Sample records for vitro multitracer analyses

  1. Multitrace Deformations of Vector and Adjoint Theories and their Holographic Duals

    CERN Document Server

    Elitzur, S; Porrati, M; Rabinovici, Eliezer


    We present general methods to study the effect of multitrace deformations in conformal theories admitting holographic duals in Anti de Sitter space. In particular, we analyse the case that these deformations introduce an instability both in the bulk AdS space and in the boundary CFT. We also argue that multitrace deformations of the O(N) linear sigma model in three dimensions correspond to nontrivial time-dependent backgrounds in certain theories of infinitely many interacting massless fields on AdS_4, proposed years ago by Fradkin and Vasiliev. We point out that the phase diagram of a truly marginal large-N deformation has an infrared limit in which only an O(N) singlet field survives. We draw from this case lessons on the full string-theoretical interpretation of instabilities of the dual boundary theory and exhibit a toy model that resolves the instability of the O(N) model, generated by a marginal multitrace deformation. The resolution suggests that the instability may not survive in an appropriate UV com...

  2. Development of an online preparation system for multitracer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail:; Yatsukawa, Makoto; Sato, Wataru; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Ohki, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Naruto [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yokoyama, Akihiko [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kikunaga, Hidetoshi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kinoshita, Norikazu [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Shibata, Sadao [Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Shinohara, Atsushi [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)


    We have developed a new target-irradiation system for the online preparation of multitracer solutions, where the nuclear-reaction products recoiling out of the target are directly implanted in a solvent as a liquid catcher. A rapid online transportation of the solution has enabled highly efficient recovery of the multitracer solutions having even short-lived radioactive isotopes without any chemical treatments. It has been suggested that the collection efficiency depends on the chemical properties of the recoil elements.

  3. Multitracer study on uptake of elements by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambe, Shizuko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)


    A disk target of Au or Ag was irradiated with a 135-MeV/nucleon {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N, or {sup 16}O beam. Multitracer solutions were prepared radiochemically from the targets in carrier- and salt-free states. Rice and soybean plants were cultured in a nutrient solution or on soil containing a multitracer. In the experiment of absorption of elements through leaves, either soybean plants were grown in the atmosphere where multitracer-adsorbed cellulose particles were floating in the air or two drops of a multitracer solution was applied onto leaves of Japanese radish. After cultivation, the plants were harvested and they were dried at 65degC for one day and subjected to {gamma}-ray measurement with HPGe detectors. In the case of hydroponically cultured plants, large amounts of almost all of the metal ions in the nutrient solution were absorbed by the roots. In contrast, plants grown on the soil gave extremely low percentage distributions for all the elements examined. This difference is explained by the low distribution of metal ions in soil water and the dilution of radioisotopes with the corresponding elements in soil. When the multitracer is added to soil, adsorption of each radioisotope takes place, resulting in the small partition in soil water. Relatively large amounts of Se, Rb, and Co were accumulated in the seeds of soybean plants which were grown in the presence of floating multitracer-adsorbed cellulose particles in the air. Since the seeds were not directly exposed, the elements detected in the seeds are considered to be transported to the seeds after absorption through leaves. When the multitracer solution were applied onto the leaves, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Mn were absorbed and transported quickly compared with other elements from the application site to other parts of the plant. These results obtained demonstrate that the multitracer technique is powerful in studies on absorption and transport of trace elements in plants. (J.P.N.)

  4. Methodology for quantitative rapid multi-tracer PET tumor characterizations. (United States)

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Hoffman, John M


    Positron emission tomography (PET) can image a wide variety of functional and physiological parameters in vivo using different radiotracers. As more is learned about the molecular basis for disease and treatment, the potential value of molecular imaging for characterizing and monitoring disease status has increased. Characterizing multiple aspects of tumor physiology by imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient provides additional complementary information, and there is a significant body of literature supporting the potential value of multi-tracer PET imaging in oncology. However, imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient presents a number of challenges. A number of techniques are under development for rapidly imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan, where signal-recovery processing algorithms are employed to recover various imaging endpoints for each tracer. Dynamic imaging is generally used with tracer injections staggered in time, and kinetic constraints are utilized to estimate each tracers' contribution to the multi-tracer imaging signal. This article summarizes past and ongoing work in multi-tracer PET tumor imaging, and then organizes and describes the main algorithmic approaches for achieving multi-tracer PET signal-recovery. While significant advances have been made, the complexity of the approach necessitates protocol design, optimization, and testing for each particular tracer combination and application. Rapid multi-tracer PET techniques have great potential for both research and clinical cancer imaging applications, and continued research in this area is warranted.

  5. Metastable Supersymmetry Breaking and Multitrace Deformations of SQCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Rouven; /SLAC; Fortin, Jean-Francois; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Sinha, Kuver; /Texas A-M; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Santa Barbara, KITP; Strassler, Matthew J.; /Rutgers U., Piscataway


    Metastable vacua in supersymmetric QCD in the presence of single and multitrace deformations of the superpotential are explored, with the aim of obtaining an acceptable phenomenology. The metastable vacua appear at one loop, have a broken R-symmetry, and a magnetic gauge group that is completely Higgsed. With only a single trace deformation, the adjoint fermions from the meson superfield are approximately massless at one loop, even though they are massive at tree level and R-symmetry is broken. Consequently, if charged under the standard model, they are unacceptably light. A multitrace quadratic deformation generates fermion masses proportional to the deformation parameter. Phenomenologically viable models of direct gauge mediation can then be obtained, and some of their features are discussed.

  6. A multi-tracer approach to constraining artesian groundwater discharge into an alluvial aquifer (United States)

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Meredith, Karina T.; Wilcken, Klaus M.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Andersen, Martin S.; Kelly, Bryce F. J.


    Understanding pathways of recharge to alluvial aquifers is important for maintaining sustainable access to groundwater resources. Water balance modelling is often used to proportion recharge components and guide sustainable groundwater allocations. However, it is not common practice to use hydrochemical evidence to inform and constrain these models. Here we compare geochemical versus water balance model estimates of artesian discharge into an alluvial aquifer, and demonstrate why multi-tracer geochemical analyses should be used as a critical component of water budget assessments. We selected a site in Australia where the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), the largest artesian basin in the world, discharges into the Lower Namoi Alluvium (LNA), an extensively modelled aquifer, to convey the utility of our approach. Water stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) and the concentrations of Na+ and HCO3- suggest a continuum of mixing in the alluvial aquifer between the GAB (artesian component) and surface recharge, whilst isotopic tracers (3H, 14C, and 36Cl) indicate that the alluvial groundwater is a mixture of groundwaters with residence times of water balance modelling estimates that attributed 22 % of all inflow for the corresponding zone within the LNA to GAB discharge. Our results show that hydrochemical investigations need to be undertaken as part of developing the conceptual framework of a catchment water balance model, as they can improve our understanding of recharge pathways and better constrain artesian discharge to an alluvial aquifer.

  7. Direct Parametric Image Reconstruction in Reduced Parameter Space for Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Imaging. (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoyin; Li, Zhoulei; Liu, Zhen; Navab, Nassir; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Keller, Ulrich; Ziegler, Sibylle; Shi, Kuangyu


    The separation of multiple PET tracers within an overlapping scan based on intrinsic differences of tracer pharmacokinetics is challenging, due to limited signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of PET measurements and high complexity of fitting models. In this study, we developed a direct parametric image reconstruction (DPIR) method for estimating kinetic parameters and recovering single tracer information from rapid multi-tracer PET measurements. This is achieved by integrating a multi-tracer model in a reduced parameter space (RPS) into dynamic image reconstruction. This new RPS model is reformulated from an existing multi-tracer model and contains fewer parameters for kinetic fitting. Ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) was employed to approximate log-likelihood function with respect to kinetic parameters. To incorporate the multi-tracer model, an iterative weighted nonlinear least square (WNLS) method was employed. The proposed multi-tracer DPIR (MTDPIR) algorithm was evaluated on dual-tracer PET simulations ([18F]FDG and [11C]MET) as well as on preclinical PET measurements ([18F]FLT and [18F]FDG). The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared to the indirect parameter estimation method with the original dual-tracer model. The respective contributions of the RPS technique and the DPIR method to the performance of the new algorithm were analyzed in detail. For the preclinical evaluation, the tracer separation results were compared with single [18F]FDG scans of the same subjects measured 2 days before the dual-tracer scan. The results of the simulation and preclinical studies demonstrate that the proposed MT-DPIR method can improve the separation of multiple tracers for PET image quantification and kinetic parameter estimations.

  8. Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent


    Analyse i Politiken om frynsegoder med udgangspunkt i bogen Occupational Welfare - Winners and Losers publiceret på Edward Elgar......Analyse i Politiken om frynsegoder med udgangspunkt i bogen Occupational Welfare - Winners and Losers publiceret på Edward Elgar...

  9. Multi-tracer investigation of river and groundwater interactions: a case study in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Dai, Zhenxue; Yang, Fengtian; Zhu, Pucheng; Huang, Yong


    Environmental tracers (such as major ions, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and heat) monitored in natural waters provide valuable information for understanding the processes of river-groundwater interactions in arid areas. An integrated framework is presented for interpreting multi-tracer data (major ions, stable isotopes (2H, 18O), the radioactive isotope 222Rn, and heat) for delineating the river-groundwater interactions in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken to estimate the bidirectional water exchange associated with small-scale interactions between groundwater and surface water. Along the river stretch, groundwater and river water exchange readily. From the high mountain zone to the alluvial fan, groundwater discharge to the river is detected by tracer methods and end-member mixing models, but the river has also been identified as a losing river using discharge measurements, i.e. discharge is bidirectional. On the delta-front of the alluvial fan and in the alluvial plain, in the downstream area, the characteristics of total dissolved solids values, 222Rn concentrations and δ18O values in the surface water, and patterns derived from a heat-tracing method, indicate that groundwater discharges into the river. With the environmental tracers, the processes of river-groundwater interaction have been identified in detail for better understanding of overall hydrogeological processes and of the impacts on water allocation policies.

  10. Phosphinothricin Acetyltransferases Identified Using In Vivo, In Vitro, and Bioinformatic Analyses. (United States)

    VanDrisse, Chelsey M; Hentchel, Kristy L; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C


    Acetylation of small molecules is widespread in nature, and in some cases, cells use this process to detoxify harmful chemicals. Streptomyces species utilize a Gcn5 N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), known as Bar, to acetylate and detoxify a self-produced toxin, phosphinothricin (PPT), a glutamate analogue. Bar homologues, such as MddA from Salmonella enterica, acetylate methionine analogues such as methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and methionine sulfone (MSO), but not PPT, even though Bar homologues are annotated as PPT acetyltransferases. S. enterica was used as a heterologous host to determine whether or not putative PPT acetyltransferases from various sources could acetylate PPT, MSX, and MSO. In vitro and in vivo analyses identified substrates acetylated by putative PPT acetyltransferases from Deinococcus radiodurans (DR_1057 and DR_1182) and Geobacillus kaustophilus (GK0593 and GK2920). In vivo, synthesis of DR_1182, GK0593, and GK2920 blocked the inhibitory effects of PPT, MSX, and MSO. In contrast, DR_1057 did not detoxify any of the above substrates. Results of in vitro studies were consistent with the in vivo results. In addition, phylogenetic analyses were used to predict the functionality of annotated PPT acetyltransferases in Burkholderia xenovorans, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baylyi, and Escherichia coli IMPORTANCE: The work reported here provides an example of the use of a heterologous system for the identification of enzyme function. Many members of this superfamily of proteins do not have a known function, or it has been annotated solely on the basis of sequence homology to previously characterized enzymes. The critical role of Gcn5 N-acetyltransferases (GNATs) in the modulation of central metabolic processes, and in controlling metabolic stress, necessitates approaches that can reveal their physiological role. The combination of in vivo, in vitro, and bioinformatics approaches reported here identified GNATs that can acetylate and

  11. In Vitro Global Gene Expression Analyses Support the Ethnopharmacological Use of Achyranthes aspera

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    Pochi R. Subbarayan


    Full Text Available Achyranthes aspera (family Amaranthaceae is known for its anticancer properties. We have systematically validated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of this plant. However, we do not know its mode of action. Global gene expression analyses may help decipher its mode of action. In the absence of identified active molecules, we believe this is the best approach to discover the mode of action of natural products with known medicinal properties. We exposed human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2 (CRL-1420 to 34 μg/mL of LE for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Gene expression analyses were performed using whole human genome microarrays (Agilent Technologies, USA. In our analyses, 82 (54/28 genes passed the quality control parameter, set at FDR ≤ 0.01 and FC of ≥±2. LE predominantly affected pathways of immune response, metabolism, development, gene expression regulation, cell adhesion, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulation (CFTR, and chemotaxis (MetaCore tool (Thomson Reuters, NY. Disease biomarker enrichment analysis identified LE regulated genes involved in Vasculitis—inflammation of blood vessels. Arthritis and pancreatitis are two of many etiologies for vasculitis. The outcome of disease network analysis supports the medicinal use of A. aspera, viz, to stop bleeding, as a cure for pancreatic cancer, as an antiarthritic medication, and so forth.

  12. The multitrace matrix model: An alternative to Connes NCG and IKKT model in 2 dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydri, Badis, E-mail:


    We present a new multitrace matrix model, which is a generalization of the real quartic one matrix model, exhibiting dynamical emergence of a fuzzy two-sphere and its non-commutative gauge theory. This provides a novel and a much simpler alternative to Connes non-commutative geometry and to the IKKT matrix model for emergent geometry in two dimensions. However, in higher dimensions this mechanism is not known to exist and the systematic frameworks of NCG and IKKT are expected to hold sway.

  13. Multivariate Analysis of Multi-tracer and Climatological Data in an Urbanizing, Drought-impacted Watershed (United States)

    Creech, L. T.; Donahoe, R. J.


    This paper documents water quality conditions of the Lake Tuscaloosa, Alabama water-supply reservoir and its watershed under two end-members of hydrologic and climatic variability. These data afford the opportunity to view water quality in the context of both land use and drought, facilitating the development of coupled hydrologic and water-quality forecast models to guide watershed management decisions. This study demonstrates that even the region’s normal 10-year drought cycle holds the capacity to significantly impact water quality and should be incorporated into watershed models and decision-making. To accomplish the goals of this project, a multi-tracer approach has been adopted to assess solute sources and water-quality impairments induced by land use. The biogeochemical tracers include: Major- and minor-ions, trace metals, nutrient speciation and stable-isotope tracers at natural abundance levels. These tracers are also vital to understand the role of climate variability in the context of a heterogeneous landscape. Eight seasonal sampling events across 23 sample locations and two water years yield 184 discrete water-quality samples representative of a range of landscape variability and climatological conditions. Each sample was analyzed for 27 solute species and relevant indicators of water quality. Climatological data was obtained from public repositories (NCDC, USDA); hydrologic data from stream and precipitation gages within the watershed (USGS). Multivariate statistics are used to facilitate the numerical analysis and interpretation of the resulting data. Measurements of nitrogen speciation were collected to document patterns of nutrient loading and nitrogen cycling. These data are augmented by the analysis of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate. These data clarify the extent to which nitrogen is being loaded in the non-growing season as well as the capacity of the lake to assimilate nutrients. Under drought conditions the lake becomes nitrogen

  14. Impact of contamination with long-lived radionuclides on PET kinetics modelling in multitracer studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Hansen, Søren B.; Jensen, Svend B.


    Introduction: An important issue in multitracer studies is the separation of signals from the different radiotracers. This is especially the case when an early tracer has a long physical half-life and kinetic modelling has to be performed, because the early tracer can confer a long...... of subsequent PET tracers. Blood sample counts were corrected by recounting the samples a few days later. A more optimal choice of energy window was also explored. The effect of correction versus noncorrection was investigated using a two-tissue kinetic model with irreversible uptake (K1, k2, k3). Results: K1...... counting of blood samples can lead to a contaminating background not observed in PET imaging and this background can affect kinetic modelling. If the contaminating tracer has a much longer half-life than the foreground tracer, then the problem can be solved by late recounting of the samples....

  15. Phase diagrams of the multitrace quartic matrix models of noncommutative Φ4 theory (United States)

    Ydri, B.; Ramda, K.; Rouag, A.


    We report a direct and robust calculation, free from ergodic problems, of the nonuniform-to-uniform (stripe) transition line of noncommutative Φ24 by means of an exact Metropolis algorithm applied to the first nontrivial multitrace correction of this theory on the fuzzy sphere. In fact, we reconstruct the entire phase diagram including the Ising, matrix, and stripe boundaries together with the triple point. We also report that the measured critical exponents of the Ising transition line agrees with the Onsager values in two dimensions. The triple point is identified as a termination point of the one-cut-to-two-cut transition line and is located at (b ˜,c ˜)=(-1.55 ,0.4 ), which compares favorably with a previous Monte Carlo estimate.

  16. Fetoplacental transport of various trace elements in pregnant rat using the multitracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Shuichi; Hirunuma, Rieko [Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)


    The placenta functions as the barrier between fetus and mother, providing means of regulation of heat exchange, respiration, nutrition, and excretion for the fetus. In this paper, the multitracer technique was applied to study the maternal transport of trace elements via the placenta to the fetus. In this experiment, the multitracer solution used contained the following nuclides: {sup 7}Be, {sup 22}Na, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 48}V, {sup 52}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 56}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 74}As, {sup 75}Se, {sup 84}Rb, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 87}Y, {sup 88}Zr, {sup 96}Tc, {sup 101m}Rh, and {sup 103}Ru. We examined the time dependence of the uptake amounts about various elements. From these results, we observed a large difference in the time dependencies between elements and the elements were classified into three groups. Group I elements, such as Be, Sc, V, As, Y, Zr, Tc, Rh, and Ru, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and only accumulates in the placenta. Group II elements, such as Na, Co, Ga, Rb, and Sr, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and accumulate in the placenta, fetus, and amniotic fluid. Group III elements, such as Mn, Fe, Zn, and Se, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and mainly accumulate in the fetus. From these results, it was considered that the placenta is a highly selective filters because essential elements such as Group III elements are readily transported from the placental membrane to the growing fetus, whereas nonessential metals such as Group I elements have difficulty penetrating the placental barrier that protects the fetus from the toxic effects of these elements. (author)

  17. Multitrace/singletrace formulations and Domain Decomposition Methods for the solution of Helmholtz transmission problems for bounded composite scatterers (United States)

    Jerez-Hanckes, Carlos; Pérez-Arancibia, Carlos; Turc, Catalin


    We present Nyström discretizations of multitrace/singletrace formulations and non-overlapping Domain Decomposition Methods (DDM) for the solution of Helmholtz transmission problems for bounded composite scatterers with piecewise constant material properties. We investigate the performance of DDM with both classical Robin and optimized transmission boundary conditions. The optimized transmission boundary conditions incorporate square root Fourier multiplier approximations of Dirichlet to Neumann operators. While the multitrace/singletrace formulations as well as the DDM that use classical Robin transmission conditions are not particularly well suited for Krylov subspace iterative solutions of high-contrast high-frequency Helmholtz transmission problems, we provide ample numerical evidence that DDM with optimized transmission conditions constitute efficient computational alternatives for these type of applications. In the case of large numbers of subdomains with different material properties, we show that the associated DDM linear system can be efficiently solved via hierarchical Schur complements elimination.

  18. Transcriptional analyses of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense from infected mice and in vitro culture


    Kuboki, Noritaka; Kibe, Michael K; Thekisoe, Oriel M. M.; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Inoue, Noboru


    With the hypothesis that African trypanosomes could have in vivo specific genes for adaptation to host’s environment, the present study was conducted by using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique to seek the highly expressed genes especially in host. A total of 328 clones from the in vivo SSH library and that of 160 clones from the in vitro SSH library were analyzed in order to determine their expression levels, but none of the above-mentioned genes showed differential expres...

  19. A Novel In Vitro System for Comparative Analyses of Bone Cells and Bacteria under Electrical Stimulation

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    Thomas Josef Dauben


    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation is a promising approach to enhance bone regeneration while having potential to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate effects of alternating electric field stimulation on both human osteoblasts and bacteria, a novel in vitro system was designed. Electric field distribution was simulated numerically and proved by experimental validation. Cells were stimulated on Ti6Al4V electrodes and in short distance to electrodes. Bacterial growth was enumerated in supernatant and on the electrode surface and biofilm formation was quantified. Electrical stimulation modulated gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers in a voltage-dependent manner, resulting in significantly enhanced osteocalcin mRNA synthesis rate on electrodes after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. While collagen type I synthesis increased when stimulated with 0.2VRMS, it decreased after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. Only slight and infrequent influence on bacterial growth was observed following stimulations with 0.2VRMS and 1.4VRMS after 48 and 72 h, respectively. In summary this novel test system is applicable for extended in vitro studies concerning definition of appropriate stimulation parameters for bone cell growth and differentiation, bacterial growth suppression, and investigation of general effects of electrical stimulation.

  20. In vitro reconstitution and biochemical analyses of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe nucleosome. (United States)

    Koyama, Masako; Nagakura, Wataru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kujirai, Tomoya; Chikashige, Yuji; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi


    Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has a small genome but shares many physiological functions with higher eukaryotes, is a useful single-cell, model eukaryotic organism. In particular, many features concerning chromatin structure and dynamics, including heterochromatin, centromeres, telomeres, and DNA replication origins, are well conserved between S. pombe and higher eukaryotes. However, the S. pombe nucleosome, the fundamental structural unit of chromatin, has not been reconstituted in vitro. In the present study, we established the method to purify S. pombe histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, and successfully reconstituted the S. pombe nucleosome in vitro. Our thermal stability assay and micrococcal nuclease treatment assay revealed that the S. pombe nucleosome is markedly unstable and its DNA ends are quite accessible, as compared to the canonical human nucleosome. These findings are important to understand the mechanisms of epigenetic genomic DNA regulation in fission yeast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro propagation of critically endangered species Scilla autumnalis L. – biochemical analyses of the regenerants

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    Cristian BANCIU


    Full Text Available The present study belongs to the international efforts for plant conservation from the areas threatened by human activities. The saline soils areas are restricting for agriculture and in some cases for fishery facilities and the plant species are extinct from those areas. Scilla autumnalis L. is one of the threatened plants (rare on the national red list of vascular plants from Romania that grows in the Natural Park Comana, Giurgiu County, South Romania. Seeds from plants grown in the natural habitat have been used for in vitro plant regeneration and multiplication. After successfully rooting and acclimatization of the regenerated plantlets from germinated seeds, biochemical studies have been performed in order to compare the regenerants from in vitro cultures with native plants from genetically point of view. Peroxydase and esterase’s spectra were the biochemical markers used.The results indicated that this plant species can be multiplicated, rooted and acclimatized on synthetic medium (MS supplemented with NAA, IBA, IAA, kinetin and BAP with a good efficiency and the regenerants had no genetic alterations determinated by culture conditions.

  2. A Novel In Vitro System for Comparative Analyses of Bone Cells and Bacteria under Electrical Stimulation (United States)

    Zaatreh, Sarah; Kreikemeyer, Bernd


    Electrical stimulation is a promising approach to enhance bone regeneration while having potential to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate effects of alternating electric field stimulation on both human osteoblasts and bacteria, a novel in vitro system was designed. Electric field distribution was simulated numerically and proved by experimental validation. Cells were stimulated on Ti6Al4V electrodes and in short distance to electrodes. Bacterial growth was enumerated in supernatant and on the electrode surface and biofilm formation was quantified. Electrical stimulation modulated gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers in a voltage-dependent manner, resulting in significantly enhanced osteocalcin mRNA synthesis rate on electrodes after stimulation with 1.4V RMS. While collagen type I synthesis increased when stimulated with 0.2V RMS, it decreased after stimulation with 1.4V RMS. Only slight and infrequent influence on bacterial growth was observed following stimulations with 0.2V RMS and 1.4V RMS after 48 and 72 h, respectively. In summary this novel test system is applicable for extended in vitro studies concerning definition of appropriate stimulation parameters for bone cell growth and differentiation, bacterial growth suppression, and investigation of general effects of electrical stimulation. PMID:28044132

  3. An Automated Strategy for Unbiased Morphometric Analyses and Classifications of Growth Cones In Vitro.

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    Daryan Chitsaz

    Full Text Available During neural circuit development, attractive or repulsive guidance cue molecules direct growth cones (GCs to their targets by eliciting cytoskeletal remodeling, which is reflected in their morphology. The experimental power of in vitro neuronal cultures to assay this process and its molecular mechanisms is well established, however, a method to rapidly find and quantify multiple morphological aspects of GCs is lacking. To this end, we have developed a free, easy to use, and fully automated Fiji macro, Conographer, which accurately identifies and measures many morphological parameters of GCs in 2D explant culture images. These measurements are then subjected to principle component analysis and k-means clustering to mathematically classify the GCs as "collapsed" or "extended". The morphological parameters measured for each GC are found to be significantly different between collapsed and extended GCs, and are sufficient to classify GCs as such with the same level of accuracy as human observers. Application of a known collapse-inducing ligand results in significant changes in all parameters, resulting in an increase in 'collapsed' GCs determined by k-means clustering, as expected. Our strategy provides a powerful tool for exploring the relationship between GC morphology and guidance cue signaling, which in particular will greatly facilitate high-throughput studies of the effects of drugs, gene silencing or overexpression, or any other experimental manipulation in the context of an in vitro axon guidance assay.

  4. Analysing Cytochrome c Aggregation and Fibrillation upon Interaction with Acetonitrile: an in Vitro Study. (United States)

    Furkan, Mohammad; Fazili, Naveed Ahmad; Afsar, Mohammad; Naeem, Aabgeena


    The propensity of native state to form aggregated and fibrillar assemblies is a hallmark of amyloidosis. Our study was focused at analyzing the aggregation and fibrillation tendency of cytochrome c in presence of an organic solvent i.e. acetonitrile. In vitro analysis revealed that the interaction of cytochrome c with acetonitrile facilitated the oligomerization of cytochrome c via the passage through an intermediate state which was obtained at 20 % v/v concentration of acetonitrile featured by a sharp hike in the ANS fluorescence intensity with a blue shift of 20 nm compared to the native state. Oligomers and fibrils were formed at 40 and 50 % v/v concentration respectively as indicated by a significant hike in the ThT fluorescence intensity, red shift of 55 nm in congo red binding assay and an increase in absorbance at 350 nm. They possess β-sheet structure as evident from appearance of peak at 217 nm. Finally, authenticity of oligomeric and fibrillar species was confirmed by TEM imaging which revealed bead like aggregates and a meshwork of thread like fibrils respectively. It could be suggested that the fibrillation of bovine cytchrome c could serve as a model protein to unravel the general aggregation and fibrillation pattern of heme proteins. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  5. Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Tumor Imaging With 18F-FDG and Secondary Shorter-Lived Tracers


    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Kadrmas, Dan J


    Rapid multi-tracer PET, where two to three PET tracers are rapidly scanned with staggered injections, can recover certain imaging measures for each tracer based on differences in tracer kinetics and decay. We previously showed that single-tracer imaging measures can be recovered to a certain extent from rapid dual-tracer 62Cu – PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu — ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging. In this work, the feasibility of rapidly imaging 18F-FDG plus one or two of these shorter-lived secondary trac...

  6. Multitracer experiment to evaluate the attenuation of selected organic micropollutants in a karst aquifer. (United States)

    Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias


    The increasing pressure on drinking water resources necessitates an efficient management of potential and actual drinking water resources. Karst aquifers play a key role in the supply of the world's population with drinking water. Around one quarter of all drinking water is produced from these types of aquifers. Unfortunately due to the aquifer characteristics with extremely high hydraulic conductivities and short residence times, these systems are vulnerable to contamination. For successful management, a fundamental understanding of mass transport and attenuation processes with respect to potential contaminants is vital. In this study, a multitracer experiment was performed in a karst aquifer in SW-Germany for determining the attenuation capacity of a karst environment by assessing the environmental fate of selected relevant micropollutants. Uranine, acesulfame and carbamazepine were injected into a sinkhole as reference tracers together with the reactive compounds atenolol, caffeine, cyclamate, ibuprofen and paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen). The breakthrough of the tracers was monitored at a karst spring at a distance of ca. 3 km. The breakthrough curves of the reactive compounds were interpreted relative to the reference substances. No significant retardation was found for any of the investigated micropollutants. The determined half-lives of the reactive compounds range from 38 to 1,400 h (i.e. persistent within the investigation period) in the following order (from high to no observed attenuation): paracetamol>atenolol≈ibuprofen>caffeine≫cyclamate. The attenuation rates are generally in agreement with studies from other environmental compartments. The occurrence of the biotransformation product atenolol acid served as evidence for in-situ biodegradation within the aquifer system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-term in vitro and in vivo analyses for assessing the tumor-promoting potentials of cigarette smoke condensates. (United States)

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Hanausek, Margaret; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Mosberg, Arnold T; Slaga, Thomas J


    Previous studies found that repeated application of smoke condensate from tobacco-burning reference cigarettes to chemically initiated SENCAR mouse skin promoted the development of tumors in a statistically significant and dose-dependent manner, while condensate from prototype cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco promoted statistically fewer tumors. Based on the recognized correlation between sustained, potentiated epidermal hyperplasia and tumor promotion, we conducted tests to examine the utility of selected short-term analyses for discriminating between condensates exhibiting significantly different promotion activities. In vitro analyses assessing the potential for inducing cytotoxicity (ATP bioluminescence) or free radical production (cytochrome c reduction, salicylate trapping) demonstrated significant reductions when comparing condensate collected from prototype cigarettes to reference condensate. Short-term in vivo analyses conducted within the context of a mouse skin, tumor-promotion protocol (i.e., comparative measures of epidermal thickness, proliferative index, myeloperoxidase activity, leukocyte invasion, mutation of Ha-ras, and formation of modified DNA bases) provided similar results. Reference condensate induced statistically significant and dose-dependent increases (relative to vehicle control) for nearly all indices examined, while prototype condensate possessed a significantly reduced potential for inducing changes that we regarded as consistent with sustained epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation. Collectively, these data support the contention that selected short-term analyses associated with sustained hyperplasia and/or inflammation are capable of discriminating between smoke condensates with dissimilar tumor-promotion potentials. Moreover, our results suggest that comparative measures of proliferative index and myeloperoxidase activity, both possessing favorable correlation coefficients relative to tumor formation (i.e., > or = 0

  8. Boosting Immune Responses Against Bacterial Pathogens: In Vitro Analysis of Immunomodulators (In Vitro Analyse van de Stimulerende Werking van Verschillende Stoffen op het Immuunsysteem)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleij, D. van der


    .... Three potential broad-spectrum therapeutics (MPL, MDP and ssPolyU) and their combinations were tested in an in vitro dendritic cell culture system, since dendritic cells play a central role in the development of immune...

  9. A multi-tracer approach for the exploration of deep geothermal energy potential and fault zone characterisation, applied in the Upper Rhine Graben (United States)

    Freundt, Florian; Najem, Sami Al; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Isenbeck-Schröter, Margot; Schmidt, Gerhard; Grobe, René; Kraml, Michael


    Current methods of geothermal exploration rely on various expensive geophysical methods (e.g. 3D reflection seismics) to identify permeable fault zones and the geometry of geothermal aquifers. However this analysis alone does not allow for an estimation of an active fault's hydraulic permeability nor provides a characterisation of the chemical properties of the deep aquifer fluid. Both factors play an important role in optimising siting of geothermal wells and operation of a geothermal power plant. This work presents a low cost strategy characterizing deep hydrogeochemical reservoirs using a combination of methods from hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology in hot springs and near surface groundwater. The main goal is to confine the area of interest for further, indirect geophysical investigation. For this purpose natural geochemical and isotopical tracers as well as rare earth elements, 3He/4He ratios, and radiogenic isotopes (Sr and Pb) are investigated. Data from the first sampling campaign in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, close to Groß-Gerau, Germany, shows promising results, indicating an area of increased interest where elevated helium ratios coincide with characteristic geochemical data, fault location and a previously known saltwater anomaly. Geochemical analyses exhibit three different types of fluids and various mixtures. CaHCO3-dominated waters represent Quaternary aquifer conditions whereas MgSO4-dominated waters are characterised by a Tertiary aquifer rock. Higher saline NaCl-dominated waters show an impact of mantle fluids revealed by 3He/4He isotope analysis. The ratio is highest where the main fault of the northern Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Rhine river. This suggests that the fault is hydraulically active and connects ascending deep fluids with the shallow aquifer. Further investigations of rare earth element patterns as well as radiogenic isotopes will identify the origin, the ascent as well as the retention time of the deep fluids more

  10. A Multitracer Approach to Detecting Wastewater Plumes from Municipal Injection Wells in Nearshore Marine Waters at Kihei and Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.; Rosa, Sarah N.


    Municipal wastewater plumes discharging from aquifer to ocean were detected by nearshore wading surveys at Kihei and Lahaina, on the island of Maui in Hawaii. Developed in cooperation with the Hawaii State Department of Health, the survey methodology included instrument trolling to detect submarine groundwater discharge, followed by analysis of water and macroalgae for a suite of chemical and isotopic constituents that constitute a 'multitracer' approach. Surveys were conducted May 6-28, 2008, during fair-weather conditions and included: (1) wading and kayak trolling with a multiparameter water-quality sonde, (2) marine water-column sampling, and (3) collection of benthic algae samples. Instrument trolling helped guide the water sampling strategy by providing dense, continuous transects of water properties on which groundwater discharge zones could be identified. Water and algae samples for costly chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses were last to be collected but were highly diagnostic of wastewater presence and nutrient origin because of low detection levels and confirmation across multiple tracers. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples at both locales and showed evidence of modifying processes such as denitrification and mixing of effluent with surrounding groundwater and seawater. Carbamazepine was the most diagnostic pharmaceutical, detected in several marine water-column samples and effluent at both Kihei and Lahaina. Heavy nitrogen-isotope compositions in water and algae were highly diagnostic of effluent, particularly where enriched to even heavier values than effluent source compositions by denitrification. Algae provided an added advantage of time-integrating their nitrogen source during growth. The measured Kihei plume coincided almost exactly with prior model predictions, but the Lahaina plume was detected well south of the expected direct path from injection wells to shore and may be

  11. Characterisation of virus transport and attenuation in epikarst using short pulse and prolonged injection multi-tracer testing. (United States)

    Flynn, Raymond M; Sinreich, Michael


    Attenuation processes controlling virus fate and transport in the vadose zone of karstified systems can strongly influence groundwater quality. This research compares the breakthrough of two bacteriophage tracers (H40/1 and T7), with contrasting properties, at subsurface monitoring points following application onto an overlying composite sequence of thin organic soil and weathered limestone (epikarst). Short pulse multi-tracer test results revealed that T7 (Source concentration, Co=1.8x10(6)pfu/mL) and H40/1 (Co=5.9x10(6)pfu/mL) could reach sampling points 10 m below ground less than 30 min after tracer application. Contrasting deposition rates, determined from simulated tracer responses, reflected the potential of the ground to differentially attenuate viruses. Prolonged application of both T7 (Co=2.3x10(4)pfu/mL) and H40/1 (Co=1.3x10(5)pfu/mL) over a five hour period during a subsequent test, in which ionic strength levels observed at monitoring points rose consistently, corresponded to a rapid rise in T7 levels, followed by a gradual decline before the end of tracer injection; this reflected reaction-limited deposition in the system. T7's response contrasted with that of H40/1, whose concentration remained constant over a three hour period before declining dramatically prior to the end of tracer injection. Subsequent application of lower ionic strength tracer-free flush water generated a rapid rise in H40/1 levels and a more gradual release of T7. Results highlight the benefits of employing prolonged injection multi-tracer tests for identifying processes not apparent from conventional short pulse tests. Study findings demonstrate that despite rapid transport rates, the epikarst is capable of physicochemical filtration of viruses and their remobilization, depending on virus type and hydrochemical conditions. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Developing multi-tracer approaches to constrain the parameterisation of leaf and soil CO2 and H2O exchange in land surface models (United States)

    Ogée, Jerome; Wehr, Richard; Commane, Roisin; Launois, Thomas; Meredith, Laura; Munger, Bill; Nelson, David; Saleska, Scott; Zahniser, Mark; Wofsy, Steve; Wingate, Lisa


    The net flux of carbon dioxide between the land surface and the atmosphere is dominated by photosynthesis and soil respiration, two of the largest gross CO2 fluxes in the carbon cycle. More robust estimates of these gross fluxes could be obtained from the atmospheric budgets of other valuable tracers, such as carbonyl sulfide (COS) or the carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (δ13C and δ18O) of atmospheric CO2. Over the past decades, the global atmospheric flask network has measured the inter-annual and intra-annual variations in the concentrations of these tracers. However, knowledge gaps and a lack of high-resolution multi-tracer ecosystem-scale measurements have hindered the development of process-based models that can simulate the behaviour of each tracer in response to environmental drivers. We present novel datasets of net ecosystem COS, 13CO2 and CO18O exchange and vertical profile data collected over 3 consecutive growing seasons (2011-2013) at the Harvard forest flux site. We then used the process-based model MuSICA (multi-layer Simulator of the Interactions between vegetation Canopy and the Atmosphere) to include the transport, reaction, diffusion and production of each tracer within the forest and exchanged with the atmosphere. Model simulations over the three years captured well the impact of diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions on the net ecosystem exchange of each tracer. The model also captured well the dynamic vertical features of tracer behaviour within the canopy. This unique dataset and model sensitivity analysis highlights the benefit in the collection of multi-tracer high-resolution field datasets and the developement of multi-tracer land surface models to provide valuable constraints on photosynthesis and respiration across scales in the near future.

  13. Assessment of wastewater and recycled water quality: a comparison of lines of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and chemical analyses. (United States)

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Khan, Stuart J; Gagnon, M Monique; Quayle, Pam; Trinh, Trang; Coleman, Heather; Rawson, Christopher; Chapman, Heather F; Blair, Palenque; Nice, Helen; Reitsema, Tarren


    We investigated water quality at an advanced water reclamation plant and three conventional wastewater treatment plants using an "ecotoxicity toolbox" consisting of three complementary analyses (chemical analysis, in vitro bioanalysis and in situ biological monitoring), with a focus on endocrine disruption. The in vitro bioassays were chosen to provide an appropriately wide coverage of biological effects relevant to managed aquifer recharge and environmental discharge of treated wastewater, and included bioassays for bacterial toxicity (Microtox), genotoxicity (umuC), photosynthesis inhibition (Max-I-PAM) and endocrine effects (E-SCREEN and AR-CALUX). Chemical analysis of hormones and pesticides using LCMSMS was performed in parallel to correlate standard analytical methods with the in vitro assessment. For two plants with surface water discharge into open drains, further field work was carried out to examine in situ effects using mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) as a bioindicator species for possible endocrine effects. The results show considerable cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity, estrogenicity and androgenicity in raw sewage, all of which were significantly reduced by conventional wastewater treatment. No biological response was detected to RO water, suggesting that reverse osmosis is a significant barrier to biologically active compounds. Chemical analysis and in situ monitoring revealed trends consistent with the in vitro results: chemical analysis confirmed the removal trends observed by the bioanalytical tools, and in situ sampling did not reveal any evidence of endocrine disruption specifically due to discharge of treated wastewater (although other sources may be present). Biomarkers of exposure (in vitro) and effect (in vivo or in situ) are complementary and together provide information with a high level of ecological relevance. This study illustrates the utility of combining multiple lines of evidence in the assessment of water quality. Copyright

  14. Coprecipitation experiment with Sm hydroxide using a multitracer produced by nuclear spallation reaction: A tool for chemical studies with superheavy elements. (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka; Yokokita, Takuya; Toyomura, Keigo; Shigekawa, Yudai; Haba, Hiromitsu; Kanaya, Jumpei; Huang, Minghui; Ezaki, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Takashi; Morita, Kosuke; Shinohara, Atsushi


    To establish a new methodology for superheavy element chemistry, the coprecipitation behaviors of 34 elements with samarium hydroxide were investigated using multitracer produced by a spallation of Ta. The chemical reactions were rapidly equilibrated within 10s for many elements. In addition, these elements exhibited individual coprecipitation behaviors, and the behaviors were qualitatively related to their hydroxide precipitation behaviors. It was demonstrated that the ammine and hydroxide complex formations of superheavy elements could be investigated using the established method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide fitness analyses of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in in vitro and in vivo models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Gupta, Srishti; Baig, Abiyad


    and the environment. Here, we report a detailed analysis of C. jejuni fitness across models reflecting stages in its life cycle. Transposon (Tn) gene-inactivation libraries were generated in three C. jejuni strains and the impact on fitness during chicken colonisation, survival in houseflies and under nutrient...... to growth. We report novel C. jejuni factors essential throughout its life cycle. Importantly, we identified genes that fulfil important roles across multiple conditions. Our comprehensive screens showed which flagella elements are essential for growth and which are vital to the interaction with host......-rich and -poor conditions at 4 degrees C and infection of human gut epithelial cells was assessed by Tn-insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq). A total of 331 homologous gene clusters were essential for fitness during in vitro growth in three C. jejuni strains, revealing that a large part of its genome is dedicated...

  16. In Vitro Analyses of the Effects of Heparin and Parabens on Candida albicans Biofilms and Planktonic Cells (United States)

    Miceli, Marisa H.; Bernardo, Stella M.; Ku, T. S. Neil; Walraven, Carla


    Infections and thromboses are the most common complications associated with central venous catheters. Suggested strategies for prevention and management of these complications include the use of heparin-coated catheters, heparin locks, and antimicrobial lock therapy. However, the effects of heparin on Candida albicans biofilms and planktonic cells have not been previously studied. Therefore, we sought to determine the in vitro effect of a heparin sodium preparation (HP) on biofilms and planktonic cells of C. albicans. Because HP contains two preservatives, methyl paraben (MP) and propyl paraben (PP), these compounds and heparin sodium without preservatives (Pure-H) were also tested individually. The metabolic activity of the mature biofilm after treatment was assessed using XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction and microscopy. Pure-H, MP, and PP caused up to 75, 85, and 60% reductions of metabolic activity of the mature preformed C. albicans biofilms, respectively. Maximal efficacy against the mature biofilm was observed with HP (up to 90%) compared to the individual compounds (P < 0.0001). Pure-H, MP, and PP each inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation up to 90%. A complete inhibition of biofilm formation was observed with HP at 5,000 U/ml and higher. When tested against planktonic cells, each compound inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicated that HP, MP, PP, and Pure-H have in vitro antifungal activity against C. albicans mature biofilms, formation of biofilms, and planktonic cells. Investigation of high-dose heparin-based strategies (e.g., heparin locks) in combination with traditional antifungal agents for the treatment and/or prevention of C. albicans biofilms is warranted. PMID:21986822

  17. The tRNA(Tyr) multigene family of Nicotiana rustica: genome organization, sequence analyses and expression in vitro. (United States)

    Fuchs, T; Beier, D; Beier, H


    Tobacco tRNA(Tyr) genes are mainly organized as a dispersed multigene family as shown by hybridization with a tRNA(Tyr)-specific probe to Southern blots of Eco RI-digested DNA. A Nicotiana genomic library was prepared by Eco RI digestion of nuclear DNA, ligation of the fragments into the vector lambda gtWES.lambda B and in vitro packaging. The phage library was screened with a 5'-labelled synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to nucleotides 18 to 37 of cytoplasmic tobacco tRNA(Tyr). Eleven hybridizing Eco RI fragments ranging in size from 1.7 to 7.5 kb were isolated from recombinant lambda phage and subcloned into pUC19 plasmid. Four of the sequenced tRNA(Tyr) genes code for the known tobacco tRNA1(Tyr) (G psi A) and seven code for tRNA2(Tyr) (G psi A). The two tRNA species differ in one nucleotide pair at the basis of the T psi C stem. Only one tRNA(Tyr) gene (pNtY5) contains a point mutation (T54-->A54). Comparison of the intervening sequences reveals that they differ considerably in length and sequence. Maturation of intron-containing pre-tRNAs was studied in HeLa and wheat germ extracts. All pre-tRNAs(Tyr)--with one exception--are processed and spliced in both extracts. The tRNA(Tyr) gene encoded by pNtY5 is transcribed efficiently in HeLa extract but processing of the pre-tRNA is impaired.

  18. Aerosol Route to Administer Teicoplanin in Mechanical Ventilation: In Vitro Study, Lung Deposition and Pharmacokinetic Analyses in Pigs. (United States)

    Guillon, Antoine; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Lanotte, Philippe; Haguenoer, Eve; Darrouzain, François; Barc, Céline; Sarradin, Pierre; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Heuzé-Vourc'h, Nathalie; Diot, Patrice; Vecellio, Laurent


    Glycopeptides given intravenously achieve low airway concentrations. Nebulization of teicoplanin may be an efficient way of delivering a high concentration of this antibiotic to the lung. This multistep study assessed the feasibility of teicoplanin nebulization during mechanical ventilation by evaluating: the stability of its antibiotic effect; epithelial tolerance; lung deposition and systemic absorption in ventilated pigs. Nebulized and non-nebulized teicoplanin activity was tested on Staphylococcus aureus cultures. The cytotoxic effect of teicoplanin on human respiratory epithelial cells was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase activity released, cell viability, and transepithelial electrical resistance. Volume median diameter of particles of nebulized teicoplanin was measured by laser diffraction during mechanical ventilation. The deposited mass of teicoplanin nebulized with a vibrating mesh nebulizer in ventilated piglets was assessed by scintigraphy. Blood pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin administered either intravenously or by nebulization was compared. No decrease of antibiotic activity was observed after nebulization. In vitro cytotoxicity of teicoplanin was only observed with 1000 times the dose recommended for intravenous administration. Volume median diameter of particles was 2.5±0.1 μm. Of the initial nebulizer charge of teicoplanin, 24±7% was present in the lungs of ventilated pigs after the nebulization. Amount absorbed in blood was low (3.4%±0.9%) after nebulization, and blood stream elimination half-life value was 25.4 h. Teicoplanin was administered efficiently by nebulization during mechanical ventilation, without any effect on its pharmacological properties or any cytotoxicity. The pharmacokinetic parameters are promising in view of its time-dependent killing process. All the results of our multi-step study highlighted the potential of teicoplanin to be nebulized during mechanical ventilation.

  19. Analyses of Gingival Adhesion Molecules in Periodontitis: Theoretical In Silico, Comparative In Vivo, and Explanatory In Vitro Models. (United States)

    Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Özdemir, Vural; Mäki-Petäys, Juho; Neves de Oliveira, Ben-Hur; Firatli, Yigit; Güncü, Güliz N; Caglayan, Feriha; Könönen, Eija


    A deeper understanding of periodontitis pathophysiology is central to future development of novel biomarkers and therapeutics. The following is reported here: 1) an in silico network model of interactions among cell adhesion molecules and a network-focused microarray analysis of the corresponding genes in periodontitis; 2) analysis of secretions of adhesion molecules in gingival tissue samples from patients with periodontitis and healthy controls; and 3) effect of the human neutrophilic peptide-1 (HNP-1) on epithelial adhesion molecules. The network model identified 85 nodes in relation to the interactions of adhesion molecules. Subsequently, the relative gene expression was overlaid on the network model. Differential gene expression was analyzed, and false discovery rate control was performed for statistical assessment of the microarray data. Both tissue and cell culture samples were immunostained for desmocollin (DSC)2, occludin (OCLN), desmoglein (DSG)1, tight junction protein 2, and gap junction protein α. The differential gene expression analysis revealed that the epithelial adhesion molecules were significantly lower in abundance in individuals with periodontitis than controls. In contrast, the genes for leukocyte adhesion molecules showed a significant upregulation. Immunostainings revealed elevated secretions of both DSG1 and OCLN in periodontitis. An in vitro model suggested reduced DSC2 and OCLN secretions in the presence of HNP-1. Gene expression of gingival adhesion molecules in periodontitis is regulated by leukocyte transmigration, whereas the neutrophilic antimicrobial peptide HNP-1 is noted as a putative regulator of epithelial adhesion molecules. These observations contribute to the key mechanisms by which future biomarkers might be developed for periodontitis.

  20. Experimental model to evaluate in vivo and in vitro cartilage MR imaging by means of histological analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittersohl, B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Berne, Inselspital, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Mamisch, T.C. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Berne, Inselspital, 3010 Bern (Switzerland)], E-mail:; Welsch, G.H. [Department of Trauma Surgery, University of Erlangen (Germany); Stratmann, J.; Forst, R. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Erlangen (Germany); Swoboda, B. [Department of Orthopedic Rheumatology, University of Erlangen (Germany); Bautz, W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Erlangen (Germany); Rechenberg, B. von [Musculoskeletal Research Unit (MSRU), University of Zurich (Switzerland); Cavallaro, A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Erlangen (Germany)


    Objectives: Implementation of an experimental model to compare cartilage MR imaging by means of histological analyses. Material and methods: MRI was obtained from 4 patients expecting total knee replacement at 1.5 and/or 3 T prior surgery. The timeframe between pre-op MRI and knee replacement was within two days. Resected cartilage-bone samples were tagged with Ethi-pins to reproduce the histological cutting course. Pre-operative scanning at 1.5 T included following parameters for fast low angle shot (FLASH: TR/TE/FA = 33 ms/6 ms/30 deg., BW = 110 kHz, 120 mm x 120 mm FOV, 256 x 256 matrix, 0.65 mm slice-thickness) and double echo steady state (DESS: TR/TE/FA = 23.7 ms/6.9 ms/40 deg., BW = 130 kHz, 120 x 120 mm FOV, 256 x 256 matrix, 0.65 mm slice-thickness). At 3 T, scan parameters were: FLASH (TR/TE/FA = 12.2 ms/5.1 ms/10 deg., BW = 130 kHz, 170 x 170 mm FOV, 320 x 320, 0.5 mm slice-thickness) and DESS (TR/TE/FA = 15.6 ms/4.5 ms/25 deg., BW = 200 kHz, 135 mm x 150 mm FOV, 288 x 320 matrix, 0.5 mm slice-thickness). Imaging of the specimens was done the same day at 1.5 T. MRI (Noyes) and histological (Mankin) score scales were correlated using the paired t-test. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of different grades of cartilage degeneration were assessed. Inter-reader and intra-reader reliability was determined using Kappa analysis. Results: Low correlation (sensitivity, specificity) was found for both sequences in normal to mild Mankin grades. Only moderate to severe changes were diagnosed with higher significance and specificity. The use of higher field-strengths was advantageous for both protocols with sensitivity values ranging from 13.6% to 93.3% (FLASH) and 20.5% to 96.2% (DESS). Kappa values ranged from 0.488 to 0.944. Conclusions: Correlating MR images with continuous histological slices was feasible by using three-dimensional imaging, multi-planar-reformat and marker pins. The capability of diagnosing early cartilage changes with high accuracy

  1. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target attainment analyses to evaluate in vitro susceptibility test interpretive criteria for ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. (United States)

    Van Wart, Scott A; Ambrose, Paul G; Rubino, Christopher M; Khariton, Tatiana; Riccobene, Todd A; Friedland, H David; Critchley, Ian A; Bhavnani, Sujata M


    To provide support for in vitro susceptibility test interpretive criteria decisions for ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as dose adjustment recommendations for renal impairment, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) target attainment was evaluated for simulated patients administered intravenous (i.v.) ceftaroline fosamil at 600 mg twice daily (q12h) and simulated patients with renal impairment administered various dosing regimens. Using a previously developed population PK model, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate ceftaroline plasma concentration profiles for simulated patients with normal renal function or mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment. Using these profiles, the percentage of time during the dosing interval that free-drug concentrations remained above the MIC (f%T>MIC) for ceftaroline at steady state was calculated. Percentages of simulated patients achieving f %T>MIC targets for S. aureus and S. pneumoniae based on murine infection models were calculated by MIC. At MICs of 2 mg/liter for S. aureus and 1 mg/liter for S. pneumoniae, the percentages of simulated patients with normal renal function and mild renal impairment following administration of ceftaroline fosamil at 600 mg q12h, moderate renal impairment following administration of ceftaroline fosamil at 400 mg q12h, and severe renal impairment following administration of ceftaroline fosamil at 300 mg q12h achieving f %T>MIC targets (≥26 for S. aureus and ≥44 for S. pneumoniae) exceeded 90%. The results of these analyses, which suggested that in vitro susceptibility test interpretive criteria defining susceptible could be as high as MICs of ≤2 and ≤1 mg/liter for ceftaroline against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae, respectively, provide support for current FDA and CLSI criteria, which define susceptible as MICs of 1 and 0.5 mg/liter, respectively. Recommendations for dose adjustments for patients with renal impairment were also

  2. Multitracer and filter-separated half-cell method for measuring solute diffusion in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per


    in the soil relative to water) in intact soil samples (the Multiple Tracer, Filter Separated half-cell method using a Dynamic Model for parameter estimation [MT-FS-DM]). The MT-FS-DM method consists of half-cell diffusion of two pairs of counterdiffusing anionic tracers and a parameter estimation scheme...... that allows diffusion coefficients for tracers in the two half-cells to be estimated on the basis of two concentration profiles in each sample. The parameter estimation scheme uses a fully dynamic (time-resolved) simulation model. From sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the dynamic model, we found...

  3. Effect of vanadium treatment on tissue distribution of biotrace elements in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Simultaneous analysis of V and Zn using radioactive multitracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Hiroyuki; Takino, Toshikazu; Fugono, Jun; Sakurai, Hiromu [Department of Analytical and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi [Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)


    Because vanadium ions such as vanadyl (VO{sup 2+}) and vanadate (VO{sup 3-}) ions were demonstrated to normalize blood glucose levels of diabetic animals and patients, the action mechanism of vanadium treatment has been of interest. In this study, we focused on understanding interactions among trace elements in diabetic rats, in which a multitracer technique was used. The effects of vanadyl sulfate (VS)-treatment on the tissue distribution of trace vanadium ({sup 48}V) and zinc ({sup 65}Zn) in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were examined, and were evaluated in terms of the uptake ratio. The uptake ratio of both elements in tissues significantly changed between STZ-rats and those treated with VS. These results indicated that vanadium treatment in STZ-rats alters the tissue distribution of endogenous elements, suggesting the importance of the relationship between biotrace elements and pathophysiology. (author)

  4. The Combined Use of in Silico, in Vitro, and in Vivo Analyses to Assess Anti-cancerous Potential of a Bioactive Compound from Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. MGL001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    .W. Taken together, our findings based on in silico, in vitro, and in vivo analyses suggest that EMTAHDCA has potential anticancer effects, and thus, can be considered for cancer treatment.

  5. A multitracer approach to estimate groundwater residence time distributions at a managed aquifer recharge site (United States)

    Popp, Andrea; Kipfer, Rolf


    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has become a common water management tool and serves various purposes such as improving the quality of groundwater (GW). At the study site, the Hardwald in Muttenz (Switzerland), MAR has been implemented in the mid-1950s to overcome increasing water demands. GW is artificially recharged with water from the river Rhine through a system of channels and ponds. The area is surrounded by potential contamination sites such as chemical industry, former landfills, a highway and a freight depot. Furthermore, the area shows a complex hydrogeologic setting with several fault zones and two main aquifers, the Quaternary Rhine gravel aquifer overlying a karstified Upper Muschelkalk limestone aquifer. Water from the deeper limestone aquifer is suspected to contain contaminants originating from the landfills. The fractures might serve as a hydraulic connection between the upper and lower aquifer. Further, groundwater pumping might enhance the mixing of recently infiltrated water with older water from the lower aquifer. Hence, the proximity to potential contamination sites and the complex geologic setting both pose risks for GW pollution and challenge the drinking water production in this area. To guarantee a safe drinking water supply, it is crucial to know the mixing patterns of young and old GW abstracted from the pumping wells. With this study we aim to determine the spatial variability of GW residence time distributions to differentiate between recently infiltrated river water and older groundwater. To reach our objectives, we use a combination of the following tracers to cover a wide range of possible GW ages: (1) radiogenic 222Rn (young water := age tracers. All parameters were analysed at 20 observation and pumping wells distributed throughout the study area. First results indicate that GW abstracted in the vicinity to the area with the highest recharge rates exhibits young water only. Wells further away from these high recharge areas contain

  6. Identification of groundwater nitrate sources in pre-alpine catchments: a multi-tracer approach (United States)

    Stoewer, Myriam; Stumpp, Christine


    Porous aquifers in pre-alpine areas are often used as drinking water resources due to their good water quality status and water yield. Maintaining these resources requires knowledge about possible sources of pollutants and a sustainable management practice in groundwater catchment areas. Of particular interest in agricultural areas, like in pre-alpine regions, is limiting nitrate input as main groundwater pollutant. Therefore, the objective of the presented study is i) to identify main nitrate sources in a pre-alpine groundwater catchment with current low nitrate concentration using stable isotopes of nitrate (d18O and d15N) and ii) to investigate seasonal dynamics of nitrogen compounds. The groundwater catchment areas of four porous aquifers are located in Southern Germany. Most of the land use is organic grassland farming as well as forestry and residential area. Thus, potential sources of nitrate mainly are mineral fertilizer, manure/slurry, leaking sewage system and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. Monthly freshwater samples (precipitation, river water and groundwater) are analysed for stable isotope of water (d2H, d18O), the concentration of major anions and cations, electrical conductivity, water temperature, pH and oxygen. In addition, isotopic analysis of d18O-NO3- and d15N-NO3- for selected samples is carried out using the denitrifier method. In general, all groundwater samples were oxic (10.0±2.6mg/L) and nitrate concentrations were low (0.2 - 14.6mg/L). The observed nitrate isotope values in the observation area compared to values from local precipitation, sewage, manure and mineral fertilizer as well as to data from literature shows that the nitrate in freshwater samples is of microbial origin. Nitrate derived from ammonium in fertilizers and precipitation as well as from soil nitrogen. It is suggested that a major potential threat to the groundwater quality is ammonia and ammonium at a constant level mainly from agriculture activities as

  7. The Rhume springs revisited: A multi-tracer approach to one of the largest European carbonate-gypsum karst systems (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Dellwig, Olaf; Escher, Peter; Weise, Stephan M.


    Modern karst ground water systems are at the cutting edge between atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere and are impacted by the biosphere and anthroposphere. The hydrogeochemical processes in karst terrains are sensitive to both climate change and anthropogenic activity, thereby affecting the quality of these ground waters. Therefore, understanding the transport processes and hydrogeochemical interactions between surface and ground waters is of fundamental importance for the prediction of future quality developments of large drinking water resources. The system of the Rhume spring, at the SW border of the Harz Mountains (Germany), one of the largest the largest European karst springs, has been investigated for hydrogeochemical and isotope variations to study the impact of river waters on the Rhume spring system. Rivers from the Harz Mountains are infiltrating Quaternary strata and emerging, after a passage through Permian (Zechstein) carbonate and sulfate rocks at the Rhume springs. By using a hydrogeochemical tracer approach it was found earlier, that an old mineralized ground water that had been modified by subterrestrial water-rock interactions is mixed with less mineralized younger karst waters before emerging in the different Rhume spring pits [1-4]. In the present communication, we present new results from a revisit of the Rhume springs and the rivers and streams in the direct and tributary recharge areas focussing on trace metal concentrations and multi-stable isotope signatures under different hydrological conditions. It was the aim of the investigation to re-analyze the proposed mixing model and provide additional evidence for a relative age estimate (H-3 dating) of the different waters emerging in the Rhume spring area. One focus was set on a high water-impact period. By the application of a multi-tracer approach (e.g., Sr, Ba, Fe, Mn, Mo, PO4, Si), and different isotope systems (S-32/S-34 in sulfate; O-16, O-17, O-18, H-1, H-2, and H-3 in water, C-12/C

  8. Proteomic Analyses of the Acute Tissue Response for Explant Rabbit Corneas and Engineered Corneal Tissue Models Following In Vitro Exposure to 1540 nm Laser Light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eurell, T. E; Johnson, T. E; Roach, W. P


    Two-dimensional electrophoresis and histomorphometry were used to determine if equivalent protein changes occurred within native rabbit corneas and engineered corneal tissue models following in vitro...

  9. Alterations of protein composition along the rostro-caudal axis after spinal cord injury: proteomic, in vitro and in vivo analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasa eCizkova


    Full Text Available Based on proteomic analyses we investigated the differences of released molecules in the conditioned media (CM from the spinal cord central lesion and adjacent rostral and caudal segments at 3, 7 and 10 days after spinal cord injury (SCI, in order to specify the molecular environment within greater extent of tissue damage. Proteins found in CM were analyzed by shot-gun MS using nanoLC coupled to an orbitrap. The results showed some specific proteins at each site of the lesion at 3days. Among the proteins from rostral and lesion segments, some are related to chemokines, cytokines or to neurogenesis factors. In contrast, proteins from caudal segments are more related to necrosis factors. The CM from each spinal segment were used in vitro, on microglial BV2 cell lines and DRGs explants, showing a lesion site-dependent impact on microglia activation and DRGs neurite outgrowth. In addition, while naive BV2 cells exhibited insignificant staining for CX3CR1 receptor, the level of CX3CR1 was strongly enhanced in some BV2 cells after their stimulation by CM collected from SCI. The molecular data might correlate with different polarization of activated microglia and macrophages along the rostro-caudal axis following acute injury. This was partially confirmed in vivo with CX3CR1 receptor, revealing higher expression in the rostral segment, with potential neuroprotective action. In addition, the neurotrophic factors released from rostral and lesion segments enhanced outgrowth of DRGs explants. Taken together these data suggest that regionalization in terms of inflammatory and neurotrophic responses may occur between rostral and caudal segments in acute SCI.

  10. Mineralogical analyses and in vitro screening tests for the rapid evaluation of the health hazard of volcanic ash at Rabaul volcano, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Horwell, Claire J.; Baxter, Peter J.; Michnowicz, Sabina A. K.; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Delmelle, Pierre; Dunster, Christina; Patia, Herman


    The continuous ash and gas emissions from the Tavurvur cone in Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea, during 2007-08, raised concerns regarding how exposure would affect the respiratory health of nearby populations and impact on the environment. As part of a formal evaluation of the effects of volcanic emissions on public health, we investigated the potential health hazard of the ash using a suite of selected mineralogical analyses and in vitro toxicity screening tests. The trachy -andesitic ash comprised 2.1-6.7 vol.% respirable (sub -4 μm diameter) particles. The crystalline silica content was 1.9-5.0 wt.% cristobalite (in the bulk sample) with trace amounts of quartz and/or tridymite. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the ash particles were angular with sparse, fibre -like particles (˜3-60 μm max. diameter) observed in some samples, which we confirmed to be CaSO4 (gypsum, at tested volcanic ash leachates. Ash samples generated potentially -harmful hydroxyl radicals through an iron -mediated catalytic reaction, in the range of 0.15-2.47 μmol m-2 (after 30 min of reaction). However, measurement of particle oxidative capacity (potential oxidative stress reaction using ascorbic acid) and silica -like injury to red blood cells (erythrolysis assay, i.e. measurement of cell death) nevertheless revealed low biological reactivity. The findings suggest that acute exposure to the ash would have a limited potential to exacerbate pre -existing conditions such as asthma or chronic bronchitis, and the potential for chronic exposure leading to silicosis was low.

  11. Sperm head vacuoles are not affected by in-vitro conditions, as analysed by a system of sperm-microcapture channels. (United States)

    Neyer, Anton; Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Bach, Magnus; Stecher, Astrid; Spitzer, Dietmar; Zech, Nicolas


    Since the introduction of the motile sperm organelle morphology examination, there has been increasing recognition of the fact that the presence of large nuclear vacuoles might have deleterious effects on embryo development. Nevertheless, one fundamental question still being debated is whether specific in-vitro conditions during the handling of semen have an impact on vacuole formation. This study's objective was to analyse whether incubation temperature (20, 37°C) or oxidative stress stimulates the formation of nuclear vacuoles. Furthermore, it examined whether vacuoles disappear in the presence of an acrosome reaction inducer. Therefore, a system of sperm-microcapture channels was developed to permit the observation of the same living spermatozoa over a period of 24h. Neither incubation at 37°C nor induction of oxidative stress led to de-novo formation of nuclear vacuoles. Induction of the acrosome reaction using calcium ionophore A23587 did not lead to any modifications in the proportion of spermatozoa with vacuoles or to the disappearance of pre-existing vacuoles. According to these observations, it is concluded that nuclear vacuoles on the sperm head are already produced at earlier stages of sperm maturation and are not induced or modulated by routine laboratory environments. The examination of spermatozoa at very high magnification has led to the increasingly widespread recognition that the presence of large vacuoles in the human sperm head has deleterious effects on embryo development. One fundamental question, however, still remains: do specific conditions in the laboratory during the preparation and the handling of semen have an impact on vacuole formation? Our initial objective was to analyse whether different incubation temperatures (20, 37°C) and the induction of oxidative stress lead to the formation of sperm head vacuoles. Furthermore, we examined whether vacuoles disappear in the presence of an acrosome reaction inducer. In order to do this we

  12. {sup 36}Cl in modern groundwater dated by a multi-tracer approach ({sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, SF{sub 6}, Cfc-12 and {sup 85}Kr): a case study in quaternary sand aquifers in the Odense Pilot River Basin, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcho Alvarado, J.A. [Climate and Environmental Physics Division, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Purtschert, R. [Climate and Environmental Physics Division, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Hinsby, K. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, Oster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Troldborg, L. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, Oster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Hofer, M. [Water Resources and Drinking Water, EAWAG, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kipfer, R. [Water Resources and Drinking Water, EAWAG, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Aeschbach-Hertig, W. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Arno-Synal, H. [ETH Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)


    {sup 36}Cl produced by thermonuclear bomb testing has been proposed as an additional tool to date or at least to identify recent groundwater components. In order to investigate the behaviour of {sup 36}Cl in shallow groundwater a multi-tracer approach ({sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, SF{sub 6}, CFC-12 and {sup 85}Kr) was used to characterise and date the groundwater of a quaternary sands aquifer which is located on the Island of Funen near the city of Odense, Denmark. Recharge to the semi-confined shallow aquifer occurs through permeable sand windows and fractured tills at the surface. Locally, however, mixing with older pre-bomb water from the underlying limestone aquifer may occur. The integrated analyses of the available tracer data allowed a well constrained age structure determination of the investigated water system. The {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios measured in groundwater were used to reconstruct the fallout rates for radioactive {sup 36}Cl at Odense. The calculated fallout values exceeded the fallout estimated based on data from the Dye-3 ice core in Greenland. Recycling of the bomb peak fallout seems to be the most probable reason of the high values measured. The local extent of this process is difficult to quantify, which impedes the use of {sup 36}Cl for dating.

  13. Two conservative multi-tracer efficient semi-Lagrangian schemes for multiple processor systems integrated in a spectral element (climate dynamical core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erath Christoph


    Full Text Available In today’s atmospheric numerical modeling, scalable and highly accurate numerical schemes are of particular interest. To address these issues Galerkin schemes, such as the spectral element method, have received more attention in the last decade. They also provide other state-of-the-art capabilities such as improved conservation. However, the tracer transport of hundreds of tracers, e.g., in the chemistry version of the Community Atmosphere Model, is still a performance bottleneck. Therefore, we consider two conservative semi-Lagrangian schemes. Both are designed to be multi-tracer efficient, third order accurate, and allow significantly longer time steps than explicit Eulerian formulations. We address the difficulties arising on the cubed-sphere projection and on parallel computers and show the high scalability of our approach. Additionally, we use the two schemes for the transport of passive tracers in a dynamical core and compare our results with a current spectral element tracer transport advection used by the High-Order Method Modeling Environment.

  14. Evaluation of the hydrological flow paths in a gravel bed filter modeling a horizontal subsurface flow wetland by using a multi-tracer experiment. (United States)

    Birkigt, Jan; Stumpp, Christine; Małoszewski, Piotr; Nijenhuis, Ivonne


    In recent years, constructed wetland systems have become into focus as means of cost-efficient organic contaminant management. Wetland systems provide a highly reactive environment in which several removal pathways of organic chemicals may be present at the same time; however, specific elimination processes and hydraulic conditions are usually separately investigated and thus not fully understood. The flow system in a three dimensional pilot-scale horizontal subsurface constructed wetland was investigated applying a multi-tracer test combined with a mathematical model to evaluate the flow and transport processes. The results indicate the existence of a multiple flow system with two distinct flow paths through the gravel bed and a preferential flow at the bottom transporting 68% of tracer mass resulting from the inflow design of the model wetland system. There the removal of main contaminant chlorobenzene was up to 52% based on different calculation approaches. Determined retention times in the range of 22d to 32.5d the wetland has a heterogeneous flow pattern. Differences between simulated and measured tracer concentrations in the upper sediment indicate diffusion dominated processes due to stagnant water zones. The tracer study combining experimental evaluation with mathematical modeling demonstrated the complexity of flow and transport processes in the constructed wetlands which need to be taken into account during interpretation of the determining attenuation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Histomorphometric analyses of area fraction of different ratios of Bio-Oss(®) and bone prior to grafting procedures - An in vitro study to demonstrate a baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aludden, Hanna; Dahlin, Anna; Starch-Jensen, Thomas


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the area fraction of different ratios of Bio-Oss(®) and bone, prior to grafting in an in vitro model to demonstrate a histomorphometric baseline. METHODS: Bio-Oss(®) particles were mixed with autogenous bone from pig jaw in three different ra...

  16. Multi-trace element levels and arsenic speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); CSIR Water Research Institute, P. O. Box AH 38, Achimota, Accra (Ghana); Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Biney, Charles Augustus [Volta Basin Authority (VBA), 10 P. O. Box 13621, Ouagadougou 10 (Burkina Faso); Agyekum, William Atuobi; Bello, Mohammed [CSIR Water Research Institute, P. O. Box AH 38, Achimota, Accra (Ghana); Otsuka, Masanari [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ehime Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, 8-234 Sanban-cho, Matsuyama 790-0003 (Japan); Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke, E-mail: [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)


    To understand human contamination by multi-trace elements (TEs) in electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site at Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana, this study analyzed TEs and As speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers. Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste recycling workers were significantly higher than those of reference sites after consideration of interaction by age, indicating that the recycling workers are exposed to these TEs through the recycling activity. Urinary As concentration was relatively high, although the level in drinking water was quite low. Speciation analysis of As in human urine revealed that arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid were the predominant As species and concentrations of both species were positively correlated with total As concentration as well as between each other. These results suggest that such compounds may be derived from the same source, probably fish and shellfish and greatly influence As exposure levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination resulting from the primitive recycling of e-waste in Ghana. This study will contribute to the knowledge about human exposure to trace elements from an e-waste site in a less industrialized region so far scantly covered in the literature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure status of trace elements in e-waste recycling workers was assessed in Ghana. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste workers were significantly higher than those of the reference subjects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the first to investigate human contamination arising from primitive recycling of e-waste arguably from Africa.

  17. Characterization and comparative analyses of transcriptomes for in vivo and in vitro produced peri-implantation conceptuses and endometria from sheep. (United States)

    Wei, Xia; Xiaoling, Zhang; Kai, Miao; Rui, Wang; Jing, Xu; Min, Guo; Zhonghong, Wu; Jianhui, Tian; Xinyu, Zhang; Lei, An


    An increasing number of reports indicate that in vitro fertilization (IVF) is highly associated with long‑term side effects on embryonic and postnatal development, and can sometimes result in embryonic implant failure. While high‑throughput gene expression analysis has been used to explore the mechanisms underlying IVF-induced side effects on embryonic development, little is known about the effects of IVF on conceptus-endometrial interactions during the peri-implantation period. Using sheep as a model, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis between in vivo (IVO; in vivo fertilized followed by further development in the uterus) and in vitro produced (IVP; IVF with further culture in the incubator) conceptuses, and the caruncular and intercaruncular areas of the ovine endometrium. We identified several genes that were differentially expressed between the IVO and IVP groups on day 17, when adhesion between the trophoblast and the uterine luminal epithelium begins in sheep. By performing Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, we found that, in the conceptus, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were associated mainly with functions relating to cell binding and the cell cycle. In the endometrial caruncular area, DEGs were involved in cell adhesion/migration and apoptosis, and in the intercaruncular area, they were significantly enriched in pathways of signal transduction and transport. Thus, these DEGs are potential candidates for further exploring the mechanism underlying IVF/IVP-induced embryonic implant failure that occurs due to a loss of interaction between the conceptus and endometrium during the peri-implantation period.

  18. RFLP analyses and segregation of molecular markers in plants produced by in vitro anther culture, selfing, and reciprocal crosses of two lines of self-incompatible Solanum chacoense. (United States)

    Rivard, S R; Saba-El-Leil, M K; Landry, B S; Cappadocia, M


    RFLP analyses were used to characterize several plant populations of Solanum chacoense Bitt. developed to investigate the generation of new S alleles at the self-incompatibility locus. The plant material consisted of two diploid parental lines, their anther culture derived (AC) progenies, their selfed progenies, and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. The RFLP analyses on the AC plants (121 individuals in total) permitted unambiguous identification of their origin. In particular, a distinction between plants originated from reduced (n) or unreduced (2n) microspores could be made. All the AC plants produced by gametic embryogenesis showed distinct RFLP patterns, whereas a number of clones (i.e., plants with identical RFLP patterns) were found among those regenerated via callus. The analyses conducted on the selfed progenies (69 plants) and the F1 hybrids (66 plants) showed only one case of accidental outcross. Segregation studies of the RFLP markers revealed significant deviations from expected Mendelian ratios in both AC-derived populations, as well as in the selfed progenies. Such deviations, however, were rare in the reciprocal F1 hybrids. These results are discussed in relation to the possible presence of genetic sieves operating during AC, illegitimate selfing, or during normal fertilization.

  19. Food peptidomics of in vitro gastrointestinal digestions of partially purified bovine hemoglobin: low-resolution versus high-resolution LC-MS/MS analyses. (United States)

    Caron, Juliette; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Gimeno, Jean-Pascal; Duhal, Nathalie; Goossens, Jean-François; Dhulster, Pascal; Cudennec, Benoit; Ravallec, Rozenn; Flahaut, Christophe


    Consumers and governments have become aware how the daily diet may affect the human health. All proteins from both plant and animal origins are potential sources of a wide range of bioactive peptides and the large majority of those display health-promoting effects. In the meat production food chain, the slaughterhouse blood is an inevitable co-product and, today, the blood proteins remain underexploited despite their bioactive potentiality. Through a comparative food peptidomics approach we illustrate the impact of resolving power, accuracy, sensitivity, and acquisition speed of low-resolution (LR)- and high-resolution (HR)-LC-ESI-MS/MS on the obtained peptide mappings and discuss the limitations of MS-based peptidomics. From in vitro gastrointestinal digestions of partially purified bovine hemoglobin, we have established the peptide maps of each hemoglobin chain. LR technique (normal bore C18 LC-LR-ESI-MS/MS) allows us to identify without ambiguity 75 unique peptides while the HR approach (nano bore C18 LC-HR-ESI-MS/MS) unambiguously identify more than 950 unique peptides (post-translational modifications included). Herein, the food peptidomics approach using the most performant separation methods and mass spectrometers with high-resolution capabilities appears as a promising source of information to assess the health potentiality of proteins. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of hydrolysates from oat (Avena sativa) proteins by in silico and in vitro analyses. (United States)

    Cheung, Imelda W Y; Nakayama, Satoko; Hsu, Monica N K; Samaranayaka, Anusha G P; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y


    The potential for producing antihypertensive peptides from oat proteins through enzymatic hydrolysis was assessed in silico and confirmed in vitro. Thermolysin (EC was predicted using BIOPEP database as the enzyme that would theoretically produce the most angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from oat. Experimental evidence confirmed that strong ACE-inhibitory activity was produced under various hydrolysis conditions. Hydrolysates produced under high enzyme-to-substrate ratio (3%) short time (20 min) (HEST) and low enzyme-to-substrate ratio (0.1%) long time (120 min) (LELT) conditions had IC(50) values of 30 and 50 microg/mL, respectively. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, the IC(50) of the HEST hydrolysate was 35 microg/mL whereas the IC(50) of the LELT hydrolysate was higher at 85 microg/mL. Ultrafiltration revealed that potent ACE-inhibitory peptides had molecular weights below 3 kDa. This study demonstrates the usefulness of in silico analysis to select enzymes for hydrolysis of proteins not previously examined as sources of bioactive peptides.

  1. Use of a multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach including organic matter isotopes for quantifying nutrient contributions from agricultural vs wastewater sources (United States)

    Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Young, M. B.


    While nutrient isotopes are a well-established tool for quantifying nutrients inputs from agricultural vs wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sources, we have found that combining nutrient isotopes with the C, N, and S isotopic compositions of dissolved and particulate organic matter, as part of a comprehensive multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach, is a much more diagnostic approach. The main reasons why organic matter C-N-S isotopes are a useful adjunct to studies of nutrient sources and biogeochemical processes are that the dissolved and particulate organic matter associated with (1) different kinds of animals (e.g., humans vs cows) often have distinctive isotopic compositions reflecting the different diets of the animals, and (2) the different processes associated with the different land uses (e.g., in the WWTP or associated with different crop types) often result in significant differences in the isotopic compositions of the organics. The analysis of the δ34S of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been found to be especially useful for distinguishing and quantifying water, nutrient, and organic contributions from different land uses in aquatic systems where much of the organic matter is aquatic in origin. In such environments, the bacteria and algae incorporate S from sulfate and sulfide that is isotopically labeled by the different processes associated with different land uses. We have found that there is ~35 permil range in δ34S of POM along the river-estuary continuum in the San Joaquin/Sacramento River basin, with low values associated with sulfate reduction in the upstream wetlands and high values associated with tidal inputs of marine water into the estuary. Furthermore, rice agriculture results in relatively low δ34S values whereas WWTP effluent in the Sacramento River produces distinctly higher values than upstream of the WWTP, presumably because SO2 is used to treat chlorinated effluent. The fish living

  2. Chemical and cytotoxic analyses of brown Brazilian propolis (Apis mellifera) and its in vitro activity against itraconazole-resistant Sporothrix brasiliensis. (United States)

    Waller, Stefanie B; Peter, Cristina M; Hoffmann, Jéssica F; Picoli, Tony; Osório, Luiza da G; Chaves, Fábio; Zani, João L; de Faria, Renata O; de Mello, João R B; Meireles, Mário C A


    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of brown Brazilian propolis and its in vitro activity against itraconazole-resistant Sporothrix brasiliensis from animal sporotrichosis. Propolis was acquired commercially and prepared as a hydroalcoholic extract. Chemical analysis was evaluated by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry of ultra-efficiency. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT test in MDBK cells of 50 to 0.09 μg/mL. For antifungal tests, twenty isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis from dogs (n = 11) and cats (n = 9) with sporotrichosis were tested to itraconazole (16-0.0313 μg/mL) and to propolis (3.125-0.09 mg/mL) by broth microdilution technique (CLSI M38-A2), adapted to natural products. The results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). Itraconazole showed activity between MIC values of 0.25 to greater than 16 μg/mL, and 88.9% (08/09) and 72.7% (08/11) of S. brasiliensis from cats and dogs, respectively, were considered itraconazole-resistant. All Sporothrix brasiliensis were sensitive to brown propolis between MIC values of 0.19-1.56 mg/mL, including the itraconazole-resistant isolates, whereas the MFC values of propolis were from 0.78 to greater than 3.125 mg/mL. Propolis maintained a medium to high cell viability between concentration of 0.78 to 0.09 μg/mL, and p-coumaric acid was the major compound. Brown Brazilian propolis is a promising antifungal candidate against sporotrichosis and more studies need to be undertaken to evaluate its safe use to understand its efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis, spectral characterization and in vitro antibacterial evaluation and Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration analyses of new Palladium(II iodide complexes with thioamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Nadeem


    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes on the synthesis of Palladium(II iodide complexes containing based ligands. The new compounds of general formulae [Pd(L4]I2 where L = Thiourea (Tu, Methylthiourea (Metu, Dimethylthiourea (Dmtu, Tetramethylthiourea (Tmtu, Imidazolidine-2-thione (Imt, Mercaptopyridine (Mpy, Mercaptopyrimidine (Mpm, and Thionicotinamide (Tna were prepared simply by reacting K2[PdCl4] with the corresponding thioamides in 1:2 M ratio and then with 2 equivalents Potassium iodide. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H and13C NMR. All the synthesized complexes were screened for antibacterial activity and some of compounds have shown good activities against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. POM analyses reveal that the compounds are only slightly toxic and present a potential for antibacterial activity. Moreover, they have 16–23% drug score which is an important parameter for the compound possessing the drug properties.

  4. Head-Neck Osteoplasty has Minor Effect on the Strength of an Ovine Cam-FAI Model: In Vitro and Finite Element Analyses. (United States)

    Maquer, Ghislain; Bürki, Alexander; Nuss, Katja; Zysset, Philippe K; Tannast, Moritz


    deeper resections. However, under in vitro testing conditions, the effect on femoral strength remains small even after 9 mm correction, suggesting that femoral head-neck osteochondroplasty could be done safely on the ovine femur. QCT-based finite element models were able to predict weakening of the femur resulting from the osteochondroplasty. The ovine femur provides a seemingly safe platform for scientific evaluation of FAI. It also appears that computer models based on preoperative CT scans may have the potential to provide patient-specific guidelines for preventing overcorrection of cam FAI.

  5. Evaluation of feed value of a by-product of pickled radish for ruminants: analyses of nutrient composition, storage stability, and in vitro ruminal fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoyoung Jeon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background By-products of pickled radish (BPR are considered food waste. Approximately 300 g/kg of the total mass of raw materials becomes BPR. Production of pickled radish has grown continuously and is presently about 40,000 metric tons annually in Korea. The objective of the present study was thus to explore the possibility of using BPR as a ruminant feed ingredient. Results BPR contained a large amount of moisture (more than 800 g/kg and ash, and comprised mostly sodium (103 g/kg DM and chloride (142 g/kg DM. On a dry matter basis, the crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE levels in BPR were 75 g/kg and 7 g/kg, respectively. The total digestible nutrient (TDN level was 527 g/kg and the major portion of digestible nutrients was carbohydrate; 88 % organic matter (OM was carbohydrate and 65 % of total carbohydrate was soluble or degradable fiber. The coefficient of variation (CV of nutrient contents among production batches ranged from 4.65 to 33.83 %. The smallest CV was observed in OM, and the largest, in EE. The variation in CP content was relatively small (10.11 %. The storage stability test revealed that storage of BPR at 20 °C (room temperature might not cause spoilage for 4 d, and possibly longer. If BPR is refrigerated, spoilage can be deferred for 21 d and longer. The in vitro ruminal fermentation study showed that substitution of annual ryegrass straw with BPR improved ruminal fermentation, as evidenced by an increase in VFA concentration, DM degradability, and total gas production. Conclusion The major portion of nutrients in BPR is soluble or degradable fiber that can be easily fermented in the rumen without adverse effects, to provide energy to ruminant animals. Although its high sodium chloride content needs to be considered when formulating a ration, BPR can be successfully used as a feed ingredient in a ruminant diet, particularly if it is one component of a total mixed ration.

  6. Analyses of the in vitro non-enzymatic glycation of peptides/proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Shiang; Krishnanchettiar, Sangeeth; Lateef, Syed Salman; Gupta, Shalini


    Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins with the reducing agent glucose is implicated to be responsible for diabetes-derived complications, food browning, and aging. However, the non-enzymatic glycation process of peptides/proteins is not well understood and further research is needed to gain an understanding of the underlying principles involved in diabetes-related complications. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is used to analyze the in vitro glycation of peptides/proteins. In addition to the physiological conditions, harsh conditions (higher concentration of glucose, higher or lower pH, and higher temperature) are also used in this study. Peptides/proteins are reacted with glucose for up to 120 h at 4 [degree sign]C, 37 [degree sign]C, or 65 [degree sign]C. Single and/or multiple glycations are observed using broad pH conditions (from 10% TFA with pKa of 0.5 to pH 10) at various glucose concentrations (from 0.01 M to 1 M). Data suggest that glucose reacts readily with both peptides and proteins, and the efficiency of the glycation increases with higher temperature, higher pH, higher glucose concentration, or longer incubation time. However, influence of the buffer pH on the efficiency of the glycation of peptides is less pronounced compared to that of proteins. This effect could result from denaturation of proteins at higher pH and the resultant exposure of potential glycation sites. This data could lead to the inference that the glycation process of peptides/proteins would occur but proceed very slowly under the diabetes conditions in vivo (37 [degree sign]C, ~neutral pH, ~0.007 M glucose). Postsource decay and MS/MS results of singly glycated angiotensin I, P14R (PPPPPPPPPPPPPPR), and human adrenocorticotropic hormone (ATCH) fragments 1-13 indicate that glucose reacts with the amino group of the N-terminal of ATCH 1-13 and the guanidino group of the arginine residue of both angiotensin I and P14R.

  7. A multitracer approach to assess the spatial contamination pattern of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresson, Pierre, E-mail: [Ifremer, RHMN, Centre Manche — Mer du Nord, BP 669, F-62 321 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bouchoucha, Marc [Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Morat, Fabien [IRSTEA, 3275 Route Cézanne, CS 40061, F-13 182 Aix en Provence Cedex 5 (France); Miralles, Francoise; Chavanon, Fabienne [Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Loizeau, Veronique [Ifremer, LBCO, Centre Atlantique, BP 70, F-29 280 Plouzané (France); Cossa, Daniel [ISTerre, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38 041 Grenoble (France)


    Chemical contamination levels and stable isotope ratios provide integrated information about contaminant exposure, trophic position and also biological and environmental influences on marine organisms. By combining these approaches with otolith shape analyses, the aim of the present study was to document the spatial variability of Hg and PCB contamination of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean, hypothesizing that local contaminant sources, environmental conditions and biological specificities lead to site-specific contamination patterns. High Hg concentrations discriminated Corsica (average: 1.36 ± 0.80 μg g{sup −1} dm) from the Gulf of Lions (average values < 0.5 μg g{sup −1} dm), where Rhône River input caused high PCB burdens. CB 153 average concentrations ranged between 4.00 ± 0.64 and 18.39 ± 12.38 ng g{sup −1} dm in the Gulf of Lions, whatever the sex of the individuals, whereas the highest values in Corsica were 6.75 ± 4.22 ng g{sup −1} dm. Otolith shape discriminated juveniles and adults, due to their different habitats. The use of combined ecotracers was revealed as a powerful tool to discriminate between fish populations at large and small spatial scale, and to enable understanding of the environmental and biological influences on contamination patterns. - Highlights: • Hg and PCB concentrations were assessed in French Mediterranean hake. • Stable isotope and otolith shape analyses were used in combination. • Local isotopic and contamination patterns were observed. • Hg values were high in Corsica, PCB in the Gulf of Lions. • Combined ecotracers are powerful to discriminate between local populations.

  8. Multitracer studies for determining seepage water and anion movement in four types of soil using lysimeters with different functions and designs; Multitracer-Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Sickerwasser- und Anionenbewegung in vier Bodenformen bei Lysimetern unterschiedlicher Nutzung und Bauart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, S.; Russow, R. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung; Seeger, J. [Lysimeterstation Falkenberg (Germany)


    Lysimeter experiments based on the stable isotope tracer technique are a suitable means of examining the complex relationships governing water and material transport processes in the soil. The present paper reports on experiments in which water and nitrate movement was traced directly by means of lysimeters placed at different depths and using deuterium water and [{sup 15}N]N-nitrate for pulse marking. Extensive investigations carried out during the dissection of soil monoliths that had been used for many years in lysimeters offered an opportunity for stable isotope tracer studies aimed at determining seepage water and anion movement in undisturbed soils and, after dismantling the lysimeters, conducting soil analyses to find out more about the fate of nonpercolated tracers at various soil depths. Following other authors, bromide anions were additionally used as conservative tracers. [Deutsch] Zur Untersuchung der komplexen Zusammenhaenge des Wasser- und Stofftransportes im Boden bieten sich Lysimeterversuche unter Nutzung der stabilisotopen Tracertechnik an. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird zunaechst ueber die direkte Verfolgung der Wasser- und Nitrat-Bewegung in tiefengestaffelten Lysimetern durch Pulsmarkierung mit Deuteriumwasser und [{sup 15}N]Nitrat berichtet. Im Rahmen von umfangreichen Untersuchungen bei der Zerlegung von langjaehrig in Lysimetern genutzten Bodenmonolithen bestand des weiteren die Moeglichkeit, stabilisotope Traceruntersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Sickerwasser- und Anionenbewegung an ungestoerten Boeden durchzufuehren und nach der Zerlegung der Lysimeter ueber entsprechende Analysen des Bodens Aussagen zum Verbleib der nicht perkolierten Tracer in verschiedenen Bodentiefen zu treffen. Zusaetzlich wurde dabei das von anderen Autoren bereits genutzte Bromid-Anion als sogenannter konservativer Tracer eingesetzt. (orig.)

  9. The Impact of Metal Ion Exposure on the Cellular Behavior of Human Osteoblasts and PBMCs: In Vitro Analyses of Osteolytic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Jonitz-Heincke


    Full Text Available Osteolysis in the periprosthetic tissue can be caused by metallic wear particles and ions that can originate from implant surface corrosion. These products influence cellular behavior and stimulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of CoCr29Mo6 ions on cell survival, differentiation, and cytokine expression in human osteoblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Thus, we exposed cells with a mixture of 200 µg/L ion solution and determined cell viability and apoptosis/necrosis. Gene expression analyses of osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation markers as well as pro-osteolytic mediators (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1, MMP1, TIMP1 were performed. These markers were also investigated in mixed cultures of adherent and non-adherent PBMCs as well as in co-cultures of human osteoblasts and PBMCs. The ion solution induced necrosis in osteoblasts and PBMCs in single cultures. All examined mediators were highly expressed in the co-culture of osteoblasts and PBMCs whereas in the single cell cultures only IL-6, IL-8, and MMP1 were found to be stimulated. While the applied concentration of the CoCr29Mo6 ion solutions had only marginal effects on human osteoblasts and PBMCs alone, the co-culture may provide a comprehensive model to study osteolytic processes in response to Co and Cr ions.

  10. In vitro bond strength of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer to root dentin irradiated with high-power lasers and adhesive interface analyses. (United States)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa C; Cruvinel, Pedro Basto; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Gariba-Silva, Ricardo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of high-power lasers (Nd:YAG and diode 980 nm) associated with mineral coal as fotopotencializer on bond strength of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer to root dentin, using the pushout test, and on the dentin/filling material interface, using confocal laser microscopy. For this purposes, 50 canines were instrumented with Mtwo rotary system up to #50.04 instrument and randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10): group I-control EDTAC; group II-EDTAC and Nd:YAG laser; group III-EDTAC and diode laser 980 nm; group IV-EDTAC, Nd:YAG laser and mineral coal 5 g/100 mL; and group V-EDTAC, diode laser 980 nm and mineral coal 5 g/100 mL. All data were analyzed by ANOVA (at 5% significance level) following the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Tukey tests. The group I increased more bond strength of the sealer to root dentin that treated with only EDTAC 17% (17.21 ± 21.75 MPa), similar to the group II (12.21 ± 18.20 MPa) and group IV (14.92 ± 28.06 MPa), both treated with Nd:YAG laser, with the exception of group IV, which was added to mineral coal. The group V (8.75 ± 13.42 MPa) had similar results to the groups II and IV, but the same similarity were found when compared with group III (7.11 + 11.28 MPa), with lower results. Regarding the root thirds, the apical third (23.27 ± 29.21 MPa) presented a statistically higher value on bond strength than the cervical third (5.92 ± 5.33 MPa) and middle third (6.93 ± 7, 11 MPa) (p > 0.05). Group II (86.27 μm) showed the highest tags penetration values, with a statistically difference to the group III (51.57 μm), IV (36.77 μm) and V (32.37 μm) (p  0.05). Group IV had the lowest values and was statistically similarity to groups III and V (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the treatment with Nd:YAG laser provides better results than the diode 980 nm laser, except when was added mineral coal. The control and diode 980 nm laser

  11. Surface properties and in vitro analyses of immobilized chitosan onto polypropylene non-woven fabric surface using antenna-coupling microwave plasma. (United States)

    Tyan, Yu-Chang; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Lin, Shu-Ping


    Antenna coupling microwave plasma enables a highly efficient and oxidative treatment of the outermost surface of polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric within a short time period. Subsequently, grafting copolymerization with acrylic acid (AAc) makes the plasma-treated fabric durably hydrophilic and excellent in water absorbency. With high grafting density and strong water affinity, the pAAc-grafted fabric greatly becomes feasible as an intensive absorbent and as a support to promote chitosan-immobilization through amide bonds. Experimental result demonstrated that surface analyses by FTIR-ATR have shown that R-CONH-R', amide binding were emerged between pAAc and chitosan. The XPS measurements on C(1s) 286.0 eV (C-OH), 286.5 eV (C-N) and 288.1 eV (O=C-NH) also could be found. Bioactivity assessments on the chitosan-immobilized surfaces were anticipated by activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen concentration. By means of cell counter we counted the ratio of blood cell adhesion on the modified fabric matrix. After human plasma incubated with the chitosan-immobilized PP fabrics, the required time for aPTT and blood cell adhesion increased significantly, while fibrinogen concentration and TT did not change. Due to the capability of anticoagulation and cell adhesion, the chitosan-immobilized PP fabric can be used as the substrate for cell culturing and then developed the wound-dressing substitute for second-degree burn.

  12. Astrocytosis precedes amyloid plaque deposition in Alzheimer APPswe transgenic mouse brain: a correlative positron emission tomography and in vitro imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Ni, Ruiqing; Voytenko, Larysa; Marutle, Amelia [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Centre for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm (Sweden); Gulyas, Balazs; Halldin, Christer [Karolinska Institutet, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Nanyang Technological University, NTU - Imperial College, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Toth, Miklos; Haeggkvist, Jenny [Karolinska Institutet, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Centre for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Pathological studies suggest that neuroinflammation is exacerbated by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) levels in the brain early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The time course and relationships between astrocytosis and Aβ deposition were examined using multitracer in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in an AD transgenic mouse model, followed by postmortem autoradiography and immunohistochemistry analysis. PET imaging with the amyloid plaque tracer {sup 11}C-AZD2184 and the astroglial tracer {sup 11}C-deuterium-L-deprenyl ({sup 11}C-DED) was carried out in APPswe mice aged 6, 8-15 and 18-24 months (4-6 animals/group) and in wild-type (wt) mice aged 8-15 and 18-24 months (3-6 animals/group). Tracer uptake was quantified by region of interest analysis using PMOD software and a 3-D digital mouse brain atlas. Postmortem brain tissues from the same APPswe and wt mice in all age groups were analysed for Aβ deposition and astrocytosis by in vitro autoradiography using {sup 3}H-AZD2184, {sup 3}H-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and {sup 3}H-L-deprenyl and immunostaining performed with antibodies for Aβ{sub 42} and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in sagittal brain sections. {sup 11}C-AZD2184 PET retention in the cerebral cortices of APPswe mice was significantly higher at 18-24 months than in age-matched wt mice. Cortical and hippocampal {sup 11}C-DED PET binding was significantly higher at 6 months than at 8-15 months or 18-24 months in APPswe mice, and it was also higher than at 8-15 months in wt mice. In vitro autoradiography {sup 3}H-AZD2184 and {sup 3}H-PIB binding confirmed the in vivo findings with {sup 11}C-AZD2184 and demonstrated age-dependent increases in Aβ deposition in APPswe cortex and hippocampus. There were no significant differences between APPswe and wt mice in {sup 3}H-L-deprenyl autoradiography binding across age groups. Immunohistochemical quantification demonstrated more Aβ{sub 42} deposits in the cortex and hippocampus and more

  13. Astrocytosis precedes amyloid plaque deposition in Alzheimer APPswe transgenic mouse brain: a correlative positron emission tomography and in vitro imaging study. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Ni, Ruiqing; Gulyás, Balázs; Tóth, Miklós; Häggkvist, Jenny; Halldin, Christer; Voytenko, Larysa; Marutle, Amelia; Nordberg, Agneta


    Pathological studies suggest that neuroinflammation is exacerbated by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) levels in the brain early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The time course and relationships between astrocytosis and Aβ deposition were examined using multitracer in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in an AD transgenic mouse model, followed by postmortem autoradiography and immunohistochemistry analysis. PET imaging with the amyloid plaque tracer (11)C-AZD2184 and the astroglial tracer (11)C-deuterium-L-deprenyl ((11)C-DED) was carried out in APPswe mice aged 6, 8-15 and 18-24 months (4-6 animals/group) and in wild-type (wt) mice aged 8-15 and 18-24 months (3-6 animals/group). Tracer uptake was quantified by region of interest analysis using PMOD software and a 3-D digital mouse brain atlas. Postmortem brain tissues from the same APPswe and wt mice in all age groups were analysed for Aβ deposition and astrocytosis by in vitro autoradiography using (3)H-AZD2184, (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and (3)H-L-deprenyl and immunostaining performed with antibodies for Aβ42 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in sagittal brain sections. (11)C-AZD2184 PET retention in the cerebral cortices of APPswe mice was significantly higher at 18-24 months than in age-matched wt mice. Cortical and hippocampal (11)C-DED PET binding was significantly higher at 6 months than at 8-15 months or 18-24 months in APPswe mice, and it was also higher than at 8-15 months in wt mice. In vitro autoradiography (3)H-AZD2184 and (3)H-PIB binding confirmed the in vivo findings with (11)C-AZD2184 and demonstrated age-dependent increases in Aβ deposition in APPswe cortex and hippocampus. There were no significant differences between APPswe and wt mice in (3)H-L-deprenyl autoradiography binding across age groups. Immunohistochemical quantification demonstrated more Aβ42 deposits in the cortex and hippocampus and more GFAP(+) reactive astrocytes in the hippocampus at 18-24 months than

  14. Identifying the effects of human pressure on groundwater quality to support water management strategies in coastal regions: A multi-tracer and statistical approach (Bou-Areg region, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, V., E-mail: [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Calle Larga Santa Marta 2137, Dorsoduro, 40123 Venice (Italy); National Engineering School of Sfax (ENIS) - Laboratory of Radio-Analysis and Environment (LRAE) Sfax (Tunisia); Sacchi, E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mas-Pla, J. [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAIA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambientals (GEOCAMB), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), 17003 Girona (Spain); Menció, A. [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAIA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambientals (GEOCAMB), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); El Amrani, N. [Faculty of Sciences and techniques, University Hassan 1er, Settat (Morocco)


    Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several coastal aquifers worldwide. Increasing groundwater exploitation, coupled with point and non-point pollution sources, are the main anthropogenic impacts on coastal environments and are responsible for severe health and food security issues. Adequate management strategies to protect groundwater from contamination and overexploitation are of paramount importance, especially in arid prone regions, where coastal aquifers often represent the main freshwater resource to sustain human needs. The Bou-Areg Aquifer (Morocco) is a perfect example of a coastal aquifer constantly exposed to all the negative externalities associated with groundwater use for agricultural purposes, which lead to a general increase in aquifer salinization. In this study data on 61 water samples, collected in June and November 2010, were used to: (i) track groundwater composition changes related to the use of irrigation water from different sources, (ii) highlight seasonal variations to assess aquifer vulnerability, and (iii) present a reproducible example of multi-tracer approach for groundwater management in rural coastal areas. Hydrogeochemical results show that Bou-Areg groundwater is characterized by – high salinity, associated with a remarkable increase in bicarbonate content in the crop growing season, due to more intense biological activity in irrigated soils. The coupled multi-tracer and statistical analysis confirms the strong dependency on irrigation activities as well as a clear identification of the processes governing the aquifer’s hydrochemistry in the different seasons. Water Rock Interaction (WRI) dominates the composition of most of groundwater samples in the Low Irrigation season (L-IR) and Agricultural Return Flow (ARF) mainly affects groundwater salinization in the High Irrigation season (H-IR) in the same areas naturally affected by WRI. In the central part of the plain River Recharge (RR

  15. Ion microbeam analysis. Application to the study of the skin barrier and its nano-toxicology; Analyse par microfaisceau d'ions. Application a l'etude de la fonction barriere cutanee et a la nanotoxicologie in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M.


    This work is dedicated to the use of ion microbeam irradiation to the study of a complex biological tissue like skin. Up to now, it has been very difficult to detect and track metallic oxides and manufactured nano-particles in biological tissues, most particularly in skin. Thus, it is essential to precise the mechanisms involved in skin barrier function processes face to exogenous agents like nano-particles and to characterize them in biological models in vitro/in vivo. During my work, I have had the opportunity to combine quantitative methods of analysis with high resolution imagery techniques (confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and ion beam analysis) in order to characterize: (i) the skin barrier function of an ex vivo pig ear skin model understanding the ion homeostasis behavior face to different chemical or physical stresses; (ii) the impact on viability, accumulation and intracellular distribution of nano-particles (Titanium Oxides) naked or functionalized with fluorescent dyes (FITC, Rhodamine)

  16. Molecular mechanics and dynamics characterization of an in silico mutated protein: a stand-alone lab module or support activity for in vivo and in vitro analyses of targeted proteins. (United States)

    Chiang, Harry; Robinson, Lucy C; Brame, Cynthia J; Messina, Troy C


    Over the past 20 years, the biological sciences have increasingly incorporated chemistry, physics, computer science, and mathematics to aid in the development and use of mathematical models. Such combined approaches have been used to address problems from protein structure-function relationships to the workings of complex biological systems. Computer simulations of molecular events can now be accomplished quickly and with standard computer technology. Also, simulation software is freely available for most computing platforms, and online support for the novice user is ample. We have therefore created a molecular dynamics laboratory module to enhance undergraduate student understanding of molecular events underlying organismal phenotype. This module builds on a previously described project in which students use site-directed mutagenesis to investigate functions of conserved sequence features in members of a eukaryotic protein kinase family. In this report, we detail the laboratory activities of a MD module that provide a complement to phenotypic outcomes by providing a hypothesis-driven and quantifiable measure of predicted structural changes caused by targeted mutations. We also present examples of analyses students may perform. These laboratory activities can be integrated with genetics or biochemistry experiments as described, but could also be used independently in any course that would benefit from a quantitative approach to protein structure-function relationships. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Trophic ecology influence on metal bioaccumulation in marine fish: Inference from stable isotope and fatty acid analyses. (United States)

    Le Croizier, Gaël; Schaal, Gauthier; Gallon, Régis; Fall, Massal; Le Grand, Fabienne; Munaron, Jean-Marie; Rouget, Marie-Laure; Machu, Eric; Le Loc'h, François; Laë, Raymond; De Morais, Luis Tito


    The link between trophic ecology and metal accumulation in marine fish species was investigated through a multi-tracers approach combining fatty acid (FA) and stable isotope (SI) analyses on fish from two contrasted sites on the coast of Senegal, one subjected to anthropogenic metal effluents and another one less impacted. The concentrations of thirteen trace metal elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, U, and Zn) were measured in fish liver. Individuals from each site were classified into three distinct groups according to their liver FA and muscle SI compositions. Trace element concentrations were tested between groups revealing that bioaccumulation of several metals was clearly dependent on the trophic guild of fish. Furthermore, correlations between individual trophic markers and trace metals gave new insights into the determination of their origin. Fatty acids revealed relationships between the dietary regimes and metal accumulation that were not detected with stable isotopes, possibly due to the trace metal elements analysed in this study. In the region exposed to metallic inputs, the consumption of benthic preys was the main pathway for metal transfer to the fish community while in the unaffected one, pelagic preys represented the main source of metals. Within pelagic sources, metallic transfer to fish depended on phytoplankton taxa on which the food web was based, suggesting that microphytoplankton (i.e., diatoms and dinoflagellates) were a more important source of exposition than nano- and picoplankton. This study confirmed the influence of diet in the metal accumulation of marine fish communities, and proved that FAs are very useful and complementary tools to SIs to link metal accumulation in fish with their trophic ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro (United States)

    Augustine, Dominic; Rao, Roopa S; Anbu, Jayaraman; Chidambara Murthy, K N


    The earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) has shown proven antiproliferative effect against breast, liver, gastrointestinal, and brain cancer, but it is least explored in oral cancer. The present in vitro study is an attempt to investigate the antiproliferative activity of ECF on oral cancer cell line squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-9. ECF was collected from the species Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) stored at -80°C. Percentage inhibition of ECF on squamous cell carcinoma-9 cells in vitro was recorded at 24 h. Protein estimation was done using Bradford protein assay validated by the biuret method. Cytotoxicity was tested at 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/ml concentrations by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in SCC-9 cells in vitro . GraphPad Prism 7.0 software was used to calculate the inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ). Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference between samples. The test samples EE, EF, and PE inhibited the growth of SCC-9 cells significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC 50 values were found to be 4.6, 44.69, and 5.27 μg/ml, respectively. The antiproliferative effect was found to be variable among the three earthworm species with EE showing the most promising effect followed by PE and EF. Establishing the antiproliferative effect of ECF on oral cancer cells could be an initial step toward drug development and future anticancer research. The preliminary investigation has shown that ECF has a promising antiproliferative effect on oral cancer cells in vitro . The present pilot study evaluated the in vitro antiproliferative effect of earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) of Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) on squamous cell carcinoma-9 cell line. The ECF inhibitory activity was promising at inhibitory concentration values of 4.6, 44.69, and 5.27 μg/ml, respectively. Further studies pertaining to antiproliferative mechanism of EE

  19. Sproglig Metode og Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011......Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011...

  20. In vitro (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Jianke; He, Xiaoye; Lv, Ou; Cheng, Yujiang; Liu, Run


    This study was aimed to compare the relative activities of the purified pomegranate peels polyphenols (PPPs) with some other plant polyphenols including punicalagin, ellagic acid, gallic acid, phlorizin, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the lipid metabolism regulation, and the cholesterol efflux mechanisms of PPPs and punicalagin were also investigated. In this paper, a convenient and accurate in vitro HL7702 steatosis hepatic cell model was applied to evaluate the lipid-lowering effects of the tested polyphenols. The results showed that PPPs possessed the strongest lipid-lowering effects. Prevention group (treated with polyphenols when establishing of steatosis model) was more effective than treatment group (treated with polyphenols after establishment of steatosis model). Punicalagin displayed the strongest lipid-lowering effects among all the tested components of pomegranate peel polyphenols. Moreover, PPPs and punicalagin (10, 20, 40 μg/mL) significantly increased the mRNA expression of LXRα (Liver X receptor alpha) and its target genes-ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) in a dose-dependent manner in HL7702 steatosis hepatic cells. The high mRNA expression of LXRα and ABCA1, next to lovastatin, was observed in cells treated with 40 μg/mL of PPPs. These in vitro findings suggested that PPPs might have great potential in the clinic treatment of hyperlipemia.

  1. In vitro (United States)

    Youssefi, M R; Abouhosseini Tabari, M; Moghadamnia, A A


    In Iranian folk medicine Artemisia sieberi has been used for treatment of parasite infections in human and animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of A. sieberi essential oil (EO) against Trichomonas gallinae . Trichomonas gallinae were recovered by wet mount method from infected native pigeons. The in vitro assays were accomplished in multi-well plates containing metronidazole (MTZ) as a standard antitrichomonal and EO in final concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 μg/ml of culture medium containing 10 4 parasites. The in vivo assay was performed on 40 experimentally infected pigeons receiving 25 and 50 mg/kg of MTZ and EO for 7 successive days. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis was performed to reveal chemical constituents of the EO. At 20 µg/ml, MTZ resulted in no viable trophozoite in culture medium after 24 h incubation period. While the 24 h MIC of EO was 10 µg/ml. Treatment with EO at dose of 50 mg/kg after 4 days led to full recovery of infected pigeons but for MTZ at the same dose 5 days were spent. Major constituents of EO were α-thujone (31.5%) and β-thujone (11.92%). Data of the present study introduced A. sieberi as a natural potent antitrichomonal agent effective against T. gallinae .

  2. In vitro (United States)

    Maierl, Mario; Jörger, Michael; Rosker, Patrik; Reisner, Andreas


    Biofilm formation on catheters is thought to contribute to persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) which represent the most frequent nosocomial infections. Understanding of factors relevant for CAUTI pathogenesis and evaluation of new therapeutics or interference strategies requires a model system that mirrors the physico-chemical conditions prevailing in a catheterized human bladder. The described in vitro dynamic model of a catheterized bladder enables to emulate many of the characteristics of a catheterized human bladder albeit in the absence of a bladder epithelium. A minor modification compared to the original model system (Stickler, et al. , 1999) allows temperature maintenance of the top 10 cm of the catheter, thereby enabling reproducible monitoring of biofilm formation on the internal catheter surface.

  3. In vitro (United States)

    LuIs, Henrique Soares; Luis, Luis Soares; Bernardo, Mário


    Mouthrinses are used, by many of our patients, as a complement to daily dental hygiene routine. The use of a toothbrush and an interproximal cleaning method may not be enough to control dental plaque. Essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses are effective for the prevention of dental caries and gingivitis. To study the effect of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on dental plaque bacteria, an in vitro study was developed. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and aerobic and anaerobic dental plaque nonspecific bacteria. Samples of human dental plaque were collected from consenting participants and bacteria isolated. Disk-diffusion tests were performed to obtain the minimum concentration of the mouth rinses necessary to inhibit bacterial growth. The ability of the commercial mouth rinses to inhibit bacterial growth was studied in comparison to a positive control (0.2% chlorhexidine) and a negative laboratorial control (sterilized water). The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be inferior to the commercial essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses concentrations. Delmopinol and essential oils have significant antibacterial properties shown in vitro only for aerobic bacteria, and for S. mutans, Lactobacillus, and anaerobic bacteria, the results were not statistically significant. Essential oils and chlorhexidine are statistically similar and better than delmopinol for aerobic bacteria growth inhibition. For the other bacteria, essential oils and delmopinol are not statistically promising. Results show that essential oils only may help patients to maintain good oral health as a complement to daily brushing and interproximal cleaning.

  4. In Vitro (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J


    There is a paucity of efficacious antimicrobials (especially oral) against clinically relevant species of Nocardia To date, all species of Nocardia have been susceptible to linezolid, the first commercially available oxazolidinone. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with previously reported improved in vitro and in vivo (intracellular) potency against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium sp. and Nocardia brasiliensis Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-recommended broth microdilution method, 101 isolates of Nocardia spp., including 29 Nocardia cyriacigeorgica , 17 Nocardia farcinica , 13 Nocardia nova complex, 21 Nocardia brasiliensis , 5 Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis , and 5 Nocardia wallacei isolates and 11 isolates of less common species, were tested for susceptibility to tedizolid and linezolid. For the most common clinically significant species of Nocardia , tedizolid MIC 50 values were 0.25 μg/ml for N. nova complex, N. brasiliensis , N. pseudobrasiliensis , and N. wallacei , compared to linezolid MIC 50 values of 1, 2, 0.5, and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Tedizolid and linezolid MIC 90 values were 2 μg/ml for N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis Tedizolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values for both N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica were 0.5 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively, compared to linezolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values of 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Based on MIC 90 values, this study showed that tedizolid was 2- to 3-fold more active than linezolid in vitro against most common species of Nocardia , with the exception of the N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis , for which values were the same. These results may warrant evaluation of tedizolid as a potential treatment option for Nocardia infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove


    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  6. Meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Maria A.; Luyten, Johannes W.; Scheerens, Jaap; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Scheerens, J


    In this chapter results of a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analyses of three facets of time effects in education are presented, namely time at school during regular lesson hours, homework, and extended learning time. The number of studies for these three facets of time that could be used

  7. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith


    importance of particularized experiences and multiple ineequality agendas). These developments shape the way citizenship is both practiced and analysed. Mapping neat citizenship modles onto distinct nation-states and evaluating these in relation to formal equality is no longer an adequate approach...

  8. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof


    . Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set...

  9. Chromosome analyses in dogs. (United States)

    Reimann-Berg, N; Bullerdiek, J; Murua Escobar, H; Nolte, I


    Cytogenetics is the study of normal and abnormal chromosomes. Every species is characterized by a given number of chromosomes that can be recognized by their specific shape. The chromosomes are arranged according to standard classification schemes for the respective species. While pre- and postnatal chromosome analyses investigate the constitutional karyotype, tumor cytogenetics is focused on the detection of clonal acquired, tumor-associated chromosome aberrations. Cytogenetic investigations in dogs are of great value especially for breeders dealing with fertility problems within their pedigrees, for veterinarians and last but not least for the dog owners. Dogs and humans share a variety of genetic diseases, including cancer. Thus, the dog has become an increasingly important model for genetic diseases. However, cytogenetic analyses of canine cells are complicated by the complex karyotype of the dog. Only just 15 years ago, a standard classification scheme for the complete canine karyotype was established. For chromosome analyses of canine cells the same steps of chromosome preparation are used as in human cytogenetics. There are few reports about cytogenetic changes in non-neoplastic cells, involving predominantly the sex chromosomes. Cytogenetic analyses of different entities of canine tumors revealed that, comparable to human tumors, tumors of the dog are often characterized by clonal chromosome aberrations, which might be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. The integration of modern techniques (molecular genetic approaches, adaptive computer programs) will facilitate and complete conventional cytogenetic studies. However, conventional cytogenetics is still non-replaceable.

  10. Report sensory analyses veal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.


    On behalf of a client of Animal Sciences Group, different varieties of veal were analyzed by both instrumental and sensory analyses. The sensory evaluation was performed with a sensory analytical panel in the period of 13th of May and 31st of May, 2005. The three varieties of veal were: young bull,

  11. Filmstil - teori og analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    Filmstil påvirker på afgørende vis vores oplevelse af film. Men filmstil, måden, de levende billeder organiserer fortællingen på fylder noget mindre end filmens handling, når vi taler om film. Filmstil - teori og analyse er en rigt eksemplificeret præsentation, kritik og videreudvikling af...

  12. In Vitro (United States)

    Borges, Lucas Pereira; Ferreira-Filho, Julio Cesar Campos; Martins, Julia Medeiros; Alves, Caroline Vieira; Santiago, Bianca Marques; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim


    The purpose of this work was to verify in vitro adherence of E. corrodens and S. oralis to the surface of tongue piercings made of surgical steel, titanium, Bioplast, and Teflon. For this, 160 piercings were used for the count of Colony Forming Units (CFU) and 32 piercings for analysis under scanning electron microscopy. Of these, 96 (24 of each type) were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth and 50  μ L of inoculum at 37°C/24 h. The other 96 piercings formed the control group and were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth at 37°C/24 h. Plates were incubated at 37°C/48 h for counting of CFU/mL and data were submitted to statistical analysis ( p value steel showed lower bacterial adherence. The adherence of S. oralis differed among piercings, showing lower colonization ( p steel piercings. The four types of piercings were susceptible to colonization by E. corrodens and S. oralis , and bacterial adhesion was more significant in those made of Bioplast and Teflon. The piercings presented bacterial colonies on their surface, being higher in plastic piercings probably due to their uneven and rough surface.

  13. Dropped object protection analyses


    Nilsen, Ingve


    Master's thesis in Offshore structural engineering Impact from dropped object is a typical accident action (NOKSOK N-004, 2013). Hence, the DOP structure is to be analyzed in an accidental limit state (ALS) design practice, which means that a non-linear finite element analysis can be applied. The DOP structure will be based on a typical DOP structure. Several FEM analyses are performed for the DOP structure. Different shapes size and weights and various impact positions are used for si...

  14. IN VITRO (United States)

    Mothibe, Mmamosheledi Elsie; Kahler-Venter, Christinah; Osuch, Elżbieta


    Commercial herbal medicines (CHMs) being marketed as immune boosters or tonics, have gained widespread popularity. The many herbal mixtures sold have not been tested for efficacy and safety, despite their modern packaging and presentations. It is imperative that these herbal mixtures be investigated for their effects on human neutrophils. The selected herbal mixture (HM), Stametta ™ Body healing liquid, is common in retail outlets in Pretoria, South Africa (SA) and is used as an immune booster or intended to strengthen the body. Isolated neutrophils as well as those in whole blood phagocytes were obtained from blood samples collected from consenting healthy adult volunteers. The neutrophils were incubated with the HM at different strengths, and taken through a luminol-enhanced luminescence assay, using activators- phorbol myristate acetate and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. The HM had variable stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the luminescence activity of healthy isolated and non-isolated human neutrophils. The effects, ranging from weak to potent were either directly or inversely related to the concentration of the HM and were mediated through a direct protein kinase C activating mechanism and an indirect formyl peptide receptor-linked mechanism. The findings have shown the immunomodulatory potential of Stametta ™. The in vitro inhibitory and stimulatory effects on neutrophils which are furthermore time-based, suggest variable effects on the immune system, which may be beneficial as well as risky. The effects at different concentrations highlight the importance of appropriate dosing. It would therefore be prudent to caution users of this commercial herbal medicine accordingly.

  15. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies


    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  16. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)


    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  17. Analyse af elbilers forbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Torp, Kristian


    Denne rapport undersøger GPS og CAN bus datagrundlaget opsamlet ved kørsel med elbiler og analysere på elbilers forbrug. Analyserne er baseret på godt 133 millioner GPS og CAN bus målinger opsamlet fra 164 elbiler (Citroen C-Zero, Mitsubishi iMiev og Peugeot Ion) i kalenderåret 2012....... For datagrundlaget kan det konstateres, at der er behov for væsentlige, men simple opstramninger for fremadrettet at gøre det nemmere at anvende GPS/CAN bus data fra elbiler i andre analyser. Brugen af elbiler er sammenlignet med brændstofbiler og konklusionen er, at elbiler generelt kører 10-15 km/t langsommere på...

  18. In vitro (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Mahmoudvand, Hormoz; Oliaee, Razieh Tavakoli; Kareshk, Amir Tavakoli; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza


    This study investigates the scolicidal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil against the protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and its toxicity in the mice model. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analyses were used to identify the constituents of essential oil. Protoscoleces were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil (6.25-100 µL/mL) in each test tube for 5-30 min. The viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). Forty-eight male NMRI mice were also used to determine the toxicity of C. zeylanicum essential oil (0.5-4 mL/kg). The main components were found to be cinnamaldehyde (91.8%), ρ metoxicinamate (1.57%), and α pinene (1.25%). Findings indicate that C. zeylanicum essential oil with the concentrations of 100 and 50 µL/mL killed 100% of protoscoleces after 5 min of exposure. Also, the lower concentrations of C. zeylanicum essential oil motivated a late protoscolicidal effect. The LD 50 value of intraperitoneal injection of C. zeylanicum essential oil was 2.07 mL/kg body weight after 48 h, and the maximum nonfatal dose was 1.52 mL/kg body weight. The results also showed that there was no significant toxicity following oral administration of C. zeylanicum essential oil for 2 weeks. The results exhibited the favorable scolicidal activity of C. zeylanicum , which could be applied as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery. We evaluated the efficacy of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil against hydatid cyst protoscolecesThe viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining)Forty-eight male NMRI mice were also used to determine the toxicity of C. zeylanicum essential oilC. zeylanicum with potent scolicidal activity could be applied as a natural scolicidal agent in surgery. Abbreviations used: GC/MS: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis; CE: Cystic echinococcosis; LD50: Lethal dose 50%; I.p: Intraperitoneally.

  19. Spatiotemporal variation of the surface water effect on the groundwater recharge in a low-precipitation region: Application of the multi-tracer approach to the Taihang Mountains, North China (United States)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie


    Groundwater recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management, especially in low-precipitation regions. To determine comprehensive groundwater recharge processes in a catchment with large seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were conducted in the Wangkuai Reservoir watershed located in the Taihang Mountains, North China, during three different times of the year: beginning of the rainy season (June 2011), mid-rainy season (August 2012), and dry season (November 2012). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope and chemical analyses were conducted on the groundwater, spring water, stream water, and reservoir water of the Wangkuai Reservoir watershed. The results were processed using endmember mixing analysis to determine the amount of contribution of the groundwater recharging processes. Similar isotopic and chemical signatures between the surface water and groundwater in the target area indicate that the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and the Wangkuai Reservoir are the principal groundwater recharge sources, which result from the highly permeable geological structure of the target area and perennial large-scale surface water, respectively. Additionally, the widespread and significant effect of the diffuse groundwater recharge on the Wangkuai Reservoir was confirmed with the deuterium (d) excess indicator and the high contribution throughout the year, calculated using endmember mixing analysis. Conversely, the contribution of the stream water to the groundwater recharge in the mountain-plain transitional area clearly decreases from the beginning of the rainy season to the mid-rainy season, whereas that of the precipitation increases. This suggests that the main groundwater recharge source shifts from stream water to episodic/continuous heavy precipitation in the mid-rainy season. In other words, the surface water and precipitation commonly affect the groundwater recharge in the rainy season, whereas the

  20. Conjoint-Analyse und Marktsegmentierung


    Steiner, Winfried J.; Baumgartner, Bernhard


    Die Marktsegmentierung zählt neben der Neuproduktplanung und Preisgestaltung zu den wesentlichen Einsatzgebieten der Conjoint-Analyse. Neben traditionell eingesetzten zweistufigen Vorgehensweisen, bei denen Conjoint-Analyse und Segmentierung in zwei getrennten Schritten erfolgen, stehen heute mit Methoden wie der Clusterwise Regression oder Mixture-Modellen neuere Entwicklungen, die eine simultane Segmentierung und Präferenzschätzung ermöglichen, zur Verfügung. Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblic...

  1. Analyse des Organisations en Afrique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de celle-ci pourtenter d'identifier et d'élucider les dynamiques sociales qui s'y déroulent, puis de les examiner en rapport avec les stratégies d'acteurs et le contexte général (l'environnement) dans lequel évolue cette organisation, ... Et son Analyse. L'analyse des organisations est une démarche ancienne dont les ...

  2. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael


    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences......The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well...

  3. Beskrivende analyse af mekaniske systemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    Descriptive analysis is the activity, where a given product is analysed for obtaining insight into different aspects, leading to an explicit description of each of these aspects. This textbook is worked out for course 72101 Produktanalyse (Analysis of products) given at DTU.......Descriptive analysis is the activity, where a given product is analysed for obtaining insight into different aspects, leading to an explicit description of each of these aspects. This textbook is worked out for course 72101 Produktanalyse (Analysis of products) given at DTU....

  4. An extensible analysable system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof


    , this does not hold for real physical systems. Approaches such as threat modelling try to target the formalisation of the real-world domain, but still are far from the rigid techniques available in security research. Many currently available approaches to assurance of critical infrastructure security......Analysing real-world systems for vulnerabilities with respect to security and safety threats is a difficult undertaking, not least due to a lack of availability of formalisations for those systems. While both formalisations and analyses can be found for artificial systems such as software...

  5. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA. (United States)

    Paijmans, Johanna L A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael


    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well. To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has yielded major progress with regard to both the phylogenetic positions of extinct species, as well as resolving population genetics questions in both extinct and extant species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Descriptive Analyses of Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp


    Forord Produktanalyse og teknologianalyse kan gennmføres med et bredt socio-teknisk sigte med henblik på at forstå kulturelle, sociologiske, designmæssige, forretningsmæssige og mange andre forhold. Et delområde heri er systemisk analyse og beskrivelse af produkter og systemer. Nærværende kompend...

  7. Mitogenomic analyses of caniform relationships. (United States)

    Arnason, Ulfur; Gullberg, Anette; Janke, Axel; Kullberg, Morgan


    Extant members of the order Carnivora split into two basal groups, Caniformia (dog-like carnivorans) and Feliformia (cat-like carnivorans). In this study we address phylogenetic relationships within Caniformia applying various methodological approaches to analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes. Pinnipeds are currently well represented with respect to mitogenomic data and here we add seven mt genomes to the non-pinniped caniform collection. The analyses identified a basal caniform divergence between Cynoidea and Arctoidea. Arctoidea split into three primary groups, Ursidae (including the giant panda), Pinnipedia, and a branch, Musteloidea, which encompassed Ailuridae (red panda), Mephitidae (skunks), Procyonidae (raccoons) and Mustelidae (mustelids). The analyses favored a basal arctoid split between Ursidae and a branch containing Pinnipedia and Musteloidea. Within the Musteloidea there was a preference for a basal divergence between Ailuridae and remaining families. Among the latter, the analyses identified a sister group relationship between Mephitidae and a branch that contained Procyonidae and Mustelidae. The mitogenomic distance between the wolf and the dog was shown to be at the same level as that of basal human divergences. The wolf and the dog are commonly considered as separate species in the popular literature. The mitogenomic result is inconsistent with that understanding at the same time as it provides insight into the time of the domestication of the dog relative to basal human mitogenomic divergences.

  8. Evaluation "Risk analyses of agroparks"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, L.


    Dit TransForum project richt zich op analyse van de onzekerheden en mogelijkheden van agroparken. Dit heeft geleid tot een risicomodel dat de kwalitatieve en/of kwantitatieve onzekerheden van een agropark project in kaart brengt. Daarmee kunnen maatregelen en managementstrategiën worden

  9. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.


    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies...... three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto I plant in Finland...... with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power...

  10. The CAMAC logic state analyser

    CERN Document Server

    Centro, Sandro


    Summary form only given, as follows. Large electronic experiments using distributed processors for parallel readout and data reduction need to analyse the data acquisition components status and monitor dead time constants of each active readout module and processor. For the UA1 experiment, a microprocessor-based CAMAC logic status analyser (CLSA) has been developed in order to implement these functions autonomously. CLSA is a single unit CAMAC module, able to record, up to 256 times, the logic status of 32 TTL inputs gated by a common clock, internal or external, with a maximum frequency of 2 MHz. The data stored in the internal CLSA memory can be read directly via CAMAC function or preprocessed by CLSA 6800 microprocessor. The 6800 resident firmware (4Kbyte) expands the module features to include an interactive monitor, data recording control, data reduction and histogram accumulation with statistics parameter evaluation. The microprocessor memory and the resident firmware can be externally extended using st...

  11. Uncertainty in Operational Atmospheric Analyses and Re-Analyses (United States)

    Langland, R.; Maue, R. N.


    This talk will describe uncertainty in atmospheric analyses of wind and temperature produced by operational forecast models and in re-analysis products. Because the "true" atmospheric state cannot be precisely quantified, there is necessarily error in every atmospheric analysis, and this error can be estimated by computing differences ( variance and bias) between analysis products produced at various centers (e.g., ECMWF, NCEP, U.S Navy, etc.) that use independent data assimilation procedures, somewhat different sets of atmospheric observations and forecast models with different resolutions, dynamical equations, and physical parameterizations. These estimates of analysis uncertainty provide a useful proxy to actual analysis error. For this study, we use a unique multi-year and multi-model data archive developed at NRL-Monterey. It will be shown that current uncertainty in atmospheric analyses is closely correlated with the geographic distribution of assimilated in-situ atmospheric observations, especially those provided by high-accuracy radiosonde and commercial aircraft observations. The lowest atmospheric analysis uncertainty is found over North America, Europe and Eastern Asia, which have the largest numbers of radiosonde and commercial aircraft observations. Analysis uncertainty is substantially larger (by factors of two to three times) in most of the Southern hemisphere, the North Pacific ocean, and under-developed nations of Africa and South America where there are few radiosonde or commercial aircraft data. It appears that in regions where atmospheric analyses depend primarily on satellite radiance observations, analysis uncertainty of both temperature and wind remains relatively high compared to values found over North America and Europe.

  12. Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships. (United States)

    Arnason, U; Janke, A


    Reasonably correct phylogenies are fundamental to the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we present phylogenetic findings based on analyses of 67 complete mammalian mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The analyses, irrespective of whether they were performed at the amino acid (aa) level or on nucleotides (nt) of first and second codon positions, placed Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and their kin) as the sister group of remaining eutherians. Thus, the analyses separated Erinaceomorpha from other traditional lipotyphlans (e.g., tenrecs, moles, and shrews), making traditional Lipotyphla polyphyletic. Both the aa and nt data sets identified the two order-rich eutherian clades, the Cetferungulata (comprising Pholidota, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea) and the African clade (Tenrecomorpha, Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Sirenia). The study corroborated recent findings that have identified a sister-group relationship between Anthropoidea and Dermoptera (flying lemurs), thereby making our own order, Primates, a paraphyletic assembly. Molecular estimates using paleontologically well-established calibration points, placed the origin of most eutherian orders in Cretaceous times, 70-100 million years before present (MYBP). The same estimates place all primate divergences much earlier than traditionally believed. For example, the divergence between Homo and Pan is estimated to have taken place approximately 10 MYBP, a dating consistent with recent findings in primate paleontology. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses. (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran


    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  14. In-vitro diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.


    This review on in-vitro diagnostic methods focuses on the use of methods to perform risk assessment on foods. Based on the International Life Science Institute (ILSI) risk decision tree, the methods are discussed and three scenarios are suggested: (i) testing for a well-known allergen; (ii) testing...

  15. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall


    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  16. Statistical Analyses of Digital Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe


    Using statistical methods to analyse digital material for patterns makes it possible to detect patterns in big data that we would otherwise not be able to detect. This paper seeks to exemplify this fact by statistically analysing a large corpus of references in systematic reviews. The aim...... of the analysis is to study the phenomenon of non-citation: Situations where just one (or some) document(s) are cited from a pool of otherwise equally citable documents. The study is based on more than 120,000 cited studies, and a total number of non-cited studies of more than 1.6 million. The number of cited...... 10 years. After 10 years the cited and non-cited studies tend to be more similar in terms of age. Separating the data set into different sub-disciplines reveals that the sub-disciplines vary in terms of age of cited vs. non-cited references. Some fields may be expanding and the number of published...

  17. Analysing Scenarios of Cell Population System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vinogradova


    Full Text Available The article considers an isolated population system consisting of two types of human stem cells, namely normal cells and cells with chromosomal abnormalities (abnormal ones. The system develops in the laboratory (in vitro. The article analyses possible scenarios of the population system development, which are implemented for different values of its parameters. An investigated model of the cell population system takes into account the limited resources. It is represented as a system of two nonlinear differential equations with continuous right-hand part. The model is considered with non-negative values of the variables; the domain is divided into four sets. The model feature is that in each set the right part of the system of differential equations has a different form.The article analyses a quality of the rest points of the system in each of four sets. The analytical conditions for determination of the number of rest points and the quality of rest points, with, at least, one zero coordinate, are obtained.It is shown that the population system under study cannot have more than two points of rest, both coordinates of which are positive (non-zero. It is difficult to determine quality of such rest points depending on the model parameters due to the complexity of the expressions, which define the systems of the first approximation, recorded in a neighborhood of these points of rest. Numerical research results of the stability of these points of rest are obtained, and phase portraits with the specified specific values of the system parameters are demonstrated. The main scenarios for the cell population development are adduced. Analysis of mathematical model shows that a cell population system may remain the system consisting of populations of normal and abnormal cells; it can degenerate into a population of abnormal cells or perish. The scenario, in which there is only the population of normal cells, is not implemented. The numerical simulation

  18. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Natalia


    Full Text Available English as a second language (ESL teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to analyse English language subject textbooks written for secondary school students with the aim of gaining information about what bilingual secondary school students need to know in terms of language to process academic textbooks cannot avoiding deal with a dilemma. It needs to be decided which way it is most appropriate to analyse the texts in question. Handbooks of English applied linguistics are not immensely helpful with regard to this problem as they tend not to give recommendation as to which major text analytical approaches are advisable to follow in a pre-college setting. The present theoretical research aims to address this lacuna. Respectively, the purpose of this pedagogically motivated theoretical paper is to investigate two major approaches of ESP text analysis, the register and the genre analysis, in order to find the more suitable one for exploring the language use of secondary school subject texts from the point of view of an English as a second language teacher. Comparing and contrasting the merits and limitations of the two contrastive approaches allows for a better understanding of the nature of the two different perspectives of text analysis. The study examines the goals, the scope of analysis, and the achievements of the register perspective and those of the genre approach alike. The paper also investigates and reviews in detail the starkly different methods of ESP text analysis applied by the two perspectives. Discovering text analysis from a theoretical and methodological angle supports a practical aspect of English teaching, namely making an informed choice when setting out to analyse

  19. In vitro propagation of endangered Dianthus taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija


    Full Text Available The review of recent researches regarding the in vitro culture of 30 endangered Dianthus taxa is presented in this paper. Various in vitro protocols developed for selected rare and threatened Dianthus taxa are analysed in order to provide a useful synthesis of the data obtained with the main principles, techniques and recommendations for futher research and practice. The recapitulated data presented in this review can be used as a tool for the micropropagation of other endangered Dianthus taxa, enabling their propagation and obtaining a sufficient amount of plants for reintroduction. In addition, the obtained results represent the basis for ex situ conservation of the investigated taxa, especially for medium-term and long-term conservation (cryopreservation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  20. HGCal Simulation Analyses for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Sarah Marie


    This summer, I approached the topic of fast-timing detection of photons from Higgs decays via simulation analyses, working under the supervision of Dr. Adolf Bornheim of the California Institute of Technology. My specific project focused on simulating the high granularity calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. CMS detects particles using calorimeters. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal) is arranged cylindrically to form a barrel section and two “endcaps.” Previously, both the barrel and endcap have employed lead tungstate crystal detectors, known as the “shashlik” design. The crystal detectors, however, rapidly degrade from exposure to radiation. This effect is most pronounced in the endcaps. To avoid the high expense of frequently replacing degraded detectors, it was recently decided to eliminate the endcap crystals in favor of an arrangement of silicon detectors known as the “High Granularity Calorimeter” (HGCal), while leaving the barrel detector technology unchanged. T...

  1. Analysing performance through value creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TRIFAN


    Full Text Available This paper draws a parallel between measuring financial performance in 2 variants: the first one using data offered by accounting, which lays emphasis on maximizing profit, and the second one which aims to create value. The traditional approach to performance is based on some indicators from accounting data: ROI, ROE, EPS. The traditional management, based on analysing the data from accounting, has shown its limits, and a new approach is needed, based on creating value. The evaluation of value based performance tries to avoid the errors due to accounting data, by using other specific indicators: EVA, MVA, TSR, CVA. The main objective is shifted from maximizing the income to maximizing the value created for shareholders. The theoretical part is accompanied by a practical analysis regarding the creation of value and an analysis of the main indicators which evaluate this concept.

  2. Retorisk analyse af historiske tekster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J


    scholars who identify themselves as rhetoricians tend to define and conduct such an analysis. It is argued that while rhetoricians would sympathize with Skinner’s adoption of speech act theory in his reading of historical documents, they would generally extend their rhetorical readings of such documents......In recent years, rhetoric and the rhetorical tradition has attracted increasing interest from historians, such as, e.g., Quentin Skinner. The paper aims to explain and illustrate what may be understood by a rhetorical analysis (or “rhetorical criticism”) of historical documents, i.e., how those...... to many more features than just the key concepts invoked in them. The paper discusses examples of rhetorical analyses done by prominent contemporary rhetoricians, including Edwin Black, Kenneth Burke, Maurice Charland, and Michael Leff. It relates its view of rhetorical documents to trends in current...

  3. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.


    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  4. Analysing the Wrongness of Killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio


    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the wrongness of killing by comparing different versions of three influential views: the traditional view that killing is always wrong; the liberal view that killing is wrong if and only if the victim does not want to be killed; and Don Marquis‟ future...... of value account of the wrongness of killing. In particular, I illustrate the advantages that a basic version of the liberal view and a basic version of the future of value account have over competing alternatives. Still, ultimately none of the views analysed here are satisfactory; but the different...... reasons why those competing views fail provide important insights into the ethics of killing....

  5. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis


    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial...... standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  6. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA (United States)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Samara, Marilia; Hancock, Barry; Wicks, Robert; Moore, Tom; Rust, Duncan; Jones, Jonathan; Saito, Yoshifumi; Pollock, Craig; Owen, Chris; Rae, Jonny


    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves). A novel capability to time tag individual electron events during short intervals for the purposes of ground analysis of wave-particle interactions is also planned.

  7. Genetic analyses of captive Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) using AFLP analyses (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Bianchi, Kiara R.


    affected by the mutation rate at microsatellite loci, thus introducing a bias. Also, the number of loci that can be studied is frequently limited to fewer than 10. This theoretically represents a maximum of one marker for each of 10 chromosomes. Dominant markers like AFLP allow a larger fraction of the genome to be screened. Large numbers of loci can be screened by AFLP to resolve very small individual differences that can be used for identification of individuals, estimates of pairwise relatedness and, in some cases, for parentage analyses. Since AFLP is a dominant marker (can not distinguish between +/+ homozygote versus +/- heterozygote), it has limitations for parentage analyses. Only when both parents are homozygous for the absence of alleles (-/-) and offspring show a presence (+/+ or +/-) can the parents be excluded. In this case, microsatellites become preferable as they have the potential to exclude individual parents when the other parent is unknown. Another limitation of AFLP is that the loci are generally less polymorphic (only two alleles/locus) than microsatellite loci (often >10 alleles/locus). While generally fewer than 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci are enough to exclude and assign parentage, it might require up to 100 or more AFLP loci. While there are pros and cons to different methodologies, the total number of loci evaluated by AFLP generally offsets the limitations imposed due to the dominant nature of this approach and end results between methods are generally comparable. Overall objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of genetic diversity in the captive population of Alala, to compare genetic data with currently available pedigree information, and to determine the extent of relatedness of mating pairs and among founding individuals.

  8. Metabolomics Analyses of Cancer Cells in Controlled Microenvironments. (United States)

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Avizonis, Daina; St-Pierre, Julie


    The tumor microenvironment is a complex and heterogeneous milieu in which cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to fuel their growth. Cancer cell lines grown in vitro using traditional culture methods represent key experimental models to gain a mechanistic understanding of tumor biology. This protocol describes the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess metabolic changes in cancer cells grown under varied levels of oxygen and nutrients that may better mimic the tumor microenvironment. Intracellular metabolite changes, metabolite uptake and release, as well as stable isotope ((13)C) tracer analyses are done in a single experimental setup to provide an integrated understanding of metabolic adaptation. Overall, this chapter describes some essential tools and methods to perform comprehensive metabolomics analyses.

  9. Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of three Atriplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    hours. The percentage of leaf material was determined. Representative samples of the edible forage harvest were analysed for crude protein (CP) according to AOAC (2000), NDF according to Robertson & Van Soest. (1970) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) according to Tilley & Terry (1963) as modified by.

  10. Preparation and in-vitro cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FTIR results revealed coating of plant polyphenols on ZnO NPs surface while. XRD and EDS demonstrated the hexagonal structure of crystalline ZnO NPs. Dynamic light scattering. (DLS) and TEM analyses indicate hexagonal NPs with a mean particle size of 32 nm. In-vitro cytotoxicity data showed that the NPs exhibited ...

  11. Preparation and in-vitro cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation and in-vitro cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against osteoarthritic chondrocytes. ... FTIR results revealed coating of plant polyphenols on ZnO NPs surface while XRD and EDS demonstrated the hexagonal structure of crystalline ZnO NPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM analyses indicate ...

  12. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer in 90 couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% were analysed. Based on the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa the patients were divided into three groups: group A - normal morphological features 0 - 5%; group B - 6 ...

  13. Variability of in vitro and phenological behaviours of cocoa hybrids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivated cocoa species (Theobroma cacao L.) is originated from tropical rainforests of South and Central America. Its fermented and dried seeds constitute the raw material for the chocolate manufacture. In order to analyse the variability of the in vitro and phenological behaviours of 6 cocoa hybrids, the typological and ...

  14. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)


    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  15. Ergonomic analyses of downhill skiing. (United States)

    Clarys, J P; Publie, J; Zinzen, E


    The purpose of this study was to provide electromyographic feedback for (1) pedagogical advice in motor learning, (2) the ergonomics of materials choice and (3) competition. For these purposes: (1) EMG data were collected for the Stem Christie, the Stem Turn and the Parallel Christie (three basic ski initiation drills) and verified for the complexity of patterns; (2) integrated EMG (iEMG) and linear envelopes (LEs) were analysed from standardized positions, motions and slopes using compact, soft and competition skis; (3) in a simulated 'parallel special slalom', the muscular activity pattern and intensity of excavated and flat snow conditions were compared. The EMG data from the three studies were collected on location in the French Alps (Tignes). The analog raw EMG was recorded on the slopes with a portable seven-channel FM recorder (TEAC MR30) and with pre-amplified bipolar surface electrodes supplied with a precision instrumentation amplifier (AD 524, Analog Devices, Norwood, USA). The raw signal was full-wave rectified and enveloped using a moving average principle. This linear envelope was normalized according to the highest peak amplitude procedure per subject and was integrated in order to obtain a reference of muscular intensity. In the three studies and for all subjects (elite skiers: n = 25 in studies 1 and 2, n = 6 in study 3), we found a high level of co-contractions in the lower limb extensors and flexors, especially during the extension phase of the ski movement. The Stem Christie and the Parallel Christie showed higher levels of rhythmic movement (92 and 84%, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. In-vitro fertilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elder, Kay; Dale, Brian


    ... laboratory and the basic technologies in ART. Advanced techniques, including pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, vitrification and stem-cell technology, are comprehensively covered, providing up-to-date analyses of these groundbreaking technologies...

  17. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan


    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... incrementalizing a broad range of static analyses....

  18. In vitro evaluation of anti-diabetic activity and cytotoxicity of chemically analysed Ocimum basilicum extracts. (United States)

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in the anti-diabetic effects of methanol, hexane and dichloromethane extracts of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (OB) and to analyze their phytochemical composition. Phytochemical analysis of the three extracts by GC/MS using the silylation derivatization technique revealed 53 compounds, 17 of them were found for the first time in OB. Cytotoxic and anti-diabetic properties of the extracts were evaluated using L6-GLUT4myc muscle cells stably expressing myc epitope at the exofacial loop (GLUT4). No cytotoxic effects were observed in treated cells up to 0.25 mg/ml extract as measured with MTT and LDH-leakage assays. GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane was elevated by 3.5 and 7 folds (-/+ insulin) after treatment with OB extracts for 20 h. Our findings suggest that the observed anti-diabetic properties of OB extracts are possibly mediated in part through one or more of the 17 new identified compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional analyses of the digestive ß-Glucosidase of Formosan Subterranean Termites (Coptotermes formosanus) (United States)

    The research was to elucidate the function of the ß-glucosidase of Formosan subterranean termites in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that the gene transcript was relatively more abundant in the foraging worker caste than in other castes and salivary glands were the major ex...

  20. Evaluation of a Platelet Function Analyser (PFA-100) in patients with a bleeding tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuillemin, Walter A.; Gasser, K. atherina M.; Zeerleder, Sacha S.; Lämmle, Bernhard


    To investigate pre-analytical variables and the diagnostic performance of the platelet function analyser (PFA-100), a new device to test primary haemostasis in vitro by simulating platelet adhesion and aggregation under high shear stress. Venous whole citrated blood is aspirated through a capillary

  1. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.


    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  2. Nuclear medicine in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothfeld, B. (ed.)


    The subject is discussed under the following main headings: crystal scintillation counting; liquid scintillation counting; activation analysis; the in vitro nuclear medicine laboratory; blood volume in clinical practice B/sub 12/ and folate deficiency; radionuclide studies associated with abnormalities of iron; basic principles of competitive radioassay; plasma cortisol; radioimmunoassays for T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/; radioimmunoassay of estrogens; determination of androgens in biological fluids; radioimmunoassay of digitalis glycosides; growth hormone; thyrotropin; gonadotropins; radioimmunoassay of gastrin; glucagon; radioisotopic measurements of insulin; radioimmunoassay of the calcium-regulating hormones; the renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone; tumor antigens; fat absorption; protein-losing enteropathy; Australia antigen; bacteriologic cultures and sensitivities; and future pathways. (ERB)

  3. Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe


    Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....

  4. 10 CFR 61.13 - Technical analyses. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical analyses. 61.13 Section 61.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.13 Technical analyses. The specific technical information must also include the following analyses...

  5. In-vitro (United States)

    Karna, Sandeep


    Prostaglandins (PGs) have short existence in vivo because they are rapidly metabolized by NAD + -dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) to 15-ketoprostaglandins. Inhibition of 15-PGDH causes elevated level of PGE 2 in cellular system. It will be valuable for the therapeutic management of diseases requiring elevated PGE 2 levels, like wound healing. Ninety-eight plant samples were screened for the discovery of potent 15-PGDH inhibitor. Among them, top five plant extracts as potent 15-PGDH inhibitor were chosen to determine PGE 2 release from HaCaT (Keratinocyte cell line) cell line. Finally, top 15-PGDH inhibitor was selected to evaluate in vitro wound healing effect on HaCaT scratch model. The inhibitory activity for 15-PGDH inhibitors was evaluated using fluorescence spectrophotometer by measuring the formation of NADH at 468 nm following excitation at 340 nm. Cell viability assay and PGE 2 release was evaluated in HaCaT cell line after treatment of 15-PGDH inhibitors. Scratches were made using sterile 200 μL on HaCaT cell and wound-healing effect was evaluated after treatment of 15-PGDH inhibitor. 15-PGDH inhibitors elevated PGE 2 levels in concentration-dependent manner. Ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus (EEAH), the most potent 15-PGDH inhibitor (IC 50 = 0.62 µg/mL) with least cytotoxicity (IC 50 = 670 µg/ml), elevated both intracellular and extracellular PGE 2 levels. EEAH facilitated in-vitro wound healing in a HaCaT (Keratinocyte cell line) scratch model. EEAH might apply to treat dermal wounds by elevating PGE 2 levels via COX-1 induction and 15-PGDH inhibition. Biological inactivation of 15-PGDH causes elevated level of PGE 2 which will be useful for the management of disease that requires elevated level of PGE 2 . Abbreviations used: 15-PGDH: 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, COX: Cyclooxygenase, DTT: Dithiothreitol, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media, EEAH: Ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus, MRP4

  6. [Anne Arold. Kontrastive Analyse...] / Paul Alvre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvre, Paul, 1921-2008


    Arvustus: Arold, Anne. Kontrastive analyse der Wortbildungsmuster im Deutschen und im Estnischen (am Beispiel der Aussehensadjektive). Tartu, 2000. (Dissertationes philologiae germanicae Universitatis Tartuensis)

  7. In vitro (United States)

    Karuna, D S; Dey, Prasanta; Das, Shibu; Kundu, Amit; Bhakta, Tejendra


    The purpose of the study is to investigate potential of antioxidant property of ethanolic root extract of Asparagus racemosus Linn (EEAR). In vitro evaluation antioxidant property of EEAR was done using various methods like DPPH scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and nitric oxide scavenging activity. HPTLC fingerprint analysis was performed for qualitative determination of possible number of components from the ethanolic extract. Acute toxicity study was performed in Wistar rat and an OECD guideline 423 was followed. The yield value was found 0.96% from EEAR. A concentration of 468.57 ± 3.002 μg/ml of probable antioxidant material from EEAR was required to scavenge 50% of DPPH. The IC 50 value of EEAR were found to be 508.17 ± 7.37 μg and 416.57 ± 5.08 μg when determined by hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide scavenging assay respectively. The reducing powers of EEAR was 0.295 ± 0.0037 at 125 μg/ml and increased to 0.934 ± 0.0005 at 500 μg/ml. HPTLC fingerprint data supports several basic informations like isolation, purification, quality evaluation and standardization. No sign of toxicity was observed after treated with 2000 mg/kg of EEAR. The obtained data highlight the potential role of EEAR as a source of natural antioxidants.

  8. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization. (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.


    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  9. In vitro flowering of orchids. (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Kerbauy, Gilberto B; Zeng, Songjun; Chen, Zhilin; Duan, Jun


    Flowering is the most elusive and fascinating of all plant developmental processes. The ability to induce flowering in vitro in orchids would reduce the relatively long juvenile phase and provide deeper insight into the physiological, genetic and molecular aspects of flowering. This review synthesizes all available studies that have been conducted on in vitro flowering of orchids with the objective of providing valuable clues as to the mechanism(s) that is possibly taking place.

  10. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal


    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  11. Biofilms of vaginal Lactobacillus in vitro test. (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, Bing-Bing; Liao, Qin-Ping


    This paper focuses on biofilms of Lactobacillus spp. - a type of normal flora isolated from healthy human vaginas of women of childbearing age; thereupon, it broadens the research scope of investigation of vaginal normal flora. The static slide culture method was adopted to foster biofilms, marked by specific fluorescence staining. Laser scanning confocal and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the microstructure of the biofilms. Photographs taken from the microstructure were analysed to calculate the density of the biofilms. The body of Lactobacillus spp., though red, turned yellow when interacting with the green extracellular polysaccharides. The structure of the biofilm and aquaporin within the biofilm were imaged. Lactobacillus density increases over time. This study provides convincing evidence that Lactobacillus can form biofilms and grow over time in vitro. This finding establishes an important and necessary condition for selecting proper strains for the pharmaceutics of vaginal ecology.

  12. In vitro antidiabetic effect of Leptadenia hastata leaves fractions


    Ukwuani, Angela N.; Igbokwu, Maryann O.


    Leptadenia hastata (Pers.) Decne is often used traditionally for hypertension, catarrh, skin diseases, wound-healing and in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hydromethanolic leaves extracts of Leptadenia hastata were analysed for their phytochemical contents while its fractions were subjected to in vitro antidiabetic activity using non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin, increase in glucose uptake by yeast cell and α-amylase inhibition assays respectively. Phytochemical screening of L. ...

  13. Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballarini, Paolo; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Mura, Ivan


    Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking. In Proc. of the Second International Workshop "From Biology To Concurrency" (FBTC 2008), Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science......Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking. In Proc. of the Second International Workshop "From Biology To Concurrency" (FBTC 2008), Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science...

  14. New environmental metabarcodes for analysing soil DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Laura S.; Boessenkool, Sanne; Bellemain, Eva P.


    Metabarcoding approaches use total and typically degraded DNA from environmental samples to analyse biotic assemblages and can potentially be carried out for any kinds of organisms in an ecosystem. These analyses rely on specific markers, here called metabarcodes, which should be optimized for ta...

  15. Spectral analyses of asteroids' linear features (United States)

    Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Scully, J. E. C.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Capaccioni, F.; Tosi, F.; Zinzi, A.; Galiano, A.; Ammannito, E.; Filacchione, G.; Ciarniello, M.; Raponi, A.; Zambon, F.; Capria, M. T.; Erard, S.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Leyrat, C.; Dirri, F.; Nardi, L.; Raymond, C. A.


    Linear features are commonly found on small bodies and can have a geomorphic or tectonic origin. Generally, these features are studied by means of morphological analyses. Here we propose a spectroscopic analyses of linear features of different asteroids visited by space missions, in order to search for correspondence between spectral properties and origin of linear features.

  16. Random error in cardiovascular meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albalawi, Zaina; McAlister, Finlay A; Thorlund, Kristian


    BACKGROUND: Cochrane reviews are viewed as the gold standard in meta-analyses given their efforts to identify and limit systematic error which could cause spurious conclusions. The potential for random error to cause spurious conclusions in meta-analyses is less well appreciated. METHODS: We...

  17. Analyse de risques d'installations industrielles


    Pineau, Jean-Philippe


    L'analyse de risques industriels a été entreprise de longue date pour des industries où les accidents pouvaient avoir des effets catastrophiques : fabrication des explosifs, exploitation des mines de charbon, chimie, pétrole. Cette analyse a permis de mieux comprendre les phénomènes mis en jeu et leurs conséquences.

  18. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Powerful computers and dedicated software allow effective data mining and scientific analyses in astronomical plate archives. We give and discuss examples of newly developed algorithms for astronomical plate analyses, e.g., searches for optical transients, as well as for major spectral and brightness ...

  19. Level II Ergonomic Analyses, Dover AFB, DE (United States)


    IERA-RS-BR-TR-1999-0002 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE IERA Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover AFB, DE Andrew Marcotte Marilyn Joyce The Joyce...Project (070401881, Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover...1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1.1 Purpose Of The Level II Ergonomie Analyses : 1-1 1.2 Approach 1-1 1.2.1 Initial Shop Selection and Administration of the

  20. Comparison with Russian analyses of meteor impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.


    The inversion model for meteor impacts is used to discuss Russian analyses and compare principal results. For common input parameters, the models produce consistent estimates of impactor parameters. Directions for future research are discussed and prioritized.

  1. Cost-Benefit Analyses of Transportation Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter


    This paper discusses the practice of cost-benefit analyses of transportation infrastructure investment projects from the meta-theoretical perspective of critical realism. Such analyses are based on a number of untenable ontological assumptions about social value, human nature and the natural...... environment. In addition, main input data are based on transport modelling analyses based on a misleading `local ontology' among the model makers. The ontological misconceptions translate into erroneous epistemological assumptions about the possibility of precise predictions and the validity of willingness......-to-pay investigations. Accepting the ontological and epistemological assumptions of cost-benefit analysis involves an implicit acceptance of the ethical and political values favoured by these assumptions. Cost-benefit analyses of transportation investment projects tend to neglect long-term environmental consequences...

  2. Understanding Human Error Based on Automated Analyses (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a report on a continuing study of automated analyses of experiential textual reports to gain insight into the causal factors of human errors in aviation...

  3. Analyse of Maintenance Cost in ST

    CERN Document Server

    Jenssen, B W


    An analyse has been carried out in ST concerning the total costs for the division. Even though the target was the maintenance costs in ST, the global budget over has been analysed. This has been done since there is close relation between investments & consolidation and the required level for maintenance. The purpose of the analyse was to focus on maintenance cost in ST as a ratio of total maintenance costs over the replacement value of the equipment, and to make some comparisons with other industries and laboratories. Families of equipment have been defined and their corresponding ratios calculated. This first approach gives us some "quantitative" measurements. This analyse should be combined with performance indicators (more "qualitative" measurements) that are telling us how well we are performing. This will help us in defending our budget, make better priorities, and we will satisfy the requirements from our external auditors.

  4. Interactive graphics for functional data analyses. (United States)

    Wrobel, Julia; Park, So Young; Staicu, Ana Maria; Goldsmith, Jeff

    Although there are established graphics that accompany the most common functional data analyses, generating these graphics for each dataset and analysis can be cumbersome and time consuming. Often, the barriers to visualization inhibit useful exploratory data analyses and prevent the development of intuition for a method and its application to a particular dataset. The refund.shiny package was developed to address these issues for several of the most common functional data analyses. After conducting an analysis, the plot shiny() function is used to generate an interactive visualization environment that contains several distinct graphics, many of which are updated in response to user input. These visualizations reduce the burden of exploratory analyses and can serve as a useful tool for the communication of results to non-statisticians.

  5. Thermal Analyse sof Cross-Linked Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Polansky


    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results obtained during the structural analyses measurements (Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC, Thermogravimetry TG, Thermomechanical analysis TMA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR. The samples of cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation were tested via these analyses. The DSC and TG were carried out using simultaneous thermal analyzer TA Instruments SDT Q600 with connection of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer Nicolet 380. Thermomechanical analysis was carried out by TMA Q400EM TA Instruments apparatus.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (Euphorbiaceae). ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ... Une Analyse en Composantes Principales a été appliquée à la matrice .... valeur de la variable aléatoire normale pour un risque α égal à 0,05. La marge d'erreur d prévue pour tout paramètre à estimer à partir de l'enquête est de 3 %.

  7. A History of Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analyses (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne


    A history of the development of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses is presented. Comprehensive analyses are digital computer programs that calculate the aeromechanical behavior of the rotor and aircraft, bringing together the most advanced models of the geometry, structure, dynamics, and aerodynamics available in rotary wing technology. The development of the major codes of the last five decades from industry, government, and universities is described. A number of common themes observed in this history are discussed.

  8. [In vitro fertilization program in therapy of the sterile marriage. International status and personal experiences]. (United States)

    Sudik, R; Fliess, F R; Wilken, H


    A review is given about in vitro fertilization (IVF/ET) and embryo transfer in the treatment of sterile couples. Programmes of in vitro fertilization of successful international groups are analysed and discussed, especially the improvements of the method. These international reports were the basis of the programme of in vitro fertilization at women's hospital of the Wilhelm Pieck University at Rostock. The organization of the programme depends on local conditions. Treatment is performed in some so-called IVF-series. The results of the first and second series with 52 patients are reported. The only pregnancy during the second series was an ectopic pregnancy.

  9. Results of a diallel trial and a breeding experiment for in vitro aptitude in maize. (United States)

    Beckert, M; Qing, C M


    Some characteristics of in vitro culture of somatic tissues of maize were analysed by a diallel trial. Eight genetically different pure strains, chosen for their aptitudes, were used. The results show that there is considerable genetical variation for the characteristics of in vitro culture and that it should be possible to breed for aptitude to in vitro culture. The linear regression of hybrids on mid-parent reveals a significant heritability for such aptitude. Through selection we have improved plant regeneration after a long period of callus growth.

  10. In-vivo/in-vitro correlation of four extended release formulations of pseudoephedrine sulfate. (United States)

    Mojaverian, P; Rosen, J; Vadino, W A; Liebowitz, S; Radwanski, E


    An in-vivo/in-vitro correlation was established for four formulations of pseudoephedrine sulfate modified release tablets exhibiting different in-vivo and in-vitro release rate and absorption characteristics. In-vitro release rate data were obtained for 12 individual tablets of each formulation using the USP Apparatus 2 paddle stirrer at 50 rev min-1 in 1000 ml 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for the first hour followed by 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 for hours 2-16. Inspection of the individual and mean release rate data indicated that the in-vitro release rate of pseudoephedrine sulfate was consistent with the intended design of the four extended release formulations. The in-vivo bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of these formulations were evaluated in 20 healthy volunteers under fasted conditions. Wagner-Nelson analyses of the in-vivo data revealed extended release absorption profiles for all four formulations. Linear regression analyses of the mean percentage of dose absorbed versus the mean in-vitro release resulted in statistically significant correlations (r2 > 0.99, p < 0.0001) for each formulation. Qualitative rank order correlations were observed among all combinations of in-vivo and in-vitro parameters. These data support a Level A correlation between in-vivo absorption profiles and in-vitro release rates of four pseudoephedrine sulfate extended release formulations determined in fasted healthy volunteers.

  11. Anaesthesia for In Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Jain


    Full Text Available In vitro fertilization is an upcoming speciality. Anaesthesia during assisted reproductive technique is generally required during oocyte retrieval, which forms one of the fundamental steps during the entire procedure. Till date variety of techniques like conscious sedation, general anaesthesia and regional anaesthesia has been tried with none being superior to the other. However irrespective of the technique the key point of anaesthesia for in vitro fertilization is to provide the anaesthetic exposure for least duration so as to avoid its detrimental effects on the embryo cleavage and fertilization.

  12. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth


    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...... through the analysis of one of the earliest recorded examples of preschool education (initiated by J. F. Oberlin in northeastern France in 1767). The general idea of societal need is elaborated as a way of analysing practices, and a general analytic schema is presented for characterising preschool...

  13. Synthetic in vitro transcription circuits. (United States)

    Weitz, Maximilian; Simmel, Friedrich C


    With the help of only two enzymes--an RNA polymerase and a ribonuclease--reduced versions of transcriptional regulatory circuits can be implemented in vitro. These circuits enable the emulation of naturally occurring biochemical networks, the exploration of biological circuit design principles and the biochemical implementation of powerful computational models.

  14. Reassembly of somatic cells and testicular organogenesis in vitro. (United States)

    Reuter, Karin; Ehmcke, Jens; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Simoni, Manuela; Damm, Oliver S; Redmann, Klaus; Schlatt, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim


    Testicular organogenesis in vitro requires an environment allowing a reassembly of testicular cell types. Previous in vitro studies using male murine germ cells cultured in a defined three-dimensional environment demonstrated tubulogenesis and differentiation into spermatozoa. Combining scaffolds as artificial culture substrates with testicular cell culture, we analysed the colonization of collagen sponges by rat testicular cells focusing on cell survival and reassembly of tubule-like-structures in vitro. Isolated testicular cells obtained from juvenile Sprague Dawley and eGFP transgenic rats were cultured on collagen sponges (DMEM high glucose+Glutamax, 35°C, 5% CO2 with or without gonadotropins). Live cell imaging revealed the colonization of cells across the entire scaffold for up to 35 days. After two days, histology showed cell clusters attached to the collagen fibres and displaying signs of tubulogenesis. Clusters consisted mainly of Sertoli and peritubular cells which surrounded some undifferentiated spermatogonia. Flow cytometry confirmed lack of differentiation as no haploid cells were detected. Leydig cell activity was detected by a rise of testosterone after gonadotropin stimulation. Our approach provides a novel method which is in particular suitable to follow the somatic testicular cells in vitro an issue of growing importance for the analysis of germ line independent failure of spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe


    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...... in order to analyse the effect of different layouts on the flow characteristics. In particular, flow configurations going all the way through the structure were revealed. A couple of suggestions to minimize the risk for flow through have been tested....

  16. Power System Oscillatory Behaviors: Sources, Characteristics, & Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dosiek, Luke A. [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pierre, John W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)


    This document is intended to provide a broad overview of the sources, characteristics, and analyses of natural and forced oscillatory behaviors in power systems. These aspects are necessarily linked. Oscillations appear in measurements with distinguishing characteristics derived from the oscillation’s source. These characteristics determine which analysis methods can be appropriately applied, and the results from these analyses can only be interpreted correctly with an understanding of the oscillation’s origin. To describe oscillations both at their source within a physical power system and within measurements, a perspective from the boundary between power system and signal processing theory has been adopted.

  17. Subgroup analyses in cost-effectiveness analyses to support health technology assessments. (United States)

    Fletcher, Christine; Chuang-Stein, Christy; Paget, Marie-Ange; Reid, Carol; Hawkins, Neil


    'Success' in drug development is bringing to patients a new medicine that has an acceptable benefit-risk profile and that is also cost-effective. Cost-effectiveness means that the incremental clinical benefit is deemed worth paying for by a healthcare system, and it has an important role in enabling manufacturers to obtain new medicines to patients as soon as possible following regulatory approval. Subgroup analyses are increasingly being utilised by decision-makers in the determination of the cost-effectiveness of new medicines when making recommendations. This paper highlights the statistical considerations when using subgroup analyses to support cost-effectiveness for a health technology assessment. The key principles recommended for subgroup analyses supporting clinical effectiveness published by Paget et al. are evaluated with respect to subgroup analyses supporting cost-effectiveness. A health technology assessment case study is included to highlight the importance of subgroup analyses when incorporated into cost-effectiveness analyses. In summary, we recommend planning subgroup analyses for cost-effectiveness analyses early in the drug development process and adhering to good statistical principles when using subgroup analyses in this context. In particular, we consider it important to provide transparency in how subgroups are defined, be able to demonstrate the robustness of the subgroup results and be able to quantify the uncertainty in the subgroup analyses of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comparative Transcriptional Analyses of Francisella tularensis and Francisella novicida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva T Sarva

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is composed of a number of subspecies with varied geographic distribution, host ranges, and virulence. In view of these marked differences, comparative functional genomics may elucidate some of the molecular mechanism(s behind these differences. In this study a shared probe microarray was designed that could be used to compare the transcriptomes of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4 (Ftt, Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica OR960246 (Fth, Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS (LVS, and Francisella novicida U112 (Fn. To gain insight into expression differences that may be related to the differences in virulence of these subspecies, transcriptomes were measured from each strain grown in vitro under identical conditions, utilizing a shared probe microarray. The human avirulent Fn strain exhibited high levels of transcription of genes involved in general metabolism, which are pseudogenes in the human virulent Ftt and Fth strains, consistent with the process of genome decay in the virulent strains. Genes encoding an efflux system (emrA2 cluster of genes, siderophore (fsl operon, acid phosphatase, LPS synthesis, polyamine synthesis, and citrulline ureidase were all highly expressed in Ftt when compared to Fn, suggesting that some of these may contribute to the relative high virulence of Ftt. Genes expressed at a higher level in Ftt when compared to the relatively less virulent Fth included genes encoding isochorismatases, cholylglycine hydrolase, polyamine synthesis, citrulline ureidase, Type IV pilus subunit, and the Francisella Pathogenicity Island protein PdpD. Fth and LVS had very few expression differences, consistent with the derivation of LVS from Fth. This study demonstrated that a shared probe microarray designed to detect transcripts in multiple species/subspecies of Francisella enabled comparative transcriptional analyses that may highlight critical differences that underlie the relative


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it will be demonstrated that a phonological analysis (of the same phenome- non), based on verified phonetic data, ... rectness of phonetic data on which phonological analyses are eventually based. Or, seen from another angle, very seldom ...... An Introduction to Tswana Grammar. Longmans. Daniloff, R. & R. HalIIDlarberg: ...

  20. Quantitative analyses of shrinkage characteristics of neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative analyses of shrinkage characteristics of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) wood were carried out. Forty five wood specimens were prepared from the three ecological zones of north eastern Nigeria, viz: sahel savanna, sudan savanna and guinea savanna for the research. The results indicated that the wood ...

  1. Thermodynamic modeling to analyse composition of carbonaceous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermodynamic modeling to analyse composition of carbonaceous coatings of MnO and other oxides of manganese grown by MOCVD. SUKANYA DHAR†, A VARADE and S A SHIVASHANKAR. ∗. Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. †Mechanical Engineering Department ...

  2. Comparative sequence analyses of genome and transcriptome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dec 4, 2015 ... This work therefore provides a valuable resource to explore the immense research potential of comparative analyses of transcriptome .... species and identified domain architectures that are overrep- resented in elephants. 2. Methods. 2.1 Sample collection, extraction of nucleic acids and next-generation ...

  3. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for reproduction and stayability traits in a beef cattle herd. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The object of this study was to estimate heritabilities and sire breeding values for stayability and reproductive traits in a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using a ...

  4. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education. (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  5. Regression og geometrisk data analyse (2. del)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkkjær, Ulf


    Artiklen søger at vise, hvordan regressionsanalyse og geometrisk data analyse kan integreres. Det er interessant, fordi disse metoder ofte opstilles som modsætninger f.eks. som en modsætning mellem beskrivende og forklarende metoder. Artiklens første del bragtes i Praktiske Grunde 3-4 / 2007....

  6. Meta-analyses on viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian


    This article summarizes the meta-analyses of interventions for viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of the interventions assessed are described in small trials with unclear bias control. Other interventions are supported by large, high-quality trials. Although attempts have been made to adjust...

  7. En kvantitativ metode til analyse af radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lejre


    Full Text Available I den danske såvel som den internationale radiolitteratur er bud på metoder til analyse af radiomediet sparsomme. Det skyldes formentlig, at radiomediet er svært at analysere, fordi det er et medie, der ikke er visualiseret i form af billeder eller understøttet af printet tekst. Denne artikel har til formål at beskrive en ny kvantitativ metode til analyse af radio, der tager særligt hensyn til radiomediets modalitet – lyd struktureret som et lineært forløb i tid. Metoden understøtter dermed både radiomediet som et medie i tid og som et blindt medie. Metoden er udviklet i forbindelse med en komparativ analyse af kulturprogrammer på P1 og Radio24syv lavet for Danmarks Radio. Artiklen peger på, at metoden er velegnet til analyse af ikke kun radio, men også andre medieplatforme samt forskellige journalistiske stofområder.

  8. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Linear model methodology, such as Henderson's method III, has frequently been used for the analysis of discontinuous as well as continuous data (Olivier et al. 1998). This method of analysing discontinuous data with linear procedures is based on continuous phenotypic distributions and does not take the discontinuity of ...

  9. Uncertainty quantification approaches for advanced reactor analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, L. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division


    The original approach to nuclear reactor design or safety analyses was to make very conservative modeling assumptions so as to ensure meeting the required safety margins. Traditional regulation, as established by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission required conservatisms which have subsequently been shown to be excessive. The commission has therefore moved away from excessively conservative evaluations and has determined best-estimate calculations to be an acceptable alternative to conservative models, provided the best-estimate results are accompanied by an uncertainty evaluation which can demonstrate that, when a set of analysis cases which statistically account for uncertainties of all types are generated, there is a 95% probability that at least 95% of the cases meet the safety margins. To date, nearly all published work addressing uncertainty evaluations of nuclear power plant calculations has focused on light water reactors and on large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) analyses. However, there is nothing in the uncertainty evaluation methodologies that is limited to a specific type of reactor or to specific types of plant scenarios. These same methodologies can be equally well applied to analyses for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and to liquid metal reactors, and they can be applied to steady-state calculations, operational transients, or severe accident scenarios. This report reviews and compares both statistical and deterministic uncertainty evaluation approaches. Recommendations are given for selection of an uncertainty methodology and for considerations to be factored into the process of evaluating uncertainties for advanced reactor best-estimate analyses.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Ascorbic acid and microbiological analyses of extra - cotyledonous deposits of Pride of Barbados. (Caesalpina pulcherrima) stored at various temperatures were investigated. 2,6 - Dichlorophenolindophenol (dye) solution titration method was used in ascorbic acid determination while. Nutrient and Sabouraud agar were ...

  11. The Economic Cost of Homosexuality: Multilevel Analyses (United States)

    Baumle, Amanda K.; Poston, Dudley, Jr.


    This article builds on earlier studies that have examined "the economic cost of homosexuality," by using data from the 2000 U.S. Census and by employing multilevel analyses. Our findings indicate that partnered gay men experience a 12.5 percent earnings penalty compared to married heterosexual men, and a statistically insignificant earnings…

  12. Secundaire analyses organisatiebeleid psychosociale arbeidsbelasting (PSA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.O.; Houtman, I.L.D.


    Hoe het organisatiebeleid rond psychosociale arbeidsbelasting (PSA) eruit ziet anno 2014 en welke samenhang er is met ander beleid en uitkomstmaten, zijn de centrale vragen in dit onderzoek. De resultaten van deze verdiepende analyses kunnen ten goede komen aan de lopende campagne ‘Check je

  13. Chemical Analyses of Silicon Aerogel Samples

    CERN Document Server

    van der Werf, I; De Leo, R; Marrone, S


    After five years of operating, two Aerogel counters: A1 and A2, taking data in Hall A at Jefferson Lab, suffered a loss of performance. In this note possible causes of degradation have been studied. In particular, various chemical and physical analyses have been carried out on several Aerogel tiles and on adhesive tape in order to reveal the presence of contaminants.

  14. Three Bibliometric Analyses of Anthropology Literature. (United States)

    Hider, Philip M.


    Describes three bibliometric analyses of articles in the United Kingdom anthropology journal, "Man," focusing on forms of materials cited; relative age of cited publications; and presentation history of articles. Discusses the applicability of bibliometric studies to anthropology librarianship, outlining problems and benefits. (AEF)

  15. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof


    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  16. Microbiological And Physicochemical Analyses Of Oil Contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Microbiological And Physicochemical Analyses Of Oil Contaminated Soil From Major. Motor Mechanic Workshops In Benin City Metropolis,Edo State, Nigeria. EKHAISE, F O; NKWELLE, J. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: The ability of microorganisms ...

  17. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The object of this study was to estimate heritabilities and sire breeding values for stayability and reproductive traits in a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using a threshold model. A GFCAT set of programmes was used to analyse reproductive data. Heritabilities and product-moment correlations between.

  18. Comparison of veterinary import risk analyses studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos-de Jong, de C.J.; Conraths, F.J.; Adkin, A.; Jones, E.M.; Hallgren, G.S.; Paisley, L.G.


    Twenty-two veterinary import risk analyses (IRAs) were audited: a) for inclusion of the main elements of risk analysis; b) between different types of IRAs; c) between reviewers' scores. No significant differences were detected between different types of IRAs, although quantitative IRAs and IRAs

  19. Chemical Analyses of Silicon Aerogel Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Werf, I.; Palmisano, F.; De Leo, Raffaele; Marrone, Stefano


    After five years of operating, two Aerogel counters: A1 and A2, taking data in Hall A at Jefferson Lab, suffered a loss of performance. In this note possible causes of degradation have been studied. In particular, various chemical and physical analyses have been carried out on several Aerogel tiles and on adhesive tape in order to reveal the presence of contaminants.

  20. Grey literature in meta-analyses. (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Harris M; Rantz, Marilyn J


    In meta-analysis, researchers combine the results of individual studies to arrive at cumulative conclusions. Meta-analysts sometimes include "grey literature" in their evidential base, which includes unpublished studies and studies published outside widely available journals. Because grey literature is a source of data that might not employ peer review, critics have questioned the validity of its data and the results of meta-analyses that include it. To examine evidence regarding whether grey literature should be included in meta-analyses and strategies to manage grey literature in quantitative synthesis. This article reviews evidence on whether the results of studies published in peer-reviewed journals are representative of results from broader samplings of research on a topic as a rationale for inclusion of grey literature. Strategies to enhance access to grey literature are addressed. The most consistent and robust difference between published and grey literature is that published research is more likely to contain results that are statistically significant. Effect size estimates of published research are about one-third larger than those of unpublished studies. Unfunded and small sample studies are less likely to be published. Yet, importantly, methodological rigor does not differ between published and grey literature. Meta-analyses that exclude grey literature likely (a) over-represent studies with statistically significant findings, (b) inflate effect size estimates, and (c) provide less precise effect size estimates than meta-analyses including grey literature. Meta-analyses should include grey literature to fully reflect the existing evidential base and should assess the impact of methodological variations through moderator analysis.

  1. Radiation shielding analyses for JT-60SU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Neyatani, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Ishida, S.; Ashida, S.; Sawamura, H.; Tominaga, M.; Nishimura, K. [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)


    Radiation shielding analyses were done for JT-60 Super Upgrade (JT-60SU) of JAERI in Japan, and are reported here. From a viewpoint of the operation and the maintenance, it is important how accurately to evaluate the nuclear heating rate in the superconducting magnet and the activation of components around the vacuum vessel by irradiation of fusion neutrons. A boot-strapped calculation step was applied to the analyses to reduce the redundancy of the conservative in the results. The nuclear heating rate in the superconducting magnets and the maximum {gamma}-ray dose rate one month after shutdown in the cryostat were within the design limits of 2 mW/cc and 10 {mu}Sv/hr, respectively, in the nuclear shielding for a D-D neutron production rate of 1x10{sup 18} s{sup -1}. (author)

  2. Analyse om udviklingen i familieretlige konflikter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Mai Heide


    Formålet med denne analyse er at kortlægge, hvad man ud fra eksisterende datakilder og undersøgelser kan vurdere om omfanget og karakteren af danske skilsmisseforældres familieretlige konflikter i dag. Analysen kan betragtes som et forarbejde til og et grundlag for videre forskning om familieretl......Formålet med denne analyse er at kortlægge, hvad man ud fra eksisterende datakilder og undersøgelser kan vurdere om omfanget og karakteren af danske skilsmisseforældres familieretlige konflikter i dag. Analysen kan betragtes som et forarbejde til og et grundlag for videre forskning om...... familieretlige konflikter. Analysens tre hovedspørgsmål er: 1) Kan man ud fra befolkningsundersøgelser om skilsmisseudviklingen og om skilsmisseforældres konflikter og samarbejde vurdere, om børn i stigende omfang bliver omfattet af familieretlige konflikter? 2) Er der ud fra de familieretlige myndigheders...

  3. Analysing User Lifetime in Voluntary Online Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McHugh, Ronan; Larsen, Birger


    This paper analyses persuasion in online collaboration projects. It introduces a set of heuristics that can be applied to such projects and combines these with a quantitative analysis of user activity over time. Two example sites are studies, Open Street Map and The Pirate Bay. Results show that ...... that there is a correspondance between some features of site design and user participation patterns in the projects.......This paper analyses persuasion in online collaboration projects. It introduces a set of heuristics that can be applied to such projects and combines these with a quantitative analysis of user activity over time. Two example sites are studies, Open Street Map and The Pirate Bay. Results show...

  4. Pratique de l'analyse fonctionelle

    CERN Document Server

    Tassinari, Robert


    Mettre au point un produit ou un service qui soit parfaitement adapté aux besoins et aux exigences du client est indispensable pour l'entreprise. Pour ne rien laisser au hasard, il s'agit de suivre une méthodologie rigoureuse : celle de l'analyse fonctionnelle. Cet ouvrage définit précisément cette méthode ainsi que ses champs d'application. Il décrit les méthodes les plus performantes en termes de conception de produit et de recherche de qualité et introduit la notion d'analyse fonctionnelle interne. Un ouvrage clé pour optimiser les processus de conception de produit dans son entreprise. -- Idées clés, par Business Digest

  5. Analytical method used for PIXE analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassot, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24, Avenue des Landais, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Irigaray, J.L. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24, Avenue des Landais, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Terver, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Service d' Orthopedie et de Traumatologie, Chirurgie Plastique et Reconstructive II, Universite d' Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex (France); Vanneuville, G. [Faculte de Medecine, Laboratoire d' Anatomie, Universite d' Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex (France)


    Some metallic prostheses undergo physico-chemical modifications a few years after their implantation. The organism reaction leads to a corrosion process. Consequently, liberation of metallic debris or wear might be observed. The purpose of our analysis was to determine the importance, in surrounding tissues, of the contamination by metallic elements released from joint prosthesis and to localise it. We analysed two types of samples: the first ones were taken during surgical procedure and the other ones were extracted in post-mortem tissues. PIXE technique (Particles Induced X-ray Emission) with a 50 {mu}m proton beam and 3 MeV of energy is an efficient technique to analyse these tissues. We used it to determine qualitatively and quantitatively trace element contamination, and we have developed an analytical method based on the {chi} {sup 2} distribution to separate the different contributions of the different elements, to detect the possible correlation between these metallic elements.

  6. Introduction à l'analyse fonctionnelle

    CERN Document Server

    Reischer, Corina; Hengartner, Walter


    Fruit de la collaboration des professeur Walter Hengarther de l'Université Laval, Marcel Lambert et Corina Reischer de l'Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Introduction à l'analyse fonctionnelle se distingue tant par l'étendue de son contenu que par l'accessibilité de sa présentation. Sans céder quoi que ce soit sur la rigueur, il est parfaitement adapté à un premier cours d'analyse fonctionnelle. Tout en étant d'abord destiné aux étudiants en mathématiques, il pourra certes être utile aux étudiants de second cycle en sciences et en génie.

  7. Using ENSO to analyse Cloud Radiative Feedback (United States)

    Kolly, Allison; Huang, Yi


    When attempting to diagnose the climate sensitivity, clouds are the cause of much uncertainty as they are highly variable. There exists a discrepancy between climate models and observations on the sign and magnitude of cloud radiative feedback. For example, Dessler (2013) shows that models predict a very strong, positive feedback response to ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies in the central Pacific which is not present in observations. To better understand these discrepancies we are using radiation data from the CERES satellite and ERAi reanalysis data to look at the most recent El Nino events. By looking at temperature and humidity anomalies in the central Pacific which are associated with these events, and using radiative kernels, we can calculate their radiative effects. We extend previous work by not only performing an analysis of TOA but also analysing the surface and atmospheric radiation budgets. Additionally we analyse the latest GCMs (e.g. CMIP5 models) and compare them to observations.

  8. En Billig GPS Data Analyse Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Christiansen, Nick; Larsen, Niels T.


    Denne artikel præsenterer en komplet software platform til analyse af GPS data. Platformen er bygget udelukkende vha. open-source komponenter. De enkelte komponenter i platformen beskrives i detaljer. Fordele og ulemper ved at bruge open-source diskuteres herunder hvilke IT politiske tiltage, der...... organisationer med et digitalt vejkort og GPS data begynde at lave trafikanalyser på disse data. Det er et krav, at der er passende IT kompetencer tilstede i organisationen....

  9. Analysing qualitative research data using computer software. (United States)

    McLafferty, Ella; Farley, Alistair H

    An increasing number of clinical nurses are choosing to undertake qualitative research. A number of computer software packages are available designed for the management and analysis of qualitative data. However, while it is claimed that the use of these programs is also increasing, this claim is not supported by a search of recent publications. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using computer software packages to manage and analyse qualitative data.

  10. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea


    Full Text Available This paper is the second part of our bird ringing data analyses series (Harnos et al. 2015a in which we continue to focus on exploring data using the R software. We give a short description of data distributions and the measures of data spread and explain how to obtain basic descriptive statistics. We show how to detect and select one and two dimensional outliers and explain how to treat these in case of avian ringing data.

  11. Inelastic and Dynamic Fracture and Stress Analyses (United States)

    Atluri, S. N.


    Large deformation inelastic stress analysis and inelastic and dynamic crack propagation research work is summarized. The salient topics of interest in engine structure analysis that are discussed herein include: (1) a path-independent integral (T) in inelastic fracture mechanics, (2) analysis of dynamic crack propagation, (3) generalization of constitutive relations of inelasticity for finite deformations , (4) complementary energy approaches in inelastic analyses, and (5) objectivity of time integration schemes in inelastic stress analysis.

  12. Rotational distortion in conventional allometric analyses. (United States)

    Packard, Gary C


    Three data sets from the recent literature were submitted to new analyses to illustrate the rotational distortion that commonly accompanies traditional allometric analyses and that often causes allometric equations to be inaccurate and misleading. The first investigation focused on the scaling of evaporative water loss to body mass in passerine birds; the second was concerned with the influence of body size on field metabolic rates of rodents; and the third addressed interspecific variation in kidney mass among primates. Straight lines were fitted to logarithmic transformations by Ordinary Least Squares and Generalized Linear Models, and the resulting equations then were re-expressed as two-parameter power functions in the original arithmetic scales. The re-expressed models were displayed on bivariate graphs together with tracings for equations fitted directly to untransformed data by nonlinear regression. In all instances, models estimated by back-transformation failed to describe major features of the arithmetic distribution whereas equations fitted by nonlinear regression performed quite well. The poor performance of equations based on models fitted to logarithms can be traced to the increased weight and leverage exerted in those analyses by observations for small species and to the decreased weight and leverage exerted by large ones. The problem of rotational distortion can be avoided by performing exploratory analysis on untransformed values and by validating fitted models in the scale of measurement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Renforcement de l'analyse sociale et de l'analyse sexospécifique en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EGRN dans la région MOAN ... Le projet devrait permettre de constituer une solide base de chercheurs rompus à l'analyse sociale et à l'analyse sexospécifique, d'améliorer les moyens de ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  14. Allometric scaling in-vitro (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Arti


    About two decades ago, West and coworkers established a model which predicts that metabolic rate follows a three quarter power relationship with the mass of an organism, based on the premise that tissues are supplied nutrients through a fractal distribution network. Quarter power scaling is widely considered a universal law of biology and it is generally accepted that were in-vitro cultures to obey allometric metabolic scaling, they would have more predictive potential and could, for instance, provide a viable substitute for animals in research. This paper outlines a theoretical and computational framework for establishing quarter power scaling in three-dimensional spherical constructs in-vitro, starting where fractal distribution ends. Allometric scaling in non-vascular spherical tissue constructs was assessed using models of Michaelis Menten oxygen consumption and diffusion. The models demonstrate that physiological scaling is maintained when about 5 to 60% of the construct is exposed to oxygen concentrations less than the Michaelis Menten constant, with a significant concentration gradient in the sphere. The results have important implications for the design of downscaled in-vitro systems with physiological relevance.

  15. In vitro wound healing activity of luteolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bayrami


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Luteolin (3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxy flavone is one of the most common flavones, which is naturally found in several edible plants and traditional medicine. It is known as a non-toxic compound with anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, and antiangiogenic properties. Luteolin has antiproliferative activity against different human hormone dependent cancer cells e.g. breast, prostate, and thyroid. Due to its bacteriostatic properties  and strong antioxidant potential, luteolin is valuable in the management of diverse diseases including peptic ulcers. There are some evidences on wound healing effect of luteolin on diabetic rats and in this work, an in vitro model of wound healing was used to study the wound healing effect of luteolin. Methods: Different concentrations of luteolin were applied in MTT and scratch assay on 3T3 fibroblast cells. FBS-free medium was used as the negative control. Cell proliferation and migration during scratch contraction was calculated. Annexin V and cell cycle analyses were performed to study the effect of luteolin on cell proliferation. Result: The results showed that, scratch contraction was observed significantly (p

  16. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.T. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Huang, L.F. [School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lu, P.S.; Chang, H.F. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, I.L., E-mail: [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang-Hua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)


    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  17. In silico study of in vitro GPCR assays by QSAR modeling (United States)

    The U.S. EPA is screening thousands of chemicals of environmental interest in hundreds of in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays (the ToxCast program). One goal is to prioritize chemicals for more detailed analyses based on activity in molecular initiating events (MIE) o...

  18. In Vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from the leaves of Abies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, the leaves of Abies pindrow Royle are employed as an ayurvedic remedy for fever, hypoglycaemic, respiratory and inflammatory conditions. In this study, dichloromethane, methanol and acetone extracts of A. pindrow leaves were analysed for their phytochemical content and in vitro antioxidant activities.

  19. [Research methods in dentistry. 6. In vivo and in vitro methods for studying caries lesion progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.; Thomas, R.Z.


    This paper describes some of the most used methods for caries lesion progression measurement in in vivo and in vitro research. Clinical measurements are usually limited to visual inspection. Currently available scoring systems and statistical analyses, making use of changes in lesion stage, have the

  20. Stable isotopic analyses in paleoclimatic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigand, P.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Most traditional paleoclimatic proxy data have inherent time lags between climatic input and system response that constrain their use in accurate reconstruction of paleoclimate chronology, scaling of its variability, and the elucidation of the processes that determine its impact on the biotic and abiotic environment. With the exception of dendroclimatology, and studies of short-lived organisms and pollen recovered from annually varved lacustrine sediments, significant periods of time ranging from years, to centuries, to millennia may intervene between climate change and its first manifestation in paleoclimatic proxy data records. Reconstruction of past climate through changes in plant community composition derived from pollen sequences and plant remains from ancient woodrat middens, wet environments and dry caves all suffer from these lags. However, stable isotopic analyses can provide more immediate indication of biotic response to climate change. Evidence of past physiological response of organisms to changes in effective precipitation as climate varies can be provided by analyses of the stable isotopic content of plant macrofossils from various contexts. These analyses consider variation in the stable isotopic (hydrogen, oxygen and carbon) content of plant tissues as it reflects (1) past global or local temperature through changes in meteoric (rainfall) water chemistry in the case of the first two isotopes, and (2) plant stress through changes in plant respiration/transpiration processes under differing water availability, and varying atmospheric CO, composition (which itself may actually be a net result of biotic response to climate change). Studies currently being conducted in the Intermountain West indicate both long- and short-term responses that when calibrated with modem analogue studies have the potential of revealing not only the timing of climate events, but their direction, magnitude and rapidity.

  1. Modelling and Analysing Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Nielson, Flemming


    and assessing attacks. In our work we model all relevant levels of socio-technical systems, and propose evaluation techniques for analysing the security properties of the model. Our approach simplifies the identification of possible attacks and provides qualified assessment and ranking of attacks based...... on the expected impact. We demonstrate our approach on a home-payment system. The system is specifically designed to help elderly or disabled people, who may have difficulties leaving their home, to pay for some services, e.g., care-taking or rent. The payment is performed using the remote control of a television...

  2. Deux perspectives pour analyser les relations professionnelles


    Dunlop, John T.; Whyte, William F.; Mias, Arnaud


    Cet article est la traduction d’un article paru dans la revue Industrial and Labor Relations Review, qui fait suite à un débat organisé à l’université de Princeton au début de l’année 1949, entre William Foote Whyte (1914-2000) et John Thomas Dunlop (1914-2003) à propos du cadre d’analyse des relations professionnelles (Industrial Relations), qui font alors l’objet de recherches de plus en plus nombreuses aux Etats-Unis. Cette controverse entre l’un des chefs de file du mouvement des “relatio...

  3. Externalizing Behaviour for Analysing System Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof


    , if not impossible task to change behaviours. Especially when considering social engineering or the human factor in general, the ability to use different kinds of behaviours is essential. In this work we present an approach to make the behaviour a separate component in system models, and explore how to integrate...... attackers. Therefore, many attacks are considerably easier to be performed for insiders than for outsiders. However, current models do not support explicit specification of different behaviours. Instead, behaviour is deeply embedded in the analyses supported by the models, meaning that it is a complex...

  4. Analysing human genomes at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Siyang

    genotypes in the Danish Genetics of Overweight Young Adults (GOYA) obesity cohort and prove the clinical usage of the Danish reference panel in genomewide association studies. In the second project, we have collected ultra-low depth sequencing data of more than 140, 000 Chinese pregnant women. We developed...... and applied novel methods to analysing the data that are accumulating rapidly and now reach millions of sample scale. We show that we are able to discover mutations with allele frequencies down to around 0.2% and to explore fine-scale population structure and ancestry across the 31 administrative divisions...

  5. Visuelle Analyse von Eye-Tracking-Daten


    Chen, Xuemei


    Eye-Tracking ist eine der am häufigsten eingesetzten Techniken zur Analyse der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion sowie zur Untersuchung der Perzeption. Die erfassten Eye-Tracking-Daten werden meist mit Heat-Maps oder Scan-Paths analysiert, um die Usability der getesteten Anwendung zu ermitteln oder auf höhere kognitive Prozesse zu schließen. Das Ziel dieser Diplomarbeit ist die Entwicklung neuer Visualisierungstechniken für Eye-Tracking-Daten beziehungsweise die Entwicklung eines Studienkonzepts...

  6. Method of performing computational aeroelastic analyses (United States)

    Silva, Walter A. (Inventor)


    Computational aeroelastic analyses typically use a mathematical model for the structural modes of a flexible structure and a nonlinear aerodynamic model that can generate a plurality of unsteady aerodynamic responses based on the structural modes for conditions defining an aerodynamic condition of the flexible structure. In the present invention, a linear state-space model is generated using a single execution of the nonlinear aerodynamic model for all of the structural modes where a family of orthogonal functions is used as the inputs. Then, static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions are generated using computational interaction between the mathematical model and the linear state-space model for a plurality of periodic points in time.

  7. En analyse av Yoga-kundalini-upanisad


    Martinsen, Fred


    Avhandlingen En analyse av Yoga-kundalini-upanisad bygger på den indiske asketen Narayanaswamy Aiyers engelske oversettelse av Yoga-kundalini-upanisad, utgitt i Thirty Minor Upanisad-s, Including the Yoga Upanisad-s (Oklahoma, Santarasa Publications, 1980). Denne hinduistiske teksten er omtalt som en av de 21 yoga-upanishadene, den åttisjette av de 108 klassiske upanishadene, og utgjør en del av tekstkorpuset Krsna-Yajurveda. Teksten fungerer som en manual i øvelser fra disiplinene hathayoga,...

  8. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua


    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  9. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea


    Full Text Available Bird ringing datasets constitute possibly the largest source of temporal and spatial information on vertebrate taxa available on the globe. Initially, the method was invented to understand avian migration patterns. However, data deriving from bird ringing has been used in an array of other disciplines including population monitoring, changes in demography, conservation management and to study the effects of climate change to name a few. Despite the widespread usage and importance, there are no guidelines available specifically describing the practice of data management, preparation and analyses of ringing datasets. Here, we present the first of a series of comprehensive tutorials that may help fill this gap. We describe in detail and through a real-life example the intricacies of data cleaning and how to create a data table ready for analyses from raw ringing data in the R software environment. Moreover, we created and present here the R package; ringR, designed to carry out various specific tasks and plots related to bird ringing data. Most methods described here can also be applied to a wide range of capture-recapture type data based on individual marking, regardless to taxa or research question.

  10. Autisme et douleur – analyse bibliographique (United States)

    Dubois, Amandine; Rattaz, Cécile; Pry, René; Baghdadli, Amaria


    La présente analyse bibliographique a pour objectif de réaliser un bilan des travaux publiés dans le champ de la douleur et de l’autisme. L’article aborde, dans un premier temps, les études publiées concernant les modes d’expression de la douleur observés dans cette population. Différentes hypothèses permettant d’expliquer les particularités expressives des personnes avec autisme sont ensuite passées en revue : excès d’endorphines, particularités dans le traitement sensoriel, déficit sociocommunicatif. Cette analyse bibliographique aborde, pour terminer, la question de l’évaluation et de la prise en compte de la douleur chez les personnes avec autisme. Les auteurs concluent à l’absence d’homogénéité des résultats des études publiées et au besoin de poursuivre les recherches afin de parvenir à des données consensuelles sur un domaine d’étude encore peu exploité au plan scientifique. Sur un plan clinique, l’approfondissement des connaissances dans ce domaine devrait permettre de mettre au point des outils d’évaluation de la douleur et d’ainsi en assurer une meilleure prise en charge au quotidien. PMID:20808970

  11. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Corrosion damage that has been found in a number of nuclear power plant containment structures can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. This has prompted concerns regarding the capacity of corroded containments to withstand accident loadings. To address these concerns, finite element analyses have been performed for a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment structure. Using ABAQUS, the pressure capacity was calculated for a typical vessel with no corrosion damage. Multiple analyses were then performed with the location of the corrosion and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis. Using a strain-based failure criterion, a {open_quotes}lower bound{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes}, and {open_quotes}upper bound{close_quotes} failure level was predicted for each case. These limits were established by: determining the amount of variability that exists in material properties of typical containments, estimating the amount of uncertainty associated with the level of modeling detail and modeling assumptions, and estimating the effect of corrosion on the material properties.

  12. Post hoc analyses: after the facts. (United States)

    Srinivas, Titte R; Ho, Bing; Kang, Joseph; Kaplan, Bruce


    Prospective clinical trials are constructed with high levels of internal validity. Sample size and power considerations usually address primary endpoints. Primary endpoints have traditionally included events that are becoming increasingly less common and thus have led to growing use of composite endpoints and noninferiority trial designs in transplantation. This approach may mask real clinical benefit in one or the other domain with regard to either clinically relevant secondary endpoints or other unexpected findings. In addition, endpoints solely chosen based on power considerations are prone to misjudgment of actual treatment effect size as well as consistency of that effect. In the instances where treatment effects may have been underestimated, valuable information may be lost if buried within a composite endpoint. In all these cases, analyses and post hoc analyses of data become relevant in informing practitioners about clinical benefits or safety signals that may not be captured by the primary endpoint. On the other hand, there are many pitfalls in using post hoc determined endpoints. This short review is meant to allow readers to appreciate post hoc analysis not as an entity with a single approach, but rather as an analysis with unique limitations and strengths that often raise new questions to be addressed in further inquiries.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, W. O.; Yunker, W. H.; Scott, F. A.


    BNWL-1407 summarizes information gained from the Chemical Analyses of Sodium Systems Program pursued by Battelle- Northwest over the period from July 1967 through June 1969. Tasks included feasibility studies for performing coulometric titration and polarographic determinations of oxygen in sodium, and the development of new separation techniques for sodium impurities and their subsequent analyses. The program was terminated ahead of schedule so firm conclusions were not obtained in all areas of the work. At least 40 coulometric titrations were carried out and special test cells were developed for coulometric application. Data indicated that polarographic measurements are theoretically feasible, but practical application of the method was not verified. An emission spectrographic procedure for trace metal impurities was developed and published. Trace metal analysis by a neutron activation technique was shown to be feasible; key to the success of the activation technique was the application of a new ion exchange resin which provided a sodium separation factor of 10{sup 11}. Preliminary studies on direct scavenging of trace metals produced no conclusive results.

  14. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. R. Soelberg


    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  15. Analyser Framework to Verify Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack


    Full Text Available Today, it is important for software companies to build software systems in a short time-interval, to reduce costs and to have a good market position. Therefore well organized and systematic development approaches are required. Reusing software components, which are well tested, can be a good solution to develop software applications in effective manner. The reuse of software components is less expensive and less time consuming than a development from scratch. But it is dangerous to think that software components can be match together without any problems. Software components itself are well tested, of course, but even if they composed together problems occur. Most problems are based on interaction respectively communication. Avoiding such errors a framework has to be developed for analysing software components. That framework determines the compatibility of corresponding software components. The promising approach discussed here, presents a novel technique for analysing software components by applying an Abstract Syntax Language Tree (ASLT. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components. This article is concerned to the question how can be coupled software components verified by using an analyzer framework and determines the usage of the ASLT. Black-box Software Components and Abstract Syntax Language Tree are the basis for developing the proposed framework and are discussed here to provide the background knowledge. The practical implementation of this framework is discussed and shows the result by using a test environment.

  16. Sensitivity in risk analyses with uncertain numbers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, W. Troy; Ferson, Scott


    Sensitivity analysis is a study of how changes in the inputs to a model influence the results of the model. Many techniques have recently been proposed for use when the model is probabilistic. This report considers the related problem of sensitivity analysis when the model includes uncertain numbers that can involve both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and the method of calculation is Dempster-Shafer evidence theory or probability bounds analysis. Some traditional methods for sensitivity analysis generalize directly for use with uncertain numbers, but, in some respects, sensitivity analysis for these analyses differs from traditional deterministic or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. A case study of a dike reliability assessment illustrates several methods of sensitivity analysis, including traditional probabilistic assessment, local derivatives, and a ''pinching'' strategy that hypothetically reduces the epistemic uncertainty or aleatory uncertainty, or both, in an input variable to estimate the reduction of uncertainty in the outputs. The prospects for applying the methods to black box models are also considered.

  17. Bioinformatics tools for analysing viral genomic data. (United States)

    Orton, R J; Gu, Q; Hughes, J; Maabar, M; Modha, S; Vattipally, S B; Wilkie, G S; Davison, A J


    The field of viral genomics and bioinformatics is experiencing a strong resurgence due to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology, which enables the rapid and cost-effective sequencing and subsequent assembly of large numbers of viral genomes. In addition, the unprecedented power of HTS technologies has enabled the analysis of intra-host viral diversity and quasispecies dynamics in relation to important biological questions on viral transmission, vaccine resistance and host jumping. HTS also enables the rapid identification of both known and potentially new viruses from field and clinical samples, thus adding new tools to the fields of viral discovery and metagenomics. Bioinformatics has been central to the rise of HTS applications because new algorithms and software tools are continually needed to process and analyse the large, complex datasets generated in this rapidly evolving area. In this paper, the authors give a brief overview of the main bioinformatics tools available for viral genomic research, with a particular emphasis on HTS technologies and their main applications. They summarise the major steps in various HTS analyses, starting with quality control of raw reads and encompassing activities ranging from consensus and de novo genome assembly to variant calling and metagenomics, as well as RNA sequencing.

  18. Boosting Immune Responses Against Bacterial Pathogens: In Vitro Analysis of Immunomodulators (In Vitro Analyse van de Stimulerende Werking van Verschillende Stoffen op het Immuunsysteem) (United States)


    ontwikkelingen wereldwijd geven tegen een breed scala aan bacteri n en combinatie de immunrespons die vervolgens duidelijk aan dat de dreiging van...cM2) Bacillus anthracis NCTC 10340 3 000 Escherichia coli 0157:H7 HLO/ Hospital 3 000 MRSA HLO/ Hospital 10 000 Vibrio cholerae Slotervaart Hospital 1...interacties. Om deze redenen Vibrio cholerae en MRSA. lijkt een meer generieke aanpak waarmnee de De immiuunmodulerende werking werd effeLten van een groot

  19. Method for in vitro recombination (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel Glenn; Smith, Hamilton O


    The present invention relates to an in vitro method, using isolated protein reagents, for joining two double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules of interest, wherein the distal region of the first DNA molecule and the proximal region of the second DNA molecule share a region of sequence identity. The method allows the joining of a number of DNA fragments, in a predetermined order and orientation, without the use of restriction enzymes. It can be used, e.g., to join synthetically produced sub-fragments of a gene or genome of interest.

  20. Pathway analyses implicate glial cells in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie E Duncan

    Full Text Available The quest to understand the neurobiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is ongoing with multiple lines of evidence indicating abnormalities of glia, mitochondria, and glutamate in both disorders. Despite high heritability estimates of 81% for schizophrenia and 75% for bipolar disorder, compelling links between findings from neurobiological studies, and findings from large-scale genetic analyses, are only beginning to emerge.Ten publically available gene sets (pathways related to glia, mitochondria, and glutamate were tested for association to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using MAGENTA as the primary analysis method. To determine the robustness of associations, secondary analyses were performed with: ALIGATOR, INRICH, and Set Screen. Data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC were used for all analyses. There were 1,068,286 SNP-level p-values for schizophrenia (9,394 cases/12,462 controls, and 2,088,878 SNP-level p-values for bipolar disorder (7,481 cases/9,250 controls.The Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia, after correction for multiple tests, according to primary analysis (MAGENTA p = 0.0005, 75% requirement for individual gene significance and also achieved nominal levels of significance with INRICH (p = 0.0057 and ALIGATOR (p = 0.022. For bipolar disorder, Set Screen yielded nominally and method-wide significant associations to all three glial pathways, with strongest association to the Glia-Astrocyte pathway (p = 0.002.Consistent with findings of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia by other methods of study, the Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia in our genomic study. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of myelination observed in schizophrenia are at least in part due to inherited factors, contrasted with the alternative of purely environmental causes (e.g. medication effects or lifestyle. While not the primary purpose of our study

  1. Effect evaluation of carbendazim-β-ciclodextrin complex for controling filamentous contaminants of plant in vitro cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileidy Cruz-Martín


    Full Text Available The majority of in vitro contaminant microorganisms affecting plant in vitro culture are bacterias and fungus. These are commonly observed in vivo on plants, but they could cause harmful effect on plant propagated in vitro. The search of new alternatives for their prevention and control is a priority. Carbendazim is the active ingredient of some systemic fungicides, it´s application for fungus contamination on in vitro propagation of plant it has been constrained for their lowsolubilityonwater.Thisproblemcouldbesolvedbycombiningthisproductwitha β-ciclodextrina.Thispaperwas focusedtodeterminetheeffectofcarbendazim-β-ciclodextrinaversusthecontaminantfungiofplantinvitroculture. It was determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC by the agar dilution method. Thirty four strains were analysed.Thecarbendazim-β-ciclodextrinacomplexshowedanacceptableantifungalactivityversuscontaminant. This result could be an useful alternative to control the fungi contamination on plant propagated in vitro. Key words: fungal contamination, antifungal compounds, minimum inhibitory concentration

  2. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document provides Appendices A thru K of this report. The topics discussed respectively are: radiation induced embrittlement and annealing of reactor pressure vessel steels; loss of coolant accident blowdown analyses; LOCA blowdown response analyses; non-seismic structural response analyses; seismic analyses; S'' seal integrity; reactor transient analyses; fire protection; aircraft impacts; and boric acid induced corrosion. (FI).

  3. Mediation Analyses in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Theis; Starkopf, Liis


    -code in their publications, thereby shortening the road from reading their paper to employing the considered methods on one’s own data. In this commentary, we will try to follow up on these developments by providing a snapshot of how applied mediation analysis was actually conducted in 2015. While we do not expect to find...... it simultaneously ensures that the comparison is based on properties, which matter in actual applications, and makes the comparison accessible for a broader audience. In a wider context, the choice to stay close to real-life problems mirrors a general trend within the literature on mediation analysis namely to put...... applications using the inverse odds ration approach, as it simply has not had enough time to move from theoretical concept to published applied paper, we do expect to be able to judge the willingness of authors and journals to employ the causal inference-based approach to mediation analyses. Our hope...

  4. Feasibility Analyses of Integrated Broiler Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Komalasari


    Full Text Available The major obstacles in the development of broiler raising is the expensive price of feed and the fluctuative price of DOCs. The cheap price of imported leg quarters reduces the competitiveness of the local broilers. Therefore, an effort to increase production efficiency is needed through integration between broiler raising and corn farmers and feed producers (integrated farming. The purpose of this study is to analyze the feasibility of integrating broiler raising with corn cultivation and feed production. Besides that, a simulation was conducted to analyze the effects of DOC price changes, broiler price and production capacity. The analyses showed that integrated farming and a mere combination between broiler raising and feed factory of a 10,000 bird capacity is not financially feasible. Increasing the production to 25,000 broiler chickens will make the integrated farming financially feasible. Unintegrated broiler raising is relatively sensitive to broiler price decreases and DOC price increases compared to integrated farming.

  5. Analysing Medieval Urban Space; a methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlous L. Craane MA


    Full Text Available This article has been written in reaction to recent developments in medieval history and archaeology, to study not only the buildings in a town but also the spaces that hold them together. It discusses a more objective and interdisciplinary approach for analysing urban morphology and use of space. It proposes a 'new' methodology by combining town plan analysis and space syntax. This methodology was trialled on the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. By comparing the results of this 'new' methodology with the results of previous, more conventional, research, this article shows that space syntax can be applied successfully to medieval urban contexts. It does this by demonstrating a strong correlation between medieval economic spaces and the most integrated spaces, just as is found in the study of modern urban environments. It thus provides a strong basis for the use of this technique in future research of medieval urban environments.

  6. Analysing Terrorism from a Systems Thinking Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schoenenberger


    Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.

  7. Project analysis and integration economic analyses summary (United States)

    Macomber, H. L.


    An economic-analysis summary was presented for the manufacture of crystalline-silicon modules involving silicon ingot/sheet, growth, slicing, cell manufacture, and module assembly. Economic analyses provided: useful quantitative aspects for complex decision-making to the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project; yardsticks for design and performance to industry; and demonstration of how to evaluate and understand the worth of research and development both to JPL and other government agencies and programs. It was concluded that future research and development funds for photovoltaics must be provided by the Federal Government because the solar industry today does not reap enough profits from its present-day sales of photovoltaic equipment.

  8. Digital analyses of cartometric Fruska Gora guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragica


    Full Text Available Modern geo morphological topography research have been using quantity statistic and cartographic methods for topographic relief features, mutual relief features, mutual connection analyses on the grounds of good quality numeric parameters etc. Topographic features are important for topographic activities are important for important natural activities. Important morphological characteristics are precisely at the angle of topography, hypsometry, and topography exposition and so on. Small yet unknown relief slants can deeply affect land configuration, hypsometry, topographic exposition etc. Expositions modify the light and heat of interconnected phenomena: soil and air temperature, soil disintegration, the length of vegetation period, the complexity of photosynthesis, the fruitfulness of agricultural crops, the height of snow limit etc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008 i br. III44006

  9. Cointegration Approach to Analysing Inflation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Malešević-Perović


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants of inflation in Croatia in the period 1994:6-2006:6. We use a cointegration approach and find that increases in wages positively influence inflation in the long-run. Furthermore, in the period from June 1994 onward, the depreciation of the currency also contributed to inflation. Money does not explain Croatian inflation. This irrelevance of the money supply is consistent with its endogeneity to exchange rate targeting, whereby the money supply is determined by developments in the foreign exchange market. The value of inflation in the previous period is also found to be significant, thus indicating some inflation inertia.

  10. Attitude stability analyses for small artificial satellites (United States)

    Silva, W. R.; Zanardi, M. C.; Formiga, J. K. S.; Cabette, R. E. S.; Stuchi, T. J.


    The objective of this paper is to analyze the stability of the rotational motion of a symmetrical spacecraft, in a circular orbit. The equilibrium points and regions of stability are established when components of the gravity gradient torque acting on the spacecraft are included in the equations of rotational motion, which are described by the Andoyer's variables. The nonlinear stability of the equilibrium points of the rotational motion is analysed here by the Kovalev-Savchenko theorem. With the application of the Kovalev-Savchenko theorem, it is possible to verify if they remain stable under the influence of the terms of higher order of the normal Hamiltonian. In this paper, numerical simulations are made for a small hypothetical artificial satellite. Several stable equilibrium points were determined and regions around these points have been established by variations in the orbital inclination and in the spacecraft principal moment of inertia. The present analysis can directly contribute in the maintenance of the spacecraft's attitude.

  11. Planning analyses for geothermal district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Karkheck, J.


    Methodology and data bases are described which can provide a comprehensive planning assessment of the potential for geothermal district heating in any US market. This economic systems model encompasses life-cycle costing over a period of rising competitive fuel prices, it addresses the expansion and financing of a district system over time, and it includes an overall optimization of system design. The elemental area for all analyses is the census tract, for which published data allow estimation of residential and commercial heating demands, building retrofit requirements, and competitive fuel consumption and cost. A system type design, an appropriate hot water district piping system, and costing of heat supply is performed for groups of contiguous tracts in any urban market. Groups are aggregated, in decreasing benefit to cost order, to achieve optimal systems. A specific application for Salt Lake City, Utah, is also described.

  12. Accurate renormalization group analyses in neutrino sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yuya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)


    We investigate accurate renormalization group analyses in neutrino sector between ν-oscillation and seesaw energy scales. We consider decoupling effects of top quark and Higgs boson on the renormalization group equations of light neutrino mass matrix. Since the decoupling effects are given in the standard model scale and independent of high energy physics, our method can basically apply to any models beyond the standard model. We find that the decoupling effects of Higgs boson are negligible, while those of top quark are not. Particularly, the decoupling effects of top quark affect neutrino mass eigenvalues, which are important for analyzing predictions such as mass squared differences and neutrinoless double beta decay in an underlying theory existing at high energy scale.

  13. Analysing magnetism using scanning SQUID microscopy. (United States)

    Reith, P; Renshaw Wang, X; Hilgenkamp, H


    Scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy (SSM) is a scanning probe technique that images local magnetic flux, which allows for mapping of magnetic fields with high field and spatial accuracy. Many studies involving SSM have been published in the last few decades, using SSM to make qualitative statements about magnetism. However, quantitative analysis using SSM has received less attention. In this work, we discuss several aspects of interpreting SSM images and methods to improve quantitative analysis. First, we analyse the spatial resolution and how it depends on several factors. Second, we discuss the analysis of SSM scans and the information obtained from the SSM data. Using simulations, we show how signals evolve as a function of changing scan height, SQUID loop size, magnetization strength, and orientation. We also investigated 2-dimensional autocorrelation analysis to extract information about the size, shape, and symmetry of magnetic features. Finally, we provide an outlook on possible future applications and improvements.

  14. Automating Ultrasonic Vocalization Analyses: The WAAVES Program (United States)

    Reno, James M.; Marker, Bryan; Cormack, Lawrence K.; Schallert, Timothy; Duvauchelle, Christine L.


    Background Human emotion is a crucial component of drug abuse and addiction. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) elicited by rodents are a highly translational animal model of emotion in drug abuse studies. A major roadblock to comprehensive use of USV data is the overwhelming burden to attain accurate USV assessment in a timely manner. One of the most accurate methods of analyzing USVs, human auditory detection with simultaneous spectrogram inspection, requires USV sound files to be played back 4% normal speed. New Method WAAVES (WAV-file Automated Analysis of Vocalizations Environment Specific) is an automated USV assessment program utilizing MATLAB’s Signal and Image Processing Toolboxes in conjunction with a series of customized filters to separate USV calls from background noise, and accurately tabulate and categorize USVs as flat or frequency-modulated (FM) calls. In the current report, WAAVES functionality is demonstrated by USV analyses of cocaine self-administration data collected over 10 daily sessions. Results WAAVES counts are significantly correlated with human auditory counts (r(48)=0.9925; p<0.001). Statistical analyses used WAAVES output to examine individual differences in USV responses to cocaine, cocaine-associated cues and relationships between USVs, cocaine intake and locomotor activity. Comparison with Existing Method WAAVES output is highly accurate and provides tabulated data in approximately 0.4% of the time required when using human auditory detection methods. Conclusions The development of a customized USV analysis program, such as WAAVES streamlines USV assessment and enhances the ability to utilize USVs as a tool to advance drug abuse research and ultimately develop effective treatments. PMID:23832016

  15. Risques naturels en montagne et analyse spatiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Manche


    Full Text Available Le concept de risque repose sur deux notions :l'aléa, qui représente le phénomène physique par son amplitude et sa période retour ;la vulnérabilité, qui représente l'ensemble des biens et des personnes pouvant être touchés par un phénomène naturel.Le risque se définit alors comme le croisement de ces deux notions. Cette vision théorique permet de modéliser indépendamment les aléas et la vulnérabilité.Ce travail s'intéresse essentiellement à la prise en compte de la vulnérabilité dans la gestion des risques naturels. Son évaluation passe obligatoirement par une certaine analyse spatiale qui prend en compte l'occupation humaine et différentes échelles de l'utilisation de l'espace. Mais l'évaluation spatiale, que ce soit des biens et des personnes, ou des effets indirects se heurte à de nombreux problèmes. Il faut estimer l'importance de l'occupation de l'espace. Par ailleurs, le traitement des données implique des changements constants d'échelle pour passer des éléments ponctuels aux surfaces, ce que les systèmes d'information géographique ne gèrent pas parfaitement. La gestion des risques entraîne de fortes contraintes d'urbanisme, la prise en compte de la vulnérabilité permet de mieux comprendre et gérer les contraintes spatiales qu'impliquent les risques naturels. aléa, analyse spatiale, risques naturels, S.I.G., vulnérabilité

  16. Blast sampling for structural and functional analyses. (United States)

    Friedrich, Anne; Ripp, Raymond; Garnier, Nicolas; Bettler, Emmanuel; Deléage, Gilbert; Poch, Olivier; Moulinier, Luc


    The post-genomic era is characterised by a torrent of biological information flooding the public databases. As a direct consequence, similarity searches starting with a single query sequence frequently lead to the identification of hundreds, or even thousands of potential homologues. The huge volume of data renders the subsequent structural, functional and evolutionary analyses very difficult. It is therefore essential to develop new strategies for efficient sampling of this large sequence space, in order to reduce the number of sequences to be processed. At the same time, it is important to retain the most pertinent sequences for structural and functional studies. An exhaustive analysis on a large scale test set (284 protein families) was performed to compare the efficiency of four different sampling methods aimed at selecting the most pertinent sequences. These four methods sample the proteins detected by BlastP searches and can be divided into two categories: two customisable methods where the user defines either the maximal number or the percentage of sequences to be selected; two automatic methods in which the number of sequences selected is determined by the program. We focused our analysis on the potential information content of the sampled sets of sequences using multiple alignment of complete sequences as the main validation tool. The study considered two criteria: the total number of sequences in BlastP and their associated E-values. The subsequent analyses investigated the influence of the sampling methods on the E-value distributions, the sequence coverage, the final multiple alignment quality and the active site characterisation at various residue conservation thresholds as a function of these criteria. The comparative analysis of the four sampling methods allows us to propose a suitable sampling strategy that significantly reduces the number of homologous sequences required for alignment, while at the same time maintaining the relevant information

  17. Blast sampling for structural and functional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Anne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The post-genomic era is characterised by a torrent of biological information flooding the public databases. As a direct consequence, similarity searches starting with a single query sequence frequently lead to the identification of hundreds, or even thousands of potential homologues. The huge volume of data renders the subsequent structural, functional and evolutionary analyses very difficult. It is therefore essential to develop new strategies for efficient sampling of this large sequence space, in order to reduce the number of sequences to be processed. At the same time, it is important to retain the most pertinent sequences for structural and functional studies. Results An exhaustive analysis on a large scale test set (284 protein families was performed to compare the efficiency of four different sampling methods aimed at selecting the most pertinent sequences. These four methods sample the proteins detected by BlastP searches and can be divided into two categories: two customisable methods where the user defines either the maximal number or the percentage of sequences to be selected; two automatic methods in which the number of sequences selected is determined by the program. We focused our analysis on the potential information content of the sampled sets of sequences using multiple alignment of complete sequences as the main validation tool. The study considered two criteria: the total number of sequences in BlastP and their associated E-values. The subsequent analyses investigated the influence of the sampling methods on the E-value distributions, the sequence coverage, the final multiple alignment quality and the active site characterisation at various residue conservation thresholds as a function of these criteria. Conclusion The comparative analysis of the four sampling methods allows us to propose a suitable sampling strategy that significantly reduces the number of homologous sequences required for alignment, while

  18. GPU based framework for geospatial analyses (United States)

    Cosmin Sandric, Ionut; Ionita, Cristian; Dardala, Marian; Furtuna, Titus


    Parallel processing on multiple CPU cores is already used at large scale in geocomputing, but parallel processing on graphics cards is just at the beginning. Being able to use an simple laptop with a dedicated graphics card for advanced and very fast geocomputation is an advantage that each scientist wants to have. The necessity to have high speed computation in geosciences has increased in the last 10 years, mostly due to the increase in the available datasets. These datasets are becoming more and more detailed and hence they require more space to store and more time to process. Distributed computation on multicore CPU's and GPU's plays an important role by processing one by one small parts from these big datasets. These way of computations allows to speed up the process, because instead of using just one process for each dataset, the user can use all the cores from a CPU or up to hundreds of cores from GPU The framework provide to the end user a standalone tools for morphometry analyses at multiscale level. An important part of the framework is dedicated to uncertainty propagation in geospatial analyses. The uncertainty may come from the data collection or may be induced by the model or may have an infinite sources. These uncertainties plays important roles when a spatial delineation of the phenomena is modelled. Uncertainty propagation is implemented inside the GPU framework using Monte Carlo simulations. The GPU framework with the standalone tools proved to be a reliable tool for modelling complex natural phenomena The framework is based on NVidia Cuda technology and is written in C++ programming language. The code source will be available on github at Acknowledgement: GPU framework for geospatial analysis, Young Researchers Grant (ICUB-University of Bucharest) 2016, director Ionut Sandric

  19. Database-Driven Analyses of Astronomical Spectra (United States)

    Cami, Jan


    Spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools to study the physical properties and chemical composition of very diverse astrophysical environments. In principle, each nuclide has a unique set of spectral features; thus, establishing the presence of a specific material at astronomical distances requires no more than finding a laboratory spectrum of the right material that perfectly matches the astronomical observations. Once the presence of a substance is established, a careful analysis of the observational characteristics (wavelengths or frequencies, intensities, and line profiles) allows one to determine many physical parameters of the environment in which the substance resides, such as temperature, density, velocity, and so on. Because of this great diagnostic potential, ground-based and space-borne astronomical observatories often include instruments to carry out spectroscopic analyses of various celestial objects and events. Of particular interest is molecular spectroscopy at infrared wavelengths. From the spectroscopic point of view, molecules differ from atoms in their ability to vibrate and rotate, and quantum physics inevitably causes those motions to be quantized. The energies required to excite vibrations or rotations are such that vibrational transitions generally occur at infrared wavelengths, whereas pure rotational transitions typically occur at sub-mm wavelengths. Molecular vibration and rotation are coupled though, and thus at infrared wavelengths, one commonly observes a multitude of ro-vibrational transitions (see Figure 13.1). At lower spectral resolution, all transitions blend into one broad ro-vibrational molecular band. The isotope. Molecular spectroscopy thus allows us to see a difference of one neutron in an atomic nucleus that is located at astronomical distances! Since the detection of the first interstellar molecules (the CH [21] and CN [14] radicals), more than 150 species have been detected in space, ranging in size from diatomic

  20. In vitro Natural Killer cell immunotherapy for medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia eFernandez


    Full Text Available How the immune system attacks medulloblastoma (MB tumours effectively is unclear, although natural killer (NK cells play an important role in immune defence against tumour cells. Interactions between receptors on NK cells and ligands expressed by tumour cells are critical for tumour control by immunotherapy. In this study, we analysed tumour samples from 54 MB patients for expression of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chains A (MICA and UL16 binding protein (ULPB-2, which are ligands for the NK group 2 member D activatory receptor (NKG2D. The percentage of MICA and ULBP-2 positive cells was higher than 25% in 68% and 6% of MB patients, respectively. A moderate-high intensity of MICA cytoplasmic staining was observed in 46% MB patients and weak ULBP-2 staining was observed in 8% MB patients. No correlation between MICA/ULBP-2 expression and patient outcome was found. We observed that HTB-186, a medulloblastoma cell line, was moderately resistant to NK cell cytotoxicity in vitro. Blocking MICA/ULBP-2 on HTB-186, and NKG2D receptor on NK cells increased resistance to NK cell lysis in vitro. However, HLA class I blocking on HTB-186 and overnight incubation with IL-15 stimulated NK cells efficiently to kill tumour cells in vitro. We conclude that although NKG2D/MICA-ULBP-2 interactions have a role in NK cell cytotoxicity against MB, high expression of HLA class I can protect MB from NK cell cytotoxicity. Even so, our in vitro data indicate that if NK cells are appropriately stimulated, they may have the potential to target MB in vivo.

  1. Efficient ALL vs. ALL collision risk analyses (United States)

    Escobar, D.; Paskowitz, M.; Agueda, A.; Garcia, G.; Molina, M.


    In recent years, the space debris has gained a lot of attention due to the increasing amount of uncontrolled man-made objects orbiting the Earth. This population poses a significant and constantly growing thread to operational satellites. In order to face this thread in an independent manner, ESA has launched an initiative for the development of a European SSA System where GMV is participating via several activities. Apart from those activities financed by ESA, GMV has developed closeap, a tool for efficient conjunction assessment and collision probability prediction. ESÁs NAPEOS has been selected as computational engine and numerical propagator to be used in the tool, which can be considered as an add-on to the standard NAPEOS package. closeap makes use of the same orbit computation, conjunction assessment and collision risk algorithms implemented in CRASS, but at the same time both systems are completely independent. Moreover, the implementation in closeap has been validated against CRASS with excellent results. This paper describes the performance improvements implemented in closeap at algorithm level to ensure that the most time demanding scenarios (e.g., all catalogued objects are analysed against each other - all vs. all scenarios -) can be analysed in a reasonable amount of time with commercial-off-the-shelf hardware. However, the amount of space debris increases steadily due to the human activities. Thus, the number of objects involved in a full collision assessment is expected to increase notably and, consequently, the computational cost, which scales as the square of the number of objects, will increase as well. Additionally, orbit propagation algorithms that are computationally expensive might be needed to predict more accurately the trajectories of the space debris. In order to cope with such computational needs, the next natural step in the development of collision assessment tools is the use of parallelization techniques. In this paper we investigate

  2. The effect of sulforaphane on histone deacetylase activity in keratinocytes: Differences between in vitro and in vivo analyses. (United States)

    Dickinson, Sally E; Rusche, Jadrian J; Bec, Sergiu L; Horn, David J; Janda, Jaroslav; Rim, So Hyun; Smith, Catharine L; Bowden, G Timothy


    Sulforaphane is a natural product found in broccoli, which is known to exert many different molecular effects in the cell, including inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Here, we examine for the first time the potential for sulforaphane to inhibit HDACs in HaCaT keratinocytes and compare our results with those found using HCT116 colon cancer cells. Significant inhibition of HDAC activity in HCT116 nuclear extracts required prolonged exposure to sulforaphane in the presence of serum. Under the same conditions HaCaT nuclear extracts did not exhibit reduced HDAC activity with sulforaphane treatment. Both cell types displayed down-regulation of HDAC protein levels by sulforaphane treatment. Despite these reductions in HDAC family member protein levels, acetylation of marker proteins (acetylated Histone H3, H4, and tubulin) was decreased by sulforaphane treatment. Time-course analysis revealed that HDAC6, HDAC3, and acetylated histone H3 protein levels are significantly inhibited as early as 6 h into sulforaphane treatment. Transcript levels of HDAC6 are also suppressed after 48 h of treatment. These results suggest that HDAC activity noted in nuclear extracts is not always translated as expected to target protein acetylation patterns, despite dramatic inhibition of some HDAC protein levels. In addition, our data suggest that keratinocytes are at least partially resistant to the nuclear HDAC inhibitory effects of sulforaphane, which is exhibited in HCT116 and other cells. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparative in vivo and in vitro analyses of putative virulence factors of Burkholderia pseudomallei using lipopolysaccharide, capsule and flagellin mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wikraiphat, C.; Charoensap, J.; Utaisincharoen, P.; Wongratanacheewin, S.; Taweechaisupapong, S.; Woods, D.E.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Sirisinha, S.


    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a gram-negative bacillus that is the causative agent of melioidosis. We evaluated host-pathogen interaction at different levels using three separate B. pseudomallei mutants generated by insertional inactivation. One of these mutants is defective in the production of the

  4. Genome-wide fitness analyses of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in in vitro and in vivo models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Stefan P W de; Gupta, Srishti; Baig, Abiyad; Wright, Elli; Wedley, Amy; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Lora, Lizeth LaCharme; Humphrey, Suzanne; Skovgård, Henrik; Macleod, Kareen; Pont, Elsa; Wolanska, Dominika P; L'Heureux, Joanna; Mobegi, Fredrick M; Smith, David G E; Everest, Paul; Zomer, Aldert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304642754; Williams, Nicola; Wigley, Paul; Humphrey, Thomas; Maskell, Duncan J; Grant, Andrew J


    Campylobacter is the most common cause of foodborne bacterial illness worldwide. Faecal contamination of meat, especially chicken, during processing represents a key route of transmission to humans. There is a lack of insight into the mechanisms driving C. jejuni growth and survival within hosts and

  5. Nonindependence and sensitivity analyses in ecological and evolutionary meta-analyses. (United States)

    Noble, Daniel W A; Lagisz, Malgorzata; O'dea, Rose E; Nakagawa, Shinichi


    Meta-analysis is an important tool for synthesizing research on a variety of topics in ecology and evolution, including molecular ecology, but can be susceptible to nonindependence. Nonindependence can affect two major interrelated components of a meta-analysis: (i) the calculation of effect size statistics and (ii) the estimation of overall meta-analytic estimates and their uncertainty. While some solutions to nonindependence exist at the statistical analysis stages, there is little advice on what to do when complex analyses are not possible, or when studies with nonindependent experimental designs exist in the data. Here we argue that exploring the effects of procedural decisions in a meta-analysis (e.g. inclusion of different quality data, choice of effect size) and statistical assumptions (e.g. assuming no phylogenetic covariance) using sensitivity analyses are extremely important in assessing the impact of nonindependence. Sensitivity analyses can provide greater confidence in results and highlight important limitations of empirical work (e.g. impact of study design on overall effects). Despite their importance, sensitivity analyses are seldom applied to problems of nonindependence. To encourage better practice for dealing with nonindependence in meta-analytic studies, we present accessible examples demonstrating the impact that ignoring nonindependence can have on meta-analytic estimates. We also provide pragmatic solutions for dealing with nonindependent study designs, and for analysing dependent effect sizes. Additionally, we offer reporting guidelines that will facilitate disclosure of the sources of nonindependence in meta-analyses, leading to greater transparency and more robust conclusions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems. (United States)

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C


    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  7. Social Media Analyses for Social Measurement (United States)

    Schober, Michael F.; Pasek, Josh; Guggenheim, Lauren; Lampe, Cliff; Conrad, Frederick G.


    Demonstrations that analyses of social media content can align with measurement from sample surveys have raised the question of whether survey research can be supplemented or even replaced with less costly and burdensome data mining of already-existing or “found” social media content. But just how trustworthy such measurement can be—say, to replace official statistics—is unknown. Survey researchers and data scientists approach key questions from starting assumptions and analytic traditions that differ on, for example, the need for representative samples drawn from frames that fully cover the population. New conversations between these scholarly communities are needed to understand the potential points of alignment and non-alignment. Across these approaches, there are major differences in (a) how participants (survey respondents and social media posters) understand the activity they are engaged in; (b) the nature of the data produced by survey responses and social media posts, and the inferences that are legitimate given the data; and (c) practical and ethical considerations surrounding the use of the data. Estimates are likely to align to differing degrees depending on the research topic and the populations under consideration, the particular features of the surveys and social media sites involved, and the analytic techniques for extracting opinions and experiences from social media. Traditional population coverage may not be required for social media content to effectively predict social phenomena to the extent that social media content distills or summarizes broader conversations that are also measured by surveys. PMID:27257310

  8. Applications of Parallel Processing in Configuration Analyses (United States)

    Sundaram, Ppchuraman; Hager, James O.; Biedron, Robert T.


    The paper presents the recent progress made towards developing an efficient and user-friendly parallel environment for routine analysis of large CFD problems. The coarse-grain parallel version of the CFL3D Euler/Navier-Stokes analysis code, CFL3Dhp, has been ported onto most available parallel platforms. The CFL3Dhp solution accuracy on these parallel platforms has been verified with the CFL3D sequential analyses. User-friendly pre- and post-processing tools that enable a seamless transfer from sequential to parallel processing have been written. Static load balancing tool for CFL3Dhp analysis has also been implemented for achieving good parallel efficiency. For large problems, load balancing efficiency as high as 95% can be achieved even when large number of processors are used. Linear scalability of the CFL3Dhp code with increasing number of processors has also been shown using a large installed transonic nozzle boattail analysis. To highlight the fast turn-around time of parallel processing, the TCA full configuration in sideslip Navier-Stokes drag polar at supersonic cruise has been obtained in a day. CFL3Dhp is currently being used as a production analysis tool.

  9. Analyse de plomb dans les peintures (United States)

    Broll, N.; Frezouls, J.-M.


    The analysis of lead in paints was previously used for the characterisation of pigments. In this way, the analysis is able to specify the century of the painting of a work of art. Recently this technique was also used to determine the toxicity of lead paints in building. This paper compared the result of several X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, either wave length/energy dispersion laboratory apparatus or X-ray microtube/radioactive source portable equipment's. L'analyse du plomb dans les peintures a jusqu'à présent été appliquée essentiellement pour caractériser les pigments lors de leur fabrication et pour identifier des rouvres d'art. Récemment cette technique est également utilisée pour déterminer la toxicité des peintures au plomb dans les bâtiments. Nous avons comparé les performances de plusieurs spectromètres de fluorescence X, soit de laboratoire à dispersion en longueur d'onde ou à dispersion en énergie (avec tube à rayonsX), soit portable avec source radioactive ou tube à rayons X.

  10. Network-Based and Binless Frequency Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available We introduce and develop a new network-based and binless methodology to perform frequency analyses and produce histograms. In contrast with traditional frequency analysis techniques that use fixed intervals to bin values, we place a range ±ζ around each individual value in a data set and count the number of values within that range, which allows us to compare every single value of a data set with one another. In essence, the methodology is identical to the construction of a network, where two values are connected if they lie within a given a range (±ζ. The value with the highest degree (i.e., most connections is therefore assimilated to the mode of the distribution. To select an optimal range, we look at the stability of the proportion of nodes in the largest cluster. The methodology is validated by sampling 12 typical distributions, and it is applied to a number of real-world data sets with both spatial and temporal components. The methodology can be applied to any data set and provides a robust means to uncover meaningful patterns and trends. A free python script and a tutorial are also made available to facilitate the application of the method.

  11. Analysing the thermal characteristics of LAMP joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Markovits


    Full Text Available The increasing utilisation of different material groups (plastic, metal, ceramics in our advanced construction provides many benefits, but the fastening process is a challenge. LAMP (Laser assisted metal plastic joining is a new technique in fastening technology. It means an alternative process from the existing techniques like using adhesives, screwing, riveting etc. The authors have been dealing with this technology for years. In this research work some important thermal phenomena were analysed in order to understand the process of joining more thoroughly. The temperature of the steel partner was measured in case of different laser settings and experimental situations with two measuring techniques: thermocouple and infrared camera. The results show the effect of different influencing factors during heating and the applicability of different measuring methods. The received temperature values can be compared to the characteristic temperature of PMMA polymer (decomposition temperature in order to determine the root cause of bubble forming in the polymer material. From the result the differences between the different applied laser pulse mode for the heating was also determined and it was possible to measure the heating rate during the laser process.

  12. Design and Analyses of Electromagnetic Microgenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibras Awaja


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new design of an electromagnetic microgenerator. The desgin aspects of the microgenerator comprises spring, coil and rear earth magnet have been addressed. The theoretical analyses of the electromagnetic microgenerator are established. Firstly, steady state analysis has been undertaken to determine the practical performance of the device. It is found that the generator will produce more power in applications with high frequency of vibration. Secondly, electromagnetic analysis is established to calculate the generated power on the load. It is found that the output power can be maximized when the impedance of the coil is less than the load impedance and when using a magnet with high magnetic field. Mechanical parameters like (damping factor, resonant frequency, proof mass and maximum displacement and magnetic parameters like (load resistance, coil resistance, and the magnetic field have been adjusted to optimize the output power through a comprehensive theoretical study. A range of microgenerator output power values are obtained in accordance with the consideration of the design parameters.

  13. Evaluation of the Olympus AU-510 analyser. (United States)

    Farré, C; Velasco, J; Ramón, F


    The selective multitest Olympus AU-510 analyser was evaluated according to the recommendations of the Comision de Instrumentacion de la Sociedad Española de Quimica Clinica and the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The evaluation was carried out in two stages: an examination of the analytical units and then an evaluation in routine work conditions. The operational characteristics of the system were also studied.THE FIRST STAGE INCLUDED A PHOTOMETRIC STUDY: dependent on the absorbance, the inaccuracy varies between +0.5% to -0.6% at 405 nm and from -5.6% to 10.6% at 340 nm; the imprecision ranges between -0.22% and 0.56% at 405 nm and between 0.09% and 2.74% at 340 nm. Linearity was acceptable, apart from a very low absorbance for NADH at 340 nm; and the imprecision of the serum sample pipetter was satisfactory.TWELVE SERUM ANALYTES WERE STUDIED UNDER ROUTINE CONDITIONS: glucose, urea urate, cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin, creatinine, phosphate, iron, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase.The within-run imprecision (CV%) ranged from 0.67% for phosphate to 2.89% for iron and the between-run imprecision from 0.97% for total bilirubin to 7.06% for iron. There was no carryover in a study of the serum sample pipetter. Carry-over studies with the reagent and sample pipetters shows some cross contamination in the iron assay.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Tsai


    Radiological consequence analyses are performed for potential releases from normal operations in surface and subsurface facilities and from Category 1 and Category 2 event sequences during the preclosure period. Surface releases from normal repository operations are primarily from radionuclides released from opening a transportation cask during dry transfer operations of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in Dry Transfer Facility 1 (DTF 1), Dry Transfer Facility 2 (DTF 2), the Canister Handling facility (CHF), or the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF). Subsurface releases from normal repository operations are from resuspension of waste package surface contamination and neutron activation of ventilated air and silica dust from host rock in the emplacement drifts. The purpose of this calculation is to demonstrate that the preclosure performance objectives, specified in 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b), have been met for the proposed design and operations in the geologic repository operations area. Preclosure performance objectives are discussed in Section 6.2.3 and are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

  15. Reliability Analyses of Groundwater Pollutant Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimakis, Panagiotis


    This thesis develops a probabilistic finite element model for the analysis of groundwater pollution problems. Two computer codes were developed, (1) one using finite element technique to solve the two-dimensional steady state equations of groundwater flow and pollution transport, and (2) a first order reliability method code that can do a probabilistic analysis of any given analytical or numerical equation. The two codes were connected into one model, PAGAP (Probability Analysis of Groundwater And Pollution). PAGAP can be used to obtain (1) the probability that the concentration at a given point at a given time will exceed a specified value, (2) the probability that the maximum concentration at a given point will exceed a specified value and (3) the probability that the residence time at a given point will exceed a specified period. PAGAP could be used as a tool for assessment purposes and risk analyses, for instance the assessment of the efficiency of a proposed remediation technique or to study the effects of parameter distribution for a given problem (sensitivity study). The model has been applied to study the greatest self sustained, precipitation controlled aquifer in North Europe, which underlies Oslo`s new major airport. 92 refs., 187 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Soil deflation analyses from wind erosion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lackóová


    Full Text Available There are various methods to assess soil erodibility for wind erosion. This paper focuses on aggregate analysis by a laser particle sizer ANALYSETTE 22 (FRITSCH GmbH, made to determine the size distribution of soil particles detached by wind (deflated particles. Ten soil samples, trapped along the same length of the erosion surface (150–155 m but at different wind speeds, were analysed. The soil was sampled from a flat, smooth area without vegetation cover or soil crust, not affected by the impact of windbreaks or other barriers, from a depth of maximum 2.5 cm. Prior to analysis the samples were prepared according to the relevant specifications. An experiment was also conducted using a device that enables characterisation of the vertical movement of the deflated material. The trapped samples showed no differences in particle size and the proportions of size fractions at different hourly average wind speeds. It was observed that most of particles travelling in saltation mode (size 50–500 μm – 58–70% – moved vertically up to 26 cm above the soil surface. At greater heights, particles moving in suspension mode (floating in the air; size < 100 μm accounted for up to 90% of the samples. This result suggests that the boundary between the two modes of the vertical movement of deflated soil particles lies at about 25 cm above the soil surface.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study on application of wavelet techniques to analyze wind speed and energy (renewable and environmental friendly energy. Solar and wind are main sources of energy that allows farmers to have the potential for transferring kinetic energy captured by the wind mill for pumping water, drying crops, heating systems of green houses, rural electrification's or cooking. Larger wind turbines (over 1 MW can pump enough water for small-scale irrigation. This study tried to initiate data gathering process for wavelet analyses, different scale effects and their role on wind speed and direction variations. The wind data gathering system is mounted at latitudes: 37° 50" N; longitude 30° 33" E and height: 1200 m above mean sea level at a hill near Süleyman Demirel University campus. 10 minutes average values of two levels wind speed and direction (10m and 30m above ground level have been recorded by a data logger between July 2001 and February 2002. Wind speed values changed between the range of 0 m/s and 54 m/s. Annual mean speed value is 4.5 m/s at 10 m ground level. Prevalent wind

  18. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela C.A. Silva


    Full Text Available Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female, aged between 2 and 4 years, weighing 21.5 to 28 kg, clinically normal. Flexion and extension were described for shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, femorotibialis and tarsal joints. The gait was characterized lateral and had accepted hypothesis of normality for all variables, except for the stance of hip and elbow, considering a confidence level of 95%, significance level α = 0.05. Variations have been attributed to displacement of the stripes during movement and the duplicated number of reviews. The kinematic analysis proved to be a consistent method of evaluation of the movement during canine gait and the data can be used in the diagnosis and evaluation of canine gait in comparison to other studies and treatment of dogs with musculoskeletal disorders.

  19. Fast and accurate methods for phylogenomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warnow Tandy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species phylogenies are not estimated directly, but rather through phylogenetic analyses of different gene datasets. However, true gene trees can differ from the true species tree (and hence from one another due to biological processes such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and gene duplication and loss, so that no single gene tree is a reliable estimate of the species tree. Several methods have been developed to estimate species trees from estimated gene trees, differing according to the specific algorithmic technique used and the biological model used to explain differences between species and gene trees. Relatively little is known about the relative performance of these methods. Results We report on a study evaluating several different methods for estimating species trees from sequence datasets, simulating sequence evolution under a complex model including indels (insertions and deletions, substitutions, and incomplete lineage sorting. The most important finding of our study is that some fast and simple methods are nearly as accurate as the most accurate methods, which employ sophisticated statistical methods and are computationally quite intensive. We also observe that methods that explicitly consider errors in the estimated gene trees produce more accurate trees than methods that assume the estimated gene trees are correct. Conclusions Our study shows that highly accurate estimations of species trees are achievable, even when gene trees differ from each other and from the species tree, and that these estimations can be obtained using fairly simple and computationally tractable methods.

  20. Phylogenomic Analyses Support Traditional Relationships within Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Zapata

    Full Text Available Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses using different partition schemes and models of molecular evolution, as well as topology tests for alternative phylogenetic relationships, support the monophyly of Medusozoa, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Hydrozoa, and a clade consisting of Staurozoa, Cubozoa, and Scyphozoa. Support for the monophyly of Hexacorallia is weak due to the equivocal position of Ceriantharia. Taken together, these results further resolve deep cnidarian relationships, largely support traditional phylogenetic views on relationships, and provide a historical framework for studying the evolutionary processes involved in one of the most ancient animal radiations.

  1. Comparative analyses of bidirectional promoters in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor James


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.

  2. Social Media Analyses for Social Measurement. (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Pasek, Josh; Guggenheim, Lauren; Lampe, Cliff; Conrad, Frederick G


    Demonstrations that analyses of social media content can align with measurement from sample surveys have raised the question of whether survey research can be supplemented or even replaced with less costly and burdensome data mining of already-existing or "found" social media content. But just how trustworthy such measurement can be-say, to replace official statistics-is unknown. Survey researchers and data scientists approach key questions from starting assumptions and analytic traditions that differ on, for example, the need for representative samples drawn from frames that fully cover the population. New conversations between these scholarly communities are needed to understand the potential points of alignment and non-alignment. Across these approaches, there are major differences in (a) how participants (survey respondents and social media posters) understand the activity they are engaged in; (b) the nature of the data produced by survey responses and social media posts, and the inferences that are legitimate given the data; and (c) practical and ethical considerations surrounding the use of the data. Estimates are likely to align to differing degrees depending on the research topic and the populations under consideration, the particular features of the surveys and social media sites involved, and the analytic techniques for extracting opinions and experiences from social media. Traditional population coverage may not be required for social media content to effectively predict social phenomena to the extent that social media content distills or summarizes broader conversations that are also measured by surveys.

  3. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds. (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G


    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  4. Consumption patterns and perception analyses of hangwa. (United States)

    Kwock, Chang Geun; Lee, Min A; Park, So Hyun


    Hangwa is a traditional food, corresponding to the current consumption trend, in need of marketing strategies to extend its consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze consumers' consumption patterns and perception of Hangwa to increase consumption in the market. A questionnaire was sent to 250 consumers by e-mail from Oct 8∼23, 2009 and the data from 231 persons were analyzed in this study. Statistical, descriptive, paired samples t-test, and importance-performance analyses were conducted using SPSS WIN 17.0. According to the results, Hangwa was purchased mainly 'for present' (39.8%) and the main reasons for buying it were 'traditional image' (33.3%) and 'taste' (22.5%). When importance and performance of attributes considered in purchasing Hangwa were evaluated, performance was assessed to be lower than importance for all attributes. The attributes in the first quadrant with a high importance and a high performance were 'a sanitary process', 'a rigorous quality mark' and 'taste', which were related with quality of the products. In addition, those with a high importance but a low performance were 'popularization through advertisement', 'promotion through mass media', 'conversion of thought on traditional foods', 'a reasonable price' and 'a wide range of price'. In conclusion, Hangwa manufacturers need to diversify products and extend the expiration date based on technologies to promote its consumption. In terms of price, Hangwa should become more available by lowering the price barrier for consumers who are sensitive to price.

  5. Conveyor: a workflow engine for bioinformatic analyses. (United States)

    Linke, Burkhard; Giegerich, Robert; Goesmann, Alexander


    The rapidly increasing amounts of data available from new high-throughput methods have made data processing without automated pipelines infeasible. As was pointed out in several publications, integration of data and analytic resources into workflow systems provides a solution to this problem, simplifying the task of data analysis. Various applications for defining and running workflows in the field of bioinformatics have been proposed and published, e.g. Galaxy, Mobyle, Taverna, Pegasus or Kepler. One of the main aims of such workflow systems is to enable scientists to focus on analysing their datasets instead of taking care for data management, job management or monitoring the execution of computational tasks. The currently available workflow systems achieve this goal, but fundamentally differ in their way of executing workflows. We have developed the Conveyor software library, a multitiered generic workflow engine for composition, execution and monitoring of complex workflows. It features an open, extensible system architecture and concurrent program execution to exploit resources available on modern multicore CPU hardware. It offers the ability to build complex workflows with branches, loops and other control structures. Two example use cases illustrate the application of the versatile Conveyor engine to common bioinformatics problems. The Conveyor application including client and server are available at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical study of the functioning of glazing at two different yet interacting levels: at the level of the building as a whole, and at that of glazing as a building element. At the building level, analyses were performed on a sample of high-rise business buildings in Slovenia, where the glazing"s share of the building envelope was calculated, and estimates of the proportion of shade provided by external blinds were made. It is shown that, especially in the case of modern buildings with large proportions of glazing and buildings with no shading devices, careful glazing design is needed, together with a sound knowledge of energy performance. In the second part of the article, the energy balance values relating to selected types of glazing are presented, including solar control glazing. The paper demonstrates the need for a holistic energy approach to glazing problems, as well as how different types of glazing can be methodically compared, thus improving the design of sustainability-orientated buildings.

  7. Replication of a Bacillus subtilis oriC plasmid in vitro. (United States)

    Moriya, S; Firshein, W; Yoshikawa, H; Ogasawara, N


    We constructed an in vitro replication system specific for a Bacillus subtilis oriC plasmid using a soluble fraction derived from cell extracts of B. subtilis. DNA polymerase III and two initiation proteins, DnaA and DnaB, were required for in vitro replication as observed in vivo. Both upstream and downstream DnaA box regions of the dnaA gene were required as cis-elements for in vitro synthesis of the B. subtilis oriC plasmid as well as for in vivo activity. The replication was semi-conservative and only one round of replication occurred within 15 min. These results indicate that in vitro replication faithfully reproduced in vivo replication. To elucidate the site of initiation and the direction of replication, we analysed replicative intermediates generated in vitro in the presence of various concentrations of ddGTP by two methods. First, analysis of restriction fragments around the dnaA gene showed a high level of incorporation of the radioactive substrate, indicating that replication began within the vicinity of the dnaA gene. Second, using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, bubble arcs were detected only on fragments containing the DnaA box region downstream of the dnaA gene, indicating that the initiation site resided within this region. The distribution of the bubble arcs suggested that both bidirectional and undirectional replication occurred in vitro.

  8. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Mindaye


    Full Text Available Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5,6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results.

  9. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging. (United States)

    Mindaye, Samuel T; Lo Surdo, Jessica; Bauer, Steven R; Alterman, Michail A


    Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5], [6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results.

  10. [Toxicity of antiseptics on chondrocytes in vitro]. (United States)

    Schaumburger, J; Beckmann, J; Springorum, H-R; Handel, M; Anders, S; Kalteis, T; Grifka, J; Rath, B


    Local antiseptics are commonly used for perioperative skin and wound disinfection and as solutions for joint lavage. Therefore, we examined if an intra-articular use of these antiseptics is possible by using an IN VITRO chondrocyte model. Articular chondrocytes harvested from 7 patients were cultured. After reaching 80% confluency different concentrations (0%, 1%, 10%, 50%, 100%) of polyhexanide, hydrogen peroxide and povidone-iodine were added for 5 minutes. Afterwards, the solution was removed and the chondrocytes were cultured for 24 hours. Subsequently the vitality and proliferation rate (DNA synthesis) were analysed with the WST-1 and BrdU tests. 1% povidone-iodine and 1% hydrogen peroxide solutions significantly (p=0.001) decreased the chondrocyte vitality as compared to our control group. There was no significant difference (p=0.71) after the application of 1% polyhexanide in the vitality ratios. A significant decrease in vitality was also observed after the application of 10% polyhexanide solution (p=0.001). Application of 1% povidone-iodine solution, 1% hydrogen peroxide solution and 10% polyhexanide revealed a decrease in the metabolic cell activity of 80% compared to our control group, whereas the activity was 65% (p=0.026) compared to the control group after application of 1% polyhexanide solution. Our results demonstrate the chondrotoxic effect of the tested antiseptic solutions in clinical used concentrations within short time points. Polyhexanide in a low concentrated solution (1%) was the antiseptic with the lowest influence on the vitality and the DNA synthesis of chondrocytes. Thus, this antiseptic solution seemed to be the best choice for intra-articular application. But overall, our study showed general limitations for the intra-articular use of local antiseptics. Copyright (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  11. In vitro orthodontic bracket bonding to porcelain. (United States)

    Al-Hity, R; Gustin, M-P; Bridel, N; Morgon, L; Grosgogeat, B


    This in vitro study investigated the influence of using different combinations of bracket, adhesive, and light-curing source on the tensile bond strength to porcelain and on failure patterns at debonding. Tensile tests were performed using: one ceramic bracket versus one metal bracket, two orthodontic composites; type bisphenol A-glycidyldimethacrylate and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), and four light-curing units with the same range of emission spectrum but various light intensities: three light-emitting diode (LED) units and one halogen-based unit. One hundred and sixty porcelain samples were randomly divided into 16 equal groups. The porcelain surface was conditioned with 9 per cent hydrofluoric acid before silane application. The composite was photo-polymerized for 40 seconds. After storage in water at 37°C for 24 hours, the samples were subjected to tensile force until bond failure. Bond strength and bond failure mode were recorded; results were analysed (α = 0.05) using R language; linear model with constant variance for the bond strength and multinomial distribution for the failure mode. The bond strength in all groups was sufficient to withstand orthodontic treatment (>6 MPa). There was no statistical difference between the adhesives, but comparing bracket × light interaction, it was significantly higher with the ceramic bracket. No significant differences were seen between the metal bracket groups, but for the ceramic bracket, the results were significantly higher with the LED light. No fracture was observed in porcelain with the metal bracket but it occurred in 35 per cent of the ceramic bracket samples and the risk was higher when using UDMA composite and lower with LED high intensity light.

  12. Comparison of different anticoagulant associations on haemostasis and biochemical analyses in feline blood specimens. (United States)

    Granat, Fanny; Monzali, Céline; Jeunesse, Elisabeth; Guerlin, Maud; Trumel, Catherine; Geffré, Anne; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie


    Objectives Universal anticoagulant could be an alternative to the multiple blood sampling required for clinical pathology investigations in cats. An association of citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) has been reported to be a good substitute for EDTA for haematology analysis in cats, limiting platelet clumping, and has also been shown to be valid for haematology, secondary haemostasis and some biochemical variables in humans. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the effects of CTAD on in vitro platelet aggregation and compare results of secondary haemostasis and biochemistry tests, excluding a priori those variables not reliably measured in CTAD, such as sodium, chloride and divalent cations, in feline blood specimens collected in CTAD and paired citrate and heparin tubes. Methods Thirty blood specimens sampled in citrate and CTAD were analysed for in vitro platelet aggregation, and 60 blood specimens sampled in citrate or heparin and CTAD were analysed for plasma coagulation and a biochemistry panel. Results In vitro platelet aggregation was inhibited in CTAD compared with citrate specimens. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin and fibrinogen results were similar, despite some significant differences. Measurements of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, urea, creatinine, phosphate, total proteins and alanine aminotransferase activity were similar and well correlated in CTAD and heparin plasmas, despite some significant differences and moderate biases. Albumin showed a marked positive proportional bias, and creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase activities a moderate and marked negative mixed bias, respectively, but could be measured in CTAD if new reference intervals were calculated. Aspartate aminotransferase activity showed a marked negative proportional bias, along with a poor correlation and some clinical misclassifications just like the potassium concentration, and thus cannot be recommended

  13. New environmental metabarcodes for analysing soil DNA: potential for studying past and present ecosystems. (United States)

    Epp, Laura S; Boessenkool, Sanne; Bellemain, Eva P; Haile, James; Esposito, Alfonso; Riaz, Tiayyba; Erséus, Christer; Gusarov, Vladimir I; Edwards, Mary E; Johnsen, Arild; Stenøien, Hans K; Hassel, Kristian; Kauserud, Håvard; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Willerslev, Eske; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Brochmann, Christian


    Metabarcoding approaches use total and typically degraded DNA from environmental samples to analyse biotic assemblages and can potentially be carried out for any kinds of organisms in an ecosystem. These analyses rely on specific markers, here called metabarcodes, which should be optimized for taxonomic resolution, minimal bias in amplification of the target organism group and short sequence length. Using bioinformatic tools, we developed metabarcodes for several groups of organisms: fungi, bryophytes, enchytraeids, beetles and birds. The ability of these metabarcodes to amplify the target groups was systematically evaluated by (i) in silico PCRs using all standard sequences in the EMBL public database as templates, (ii) in vitro PCRs of DNA extracts from surface soil samples from a site in Varanger, northern Norway and (iii) in vitro PCRs of DNA extracts from permanently frozen sediment samples of late-Pleistocene age (~16,000-50,000 years bp) from two Siberian sites, Duvanny Yar and Main River. Comparison of the results from the in silico PCR with those obtained in vitro showed that the in silico approach offered a reliable estimate of the suitability of a marker. All target groups were detected in the environmental DNA, but we found large variation in the level of detection among the groups and between modern and ancient samples. Success rates for the Pleistocene samples were highest for fungal DNA, whereas bryophyte, beetle and bird sequences could also be retrieved, but to a much lesser degree. The metabarcoding approach has considerable potential for biodiversity screening of modern samples and also as a palaeoecological tool. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs (United States)

    Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.


    A group of undergraduate researchers through the SURE internship offered by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have examined thermal springs in southern Idaho, northern Utah as well as mud volcanoes in the Salton Sea, California. We used an integrated approach to estimate the setting and maximum temperature, including water chemistry, Ipad-based image and data-base management, microbiology, and gas analyses with a modified Giggenbach sampler.All springs were characterized using GISRoam (tmCogent3D). We are performing geothermometry calculations as well as comparisons with temperature gradient data on the results while also analyzing biological samples. Analyses include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and TDS measured in the field. Each sample is sealed and chilled and delivered to a water lab within 12 hours.Temperatures are continuously monitored with the use of Solinst Levelogger Juniors. Through partnership with a local community college geology club, we receive results on a monthly basis and are able to process initial data earlier in order to evaluate data over a longer time span. The springs and mudpots contained microbial organisms which were analyzed using methods of single colony isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing showing the impact of the organisms on the springs or vice versa. Soon we we will collect gas samples at sites that show signs of gas. This will be taken using a hybrid of the Giggenbach method and our own methods. Drawing gas samples has proven a challenge, however we devised a method to draw out gas samples utilizing the Giggenbach flask, transferring samples to glass blood sample tubes, replacing NaOH in the Giggenbach flask, and evacuating it in the field for multiple samples using a vacuum pump. We also use a floating platform devised to carry and lower a levelogger, to using an in-line fuel filter from a tractor in order to keep mud from contaminating the equipment.The use of raster

  15. Predicting effects on oxaliplatin clearance: in vitro, kinetic and clinical studies of calcium- and magnesium-mediated oxaliplatin degradation. (United States)

    Han, Catherine H; Khwaounjoo, Prashannata; Hill, Andrew G; Miskelly, Gordon M; McKeage, Mark J


    This study evaluated the impact of calcium and magnesium on the in vitro degradation and in vivo clearance of oxaliplatin. Intact oxaliplatin and Pt(DACH)Cl2 were measured in incubation solutions by HPLC-UV. A clinical study determined changes in plasma concentrations of calcium and magnesium in cancer patients and their impact on oxaliplatin clearance. Kinetic analyses modelled oxaliplatin degradation reactions in vitro and contributions to oxaliplatin clearance in vivo. Calcium and magnesium accelerated oxaliplatin degradation to Pt(DACH)Cl2 in chloride-containing solutions in vitro. Kinetic models based on calcium and magnesium binding to a monochloro-monooxalato ring-opened anionic oxaliplatin intermediate fitted the in vitro degradation time-course data. In cancer patients, calcium and magnesium plasma concentrations varied and were increased by giving calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate infusions, but did not alter or correlate with oxaliplatin clearance. The intrinsic in vitro clearance of oxaliplatin attributed to chloride-, calcium- and magnesium-mediated degradation predicted contributions of vitro degradation of oxaliplatin by binding to a monochloro-monooxalato ring-opened anionic intermediate. Kinetic analysis of in vitro oxaliplatin stability data can be used for in vitro prediction of potential effects on oxaliplatin clearance in vivo.

  16. Finite Element analyses of soil bioengineered slopes (United States)

    Tamagnini, Roberto; Switala, Barbara Maria; Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Wu, Wei; Graf, Frank; Auer, Michael; te Kamp, Lothar


    Soil Bioengineering methods are not only effective from an economical point of view, but they are also interesting as fully ecological solutions. The presented project is aimed to define a numerical model which includes the impact of vegetation on slope stability, considering both mechanical and hydrological effects. In this project, a constitutive model has been developed that accounts for the multi-phase nature of the soil, namely the partly saturated condition and it also includes the effects of a biological component. The constitutive equation is implemented in the Finite Element (FE) software Comes-Geo with an implicit integration scheme that accounts for the collapse of the soils structure due to wetting. The mathematical formulation of the constitutive equations is introduced by means of thermodynamics and it simulates the growth of the biological system during the time. The numerical code is then applied in the analysis of an ideal rainfall induced landslide. The slope is analyzed for vegetated and non-vegetated conditions. The final results allow to quantitatively assessing the impact of vegetation on slope stability. This allows drawing conclusions and choosing whenever it is worthful to use soil bioengineering methods in slope stabilization instead of traditional approaches. The application of the FE methods show some advantages with respect to the commonly used limit equilibrium analyses, because it can account for the real coupled strain-diffusion nature of the problem. The mechanical strength of roots is in fact influenced by the stress evolution into the slope. Moreover, FE method does not need a pre-definition of any failure surface. FE method can also be used in monitoring the progressive failure of the soil bio-engineered system as it calculates the amount of displacements and strains of the model slope. The preliminary study results show that the formulated equations can be useful for analysis and evaluation of different soil bio

  17. Assessing the reproducibility of discriminant function analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose L. Andrew


    Full Text Available Data are the foundation of empirical research, yet all too often the datasets underlying published papers are unavailable, incorrect, or poorly curated. This is a serious issue, because future researchers are then unable to validate published results or reuse data to explore new ideas and hypotheses. Even if data files are securely stored and accessible, they must also be accompanied by accurate labels and identifiers. To assess how often problems with metadata or data curation affect the reproducibility of published results, we attempted to reproduce Discriminant Function Analyses (DFAs from the field of organismal biology. DFA is a commonly used statistical analysis that has changed little since its inception almost eight decades ago, and therefore provides an opportunity to test reproducibility among datasets of varying ages. Out of 100 papers we initially surveyed, fourteen were excluded because they did not present the common types of quantitative result from their DFA or gave insufficient details of their DFA. Of the remaining 86 datasets, there were 15 cases for which we were unable to confidently relate the dataset we received to the one used in the published analysis. The reasons ranged from incomprehensible or absent variable labels, the DFA being performed on an unspecified subset of the data, or the dataset we received being incomplete. We focused on reproducing three common summary statistics from DFAs: the percent variance explained, the percentage correctly assigned and the largest discriminant function coefficient. The reproducibility of the first two was fairly high (20 of 26, and 44 of 60 datasets, respectively, whereas our success rate with the discriminant function coefficients was lower (15 of 26 datasets. When considering all three summary statistics, we were able to completely reproduce 46 (65% of 71 datasets. While our results show that a majority of studies are reproducible, they highlight the fact that many studies

  18. Himalayan Ice Core Analyses With Snow Algae (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kohshima, S.; Takeuchi, N.; Seko, K.; Fujita, K.


    Snow algae in a shallow ice core (7 m in length) from the Yala Glacier, Langtang region of Nepal, were examined for potential use in ice core analyses. Ice core samples taken at 5350 m a.s.l. in 1994, contained more than 7 species of snow algae. In a vertical profile of the algal biomass, 11 distinct algal layers were observed. Seasonal observation in 1996 at the coring site indicated most algal growth to occur from late spring to late summer. Pit observation in 1991, 1992 and 1994 indicated algal layer formation to take place annually. Delta 18O, chemical ions (Na+, Cl-, SO42-, and NO3-) and microparticles failed to show any clear seasonal variation, particularly so at depths exceeding 2 m, possibly due to heavy melt-water percolation. Snow algae in the ice core would thus be accurate boundary markers of annual layers in the ice cores of this region. Algal biomass in each annual layer was noted to be quite closely correlated with the following two environmental indices calculated from air temperature and precipitation at Kyangjing (3,920 m a.s.l.), the village nearest the Yala Glacier: estimated mean snow cover thickness (MST) and estimated summer mass balance (SMB) (n = 6, r = -0.975, P snow cover thickness on algal layers, which would be a major determinant of light available for algal growth on the glacier. The algal biomass was also found to be roughly correlated with air temperature (n = 7, r = 0.773, P snow algae. Snow algal biomass in an ice core should prove a good environmental marker for indicating summer mass balance which is important for understanding summer-accumulation-type glaciers in this region.

  19. Summary of the analyses for recovery factors (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.


    IntroductionIn order to determine the hydrocarbon potential of oil reservoirs within the U.S. sedimentary basins for which the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process has been considered suitable, the CO2 Prophet model was chosen by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to be the primary source for estimating recovery-factor values for individual reservoirs. The choice was made because of the model’s reliability and the ease with which it can be used to assess a large number of reservoirs. The other two approaches—the empirical decline curve analysis (DCA) method and a review of published literature on CO2-EOR projects—were deployed to verify the results of the CO2 Prophet model. This chapter discusses the results from CO2 Prophet (chapter B, by Emil D. Attanasi, this report) and compares them with results from decline curve analysis (chapter C, by Hossein Jahediesfanjani) and those reported in the literature for selected reservoirs with adequate data for analyses (chapter D, by Ricardo A. Olea).To estimate the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential for oil reservoirs where CO2-EOR has been applied, two of the three approaches—CO2 Prophet modeling and DCA—do not include analysis of economic factors, while the third approach—review of published literature—implicitly includes economics. For selected reservoirs, DCA has provided estimates of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, which, in combination with calculated amounts of original oil in place (OOIP), helped establish incremental CO2-EOR recovery factors for individual reservoirs.The review of published technical papers and reports has provided substantial information on recovery factors for 70 CO2-EOR projects that are either commercially profitable or classified as pilot tests. When comparing the results, it is important to bear in mind the differences and limitations of these three approaches.

  20. On categorizations in analyses of alcohol teratogenesis. (United States)

    Sampson, P D; Streissguth, A P; Bookstein, F L; Barr, H M


    In biomedical scientific investigations, expositions of findings are conceptually simplest when they comprise comparisons of discrete groups of individuals or involve discrete features or characteristics of individuals. But the descriptive benefits of categorization become outweighed by their limitations in studies involving dose-response relationships, as in many teratogenic and environmental exposure studies. This article addresses a pair of categorization issues concerning the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure that have important public health consequences: the labeling of individuals as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) versus fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), and the categorization of prenatal exposure dose by thresholds. We present data showing that patients with FAS and others with FAE do not have meaningfully different behavioral performance, standardized scores of IQ, arithmetic and adaptive behavior, or secondary disabilities. Similarly overlapping distributions on measures of executive functioning offer a basis for identifying alcohol-affected individuals in a manner that does not simply reflect IQ deficits. At the other end of the teratological continuum, we turn to the reporting of threshold effects in dose-response relationships. Here we illustrate the importance of multivariate analyses using data from the Seattle, Washington, longitudinal prospective study on alcohol and pregnancy. Relationships between many neurobehavioral outcomes and measures of prenatal alcohol exposure are monotone without threshold down to the lowest nonzero levels of exposure, a finding consistent with reports from animal studies. In sum, alcohol effects on the developing human brain appear to be a continuum without threshold when dose and behavioral effects are quantified appropriately.

  1. Sensitivity analyses for four pesticide leaching models. (United States)

    Dubus, Igor G; Brown, Colin D; Beulke, Sabine


    Sensitivity analyses using a one-at-a-time approach were carried out for leaching models which have been widely used for pesticide registration in Europe (PELMO, PRZM, PESTLA and MACRO). Four scenarios were considered for simulation of the leaching of two theoretical pesticides in a sandy loam and a clay loam soil, each with a broad distribution across Europe. Input parameters were varied within bounds reflecting their uncertainty and the influence of these variations on model predictions was investigated for accumulated percolation at 1-m depth and pesticide loading in leachate. Predictions for the base-case scenarios differed between chromatographic models and the preferential flow model MACRO for which large but transient pesticide losses were predicted in the clay loam. Volumes of percolated water predicted by the four models were affected by a small number of input parameters and to a small extent only, suggesting that meteorological variables will be the main drivers of water balance predictions. In contrast to percolation, predictions for pesticide loss were found to be sensitive to a large number of input parameters and to a much greater extent. Parameters which had the largest influence on the prediction of pesticide loss were generally those related to chemical sorption (Freundlich exponent nf and distribution coefficient Kf) and degradation (either degradation rates or DT50, QTEN value). Nevertheless, a significant influence of soil properties (field capacity, bulk density or parameters defining the boundary between flow domains in MACRO) was also noted in at least one scenario for all models. Large sensitivities were reported for all models, especially PELMO and PRZM, and sensitivity was greater where only limited leaching was simulated. Uncertainty should be addressed in risk assessment procedures for crop-protection products.

  2. Influence of supplemental aminooligosaccharides on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Effects of chicory inulin on ruminal fermentation in vitro. Ankara Üniv. Vet. Fak. Derg. 56, 171-175. Shibata, T.H., 1985. Studies on the utilization of pasture herbage nitrogen by rumen microorganisms 2. Effects of carbohydrate and lipid material on the microbial utilization of rumen ammonia in vitro. Grassl. Sci. 31, 322-331.

  3. Analyse textuelle des discours: Niveaux ou plans d´analyse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Adam


    Full Text Available L’article porte sur la théorie de l´Analyse Textuelle des Discours, à partir d´une reprisede la traduction brésilienne de La linguistique textuelle: introduction à l’analyse textuelle desdiscours (Cortez, 2008. L’ATD est pensée en fonction de trois observations préliminaires: lalinguistique textuelle est une des disciplines de l’analyse de discours, le texte est l’objet d’analysede l’ATD, et, dès qu’il y a texte, c’est-à-dire reconnaissance du fait qu’une suite d’énoncésforme un tout de communication, il y a effet de généricité, c’est-à-dire inscription de cette suited’énoncés dans une classe de discours. Le modèle théorique de l’ATD est éclairé par une reprisede son schéma 4, où sont représentés huit niveaux d’analyse. L´ATD est abordée sous l’angled’une double exigence – des raisons théoriques et des raisons méthodologiques et didactiquesqui conduisent à ces niveaux – et sont détaillées et illustrées les cinq plans ou niveaux d’analysetextuelle. Pour finir, des parties de l’oeuvre sont reprises et élargies, avec d’autres analyses où denouveaux aspcts théoriques sont détaillés.

  4. Integrative proteomics and biochemical analyses define Ptc6p as the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. (United States)

    Guo, Xiao; Niemi, Natalie M; Coon, Joshua J; Pagliarini, David J


    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is the primary metabolic checkpoint connecting glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and is important for maintaining cellular and organismal glucose homeostasis. Phosphorylation of the PDC E1 subunit was identified as a key inhibitory modification in bovine tissue ∼50 years ago, and this regulatory process is now known to be conserved throughout evolution. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pervasive model organism for investigating cellular metabolism and its regulation by signaling processes, the phosphatase(s) responsible for activating the PDC in S. cerevisiae has not been conclusively defined. Here, using comparative mitochondrial phosphoproteomics, analyses of protein-protein interactions by affinity enrichment-mass spectrometry, and in vitro biochemistry, we define Ptc6p as the primary PDC phosphatase in S. cerevisiae Our analyses further suggest additional substrates for related S. cerevisiae phosphatases and describe the overall phosphoproteomic changes that accompany mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction. In summary, our quantitative proteomics and biochemical analyses have identified Ptc6p as the primary-and likely sole-S. cerevisiae PDC phosphatase, closing a key knowledge gap about the regulation of yeast mitochondrial metabolism. Our findings highlight the power of integrative omics and biochemical analyses for annotating the functions of poorly characterized signaling proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Genome-Facilitated Analyses of Geomicrobial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth H. Nealson


    that makes up chitin, virtually all of the strains were in fact capable. This led to the discovery of a great many new genes involved with chitin and NAG metabolism (7). In a similar vein, a detailed study of the sugar utilization pathway revealed a major new insight into the regulation of sugar metabolism in this genus (19). Systems Biology and Comparative Genomics of the shewanellae: Several publications were put together describing the use of comparative genomics for analyses of the group Shewanella, and these were a logical culmination of our genomic-driven research (10,15,18). Eight graduate students received their Ph.D. degrees doing part of the work described here, and four postdoctoral fellows were supported. In addition, approximately 20 undergraduates took part in projects during the grant period.

  6. In vitro shoot proliferation and in vitro and ex vitro root formation of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas. (United States)

    Aygun, Ahmet; Dumanoglu, Hatice


    Shoot-tip cultures of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas, an important gene source for drought and chlorosis resistance in pear rootstock breeding, were established from a wild mature tree originated from seed. Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combination with auxin was used in the study. In the initial culture, the highest percentages (>80%) of shoot proliferation were obtained in the mediums supplemented with 9.0 μM BA and 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid. In the subcultures, the highest shoot proliferation rates were obtained in the medium containing 4.5 and 9.0 μM BA. The shoot proliferation rates ranged from 91.1 ± 2.4 to 96.4 ± 2.0% in the second subculture and from 76.7 ± 7.8 to 89.4 ± 3.3% in the third subculture. In the second subculture, the shoots grown on 9.0 μM BA without auxin produced the best proliferation (10.6 ± 1.6). For the in vitro rooting experiments, the highest rooting rate (54.2 ± 10.4%), root length (10.5 ± 2.4 mm), and root number (2.5 ± 0.6) were obtained from 10 days dark treatment on the medium containing half strength of macronutrients supplemented with 5 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). For the ex vitro rooting experiments, shoot rooting was significantly influenced by 10 mM IBA applied as quick-dip method. The percentage of rooting was 55 ± 9.6% and root number was 1.8 ± 0.3 at this concentration.

  7. Effect of reporting bias on meta-analyses of drug trials: reanalysis of meta-analyses. (United States)

    Hart, Beth; Lundh, Andreas; Bero, Lisa


    To investigate the effect of including unpublished trial outcome data obtained from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the results of meta-analyses of drug trials. Reanalysis of meta-analyses. Drug trials with unpublished outcome data for new molecular entities that were approved by the FDA between 2001 and 2002 were identified. For each drug, eligible systematic reviews containing at least one meta-analysis were identified by searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library in November 2010. Selection criteria Eligible systematic reviews were done after FDA approval of the drug, were published in English, and had outcomes and comparators that were the same as those of the trials with unpublished FDA trial outcomes, and the characteristics of participants in the systematic reviews were consistent with the FDA approved indication for the drug. Clinical guidelines, conference proceedings, duplicate systematic reviews, and systematic reviews in which included trials were not referenced or that combined trials across multiple drug classes were excluded. Systematic reviews using non-standard meta-analytic techniques (such as Bayesian or network meta-analyses) and those that used inappropriate or invalid methods for calculation of summary statistics (such as unweighted pooled analyses) were also excluded. Two authors independently extracted data from both the published systematic reviews and the FDA's medical and statistical reviews of the trials submitted to FDA. Summary statistics (risk ratios, odds ratios, or weighted mean differences) for relevant outcomes with and without unpublished FDA trial data. 42 meta-analyses (41 efficacy outcomes, one harm outcome) for nine drugs across six drug classes were reanalysed. Overall, addition of unpublished FDA trial data caused 46% (19/41) of the summary estimates from the meta-analyses to show lower efficacy of the drug, 7% (3/41) to show identical efficacy, and 46% (19/41) to show greater efficacy. The summary

  8. First Super-Earth Atmosphere Analysed (United States)


    The atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet has been analysed for the first time by an international team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope. The planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, was studied as it passed in front of its parent star and some of the starlight passed through the planet's atmosphere. We now know that the atmosphere is either mostly water in the form of steam or is dominated by thick clouds or hazes. The results will appear in the 2 December 2010 issue of the journal Nature. The planet GJ 1214b was confirmed in 2009 using the HARPS instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope in Chile (eso0950) [1]. Initial findings suggested that this planet had an atmosphere, which has now been confirmed and studied in detail by an international team of astronomers, led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is the first super-Earth to have its atmosphere analysed. We've reached a real milestone on the road toward characterising these worlds," said Bean. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.6 times that of the Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. Its host star lies about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer). It is a faint star [2], but it is also small, which means that the size of the planet is large compared to the stellar disc, making it relatively easy to study [3]. The planet travels across the disc of its parent star once every 38 hours as it orbits at a distance of only two million kilometres: about seventy times closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. To study the atmosphere, the team observed the light coming from the star as the planet passed in front of it [4]. During these transits, some of the starlight passes through the planet's atmosphere and, depending on the chemical composition and weather on the planet, specific wavelengths of light are

  9. Do alternative methods for analysing count data produce similar estimates? Implications for meta-analyses. (United States)

    Herbison, Peter; Robertson, M Clare; McKenzie, Joanne E


    Many randomised trials have count outcomes, such as the number of falls or the number of asthma exacerbations. These outcomes have been treated as counts, continuous outcomes or dichotomised and analysed using a variety of analytical methods. This study examines whether different methods of analysis yield estimates of intervention effect that are similar enough to be reasonably pooled in a meta-analysis. Data were simulated for 10,000 randomised trials under three different amounts of overdispersion, four different event rates and two effect sizes. Each simulated trial was analysed using nine different methods of analysis: rate ratio, Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, risk ratio from dichotomised data, survival to the first event, two methods of adjusting for multiple survival times, ratio of means and ratio of medians. Individual patient data was gathered from eight fall prevention trials, and similar analyses were undertaken. All methods produced similar effect sizes when there was no difference between treatments. Results were similar when there was a moderate difference with two exceptions when the event became more common: (1) risk ratios computed from dichotomised count outcomes and hazard ratios from survival analysis of the time to the first event yielded intervention effects that differed from rate ratios estimated from the negative binomial model (reference model) and (2) the precision of the estimates differed depending on the method used, which may affect both the pooled intervention effect and the observed heterogeneity. The results of the case study of individual data from eight trials evaluating exercise programmes to prevent falls in older people supported the simulation study findings. Information about the differences in treatments is lost when event rates increase and the outcome is dichotomised or time to the first event is analysed otherwise similar results are obtained. Further research is needed to examine the effect of

  10. Multitracer study with positron emission tomography in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, Henry [Uppsala University PET Centre, Uppsala University Hospital, SE 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Neurology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Per Olov [Department of Neurology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ekbom, Karl [Department of Neurology, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Nennesmo, Inger [Department of Pathology, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Anna; Bergstroem, Mats; Hartvig, Per; Laangstroem, Bengt [Uppsala University PET Centre, Uppsala University Hospital, SE 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Tsukada, Hideo [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.Central Research Lab, Hamakita City (Japan)


    During the period February 1997 to April 2000, 15 patients with clinical symptoms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were referred to Uppsala University PET Centre. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed to detect characteristic signs of the disease, e.g. neuronal death and/or astrocytosis in the brain. The examinations were performed in one session starting with oxygen-15 labelled water scan to measure regional cerebral blood flow, followed by imaging with the monoamine oxidase B inhibitor N-[{sup 11}C-methyl]-L-deuterodeprenyl (DED) to assess astrocytosis in the brain and finally imaging with fluorine-18 2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to assess regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMR{sub glu}). Nine of the patients fulfilled the clinical criteria of probable CJD. In eight of them, FDG and DED imaging revealed, in comparison with normal controls, a typical pattern characterized by a pronounced regional decrease (<2SD) in glucose brain metabolism, indicative of neuronal dysfunction; this was accompanied by a similar increase (>2SD) in DED binding, indicating astrocytosis. These changes were most pronounced in the cerebellum and the frontal, occipital and parietal cortices, whereas the pons, the thalamus and the putamen were less affected and the temporal cortex appeared unaffected. The cerebral blood flow showed a pattern similar to that observed with FDG. In the ninth patient, analysis with DED was not possible. The diagnosis of definite CJD according to international consensus criteria was confirmed in six of these patients. In one patient with probable CJD, protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) could not be demonstrated. In two patients with probable CJD, autopsy was not allowed. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, performed in four and seven of these nine patients respectively, showed unspecific, mainly atrophic changes. In six other patients, the PET examinations gave a different pattern. In three of them, high rCMR{sub glu} was noticed in parts of the brain, particularly in the temporal lobes and basal ganglia, which could suggest encephalitis. One of the patients had Sjoegren's syndrome, one had paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and the third recovered spontaneously. In the other three patients, the DED binding was normal despite a hypometabolic glucose pattern. In conclusion, the PET findings obtained using DED and FDG paralleled neuropathological findings indicating neuronal dysfunction and astrocytosis, changes that are found in CJD. (orig.)

  11. Cholinergic activity and levodopa-induced dyskinesia: a multitracer molecular imaging study. (United States)

    Brumberg, Joachim; Küsters, Sebastian; Al-Momani, Ehab; Marotta, Giorgio; Cosgrove, Kelly P; van Dyck, Christopher H; Herrmann, Ken; Homola, György A; Pezzoli, Gianni; Buck, Andreas K; Volkmann, Jens; Samnick, Samuel; Isaias, Ioannis U


    To investigate the association between levodopa-induced dyskinesias and striatal cholinergic activity in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study included 13 Parkinson's disease patients with peak-of-dose levodopa-induced dyskinesias, 12 nondyskinetic patients, and 12 healthy controls. Participants underwent 5-[123I]iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine single-photon emission computed tomography, a marker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, [123I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single-photon emission computed tomography, to measure dopamine reuptake transporter density and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography to assess regional cerebral metabolic activity. Striatal binding potentials, uptake values at basal ganglia structures, and correlations with clinical variables were analyzed. Density of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the caudate nucleus of dyskinetic subjects was similar to that of healthy controls and significantly higher to that of nondyskinetic patients, in particular, contralaterally to the clinically most affected side. Our findings support the hypothesis that the expression of dyskinesia may be related to cholinergic neuronal excitability in a dopaminergic-depleted striatum. Cholinergic signaling would play a role in maintaining striatal dopaminergic responsiveness, possibly defining disease phenotype and progression.

  12. Tracing aquifer-surface water and aquifer-aquifer interactions using a multi-tracer approach (United States)

    Demuth, Myriam; Stumpp, Christine


    Conserving a good groundwater quality is a major challenge because of its importance as a reservoir for drinking water. Influxes from surface water, especially input of nitrate, can deteriorate groundwater quality. The objective of our project was to i) investigate aquifer-surface water interactions and ii) trace aquifer-aquifer interactions concerning the separation between three porous aquifers. The investigation area is located in Bavaria, Southern Germany and contains three aquifers A-C (quaternary sediment) that were described as three separated flow systems to date. Two rivers 1 -2 drain the investigation area. The sampling campaign (Apr-Oct 2012) included three sampling locations along the streams, six wells in aquifer A and three wells each in aquifers B and C. The water samples were analyzed for concentration of anions (Cl-, SO42-, NO3-), cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+), electrical conductivity, water temperature, pH, oxygen and stable isotopes of water (^18O, ^2H), which were used as environmental tracers. Our results showed that only one out of three groundwater wells close to river 1 indicated river water infiltration into the groundwater due to elevated concentration of sulfate and depleted concentration of calcium and magnesium compared to the rest of the aquifer. The water chemistry of all other groundwater wells at river 1 and all sites at river 2 did not show any similarity with river water. By that, we assume that no river water infiltrated into groundwater but we cannot exclude groundwater infiltration into the rivers. Contrary to prior knowledge assumptions, aquifer-aquifer interaction took place in all three monitored aquifers. The results of stable isotopes of water and ions indicated that aquifers B and C are constantly connected to aquifer A at certain sites. The monitoring of groundwater and river water sites in the investigation area points to a heterogeneous groundwater flow regime particularly in aquifer A. Regarding the conservation of a good groundwater quality, in all observed sites the level of nitrate concentration is below 10 mg/L and constant over time.

  13. Multi-tracer approach to characterize domestic wood burning in Athens (Greece) during wintertime (United States)

    Fourtziou, L.; Liakakou, E.; Stavroulas, I.; Theodosi, C.; Zarmpas, P.; Psiloglou, B.; Sciare, J.; Maggos, T.; Bairachtari, K.; Bougiatioti, A.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Bonnaire, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.


    During the last years the atmosphere of the Great Athens Area (GAA) and other Greek cities is burdened from extended residential biomass burning for heating purposes. In this work, a series of near real-time and off-line biomass burning tracers are analyzed during intense wood burning events in Athens. The measurements were conducted at an urban background site located in the center of Athens, and in the heart of wood burning activities (winter 2013-2014). The measured tracers include high resolution measurements of non-sea salt potassium (nss-K+), wood burning black carbon (BCwb), the m/z 60 fragment associated with levoglucosan and monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) determined on selected filter samples. The suitability of these tracers was evaluated when the prevailing meteorological conditions with low dispersion and deposition mechanisms (low wind speed, absence of precipitation) were associated with high biomass burning emissions at nighttime. During the severe smog periods, the levels of K+, BCwb, m/z 60 and levoglucosan were up to 2.2 μg m-3, 12.5 μg m-3, 3.4 μg m-3 and 8.6 μg m-3, respectively, higher by a factor of at least two, relatively to the non smog periods due to biomass burning. Correlations between biomass burning tracers as well as between monosaccharide anhydrides provided information about the type of material and wood being burned.

  14. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses, Volume 1: Scientific Bases and Analyses, Rev 00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dobson


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23 013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054] [DIRS 124754]). By making the large amount of information developed on Yucca Mountain available in stages, the DOE intends to provide the public and interested parties with time to review the available materials and to formulate and

  15. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology. (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza


    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the radiosynthesis and in vitro characteristics of [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend Borup; Käkelä, Meeri; Jødal, Lars


    (Siglec-9) "CARLSLSWRGLTLCPSK" bind to VAP-1 and hence makes the radioactive analogues of this compound ([68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9) interesting as a non-invasive visualizing marker of inflammation. Three different approaches to the radiosynthesis of [68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 are presented and compared...... analysed in vitro in mouse, rat, rabbit, pig, and human plasma and compared to in vivo pig results. The plasma in vitro protein binding of [68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 was the lowest in the pig followed by rabbit, human, rat, and mouse. It was considerably higher in the in vivo pig experiments. The in vivo...... stability in pigs was lower than the in vitro stability. Despite considerable species differences, the observed characteristics of [68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 are suitable as a PET tracer....

  17. In Vitro Assembly of Catalase* (United States)

    Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars


    Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process. PMID:25148685

  18. In vitro assembly of catalase. (United States)

    Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars


    Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Regeneration of Pelargonium in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wojtania


    Full Text Available Pelargonium sp. has been a subject of numerous studies to deterimine the effec tiveness of in vitro techniques to produce a large number of pathogen-free plants. Regeneration of pelargonium plants from the different initial explants as well via organogenesis as via somatic embryogenesis has been obtained. The most effective adventitious shoot formation has been achieved from shoot tips and axillary buds using cytokinin or cytokinin/auxin combinations. Leaf explants, whose general have lower organogenic potency, regenerate better in the presence of thidiazuron. This growth regulator stimulate the somatic embryos production from hypocotyl and cotyledone explants too. The main problem in tissue culture propagation of Pelargonium has been the high tendency to formation of vigorously growing callus with low organogenic potency and rapid senescence of cultures. Moreover, the significant differen ces in requirements to the medium composition (minerals, organic compounds and growth regulators between Pelargonium cultivars has been observed. This makes difficult to develop an universaI method of Pelargonium micropropagation.

  20. Cryotolerance of porcine in vitro-produced blastocysts relies on blastocyst stage and length of in vitro culture prior to vitrification. (United States)

    Morató, Roser; Castillo-Martín, Míriam; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi


    The aim of our study was to assess whether the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced embryos could be influenced by the length of in vitro culture and size of blastocoel cavity before vitrification, using the pig as a model. For this purpose we analysed the cryoresistance and apoptosis rate of blastocysts at different stages of development as derived on Day 5 and 6 of in vitro culture. Blastocysts were subsequently vitrified, warmed and cultured for 24h. Re-expansion rates were recorded at 3 and 24h and total cell number and apoptotic cells were determined at 24h. Day-6 blastocysts showed the highest rates of survival after warming, which indicates higher quality compared with Day-5 blastocysts. Higher re-expansion rates were observed for expanded blastocysts and those in the process of hatching when compared with early blastocysts. Total cell number and apoptotic cells were affected by blastocyst stage, vitrification-warming procedures and length of in vitro culture, as expanding and hatching-hatched blastocysts from Day 6 presented higher percentages of apoptotic cells than fresh blastocysts and blastocysts vitrified at Day 5. Our findings suggest that the cryotop vitrification method is useful for the cryopreservation of porcine blastocysts presenting a high degree of expansion, particularly when vitrification is performed after 6 days of in vitro culture. Furthermore, these results show that faster embryo development underlies higher blastocyst cryotolerance and provide evidence that blastocoel cavity expansion before vitrification is a reliable index of in vitro-produced embryo quality and developmental potential.

  1. Criopreservacion de embriones bovinos producidos in vitro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, P; Jimenez, C


    .... Las investigaciones han continuado su desarrollo y se han dirigido hacia la criopreservacion de oocitos y embriones in vitro, los cuales necesitan diferentes metodologias para lograr una supervivencia aceptable...

  2. In vitro orthodontic bracket bonding to porcelain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hity, R; Gustin, M-P; Bridel, N; Morgon, L; Grosgogeat, B


    This in vitro study investigated the influence of using different combinations of bracket, adhesive, and light-curing source on the tensile bond strength to porcelain and on failure patterns at debonding...

  3. Tetrabromobisphenol A In vitro Dermal Absopriton Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption data of tetrabromobisphenol A using human cadaver and rat skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., M....

  4. 2006 In Vitro Biology Meeting. Volume 42

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harbell, John W


    In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology- Plant publishes peemreviewed original research and reviews concerned with the latest developments and state-of-the-art research in plant cell and tissue...

  5. In vitro propagation of Paphiopedilum orchids. (United States)

    Zeng, Songjun; Huang, Weichang; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Duan, Jun


    Paphiopedilum is one of the most popular and rare orchid genera. Members of the genus are sold and exhibited as pot plants and cut flowers. Wild populations of Paphiopedilum are under the threat of extinction due to over-collection and loss of suitable habitats. A reduction in their commercial value through large-scale propagation in vitro is an option to reduce pressure from illegal collection, to attempt to meet commercial needs and to re-establish threatened species back into the wild. Although they are commercially propagated via asymbiotic seed germination, Paphiopedilum are considered to be difficult to propagate in vitro, especially by plant regeneration from tissue culture. This review aims to cover the most important aspects and to provide an up-to-date research progress on in vitro propagation of Paphiopedilum and to emphasize the importance of further improving tissue culture protocols for ex vitro-derived explants.

  6. Intraocular Lens Fragmentation Using Femtosecond Laser: An In Vitro Study. (United States)

    Bala, Chandra; Shi, Jeffrey; Meades, Kerrie


    To transect intraocular lenses (IOLs) using a femtosecond laser in cadaveric human eyes. To determine the optimal in vitro settings, to detect and characterize gasses or particles generated during this process. A femtosecond laser was used to transect hydrophobic and hydrophilic acrylic lenses. The settings required to enable easy separation of the lens fragment were determined. The gasses and particles generated were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and total organic carbon analyzer (TOC), respectively. In vitro the IOL fragments easily separated at the lowest commercially available energy setting of 1 μJ, 8-μm spot, and 2-μm line separation. No particles were detected in the 0.5- to 900-μm range. No significant gasses or other organic breakdown by products were detected at this setting. At much higher energy levels 12 μJ (4 × 6 μm spot and line separation) significant pyrolytic products were detected, which could be harmful to the eye. In cadaveric explanted IOL capsule complex the laser pulses could be applied through the capsule to the IOL and successfully fragment the IOL. IOL transection is feasible with femtosecond lasers. Further in vivo animal studies are required to confirm safety. In clinical practice there are a number of large intraocular lenses that can be difficult to explant. This in-vitro study examines the possibility of transecting the lasers quickly using femtosecond lasers. If in-vivo studies are successful, then this innovation could help ophthalmic surgeons in IOL explantation.

  7. Enraizamento de plantas cultivadas in vitro


    SOUZA, A. V. de; PEREIRA, A. M. S.


    The adventitious rooting process of in vitro cultured plantlets is a technique that has been employed for the vegetative propagation of a significant number of native and exotic species. Many factors are associated with the rooting stage influencing positive and/or negatively the establishment of micropropagation protocols. The objective of this work was a literature review of the main inherent factors concerning in vitro rooting process including the correlation among others the endogenous a...

  8. Optimization of in vitro and ex vitro regeneration and micromorphological studies in Basella alba L. (United States)

    Shekhawat, Mahipal S; Manokari, M


    The optimum concentrations of the plant hormones for in vitro regeneration and subsequent effect of auxins on rooting (in vitro and ex vitro) of shoots of Basella alba L. have been investigated in present study. Nodal shoot segments were used as explants to initiate the cultures. The bud breaking from explants was observed within 1 week of incubation on agar gelled Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium. Multiple axillary shoots (7.30 ± 0.56 shoots per explant) were induced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The shoots were multiplied (maximum 17.10 ± 0.44 shoots per explant) on the same medium fortified with 0.5 mg/L each of BAP and Kin (Kinetin) +0.1 mg/L IAA. These shoots were excised and rooted in vitro (10.73 ± 0.92 roots per shoot) on half-strength MS medium augmented with 2.0 mg/L indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). Hundred percentage success rates have been achieved by ex vitro rooting of the in vitro regenerated shoots with IBA at 300 mg/L. The in vitro and ex vitro rooted shoots were acclimatized in greenhouse and subsequently transferred to the natural field conditions where 100 % survival rate was reported. The ex vitro rooting method was found more advantageous than in vitro rooting in terms of time, energy and survival percentage of B. alba. A comparative foliar micromorphological study of B. alba was conducted to understand the micromorphological changes in plants while shifting from in vitro to the in vivo conditions in terms of variations in stomatal index, venation pattern and vein density, and the arrangement of crystals. The study could help in understanding the response of in vitro raised plants towards in vivo environment.

  9. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, David M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Guenther, Chris P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Shekhawat, Dushyant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); VanEssendelft, Dirk T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Means, Nicholas C. [AECOM Technology Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    in process piping and materials, in excessive off-gas absorbent loading, and in undesired process emissions. The ash content of the coal is important as the ash adds to the DMR and other vessel products which affect the final waste product mass and composition. The amount and composition of the ash also affects the reaction kinetics. Thus ash content and composition contributes to the mass balance. In addition, sodium, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and maybe silica and alumina in the ash may contribute to wall-scale formation. Sodium, potassium, and alumina in the ash will be overwhelmed by the sodium, potassium, and alumina from the feed but the impact from the other ash components needs to be quantified. A maximum coal particle size is specified so the feed system does not plug and a minimum particle size is specified to prevent excess elutriation from the DMR to the Process Gas Filter (PGF). A vendor specification was used to procure the calcined coal for IWTU processing. While the vendor supplied a composite analysis for the 22 tons of coal (Appendix A), this study compares independent analyses of the coal performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Three supersacks a were sampled at three different heights within the sack in order to determine within bag variability and between bag variability of the coal. These analyses were also compared to the vendor’s composite analyses and to the coal specification. These analyses were also compared to historic data on Bestac coal analyses that had been performed at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) between 2004-2011.

  10. Phytochemical investigation of natural and in vitro raised Vṛddhadāruka plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Jyoti Bharati


    Full Text Available Background: Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper (English and Vṛddhadāruka (Sanskrit is a woody climber that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Seeds of this plant contain hallucinogens including ergot alkaloids and a naturally occurring lysergic acid amide. Traditionally the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcers, diabetes, anemia and cerebral disorders. The plant is also used as appetitiser, brain tonic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac. It possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. Objective: To give an account of information on in vitro regeneration and phytochemical analysis of the plant. Materials and Methods: Nodal explants were selected for in vitro regeneration. Different aerial parts viz., seeds, natural and in vitro leaf, stem and callus were dried and extracted with different solvents and were subjected to various phytochemical analyses. Results: Different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine showed shoot and root initiation. The study of phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of bioactive substances like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc. Conclusion: The study will provide an efficient in vitro protocol for micropropagation as an alternative method to conserve the plant and shows the presence of some important secondary metabolites in the nature grown and in vitro raised plants which can be useful for treatment of various diseases.

  11. Phytochemical investigation of natural and in vitro raised Vṛddhadāruka plants. (United States)

    Bharati, Asha Jyoti; Bansal, Yogendra Kumar


    Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper (English) and Vṛddhadāruka (Sanskrit) is a woody climber that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Seeds of this plant contain hallucinogens including ergot alkaloids and a naturally occurring lysergic acid amide. Traditionally the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcers, diabetes, anemia and cerebral disorders. The plant is also used as appetitiser, brain tonic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac. It possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. To give an account of information on in vitro regeneration and phytochemical analysis of the plant. Nodal explants were selected for in vitro regeneration. Different aerial parts viz., seeds, natural and in vitro leaf, stem and callus were dried and extracted with different solvents and were subjected to various phytochemical analyses. Different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine showed shoot and root initiation. The study of phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of bioactive substances like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc. The study will provide an efficient in vitro protocol for micropropagation as an alternative method to conserve the plant and shows the presence of some important secondary metabolites in the nature grown and in vitro raised plants which can be useful for treatment of various diseases.

  12. Regulation of embryonic size in early mouse development in vitro culture system. (United States)

    Hisaki, Tomoka; Kawai, Ikuma; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko; Kano, Kiyoshi


    Mammals self-regulate their body size throughout development. In the uterus, embryos are properly regulated to be a specific size at birth. Previously, size and cell number in aggregated embryos, which were made from two or more morulae, and half embryos, which were halved at the 2-cell stage, have been analysed in vivo in preimplantation and post-implantation development in mice. Here, we examined whether or not the mouse embryo has the capacity to self-regulate growth using an in vitro culture system. To elucidate embryonic histology, cells were counted in aggregated or half embryos in comparison with control embryos. Both double- and triple-aggregated embryos contained more cells than did control embryos during all culture periods, and the relative growth ratios showed no growth inhibition in an in vitro culture system. Meanwhile, half embryos contained fewer cells than control embryos, but the number grew throughout the culture period. Our data suggest that the growth of aggregated embryos is not affected and continues in an in vitro culture system. On the other hand, the growth of half embryos accelerates and continues in an in vitro culture system. This situation, in turn, implied that post-implantation mouse embryos might have some potential to regulate their own growth and size as seen by using an in vitro culture system without uterus factors. In conclusion, our results indicated that embryos have some ways in which to regulate their own size in mouse early development.

  13. Discovery of a low-glycaemic index potato and relationship with starch digestion in vitro. (United States)

    Ek, Kai Lin; Wang, Shujun; Copeland, Les; Brand-Miller, Jennie C


    Potatoes are usually a high-glycaemic index (GI) food. Finding a low-GI potato and developing a screening method for finding low-GI cultivars are both health and agricultural priorities. The aims of the present study were to screen the commonly used and newly introduced cultivars of potatoes, in a bid to discover a low-GI potato, and to describe the relationship between in vitro starch digestibility of cooked potatoes and their in vivo glycaemic response. According to International Standard Organisation (ISO) guidelines, seven different potato cultivars were tested for their GI. In vitro enzymatic starch hydrolysis and chemical analyses, including amylose content analysis, were carried out for each potato cultivar, and correlations with the respective GI values were sought. The potato cultivars had a wide range of GI values (53-103). The Carisma cultivar was classified as low GI and the Nicola cultivar (GI = 69) as medium GI and the other five cultivars were classified as high GI according to ISO guidelines. The GI values were strongly and positively correlated with the percentage of in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in the cooked potatoes, particularly with the hydrolysis percentage at 120 min (r 0·91 and P starch content was not correlated with either in vitro starch digestibility or GI. The findings suggest that low-GI potato cultivars can be identified by screening using a high-throughput in vitro digestion procedure, while chemical composition, including amylose and fibre content, is not indicative.

  14. New advances in the in-vitro culture of Dientamoeba fragilis. (United States)

    Munasinghe, Varuni S; Stark, D; Ellis, J T


    SUMMARYDientamoeba fragilis is an intestinal protozoan in humans that is commonly associated with diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal complaints. Studies conducted to investigate the biology of this parasite are limited by methods for in vitro cultivation. The objective of this study was to improve a biphasic culture medium, based on the Loeffler's slope, by further supplementation in order to increase the yield of trophozoites in culture. The current in vitro culture of D. fragilis is a xenic culture with a mix of bacteria. Three different liquid overlays were evaluated including Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS), PBS and Dulbecco's modified PBS (DPBS), for their ability to support the in vitro growth of D. fragilis trophozoites. Out of these 3 overlays EBSS gave the highest increase in the trophozoite numbers. The effect of supplementation was analysed by supplementing EBSS with ascorbic acid, ferric ammonium citrate, L-cysteine, cholesterol and alpha-lipoic acid and quantification of in vitro growth by cell counts. A new liquid overlay is here described based upon EBSS supplemented with cholesterol and ferric ammonium citrate that, in conjunction with the Loeffler's slope, supports the growth of D. fragilis trophozoites in vitro. This modified overlay supported a 2-fold increase in the numbers of trophozoite in culture from all 4 D. fragilis isolates tested, when compared to a PBS overlay. These advances enable the harvest of a larger number of trophozoites needed for further studies on this parasite.

  15. In vitro inhibition of mumps virus by retinoids. (United States)

    Soye, Kaitlin J; Trottier, Claire; Di Lenardo, Thomas Z; Restori, Katherine H; Reichman, Lee; Miller, Wilson H; Ward, Brian J


    Mumps virus (MuV) is a highly infectious paramyxovirus closely related to measles virus (MeV). Despite the availability of a mumps vaccine, outbreaks continue to occur and no treatment options are available. Vitamin A and other naturally occurring retinoids inhibit the replication of MeV in vitro. Anti-viral effects of retinoids were observed in cell culture using the myelomonocytic U937, NB4/R4, and Huh7/7.5 cells. Observations of anti-viral effect were quantified using TCID50 analysis. Molecular properties of the antiviral effect were analysed using quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. The current work demonstrates that retinoids inhibit MuV in vitro due to up-regulation of type I interferon (IFN) and IFN stimulated genes. This effect is mediated by nuclear retinoid receptor signalling and RIG-I is required. The antiviral retinoid-induced state makes cells less permissive to viral replication from subsequent challenge with either MuV or MeV for less than 12 hours. These results demonstrate that retinoids inhibit MuV replication in uninfected bystander cells through a retinoid inducible gene I (RIG-I), retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and IFN dependent manner making them refractory to subsequent rounds of viral replication. These observations raise the possibility that pharmacological doses of retinoids might have clinical benefit in MuV infection.

  16. In vitro characterisation of zirconia coated by bioactive glass. (United States)

    Bosetti, M; Vernè, E; Ferraris, M; Ravaglioli, A; Cannas, M


    An in vitro evaluation of a biomedical device, which combines the mechanical properties of zirconia substrates with the bioactivity of two different glass layers (AP40 and RKKP), was performed. In this work, data on different kinds of analysis were reported both on as-sintered zirconia samples and on RKKP- and AP40-coated zirconia substrates. Structure, composition and morphology of the apatite layer growth on the coated samples after 30 days of soaking in an acellular simulated body fluid, serum protein adsorption, fibroblasts and human osteoblast-like cells adhesion, growth, morphology and biochemical aspects were studied. Results of soaking test in SBF, revealed the growth of an apatite layer on the surface of the glass-coated samples. Proteins adsorbed to the materials were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and results evidenced that the two glass-coated materials bound a higher amount of total protein than did the zirconia substrate. Fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells cultured on RKKP- and AP40-coated zirconia showed a higher proliferation rate, leading to confluent cultures with higher cell density and a generally better expression of osteoblast alkaline phosphatase activity in comparison with zirconia substrate. In conclusion, our results indicate that the surface chemical characteristics of the two glass coatings AP40 and RKKP, with no great differences between them, substantially enhance zirconia integration with bone cells at least in vitro. This effect may be of significance in the stability of glass-coated zirconia orthopaedic and dental implants.

  17. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems (United States)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena


    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  18. Potential in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of Holigarna arnottiana (Hook F). (United States)

    Manilal, Aseer; Idhayadhulla, Akbar


    To explore the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Holigarna arnottiana (H. arnottiana) against human and shrimp pathogenic bacteria and use GC-MS analysis to elucidate its antimicrobial principles. In the present study, organic extract of H. arnottiana was examined for in vitro antimicrobial potency against five clinical human pathogens, seven species of human type culture pathogens, six pathogenic Vibrio strains isolated from moribund tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and seven type cultures (Microbial Type Culture Collection, MTCC) of prominent shrimp pathogens. The extraction of H. arnottiana with ethyl acetate yielded bioactive crude extract that efficiently repressed the growth of all tested pathogens. Among the pathogens tested, shrimp pathogens were the most susceptible organisms while clinical pathogens were found to be a little resistant. The chemical constituents of the H. arnottiana were analysed by GC-MS which revealed the presence of major compounds such as 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-o1 (42.1%), 1-lodo-2-methylundecane (34.5%) and squalene (11.1%) which might have a functional role in the chemical defence against microbial invasion. Based on the finding it could be inferred that H. arnottiana would be a reliable source for developing shrimp and human bio-therapeutics in future. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro bacterial fermentation of tropical fruit fibres. (United States)

    Vong, M H; Stewart, M L


    Tropical fruits such as mango, papaya, pineapple and banana are rich sources of dietary fibre. However, few studies have examined the potential physiological effects of fibre from these tropical fruits. The aim of this study was to characterise the fermentability of dietary fibre found in banana, papaya, pineapple and mango as an estimate of the physiological effects of consuming these fruits. Freeze-dried fruit was subjected to in vitro digestion to remove digestible carbohydrates. Digestion residues were freeze-dried prior to fermentation. In vitro fermentation was carried for 24 h under anaerobic conditions to simulate conditions in the large intestine. Gas volume, pH and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. SCFAs were analysed by gas chromatography. There was no gas production from 0 to 8 h time points for all samples. Mango fibre resulted in more gas at 12 and 24 h than pineapple, papaya and banana fibres. The slurry pH was significantly lower for mango fibre at 12 and 24 h compared to other samples. Mango fibre resulted in significantly more propionate at 8 h compared to papaya and pineapple fibres. Butyrate concentrations were only significantly different at 4 h. At 24 h total and individual SCFA production did not differ among samples. All fruit fibres were fermentable, with mango fibre being the most rapidly fermented. Additional work is necessary to confirm a benefit on digestive health.

  20. Activity of recombinant factor VIIa under different conditions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jespersen, Jørgen


    investigated the in-vitro effects of pH, temperature, and haemodilution on the activity of recombinant activated factor VII. Samples from eight healthy volunteers were spiked with recombinant activated factor VII (final concentration 1.7 microg/ml) and adjusted to pH 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.4 or analysed at 30...... activity in plasma. Significant effects of pH were observed for clotting time, clot formation time, maximum clot firmness, and factor VII coagulant activity in the direction of longer clot formation times and less firm clots with decreasing pH. Temperature had significant effects on clotting time, clot......, but no effects on clotting time indicating that haemodilution does not affect clot formation, but the clot formed at high haemodilution may not be so firm. In conclusion, the activity of recombinant activated factor VII was affected in vitro by pH, temperature, and haemodilution. Additional studies are necessary...

  1. Integrating and scheduling an open set of static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Mezini, Mira; Kloppenburg, Sven


    to keep the set of analyses open. We propose an approach to integrating and scheduling an open set of static analyses which decouples the individual analyses and coordinates the analysis executions such that the overall time and space consumption is minimized. The approach has been implemented...

  2. In vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity of chemically treated glass fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Leão Andrade


    Full Text Available Samples of a commercial glass fiber FM® (Fiber Max were used to test the efficacy of a chemical sol-gel surface treatment to enhance their bioactivity. After treatment with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, individual fiber samples were soaked into a simulated body fluid (SBF solution, from which they were removed at intervals of 5 and 10 days. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis of samples chemically treated with TEOS revealed the formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA coating layer after 5 days into SBF solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR analyses confirmed that the coating layer has P-O vibration bands characteristic of HA. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated using a direct contact test, minimum essential medium elution test (ISO 10993-5 and MTT assay. Fibers immersed in SBF and their extracts exhibited lower cytotoxicity than the controls not subjected to immersion, suggesting that SBF treatment improves the biocompatibility of the fiber.

  3. Component-resolved in vitro diagnosis of hazelnut allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Sastre, Joaquin


    with pollen allergy, 61% had IgE to hazelnut extract, 69% to rCor a 1.04, 34% to rCor a 2, 10% to rCor a 8, and 6% to rCor a 11. CONCLUSION: Component-resolved in vitro analyses revealed substantial differences in IgE profiles of hazelnut allergic and hazelnut tolerant patients across Europe....

  4. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from the Leaves of Abies Pindrow Royle


    Gupta, D; Bhardwaj, R; Gupta, R K


    Traditionally, the leaves of Abies pindrow Royle are employed as an ayurvedic remedy for fever, hypoglycaemic, respiratory and inflammatory conditions. In this study, dichloromethane, methanol and acetone extracts of A. pindrow leaves were analysed for their phytochemical content and in vitro antioxidant activities. The methanol extract exhibited highest antioxidant activity while acetone extract showed presence of relatively high total phenol and flavonoids contents. The present study provid...

  5. In vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of sesquiterpene lactones from Vernonia fimbrillifera Less. (Asteraceae)


    Bordignon, Annélise; Frederich, Michel; Ledoux, Allison; Campos, Pierre-Eric; Clerc, Patricia; Hermann, Thomas; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Cieckiewicz, Ewa


    International audience; Due to the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of leaf extracts from Vernonia fimbrillifera Less. (Asteraceae), a bioactivity-guided fractionation was carried out. Three sesquiterpene lactones were isolated, namely 8-(4’-hydroxymethacrylate) dehydromelitensin (1), onopordopicrin (2) and 8α-[4’-hydroxymethacryloyloxy]-4-epi-sonchucarpolide (3). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR and MS analyses) and by comparison with published data. T...

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of coumarin extracted from Loeselia mexicana Brand. (United States)

    Navarro-García, Victor M; Rojas, Gabriela; Avilés, Margarita; Fuentes, Macrina; Zepeda, Gerardo


    The bis-coumarin daphnoretin and its monomeric precursors scopoletin and umbelliferone were isolated for the first time from the aerial part of Loeselia mexicana Brand (a vegetal species used in Mexican traditional medicine) using chromatographic techniques. The structures of these compounds were determined by (1) H and (13) C NMR analyses. These coumarins were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity. The three compounds tested showed significant antifungal activity. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. In vitro and in vivo volatile flavour analysis of red kidney beans by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Dings, L.; Buhr, K.; Posthumus, M.A.


    The volatile flavour released from red kidney beans was evaluated in vitro (in a model mouth system) and in vivo (in-nose). The dynamic release of the volatile flavour compounds was analysed by proton transfer reaction¿mass spectrometry. The flavour compounds were identified by gas

  8. How Age of Transplants from In Vitro Derived Potato Plantlets Affects Crop Growth and Seed Tuber Yield After Field Transplanting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.


    In vitro produced plantlets are used in potato seed systems for production of minitubers under protected conditions or for production of transplants to be transplanted to the field. Three field experiments were carried out to analyse how transplant age (Age) affected the field performance. In the

  9. In vitro invasion of small-cell lung cancer cell lines correlates with expression of epidermal growth factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rude Voldborg, B; Spang-Thomsen, M


    Formation of metastasis is a multistep process involving attachment to the basement membrane, local proteolysis and migration into surrounding tissues, lymph or bloodstream. In the present study, we have analysed the correlation between in vitro invasion and presence of the epidermal growth facto...

  10. Using a Log Analyser to Assist Research into Haptic Technology (United States)

    Jónsson, Fannar Freyr; Hvannberg, Ebba Þóra

    Usability evaluations collect subjective and objective measures. Examples of the latter are time to complete a task. The paper describes use cases of a log analyser for haptic feedback. The log analyser reads a log file and extracts information such as time of each practice and assessment session, analyses whether the user goes off curve and measures the force applied. A study case using the analyser is performed using a PHANToM haptic learning environment application that is used to teach young visually impaired students the subject of polynomials. The paper answers six questions to illustrate further use cases of the log analyser.

  11. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of human blastocysts andcytotrophoblasts by multi-color FISH and Spectra Imaging analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Jingly F.; Ferlatte, Christy; Baumgartner, Adolf; Jung,Christine J.; Nguyen, Ha-Nam; Chu, Lisa W.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fisher,Susan J.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.


    Numerical chromosome aberrations in gametes typically lead to failed fertilization, spontaneous abortion or a chromosomally abnormal fetus. By means of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we now can screen human embryos in vitro for aneuploidy before transferring the embryos to the uterus. PGD allows us to select unaffected embryos for transfer and increases the implantation rate in in vitro fertilization programs. Molecular cytogenetic analyses using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of blastomeres have become the major tool for preimplantation genetic screening of aneuploidy. However, current FISH technology can test for only a small number of chromosome abnormalities and hitherto failed to increase the pregnancy rates as expected. We are in the process of developing technologies to score all 24 chromosomes in single cells within a 3 day time limit, which we believe is vital to the clinical setting. Also, human placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) at the fetal-maternal interface acquire aneuploidies as they differentiate to an invasive phenotype. About 20-50% of invasive CTB cells from uncomplicated pregnancies were found aneuploidy, suggesting that the acquisition of aneuploidy is an important component of normal placentation, perhaps limiting the proliferative and invasive potential of CTBs. Since most invasive CTBs are interphase cells and possess extreme heterogeneity, we applied multi-color FISH and repeated hybridizations to investigate individual CTBs. In summary, this study demonstrates the strength of Spectral Imaging analysis and repeated hybridizations, which provides a basis for full karyotype analysis of single interphase cells.

  12. Cochrane reviews compared with industry supported meta-analyses and other meta-analyses of the same drugs: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders W; Hilden, Jørgen; Gøtzsche, Peter C


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the methodological quality and conclusions in Cochrane reviews with those in industry supported meta-analyses and other meta-analyses of the same drugs. DESIGN: Systematic review comparing pairs of meta-analyses that studied the same two drugs in the same disease and were pu...

  13. Cytological and transcript analyses reveal fat and lazy persister-like bacilli in tuberculous sputum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Garton


    Full Text Available Tuberculous sputum provides a sample of bacilli that must be eliminated by chemotherapy and that may go on to transmit infection. A preliminary observation that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells contain triacylglycerol lipid bodies in sputum, but not when growing in vitro, led us to investigate the extent of this phenomenon and its physiological basis.Microscopy-positive sputum samples from the UK and The Gambia were investigated for their content of lipid body-positive mycobacteria by combined Nile red and auramine staining. All samples contained a lipid body-positive population varying from 3% to 86% of the acid-fast bacilli present. The recent finding that triacylglycerol synthase is expressed by mycobacteria when they enter in vitro nonreplicating persistence led us to investigate whether this state was also associated with lipid body formation. We found that, when placed in laboratory conditions inducing nonreplicating persistence, two M. tuberculosis strains had lipid body levels comparable to those found in sputum. We investigated these physiological findings further by comparing the M. tuberculosis transcriptome of growing and nonreplicating persistence cultures with that obtained directly from sputum samples. Although sputum has traditionally been thought to contain actively growing tubercle bacilli, our transcript analyses refute the hypothesis that these cells predominate. Rather, they reinforce the results of the lipid body analyses by revealing transcriptional signatures that can be clearly attributed to slowly replicating or nonreplicating mycobacteria. Finally, the lipid body count was highly correlated (R(2 = 0.64, p < 0.03 with time to positivity in diagnostic liquid cultures, thereby establishing a direct link between this cytological feature and the size of a potential nonreplicating population.As nonreplicating tubercle bacilli are tolerant to the cidal action of antibiotics and resistant to multiple stresses, identification

  14. Domain III function of Mu transposase analysed by directed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    indicated by the asterisk) would give rise to the indicated ..... These results argue strongly against a catalytic role for domain IIIα in either DNA cleavage or strand transfer under the reaction conditions employed in vitro. 4.2 Active sites and the ...

  15. Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 16, 2009 ... Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake and Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro.

  16. Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake and Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro germination in both ...

  17. In vitro remineralization of in vivo and in vitro formed enamel lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iijima, Y; Takagi, O; Ruben, J; Arends, J


    Thin sections of natural white spot enamel lesions (WS) and of artificial in vitro lesions (VL) were remineralized simultaneously in vitro. The sections, clamped in a PMMA holder, were microradiographed at baseline and after remineralization in a calcium- and phosphate-containing solution (pH = 7.0;

  18. In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity of Flavonoid Fraction from the Aerial Parts of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. against Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Lines


    Vijayalakshmi, A.; Kumar, P. R.; Sakthi Priyadarsini, S.; C. Meenaxshi


    Aim. The present study aimed to isolate flavonoid fraction from the aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis and to evaluate its antioxidant and anticancer potential using in vitro assay system. Methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were calculated for the drug. Flavonoid fraction was isolated using column chromatography and analysed using HPLC. In vitro, antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract and isolated flavonoid fraction was investigated by nitric oxide, DPPH and hydroxyl radic...

  19. In vivo and in vitro starch digestion: are current in vitro techniques adequate? (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Lavau, Gautier Cesbron; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Robert G


    The time evolution of the size distributions of (fully branched and debranched) starch molecules during in vivo and in vitro digestion was analyzed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and compared. In vivo digesta were collected from the small intestine of pigs fed with raw normal maize starch; in vitro digestion was carried out on the same diet fed to the pigs using a method simulating digestion in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. A qualitative difference was observed between the in vitro and the in vivo digestion. The former showed a degradation of starch molecules to a more uniform size, whereas the in vivo digestion preserved the size distribution of native starch before producing a multimodal distribution, the heterogeneous nature of which current in vitro methods do not reproduce. The use of in vitro digestion to infer in vivo digestion patterns and, hence, potential nutrition benefits need to take account of this phenomenon.

  20. Neopeptide Analyser: A software tool for neopeptide discovery in proteomics data [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Peffers


    Full Text Available Experiments involving mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomics are widely used for analyses of connective tissues. Common examples include the use of relative quantification to identify differentially expressed peptides and proteins in cartilage and tendon. We are working on characterising so-called ‘neopeptides’, i.e. peptides formed due to native cleavage of proteins, for example under pathological conditions. Unlike peptides typically quantified in MS workflows due to the in vitro use of an enzyme such as trypsin, a neopeptide has at least one terminus that was not due to the use of trypsin in the workflow. The identification of neopeptides within these datasets is important in understanding disease pathology, and the development of antibodies that could be utilised as diagnostic biomarkers for diseases, such as osteoarthritis, and targets for novel treatments. Our previously described neopeptide data analysis workflow was laborious and was not amenable to robust statistical analysis, which reduced confidence in the neopeptides identified. To overcome this, we developed ‘Neopeptide Analyser’, a user friendly neopeptide analysis tool used in conjunction with label-free MS quantification tool Progenesis QIP for proteomics. Neopeptide Analyser filters data sourced from Progenesis QIP output to identify neopeptide sequences, as well as give the residues that are adjacent to the peptide in its corresponding protein sequence. It also produces normalised values for the neopeptide quantification values and uses these to perform statistical tests, which are also included in the output. Neopeptide Analyser is available as a Java application for Mac, Windows and Linux. The analysis features and ease of use encourages data exploration, which could aid the discovery of novel pathways in extracellular matrix degradation, the identification of potential biomarkers and as a tool to investigate matrix turnover. Neopeptide Analyser is available from

  1. ATHENA/INTRA analyses for ITER, NSSR-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Kecheng; Eriksson, John; Sjoeberg, A


    The present report is a summary report including thermal-hydraulic analyses made at Studsvik Eco and Safety AB for the ITER NSSR-2 safety documentation. The objective of the analyses was to reveal the safety characteristics of various heat transfer systems at specified operating conditions and to indicate the conditions for which there were obvious risks of jeopardising the structural integrity of the coolant systems. In the latter case also some analyses were made to indicate conceivable mitigating measures for maintaining the integrity.The analyses were primarily concerned with the First Wall and Divertor heat transfer systems. Several enveloping transients were analysed with associated specific flow and heat load boundary conditions. The analyses were performed with the ATHENA and INTRA codes 8 refs, 14 figs, 15 tabs

  2. Boar sperm encapsulation reduces in vitro polyspermy. (United States)

    Faustini, M; Bucco, M; Galeati, G; Spinaci, M; Villani, S; Chlapanidas, T; Ghidoni, I; Vigo, D; Torre, M L


    A boar sperm encapsulation technology in barium alginate has been developed to enhance reproductive performances and spermatozoa preservation time; aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro sperm encapsulation on polyspermy as a function of storage time at 18 degrees C. A total number of 40 in vitro fertilization (IVF) tests were performed using encapsulated or diluted spermatozoa (20 IVF each treatment). Overall, 1288 in vitro matured oocytes were fertilized with spermatozoa stored at 24, 48 or 72 h at 18 degrees C for both treatments polyspermy and normospermy, and the non-penetration rates were assessed by optical microscopy. Results indicate a significant reduction in risk of polyspermic oocytes when spermatozoa are preserved in barium alginate membranes (incidence risk ratio: 0.766 with respect to diluted); such enhancement could be explained by lesser damage of sperm membranes achieved by encapsulation technology.

  3. L’analyse en composantes principales de variables non stationnaires


    Casin, Philippe; Stachowiak, Christine; Marque, François


    Les séries chronologiques dont on dispose en économie sont souvent non stationnaires, et il n’est donc pas possible de les décrire à partir d’une analyse en composantes principales : en effet, l’analyse en composantes principales est basée sur l’analyse de la matrice des corrélations entre les variables, et ces corrélations sont fallacieuses. Cet article présente une technique pour décrire ce type de variables, en filtrant les données initiales par une suite d’analyse en composantes principal...

  4. Nanocomposites coated with xyloglucan for drug delivery: In vitro studies. (United States)

    Ribeiro, C; Arizaga, G G C; Wypych, F; Sierakowski, M-R


    Enalaprilate (Enal), an active pharmaceutical component, was intercalated into a layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-LDH) by an ion exchange reaction. The use of a layered double hydroxide (LDH) to release active drugs is limited by the low pH of the stomach (pH approximately 1.2), in whose condition it is readily dissolved. To overcome this limitation, xyloglucan (XG) extracted from Hymenaea courbaril (jatobá) seeds, Brazilian species, was used to protect the LDH and allow the drug to pass through the gastrointestinal tract. All the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses, transmission electronic microscopy, thermal analyses, and a kinetic study of the in vitro release was monitored by ultraviolet spectroscopy. The resulting hybrid system containing HDL-Enal-XG(3) slowly released the Enal. In an 8-h of test, the system protected 40% (w/v) of the drug. The kinetic profile showed that the drug release was a co-effect behavior, involving dissolution of inorganic material and ion exchange between the intercalated anions in the lamella and those of phosphate in the buffer solution. The nanocomposite coated protection with XG was therefore efficient in obtaining a slow release of Enal.

  5. Functional connectivity in in vitro neuronal assemblies (United States)

    Poli, Daniele; Pastore, Vito P.; Massobrio, Paolo


    Complex network topologies represent the necessary substrate to support complex brain functions. In this work, we reviewed in vitro neuronal networks coupled to Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) as biological substrate. Networks of dissociated neurons developing in vitro and coupled to MEAs, represent a valid experimental model for studying the mechanisms governing the formation, organization and conservation of neuronal cell assemblies. In this review, we present some examples of the use of statistical Cluster Coefficients and Small World indices to infer topological rules underlying the dynamics exhibited by homogeneous and engineered neuronal networks. PMID:26500505

  6. Comportamento do Staphilococcus aureus causadores de infecções hospitalares, frente a atividade "in vitro" da fosfomicina The behavior of Staphylococcus aureus responsible for hospital infections in the presence of Phosphomycin activity "in vitro"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Pechmann Mendonça


    Full Text Available Estudou-se a atividade "in vitro" da fosfomicina em 337 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus coletados de infecções intra-hospitalares, obtendo-se 310 amostras sensíveis (91,9%. Comparando-se com outros antimicrobianos, concluiu-se que a atividade da fosfomicina foi superior a todos.An "in vitro" study of Phosphomycin activity envolving 337 samples of Staphilococcus aureus collected from hospital infections was carried out. 310 (91,9% of these turned out to be sensitive to the antibiotic. On analysing Phosphomycin the conclusion was that its activity proved to be superior to that of other antimicrobial agents.

  7. Approche SIG pour une analyse spatiale des infrastructures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    31 janv. 2014 ... Approche SIG pour une analyse spatiale des infrastructures hydrauliques dans la commune de Zè, Benin. .... méthode d'analyse spatiale qui consiste à créer une zone d'extension, aux dimensions définies par .... chose quiles expose à des risques de santé. SIG et infrastructures hydrauliques : Le SIG est.

  8. Study of the Microbiological Analyses Carried Out at the Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Candida albicans, Pseudomonas, Syphilis, hepatitis viruses and HIV) in deferens samples (Urine, Pus, saddle, like and Serum) in patients in relation with total analyses carried out for 3 years. Then we follow their development during this period with the analysis of the results. Keywords: Microbiological analyses; Germs; ...

  9. Training Residential Staff to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Kunnavatana, S. Shanun; Collins, Shawnee D.; Clay, Casey J.


    We taught 6 supervisors of a residential service provider for adults with developmental disabilities to train 9 house managers to conduct trial-based functional analyses. Effects of the training were evaluated with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Results suggest that house managers can be trained to conduct trial-based functional analyses with…

  10. Treatment of Pica through Multiple Analyses of Its Reinforcing Functions. (United States)

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Hanley, Gregory P.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Worsdell, April S.; And Others


    A study conducted functional analyses of the pica of three young children. The pica of one participant was maintained by automatic reinforcement; that of the other two was multiply-controlled by social and automatic reinforcement. Preference and treatment analyses were used to address the automatic function of the pica. (Author/CR)

  11. Descriptive Analyses of Pediatric Food Refusal and Acceptance (United States)

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Woods, Julia N.; Borrero, John C.; Masler, Elizabeth A.; Lesser, Aaron D.


    Functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior typically include conditions to determine if the contingent delivery of attention, tangible items, or escape reinforce food refusal. In the current investigation, descriptive analyses were conducted for 25 children who had been admitted to a program for the assessment and treatment of food…

  12. Rational Analyses of Information Foraging on the Web (United States)

    Pirolli, Peter


    This article describes rational analyses and cognitive models of Web users developed within information foraging theory. This is done by following the rational analysis methodology of (a) characterizing the problems posed by the environment, (b) developing rational analyses of behavioral solutions to those problems, and (c) developing cognitive…

  13. Analyse af fangererhvervet i Grønland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    Den første gennemgribende analyse af de grønlandske fangeres socio-økonomiske forhold og status ved årtusindskiftet.......Den første gennemgribende analyse af de grønlandske fangeres socio-økonomiske forhold og status ved årtusindskiftet....

  14. Analyses of Great Smoky Mountain Red Spruce Tree Ring Data (United States)

    Paul C. van Deusen; [Editor


    Four different analyses of red spruce tree ring data from the Great Smoky Mountains are presented along with a description of the spruce/fir ecosystem.The analyses use several techniques including spatial analysis, fractals, spline detrending, and the Kalman filter.

  15. Separable potential analyses of coupled NN-NΔ scattering (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.


    The apparent differences between two analyses of the 1D2 and 3F3 nucleon-nucleon amplitudes by VerWest and the present authors are resolved. In both analyses dynamical poles are present in the scattering amplitude. These poles are associated with fixed left hand singularities. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Intermediate energy NN. Scattering theory. NN-NΔ coupled separable potentials.

  16. Separable potential analyses of coupled NN-N. delta. scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W.M.; Tjon, J.A.


    The apparent differences between two analyses of the /sup 1/D/sub 2/ and /sup 3/F/sub 3/ nucleon-nucleon amplitudes by Verwest and the present authors are resolved. In both analyses dynamical poles are present in the scattering amplitude. These poles are associated with fixed left hand singularities.

  17. Basic assumptions in statistical analyses of data in biomedical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If one or more assumptions are violated, an alternative procedure must be used to obtain valid results. This article aims at highlighting some basic assumptions in statistical analyses of data in biomedical sciences. Keywords: samples, independence, non-parametric, parametric, statistical analyses. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. Vol.

  18. On the reproducibility of meta-analyses : six practical recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakens, D.; Hilgard, J.; Staaks, J.


    Meta-analyses play an important role in cumulative science by combining information across multiple studies and attempting to provide effect size estimates corrected for publication bias. Research on the reproducibility of meta-analyses reveals that errors are common, and the percentage of effect

  19. Aftaler om arbejdsmiljø - en analyse af udvalgte overenskomster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Voxtrup; Wiegmann, Inger-Marie; Vogt-Nielsen, Karl

    En analyse af overenskomsters betydning for arbejdsmiljøet indenfor industri, slagterier, rengøring, det grønne område, hotel og restauration og busdrift.......En analyse af overenskomsters betydning for arbejdsmiljøet indenfor industri, slagterier, rengøring, det grønne område, hotel og restauration og busdrift....

  20. African Tobacco Situation Analyses | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Subventions destinées à l'élaboration de propositions dans le cadre de l'initiative Analyses situationnelles sur le tabagisme en Afrique. Le programme Recherche pour la lutte mondiale contre le tabac (RMCT) du CRDI collabore avec la Fondation Bill et Melinda Gates dans le cadre de l'initiative Analyses situationnelles sur ...

  1. Chromatographic characterisation, in vitro antioxidant and free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 15, 2009 ... activities and antioxidant potentials were determined for each fraction using various in vitro models. The ME4 fraction possessed ... and Awhin, 2007), and antimicrobial (Adefule-Ositelu et al., 2004). All these have ... The hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of the fractions ME1 –. ME5 was determined by ...

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and In-vitro Evaluation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babazadeh M, Edjlali L, Rashidian L. Application of 2- hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymers in controlled release of 5-amino salicylic acid as a colon-specific drug. J Polym Res 2007; 14: 207-213. 27. Babazadeh M. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro drug-release properties of. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymers.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol extracts of leaf, root of Rauvolfia serpentina and its tissue culture callus, root, leaf were investigated. The extract showed a good antibacterial activity against gram negative organisms, which may be due to the presence of alkaloid in the extract. Key Words: Antibacterial ...

  4. Stress in plants cultured in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.


    Plants subjected to stress display various defense mechanisms. On base of these mechanisms, stress-protective measures can be developed. This paper deals with protection brought about by putrescine. An in vitro system to impose drought stress was developed and the protective effect of putrescine on

  5. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter


    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial...

  6. Validation of in vitro probabilistic tractography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim B.; Sogaard, L.V.; Parker, G.J.


    assessed the anatomical validity and reproducibility of in vitro multi-fiber probabilistic tractography against two invasive tracers: the histochemically detectable biotinylated dextran amine and manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Post mortern DWI was used to ensure that most of the sources...

  7. Immunobiological Effects of Glucosamine In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, L; Thorn, M; Met, O


    Glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) were assayed in vitro for their effects on proliferation, cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion in primary and secondary mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLCs). In addition, we studied the effect of GlcN and GlcNAc on the proliferation of purified CD4...

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and In-vitro Evaluation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (HEMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) by free radical polymerization method. VPA was then linked to the resulted polymers by nucleophilic substitution reaction. The in-vitro hydrolysis behavior of the polymeric prodrugs was studied in physiological conditions at 37 oC. Hydrophilic properties of polymeric prodrugs and pH ...

  9. De in vitro verteerbaarheid van gedroogde algen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Bikker, P.


    In deze studie is de chemische samenstelling en de in vitro organische stof- en stikstofverteerbaarheid van gedroogde algen bepaald. Het betrof een drietal algenproducten, namelijk algen gedroogd bij 700C, algen samen met een hulpstof gedroogd met een innovatieve techniek en algen samen met rijst

  10. Bolus propagation in pig ureter in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Mastrigt (Ron); E.A. Tauecchio


    textabstractPig ureters were made to propagate injected fluid boluses by electrical stimulation in vitro. The propagation velocity was determined from EMG measurements made at several points along the ureter. It was found that this velocity varied both along the ureter and as a function of time, and

  11. Phytochemical screening and in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent studies have shown the effectiveness of plants as enhancers of memory activity. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of seven plants on acetylcholinesterase and its phytochemical contents. The in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect by the seven plants and their phytochemical contents each, ...

  12. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of Croton zambesicus Muell Arg. was subjected to preliminary Phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial tests. The Phytochemical tests were conducted using standard methods of analysis and the extract revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides and steroids. Antimicrobial effects of ...

  13. Fluconazole inhibits human adrenocortical steroidogenesis in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Pas (Rob); L.J. Hofland (Leo); J. Hofland (Johannes); A.E. Taylor (A.); W. Arlt (Wiebke); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); F.H. de Jong (Frank); R.A. Feelders (Richard)


    textabstractThe antifungal agent ketoconazole is often used to suppress cortisol production in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS). However, ketoconazole has serious side effects and is hepatotoxic. Here, the in vitro effects of ketoconazole and fluconazole, which might be less toxic, on human

  14. Vegetative propagation of Alstroemeria hybrids in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.; Voorst, van A.; Booy, G.; Acker, van C.A.M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Wit, de J.C.


    Terminal and lateral tips from fleshy rhizomes of Alstroemeria hybrids were isolated in vitro and induced to form a new rhizome. The cultivar Toledo was used in most experiments, but later other cultivars were also tested. The basic culture medium for rhizome isolation and for rhizome multiplication

  15. In Vitro Dosimetry of Silver Nanoparticles (United States)

    An important issue for interpreting in vitro nanomaterial testing is quantifying the dose absorbed by target cells. Considerations include the concentration added to the culture and the proportion of the applied dose that is absorbed by the target cells. Rapid and efficient techn...

  16. In vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Twisk, Moniek; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Verhoeve, Harold R.; Vogel, Niels E. A.; Arts, Eus G. J. M.; de Vries, Jan W. A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Veen, Fulco


    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy rates in women of advanced maternal age undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are disappointingly low. It has been suggested that the use of preimplantation genetic screening of cleavage-stage embryos for aneuploidies may improve the effectiveness of IVF in these women.

  17. In vitro micrografting of Sterculia setigera Del.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    incompatibility in higher. Plants. Am. J. Bot. 7(5): 752-758. Onay A, Pirinc V, Adiyaman F, Isikalan C, Tilkat E, Basaran D (2002). In vivo and in vitro micrografting of Pistachio, Pistacia vera L. cv. Siirt. Turk J. Biol. 27: 95-100.

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is the primary cause of hospitalization in Côte d'Ivoire. Early treatment is one of the strategies to control this illness. However, the spread of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs can seriously compromise this strategy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro ...

  19. In vitro toxicity screening of colored smokes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Alblas, M.J.; Makkus, J.C.; Meer, J.A. van der; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Groeneveld, F.R.; Norbert, M.; Lingen, J.N.J. van


    Data on the acute and/or long-term toxicity of colored smokes appear to be scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study is to obtain more insight on this matter. For this purpose, existing platforms for in vitro toxicity screening are evaluated with respect to their applicability

  20. Production, characterisation, and in vitro nebulisation performance of budesonide-loaded PLA nanoparticles. (United States)

    Amini, Mohammad Ali; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Gilani, Kambiz; Moazeni, Esmaeil; Esmaeilzadeh-Gharehdaghi, Elina; Amani, Amir


    The aim of this study is to prepare a nanosuspension of budesonide for respiratory delivery using nebuliser by optimising its particle size and characterising its in vitro deposition behaviour. PLA (poly lactic acid)-budesonide nanosuspension (BNS) was prepared using high-pressure emulsification/solvent evaporation method. To optimise particle size, different parameters such as PLA concentration, sonication time, and amplitude were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were performed to characterise the prepared PLA-budesonide nanoparticles. The in vitro aerodynamic characteristics of the PLA-BNS using a jet nebuliser were estimated and compared with that of commercially available suspension formulation of budesonide. Budesonide-loaded PLA nanoparticles with fine particle size (an average size of 224-360 nm), narrow size distribution, and spherical and smooth surface were prepared. The optimum condition for preparation of fine particle size for aerosolisation was found to be at PLA concentration of 1.2 mg/ml and amplitude of 70 for 75 s sonication time. The in vitro aerosolisation performance of PLA-BNS compared to that of commercial budesonide indicated that it has significantly (p < 0.05) smaller mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) value with an enhancement in fine particle fraction (FPF) value. Improving the in vitro deposition of budesonide, PLA-BNS could be considered as a promising alternative suspension formulation for deep lung delivery of the drug using nebuliser.

  1. In vitro combinations of red blood cell, plasma and platelet components evaluated by thromboelastography. (United States)

    Agren, Anna; Edgren, Gustaf; Kardell, Malin; Ostlund, Anders; Wikman, Agneta Taune


    Thromboelastography is increasingly used to evaluate coagulation in massively bleeding patients. The aim of this study was to investigate how different combinations of blood components affect in vitro whole blood clotting measured by thromboelastography. Packed red blood cells, plasma and platelets from fresh and old blood components were mixed in vitro, in proportions of 4:4:1, 5:5:2, 8:4:1 and 2:1:0, and analysed with thromboelastography. For the ratio 4:4:1 the experiment was done at both 37 °C and 32 °C. Thromboelastography curves were within normal reference values for the blood component proportions of 4:4:1 and 5:5:2. For 8:4:1, the angle and maximal amplitude were reduced below normal values, indicating low levels of fibrinogen and/or platelets. For the 2:1:0 proportion, all parameters were affected resulting in severely impaired in vitro clot formation. The reaction-time, reflecting the coagulation factor-dependent, initial clot formation, was slightly increased at a low temperature. Prolonged storage of the components did not affect the curve. With the introduction of guidelines on the management of massive bleeding it is important to have tools for the assessment of the new protocols. In vitro evaluation of mixtures of packed red blood cells, plasma and platelets by thromboelastography may be relevant in the prediction of in vivo clot formation and haemostasis.

  2. In vitro oxygen availability modulates the effect of artesunate on HeLa cells. (United States)

    Murray, James; Gannon, Sandra; Rawe, Sarah; Murphy, James E J


    Hypoxia can affect chemotherapeutic drug efficacy in cancer patients, yet related in vitro assays in oxygen-rich environment remain the norm. Such levels are well beyond normoxic/hypoxic levels typically experienced by normal tissues/tumor masses. The present study evaluated how artesunate anti-tumor efficacy is modulated by oxygen availability in HeLa cells and its implications for future in vitro analyses. Real-time cell analysis was employed to evaluate HeLa cell toxicity to artesunate at 21%, 4% or 1% oxygen. Cell count analysis was performed to validate real-time data. An increase in artesunate efficacy was observed when oxygen concentration was reduced from atmospheric levels down to in vivo-relevant levels. Artesunate is more potent than originally reported using standard oxygen conditions during in vitro studies. The inclusion of this long overlooked variable as standard in future in vitro analysis procedures is warranted. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic stability of in vitro conserved germplasm of Humulus lupulus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The genetic and epigenetic stability of hop accessions cryopreserved for one year or cold stored for three years was evaluated using several molecular markers (RAPD, AFLP, and MSAP. Clear, repetitive patterns were obtained among accessions and between control and treated samples. Although no genetic changes were detected among the control plants grown in the greenhouse and in vitro plants regenerated from slow-cooling cryopreserved shoot tips or cold stored in vitro shoots, MSAP analysis detected methylation changes in 36% of the loci. Nevertheless, only 2.6 to 9.8% of the detected changes could be ascribed to the conservation procedure and most of them seemed to be generated as a result of the in vitro introduction. Due to the number of accessions analysed (51 we can cautiously deduce that the genetic behaviour described in this work after cryopreservation or cold-storage protocols is common to most hop genotypes and these storage procedures are suitable for standard use. However, it is important to keep in mind the epigenetic changes produced, particularly during any in vitro processes.;

  4. Protein profile of mouse ovarian follicles grown in vitro. (United States)

    Anastácio, Amandine; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Chardonnet, Solenne; Pionneau, Cédric; Fédérici, Christian; Almeida Santos, Teresa; Poirot, Catherine


    emphasize proteins with different expression profiles between the three follicular stages. Supplementary western blot analysis (using new biological replicates) was performed to confirm the expression variations of three proteins during follicle development in vitro. It was found that 609 out of 1401 identified proteins were common to the three follicle developmental stages investigated. Some proteins were identified uniquely at one stage: 71 of the 775 identified proteins in SF, 181 of 1092 in SMR and 192 of 1100 in AF. Additional qualitative and quantitative analysis highlighted 44 biological processes over-represented in our samples compared to the Mus musculus gene database. In particular, it was possible to identify proteins implicated in the cell cycle, calcium ion binding and glycolysis, with specific expressions and abundance, throughout in vitro follicle development. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006227. The proteome analyses described in this study were performed after in vitro development. Despite fractionation of the samples before LC-MS/MS, proteomic approaches are not exhaustive, thus proteins that are not identified in a group are not necessarily absent from that group, although they are likely to be less abundant. This study allowed a general view of proteins implicated in follicle development in vitro and it represents the most complete catalog of the whole follicle proteome available so far. Not only were well known proteins of the oocyte identified but also proteins that are probably expressed only in granulosa cells. This study was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, FCT (PhD fellowship SFRH/BD/65299/2009 to A.A.), the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation (PR 2014-0144 to K.A.R-.W.) and Stockholm County Council to K.A.R-.W. The authors of the study have no conflict of interest to report.

  5. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberlin Marcos N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  6. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in White Poplar Cultivated In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kovačević


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper analyses the lead tolerance and accumulation in white poplar genotypes in vitro, in order to optimize genotype evaluation and other procedures in their implementation in phytoremediation projects and landscaping in areas endangered by lead accumulation. Material and Methods: The lead tolerance and accumulation of five white poplar genotypes after 35 days in vitro cultivation on media supplemented with lead was examined. The following Pb(NO32 concentrations were used: 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M. Tolerance analysis (described by tolerance indices was based on morphological parameters, biomass accumulation and the content of photosynthetic pigments, while lead accumulation was described by shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content. Results and Conclusions: The chosen lead concentrations appeared not to be lethal. Moreover, the obtained results showed that the tested lead concentrations had a positive effect on: number of formed roots, shoot moisture content and shoot height. The best differentiation among the examined genotypes was gained by the tolerance index based on the shoot height on 10-4 M Pb(NO32. The shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content significantly increased on 10-4 and 10-3 M Pb(NO32 media. Thus, the concentration of 10-4 M Pb(NO32 is recommended for further research. Two examined genotypes of horticultural value (LCM and LBM achieved a significantly higher lead shoot content compared to the wide spread genotype “Villafranca” (almost 200% and 125% higher, respectively.

  7. Oligogalacturonides improve tissue organization of in vitro reconstructed skin. (United States)

    Lebreton-Decoster, C; Rousselle, P; Laperdrix, C; Lubrano, C; Robin, J-R; Coulomb, B


    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of oligogalacturonides obtained from apple pectin enzymatic hydrolysis (mainly composed of galacturonic acid and oligogalacturonides; OGA) on normal human keratinocytes behaviour using different in vitro models. We demonstrate that 0.01% OGA promotes epidermal growth, organization and stratification in an in vitro reconstructed skin. The presence and the in vivo-like location of epidermal differentiation markers (i.e. keratin 10, involucrin, desmoglein 1 and 3, and cathepsin D) confirms the histological analysis, and underlines the cohesion of the treated epidermis. On the opposite, 0.05% OGA delays epidermal growth and disturbs differentiation, showing that the positive effects of OGA are dependent on its concentration. In parallel, using collagen IV and laminin 332 substrates, two relevant components of dermal-epidermal basement membrane, we demonstrate that the presence of 0.01% OGA clearly stimulates keratinocytes spreading out, paralleled by a well-organized microfilament network. Keratinocytes develop more focal adhesions with the substrates, implicating α6β4 on laminin 332. Cellular cohesion is also promoted by 0.01% OGA through the over-expression of integrins α2β1 on collagen IV, and α3β1 on laminin 332 at cell-cell junctions. Thus, by modulating integrins expression and organization, OGA 0.01% should improve cell-cell interactions and therefore dermal-epidermal cohesion. In conclusion, 0.01% OGA stimulates epidermal spreading and promotes keratinocytes attachment to basement membrane components by reorganizing cytoskeleton and modulating integrins recruitment. Furthermore, 0.01% OGA promotes epidermal differentiation and regulates epidermis homeostasis. Considering that OGA has a beneficial effect on parameters playing a key role in ageing, OGA can be presented as a new anti-ageing active ingredient. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. MPLEx: a Robust and Universal Protocol for Single-Sample Integrative Proteomic, Metabolomic, and Lipidomic Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Sims, Amy C.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Shukla, Anil K.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Chia, Nicholas



    Integrative multi-omics analyses can empower more effective investigation and complete understanding of complex biological systems. Despite recent advances in a range of omics analyses, multi-omic measurements of the same sample are still challenging and current methods have not been well evaluated in terms of reproducibility and broad applicability. Here we adapted a solvent-based method, widely applied for extracting lipids and metabolites, to add proteomics to mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements. Themetabolite,protein, andlipidextraction (MPLEx) protocol proved to be robust and applicable to a diverse set of sample types, including cell cultures, microbial communities, and tissues. To illustrate the utility of this protocol, an integrative multi-omics analysis was performed using a lung epithelial cell line infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which showed the impact of this virus on the host glycolytic pathway and also suggested a role for lipids during infection. The MPLEx method is a simple, fast, and robust protocol that can be applied for integrative multi-omic measurements from diverse sample types (e.g., environmental,in vitro, and clinical).

    IMPORTANCEIn systems biology studies, the integration of multiple omics measurements (i.e., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics) has been shown to provide a more complete and informative view of biological pathways. Thus, the prospect of extracting different types of molecules (e.g., DNAs, RNAs, proteins, and metabolites) and performing multiple omics measurements on single samples is very attractive, but such studies are challenging due to the fact that the extraction conditions differ according to the molecule type. Here, we adapted an organic solvent-based extraction method that demonstrated

  9. In vitro regeneration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) yield. The establishment of in vitro regeneration protocol for this plant is essential to improve it through tissue culture and genetic engineering. The objective of this study was to establish in vitro regeneration protocol ...

  10. Seed germination and in vitro regeneration of the African medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 4, 2011 ... further studies are needed to develop an optimal in vitro multiplication protocol for B. madagascariensis. Key words: Axillary shoot multiplication, gibberellic acid, in vitro regeneration, seed germination, Swartzia. INTRODUCTION. Bobgunnia madagascariensis, formerly Swartzia. *Corresponding author.

  11. A vector matching method for analysing logic Petri nets (United States)

    Du, YuYue; Qi, Liang; Zhou, MengChu


    Batch processing function and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems can be described and analysed by logic Petri nets (LPNs). To directly analyse the properties of LPNs, the concept of transition enabling vector sets is presented and a vector matching method used to judge the enabling transitions is proposed in this article. The incidence matrix of LPNs is defined; an equation about marking change due to a transition's firing is given; and a reachable tree is constructed. The state space explosion is mitigated to a certain extent from directly analysing LPNs. Finally, the validity and reliability of the proposed method are illustrated by an example in electronic commerce.

  12. Analysing Information Systems Security In Higher Learning Institutions Of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugyenyi Raymond


    Full Text Available Information communication technology has increased globalisation in higher learning institution all over the world. This has been achieved through introduction of systems that ease operations related to information handling in the institutions. The paper assessed and analysed the information systems security performance status in higher learning institutions of Uganda. The existing policies that govern the information security have also been analysed together with the current status of information systems security in Uganda. Citations related management of information systems security and policies have been identified and analysed. A proposed model illustrating the effective management of information in higher learning institutions have been developed. Relevant recommendations and conclusions have also been developed.

  13. Peroxidases, lignin and anatomy during in vitro and ex vitro rooting of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) microshoots. (United States)

    Hatzilazarou, Stefanos P; Syros, Thomas D; Yupsanis, Traianos A; Bosabalidis, Artemios M; Economou, Athanasios S


    In vitro and ex vitro rooting of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) microshoots with or without indolic-3-butyric acid (IBA) was studied in order to improve acclimatization of microplants after root formation and transplantation. Peroxidase (POD) activity and isoforms, lignin content and anatomical observations were evaluated in the course of the three interdependent phases (induction, initiation and expression) of microshoot rooting. Microshoots treated or not treated with IBA achieved high rooting percentages both in vitro and ex vitro. At the end of the 2-week acclimatization period, the percentage of surviving microplants ranged from 80% to 100%, for in vitro and ex vitro rooted microshoots, respectively. Microshoots rooted in vitro and ex vitro showed a relationship between rooting and POD activity but in a different time course. It appeared that root formation occurred after the microshoots had reached and passed a peak of maximum enzyme activity. In all treatments, electrophoretic analysis (native PAGE) of PODs revealed the appearance of one anionic and three cationic POD isoforms (C(1), C(3) and C(4)). An additional cationic POD isoform (C(2)) appeared only in the ex vitro rooting. The lignin content was similar in microshoots rooted both in vitro and ex vitro. The sequential anatomical changes during the rooting process were similar in both in vitro and ex vitro rooting treatments. In the case of in vitro rooting, pith cells had vacuoles entirely filled with a dark substance, while in the case of ex vitro rooting, pith cells contained many amyloplasts. The origin of the adventitious roots, in both rooting conditions, was located in the cambial ring. Roots with organized tissue systems emerged from the microshoot stem 10-14 days after the root induction treatments; on day 10 for rooting in vitro, while a 4-day delay was noted in microshoots rooted ex vitro.

  14. Hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effects of native depolymerised-exopolysaccharides derived from Termitomyces albuminosus. (United States)

    Zhao, Huajie; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Xiuxiu; Liu, Min; Zhang, Chen; Jia, Le


    In this study, native depolymerised-exopolysaccharides (DEPS) were successfully derived from the exopolysaccharides (EPS) of Termitomyces albuminosus, and its hepatoprotective effects against a high-fat emulsion and in vitro antioxidant activities were investigated. Based on the results of in vitro assays, DEPS showed superior antioxidant activities compared with EPS dose-dependently. According to the in vivo assays both EPS and DEPS significantly decreased the lipid levels, improved the enzymatic activities, and reduced lipid peroxidation in both serum and hepatic homogenates. Furthermore, EPS and DEPS attenuated the high-fat emulsion-induced histopathological injury to the liver. Both EPS and DEPS might be used as natural drugs to treat and protect against hyperlipidaemia and liver injury induced by a high-fat emulsion. In addition, based on the results of GC and HPLC analyses, rhamnose and low molecular weight compounds may play an important role in contributing to the antioxidant activities of EPS and DEPS.

  15. Quantitative analysis of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vitro. (United States)

    Schneider, David Alan


    The elongation step in transcription has gained attention for its roles in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and for its influence on RNA processing. Sophisticated genetic analyses have identified factors and/or conditions that may affect transcription elongation rate or processivity; however, differentiation of direct and indirect effects on transcription is difficult using in vivo strategies. Therefore, effective, reproducible in vitro assays have been developed to test whether a given factor or condition can have a direct effect on the kinetics of transcription elongation. We have adapted a fully reconstituted transcription system for RNA polymerase I (Pol I) for kinetic analysis of transcription elongation rate in vitro. The assay described here has proven to be effective in the characterization of defects or enhancement of wild-type transcription elongation by RNA Pol I. Since transcription elongation by RNA Pol I has only recently gained significant attention, this assay will be a valuable resource for years to come.

  16. A hierarchy of needs? Embryo donation, in vitro fertilisation and the provision of infertility counselling. (United States)

    Machin, Laura


    The aim of the paper is to examine how those working in, using and regulating assisted conception clinics discussed infertility counselling and its provision within the context of embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. 35 participants were recruited for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. All data were analysed using thematic analysis. The thematic analysis revealed recurring themes based upon the portrayals of infertility counselling, embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. This paper suggests that an implicit hierarchy exists around those using assisted conception techniques and their infertility counselling requirements, which was dependent upon the assisted conception technique used. As a result, some people using assisted conception techniques felt that their needs had been overlooked due to this covert hierarchy. Those working in, using or regulating assisted conception clinics should not view infertility counselling as restricted to treatments involving donation, or solely for people within the clinical system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A hierarchy of needs? Embryo donation, in vitro fertilisation and the provision of infertility counselling (United States)

    Machin, Laura


    Objective The aim of the paper is to examine how those working in, using and regulating assisted conception clinics discussed infertility counselling and its provision within the context of embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. Method 35 participants were recruited for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. All data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The thematic analysis revealed recurring themes based upon the portrayals of infertility counselling, embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. Conclusions This paper suggests that an implicit hierarchy exists around those using assisted conception techniques and their infertility counselling requirements, which was dependent upon the assisted conception technique used. As a result, some people using assisted conception techniques felt that their needs had been overlooked due to this covert hierarchy. Practice implications Those working in, using or regulating assisted conception clinics should not view infertility counselling as restricted to treatments involving donation, or solely for people within the clinical system. PMID:21035297

  18. In vitro fermentation of chewed mango and banana: particle size, starch and vascular fibre effects. (United States)

    Low, Dorrain Y; Williams, Barbara A; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Gidley, Michael J


    Fruits (and vegetables) contain cellular structures that are not degraded by human digestive enzymes. Therefore, the structure of the insoluble fraction of swallowed fruits is mostly retained until intestinal microbial fermentation. In vitro fermentation of mango and banana cell structures, which survived in vivo mastication and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, were incubated with porcine faecal inoculum and showed intensive metabolic activity. This included degradation of cell walls, leading to the release of encapsulated cell contents for further microbial metabolism. Production of cumulative gas, short chain fatty acids and ammonia were greater for mango than for banana. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed this was due to a major fermentation-resistant starch fraction present in banana, that was absent in mango. This study demonstrated distinctive differences in the fermentability of banana and mango, reflecting a preferential degradation of (parenchyma) fleshy cell walls over resistant starch in banana, and the thick cellulosic vascular fibres in mango.

  19. Book Review: Qualitative-Quantitative Analyses of Dutch and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Qualitative-Quantitative Analyses of Dutch and Afrikaans Grammar and Lexicon. Book Author: Robert S. Kirsner. 2014. John Benjamins Publishing Company ISBN 9789027215772, price ZAR481.00. 239 pages ...

  20. Quality assessment of economic analyses in pediatric urology. (United States)

    Kokorowski, Paul J; Routh, Jonathan C; Nelson, Caleb P


    To describe and evaluate economic analyses or economic evaluations in pediatric urologic literature, including study types such as cost-effectiveness analysis, which are increasingly common in the medical literature. We performed a systematic literature review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (1990-2011) to identify economic analyses of pediatric urologic topics. Studies were evaluated using published quality metrics. We examined the analysis type, data sources, perspective, methodology, sensitivity analyses, and the reporting of methods, results, limitations, and conclusions. We identified 2945 nonduplicated studies, 60 of which met inclusion criteria. Economic analyses of pediatric urologic topics increased in number during the study period, from 1 study (2%) in 1990 to 7 (12%) in 2010 (P urologic literature, there is a need for standardization in methods and reporting. Future investigations should attempt to follow standardized reporting guidelines and should pay particular attention to reporting of methods and results, including a comprehensive discussion of limitations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the results for the Implanted Ion Sensor (IIS) of the Johnstone Particle Analyser (JPA) instrument flown aboard the GIOTTO spacecraft during...

  2. Selection of interest and inflation rates for infrastructure investment analyses. (United States)


    The South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) uses engineering economic analyses (EEA) to : support planning, design, and construction decision-making such as project programming and planning, : pavement type selection, and the occasional val...

  3. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) US daily temperature analyses (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. daily temperature analyses are maps depicting various temperature quantities utilizing daily maximum and minimum temperature data across the US. Maps are...

  4. Finite element analyses of railroad tank car head impacts (United States)


    This paper describes engineering analyses of a railroad : tank car impacted at its head by a rigid punch. This type of : collision, referred to as a head impact, is examined using : dynamic, nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA). : Commercial softw...

  5. clubber: removing the bioinformatics bottleneck in big data analyses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maximilian Miller; Chengsheng Zhu; Yana Bromberg


    .... is our automated cluster-load balancing system developed for optimizing these “big data” analyses. Its plug-and-play framework encourages re-use of existing solutions for bioinformatics problems...

  6. Thermodynamic and Quantum Thermodynamic Analyses of Brownian Movement


    Gyftopoulos, Elias P.


    Thermodynamic and quantum thermodynamic analyses of Brownian movement of a solvent and a colloid passing through neutral thermodynamic equilibrium states only. It is shown that Brownian motors and E. coli do not represent Brownian movement.

  7. New insights into domestication of carrot from root transcriptome analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rong, J.; Lammers, Y.; Strasburg, J.L.; Schidlo, N.S.; Ariyurek, Y.; Jong, de T.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vrieling, K.


    Background - Understanding the molecular basis of domestication can provide insights into the processes of rapid evolution and crop improvement. Here we demonstrated the processes of carrot domestication and identified genes under selection based on transcriptome analyses. Results - The root

  8. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses (United States)

    Abstract: Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative...

  9. Multielement trace analyses of SINQ materials by ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, R.; Schwikowski, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry was used to analyse 70 elements in various materials used for construction of the SINQ. Detection limits for individual elements depend strongly on the matrix and had to be determined separately. (author) 1 tab.

  10. Multivariate analyse : een inleiding voor criminologen en andere sociale wetenschappers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.C.J.H. & Commandeur, J.J.F.


    In het boek Multivariate analyse worden de belangrijkste basale multivariate technieken behandeld die worden gebruikt in criminologisch – en ander sociaalwetenschappelijk – onderzoek. Na een korte behandeling in vogelvlucht van belangrijke algemene methodologische en statistische kwesties wordt een

  11. Multivariate analyse : een inleiding voor criminologen en andere sociale wetenschappers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.C.J.H. & Commandeur, J.J.F.


    In het boek Multivariate analyse worden de belangrijkste basale multivariate technieken behandeld die worden gebruikt in criminologisch – en ander sociaalwetenschappelijk – onderzoek. Na een behandeling in vogelvlucht van belangrijke methodologische en statistische kwesties wordt een vijftal

  12. The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study, Grain Size Analyses (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study was funded by NOAA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Program. Dr. L.J. Doyle produced grain size analyses in the...

  13. Systematic derivation of correct variability-aware program analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Dimovski, Aleksandar S.; Brabrand, Claus


    A recent line of work lifts particular verification and analysis methods to Software Product Lines (SPL). In an effort to generalize such case-by-case approaches, we develop a systematic methodology for lifting single-program analyses to SPLs using abstract interpretation. Abstract interpretation...... for lifting analyses and Galois connections. We prove that for analyses developed using our method, the soundness of lifting follows by construction. The resulting variational abstract interpretation is a conceptual framework for understanding, deriving, and validating static analyses for SPLs. Then we show...... how to derive the corresponding variational dataflow equations for an example static analysis, a constant propagation analysis. We also describe how to approximate variability by applying variability-aware abstractions to SPL analysis. Finally, we discuss how to efficiently implement our method...

  14. L'analyse en composantes principales : principes et applications


    Palm, Rodolphe


    This note describes the principles of principal component analysis and gives two examples. Cette note décrit les principes de l'analyse en composantes principales et donne deux exemples numériques d'application.

  15. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses of gypsy group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsy group retrotransposons in the Egyptian cotton, Gossypium barbadense, was examined by phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses. DNA sequences of gypsy group retrotransposons in two G. barbadense cultivars revealed that these sequences are heterogeneous and represent two distinct families.

  16. Further Analyses of the 433Eros Global Lineament Map (United States)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; Wyrick, D.; Prockter, L. M.


    While some linear features identified on Eros are clearly formed by impact, others do not obviously follow any model predictions of lineation formation by impact and possibly represent a pre-existing internal structure. New analyses are presented.

  17. In vitro cultured primary roots derived from stem segments of cassava (Manihot esculenta) can behave like storage organs. (United States)

    Medina, Ricardo D; Faloci, Mirta M; Gonzalez, Ana M; Mroginski, Luis A


    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0.54 microM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly influenced by hormone treatments. The storage

  18. In vitro Cultured Primary Roots Derived from Stem Segments of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Can Behave Like Storage Organs (United States)

    Medina, Ricardo D.; Faloci, Mirta M.; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Mroginski, Luis A.


    Background and Aims Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Methods Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Key Results Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0·54 μm 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0·44 μm 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly

  19. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 18, 1990 ... In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than fifteen per cent. Results of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer at H. F. Verwoerd. Hospital, Pretoria. C. B. v. O. SEVENSTER, E. BOSMAN. H. KRUGER, F. LE R. FOURIE, P. BEKKER. Summary. The outcome of in vitro fertilisation and ...

  20. In vitro metabolism and permeation studies in rat jejunum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, B; Jensen, K; Steffansen, B


    The purpose of these studies was to compare the in vitro absorption of two inorganic chromium(III) compounds: chromium chloride and chromium nitrate, with organic chromium(III)-picolinate; and to investigate if any in vitro metabolism of chromium(VI) takes place. The in vitro metabolism studies...

  1. In vitro regeneration of Pinus brutia Ten. var. eldarica (Medw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes two in vitro regeneration systems through direct and indirect organogenesis in Pinus brutia using fascicles aseptic cultures as explants. Mechanical scarification and gibberellic acid (GA3) were evaluated on in vitro seed germination. Scarification was the treatment that allowed for in vitro seed ...

  2. Approach of Measuring System Analyses for Automotive Part Manufacturing


    S. Homrossukon; S. Sansureerungsigun


    This work aims to introduce an efficient and to standardize the measuring system analyses for automotive industrial. The study started by literature reviewing about the management and analyses measurement system. The approach of measuring system management, then, was constructed. Such approach was validated by collecting the current measuring system data using the equipments of interest including vernier caliper and micrometer. Their accuracy and precision of measurements were analyzed. Final...

  3. Analyse de la croissance de Gymnogongrus patens Agardh de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'influence des facteurs environnementaux (température, salinité, nitrates, et phosphates) sur l'évolution de la croissance a été étudiée par des analyses en composantes principales (ACP). L'analyse quantitative en composantes principales a montré une variation saisonnière des trois paramètres de croissance. Ainsi, les ...

  4. Propagação in vitro de Sacha inchi In vitro propagation of Sacha inchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Ricardo Bordignon


    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar in vitro a relação auxina:citocinina a fim de obter propágulos nos segmentos distintos do epicótilo e hipocótilo de sementes germinadas in vitro de Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis Linneo. Os segmentos apical (A, mediano (B e o basal (C foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS, semi sólido (2,0g L-1 Phytagel, suplementado com vitaminas de MS, sacarose (30,0g L-1 e submetidos a três doses da auxina ácido indolbutírico - IBA (0; 0,1; 0,5mg L-1, associadas a quatro doses da citocinina benzilaminopurina - BAP (0; 0,1; 0,5; 1,0mg L-1, totalizando 36 tratamentos. Após nove semanas de cultivo in vitro, o segmento apical (A apresentou formação de brotações por organogênese direta nas concentrações de 0,5 e 1,0 de BAP, associado a 0,0 e 0,1 de IBA. O emprego do cultivo in vitro é viável na produção de mudas, utilizando como explante a região apical de sementes germinadas in vitro.The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro evaluation of the auxin:cytokinine ratio in different segments of the epicotyl and hypocotyl of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis Linneo seeds germinated in vitro. The segments apical (A, median (B and basal (C were introduced into semi-solid MS culture medium (2.0g L-1 Phytagel, supplemented with MS vitamins, sucrose (30.0g L-1 and submitted to three doses of auxin indolebutyric acid - IBA (0; 0.1; 0.5mg L-1, associated with four doses of the cytokinine benzylaminopurine - BAP (0; 0.1; 0.5; 1.0mg L-1, totaling 36 treatments. After nine weeks of in vitro cultivation, the apical segment (A presented shoot formation by direct organogenesis at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 of BAP associated with 0.0 and 0.1 of IBA. It is feasible to use in vitro cultivation with the apical region of seeds germinated in vitro used as explants.

  5. Dose-related beneficial and harmful effects of gabapentin in postoperative pain management - post hoc analyses from a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabritius, Maria Louise; Wetterslev, Jørn; Mathiesen, Ole


    with meta-analyses aimed to explore the beneficial and harmful effects of various doses of gabapentin administered to surgical patients. Materials and methods: Data in this paper were derived from an original review, and the subgroup analyses were predefined in an International Prospective Register...... of Systematic Reviews published protocol: PROSPERO (ID: CRD42013006538). The methods followed Cochrane guidelines. The Cochrane Library’s CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Google Scholar, and FDA database were searched for relevant trials. Randomized clinical trials comparing gabapentin...... clinical trials, with 8466 patients, were included. Sixteen were overall low risk of bias. No consistent increase in morphine-sparing effect was observed with increasing doses of gabapentin from the trials with low risk of bias. Analyzing all trials, the smallest and the highest dose subgroups demonstrated...

  6. Molecular interactions in human nail plate analysed by dielectric spectroscopy. (United States)

    Marzec, E; Olszewski, J


    The influence of diabetes mellitus on dielectric properties of the human fingernail was measured in vitro in the alpha-dispersion region. The frequency dependencies of the permittivity and conductivity for the healthy and the diabetic nail plate revealed three separate relaxations, which were similar for both materials. Significant differences were observed in the values of permittivity at the same frequency between the healthy and the diabetic nails with low water content of about 0% and 3%. Results of this paper suggest that hyperglycemia alters the first-order structure of the nail keratin macromolecule.

  7. Asymbiotic in vitro seed propagation of Dendrobium. (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Tsavkelova, Elena A; Ng, Tzi Bun; Parthibhan, S; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Rao, M V; Zeng, Songjun


    The ability to germinate orchids from seeds in vitro presents a useful and viable method for the propagation of valuable germplasm, maintaining the genetic heterogeneity inherent in seeds. Given the ornamental and medicinal importance of many species within the genus Dendrobium, this review explores in vitro techniques for their asymbiotic seed germination. The influence of abiotic factors (such as temperature and light), methods of sterilization, composition of basal media, and supplementation with organic additives and plant growth regulators are discussed in context to achieve successful seed germination, protocorm formation, and further seedling growth and development. This review provides both a basis for the selection of optimal conditions, and a platform for the discovery of better ones, that would allow the development of new protocols and the exploration of new hypotheses for germination and conservation of Dendrobium seeds and seedlings.

  8. In vitro regeneration in Allium species. (United States)

    Rauber, M; Grunewaldt, J


    An attempt to induce shoot regeneration from leaf disc explants from Allium sativum L., A. porrum L., and A. schoenoprasum L. and the induction of shoot regeneration from single flower-bud receptacles in A. porrum is presented. While the regeneration rate from leaf disc explants was low, an efficient method for propagating A. porrum in vitro was obtained by cultivating single flower-bud receptacles. The shoot regeneration ability was strongly controlled by the genotype. Up to 294 shoots per leek plant could be harvested. Simultaneously the same plant could be used for seed production and bulbil formation in vivo. The efficiency of the in vitro multiplication method described allows the integration of this procedure into breeding programmes of A. porrum.

  9. Human rights to in vitro fertilization. (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra


    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. © 2013.

  10. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Blastocystis (United States)

    Bush, Stephen; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Stark, Damien


    Blastocystis is the most common human enteric protist with controversial clinical significance. Metronidazole is considered a first-line treatment for Blastocystis infection; however, there has been increasing evidence for the lack of efficacy of this treatment. Treatment failure has been reported in several clinical cases, and recent in vitro studies have suggested the occurrence of metronidazole-resistant strains. In this study, we tested 12 Blastocystis isolates from 4 common Blastocystis subtypes (ST1, ST3, ST4, and ST8) against 12 commonly used antimicrobials (metronidazole, paromomycin, ornidazole, albendazole, ivermectin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX], furazolidone, nitazoxanide, secnidazole, fluconazole, nystatin, and itraconazole) at 10 different concentrations in vitro. It was found that each subtype showed little sensitivity to the commonly used metronidazole, paromomycin, and triple therapy (furazolidone, nitazoxanide, and secnidazole). This study highlights the efficacy of other potential drug treatments, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ivermectin, and suggests that current treatment regimens be revised. PMID:25987633

  11. Mode of Action Analyses of Neferine, a Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloid of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera against Multidrug-Resistant Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onat Kadioglu


    Full Text Available Neferine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the green seed embryos of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, has been previously shown to have various anti-cancer effects. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of neferine in terms of P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibition via in vitro cytotoxicity assays, R123 uptake assays in drug-resistant cancer cells, in silico molecular docking analysis on human P-gp and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME, quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR and toxicity analyses. Lipinski rule of five were mainly considered for the ADME evaluation and the preset descriptors including number of hydrogen bond donor, acceptor, hERG IC50, logp, logD were considered for the QSAR analyses. Neferine revealed higher toxicity toward paclitaxel- and doxorubicin-resistant breast, lung or colon cancer cells, implying collateral sensitivity of these cells toward neferine. Increased R123 uptake was observed in a comparable manner to the control P-gp inhibitor, verapamil. Molecular docking analyses revealed that neferine still interacts with P-gp, even if R123 was pre-bound. Bioinformatical ADME and toxicity analyses revealed that neferine possesses the druggability parameters with no predicted toxicity. In conclusion, neferine may allocate the P-gp drug-binding pocket and prevent R123 binding in agreement with P-gp inhibition experiments, where neferine increased R123 uptake.

  12. Methodology for accident analyses of fusion breeder blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobromir Panayotov; Andrew Grief; Brad J. Merrill; Julian T. Murgatroyd; Paul Humrickhouse; Yves Poitevin; Simon Owen; Markus Iseli


    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) develops designs and implements the European Test Blanket Systems (TBS) in ITER - Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of TBS in ITER and accident analyses are one of its critical segments. A systematic approach to the accident analyses had been acquired under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements and AMEC and INL efforts resulted in the development of a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analyses. It addresses the specificity of the breeding blankets design, materials and phenomena and at the same time is consistent with the one already applied to ITER accident analyses. Methodology consists of several phases. At first the reference scenarios are selected on the base of FMEA studies. In the second place elaboration of the accident analyses specifications we use phenomena identification and ranking tables to identify the requirements to be met by the code(s) and TBS models. Thus the limitations of the codes are identified and possible solutions to be built into the models are proposed. These include among others the loose coupling of different codes or code versions in order to simulate multi-fluid flows and phenomena. The code selection and issue of the accident analyses specifications conclude this second step. Furthermore the breeding blanket and ancillary systems models are built on. In this work challenges met and solutions used in the development of both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes models of HCLL and HCPB TBSs will be shared. To continue the developed models are qualified by comparison with finite elements analyses, by code to code comparison and sensitivity studies. Finally, the qualified models are used for the execution of the accident analyses of specific scenario. When possible the methodology phases will be illustrated in the paper by limited number of tables and

  13. Vitrification of in vitro produced bovine embryos: in vitro and in vivo evaluations. (United States)

    Martínez, A G; Valcárcel, A; de las Heras, M A; de Matos, D G; Furnus, C; Brogliatti, G


    The efficacy of different vitrification solutions to cryopreserve in vitro produced bovine blastocysts was evaluated based upon in vitro development of embryos in culture and on in vivo development of embryos transferred into recipients. In the first experiment, ethylene glycol + glycerol (Eg + Gly) + different sucrose concentrations were evaluated. There were no significant differences in development rates among solutions. As for hatching, the Eg + Gly + 0.1 M sucrose group had a greater rate as compared with Eg + Gly + 0 M sucrose and Eg + Gly + 0.5 M sucrose groups in the evaluations of Day 6, Day 7 and Day 6 + Day 7 embryos; and, Eg + Gly + 0.3 M sucrose group had a greater rate as compared with the Eg + Gly + 0 M sucrose and Eg + Gly + 0.5 M sucrose groups in evaluations of Day 6 and Day 6 + Day 7 embryos. There were no significant differences in development and hatching rates between Day 6 and 7 in in vitro produced bovine embryos within each treatment group. There were significant differences in nuclei number after vitrification between Eg + Gly + 0.1 M and Eg + Gly + 0 M sucrose groups and the Eg + Gly + 0.5 M sucrose group. Pregnancy after 60 days of transfer and calving rates showed a difference between in vivo produced embryos freshly transferred and in vitro produced embryos vitrified with Eg + Gly + 0.3 M. There were no significant differences in gestation length and sex ratio between treatments. As for birth weight, there were significant differences between fresh in vivo produced embryos and all treatments of in vitro produced embryos. There were significant differences in dystocial parturition between in vivo produced embryos and all treatments with in vitro produced embryos. These results demonstrate that vitrification can be used successfully in the cryopreservation of in vitro produced bovine embryos, and that it might be considered for use in commercial programs. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Synthesis and Labeling of RNA In Vitro (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Yu, Yi-Tao


    This unit discusses several methods for generating large amounts of uniformly labeled, end-labeled, and site-specifically labeled RNAs in vitro. The methods involve a number of experimental procedures, including RNA transcription, 5′ dephosphorylation and rephosphorylation, 3′ terminal nucleotide addition (via ligation), site-specific RNase H cleavage directed by 2′-O-methyl RNA-DNA chimeras, and 2-piece splint ligation. The applications of these RNA radiolabeling approaches are also discussed. PMID:23547015

  15. Yield, chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feed Sci. Technol. 94,. 15-27. Ammar, H., 2002. Compositión química, digestibilidad y cinética de fermentacion ruminal in vitro de arbustos. PhD tesi, Universidad de León, Spain. Anderson, T.P. & Hoffman, P., 2006. Nutrient composition of straw used in dairy cattle diets. University of. Wisconsin Extension Focus on Forage.

  16. In vitro cytotoxic elemanolides from Vernonia lasiopus. (United States)

    Koul, J L; Koul, S; Singh, C; Taneja, S C; Shanmugavel, M; Kampasi, H; Saxena, A K; Qazi, G N


    Two new elemanolides, epivernodalol and lasiopulide, were isolated after chromatographic separation of the alcoholic extract of the dried aerial parts of the Vernonia lasiopus. These elemanolides are new C-10 epimers of the sesquiterpene lactones vernodalol and demethylacroylated vernodalol isolated from other species of Vernonia. Both elemanolides showed in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines in culture. This is the first report of isolation and cytotoxic activity of the two elemanolides from V. lasiopus.

  17. Patient-specific in vitro models for hemodynamic analysis of congenital heart disease - Additive manufacturing approach. (United States)

    Medero, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Sylvana; François, Christopher J; Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro


    Non-invasive hemodynamic assessment of total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is challenging due to the complex anatomy. Additive manufacturing (AM) is a suitable alternative for creating patient-specific in vitro models for flow measurements using four-dimensional (4D) Flow MRI. These in vitro systems have the potential to serve as validation for computational fluid dynamics (CFD), simulating different physiological conditions. This study investigated three different AM technologies, stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), to determine differences in hemodynamics when measuring flow using 4D Flow MRI. The models were created using patient-specific MRI data from an extracardiac TCPC. These models were connected to a perfusion pump circulating water at three different flow rates. Data was processed for visualization and quantification of velocity, flow distribution, vorticity and kinetic energy. These results were compared between each model. In addition, the flow distribution obtained in vitro was compared to in vivo. The results showed significant difference in velocities measured at the outlets of the models that required internal support material when printing. Furthermore, an ultrasound flow sensor was used to validate flow measurements at the inlets and outlets of the in vitro models. These results were highly correlated to those measured with 4D Flow MRI. This study showed that commercially available AM technologies can be used to create patient-specific vascular models for in vitro hemodynamic studies at reasonable costs. However, technologies that do not require internal supports during manufacturing allow smoother internal surfaces, which makes them better suited for flow analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical species belonging to Aspergillus genus and Rhizopus oryzae. (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S


    Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Live time-lapse dataset of in vitro wound healing experiments. (United States)

    Zaritsky, Assaf; Natan, Sari; Kaplan, Doron; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Tsarfaty, Ilan


    The wound healing assay is the common method to study collective cell migration in vitro. Computational analyses of live imaging exploit the rich temporal information and significantly improve understanding of complex phenomena that emerge during this mode of collective motility. Publicly available experimental data can allow application of new analyses to promote new discoveries, and assess algorithms' capabilities to distinguish between different experimental conditions. A freely-available dataset of 31 time-lapse in vitro wound healing experiments of two cell lines is presented. It consists of six different experimental conditions with 4-6 replicates each, gathered to study the effects of a growth factor on collective cell migration. The raw data is available at 'The Cell: an Image Library' repository. This Data Note provides detailed description of the data, intermediately processed data, scripts and experimental validations that have not been reported before and are currently available at GigaDB. This is the first publicly available repository of live collective cell migration data that includes independent replicates for each set of conditions. This dataset has the potential for extensive reuse. Some aspects in the data remain unexplored and can be exploited extensively to reveal new insight. The dataset could also be used to assess the performance of available and new quantification methods by demonstrating phenotypic discriminatory capabilities between the different experimental conditions. It may allow faster and more elaborated, reproducible and effective analyses, which will likely lead to new biological and biophysical discoveries.

  20. In vitro propagation of Hydrangea spp. (United States)

    Ruffoni, Barbara; Sacco, Ermanno; Savona, Marco


    Hydrangea (Hortensia) is a highly popular ornamental plant for garden decoration, and now it is commercially produced for cut flower branches. For in vitro culture, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with BA (0.25 mg/L) and sucrose (30 g/L) was used. Culture conditions were 23 ± 1°C of temperature, light intensity of 35 μmol/m(2)/s P.P.F.D., and 16/8 h day/night photoperiod. Following shoot proliferation, the in vitro rooting frequency was 100% on a medium containing NAA 0.5 mg/L. However, 95% direct in vivo rooting was achieved by dipping microcuttings in a 5,000 ppm K-IBA solution which were transferred afterward to a glasshouse for acclimatization. After 21 days, fully acclimatized and well-established plants were obtained, suitable for commercialization. Furthermore, leaf fragments derived from in vitro plantlets were cultured for callus induction and adventitious shoot regeneration.

  1. Establishing Liver Bioreactors for In Vitro Research. (United States)

    Rebelo, Sofia P; Costa, Rita; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Brito, Catarina; Alves, Paula M


    In vitro systems that can effectively model liver function for long periods of time are fundamental tools for preclinical research. Nevertheless, the adoption of in vitro research tools at the earliest stages of drug development has been hampered by the lack of culture systems that offer the robustness, scalability, and flexibility necessary to meet industry's demands. Bioreactor-based technologies, such as stirred tank bioreactors, constitute a feasible approach to aggregate hepatic cells and maintain long-term three-dimensional cultures. These three-dimensional cultures sustain the polarity, differentiated phenotype, and metabolic performance of human hepatocytes. Culture in computer-controlled stirred tank bioreactors allows the maintenance of physiological conditions, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature, with minimal fluctuations. Moreover, by operating in perfusion mode, gradients of soluble factors and metabolic by-products can be established, aiming at resembling the in vivo microenvironment. This chapter provides a protocol for the aggregation and culture of hepatocyte spheroids in stirred tank bioreactors by applying perfusion mode for the long-term culture of human hepatocytes. This in vitro culture system is compatible with feeding high-throughput screening platforms for the assessment of drug elimination pathways, being a useful tool for toxicology research and drug development in the preclinical phase.

  2. Enhanced photoacoustic gas analyser response time and impact on accuracy at fast ventilation rates during multiple breath washout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Horsley

    Full Text Available The Innocor device contains a highly sensitive photoacoustic gas analyser that has been used to perform multiple breath washout (MBW measurements using very low concentrations of the tracer gas SF6. Use in smaller subjects has been restricted by the requirement for a gas analyser response time of <100 ms, in order to ensure accurate estimation of lung volumes at rapid ventilation rates.A series of previously reported and novel enhancements were made to the gas analyser to produce a clinically practical system with a reduced response time. An enhanced lung model system, capable of delivering highly accurate ventilation rates and volumes, was used to assess in vitro accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC volume calculation and the effects of flow and gas signal alignment on this.10-90% rise time was reduced from 154 to 88 ms. In an adult/child lung model, accuracy of volume calculation was -0.9 to 2.9% for all measurements, including those with ventilation rate of 30/min and FRC of 0.5 L; for the un-enhanced system, accuracy deteriorated at higher ventilation rates and smaller FRC. In a separate smaller lung model (ventilation rate 60/min, FRC 250 ml, tidal volume 100 ml, mean accuracy of FRC measurement for the enhanced system was minus 0.95% (range -3.8 to 2.0%. Error sensitivity to flow and gas signal alignment was increased by ventilation rate, smaller FRC and slower analyser response time.The Innocor analyser can be enhanced to reliably generate highly accurate FRC measurements down at volumes as low as those simulating infant lung settings. Signal alignment is a critical factor. With these enhancements, the Innocor analyser exceeds key technical component recommendations for MBW apparatus.

  3. Raman Spectroscopic Analyses of Jaw Periosteal Cell Mineralization. (United States)

    Brauchle, Eva; Carvajal Berrio, Daniel; Rieger, Melanie; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Reinert, Siegmar; Alexander, Dorothea


    To achieve safer patient treatments, serum-free cell culture conditions have to be established for cell therapies. In previous studies, we demonstrated that serum-free culture favored the proliferation of MSCA-1(+) osteoprogenitors derived from the jaw periosteum. In this study, the in vitro formation of bone-specific matrix by MSCA-1(+) jaw periosteal cells (JPCs, 3 donors) was assessed and compared under serum-free and serum-containing media conditions using the marker-free Raman spectroscopy. Based on a standard fluorescence assay, JPCs from one patient were not able to mineralize under serum-containing culture conditions, whereas the other cells showed similar mineralization levels under both conditions. Raman spectra from mineralizing MSCA-1(+) JPCs revealed higher levels of hydroxyapatite formation and higher mineral to matrix ratios under serum-free culture conditions. Higher carbonate to phosphate ratios and higher crystallinity in JPCs cultured under serum-containing conditions indicated immature bone formation. Due to reduced collagen production under serum-free conditions, we obtained significant differences in collagen maturity and proline to hydroxyproline ratios compared to serum-free conditions. We conclude that Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool for the assessment and noninvasive monitoring of in vitro mineralization of osteoprogenitor cells. Further studies should extend this knowledge and improve JPC mineralization by optimizing culture conditions.

  4. The ASSET intercomparison of ozone analyses: method and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Geer


    Full Text Available This paper aims to summarise the current performance of ozone data assimilation (DA systems, to show where they can be improved, and to quantify their errors. It examines 11 sets of ozone analyses from 7 different DA systems. Two are numerical weather prediction (NWP systems based on general circulation models (GCMs; the other five use chemistry transport models (CTMs. The systems examined contain either linearised or detailed ozone chemistry, or no chemistry at all. In most analyses, MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding ozone data are assimilated; two assimilate SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography observations instead. Analyses are compared to independent ozone observations covering the troposphere, stratosphere and lower mesosphere during the period July to November 2003. Biases and standard deviations are largest, and show the largest divergence between systems, in the troposphere, in the upper-troposphere/lower-stratosphere, in the upper-stratosphere and mesosphere, and the Antarctic ozone hole region. However, in any particular area, apart from the troposphere, at least one system can be found that agrees well with independent data. In general, none of the differences can be linked to the assimilation technique (Kalman filter, three or four dimensional variational methods, direct inversion or the system (CTM or NWP system. Where results diverge, a main explanation is the way ozone is modelled. It is important to correctly model transport at the tropical tropopause, to avoid positive biases and excessive structure in the ozone field. In the southern hemisphere ozone hole, only the analyses which correctly model heterogeneous ozone depletion are able to reproduce the near-complete ozone destruction over the pole. In the upper-stratosphere and mesosphere (above 5 hPa, some ozone photochemistry schemes caused large but easily remedied biases. The diurnal cycle of ozone in

  5. Effect on growth and cell cycle kinetics of estradiol and tamoxifen on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells grown in vitro and in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Bronzert, D; Vindeløv, L L


    The effects of estradiol and tamoxifen (TAM) on the estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 grown in vitro and in nude mice were compared. The effect on growth was determined by cell number in vitro and by tumor growth curves in nude mice. The effects on the cell cycle kinetics were...... determined by repeated flow cytometric DNA analyses in vitro and in vivo and by the technique of labeled mitosis in nude mouse-grown tumors. Under in vitro conditions, estradiol induced a pronounced increase in S-phase fraction and cell number. TAM inhibited growth of MCF-7 cells with a concomitant increase...... cytometric DNA analysis and percentage of labeled mitosis investigations revealed no significant differences in the proliferation kinetics of TAM-treated and control tumors. Calculating the cell loss factor demonstrated an increase from 69% in control tumors to 107% in TAM-treated tumors. These experiments...

  6. VESPA: Very large-scale Evolutionary and Selective Pressure Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Webb


    Full Text Available Background Large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses of protein coding sequences requires a number of preparatory inter-related steps from finding gene families, to generating alignments and phylogenetic trees and assessing selective pressure variation. Each phase of these analyses can represent significant challenges, particularly when working with entire proteomes (all protein coding sequences in a genome from a large number of species. Methods We present VESPA, software capable of automating a selective pressure analysis using codeML in addition to the preparatory analyses and summary statistics. VESPA is written in python and Perl and is designed to run within a UNIX environment. Results We have benchmarked VESPA and our results show that the method is consistent, performs well on both large scale and smaller scale datasets, and produces results in line with previously published datasets. Discussion Large-scale gene family identification, sequence alignment, and phylogeny reconstruction are all important aspects of large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses. VESPA provides flexible software for simplifying these processes along with downstream selective pressure variation analyses. The software automatically interprets results from codeML and produces simplified summary files to assist the user in better understanding the results. VESPA may be found at the following website:

  7. Guide: a desktop application for analysing gene expression data. (United States)

    Choi, Jarny


    Multiplecompeting bioinformatics tools exist for next-generation sequencing data analysis. Many of these tools are available as R/Bioconductor modules, and it can be challenging for the bench biologist without any programming background to quickly analyse genomics data. Here, we present an application that is designed to be simple to use, while leveraging the power of R as the analysis engine behind the scenes. Genome Informatics Data Explorer (Guide) is a desktop application designed for the bench biologist to analyse RNA-seq and microarray gene expression data. It requires a text file of summarised read counts or expression values as input data, and performs differential expression analyses at both the gene and pathway level. It uses well-established R/Bioconductor packages such as limma for its analyses, without requiring the user to have specific knowledge of the underlying R functions. Results are presented in figures or interactive tables which integrate useful data from multiple sources such as gene annotation and orthologue data. Advanced options include the ability to edit R commands to customise the analysis pipeline. Guide is a desktop application designed to query gene expression data in a user-friendly way while automatically communicating with R. Its customisation options make it possible to use different bioinformatics tools available through R/Bioconductor for its analyses, while keeping the core usage simple. Guide is written in the cross-platform framework of Qt, and is freely available for use from

  8. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.


    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  9. Performance and Vibration Analyses of Lift-Offset Helicopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-In Go


    Full Text Available A validation study on the performance and vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter is conducted to establish techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters. This study considers the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter using a rigid coaxial rotor system as a verification model. CAMRAD II (Comprehensive Analytical Method of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics II, a comprehensive analysis code, is used as a tool for the performance, vibration, and loads analyses. A general free wake model, which is a more sophisticated wake model than other wake models, is used to obtain good results for the comprehensive analysis. Performance analyses of the XH-59A helicopter with and without auxiliary propulsion are conducted in various flight conditions. In addition, vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter configuration are conducted in the forward flight condition. The present comprehensive analysis results are in good agreement with the flight test and previous analyses. Therefore, techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters are appropriately established. Furthermore, the rotor lifts are calculated for the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter in the forward flight condition to investigate the airloads characteristics of the ABC™ (Advancing Blade Concept rotor.

  10. Modeling Citable Textual Analyses for the Homer Multitext

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher William Blackwell


    Full Text Available The 'Homer Multitext' project (hmt is documenting the language and structure of Greek epic poetry, and the ancient tradition of commentary on it. The project’s primary data consist of editions of Greek texts; automated and manually created readings analyze the texts across historical and thematic axes. This paper describes an abstract model we follow in documenting an open-ended body of diverse analyses. The analyses apply to passages of texts at different levels of granularity; they may refer to overlapping or mutually exclusive passages of text; and they may apply to non-contiguous passages of text. All are recorded in with explicit, concise, machine-actionable canonical citation of both text passage and analysis in a scheme aligning all analyses to a common notional text. We cite our texts with urns that capture a passage’s position in an 'Ordered Hierarchy of Citation Objects' (ohco2. Analyses are modeled as data-objects with five properties. We create collections of ‘analytical objects’, each uniquely identified by its own urn and each aligned to a particular edition of a text by a urn citation. We can view these analytical objects as an extension of the edition’s citation hierarchy; since they are explicitly ordered by their alignment with the edition they analyze, each collection of analyses meets satisfies the (ohco2 model of a citable text. We call these texts that are derived from and aligned to an edition ‘analytical exemplars’.

  11. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy


    Full Text Available Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative measures of health inequality in other settings, and these measures may be applicable to environmental regulatory analyses. In this paper, we provide information to assist policy decision makers in determining the viability of using measures of health inequality in the context of environmental regulatory analyses. We conclude that quantification of the distribution of inequalities in health outcomes across social groups of concern, considering both within-group and between-group comparisons, would be consistent with both the structure of regulatory analysis and the core definition of environmental justice. Appropriate application of inequality indicators requires thorough characterization of the baseline distribution of exposures and risks, leveraging data generally available within regulatory analyses. Multiple inequality indicators may be applicable to regulatory analyses, and the choice among indicators should be based on explicit value judgments regarding the dimensions of environmental justice of greatest interest.

  12. Methodological Quality Assessment of Meta-analyses in Endodontics. (United States)

    Kattan, Sereen; Lee, Su-Min; Kohli, Meetu R; Setzer, Frank C; Karabucak, Bekir


    The objectives of this review were to assess the methodological quality of published meta-analyses related to endodontics using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool and to provide a follow-up to previously published reviews. Three electronic databases were searched for eligible studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria: Embase via Ovid, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus. The electronic search was amended by a hand search of 6 dental journals (International Endodontic Journal; Journal of Endodontics; Australian Endodontic Journal; Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology; Endodontics and Dental Traumatology; and Journal of Dental Research). The searches were conducted to include articles published after July 2009, and the deadline for inclusion of the meta-analyses was November 30, 2016. The AMSTAR assessment tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of all included studies. A total of 36 reports of meta-analyses were included. The overall quality of the meta-analyses reports was found to be medium, with an estimated mean overall AMSTAR score of 7.25 (95% confidence interval, 6.59-7.90). The most poorly assessed areas were providing an a priori design, the assessment of the status of publication, and publication bias. In recent publications in the field of endodontics, the overall quality of the reported meta-analyses is medium according to AMSTAR. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization of Large Scale Surface Models for Detailed Visibility Analyses (United States)

    Caha, J.; Kačmařík, M.


    This article demonstrates utilization of large scale surface models with small spatial resolution and high accuracy, acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle scanning, for visibility analyses. The importance of large scale data for visibility analyses on the local scale, where the detail of the surface model is the most defining factor, is described. The focus is not only the classic Boolean visibility, that is usually determined within GIS, but also on so called extended viewsheds that aims to provide more information about visibility. The case study with examples of visibility analyses was performed on river Opava, near the Ostrava city (Czech Republic). The multiple Boolean viewshed analysis and global horizon viewshed were calculated to determine most prominent features and visibility barriers of the surface. Besides that, the extended viewshed showing angle difference above the local horizon, which describes angular height of the target area above the barrier, is shown. The case study proved that large scale models are appropriate data source for visibility analyses on local level. The discussion summarizes possible future applications and further development directions of visibility analyses.

  14. In vitro invasion of small-cell lung cancer cell lines correlates with expression of epidermal growth factor receptor. (United States)

    Damstrup, L; Rude Voldborg, B; Spang-Thomsen, M; Brünner, N; Skovgaard Poulsen, H


    Formation of metastasis is a multistep process involving attachment to the basement membrane, local proteolysis and migration into surrounding tissues, lymph or bloodstream. In the present study, we have analysed the correlation between in vitro invasion and presence of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a panel of 21 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines. We have previously reported that ten of these cell lines expressed EGFR protein detected by radioreceptor and affinity labelling assays. In 11 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, EGFR mRNA was detected by Northern blot analysis. In vitro invasion in a Boyden chamber assay was found in all EGFR-positive cell lines, whereas no invasion was detected in the EGFR-negative cell lines. Quantification of the in vitro invasion in 12 selected SCLC cell lines demonstrated that, in the EGFR-positive cell lines, between 5% and 16% of the cells added to the upper chamber were able to traverse the Matrigel membrane. Expression of several matrix metalloproteases (MMP), of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP) and of cathepsin B was evaluated by immunoprecipitation, Western blot analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, in vitro invasive SCLC cell lines could not be distinguished from non-invasive cell lines based on the expression pattern of these molecules. In six SCLC cell lines, in vitro invasion was also determined in the presence of the EGFR-neutralizing monoclonal antibody mAb528. The addition of this antibody resulted in a significant reduction of the in vitro invasion in three selected EGFR-positive cell lines. Our results show that only EGFR-positive SCLC cell lines had the in vitro invasive phenotype, and it is therefore suggested that the EGFR might play an important role for the invasion potential of SCLC cell lines.

  15. Confirmation of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro resistance to monodesethylamodiaquine and chloroquine in Dakar, Senegal, in 2015. (United States)

    Diawara, Silman; Madamet, Marylin; Kounta, Mame Bou; Lo, Gora; Wade, Khalifa Ababacar; Nakoulima, Aminata; Bercion, Raymond; Amalvict, Rémy; Gueye, Mamadou Wague; Fall, Bécaye; Diatta, Bakary; Pradines, Bruno


    In response to increasing resistance to anti-malarial drugs, Senegal adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in 2006. However, resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites to artemisinin derivatives, characterized by delayed parasite clearance after treatment with ACT or artesunate monotherapy, has recently emerged and rapidly spread in Southeast Asia. After 10 years of stability with rates ranging from 5.6 to 11.8%, the prevalence of parasites with reduced susceptibility in vitro to monodesethylamodiaquine, the active metabolite of an ACT partner drug, increased to 30.6% in 2014 in Dakar. Additionally, after a decrease of the in vitro chloroquine resistance in Dakar in 2009-2011, the prevalence of parasites that showed in vitro chloroquine resistance increased again to approximately 50% in Dakar since 2013. The aim of this study was to follow the evolution of the susceptibility to ACT partners and other anti-malarial drugs in 2015 in Dakar. An in vitro test is the only method currently available to provide an early indication of resistance to ACT partners. Thirty-two P. falciparum isolates collected in 2015 in Dakar were analysed using a standard ex vivo assay based on an HRP2 ELISA. The prevalence of P. falciparum parasites with reduced susceptibility in vitro to monodesethylamodiaquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, doxycycline and quinine was 28.1, 46.9, 45.2, 31.2 and 9.7%, respectively. None of the parasites were resistant to lumefantrine, piperaquine, pyronaridine, dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. These results confirm an increase in the reduced susceptibility to monodesethylamodiaquine observed in 2014 in Dakar and the chloroquine resistance observed in 2013. The in vitro resistance seems to be established in Dakar. Additionally, the prevalence of parasites with reduced susceptibility to doxycycline has increased two-fold compared to 2014. The establishment of a reduced susceptibility to

  16. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses (United States)

    Lim, Lucy; Yan, Fangzhi; Bach, Stephen; Pihakari, Katianna; Klein, David


    Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices. PMID:26784175

  17. Towards Reproducible Research Data Analyses in LHC Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Simko, Tibor


    The reproducibility of the research data analysis requires having access not only to the original datasets, but also to the computing environment, the analysis software and the workflow used to produce the original results. We present the nascent CERN Analysis Preservation platform with a set of tools developed to support particle physics researchers in preserving the knowledge around analyses so that capturing, sharing, reusing and reinterpreting data becomes easier. The presentation will focus on three pillars: (i) capturing structured knowledge information about data analysis processes; (ii) capturing the computing environment, the software code, the datasets, the configuration and other information assets used in data analyses; (iii) re-instantiating of preserved analyses on a containerised computing cloud for the purposes of re-validation and re-interpretation.

  18. Scenario evolution: Interaction between event tree construction and numerical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, G.E.; Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA); MacIntyre, A.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)


    Construction of well-posed scenarios for the range of conditions possible at any proposed repository site is a critical first step to assessing total system performance. Event tree construction is the method that is being used to develop potential failure scenarios for the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. An event tree begins with an initial event or condition. Subsequent events are listed in a sequence, leading eventually to release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Ensuring the validity of the scenarios requires iteration between problems constructed using scenarios contained in the event tree sequence, experimental results, and numerical analyses. Details not adequately captured within the tree initially may become more apparent as a result of analyses. To illustrate this process, the authors discuss the iterations used to develop numerical analyses for PACE-90 (Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises) using basaltic igneous activity and human-intrusion event trees.

  19. Scenario evolution: Interaction between event tree construction and numerical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, G.E.; Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacIntyre, A.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Construction of well-posed scenarios for the range of conditions possible at any proposed repository site is a critical first step to assessing total system performance. Even tree construction is the method that is being used to develop potential failure scenarios for the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. An event tree begins with an initial event or condition. Subsequent events are listed in a sequence, leading eventually to release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Ensuring the validity of the scenarios requires iteration between problems constructed using scenarios contained in the event tree sequence, experimental results, and numerical analyses. Details not adequately captured within the tree initially may become more apparent as a result of analyses. To illustrate this process, we discuss the iterations used to develop numerical analyses for PACE-90 using basaltic igneous activity and human-intrusion event trees.

  20. Multiple preequilibrium emission in Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin analyses (United States)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Young, P. G.; George, D. C.; Watanabe, Y.


    We describe how multiple preequilibrium emission can be included in the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) theory. By analyzing (p,xn) and (p,xp) reactions on zirconium, at incident energies of 80 and 160 MeV, the imporance of multiple preequilibrium emission can be clearly seen. This mechanism accounts for much of the emission spectra and its importance extends to relatively high emission energies. We show that multiple preequilibrium must be included in FKK analyses at these incident energies in order to simultaneously satisfy unitarity and account for inclusive nucleon emission spectra. The importance of multistep processes is reduced in comparsion to analyses which omit multiple preequilibrium. Our calculated angular distributions account for measurements except at the highest backward angles, where we underpredict the data. We compare our results with other analyses at these energies.

  1. Finite element analyses of a linear-accelerator electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 45590 (Pakistan); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wasy, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon 641773 (Korea, Republic of); Islam, G. U. [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 45590 (Pakistan); Zhou, Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)


    Thermo-structural analyses of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear-accelerator, electron gun, were performed for the gun operating with the cathode at 1000 °C. The gun was modeled in computer aided three-dimensional interactive application for finite element analyses through ANSYS workbench. This was followed by simulations using the SLAC electron beam trajectory program EGUN for beam optics analyses. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the assembly to verify its beam parameters under the same boundary conditions. Simulation and test results were found to be in good agreement and hence confirmed the design parameters under the defined operating temperature. The gun is operating continuously since commissioning without any thermal induced failures for the BEPCII linear accelerator.

  2. Finite element analyses of a linear-accelerator electron gun (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Wasy, A.; Islam, G. U.; Zhou, Z.


    Thermo-structural analyses of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear-accelerator, electron gun, were performed for the gun operating with the cathode at 1000 °C. The gun was modeled in computer aided three-dimensional interactive application for finite element analyses through ANSYS workbench. This was followed by simulations using the SLAC electron beam trajectory program EGUN for beam optics analyses. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the assembly to verify its beam parameters under the same boundary conditions. Simulation and test results were found to be in good agreement and hence confirmed the design parameters under the defined operating temperature. The gun is operating continuously since commissioning without any thermal induced failures for the BEPCII linear accelerator.

  3. Thermo-Elastic Finite Element Analyses of Annular Nuclear Fuels (United States)

    Kwon, Y. D.; Kwon, S. B.; Rho, K. T.; Kim, M. S.; Song, H. J.

    In this study, we tried to examine the pros and cons of the annular type of fuel concerning mainly with the temperatures and stresses of pellet and cladding. The inner and outer gaps between pellet and cladding may play an important role on the temperature distribution and stress distribution of fuel system. Thus, we tested several inner and outer gap cases, and we evaluated the effect of gaps on fuel systems. We conducted thermo-elastic-plastic-creep analyses using an in-house thermo-elastic-plastic-creep finite element program that adopted the 'effective-stress-function' algorithm. Most analyses were conducted until the gaps disappeared; however, certain analyses lasted for 1582 days, after which the fuels were replaced. Further study on the optimal gaps sizes for annular nuclear fuel systems is still required.

  4. Using Meta-analyses for Comparative Effectiveness Research (United States)

    Ruppar, Todd M.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.


    Comparative effectiveness research seeks to identify the most effective interventions for particular patient populations. Meta-analysis is an especially valuable form of comparative effectiveness research because it emphasizes the magnitude of intervention effects rather than relying on tests of statistical significance among primary studies. Overall effects can be calculated for diverse clinical and patient-centered variables to determine the outcome patterns. Moderator analyses compare intervention characteristics among primary studies by determining if effect sizes vary among studies with different intervention characteristics. Intervention effectiveness can be linked to patient characteristics to provide evidence for patient-centered care. Moderator analyses often answer questions never posed by primary studies because neither multiple intervention characteristics nor populations are compared in single primary studies. Thus meta-analyses provide unique contributions to knowledge. Although meta-analysis is a powerful comparative effectiveness strategy, methodological challenges and limitations in primary research must be acknowledged to interpret findings. PMID:22789450

  5. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Lim


    Full Text Available Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices.

  6. A large acceptance analysing magnet for HTS-ECR source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail:; Rodrigues, G.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Brodt, Peter; Bodker, Franz [Danfysik, Jyllinge (Denmark)


    A large acceptance analysing magnet has been designed, fabricated and tested. The design aim is to analyse highly charged ions from a high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source, PKDELIS on a 400 kV high voltage platform. The magnet has a unique design incorporating multipole corrections to minimise higher order aberrations using special pole shapes. For double focussing condition, the entrance and exit shim angles have been optimised after inclusion of the gap effect. Since the analysing magnet will be operated on a high voltage platform, the magnet and associated high current power supply are designed to be air-cooled. Special care has been taken in the design of the magnet to have minimum weight, good acceptance and moderate mass resolution.

  7. Analysis of S. cerevisiae RNA Polymerase I Transcription In Vitro. (United States)

    Pilsl, Michael; Merkl, Philipp E; Milkereit, Philipp; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Tschochner, Herbert


    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) activity is crucial to provide cells with sufficient amounts of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Synthesis of rRNA takes place in the nucleolus, is tightly regulated and is coordinated with synthesis and assembly of ribosomal proteins, finally resulting in the formation of mature ribosomes. Many studies on Pol I mechanisms and regulation in the model organism S. cerevisiae were performed using either complex in vitro systems reconstituted from more or less purified fractions or genetic analyses. While providing many valuable insights these strategies did not always discriminate between direct and indirect effects in transcription initiation and termination, when mutated forms of Pol I subunits or transcription factors were investigated. Therefore, a well-defined minimal system was developed which allows to reconstitute highly efficient promoter-dependent Pol I initiation and termination of transcription. Transcription can be initiated at a minimal promoter only in the presence of recombinant core factor and extensively purified initiation competent Pol I. Addition of recombinant termination factors triggers transcriptional pausing and release of the ternary transcription complex. This minimal system represents a valuable tool to investigate the direct impact of (lethal) mutations in components of the initiation and termination complexes on the mechanism and regulation of rRNA synthesis.

  8. Benznidazole induces in vitro anaerobic metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Clare Vinaud


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the biochemical alterations of the energetic metabolism of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes in vitro exposed to different concentrations of benzinidazole. Methods: Biochemical analyses were performed at 3, 6 (log phase, 9 and 12 (stationary phase days of culture. Parasites were exposed to five concentrations of benzinidazole. Glycolysis, tricarboxilic acid cycle and fatty acids oxidation pathways were quantified through chromatography. Glucose, urea and creatinine were quantified through spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Anaerobic fermentation and fatty acids oxidation were increased in the stationary phase of the culture. Benzinidazole at high concentrations induced anaerobic metabolism in the log phase of the culture while the parasites exposed to the lower concentrations preferred the citric acid cycle as energy production pathway. Benzinidazole did not influence on the proteins catabolism. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that there are metabolic differences between evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and the main drug used for its treatment induces the anaerobic metabolism in the parasite, possibly impairing the mitochondrial pathways.

  9. Epigallocatechin gallate reduces human monocyte mobility and adhesion in vitro. (United States)

    Melgarejo, Esther; Medina, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis


    Monocytes/macrophages are an important population of immune inflammatory cells that have diverse effector functions in which their mobility and adhesion play a very relevant role. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, has been reported to have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, but its effects on monocytes remain to be determined. Here we investigated the effects of EGCG on the migration and adhesion of monocytes. We used a human monocyte cell line (THP-1) to analyse the effects of treatment with EGCG under non-cytotoxic conditions on the expression levels of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and of the MCP-1 receptor (CCR2) and on the activation of beta1 integrin. A functional validation was carried out by evaluating the inhibitory effect of EGCG on monocyte adhesiveness and migration in vitro. Treatment of THP-1 cells with EGCG decreased MCP-1 and CCR2 gene expression, together with MCP-1 secretion and CCR2 expression at the cell surface. EGCG also inhibited beta1 integrin activation. The effects on these molecular targets were in agreement with the EGCG-induced inhibition of THP-1 migration in response to MCP-1 and adhesion to fibronectin. Under our experimental conditions, EGCG treatment inhibited the migration and adhesion of monocytes. These inhibitory effects of EGCG on monocyte function should be considered as a promising new anti-inflammatory response with a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of inflammation-dependent diseases.


    Canlı, Kerem; Yetgin, Ali; Akata, Ilgaz; Altuner, Ergin Murat


    It was previously shown that some parts of Aquilaria agallocha, which is commonly known as oud or oodh, such as roots have been used as a traditional medical herbal in different countries. In Turkey A. agallocha is one of the ingredients while preparing famous Mesir paste, which was invented as a medicinal paste and used from the Ottoman period to now at least for 500 years. The identification the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of A. agallocha roots is main purpose of this analysis. By using 17 bacteria and 1 fungi, which include Bacillus, Candida, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Listeria, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus genera, the activity of A. agallocha root extracts were analysed by the help of the disk diffusion method, that is one of the methods commonly used to determine antimicrobial activities. As a result of the study it was observed that ethanol extracts of A. agallocha roots have a clear antimicrobial activity against nearly all microorganism used in the study, but only two bacteria namely E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. typhimurium SL 1344. According to the disk diffusion test results it may be possible to propose that A. agallocha roots should have a medicinal uses especially against E. faecium, L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644, B. subtilis DSMZ 1971, C. albicans DSMZ 1386, S. epidermidis DSMZ 20044 and S. aureus ATCC 25923.

  11. The correlation between endometrial thickness and outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcome


    Al-Rejjal Rafat; Al-Hassan Saad; Coskun Serdar; Al-Ghamdi Ahlam; Awartani Khalid


    Abstract Background To evaluate the relationship between endometrial thickness on day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration (hCG) and pregnancy outcome in a large number of consecutive in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. Methods A retrospective cohort study including all patients who had IVF-ET from January 2003–December 2005 conducted at a tertiary center. Results A total of 2464 cycles were analysed. Pregnancy rate (PR) was 35.8%. PR increased linearly (r =...

  12. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production


    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas; Sartono, Erliyani; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Aaby, Peter; Erikstrup, Christian; Benn, Christine Stabell


    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine produ...

  13. In vitro invasion of small-cell lung cancer cell lines correlates with expression of epidermal growth factor receptor.


    Damstrup, L; Rude Voldborg, B.; Spang-Thomsen, M.; Br?nner, N; Skovgaard Poulsen, H.


    Formation of metastasis is a multistep process involving attachment to the basement membrane, local proteolysis and migration into surrounding tissues, lymph or bloodstream. In the present study, we have analysed the correlation between in vitro invasion and presence of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a panel of 21 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines. We have previously reported that ten of these cell lines expressed EGFR protein detected by radioreceptor and affinity labe...

  14. Alginate encapsulation in Glycyrrhiza glabra L. with phyto-chemical profiling of root extracts of in vitro converted plants using GC-MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshanda Akhtar


    Conclusions: This study investigates high frequency regeneration and conversion of Glycyrrhiza glabra in a single step in short time. Also, the in vitro raised plants are analysed for bioactive compounds after field transfer, which shows the presence of numerous compounds useful for commercial and pharmacological purposes.

  15. Analyses of Fractures that have Caused Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestar Perše


    Full Text Available The paper analyses some fractures of vehicle componentswhich have caused traffic accidents. The methods of analysingthe cause of fracture have been described, as well as the maintypes of fractures. The first analysed cause of a fracture is the excessivelyrough machine finish which leaves cracks (stress concentrators,the starting points of crack propagation. The secondcause is unprofessionally per[01med welding which later inservice causes fracture at the weld. The third cause is the toohigh content of carbon in the material of the railway vehiclewheel rim. Dwing braking, the higher content of carbon causedformation of excessively hard (and brittle martensite in thesurface layer of the rim.

  16. Thermal Analyses and Verification for HAUSAT-2 Small Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Hyeon Lee


    Full Text Available HAUSAT-2 is nano satellite with 25 kg mass being developed by Space System Research Lab. in Hnakuk Aviation University. This paper addresses HAUSAT-2 small satellite thermal analyses and its verification at satellite system, electronic box, and PCB levels. Thermal model which is used for system-level and box-level thermal analyses was verified and corrected through thermal vacuum/balance test. The new board-level thermal analysis methodology, modelling high-power dissipating EEE parts directly, was proposed. The proposed methodology has been verified with test results.

  17. [The maintenance of automatic analysers and associated documentation]. (United States)

    Adjidé, V; Fournier, P; Vassault, A


    The maintenance of automatic analysers and associated documentation taking part in the requirements of the ISO 15189 Standard and the French regulation as well have to be defined in the laboratory policy. The management of the periodic maintenance and documentation shall be implemented and fulfilled. The organisation of corrective maintenance has to be managed to avoid interruption of the task of the laboratory. The different recommendations concern the identification of materials including automatic analysers, the environmental conditions to take into account, the documentation provided by the manufacturer and documents prepared by the laboratory including procedures for maintenance.


    Reed, Derek D


    The generalized matching equation is a robust and empirically supported means of analyzing relations between reinforcement and behavior. Unfortunately, no simple task analysis is available to behavior analysts interested in using the matching equation to evaluate data in clinical or applied settings. This technical article presents a task analysis for the use of Microsoft Excel to analyze and plot the generalized matching equation. Using a data-based case example and a step-by-step guide for completing the analysis, these instructions are intended to promote the use of quantitative analyses by researchers with little to no experience in quantitative analyses or the matching law. PMID:20514196

  19. Paternity after vasectomy with two previous semen analyses without spermatozoa


    Lucon, Marcos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Pasqualoto, Fabio Firmbach; Srougi, Miguel


    CONTEXT: The risk of paternity after vasectomy is rare but still exists. Overall failure to achieve sterility after vasectomy occurs in 0.2 to 5.3% of patients due to technical failure or recanalization. The objective of this report was to describe a rare but notable case of proven paternity in which the semen analyses had not given evidence of spermatozoa. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old vasectomized man whose semen analyses had shown azoospermia became a father four years after sterilization. Bl...

  20. Preserving and reusing high-energy-physics data analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Simko, Tibor; Dasler, Robin; Fokianos, Pamfilos; Kuncar, Jiri; Lavasa, Artemis; Mattmann, Annemarie; Rodriguez, Diego; Trzcinska, Anna; Tsanaktsidis, Ioannis


    The revalidation, reuse and reinterpretation of data analyses require having access to the original virtual environments, datasets and software that was used to produce the original scientific result. The CERN Analysis Preservation pilot project is developing a set of tools that support particle physics researchers in preserving the knowledge around analyses so that capturing, sharing, reusing and reinterpreting data becomes easier. In this talk, we shall notably focus on the aspects of reusing a preserved analysis. We describe a system that permits to instantiate the preserved analysis workflow on the computing cloud, paving the way to allowing researchers to revalidate and reinterpret research data even many years after the original publication.