior and vertical discrepancies. Force decay over a period of time is a major problem in the clinical usage of latex elastics and synthetic elastomers. This loss of force makes it difficult for the clinician to determine the actual force transmitted to the dentition. It's the intent of the clinician to maintain optimal force values over desired period of time. The majority of the orthodontic elastics on the market are latex elastics. Since the early 1990s, synthetic products have been offered in the market for latex-sensitive patients and are sold as nonlatex elastics. There is limited information on the risk that latex elastics may pose to patients. Some have estimated that 0.12-6% of the general population and 6.2% of dental professionals have hypersensitivity to latex protein. There are some reported cases of adverse reactions to latex in the orthodontic population but these are very limited to date. Although the risk is not yet clear, it would still be inadvisable to prescribe latex elastics to a patient with a known latex allergy. To compare the in-vitro performance of latex and non latex elastics. Samples of 0.25 inch, latex and non latex elastics (light, medium, heavy elastics) were obtained from three manufacturers (Forestadent, GAC, Glenroe) and a sample size of ten elastics per group was tested. The properties tested included cross sectional area, internal diameter, initial force generated by the elastics, breaking force and the force relaxation for the different types of elastics. Force relaxation testing involved stretching the elastics to three times marketed internal diameter (19.05 mm) and measuring force level at intervals over a period of 48 hours. The data were

  13. In vitro and in vivo Development of Cloned Ovine Embryos using in vitro and in vivo Matured Oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P; Nagashima, H; Sun, F-J

    1995-01-01

    Cloning of sheep embryos by nucleus transplantation can be achieved by using in vivo matured (oviductal) oocytes and in vivo culture. However, these steps involve cumbersome procedures. Therefore, the effects of in vivo vs. the equivalent in vitro procedures on the pre-implantation development...... matured oocytes were enucleated and fused with inserted blastomeres from donor embryos. In vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and allowed to age prior to blastomere insertion and electrofusion. Fused embryos were cultured for approximately 132 h either in vivo in ligated sheep oviducts or in vitro...

  14. U Y 105 standard use of non sealed radioactive sources in nuclear medicine: approve for Industry energy and Mining Ministry 28/6/2002 Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Establish minimal requirements radiological safety for use non sealed radioactive sources in nuclear medicine.The present standard is used in operation or nuclear medicine practices using non sealed radioactive sources with diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro

  15. The effects of mechanical loading on tendons--an in vivo and in vitro model study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Zhang

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading constantly acts on tendons, and a better understanding of its effects on the tendons is essential to gain more insights into tendon patho-physiology. This study aims to investigate tendon mechanobiological responses through the use of mouse treadmill running as an in vivo model and mechanical stretching of tendon cells as an in vitro model. In the in vivo study, mice underwent moderate treadmill running (MTR and intensive treadmill running (ITR regimens. Treadmill running elevated the expression of mechanical growth factors (MGF and enhanced the proliferative potential of tendon stem cells (TSCs in both patellar and Achilles tendons. In both tendons, MTR upregulated tenocyte-related genes: collagen type I (Coll. I ∼10 fold and tenomodulin (∼3-4 fold, but did not affect non-tenocyte-related genes: LPL (adipocyte, Sox9 (chondrocyte, Runx2 and Osterix (both osteocyte. However, ITR upregulated both tenocyte (Coll. I ∼7-11 fold; tenomodulin ∼4-5 fold and non-tenocyte-related genes (∼3-8 fold. In the in vitro study, TSCs and tenocytes were stretched to 4% and 8% using a custom made mechanical loading system. Low mechanical stretching (4% of TSCs from both patellar and Achilles tendons increased the expression of only the tenocyte-related genes (Coll. I ∼5-6 fold; tenomodulin ∼6-13 fold, but high mechanical stretching (8% increased the expression of both tenocyte (Coll. I ∼28-50 fold; tenomodulin ∼14-48 fold and non-tenocyte-related genes (2-5-fold. However, in tenocytes, non-tenocyte related gene expression was not altered by the application of either low or high mechanical stretching. These findings indicate that appropriate mechanical loading could be beneficial to tendons because of their potential to induce anabolic changes in tendon cells. However, while excessive mechanical loading caused anabolic changes in tendons, it also induced differentiation of TSCs into non-tenocytes, which may lead to the development

  16. Conservação in vitro de Cochlospermum regium (Schrank pilg.- cochlospermaceae sob regime de crescimento mínimo In vitro conservation of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank pilg.- cochlospermaceae under minimal growth storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Camillo

    2009-01-01

    conservation of "algodão-do-campo", contributing to studies on the micropropagation of this species. In vitro germination was evaluated in "algodão-do-campo" seeds subjected to scarification or not with sulfuric acid and inoculation in MS medium. For in vitro conservation, nodal segments from in vitro-germinated seedlings were evaluated for 90 days at three temperatures (10, 20 and 25ºC and three WPM medium concentrations (½, ¾ and full-strength. Scarified seeds presented 93.3% in vitro germination at 30 days of cultivation, a significantly higher value than the 13.3% observed for non-scarified seeds. The in vitro conservation of "algodão-do-campo" showed to be viable once cultures are kept in a growth chamber at 20ºC in ½ WPM medium. Under such conditions, the explants presented a minimal growth and 100% survival after three evaluation months.

  17. PCR Analysis of "expR" Gene Regulating Biosynthesis of Exopolysaccharides in "Sinorhizobium Meliloti"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorroche, Fernando G.; Giordano, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by the rhizobacterium "Sinorhizobium meliloti" is essential for root nodule formation on its legume host (alfalfa), and for establishment of a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between the two partners. Production of EPS II (galactoglucan) by certain "S. meliloti" strains results in a mucoid colony…

  18. Mucin production and mucous cell metaplasia in otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jizhen; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Tono, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) with mucoid effusion, characterized by mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia in the middle ear cleft and thick fluid accumulation in the middle ear cavity, is a subtype of OM which frequently leads to chronic OM in young children. Multiple factors are involved in the developmental...

  19. Ciprofloxacin nano-niosomes for targeting intracellular infections: an in vitro evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Vajihe; Abedi, Daryoush; Pardakhty, Abbas; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat

    2013-01-01

    In order to propose non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) for the treatment of intracellular infections, a remote loading method (active drug encapsulation) followed by sonication was used to prepare nano-niosome formulations containing ciprofloxacin (CPFX). Size analysis, size distribution and zeta potentials of niosomes were evaluated and then their antimicrobial activity, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, intracellular distribution, and antibacterial activity against intracellular Staphylococcus aureus infection of murine macrophage-like, J774, cells were investigated in comparison to free drug. Our findings reveal that size and composition of the niosome formula can influence their in vitro biological properties. Vesicles in the 300–600 nm size range were phagocytosed to a greater degree by macrophages in comparison to other size vesicles. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CPFX-loaded niosomes were two to eightfold lower than MICs of free CPFX. In addition, niosome encapsulation of CPFX provided high intracellular antimicrobial activities while free CPFX is ineffective for eradicating intracellular forms of S. aureus. Encapsulation of CPFX in niosomes generally decreased its in vitro cytotoxicity. Our results show that niosomes are suitable drug delivery systems with good efficacy and safety properties to be proposed for drug targeting against intracellular infections.

  20. Ciprofloxacin nano-niosomes for targeting intracellular infections: an in vitro evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Vajihe; Abedi, Daryoush [Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pardakhty, Abbas [Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Pharmaceutics Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat, E-mail: sadeghi@pharm.mui.ac.ir [Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of)