WorldWideScience

Sample records for vitro initial attachment

  1. Maternal attachment representations and initiation and duration of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfe, Elaine

    2012-05-01

    Despite the evidence that there are considerable benefits of breastfeeding, there are still gaps in understanding why many women have difficulties initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. In this prospective longitudinal study, the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding were expanded to include attachment representations, which are known to influence health behaviors as well as one's ability to cope with stressful situations. Participants (n = 460) completed attachment and depression questionnaires during a prenatal clinic appointment, and in the postpartum period, mothers reported on their mood and breastfeeding behaviors. Consistent with attachment theory and previous research, women with attachment approach orientations were more likely to breastfeed, breastfeed longer, and continue breastfeeding when they experienced initial difficulties. The results of this study demonstrate that it is important to look beyond demographics to understand breastfeeding initiation and duration and provide further evidence that attachment representations influence health decisions.

  2. Maternal-foetal attachment during early pregnancy in Taiwanese women pregnant by in vitro fertilization.

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    Kuo, Pi-Chao; Bowers, Beverly; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Chen, Chung-Hey; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Lee, Maw-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate maternal-foetal attachment at 9, 12 and 20 weeks gestation and to identify factors that influenced maternal-foetal attachment in Taiwanese women who conceived by in vitro fertilization. Development of maternal-foetal attachment is an important part of taking on the maternal role. However, evidence about maternal-foetal attachment after assisted conception is inconclusive. A longitudinal design with repeated measures. A prospective, longitudinal design with repeated measures was used. Over an 18-month period in 2006-2008, a convenience sample of 160 women who conceived after undergoing successful in vitro fertilization were recruited from a major infertility care centre in Taiwan. Data were collected by self-reported measures, including: (1) Maternal-Foetal Attachment Scale; (2) Symptoms Checklist; (3) Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale; (4) Social Support Apgar; (5) Chinese childbearing attitude Questionnaire; and (6) Awareness of Foetus Scale. The selected instruments to measure each variable were administered to participants at 9, 12 and 20 weeks gestation. Maternal-foetal attachment increased as pregnancy progressed from 9 to 20 weeks gestation. General linear mixed model showed predictors of maternal-foetal attachment included Chinese childbearing attitude, awareness of the foetus, and social support. Health provider awareness of cultural influences on the development of early maternal-foetal attachment of women pregnant by in vitro fertilization is needed. Prenatal education in early pregnancy might incorporate more information about foetal development to allow the mother to visualize her unborn child. Providing social support for women who were conceived by in vitro fertilization is beneficial to the development of maternal-foetal attachment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Influence of carbon steel grade on the initial attachment of bacteria and microbiologically influenced corrosion.

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    Javed, M A; Neil, W C; Stoddart, P R; Wade, S A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the composition and microstructure of different carbon steel grades on the initial attachment (≤ 60 min) of Escherichia coli and subsequent longer term (28 days) corrosion was investigated. The initial bacterial attachment increased with time on all grades of carbon steel. However, the rate and magnitude of bacterial attachment varied on the different steel grades and was significantly less on the steels with a higher pearlite phase content. The observed variations in the number of bacterial cells attached across different steel grades were significantly reduced by applying a fixed potential to the steel samples. Longer term immersion studies showed similar levels of biofilm formation on the surface of the different grades of carbon steel. The measured corrosion rates were significantly higher in biotic conditions compared to abiotic conditions and were found to be positively correlated with the pearlite phase content of the different grades of carbon steel coupons.

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of the attachment of Treponema pallidum to nerve cells in vitro.

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    Repesh, L A; Fitzgerald, T J; Oakes, S G; Pozos, R S

    1982-01-01

    Treponema pallidum (Nichols strain) was incubated with cultured nerve cells derived from rat embryos. Primary cultures were established from dorsal root ganglia, superior cervical ganglia, and spinal cord. Using phase contrast microscopy treponemes were seen to interact with the nerve cells in a similar manner to other cultured mammalian cells. Organisms began to attach within minutes after inoculation, actively motile organisms attached at the tip of one end, higher numbers of organisms attached with continued incubation, and attached organisms survived longer than unattached organisms. T pallidum attached both to nerve cell bodies and to neuronal processes of each of the three nerve cell cultures. As shown by scanning electron microscopy the mechanism of attachment was identical to that of cultured cells derived from rabbits testis, rat skeletal muscle, and human cervical carcinoma. There was no indentation or swelling of the cultured cell surface at the point of attachment, just a close physical proximity of organisms and cells. These techniques provide a biological means of studying the in-vitro detrimental influences of micro-organisms on nerve tissue. Images PMID:7049315

  5. Psychological correlates of prenatal attachment in women who conceived after in vitro fertilization and women who conceived naturally.

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    Hjelmstedt, Anna; Widström, Ann-Marie; Collins, Aila

    2006-12-01

    Investigators have pointed out that long-awaited pregnancies, such as those after in vitro fertilization (IVF), are emotionally vulnerable. In addition, higher pregnancy-related distress has been found among women pregnant after in vitro fertilization compared with women with "naturally" achieved pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare prenatal attachment among IVF mothers and control mothers (women who conceived naturally), and to study relationships between prenatal attachment and psychosocial variables. Fifty-six IVF women from IVF clinics and 41 control women from antenatal clinics in Stockholm were assessed in gestational weeks 26 and 36. They completed self-rating scales measuring prenatal attachment, personality, marital relationship, anxiety, and depression. Prenatal attachment increased as the pregnancy progressed in both groups. Prenatal attachment rated in gestational week 26 was significantly associated with that in gestational week 36. Multiple regression analyses showed that, in gestational week 26, prenatal attachment was explained by satisfaction with the partner relationship, whereas in gestational week 36 the factors contributing to high prenatal attachment were low scores of the personality trait detachment, low ambivalence, and younger age. Method of conception was unrelated to prenatal attachment at either assessment time point. In vitro fertilization mothers are attached to their unborn children to the same extent as other mothers. Prenatal attachment increases during pregnancy. At the same time, however, individual scores on prenatal attachment seem to be relatively stable. Significant contributors to prenatal attachment are marital satisfaction, age, ambivalence, and detachment.

  6. Actin filament attachments for sustained motility in vitro are maintained by filament bundling.

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    Xiaohua Hu

    Full Text Available We reconstructed cellular motility in vitro from individual proteins to investigate how actin filaments are organized at the leading edge. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of actin filaments, we tested how profilin, Arp2/3, and capping protein (CP function together to propel thin glass nanofibers or beads coated with N-WASP WCA domains. Thin nanofibers produced wide comet tails that showed more structural variation in actin filament organization than did bead substrates. During sustained motility, physiological concentrations of Mg(2+ generated actin filament bundles that processively attached to the nanofiber. Reduction of total Mg(2+ abolished particle motility and actin attachment to the particle surface without affecting actin polymerization, Arp2/3 nucleation, or filament capping. Analysis of similar motility of microspheres showed that loss of filament bundling did not affect actin shell formation or symmetry breaking but eliminated sustained attachments between the comet tail and the particle surface. Addition of Mg(2+, Lys-Lys(2+, or fascin restored both comet tail attachment and sustained particle motility in low Mg(2+ buffers. TIRF microscopic analysis of filaments captured by WCA-coated beads in the absence of Arp2/3, profilin, and CP showed that filament bundling by polycation or fascin addition increased barbed end capture by WCA domains. We propose a model in which CP directs barbed ends toward the leading edge and polycation-induced filament bundling sustains processive barbed end attachment to the leading edge.

  7. Influence of surface wettability on competitive protein adsorption and initial attachment of osteoblasts.

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    Wei, Jianhua; Igarashi, Toshio; Okumori, Naoto; Igarashi, Takayasu; Maetani, Takashi; Liu, Baolin; Yoshinari, Masao

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of surface wettability on competitive protein adsorption and the initial attachment of osteoblasts. A thin-film coating of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and subsequent O(2)-plasma treatment was carried out on substrates with a mirror surface in order to create a wide range of wettabilities. The adsorption behavior of fibronectin (Fn) and albumin (Alb) in both individual and competitive mode, and the initial attachment of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) over a wide range of wettabilities were investigated. The contact angle of HMDSO coatings without O(2)-plasma treatment against double-distilled water was more than 100 degrees, whereas it dramatically decreased after the O(2)-plasma treatment to almost 0 degrees, resulting in super-hydrophilicity. Individually, Fn adsorption showed a biphasic inclination, whereas Alb showed greater adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces. In the competitive mode, in a solution containing both Fn and Alb, Fn showed greater adsorption on hydrophilic surfaces, whereas Alb predominantly adsorbed on hydrophobic surfaces. The initial attachment of osteoblastic cells increased with an increase in surface wettability, in particular, on a super-hydrophilic surface, which correlated well with Fn adsorption in the competitive mode. These results suggest that Fn adsorption may be responsible for increasing cell adhesion on hydrophilic surfaces in a body fluid or culture media under physiological conditions.

  8. The effect of metal microstructure on the initial attachment of Escherichia coli to 1010 carbon steel.

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    Javed, M A; Stoddart, P R; McArthur, S L; Wade, S A

    2013-09-01

    Metallurgical features have been shown to play an important role in the attachment of microorganisms to metal surfaces. In the present study, the influence of the microstructure of as-received (AR) and heat-treated (HT) 1010 carbon steel on the initial attachment of bacteria was investigated. Heat treatment was carried out with the aim of increasing the grain size of the carbon steel coupons. Mirror-polished carbon steel coupons were immersed in a minimal medium inoculated with Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) to investigate the early (15, 30 and 60 min) and relatively longer-term (4 h) stages of bacterial attachment. The results showed preferential colonisation of bacteria on the grain boundaries of the steel coupons. The bacterial attachment to AR steel coupons was relatively uniform compared to the HT steel coupons where an increased number of localised aggregates of bacteria were found. Quantitative analysis showed that the ratio of the total number of isolated (i.e., single) bacteria to the number of bacteria in aggregates was significantly higher on the AR coupons than the HT coupons. Longer-term immersion studies showed production of extracellular polymeric substances by the bacteria and corrosion at the grain boundaries on both types of steel coupon tested.

  9. Network growth with arbitrary initial conditions: Degree dynamics for uniform and preferential attachment

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    Fotouhi, Babak; Rabbat, Michael G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides time-dependent expressions for the expected degree distribution of a given network that is subject to growth. We consider both uniform attachment, where incoming nodes form links to existing nodes selected uniformly at random, and preferential attachment, where probabilities are assigned proportional to the degrees of the existing nodes. We consider the cases of single and multiple links being formed by each newly introduced node. The initial conditions are arbitrary, that is, the solution depends on the degree distribution of the initial graph which is the substrate of the growth. Previous work in the literature focuses on the asymptotic state, that is, when the number of nodes added to the initial graph tends to infinity, rendering the effect of the initial graph negligible. Our contribution provides a solution for the expected degree distribution as a function of time, for arbitrary initial condition. Previous results match our results in the asymptotic limit. The results are discrete in the degree domain and continuous in the time domain, where the addition of new nodes to the graph are approximated by a continuous arrival rate.

  10. Oxytocin during the initial stages of romantic attachment: Relations to couples’ interactive reciprocity

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    Schneiderman, Inna; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Leckman, James F.; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Summary Romantic relationships can have a profound effect on adults’ health and well-being whereas the inability to maintain intimate bonds has been associated with physical and emotional distress. Studies in monogamous mammalian species underscore the central role of oxytocin (OT) in pair-bonding and human imaging studies implicate OT-rich brain areas in early romantic love. To assess the role of OT in romantic attachment, we examined plasma OT in 163 young adults: 120 new lovers (60 couples) three months after the initiation of their romantic relationship and 43 non-attached singles. Twenty-five of the 36 couples who stayed together were seen again six months later. Couples were observed in dyadic interactions and were each interviewed regarding relationship-related thoughts and behaviors. OT was significantly higher in new lovers compared to singles, F(1, 152) = 109.33, p romantic attachment. These high levels of OT among new lovers did not decrease six months later and showed high individual stability. OT correlated with the couples’ interactive reciprocity, including social focus, positive affect, affectionate touch, and synchronized dyadic states, and with anxieties and worries regarding the partner and the relationship, findings which parallel those described for parent–infant bonding. OT levels at the first assessment differentiated couples who stayed together six months later from those who separated during this period. Regression analysis showed that OT predicted interactive reciprocity independent of sex, relationship duration, and the partner’s OT. Findings suggest that OT may play an important role at the first stages of romantic attachment and lend support to evolutionary models suggesting that parental and romantic attachment share underlying bio-behavioral mechanisms. PMID:22281209

  11. Oxytocin during the initial stages of romantic attachment: relations to couples' interactive reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Inna; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth

    2012-08-01

    Romantic relationships can have a profound effect on adults' health and well-being whereas the inability to maintain intimate bonds has been associated with physical and emotional distress. Studies in monogamous mammalian species underscore the central role of oxytocin (OT) in pair-bonding and human imaging studies implicate OT-rich brain areas in early romantic love. To assess the role of OT in romantic attachment, we examined plasma OT in 163 young adults: 120 new lovers (60 couples) three months after the initiation of their romantic relationship and 43 non-attached singles. Twenty-five of the 36 couples who stayed together were seen again six months later. Couples were observed in dyadic interactions and were each interviewed regarding relationship-related thoughts and behaviors. OT was significantly higher in new lovers compared to singles, F(1,152)=109.33, promantic attachment. These high levels of OT among new lovers did not decrease six months later and showed high individual stability. OT correlated with the couples' interactive reciprocity, including social focus, positive affect, affectionate touch, and synchronized dyadic states, and with anxieties and worries regarding the partner and the relationship, findings which parallel those described for parent-infant bonding. OT levels at the first assessment differentiated couples who stayed together six months later from those who separated during this period. Regression analysis showed that OT predicted interactive reciprocity independent of sex, relationship duration, and the partner's OT. Findings suggest that OT may play an important role at the first stages of romantic attachment and lend support to evolutionary models suggesting that parental and romantic attachment share underlying bio-behavioral mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using avidin-mediated binding to enhance initial endothelial cell attachment and spreading.

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    Bhat, V D; Truskey, G A; Reichert, W M

    1998-04-01

    Binding between the protein avidin and the vitamin biotin was used as an extrinsic, high affinity receptor-ligand system to augment the intrinsic integrin-dependent cellular adhesion mechanism. Glass substrates were coupled with avidin receptors through an adsorbed film of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (b-BSA). The avidin-treated slides then were seeded with biotinylated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). A 3:1 ratio of BSA:b-BSA provided the best results in terms of specific cellular attachment, growth, and spreading. Control surfaces consisted of bare glass or glass with adsorbed BSA. Attachment of unmodified BAEC to glass decreased in the presence of anti-beta 1 integrin antibody. Adhesion of biotinylated BAEC to avidin-treated slides was not affected by anti-beta 1 integrin antibody, consistent with integrin-independent avidin-mediated adhesion. The initial rate of cell spreading was greatest for avidin-biotin-mediated adhesion (80.0 +/- 25.6 microns2/h), followed by integrin-dependent cellular adhesion on plain glass (35.7 +/- 7.7 microns2/h) and, finally, by adhesion on BSA-coated protein surfaces (10.2 +/- 0.3 microns2/h). Biotinylated and unmodified BAEC, cultured for 1 h in serum-containing media, were subjected to laminar flow in a variable-height flow chamber that provided a range of shear stresses from 0.2 to 75 dynes/cm2. The critical shear stress required to detach 50% of the cells in serum-containing media increased from 4.6 +/- 0.8 dynes/cm2 for integrin-dependent adhesion to 12.6 +/- 1.2 dynes/cm2 for avidin-biotin-mediated adhesion. Avidin-mediated attachment for biotinylated BAEC increased initial cellular spreading rates and strength of attachment (i.e., at 1 h) by a factor of two and three, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that integrin-mediated cell attachment and spreading can be enhanced using high affinity integrin-independent binding.

  13. Influence of Surface Properties on Adhesion Forces and Attachment of Streptococcus mutans to Zirconia In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pei; Wang, Chuanyong; Zhou, Jinglin; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia is becoming a prevalent material in dentistry. However, any foreign bodies inserted may provide new niches for the bacteria in oral cavity. The object of this study was to explore the effect of surface properties including surface roughness and hydrophobicity on the adhesion and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) to zirconia. Atomic force microscopy was employed to determine the zirconia surface morphology and the adhesion forces between the S. mutans and zirconia. The results showed that the surface roughness was nanoscale and significantly different among tested groups (P Medium (17.00 ± 3.81 nm) > Fine (11.89 ± 1.68 nm). The contact angles of the Coarse group were the highest, followed by the Medium and the Fine groups. Increasing the surface roughness and hydrophobicity resulted in an increase of adhesion forces and early attachment (2 h and 4 h) of S. mutans on the zirconia but no influence on the further development of biofilm (6 h~24 h). Our findings suggest that the surface roughness in nanoscale and hydrophobicity of zirconia had influence on the S. mutans initial adhesion force and early attachment instead of whole stages of biofilm formation. PMID:27975061

  14. Freedom of rotation of selected overdenture attachments: an in vitro study.

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    Chen, I-Chieh; Brudvik, James S; Mancl, Lloyd A; Rubenstein, Jeffrey E; Chitswe, Kinsey; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2011-08-01

    Attachments for mandibular overdentures may not allow for adequate freedom of rotation. The purpose of this study was to subject 3 commonly used stud types of resilient attachments to rotation and to measure and compare the degree of rotation that occurs before the attachments bind. Three stud attachments (ERA, Locator Extended Range, O-Ring System) with their corresponding metal housings were evaluated, first for a single implant system and secondly for a 2-attachment parallel implant system for the mandibular arch. Both the manufacturers' most and least retentive components were tested in each system. In the Locator system, the medium retention (3 lbs) for the standard is the most retentive of the extended range. A total of 60 test specimens, 5 per group, were fabricated. The attachments were connected to a 115-mm rod and attached to a testing device composed of a base, implant analogs, and a vertical plate holding graph paper. A free-sliding plastic block, which supported the metal rod parallel to the base, was removed to release the rod. The distance the rod fell was photographed and input into a computer with software designed to measure linear movement. Three-way ANOVA with heteroscedasticity consistent standard errors was used for data analyses (α=.05). Significant differences found among the most retentive components showed that the Locator had a greater freedom of rotation than the ERA (P=.001). The most retentive components in all systems showed that 1 attachment had a greater freedom of rotation than 2 (P=.005). When testing the least retentive components, all systems were significantly different (P Locator Extended Range > ERA. For all 3 systems, the least retentive components showed the most freedom (P≤.008). The least retentive components offer greater rotation than the most retentive components for all attachment systems tested and for both single and double attachments. Using the most retentive components, the Locator Extended Range attachment

  15. Formation of urothelial structures in vivo from dissociated cells attached to biodegradable polymer scaffolds in vitro.

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    Atala, A; Vacanti, J P; Peters, C A; Mandell, J; Retik, A B; Freeman, M R

    1992-08-01

    The use of autologous urothelium would be advantageous for urothelial replacement in many genitourinary reconstructive procedures. Urothelial tissue grafts might be created using isolated populations of transitional epithelium or tissue in concert with an appropriate synthetic substrate. We describe the results of experiments designed to determine the feasibility of using biodegradable polymers as delivery vehicles for the creation of new urothelial structures in vivo from dissociated cells. Primary cultures enriched in uroepithelial cells were obtained from New Zealand white rabbits using a new technique of cell harvest. Cells were seeded onto nonwoven meshes of polyglycolic acid polymers in culture and, after 1 to 4 days in vitro, the cell-polymer scaffolds were implanted into the mesentery, omentum or retroperitoneum of athymic mice. Polymers implanted without cells served as controls. Animals were sacrificed at 5, 10, 20 and 30 days after implantation and 75 implants were examined histologically. Ten days after implantation isolated single cell layers were seen lining the polymer fibers. At 20 and 30 days polymer degradation was evident and urothelial cells lined the polymer in continuous layers of 1 to 3-cell thickness. Anticytokeratin western blots demonstrated the presence of a urothelium-associated cytokeratin in cell-polymer implants recovered after 30 days. These results demonstrate that urothelial cells can be successfully harvested, survive in culture and attach to artificial biodegradable polymers. The urothelial-polymer scaffolds can be implanted into host animals and the implanted cells can achieve spatial orientation as the polymer undergoes biodegradation. These findings suggest that it may be possible to use autologous urothelium, reconfigured on a synthetic substrate, in reconstructive procedures involving the ureter, bladder and urethra.

  16. Interpersonal Strategy, Attachment Security and Social Status among Chinese Children in the Initial Period of Secondary School

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    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influences of peer interpersonal strategy and secure attachment on social status in peer contexts in the initial period of secondary school in China. Two hundred and thirty-one new students in secondary schools (grade 6) were recruited in the first semester to complete measures of interpersonal strategies in the peer group,…

  17. Attachment to Parents and Depressive Symptoms in College Students: The Mediating Role of Initial Emotional Adjustment and Psychological Needs

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    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.

  18. The effect of denture cleansing solutions on the retention of pink locator attachments after multiple pulls: an in vitro study.

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    You, Wenguang; Masri, Radi; Romberg, Elaine; Driscoll, Carl F; You, Tao

    2011-08-01

    The effect of denture cleansing solutions and multiple pulls on the retention of pink Locator patrices was studied. Five groups of pink Locator attachments (3.0 lb. Light Retention replacement patrix attachments; five in each group) were soaked for the equivalent of 6 months of clinical use in the following solutions: water (control), Efferdent, Polident Overnight, 6.15% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL, 1:10 dilution), and Listerine mouthwash. A universal testing machine set at a 2 in/min crosshead speed was used to perform 548 pulls (548 cycles of insertion and removal). The reduction in load to dislodgement (retention) after the initial pull and the final pull and the percent reduction in retention after 6 months were compared between the groups using a one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) Test (α= 0.05). Denture cleansing solutions significantly reduced the retentive values of pink Locator attachments after the initial pull (F = 17.435, p < 0.0001). The retentive values of Efferdent, Listerine, Polident Overnight, and water were significantly higher than the retentive value of the attachments soaked in NaOCl. After 6 months of simulated use (548 pulls), the four denture cleansing solutions had significant effects on the retentive values of pink Locator attachments (F = 5.855, p = 0.003). The retentive values for attachments soaked in NaOCl (7.29 ± 1.0 N) were significantly lower than those of attachments soaked in Listerine (15.82 ± 4.7 N) and in Polident Overnight (14.41 ± 3.6 N). These cleansing solutions also had a significant effect on the percentage of retention lost (F = 3.271, p = 0.032). The loss of retention in attachments soaked in Listerine (29 ± 9%) was significantly lower than attachments soaked in water (53 ± 12%). The loss of retention in attachments soaked in Efferdent was 49 ± 9%; in Polident Overnight, 34 ± 18%; and in NaOCl, 42 ± 11%. There was no significant difference in the percentage of retention loss

  19. Role of Cell Appendages in Initial Attachment and Stability of E. coli on Silica Monitored by Nondestructive TIRF Microscopy.

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    Wong, Kerwin K W; Olsson, Adam L J; Asadishad, Bahareh; van der Bruggen, Bart; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2017-04-25

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was used to investigate initial attachment and stability of wild-type, curli-deficient (ΔcsgA), flagella-deficient (ΔflhDC), and type-1 fimbriae-deficient (Δfim) mutant E. coli strains. Suspended bacteria were injected into a flow cell where they deposited on a silica coverslip, and images were acquired over a 2 min period. TIRF microscope image analysis revealed that curli- and flagella-deficient mutants attached closer to the surface and required a longer time to find their equilibrium position (i.e., bond maturation) as compared to the wild-type and fimbriae-deficient mutants. Analysis of the change in bacterial surface area over the 2 min period also indicated that curli- and flagella-deficient mutants have less initial stability than the wild-type and fimbriae-deficient mutants, evidenced by their fluctuating position at equilibrium. TIRF observations at the microscopic level were complemented macroscopically using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and sand-packed column experiments, which support the distinctive behavior observed at the microscopic scale. For each mutant strain, as fluorescence intensity increased in TIRF, the negative frequency shift in QCM-D (related to the attached mass of bacteria) also increased. Packed-column experiments indicated that curli- and flagella-deficient mutants exhibited a characteristically different attachment behavior and more retention as compared to the wild-type and fimbriae-deficient strains. This study utilized a new approach to understand bacterial attachment/detachment and provides new insights into the role of various appendages on initial attachment and stability.

  20. Animal-to-robot social attachment: initial requisites in a gallinaceous bird.

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    Jolly, L; Pittet, F; Caudal, J-P; Mouret, J-B; Houdelier, C; Lumineau, S; de Margerie, E

    2016-02-04

    Animal-Robot Interaction experiments have demonstrated their usefulness to understand the social behaviour of a growing number of animal species. In order to study the mechanisms of social influences (from parents and peers) on behavioural development, we design an experimental setup where young quail chicks, after hatching, continuously live with autonomous mobile robots in mixed triadic groups of two chicks and one robot. As precocial birds are subject to imprinting, we compare groups where chicks meet the robot as their very first social partner, on their first day after hatching (R chicks), with groups where chicks meet a real conspecific first (C chicks), and the robot later (on the second day after hatching). We measured the behavioural synchronization between chicks and robot over three days. Afterwards, we directly tested the existence of a possible social bond between animal and robot, by performing separation-reunion behavioural tests. R chicks were more synchronized with the robot in their daily feeding-resting activities than C chicks. Moreover, R chicks emitted numerous distress calls when separated from the robot, even in the presence of another chick, whereas C chicks emitted calls only when separated from the other chick. Whether the observed chick-robot attachment bond reflects filial, or sibling-imprinting of chicks towards the robot remains unclear, as the latter process is not fully understood in natural familial groups. Still, these results reveal the necessary initial conditions for stable, cohesive mixed groups of chicks and robots, a promising tool to experiment on the long-term dynamics of social behaviour.

  1. In vitro retention loss of attachment-retained removable partial denture.

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    Can, Gülsen; Özmumcu, Baransel; Altinci, Pinar

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the importance of attachment types on the retention loss of extracoronal attachment-retained removable partial dentures depending on the usage period. In order to observe the retention loss of 5 different attachments (OT Strategy, OT Strategy-metal protected, Vario-stud-snap and Vario-soft 3 and ERA-RV) over time, attachment-retained partial dentures representing Kennedy II mod. I case were placed in a custom-made, retention test machine. For each minute, eight separating and joining movements were performed and retention values (Newton) of the attachments were recorded by computer. The retention tests implemented in 540,1080 and 2160 cycles. The data were evaluated statistically according to the two-way ANOVA and Tukey parametrical tests. The slide type attachment providing the best retention force was observed to be the most worn out by this process (p dentures were affected by the specific type of precision attachment as well as the usage period. Precision attachments with ball-type plastic matrices may be recommended for the clinical use due to their retention stability over time.

  2. Fibroblast response to initial attachment and proliferation on titanium and zirconium surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Meza-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, dental implants have become one of the best options for comprehensive dental restoration; their placement is a multidisciplinary task that requires a solid understanding of biological, periodontal, surgical and prosthetic principles. Objective: The aim of this study was to quantify in vitro the adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF response on titanium (Ti and zirconia (Zr surfaces. Methodology: Samples of Ti and Zr were observed under atomic force microscopy (AFM. HGFs were inoculated in each sample to determine adhesion and cell proliferation. The reagent MTT was mixed with medium DMEM and inoculated in each plate; formazan was dissolved with dimethyl sulfoxide and analyzed at 540nm in a microplate spectrophotometer. The test was performed with three independent experiments. Data were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests (Lilliefors, Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney test comparisons. Results: Topography of the Zr plates showed greater roughness (Ra=0.39μm than Ti (Ra=0.049μm. Quantification of HGF adhesion was significantly higher (p<0.05 in Ti, while proliferation showed no statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusion: It is noteworthy that, even though Ti initially showed increased cell adhesion on the surface, after 24h Zr samples showed similar proliferation; this demonstrates that both surfaces have a comparable biological response.

  3. In vitro attachment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to hemocytes of two gastropod molluscs.

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    Kumazawa, N H; Tanigawa, T; Tanaka, Y; Osatake, H; Tanaka, K

    1991-04-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus D-3 was observed to attach to hemocytes of a marine gastropod mollusc, Nerita albicilla, regardless of the presence of N. albicilla serum. The organism attached to hemocytes of an estuarine gastropod, Clithon retropictus, in the presence of C. retropictus serum while the attachment to the hemocytes was decreased significantly in the absence of the serum. These evidences suggest that N. albicilla hemocytes would facilitate the clearance of V. parahaemolyticus from the alimentary tract of the mollusc and that C. retropictus hemocytes would protect C. retropictus against the invasion of V. parahaemolyticus to hemocoel of the mollusc.

  4. Retentive Properties of O-Ring and Locator Attachments for Implant-Retained Maxillary Overdentures: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELsyad, Moustafa Abdou; Elhaddad, Abdelsalam Amohamed; Khirallah, Ahmed Samir

    2016-09-02

    To evaluate and compare retentive properties of O-ring and Locator attachments for implant-retained maxillary overdentures. Four implant analogs were inserted in canine and second premolar areas of an acrylic edentulous maxillary model. A metal-reinforced experimental acrylic overdenture was constructed and connected to the analogs using either O-ring (group I) or Locator (group II) attachments. Locators were divided into 3 subgroups according the degree of retention of the patrix nylon insert: Locator extra-light retention (group IIa), Locator light retention (group IIb), and Locator medium retention (group IIc). Vertical and oblique (lateral, anterior, and posterior) dislodging forces were measured at the beginning of the study (initial retention) and after 540 cycles of denture insertion and removal (final retention). For vertical, lateral, and anterior dislodging, group IIc recorded the highest initial and final retention, and group I recorded the lowest retention. For posterior dislodging, group I recorded the highest retention, and group IIa recorded the lowest retention. For group II, vertical dislodging recorded the highest initial and final retention, and lateral dislodging recorded the lowest retention. For group I, posterior dislodging recorded the highest initial and final retention, and lateral dislodging recorded the lowest retention. For all dislodging forces (except posterior dislodging), the highest retention loss was recorded in group I, and the lowest retention loss was recorded in group IIa. Locator medium attachment was associated with favorable retention during axial (vertical) and nonaxial (anterior and lateral) dislodging compared to other types of Locator inserts and O-ring attachments after a simulated 6-month period of overdenture use. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Initial attachment, subsequent cell proliferation/viability and gene expression of epithelial cells related to attachment and wound healing in response to different titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Na; Rausch-fan, Xiaohui; Wieland, Marco; Matejka, Michael; Andrukhov, Oleh; Schedle, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    A tight seal between the epithelium and the dental implant surface is required to prevent bacterial inflammation and soft tissue recession and therefore to demonstrate a long-term success. Surface hydrophilicity was recently shown to promote osseointegration. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of surface hydrophilicity in combination with surface topography of Ti implant surfaces on the behavior and activation/differentiation of epithelial cells using a set of in vitro experiments mimicking the implant-soft tissue contact. Hydrophobic acid-etched (A) and coarse-grit-blasted, acid-etched (SLA) surfaces and hydrophilic acid-etched (modA) and modSLA surfaces were produced. The behavior of an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HSC-2) grown on all surfaces was compared through determination of cell attachment and proliferation/viability (CCK-8 and MTT assay), time-lapse microscopy of fluorescence labeled cells and determination of gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction. Within the surfaces with similar wettability cell spreading and cell movements observed by time-lapse microscopy after one day of incubation were most pronounced on smoother (A and modA) surfaces compared to rougher (SLA and modSLA) surfaces. Within the surfaces with similar roughness the hydrophilic surfaces (modA and modSLA) showed more cell spreading and cell activity compared to the hydrophobic surfaces (A and SLA). The relative gene expressions of cytokeratin14, integrin α6, integrin β4, vinculin, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 were decreased in HSC-2 on all four types of Ti surfaces compared to control surfaces (tissue culture polystyrene; pmodA). These results suggest that surface hydrophilicity might positively influence the epithelial seal around dental implants. All tested titanium surfaces downregulate cell attachment, cell proliferation, expression of adhesion promoters, and cytokines involved in wound healing in HSC-2

  6. Attachment of Coxiella burnetii to the zona pellucida of in vitro produced goat embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, J L; Alsaleh, A; Mermillod, P; Souza-Fabjan, J M G; Rodolakis, A; Rousset, E; Dubreil, L; Bruyas, J F; Roux, C; Fieni, F

    2018-01-15

    Previous work demonstrated that after infection of in vivo derived caprine embryos, Coxiella burnetti (C. burnetii) showed a strong tendency to adhere to the zona pellicida (ZP). To investigate the risk of C. burnetii transmission via embryo transfer of in vitro-produced goat embryos the aim of this study was, (i) to evaluate the ability of C. burnetii to adhere to the intact zona pellicida of in vitro-produced goat embryos and to determine by confocal microscopy the location of the bacteria, (ii) to test the efficacy of IETS recommended rules for the washing of bovine embryos to eliminate C. burnetii. One hundred ZP-intact caprine embryos, produced in vitro, at the 8 to 16 cell stage, were randomly divided into 11 batches of eight to nine embryos. Nine batches were incubated for 18 h with 109Coxiella/ml of CbB1 strain (IASP, INRA Tours). The embryos then were recovered and washed in batches in 10 successive baths following the IETS guidelines. In parallel, two batches of embryos were subjected to similar procedures but without exposure to C. burnetii, to serve as the control group. One of the nine batches of infected embryos and one of the two non-infected control batches were separated to perform immunolabeling to locate the bacteria. C. burnetii DNA was detected by C-PCR in all eight batches of infected embryos after 10 successive washings. However, bacterial DNA was not detected in the embryo control batch. The first five washing media of the infected group were consistently found to be positive and Coxiella DNA was detected in the wash bath up to the 10th wash for two batches. After immunolabeling, the observation of embryos under confocal microscopy allowed C. burnetti to be found on the external part of the zona pellucida without deep penetration. This study clearly demonstrates that C. burnetii, after in vitro infection at 109Coxiella/ml, stick strongly to the external part of the zona pellucida of in vitro produced caprine embryos without

  7. Knockdown of SVCT2 impairs in-vitro cell attachment, migration and wound healing in bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnikumar Sangani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC adhesion and migration are fundamental to a number of pathophysiologic processes, including fracture and wound healing. Vitamin C is beneficial for bone formation, fracture repair and wound healing. However, the role of the vitamin C transporter in BMSC adhesion, migration and wound healing is not known. In this study, we knocked-down the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter, SVCT2, the only known transporter of vitamin C in BMSCs, and performed cell adhesion, migration, in-vitro scratch wound healing and F-actin re-arrangement studies. We also investigated the role of oxidative stress on the above processes. Our results demonstrate that both oxidative stress and down-regulation of SVCT2 decreased cell attachment and spreading. A trans-well cell migration assay showed that vitamin C helped in BMSC migration and that knockdown of SVCT2 decreased cell migration. In the in-vitro scratch wound healing studies, we established that oxidative stress dose-dependently impairs wound healing. Furthermore, the supplementation of vitamin C significantly rescued the BMSCs from oxidative stress and increased wound closing. The knockdown of SVCT2 in BMSCs strikingly decreased wound healing, and supplementing with vitamin C failed to rescue cells efficiently. The knockdown of SVCT2 and induction of oxidative stress in cells produced an alteration in cytoskeletal dynamics. Signaling studies showed that oxidative stress phosphorylated members of the MAP kinase family (p38 and that vitamin C inhibited their phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that both the SVCT2 transporter and oxidative stress play a vital role in BMSC attachment, migration and cytoskeletal re-arrangement. BMSC-based cell therapy and modulation of SVCT2 could lead to a novel therapeutic approach that enhances bone remodeling, fracture repair and wound healing in chronic disease conditions.

  8. Actinomyces naeslundii GroEL-dependent initial attachment and biofilm formation in a flow cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Toshiaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2015-02-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii is an early colonizer with important roles in the development of the oral biofilm. The effects of butyric acid, one of short chain fatty acids in A. naeslundii biofilm formation was observed using a flow cell system with Tryptic soy broth without dextrose and with 0.25% sucrose (TSB sucrose). Significant biofilms were established involving live and dead cells in TSB sucrose with 60mM butyric acid but not in concentrations of 6, 30, 40, and 50mM. Biofilm formation failed in 60mM sodium butyrate but biofilm level in 60mM sodium butyrate (pH4.7) adjusted with hydrochloric acid as 60mM butyric media (pH4.7) was similar to biofilm levels in 60mM butyric acid. Therefore, butyric acid and low pH are required for significant biofilm formation in the flow cell. To determine the mechanism of biofilm formation, we investigated initial A. naeslundii colonization in various conditions and effects of anti-GroEL antibody. The initial colonization was observed in the 60mM butyric acid condition and anti-GroEL antibody inhibited the initial colonization. In conclusion, we established a new biofilm formation model in which butyric acid induces GroEL-dependent initial colonization of A. naeslundii resulting in significant biofilm formation in a flow system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperature Changes of Pulp Chamber during In Vitro Laser Welding of Orthodontic Attachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside temperature changes to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. Temperature variation was determined as the change from baseline temperature to the highest temperature was recorded during welding. The recorded temperature changes were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3 ± 1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714

  10. Temperature Changes of Pulp Chamber during In Vitro Laser Welding of Orthodontic Attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren İşman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside temperature changes to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. Temperature variation was determined as the change from baseline temperature to the highest temperature was recorded during welding. The recorded temperature changes were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3 ± 1.1°C. The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required.

  11. Peroxisome-proliferator activator receptor-gamma activation decreases attachment of endometrial cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells in an in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, S K; Witz, C A; Binkley, P A; Nair, A S; Lebovic, D I

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activation has an effect on the attachment of endometrial cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells in a well-established in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion. The endometrial epithelial cell line EM42 and mesothelial cell line LP9 were used for this study. EM42 cells, LP9 cells or both were treated with the PPAR-gamma agonist ciglitazone (CTZ) at varying concentrations (10, 20 and 40 microM) x 48 h with subsequent co-culture of EM42 and LP9 cells. The rate of EM42 attachment and invasion through LP9 cells was then assessed and compared with control (EM42 and LP9 cells co-cultured without prior treatment with CTZ). Next, attachment of CTZ-treated and untreated EM42 cells to hyaluronic acid (HA), a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) on peritoneal mesothelial cells, were assessed. Although there was no difference in EM42 attachment when LP9 cells alone were treated with CTZ, treatment of EM42 cells with 40 microM CTZ decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 cells by 27% (P CTZ decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 by 37% (P CTZ decreased attachment to HA by 66% (P = 0.056). CTZ did not decrease invasion of EM42 cells through the LP9 monolayer. CTZ may inhibit EM42 cell proliferation. In conclusion, CTZ significantly decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 cells and HA in an in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion.

  12. Effect of locator abutment height on the retentive values of pink locator attachments: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Priscilla Kia Suan; Masri, Radi; Driscoll, Carl F; Romberg, Elaine

    2017-02-01

    Currently, no guidelines exist to help in the selection of Locator abutments for implants at different heights. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the differential heights of pairs of Locator abutments on the retention of overdentures after 6 months of simulated function. In vitro testing was performed with 4 sets of average-sized edentulous mandible analogs with 2 implants placed in the canine positions. There were 10 specimens in each of the 4 groups, with a total sample size of 40. Four groups of 2 implant-retained overdentures were fabricated, with Locator attachments at different vertical levels with differences of 0, 2, 4, and 6 mm. The overdentures were subjected to simulated function for a period corresponding to 6 months of clinical service and then tested with a universal testing machine for changes in peak load-to-dislodgement. The data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey honest significant differences test (α=.05). Varying the heights of Locator abutments had a statistically significant effect on the retentive values of the pink Locator attachments after 6 months of simulated function (F=7.342, P=.001). The peak load-to-dislodgement ranged from 32.3 N (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.0 to 38.6) for group 0 mm to 53.6 N (95% CI: 46.3 to 60.8) for group 6 mm. When the difference in Locator abutment heights was 2 and 4 mm, the peak load was 37.1 N (95% CI: 32.3 to 42.0) and 41.9 N (95% CI: 31.2 to 52.7). Statistical analysis revealed that the retention of group 0 mm and group 2 mm was significantly lower than group 6 mm. The retention of group 4 mm was not significantly different from groups 0 mm, 2 mm, or 6 mm. Although significant differences were found among the groups, these differences were small and may not be clinically detectable. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. on in vitro callus initiation using leaf of artemisia annua

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Study was carried out to determine the effect of varying concentrations of auxin on callus initiation using the leaves. Artemisia annua as explants which were sterilized and inoculated into Murashig and Skoog basal medium supplemented with varying concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D).

  14. Observed Dependence of Colloid Detachment on the Concentration of Initially Attached Colloids and Collector Surface Heterogeneity in Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Jin, Yan; Huang, Yuanfang; Li, Baoguo; Shen, Chongyang

    2017-03-07

    Sand column experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the concentration of attached colloids (CAC) on their subsequent detachment upon decreasing solution ionic strength (IS). Different pore volumes of latex microparticle suspensions were injected into the columns to allow different amounts of colloids to attach at ISs of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.2 M. Then, deionized water was introduced to release the attached colloids. Results show that the fraction of attachments that were reversible to reduction of IS (FRA) increased with increasing CAC at a given IS if the sand was extensively treated using acids to reduce surface charge heterogeneity. This indicates that colloids were preferentially immobilized in sites favoring irreversible attachment and then gradually occupied reversible sites. In contrast, the FRA decreased with increasing CAC at 0.001 M in sand without the acid treatment, illustrating the opposite attachment sequence. Scanning electron microscope examinations reveal that the concave regions favored irreversible colloid attachment. Reversible attachment is likely due to immobilization on flat surfaces with charge heterogeneities, retention in stagnation point regions via secondary minimum association, ripening in the acid-treated sand, and capture of colloids by protruding asperities with charge heterogeneity in the untreated sand. At ISs of 0.01 and 0.2 M, the FRA was essentially independent of CAC in the untreated sand because the colloids were randomly attached on the sand surfaces over time.

  15. Application of Social Control Theory to Examine Parent, Teacher, and Close Friend Attachment and Substance Use Initiation among Korean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, DongHun

    2016-01-01

    Based on Hirschi's social control theory (1969), this study examined the relationship between attachment (an element of social bonds) and the onset of substance use among South Korean adolescents. Using discrete-time logistic regression, the study investigated how attachment to parents, teachers, and close friends was associated with the timing of…

  16. Severity of drug use, initiation of prenatal care, and maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant marijuana and cocaine/heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Kravitz, Melva

    2006-01-01

    To compare the severity of drug use, initiation of prenatal care, and maternal-fetal attachment between pregnant marijuana and cocaine/heroin users. A cross-sectional design. A prenatal clinic of a medical center in the northeast of the United States. 19 marijuana, 17 cocaine, and 4 heroin users. Cocaine and heroin users were combined in one group. The Severity of Drug Use Questionnaire containing 11 questions of withdrawal, dependence, and medical, legal, and interpersonal issues was used to assess the severity of drug use. Initiation of prenatal care was obtained from the chart and was calculated by weeks of gestation when care began. Cranley's Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale measured maternal-fetal attachment. Pregnant cocaine/heroin users were 6 years older, had experienced more pregnancies, had higher drug severity scores, and initiated prenatal care later than marijuana users. No significant difference in maternal-fetal attachment was found. Interventions to help especially cocaine/heroin users initiate early prenatal care and reduce severity of drug use are indicated.

  17. Influence of repeated insertion-removal cycles on the force and magnetic flux leakage of magnetic attachments: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhichao; Chao, Yonglie; Meng, Yukun; Yin, Hongmin

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic attachments are widely used in overdentures and maxillofacial prostheses. Because the patient will routinely have to insert and remove a removable prosthesis, the retentive force and magnetic flux leakage of the magnetic attachments after repeated insertion and removal must be evaluated to assess their clinical performance. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the retentive force and flux leakage of magnetic attachments after repeated insertion and removal. Magfit EX600W magnet-keeper combinations (n=5) were used in this study. After 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 insertion-removal cycles, the retentive force of the magnetic attachments was measured 5 times at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min with a universal testing machine. Magnetic flux leakage at 3 positions (P1, the upper surface of the magnet; P2, the lower surface of the keeper; and P3, the lateral side of the magnetic attachment set) was evaluated with a gaussmeter. Data were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA (α=.05). The morphology of the abraded surfaces for both the magnet and the keeper was observed with an optical microscope (5×). The mean retentive force decreased significantly after 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 insertion-removal movements (Pforce and magnetic flux leakage of the magnetic attachments. Retentive force decreased significantly after repeated insertion-removal cycles, whereas the variation of magnetic flux leakage depended on refitting cycles and positions of the magnetic attachments. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of denture cleansing solutions on the retention of pink Locator attachments: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Caroline Tram; Masri, Radi; Driscoll, Carl F; Romberg, Elaine

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the changes in retention of pink Locator attachments after exposure to various denture cleansers. Six groups (20 pairs each) of pink Locator attachments (3.0 lb. Light Retention replacement patrix attachments) were soaked for the equivalent of 6 months of clinical use in the following solutions: Water (control), Polident Regular, Efferdent, 6.15% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL, 1:10 dilution), Polident Overnight, and Cool Mint Listerine mouthwash. A universal testing machine set at a crosshead speed of 2 in/min was used to perform one pull. The peak load-to-dislodgement was recorded to reflect changes in the retention of the Locator attachments after soaking. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test. A p< or = 0.05 was considered significant. Denture cleansing solutions significantly affected the retentive values of pink Locator attachments (F = 344.3, p< or = 0.0001). Cool Mint Listerine mouthwash increased the retentive values of the attachments (51.10 +/- 5.31 N) when compared to the control group (45.25 +/- 3.49 N). There was no significant difference in the retentive values of attachments soaked in Polident Regular or Polident Overnight when compared to the control group. Efferdent caused a small reduction in the retentive values (40.81 +/- 2.56 N) and most importantly, diluted NaOCl caused a large reduction in the retentive values (7.83 +/- 2.50 N) of pink Locator attachments. In addition, Cool Mint Listerine mouthwash caused blue discoloration of the Locator attachments, and NaOCl caused whitening and softening of the pink Locator attachments. Cool Mint Listerine and Efferdent's small effect on the retentive values of the Locators might be clinically unimportant; however, NaOCl caused a large reduction in the retentive values of the attachments. Because of their effect on retentive values and on the color of the Locator attachments, NaOCl and Cool Mint Listerine are not recommended. These results

  19. Adsorption of fibronectin and vitronectin onto Primaria and tissue culture polystyrene and relationship to the mechanism of initial attachment of human vein endothelial cells and BHK-21 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, J G; Dalton, B A; Johnson, G; Underwood, P A

    1995-09-01

    The two cell culture substrata, tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and Primaria, were compared in order to determine whether a nitrogen-containing surface such as Primaria attracts cells by a different mechanism to an oxygen-containing surface (TCPS). The amounts of vitronectin (Vn) and fibronectin (Fn) which adsorb from the fetal bovine serum (FBS) component of the culture medium onto Primaria and TCPS were determined. Primaria adsorbed two- to threefold more Fn than TCPS, but adsorbed similar amounts of Vn from medium containing FBS. The Fn and Vn binding sites on Primaria were distinct, as adsorption was non-competitive between these two proteins. The amounts of Fn and Vn that adsorbed onto the two surfaces were compared to the concentration dependence of the cell attachment activities of Fn and Vn. Whereas the amounts of Fn which adsorbed onto TCPS were suboptimal for cell attachment, Primaria adsorbed an Fn surface density that was supraoptimal for attachment of human vein endothelial cells and BHK-21 fibroblasts. We conclude that Primaria differs from TCPS in that both Fn and Vn mediate initial cell attachment to Primaria when the culture medium contains FBS, whereas cell attachment to TCPS is dependent upon Vn.

  20. Narratives of "Doing, Knowing, Being and Becoming": Examining the Impact of an Attachment-Informed Approach within Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sarah; Hart, Norma

    2017-01-01

    The Scottish Government's vision of improving outcomes for children prioritises attachment theory and research in promoting children's well-being across children's services. This theme is also noted as increasing international relevance. Our narrative research springs from the experience of designing and delivering the first course within initial…

  1. Effect of bioadhesion on initial in vitro buoyancy of effervescent floating matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin HCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Singh Negi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of bioadhesion on the initial in vitro buoyancy behaviour of effervescent matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin HCl (CIPRO. Tablets were prepared by direct compression using HPMC K4M and Carbopol 971P as hydrophilic-controlled release polymers, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 as gas-generating agent, polyplasdone XL, Explotab and Ac-Di-Sol as swelling agents. Tablets were evaluated for normal and modified initial in vitro floating behavior, floating duration, swelling behavior and in vitro drug release studies. A modified buoyancy lag time for tablets was determined in order to include the effect of bioadhesion on initial buoyancy. The initial buoyancy was found depended on bioadhesion ability of tablets. The lowest modified buoyancy lag time of 20 seconds was obtained for Formulation F7 having both NaHCO 3 and polyplasdone XL. The floating duration was also found dependent on concentration of NaHCO 3 and swelling agents. The drug release of F7 was also sustained up to 12-hr duration with anomalous drug transport mechanism.

  2. Effect of bioadhesion on initial in vitro buoyancy of effervescent floating matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin HCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Jeetendra Singh; Trivedi, Abhinav; Khanduri, Praveen; Negi, Vandana; Kasliwal, Nikhil

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of bioadhesion on the initial in vitro buoyancy behaviour of effervescent matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin HCl (CIPRO). Tablets were prepared by direct compression using HPMC K4M and Carbopol 971P as hydrophilic-controlled release polymers, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) as gas-generating agent, polyplasdone XL, Explotab and Ac-Di-Sol as swelling agents. Tablets were evaluated for normal and modified initial in vitro floating behavior, floating duration, swelling behavior and in vitro drug release studies. A modified buoyancy lag time for tablets was determined in order to include the effect of bioadhesion on initial buoyancy. The initial buoyancy was found depended on bioadhesion ability of tablets. The lowest modified buoyancy lag time of 20 seconds was obtained for Formulation F7 having both NaHCO(3) and polyplasdone XL. The floating duration was also found dependent on concentration of NaHCO(3) and swelling agents. The drug release of F7 was also sustained up to 12-hr duration with anomalous drug transport mechanism.

  3. Interaction with the Mother in Children Born as a Result of in Vitro Fertilization (IVF: Attachment and Parenting Style Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueva A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the social and emotional development of children. We tested and partially confirmed the hypothesis that children born as a result of reproductive technology, less often show reliable attachment type than the naturally born children. Such a pattern may emerge because of the behavior of IVF mothers. The present study involved 11 children aged from 5 years to 6 years 11 months, born as a result of IVF, and 10 control children conceived naturally, as well as their mothers. To collect anamnesis, we used: survey of parents with Child-parent emotional interaction questionnaire, and techniques Analysis of family education, projective drawing techniques Nest drawing and Drawing dialogue aimed at identifying the quality of the child's attachment to his mother and interaction in the dyad, as well as Kaplan method for determining the type of attachment.

  4. Effect on in vitro fracture resistance of the technique used to attach lithium disilicate ceramic veneer to zirconia frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, M; Schweiger, M; Mueller, D; Rues, S

    2014-02-01

    This in vitro study should assess the fracture resistance of veneered zirconia-based crowns with either luted or fused veneer. Thirty-two identical zirconia frameworks (IPS e.max ZirCAD; Ivoclar/Vivadent), were constructed (inLab 3.80; Sirona Dental Systems). All frameworks were veneered with CAD/CAM-fabricated lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max CAD; Ivoclar/Vivadent). For half the crowns (n=16) the veneer was luted to the framework (Multilink Implant; Ivoclar/Vivadent); for the other it was fused (IPS e.max Crystall./Connect; Ivoclar/Vivadent). Half of the specimens were then loaded until failure without artificial aging; the other half underwent artificial aging before assessment of the ultimate load. To compare the two techniques further, finite element analysis (FEA) and fractographic assessment using SEM and EDX analysis were conducted. Statistical assessment was performed by use of non-parametric tests. Initial fracture forces were higher in the fusion group (mean: 1388±190 N versus 1211±158 N). All specimens were insensitive to artificial aging. FEA showed that tensile stresses in the veneer at the frame-veneer interface were much higher for crowns with luted veneer; this may be the reason for their lower fracture resistance. Fractographic analysis revealed that both fused and luted specimens had cohesive and adhesive fracture patterns which resulted in partial delamination of the veneer. Fused crowns are superior to luted crowns. Comparison of fracture resistance with the maximum loads which may occur clinically (Fmax=600 N on one tooth) suggests both techniques might be used clinically, however. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An in vitro study of non-axial forces upon the retention of an O-ring attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Macedo, Ana Paula; Sartori, Ivete Aparecida de Mattias; de Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention force of an O-ring attachment system in different inclinations to the ideal path of insertion, using devices to compensate angulations. Two implants were inserted into an aluminum base, and ball attachments were screwed to implants. Cylinders with O-rings were placed on ball attachments and connected to the test device using positioners to compensate implant angulations (0 degrees , 7 degrees , and 14 degrees ). Plexiglass bases were used to simulate implant angulations. The base and the test device were positioned in a testing apparatus, which simulated insertion/removal of an overdenture. A total of 2900 cycles, simulating 2 years of overdenture use, were performed and 36 O-rings were tested. The force required for each cycle was recorded with computer software. Longitudinal sections of ball attachment-positioner-cylinder with O-rings of each angulation were obtained to analyze the relationship among them, and O-ring sections tested in each angulation were compared with an unused counterpart. A mixed linear model was used to analyze the data, and the comparison was performed by orthogonal contrasts (alpha=0.05). At 0 degrees , the retention force decreased significantly over time, and the retention force was significantly different in all comparisons, except from 12 to 18 months. When the implants were positioned at 7 degrees , the retention force was statistically different at 0 and 24 months. At 14 degrees , significant differences were found from 6 and 12 to 24 months. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that O-rings for implant/attachments perpendicular to the occlusal plane were adequately retentive over the first year and that the retentive capacity of O-ring was affected by implant inclinations despite the proposed positioners.

  6. The effect of low initial medium pH on in vitro white poplar growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of low initial medium pH on shoot and root development of five white poplar (Populus alba L. genotypes was tested. The shoot height, fresh mass of shoots per jar, dry mass of shoots per jar, number of roots, as well as the length of the longest root were measured and final pH of the media determined, after 35 days of culture in vitro. Three initial pH values of the medium were tested: 3.0, 4.0 and 5.5 as control. Agar solidification at pH 3.0 was not achieved after sterilization in autoclave, but it was successful after sterilizing in a microwave oven. The obtained results indicate that the tested genotypes are able to significantly influence the changes of media pH during culture. The effect of differences among the examined media was significant for biomass accumulation and final media pH. Generally, significantly higher values of fresh and dry shoot mass, shoot height and the longest root length were recorded on a medium with initial pH 3.0 then on a standard medium with pH 5.5.The implications of the obtained results for the improvement of in vitro propagation of white poplars are discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  7. Effects of ulipristal acetate on human embryo attachment and endometrial cell gene expression in an in vitro co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, C; Boggavarapu, N R; Menezes, J; Lalitkumar, P G L; Gemzell-Danielsson, K

    2015-04-01

    Does ulipristal acetate (UPA) used for emergency contraception (EC) interfere with the human embryo implantation process? UPA, at the dosage used for EC, does not affect human embryo implantation process, in vitro. A single pre-ovulatory dose of UPA (30 mg) acts by delaying or inhibiting ovulation and is recommended as first choice among emergency contraceptive pills due to its efficacy. The compound has also been demonstrated to have a dose-dependent effect on the endometrium, which theoretically could impair endometrial receptivity but its direct action on human embryo implantation has not yet been studied. Effect of UPA on embryo implantation process was studied in an in vitro endometrial construct. Human embryos were randomly added to the cultures and cultured for 5 more days with UPA (n = 10) or with vehicle alone (n = 10) to record the attachment of embryos. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from healthy, fertile women on cycle day LH+4 and stromal and epithelial cells were isolated. A three-dimensional in vitro endometrial co-culture system was constructed by mixing stromal cells with collagen covered with a layer of epithelial cells and cultured in progesterone containing medium until confluence. The treatment group received 200 ng/ml of UPA. Healthy, viable human embryos were placed on both control and treatment cultures. Five days later the cultures were tested for the attachment of embryos and the 3D endometrial constructs were analysed for endometrial receptivity markers by real-time PCR. There was no significant difference in the embryo attachment rate between the UPA treated group and the control group as 5 out of 10 human embryos exposed to UPA and 7 out of 10 embryos in the control group attached to the endometrial cell surface (P = 0.650). Out of 17 known receptivity genes studied here, only 2 genes, HBEGF (P = 0.009) and IL6 (P = 0.025) had a significant up-regulation and 4 genes, namely HAND2 (P = 0.003), OPN (P = 0.003), CALCR (P = 0.016) and

  8. Attachment and proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells on guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes in the absence or presence of nicotine: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Konstantinos A; Markopoulou, Cleopatra E; Gioni, Vassiliki; Mamalis, Anastasios A; Vayouraki, Helen N; Kletsas, Dimitris; Vrotsos, Ioannis A

    2011-01-01

    To compare in vitro the attachment and proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) on tissue culture plates and guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes in the absence or presence of nicotine. Membrane samples were fixed to wells and the cell number (CN) was counted after 24 hours (attachment assay) or 5 days (proliferation assay). The ratio of cell count (RCC) (CN at 5 days/CN at 24 hours) was calculated. The study had three parts: First, five different resorbable GBR membranes were compared (Resolut Adapt LT [RALT], Biocollagen [BC], Bio-Gide [BG], OsseoGuard [OG], and Demokritos Human Tissue Bank [DEM]). Next, cells were cultured on tissue culture plates with five different concentrations of nicotine. Finally, cells were cultured on the membrane that had demonstrated the highest RCC and CN in part 1 with four different concentrations of nicotine. At 24 hours, BG showed the highest CN and OG showed the lowest CN. At 5 days, BG showed the highest CN. The order of RCC was BG > OG > DEM > RALT ~ BC. At 24 hours, lower nicotine concentrations (0.3 and 3 μg/mL) showed higher CNs versus the control, whereas CNs for high nicotine concentrations (30 and 300 μg/mL) were lower than for the control. CN at 5 days and RCC were lowest with 300 μg/mL nicotine. At 24 hours and 5 days, all differences among wells with membrane were statistically insignificant. Nevertheless, CN at 5 days and RCC were highest with the lowest nicotine concentration (3 μg/mL) and lowest with high concentrations. Membrane materials influence attachment and proliferation of bone cells and, therefore, could affect the outcomes of GBR. On both tissue culture plates and membranes, there is a tendency toward a biphasic effect of nicotine, with stimulatory effects at low concentrations and inhibitory effects at high concentrations.

  9. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  10. Compatibility of Porous Chitosan Scaffold with the Attachment and Proliferation of human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomathysankar S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs have potential applications in the repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs. The use of various scaffold materials as an excellent template for mimicking the extracellular matrix to induce the attachment and proliferation of different cell types has always been of interest in the field of tissue engineering because ideal biomaterials are in great demand. Chitosan, a marine polysaccharide, have wide clinical applications and it acts as a promising scaffold for cell migration and proliferation. ASCs, with their multi-differentiation potential, and chitosan, with its great biocompatibility with ASCs, were investigated in the present study. ASCs were isolated and were characterized by two different methods: immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, using the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD90, CD105, CD73 and CD29. The ASCs were then induced to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. These ASCs were incorporated into a porous chitosan scaffold (PCS, and their structural morphology was studied using a scanning electron microscope and hematoxylin and eosin staining. The proliferation rate of the ASCs on the PCS was assessed using a PrestoBlue viability assay. The results indicated that the PCS provides an excellent template for the adhesion and proliferation of ASCs. Thus, this study revealed that PCS is a promising biomaterial for inducing the proliferation of ASCs, which could lead to successful tissue reconstruction in the field of tissue engineering.

  11. Protein biogenesis in Archaea: addressing translation initiation using an in vitro protein synthesis system for Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Gabriela; Londei, Paola; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Translation initiation in Archaea combines aspects of the parallel process in Eukarya and Bacteria alongside traits unique to this domain. To better understand translation initiation in Archaea, an in vitro translation system from the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii has been developed. The ability to translate individual mRNAs both under the conditions used in previously developed poly(U)-dependent poly(Phe) synthesis systems as well as under physiological conditions was shown. Using the H. volcanii system, mRNAs proceeded by either 'strong' or 'weak' Shine-Dalgarno (SD) motifs, or completely lacking leader sequences were effectively translated. The in vitro haloarchaeal system also successfully translated mRNA from Bacteria, again either presenting a SD initiation motif or completely lacking a leader sequence. Thus, the ability to translate individual mRNAs in vitro offers a system to address translation initiation as well as other aspects of protein biogenesis in Archaea.

  12. Fhit loss-associated initiation and progression of neoplasia in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Jenna R; Schrock, Morgan S; Batar, Bahadir; Zhang, Jie; La Perle, Krista; Druck, Teresa; Huebner, Kay

    2016-11-01

    The FHIT gene, encompassing an active common fragile site, FRA3B, is frequently silenced in preneoplasia and cancer, through gene rearrangement or methylation of regulatory sequences. Silencing of Fhit protein expression causes thymidine kinase 1 downregulation, resulting in dNTP imbalance, and spontaneous replication stress that leads to chromosomal aberrations, allele copy number variations, insertions/deletions, and single-base substitutions. Thus, Fhit, which is reduced in expression in the majority of human cancers, is a genome "caretaker" whose loss initiates genome instability in preneoplastic lesions. To follow the early genetic alterations and functional changes induced by Fhit loss that may recapitulate the neoplastic process in vitro, we established epithelial cell lines from kidney tissues of Fhit-/- and +/+ mouse pups early after weaning, and subjected cell cultures to nutritional and carcinogen stress, which +/+ cells did not survive. Through transcriptome profiling and protein expression analysis, we observed changes in the Trp53/p21 and survivin apoptotic pathways in -/- cells, and in expression of proteins involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Some Fhit-deficient cell lines showed anchorage-independent colony formation and increased invasive capacity in vitro. Furthermore, cells of stressed Fhit-/- cell lines formed s.c. and metastatic tumors in nude mice. Collectively, we show that Fhit loss and subsequent thymidine kinase 1 inactivation, combined with selective pressures, leads to neoplasia-associated alterations in genes and gene expression patterns in vitro and in vivo. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Human recombinant cementum attachment protein (hrPTPLa/CAP) promotes hydroxyapatite crystal formation in vitro and bone healing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Gonzalo; Arenas, Jesús; Romo, Enrique; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Alvarez, Marco; Narayanan, A Sampath; Velázquez, Ulises; Mercado, Gabriela; Arzate, Higinio

    2014-12-01

    Cementum extracellular matrix is similar to other mineralized tissues; however, this unique tissue contains molecules only present in cementum. A cDNA of these molecules, cementum attachment protein (hrPTPLa/CAP) was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. This molecule is an alternative splicing of protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A (PTPLa). In this study, we wanted to determine the structural and functional characteristics of this protein. Our results indicate that hrPTPLa/CAP contains a 43.2% α-helix, 8.9% β-sheet, 2% β-turn and 45.9% random coil secondary structure. Dynamic light scattering shows that this molecule has a size distribution of 4.8 nm and aggregates as an estimated mass of 137 kDa species. AFM characterization and FE-SEM studies indicate that this protein self-assembles into nanospheres with sizes ranging from 7.0 to 27 nm in diameter. Functional studies demonstrate that hrPTPLa/CAP promotes hydroxyapatite crystal nucleation: EDS analysis revealed that hrPTPLa/CAP-induced crystals had a 1.59 ± 0.06 Ca/P ratio. Further confirmation with MicroRaman spectrometry and TEM confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. In vivo studies using critical-size defects in rat cranium showed that hrPTPLa/CAP promoted 73% ± 2.19% and 87% ± 1.97% new bone formation at 4 and 8 weeks respectively. Although originally identified in cementum, PTPLa/CAP is very effective at inducing bone repair and healing and therefore this novel molecule has a great potential to be used for mineralized tissue bioengineering and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ivermectin-dependent attachment of neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, Adriano F; Dzimianski, Michael; Storey, Bob E; Camus, Melinda S; Moorhead, Andrew R; Kaplan, Ray M; Wolstenholme, Adrian J

    2014-11-15

    The macrocyclic lactones are the only anthelmintics used to prevent heartworm disease, but it is very difficult to reproduce their in vivo efficacy against Dirofilaria immitis larvae in experiments in vitro. These assays typically measure motility, suggesting that paralysis is not the mode of action of the macrocyclic lactones against D. immitis. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from uninfected dogs and measured their adherence to D. immitis microfilariae in the presence of varying concentrations of ivermectin. We found that adherence of PBMC to the microfilariae was increased in the presence of ivermectin concentrations ≥100 nM and adherence of neutrophils was increased in drug concentrations ≥10 nM. Up to 50% of microfilariae had adherent PBMC in the presence of the drug, and binding was maximal after 40 h incubation. Neutrophil adherence was maximal after 16 h, with approximately 20% of the microfilariae having at least one cell adhered to them. Adherent neutrophils showed morphological evidence of activation. These results are consistent with a model in which the macrocyclic lactones interfere with the parasites ability to evade the host's innate immune system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Initial Bacterial Adhesion on Different Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Implant Surfaces in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprini Karygianni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro. Four implant biomaterials were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for 2 h: 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surface (B1a, B1a with zirconium oxide (ZrO2 coating (B2a, B1a with zirconia-based composite coating (B1b and B1a with zirconia-based composite and ZrO2 coatings (B2b. Bovine enamel slabs (BES served as control. The adherent microorganisms were quantified and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM; DAPI and live/dead staining. The lowest bacterial count of E. faecalis was detected on BES and the highest on B1a. The fewest vital C. albicans strains (42.22% were detected on B2a surfaces, while most E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (approximately 80% were vital overall. Compared to BES; coated and uncoated zirconia substrata exhibited no anti-adhesive properties. Further improvement of the material surface characteristics is essential.

  16. Phosphorylation in vitro of eukaryotic initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 by protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Benne, R; Hershey, J W

    1976-01-01

    Purified protein synthesis initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 from rabbit reticulocytes were phosphorylated in vitro with protein kinases isolated from the same source. The highest levels of phosphorylation resulted from incubation of the factors with a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase...

  17. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and

  18. Surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) to attach a tethered organic corona onto CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatansever, Fatma, E-mail: vatansever.fatma@mgh.harvard.edu; Hamblin, Michael R., E-mail: hamblin@helix.mgh.harvard.edu [Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman Center for Photomedicine (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Core–shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are useful as tunable photostable fluorophores for multiple applications in industry, biology, and medicine. However, to achieve the optimum optical properties, the surface of the QDs must be passivated to remove charged sites that might bind extraneous substances and allow aggregation. Here we describe a method of growing an organic polymer corona onto the QD surface using the bottom-up approach of surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) with Grubbs catalyst. CdSe/ZnS QDs were first coated with mercaptopropionic acid by displacing the original tri-octylphosphine oxide layer, and then reacted with 7-octenyl dimethyl chlorosilane. The resulting octenyl double bonds allowed the attachment of ruthenium alkylidene groups as a catalyst. A subsequent metathesis reaction with strained bicyclic monomers (norbornene-dicarbonyl chloride (NDC), and a mixture of NDC and norbornenylethylisobutyl-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (norbornoPOSS)) allowed the construction of tethered organic homo-polymer or co-polymer layers onto the QD. Compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy showed that the coated QDs were separate and non-aggregated with a range of diameter of 48–53 nm.

  19. Initial in vitro testing of a paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Karimov, Jamshid H; Horvath, David J; Sunagawa, Gengo; Byram, Nicole A; Kuban, Barry D; Moazami, Nader

    2018-01-19

    Mechanical circulatory support has become standard therapy for adult patients with end-stage heart failure; however, in paediatric patients with congenital heart disease, the options for chronic mechanical circulatory support are limited to paracorporeal devices or off-label use of devices intended for implantation in adults. Congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathy often involve both the left and right ventricles; in such cases, heart transplantation, a biventricular assist device or a total artificial heart is needed to adequately sustain both pulmonary and systemic circulations. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro performance of the initial prototype of our paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart. The paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart pump was downsized from the adult continuous-flow total artificial heart configuration by a scale factor of 0.70 (1/3 of total volume) to enable implantation in infants. System performance of this prototype was evaluated using the continuous-flow total artificial heart mock loop set to mimic paediatric circulation. We generated maps of pump performance and atrial pressure differences over a wide range of systemic vascular resistance/pulmonary vascular resistance and pump speeds. Performance data indicated left pump flow range of 0.4-4.7 l/min at 100 mmHg delta pressure. The left/right atrial pressure difference was maintained within ±5 mmHg with systemic vascular resistance/pulmonary vascular resistance ratios between 1.4 and 35, with/without pump speed modulation, verifying expected passive self-regulation of atrial pressure balance. The paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart prototype met design requirements for self-regulation and performance; in vivo pump performance studies are ongoing.

  20. Initial sample extract stock concentration affects in vitro bioassay-based toxicological risk characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Loffmann, L.; Murk, A.J.; Gutleb, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bioassays have become an alternative for sediment risk profiling, including potential compliance with sediment quality criteria (SQC). In vitro functional bioassays have evolved through standardization and validation towards a confident toxicological hazard estimate of sediments. Sample

  1. PEO-generated Surfaces Support Attachment and Growth of Cells In Vitro with No Additional Benefit for Micro-roughness in Sa (0.2-4 μm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ole; Smeets, Ralf; Kopp, Alexander; Porchetta, Dario; Hiester, Philipp; Heiland, Max; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Precht, Clarissa; Hanken, Henning; Gröbe, Alexander; Hartjen, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), also known as micro-arc oxidation, is a promising electrochemical surface treatment technique for metals which has been used for the generation of various material surfaces and has been the focus of recent biomaterial research. It has been hypothesized that rough PEO surfaces should generally have properties that support cellular attachment and proliferation. However, this has not yet been demonstrated in systematically conducted studies. The present study investigated fibroblast cell proliferation and attachment to ground, electric discharge machining (EDM) and PEO-treated titanium surfaces differing in roughness and porosity. Three surface variants with 'smoother', 'medium-coarse' and 'rough' surface topographies were generated by PEO and EDM on specimens of titanium alloy (with 6 wt% aluminum and 4 wt% vanadium) for comparison with more smoothly ground specimens. The in vitro effects on cellular attachment and proliferation were determined in 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT), 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and live/dead staining assays with L929 fibroblasts cultivated directly on the metal specimens. Cytocompatibility was determined in accordance with DIN 10993-5/-12 regulations by extract assays. Besides cytocompatibility, all PEO specimens exhibited similar biocompatibility and attachment properties, with vital, spindle-shaped adherent cells growing on the surface, regardless of their surface topology. There were no significant differences in cellular proliferation between the different surfaces and negative controls (cells growing in cell-culture plates). With no differences in cellular proliferation and attachment between PEO surfaces with different roughness, we find no evidence to support the notion that rougher PEO surfaces are more favorable for cellular growth of fibroblasts in vitro. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G

  2. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Kim

    Full Text Available The number of cotton (Gossypium sp. ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.

  3. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.

  4. Support for the initial attachment, growth and differentiation of MG-63 cells: a comparison between nano-size hydroxyapatite and micro-size hydroxyapatite in composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filová, Elena; Suchý, Tomáš; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Šupová, Monika; Žaloudková, Margit; Balík, Karel; Lisá, Věra; Šlouf, Miroslav; Bačáková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is considered to be a bioactive material that favorably influences the adhesion, growth, and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. To optimize the cell response on the hydroxyapatite composite, it is desirable to assess the optimum concentration and also the optimum particle size. The aim of our study was to prepare composite materials made of polydimethylsiloxane, polyamide, and nano-sized (N) or micro-sized (M) HA, with an HA content of 0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% (v/v) (referred to as N0–N25 or M0–M25), and to evaluate them in vitro in cultures with human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. For clinical applications, fast osseointegration of the implant into the bone is essential. We observed the greatest initial cell adhesion on composites M10 and N5. Nano-sized HA supported cell growth, especially during the first 3 days of culture. On composites with micro-size HA (2%–15%), MG-63 cells reached the highest densities on day 7. Samples M20 and M25, however, were toxic for MG-63 cells, although these composites supported the production of osteocalcin in these cells. On N2, a higher concentration of osteopontin was found in MG-63 cells. For biomedical applications, the concentration range of 5%–15% (v/v) nano-size or micro-size HA seems to be optimum. PMID:25125978

  5. Saliva initiates the formation of pro-inflammatory macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgonabadi, Solmaz; Müller, Heinz-Dieter; Mendes, João Rui; Gruber, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Saliva can support oral wound healing, a process that requires a temporary inflammatory reaction. We have reported previously that saliva provokes a strong inflammatory response in oral fibroblasts. Bone marrow cells also give rise to macrophages, a heterogeneous subset of cell population involved in wound healing. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) induce activation of pro-(M1), and anti-(M2) inflammatory macrophages, respectively. Yet, the impact of saliva on programming bone marrow cells into either M1 or M2 macrophages remains unclear . Herein, we examined whether sterile saliva affects the in vitro process of macrophage polarization based on murine bone marrow cultures and RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. We report that sterile saliva, similar to lipopolysaccharides, provoked a robust activation of the M1 phenotype which is characterized by a strong increase of the respective genes IL-12 and IL-6, based on a real-time gene expression analysis, and for IL-6 with immunoassay. Arginase-1 and Ym1, both genes characteristic for the M2 phenotype, were not considerably modulated by saliva. Inhibition of TLR4 signaling with TAK-242, blocking NFκB signaling with Bay 11-7085, but also autoclaving saliva greatly reduced the development of the M1 phenotype. These data suggest that saliva activates the TLR4 dependent polarization into pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Remineralization of initial enamel caries in vitro using a novel peptide based on amelogenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danxue; Lv, Xueping; Tu, Huanxin; Zhou, Xuedong; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Linglin

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral disease with high incidence, widely spread and can seriously affect the health of oral cavity and the whole body. Current caries prevention measures such as fluoride treatment, antimicrobial agents, and traditional Chinese herbal, have limitations to some extent. Here we design and synthesize a novel peptide based on the amelogenin, and assess its ability to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries lesions. We used enamel blocks to form initial lesions, and then subjected to 12-day pH cycling in the presence of peptide, NaF and HEPES buffer. Enamel treated with peptide or NaF had shallower, narrower lesions, thicker remineralized surfaces and less mineral loss than enamel treated with HEPES. This peptide can promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries and inhibit the progress of caries. It is a promising anti-caries agent with various research prospects and practical application value.

  7. Influence of the angle of irradiation of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the morphology, attachment of blood components, roughness, and root wear: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes; Pavone, Chaine; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cézar; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of the working tip angulation of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the morphology, attachment of blood components, roughness, and wear on irradiated root surfaces compared to scaling and root planing (SRP). The present study used 45 teeth, of which 25 were used for the analysis of the morphology and the attachment of blood components and 20 were used for the analysis of the roughness and of the root wear. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups according to the treatment applied: (G1) Laser Er,Cr:YSGG-30°; (G2) Laser Er,Cr:YSGG-45°; (G3) Laser Er,Cr:YSGG-60°; (G4) Laser Er,Cr:YSGG-90°; and (G5) SRP. The root surfaces irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser working angulation tip of 45° and 60°, and the samples scaled with manual instruments presented greater attachment of blood components than the group where the Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiated at working tip angulation of 30° and 90° (Pirradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser were rougher than the samples scaled with manual instruments (Pirradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser at an angle of 30° presented the least wear in comparison to all the other treatments (Pirradiated root surfaces proved to be rougher than those scaled with manual instruments; however, irradiation at working tip angulations of 45° and 60° produced results of attachment of blood components and root wear comparable with those obtained with manual instrumentation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Effect of three different pastes on remineralization of initial enamel lesion: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyavhare, S; Sharma, D S; Kulkarni, V K

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries in enamel is unique as enamel is both acellular and avascular. Fluoride is one of the most effective remineralizing agents in caries prevention. The purpose of the study was to assess whether nano-hydroxyapatite and CPP-ACP can be used as an alternative to fluoride for remineralization of early carious lesions. Initial artificial carious lesions were prepared in enamel with demineralization solution. The treatment materials used as remineralizing agents were Nano-hydroxyapatite (10%), CPP - ACP (10%), NaF (1000 ppm) and Deionized water (negative control). Surface microhardness (SMH) measurements were performed before/after demineralization and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of pH cycling and the percentage surface microhardness recovery (%SMHR) was calculated. The specimens were then examined by scanning electron microscope. Percentage surface microhardness recovery of nano-hydroxyapatite and fluoride was significantly greater than CPP - ACP and negative control. There was no significant difference of %SMHR between n-HA and fluoride at different time periods in the pH cycling. SEM analysis revealed n-HA particles were deposited on the demineralized enamel surface which formed a new surface layer. When observed under SEM CPP - ACP failed to show any significant surface remineralization while surface globular crystal depositions with multiple discrete porosities were evident with fluoride. It was concluded that nano-hydroxyapatite and fluoride had the potential to remineralize initial enamel lesions. CPP - ACP can be used as an effective adjunct to fluoride therapy but cannot be used as an alternative to fluoride.

  9. Tetrandrine, a Compound Common in Chinese Traditional Medicine, Preferentially Kills Breast Cancer Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) In Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Lacerda, Lara; Li, Jessica; Woodward, Wendy A., E-mail: wwoodward@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-05-04

    Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs). Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS), we found that the IC{sub 50} for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 μM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC{sub 50} around 1 μM for SUM-149 and around 2 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs.

  10. Tetrandrine, a Compound Common in Chinese Traditional Medicine, Preferentially Kills Breast Cancer Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs. Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS, we found that the IC50 for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 µM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 µM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC50 around 1 µM for SUM-149 and around 2 µM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs.

  11. MicroRNA-212 Regulates the Expression of Olfactomedin 1 and C-Terminal Binding Protein 1 in Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells to Enhance Spheroid Attachment In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; So, Kam-Hei; Kodithuwakku, Suranga P; Ng, Ernest H Y; Yeung, William S B; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2015-11-01

    Successful embryo implantation requires a synchronized dialogue between a competent blastocyst and the receptive endometrium, which occurs in a limited time period known as the "window of implantation." Recent studies suggested that down-regulation of olfactomedin 1 (OLFM1) in the endometrium and fallopian tube is associated with receptive endometrium and tubal ectopic pregnancy in humans. Interestingly, the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induces miR-212 expression, which modulates OLFM1 and C-terminal binding protein 1 (CTBP1) expressions in mouse granulosa cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that embryo-derived hCG would increase miR-212 expression and down-regulate OLFM1 and CTBP1 expressions to favor embryo attachment onto the female reproductive tract. We found that hCG stimulated the expression of miR-212 and down-regulated OLFM1 but not CTBP1 mRNA in both human endometrial (Ishikawa) and fallopian (OE-E6/E7) epithelial cells. However, hCG suppressed the expression of OLFM1 and CTBP1 proteins in both cell lines. The 3'UTR of both OLFM1 and CTBP1 contained binding sites for miR-212. The miR-212 precursor suppressed luciferase expression, whereas the miR-212 inhibitor stimulated luciferase expression of the wild-type (WT)-OLFM1 and WT-CTBP1 reporter constructs. Furthermore, hCG (25 IU/ml) treatments stimulated trophoblastic (Jeg-3) spheroid (blastocyst surrogate) attachment onto Ishikawa and OE-E6/E7 cells. Transfection of miR-212 precursor increased Jeg-3 spheroid attachment onto Ishikawa cells and decreased OLFM1 and CTBP1 protein expressions, whereas the opposite occurred with miR-212 inhibitor. Taken together, hCG stimulated miR-212, which in turn down-regulated OLFM1 and CTBP1 expression in fallopian and endometrial epithelial cells to favor spheroid attachment. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  12. Initial in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a self-monitoring prosthetic bypass graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Richard F; Gupta, Samit K; Kuraguntla, David J

    2017-06-01

    Prosthetic grafts used for lower extremity revascularization and dialysis access fail because of hyperplastic stenosis and thrombosis. Graft surveillance is advocated to monitor function; however, graft failure can occur between episodic examinations. An innovative sensor with wireless, microchip technology allows automated surveillance with assessment of graft function using a "cloud"-based algorithm. We performed proof-of-concept experiments with in vitro and in vivo models to assess the feasibility such a real-time graft surveillance system. A self-monitoring graft system was evaluated consisting of a prosthetic conduit of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and a sensor unit, and a microsensor, microelectronics, battery, and remote processor with a monitor. The sensor unit was integrated on the extraluminal surface of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts without compromise to the lumen of the conduit. The grafts were tested in vitro in a pulsatile, recirculating flow system under physiologic flow parameters. The hemodynamic parameters were varied to assess the ability to obtain wireless signal acquisition reflecting real-time flow properties in vitro. Segments of custom tubing with reduced diameters were inserted into the model to mimic stenosis proximal and distal to the grafts. After characterization of the initial data, the self-monitoring grafts were implanted in an ovine carotid model to assess proof of concept in vivo with 30-day follow-up of signal acquisition as well as arteriographic and histologic analysis. In vitro flow data demonstrated the device was able to determine factors related to prosthetic graft function under varied hemodynamic flow conditions. Wireless signal acquisition using Bluetooth technology (Bluetooth SIG, Inc, Kirkland, Wash) allowed remote data analysis reflecting graft flow parameters through changes in microsensor voltage and frequency. Waveform analysis was applied to construct an algorithm using proprietary software and

  13. Effect of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone at emergency contraception dose on the embryo-endometrial attachment using an in vitro human trophoblastic spheroid and endometrial cell co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang-Wun Raymond; Li, Ying-Xing; Li, Tian-Tian; Fan, Hongjie; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu; Yeung, William Shu-Biu; Ho, Pak-Chung; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2017-12-01

    Do both ulipristal acetate (UPA) and mifepristone inhibit embryo-endometrial attachment at concentrations corresponding to the emergency contraception (EC) dose? Both UPA and mifepristone at concentrations corresponding to the EC dose do not have an inhibitory effect on embryo implantation, although mifepristone at a higher concentration appeared to have such an effect. Levonorgestrel is commonly used for EC, but it only acts through inhibition of ovulation. UPA and mifepristone have higher efficacy as EC compared to levonorgestrel; while there is some suggestion that mifepristone may interfere with implantation, whether UPA has post-ovulatory action in inhibiting implantation is yet to be confirmed. An in vitro experimental study using trophoblastic spheroids made from JAr cell line as the embryo surrogate, and the Ishikawa cell line and primary human endometrial cells cultured to monolayer as the endometrial surrogate. The primary endometrial cells were collected from nine volunteer women in the mid-luteal phase with consent. The study was conducted in a university gynaecology unit. The JAr and Ishikawa cell lines (or primary endometrial cells) were treated with graded concentrations of UPA (0, 0.04, 0.4 and 4 μM) or mifepristone (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 μM) for 24 h. Embryo-endometrial attachment was studied using an in vitro JAr spheroid-endometrial co-culture model. Expressions of progesterone receptor, β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) were studied with real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In the Ishikawa experiments, there was no significant difference in the JAr spheroid attachment rate after treatment with UPA at 0 (93.0%), 0.04 (93.6%), 0.4 (93.4%) and 4 (91.4%) μM concentrations (P > 0.05); the attachment rate was reduced after treatment with mifepristone only at 10 μM (79.8%, P endometrial cell experiments, again no significant difference was observed in the JAr spheroid attachment rate after treatment with UPA 4

  14. Effect of initial protein concentration and pH on in vitro gastric digestion of heated whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2014-02-15

    The in vitro digestion of heated whey protein aggregates having different structure and physicochemical properties was evaluated under simulated gastric conditions. Aggregates were formed by heating whey protein isolates (WPI) at 3-9% w/w initial protein concentration and pH 3.0-7.0. Results showed that high protein concentration led to formation of larger WPI aggregates with fewer remaining monomers. Aggregates formed at high protein concentrations showed slower degradation rate compared to those formed at low protein concentration. The effect of initial protein concentration on peptide release pattern was not apparent. Heating pH was a significant factor affecting digestion pattern. At pH above the isoelectric point, the majority of the proteins involved in the aggregation, and aggregates formed at pH 6.0 were more susceptible to pepsin digestion than at pH 7.0. At acidic conditions, only small amount of proteins was involved in the aggregation and heated aggregates were easily digested by pepsin, while the remaining unaggregated proteins were very resistant to gastric digestion. The potential physiological implication of these results on satiety was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Initial cell seeding density influences pancreatic endocrine development during in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Blair K; Webber, Travis D; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the ability to form cells derived from all three germ layers, and as such have received significant attention as a possible source for insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells for diabetes treatment. While considerable advances have been made in generating hESC-derived insulin-producing cells, to date in vitro-derived glucose-responsive beta-cells have remained an elusive goal. With the objective of increasing the in vitro formation of pancreatic endocrine cells, we examined the effect of varying initial cell seeding density from 1.3 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) to 5.3 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) followed by a 21-day pancreatic endocrine differentiation protocol. Low density-seeded cells were found to be biased toward the G2/M phases of the cell cycle and failed to efficiently differentiate into SOX17-CXCR4 co-positive definitive endoderm cells leaving increased numbers of OCT4 positive cells in day 4 cultures. Moderate density cultures effectively formed definitive endoderm and progressed to express PDX1 in approximately 20% of the culture. High density cultures contained approximately double the numbers of PDX1 positive pancreatic progenitor cells and also showed increased expression of MNX1, PTF1a, NGN3, ARX, and PAX4 compared to cultures seeded at moderate density. The cultures seeded at high density displayed increased formation of polyhormonal pancreatic endocrine cell populations co-expressing insulin, glucagon and somatostatin. The maturation process giving rise to these endocrine cell populations followed the expected cascade of pancreatic progenitor marker (PDX1 and MNX1) expression, followed by pancreatic endocrine specification marker expression (BRN4, PAX4, ARX, NEUROD1, NKX6.1 and NKX2.2) and then pancreatic hormone expression (insulin, glucagon and somatostatin). Taken together these data suggest that initial cell seeding density plays an important role in both germ layer specification and pancreatic progenitor commitment, which

  16. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  17. Estudo in vitro do efeito de inserção e desinserção na retenção de dois sistemas de attachments numa sobredentadura sobre dois implantes = In vitro study of the insertion and disinsertion effect on retention of two attachment systems of an overdenture on two implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Elsa Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As sobredentaduras sobre implantes são uma opção válida de tratamento para os desdentados totais. A utilização de dois implantes mandibulares é considerada o minimum standart of care. Este estudo avaliou a força de retenção de dois sistemas de attachments e seus respectivos sistemas de conexão numa sobredentadura mandibular retida por dois implantes. Métodos: Foram confecionados dois blocos de acrílico: num dos blocos incorporaram-se dois implantes paralelos distanciados de 22 mm; no outro foram instalados os respectivos sistemas fêmea para cada sistema de attachment testado (Bola-Dalbo BTI® e Locator®, com fêmeas em nylon transparentes e cor-de-rosa. Desenvolveu-se uma máquina específica para avaliar a retenção dos attachments ao longo dos ciclos aplicados. A velocidade de inserção/desinserção foi de 0,5 Hz, aplicada de forma constante. Resultados: Os Locator® com nylon transparente foram os que apresentaram maior retenção inicial (85,7 N, seguidos do sistema de Bola-Dalbo® (62,1 N e dos Locator® com nylon cor-de-rosa (49,6 N. Ao fim de 5400 ciclos, a força média exercida foi mais elevada para os Locator® com nylon transparente (42,3 N seguido do sistema de Bola-Dalbo® (34,3 N e, por último, dos Locator® com nylon cor-de-rosa (24,6 N. Conclusão: A força de retenção inicial diminui ao longo do tempo para os sistemas de attachments testados

  18. Thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation under hypothermic conditions: an in vitro evaluation of tissue factor initiated whole blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelihan, Matthew F; Kiankhooy, Armin; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E

    2014-02-01

    Despite trauma-induced hypothermic coagulopathy being familiar in the clinical setting, empirical experimentation concerning this phenomenon is lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypothermia on thrombin generation, clot formation, and global hemostatic functions in an in vitro environment using a whole blood model and thromboelastography, which can recapitulate hypothermia. Blood was collected from healthy individuals through venipuncture and treated with corn trypsin inhibitor, to block the contact pathway. Coagulation was initiated with 5pM tissue factor at temperatures 37°C, 32°C, and 27°C. Reactions were quenched over time, with soluble and insoluble components analyzed for thrombin generation, fibrinogen consumption, factor (f)XIII activation, and fibrin deposition. Global coagulation potential was evaluated through thromboelastography. Data showed that thrombin generation in samples at 37°C and 32°C had comparable rates, whereas 27°C had a much lower rate (39.2 ± 1.1 and 43 ± 2.4 nM/min vs 28.6 ± 4.4 nM/min, respectively). Fibrinogen consumption and fXIII activation were highest at 37°C, followed by 32°C and 27°C. Fibrin formation as seen through clot weights also followed this trend. Thromboelastography data showed that clot formation was fastest in samples at 37°C and lowest at 27°C. Maximum clot strength was similar for each temperature. Also, percent lysis of clots was highest at 37°C followed by 32°C and then 27°C. Induced hypothermic conditions directly affect the rate of thrombin generation and clot formation, whereas global clot stability remains intact. © 2013.

  19. Tuber induction and initiation during production and early field growth of transplants from in vitro-derived potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    In transplants from in vitro-derived plantlets from very early potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars, a lower degree of tuber induction at the time of field planting is thought to increase tuber production. Leaf-bud cuttings were used to assess the progress to tuber induction in in vitro-derived

  20. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; West, M.; Mahoney, A; Keller, A

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  1. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  2. Regulation of Initial Attachment of P. aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    PA2300 chiC chitinase v - v - PA4217 phzS flavin-containing monooxygenase probable FAD-dependent monooxygenase v - - - PA1800 tig trigger...test whether inactivation of regulatory proteins involved in biofilm development also play a role in virulence by using two distinct in vivo plant ...avirulent as determined using the Arabidopsis thaliana infection model ( plant death was used as indicator of virulence). While more than 44% of

  3. Attachment and Related Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Morsunbul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Attachment which is defined as strong emotional bond people develop for significant others have been investigated by researchers for long years. Attachment theory proposes that attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life are carried onto next stages of life with internal working models. Additionally it is also proposed that attachment patterns are important to determine individual’s social-emotional competence. This study aims to review how attachment patterns differ according to life stages, continuity/discontiniuty of attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life and evaluate the relations between attachment patterns and social-emotional competence. The basic features of social relations model, relationship between attachment patterns and identity development, and risk taking behavior in adolescence have also been investigated in this review.

  4. Prenatal attachment and other correlates of postnatal maternal attachment to twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damato, Elizabeth G

    2004-10-01

    To determine the relationship of prenatal attachment and other selected perinatal contextual variables (method of delivery, maternal self-reported health, depression, infant birthweight, need for neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission) to postnatal attachment in mothers of twins. Two hundred fourteen women were initially recruited from a national mothers of twins support group for a study of maternal prenatal attachment. Of the 168 women who agreed to be contacted after delivery, 142 returned completed questionnaires (82.7% response rate), with 139 study-eligible women included in the analysis for this report. Correlational design with longitudinal follow-up at 1 month after expected delivery date. Self-administered, mailed questionnaires completed by women with twin gestations prenatally and postnatally 1 month after their expected delivery dates. Descriptive analysis, correlations, and regression equations were performed. The Maternal Attachment Inventory. A modest correlation was found between prenatal and postnatal attachment ( r = 0.38, P Prenatal attachment and postpartum depression explained 26.1% of the variance in postnatal attachment ( F = 5.06, P prenatal attachment and postnatal attachment. The addition of these interaction terms nominally increased the adjusted R 2 to explain 27.9% to 29.6% of the variance in postnatal attachment. Although the study findings support a modest relationship between prenatal and postnatal attachment in mothers of twins, maternal depression was also significant in explaining postnatal attachment. Postpartum depression, having a cesarean delivery, and the experience of a NICU admission for 1 or both twins further influenced the relationship between prenatal attachment and postnatal attachment. When fostering attachment in mothers of twins, nurses should assess for symptoms of depression and pay particular attention to those women who have an infant requiring a NICU admission.

  5. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  6. Maximum dislodging forces of mandibular implant-assisted removable partial dentures: in vitro assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehchahi, Jafar; Asadzadeh, Nafiseh; Mirmortazavi, Amirtaher; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-10-01

    The initial retention of implant-assisted removable partial dentures (IARPDs) is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare maximum dislodging forces of distal extension mandibular IARPD with two different attachments and three clasp designs. A simulated class I partially edentulous mandible was prepared with two screw-type 3.75 × 12 mm implants in the first molar regions and 2 metal-ceramic crowns on distal abutments. Fifteen bilateral distal extension frameworks were conventionally fabricated in three clasp designs (suprabulge, infrabulge, no clasp). Locator attachments were connected to the 15 denture bases with autopolymerized resin. Each specimen was subject to four types of retention pulls (main, anterior, posterior, unilateral pull) five times with a universal testing machine. Locator attachments were replaced with O-ring attachments, and the same procedure was performed. Therefore, the study groups included: IRPD with Locator attachment and suprabulge clasp (group 1), IRPD with Locator attachment and infrabulge clasp (group 2), IRPD with Locator attachment and no clasp (group 3), IRPD with O-ring attachment and suprabulge clasp (group 4), IRPD with O-ring attachment and infrabulge clasp (group 5), IRPD with O-ring attachment and no clasp (group 6). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, and Tukey tests. The highest mean value was 22.99 lb for prostheses with a Locator attachment and suprabulge clasp. The lowest retentive values were recorded for IARPDs with O-ring attachments. The results of this in vitro study suggest that the precise selection of attachments with or without clasp assemblies may affect the clinical success of mandibular IARPDs. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Assessment of the Degree of Cure of the Composite Adhesive at Different Time Intervals after Initiating the Curing: An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Vadgaonkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study was carried out on 25 extracted maxillary first bicuspids with the objective of estimating the degree of polymerization of adhesive beneath the base of the metal bracket at various time intervals after initiating light curing. The degree of polymerization was calculated by estimating the degree of absorbance exhibited by the adhesive under infrared spectroscopy (IRS. The percentage of polymerization increased steadily over a period of 1 hour after light curing. This may be attributed to the chain propagation reaction.

  8. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Center for Predictive Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Pushko, Peter, E-mail: ppushko@medigen-usa.com [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. - Highlights: • The iDNA{sup ®} platform combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. • Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was launched from iDNA plasmid in vitro and in vivo. • Safety of iDNA-generated 17D virus was confirmed in AG129 mice. • BALB/c mice seroconverted after a single-dose vaccination with iDNA. • YF virus-neutralizing response was elicited in iDNA-vaccinated mice.

  9. Demonstration in vitro that eucaryotic initiation factor 3 is active but that a cap-binding protein complex is inactive in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchison, D; Hansen, J; Ehrenfeld, E; Edery, I; Sonenberg, N; Milburn, S; Hershey, J W

    1984-01-01

    Protein synthesis initiation factor preparations from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells have reduced ability to initiate translation on capped mRNA. The defect in initiation factors has been variously attributed to inactivation of eucaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3), eIF4B, or a cap-binding protein (CBP) complex. We have developed a series of in vitro protein synthesis assays to show that eIF3 is active but a CBP complex activity is inactivated after poliovirus infection. eIF3 activity, when determined in the presence of purified CBP complex, is present in sucrose gradients of factors from both infected and uninfected cells. CBP complex activity, determined in the presence of eIF3 from poliovirus-infected cells, is present in uninfected cells only and comigrates on sucrose gradient with an activity which restores the ability of crude initiation factors from infected cells to translate capped globin mRNA. This is the first demonstration by a fractionated translation system that an activity which is attributable to CBP complex is inactivated in poliovirus-infected cells. The results also indicate that eIF3 is undetectable or has greatly reduced activity in the absence of CBP complex. Images PMID:6088805

  10. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat; Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S; Pushko, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Initial Attempts of Development and Characterization of an In Vitro Blood Brain Barrier Model Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldeman, Charlotte; Saaby, Lasse; Hall, Vanessa Jane

    applied undifferentiated media; DMEM/F12 containing NEAA, glutaMAX, KOSR and β-mercaptoethanol for six days to initiate differentiation. The differentiated stem cells were seeded on permeable supports coated with collagen IV and fibronectin (250.000 cells pr. filter insert) in different culture...

  12. Transesophageal real-time three-dimensional echocardiography methods and initial in vitro and human in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Michael; Heinrichs, Gudrun; Moser, Urs; Hirt, Felix; Margadant, Felix; Gattiker, Felix; Bode, Christoph; Geibel, Annette

    2006-11-21

    The purpose of this study was to develop a transesophageal probe that: 1) enables on-line representation of the spatial structures of the heart, and 2) enables navigation of medical instruments. Whereas transthoracic real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography could recently be implemented, there is still no corresponding transesophageal system. Transesophageal real-time 3D echocardiography would have great potential for numerous clinical applications, such as navigation of catheters. The newly developed real-time 3D system is based on a transesophageal probe in which multiple transducers are arranged in an interlaced pattern on a rotating cylinder. This enables continuous recording of a large echo volume of 70 mm in length and a sector angle of 120 degrees . The presentation of the volume-reconstructed data is made with a time lag of <100 ms. The frame rate is up to 20 Hz. In addition to conventional imaging, the observer can obtain a stereoscopic image of the structures examined with red/blue goggles. It was shown in vitro on ventricle- and aorta-form agar models and in vivo that the system enables excellent visualization of the 3D structures. Shape, spatial orientation, and the navigation of various catheters (e.g., EPS-catheter, Swan-Ganz-catheter), stents, or atrial septal defect occluders could be recorded on-line and stereoscopically depicted. The size of the echo sector enables a wide field of view without changing the position of the probe. Transesophageal real-time 3D echocardiography can be technically realized with the system presented here. The in vitro and in vivo studies show particularly the potential for navigation in the heart and large vessels on the basis of stereoscopic images.

  13. Chamaejasmin B exerts anti-MDR effect in vitro and in vivo via initiating mitochondria-dependant intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya Jie; Li, Qi; Xiao, Hong Bin; Li, Yu Jie; Yang, Qing; Kan, Xiao Xi; Chen, Ying; Liu, Xiao Ni; Weng, Xiao Gang; Chen, Xi; Cai, Wei Yan; Guo, Yan; Huang, He Fei; Zhu, Xiao Xin

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main obstacle limiting the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Looking for novel anti-MDR agents is an important way to conquer cancer drug resistance. We recently established that chamaejasmin B (CHB), a natural biflavone from Stellera chamaejasme L., is the major active component. However, its anti-MDR activity is still unknown. This study investigated the anti-MDR effect of CHB and the underlying mechanisms. First, it was found that CHB inhibited the growth of both sensitive and resistant cell lines in vitro, and the average resistant factor (RF) of CHB was only 1.26. Furthermore, CHB also displayed favorable anti-MDR activity in KB and KBV200 cancer cells xenograft mice. Subsequent study showed that CHB induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest as well as apoptosis both in KB and in resistant KBV200 cancer cells. Further studies showed that CHB had no influence on the level of Fas/FasL and activation of procaspase 8. However, CHB-induced apoptosis was dependent on the activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3. Moreover, CHB treatment resulted in the elevation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria into cytoplasm both in KB and KBV200 cells. In conclusion, CHB exhibited good anti-MDR activity in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying mechanisms may be related to the activation of mitochondrial-dependant intrinsic apoptosis pathway. These findings provide a new leading compound for MDR therapy and supply a new evidence for the potential of CHB to be employed in clinical trial of MDR therapy in cancers.

  14. [Attachment in autistic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivantürk, Berna

    2004-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a neuropsychiatric disorder which begins in the first years of life with delays and deviance in social, communicative and cognitive development and with restricted repertoire of activities and interests. It is thought that autistic children do not form attachments to parents or caregivers because of their difficulties in social interaction. Yet, the findings of the studies demonstrate evidences for the existence of attachment between autistic children and their caregivers. The aim of the present study is to review the studies that examine the attachment behaviors in autism. Autistic children show similar attachment behaviors when compared to children with normal development, children with other psychiatric disorders, children with Down syndrome and mentally retarded children. Children with autism prefer their mothers to strangers and attempt to remain close to them as much as other children. However they do not engage in attention sharing behaviors such as pointing or showing objects. They also do not seem to recognize the meaning of facial expressions and emotions. Although autism does not exclude the development of secure attachment relationships, it may delay the development of secure attachment and change the behavioral patterns related with attachment security. It is concluded that the awareness of the parents and the clinicians might help to establish treatment alternatives that preserve and improve the attachment behaviors of autistic children.

  15. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic

  16. Attachment in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. BehnazH

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Removable and fixed prosthesis are fabricated for reasons of appearance, mastication, speech clarity and general well - being. At the same time, they must preserve remaining theeth. Alveolar bone, Ginginal tissue and tooth position by bringing the forces acting on the removavle prosthesis within the limits of tissue tolerance. Satisfying these objectives may reqiure the use of single crowns of fixed partial denture with specific contours and attachments that provide the necessary support and retention for the prosthesis."nHowever, before any detailde discussion can takeplace, it is desirble to divide attachments into groups. Several classifications have been divised, based mainly on the attributes claimed for the devices by the attachment manufactures."nSince the function severed by an attachment depend entirely upon the manner in which it is used and function in the mouth are complex and by no means completely understood, the classification of prefabricated attachments used in this title has been based on their shape.

  17. [Mentalization and attachment transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmann, Johann; Fritsch, Sophia; Lück, Monika; Stumpe, Anna; Taubner, Svenja; Vesterling, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study was investigating the predictive role of maternal mentalizing and general as well as depressive symptom burden for attachment security at the end of the first year on a sample of 44 mother-child-dyads from a low-risk community study. Maternal mentalizing was assessed in a multidimensional way as Reflective Functioning (off-line) and Mind-Mindedness (on-line). The design was longitudinal measuring maternal Mind-Mindedness from a videotaped mother-child-play-interaction at the age of three months. General and depressive symptom burden was assessed using the SCL-90-R when the children were nine months old. Maternal attachment and Reflective-Functioning, using the Adult-Attachment-Interview, as well as children's attachment behavior, using the Strange-Situation-Test, were investigated at the age of twelve months. Secure maternal attachment was associated with higher Reflective Functioning, higher frequency of Mind-Mindedness and lower general and depressive symptom burden. A moderation-analysis showed a statistical trend (p = .08) that the interaction of the frequency of mind-related comments, general symptom severity and maternal attachment has a predictive value for infantile attachment security. Results can be tentatively interpreted that mothers with insecure attachment who had a lower general symptom burden and who related to their three-months old babies with a high frequency of mind-related-comments were more likely to have securely attached children. Thus, results may serve as a groundwork for projects aiming to prevent the transmission of insecure attachment by strengthening maternal Mind-Mindedness and working on the reduction of maternal general symptom burden.

  18. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  19. Initial Characterization of the Pig Skin Bacteriome and Its Effect on In Vitro Models of Wound Healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K McIntyre

    Full Text Available Elucidating the roles and composition of the human skin microbiome has revealed a delicate interplay between resident microbes and wound healing. Evolutionarily speaking, normal cutaneous flora likely has been selected for because it potentiates or, at minimum, does not impede wound healing. While pigs are the gold standard model for wound healing studies, the porcine skin microbiome has not been studied in detail. Herein, we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize the pig skin bacteriome at several anatomical locations. Additionally, we used bacterial conditioned-media with in vitro techniques to examine the paracrine effects of bacterial-derived proteins on human keratinocytes (NHEK and fibroblasts (NHDF. We found that at the phyla level, the pig skin bacteriome is similar to that of humans and largely consists of Firmicutes (55.6%, Bacteroidetes (20.8%, Actinobacteria (13.3%, and Proteobacteria (5.1% however species-level differences between anatomical locations exist. Studies of bacterial supernatant revealed location-dependent effects on NHDF migration and NHEK apoptosis and growth factor release. These results expand the limited knowledge of the cutaneous bacteriome of healthy swine, and suggest that naturally occurring bacterial flora affects wound healing differentially depending on anatomical location. Ultimately, the pig might be considered the best surrogate for not only wound healing studies but also the cutaneous microbiome. This would not only facilitate investigations into the microbiome's role in recovery from injury, but also provide microbial targets for enhancing or accelerating wound healing.

  20. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We...

  1. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  2. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment plan Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder are serious clinical conditions. However, close and ongoing ... you find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the ...

  3. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  4. Breastfeeding, sensitivity, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, John R; Britton, Helen L; Gronwaldt, Virginia

    2006-11-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that breastfeeding is associated with enhanced infant-mother attachment and its antecedent maternal sensitivity. Breastfeeding intent and practice were assessed by questionnaires administered to 152 mothers between 32 weeks of gestation and 12 months postpartum. Early maternal sensitivity was measured by the Sensitivity to Cues subscale of the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 3 months, and quality of the mother-infant interaction was measured by the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 6 months. Security of attachment was evaluated by the Ainsworth Strange Situation at 12 months. A direct relationship between attachment security and breastfeeding practice was not identified. The quality of the mother-infant interaction at 6 months, rather than the type of feeding, predicted security of attachment. However, mothers who chose to breastfeed displayed greater sensitivity in dyadic interactions with their infants 3 months postnatally than those who chose to bottle feed, and intended breastfeeding duration prenatally correlated with sensitivity 3 months postpartum. Although a path analysis failed to demonstrate contributions of early breastfeeding duration to either sensitivity or security, it did substantiate a significant path between prenatal breastfeeding intent and attachment security mediated by sensitivity. In addition, multivariate analyses revealed that early sensitivity among breastfeeding mothers was an independent predictor of the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding during the first year. Although the quality of the dyadic interaction in infancy, rather than feeding type, is predictive of attachment security, mothers who choose to breastfeed display enhanced sensitivity during early infancy that, in turn, may foster secure attachment. Among breastfeeding mothers, higher sensitivity is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during the first postpartum year

  5. INSECURE ATTACHMENTS AND THEIR INTERMINGLING TRANSFERENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Doris K

    2017-06-01

    There are least two different but interrelated motivational systems in human beings both of which begin in infancy: the attachment system and the separate, but interacting, psychodynamic system. Each of these systems is the basis of transference. A major focus of the paper is the affect-regulating feature of the attachment system. Infants' emotional states can be well-regulated or dysregulated as they emerge in interactions with their primary caregiver. Aberrant interactions of dysregulation typically lead to the development of insecure or disorganized attachments. Rudimentary transference fantasies initially emerge as the child makes sense or meaning about such maladaptive interactions. Our complex minds comprise multi-determined, personally organized fantasies which include those derived from both the attachment system and the psychodynamic one. I present a clinical description of how these two transference fantasies intersect in the mental life of a patient. A clinical case is offered whose focus is on enactments, transferences, and countertransference.

  6. Autism and Attachment: The Attachment Q-Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, Anna H.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism are able to show secure attachment behaviours to their parents/caregivers. Most studies on attachment in children with autism used a (modified) Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to examine attachment security. An advantage of the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS) over the SSP is that it can be attuned to the secure-base behaviour of…

  7. Attachment and autism: parental attachment representations and relational behaviors in the parent-child dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seskin, Lynn; Feliciano, Eileen; Tippy, Gil; Yedloutschnig, Ruby; Sossin, K Mark; Yasik, Anastasia

    2010-10-01

    While attachment research has demonstrated that parents' internal working models of attachment relationships tend to be transmitted to their children, affecting children's developmental trajectories, this study specifically examines associations between adult attachment status and observable parent, child, and dyadic behaviors among children with autism and associated neurodevelopmental disorders of relating and communicating. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was employed to derive parental working models of attachment relationships. The Functional Emotional Assessment Scale (FEAS) was used to determine the quality of relational and functional behaviors in parents and their children. The sample included parents and their 4- to 16-year-old children with autism and associated neurodevelopmental disorders. Hypothesized relationships between AAI classifications and FEAS scores were supported. Significant correlations were found between AAI classification and FEAS scores, indicating that children with autism spectrum disorders whose parents demonstrated secure attachment representations were better able to initiate and respond in two-way pre-symbolic gestural communication; organize two-way social problem-solving communication; and engage in imaginative thinking, symbolic play, and verbal communication. These findings lend support to the relevance of the parent's state of mind pertaining to attachment status to child and parent relational behavior in cases wherein the child has been diagnosed with autism or an associated neurodevelopmental disorder of relating and communicating. A model emerges from these findings of conceptualizing relationships between parental internal models of attachment relationships and parent-child relational and functional levels that may aid in differentiating interventions.

  8. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  9. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  10. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  11. In vitro screen of a small molecule inhibitor drug library identifies multiple compounds that synergize with oncolytic myxoma virus against human brain tumor-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Brienne A; Zemp, Franz J; Pisklakova, Alexandra; Narendran, Aru; McFadden, Grant; Lun, Xueqing; Kenchappa, Rajappa S; Kurz, Ebba U; Forsyth, Peter A

    2015-08-01

    Brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) are stem-like cells hypothesized to form a disease reservoir that mediates tumor recurrence in high-grade gliomas. Oncolytic virotherapy uses replication-competent viruses to target and kill malignant cells and has been evaluated in clinic for glioma therapy with limited results. Myxoma virus (MyxV) is a safe and highly effective oncolytic virus (OV) in conventional glioma models but, as seen with other OVs, is only modestly effective for patient-derived BTICs. The objective of this study was to determine whether MyxV treatment against human BTICs could be improved by combining chemotherapeutics and virotherapy. A 73-compound library of drug candidates in clinical use or preclinical development was screened to identify compounds that sensitize human BTICs to MyxV treatment in vitro, and synergy was evaluated mathematically in lead compounds using Chou-Talalay analyses. The effects of combination therapy on viral gene expression and viral replication were also assessed. Eleven compounds that enhance MyxV efficacy were identified, and 6 were shown to synergize with the virus using Chou-Talalay analyses. Four of the synergistic compounds were shown to significantly increase viral gene expression, indicating a potential mechanism for synergy. Three highly synergistic compounds (axitinib, a VEGFR inhibitor; rofecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor; and pemetrexed, a folate anti-metabolite) belong to classes of compounds that have not been previously shown to synergize with oncolytic viruses in vitro. This study has identified multiple novel drug candidates that synergistically improve MyxV efficacy in a preclinical BTIC glioma model. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  13. Cell-attached recordings of responses evoked by photorelease of GABA in the immature cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat eMinlebaev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel non-invasive technique to measure the polarity of GABAergic responses based on cell-attached recordings of currents activated by laser-uncaging of GABA. For these recordings, a patch pipette was filled with a solution containing RuBi-GABA, and GABA was released from this complex by a laser beam conducted to the tip of the patch pipette via an optic fiber. In cell-attached recordings from neocortical and hippocampal neurons in postnatal days P2-5 rat brain slices in vitro, we found that laser-uncaging of GABA activates integral cell-attached currents mediated by tens of GABA(A channels. The initial response was inwardly directed, indicating a depolarizing response to GABA. The direction of the initial response was dependent on the pipette potential and analysis of its slope-voltage relationships revealed a depolarizing driving force of +11 mV for the currents through GABA channels. Initial depolarizing responses to GABA uncaging were inverted to hyperpolarizing in the presence of the NKCC1 blocker bumetanide. Current-voltage relationships of the currents evoked by Rubi-GABA uncaging using voltage-ramps at the peak of responses not only revealed a bumetanide-sensitive depolarizing reversal potential of the GABA(A receptor mediated responses, but also showed a strong voltage-dependent hysteresis. Upon desensitization of the uncaged-GABA response, current-voltage relationships of the currents through single GABA(A channels revealed depolarizing responses with the driving force values similar to those obtained for the initial response. Thus, cell-attached recordings of the responses evoked by local intrapipette GABA uncaging are suitable to assess the polarity of the GABA(A-Rs mediated signals in small cell compartments.

  14. Induction of virulence factors in Giardia duodenalis independent of host attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Samantha J.; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Vuong, Daniel; Pascovici, Dana; Chick, Joel M.; Lacey, Ernest; Haynes, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is responsible for the majority of parasitic gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Host-parasite interaction models in vitro provide insights into disease and virulence and help us to understand pathogenesis. Using HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) as a model we have demonstrated that initial sensitisation by host secretions reduces proclivity for trophozoite attachment, while inducing virulence factors. Host soluble factors triggered up-regulation of membrane and secreted proteins, including Tenascins, Cathepsin-B precursor, cystatin, and numerous Variant-specific Surface Proteins (VSPs). By comparison, host-cell attached trophozoites up-regulated intracellular pathways for ubiquitination, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification and production of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). We reason that these results demonstrate early pathogenesis in Giardia involves two independent host-parasite interactions. Motile trophozoites respond to soluble secreted signals, which deter attachment and induce expression of virulence factors. Trophozoites attached to host cells, in contrast, respond by up-regulating intracellular pathways involved in clearance of ROS, thus anticipating the host defence response. PMID:26867958

  15. Direction-specific interactions control crystal growth by oriented attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; Lee, Jonathan R.I.

    2012-01-01

    The oriented attachment of molecular clusters and nanoparticles in solution is now recognized as an important mechanism of crystal growth in many materials, yet the alignment process and attachment mechanism have not been established. We performed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy...... initiated at the contact point. Interface elimination proceeds at a rate consistent with the curvature dependence of the Gibbs free energy. Measured translational and rotational accelerations show that strong, highly direction-specific interactions drive crystal growth via oriented attachment....

  16. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  17. Tobacco Use and Attachment Style in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mary Heath; Weierbach, Florence; Cao, Yan; Phillips, Ken

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco has been recognized as the number one cause of preventable death in America and results in almost 5.2 million years of potential life lost each year. The use of tobacco products is highly correlated with pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and other forms of chronic illness in America. New tobacco products are trending in the tobacco market such as the water pipe/hookah and e-cigarettes. With e-cigarettes and other newer forms of tobacco on the rise, it is important to look at the underlying factors for using all kinds of tobacco products as a means of prevention. Certain adult attachment styles (secure, preoccupied, dismissing-avoidant, and fearful-avoidant) in emotionally meaningful relationships could be indicators for physical illness, mental illness, and even addiction. This study investigated whether or not there is a relationship between tobacco use and attachment style. Based on a university-wide survey that was sent out at a university in Appalachia with 522 participants, demographic data revealed 68.5% (n = 358) did not currently use tobacco products. Of those who did currently use tobacco products 54.5% (n = 90) were male, 84.8% (n = 140) were undergraduate students, and 66.7% (n = 110) were between the ages of 18-25. For individuals who used tobacco 23.5% (n = 38) were in the secure attachment group, 27.8% (n = 45) were in the dismissing-avoidant attachment group, 30.2% (n = 49) were in the fearful-avoidant attachment group, and 18.5% (n = 30) were in the preoccupied attachment group. Chi Square analysis demonstrated that attachment style was significantly (p tobacco users and non-users revealing that there is a possibility for prevention of smoking initiation through the development of a secure attachment style.

  18. Quick-attach clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Clamp of the slideable jaw type can be applied to moving lines such as cables or ropes. The clamp has a trigger-operated jaw that can be attached to a redrop parachute on a moving tow cable. The trigger mechanism maintains the jaws retracted in the housing until they are released for clamping.

  19. Organisational Attachment Among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most studied in industrial and organisational psychology and in the sociology of work and occupations. Some of .... employee differences in job satisfaction and organisation attachment. In this study, the following job .... were studied. These are subsid- iaries of multinational corporations based in Europe and North America.

  20. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  1. Initial forces experienced by the anterior and posterior teeth during dental-anchored or skeletal-anchored en masse retraction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Heo, Giseon; El-Bialy, Tarek; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W; Romanyk, Dan L

    2017-07-01

    To investigate initial forces acting on teeth around the arch during en masse retraction using an in vitro Orthodontic SIMulator (OSIM). The OSIM was used to represent the full maxillary arch in a case wherein both first premolars had been extracted. Dental and skeletal anchorage to a posted archwire and skeletal anchorage to a 10-mm power arm were all simulated. A 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire was used in all cases, and 15-mm light nickel-titanium springs were activated to approximately 150 g on both sides of the arch. A sample size of n = 40 springs were tested for each of the three groups. Multivariate analysis of variance (α = 0.05) was used to determine differences between treatment groups. In the anterior segment, it was found that skeletal anchorage with power arms generated the largest retraction force (P forces on the unit were generated using skeletal anchorage, followed by skeletal anchorage with power arms, and finally dental anchorage. Power arms were found to generate larger intrusive forces on the lateral incisors and extrusive forces on the canines than on other groups. For the posterior anchorage unit, dental anchorage generated the largest protraction and palatal forces. Negligible forces were measured for both skeletal anchorage groups. Vertical forces on the posterior unit were minimal in all cases (forces to retract the anterior teeth during en masse retraction. Skeletal anchorage reduced forces on the posterior teeth but introduced greater vertical forces on the anterior teeth.

  2. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  3. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  4. Leadership and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Christopher G; Mitroff, Ian I

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors opine that the inclusion of attachment theory in the study of leadership could strengthen leadership theories as a whole.

  5. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.

  6. ABFAB. Attachment to the breast and family attitudes to breastfeeding. The effect of breastfeeding education in the middle of pregnancy on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21556494

    OpenAIRE

    Waldenström Ulla; Harris Heather; Beanland Christine; Lumley Judith; McLachlan Helen; Forster Della; Earl Diane; Dyson Kaye

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background It has proven difficult to reach World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that infants be exclusively breastfed from birth to six months of age 12, yet there is limited knowledge about interventions that are effective in increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration. Particularly lacking is evidence about how to maintain breastfeeding rates in countries which already have a high initiation of breastfeeding. This study aims to determine whether mid-pregnancy breas...

  7. New mini dental implant attachments versus O-ring attachment after cyclic aging: Analysis of retention strength and gap space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatalla, Abdalbseet A; Song, Ke; Cao, Ying-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Overdenture as a treatment modality for both partially and fully edentulous patients is costeffective and less expensive. The purpose of the present study was to examine the newly fabricated attachments by comparing them with conventional O-ring attachment in vitro in terms of retention force and cyclic aging resistance. A total of 150 samples were prepared and divided into five groups according to the materials used (O-ring attachment, Deflex M10 XR, Deflex Classic SR, Deflex Acrilato FD, and flexible acrylic resin). The retention force of different attachments was measured by a mini dental implant after three subsequent aging (0, 63, and 126) cycles in the circumstances similar to the oral environment. The gap space between the head of the implant and the inner surface of the attachments was detected. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis with multiple comparisons test was applied for statistical analysis. The results showed that Deflex M10 XR had the highest retention force and the lowest gap space after cyclic aging; in addition, by comparing the relative force reduction, the lowest values were obtained in the O-ring attachment and the highest values in the flexible acrylic resin attachment. The retention force measured after cyclic aging for the Deflex M10 XR attachment was greatly improved when compared with the O-ring attachment and other types of attachment materials; in addition, the Deflex M10 XR attachment exhibited the minimum gap space between the inner surface and the mini dental implant head. In conclusion, Deflex M10 XR has the ability to withstand weathering conditions and retains its durable and retentive properties after aging when compared with other attachments.

  8. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  9. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  10. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N

    2013-11-01

    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  12. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  13. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  14. Attachment Styles and Risky Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohammadalipoor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current challengeable life, faces young with varied damages. The Purpose of this research was appointment of role of attachment styles in the risky behaviors of students. Method: the method of the project was attachment in descriptive ones. 273 people of students were selected via several stage cluster sample, and answered to questionner of adult attachment and risky behaviors. Results: Results of analyses of data showed that secure attachment style related with risky behaviors negatively and ambivalence attachment style and avoidant attachment style related with risky behaviors positively. Conclusion: Therefore is emphasized on the importance of instruction of families in the field of creation of secure relationship with children and also importance of plans for heighten secure attachment by counseling centers of university.

  15. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with (/sup 3/H)- and (/sup 14/C)adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture.

  16. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  17. Osteoblasts Interaction with PLGA Membranes Functionalized with Titanium Film Nanolayer by PECVD. In vitro Assessment of Surface Influence on Cell Adhesion during Initial Cell to Material Interaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonia Terriza; Jose I Vilches-Perez; Juan L Gonzalez-Caballero; Emilio de la Orden; Francisco Yubero; Angel Barranco; Agustín R Gonzalez-Elipe; Jose Vilches; Mercedes Salido

    2014-01-01

    .... Thus, the in vitro study of cell behavior towards material surface properties turns a prerequisite to assess both biocompatibility and bioactivity of any material intended to be used for clinical purposes...

  18. Learning to trust: trust and attachment in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, A-K J; Shergill, S S; Korver-Nieberg, N; Yakub, F; Gromann, P M; Krabbendam, L

    2016-05-01

    Distrust and social dysfunction are characteristic in psychosis and may arise from attachment insecurity, which is elevated in the disorder. The relationship between trust and attachment in the early stages of psychosis is unknown, yet could help to understand interpersonal difficulties and disease progression. This study aimed to investigate whether trust is reduced in patients with early psychosis and whether this is accounted for by attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety. We used two trust games with a cooperative and unfair partner in a sample of 39 adolescents with early psychosis and 100 healthy controls. Patients had higher levels of attachment anxiety, but the groups did not differ in attachment avoidance. Basic trust was lower in patients than controls, as indicated by lower initial investments. During cooperation patients increased their trust towards levels of controls, i.e. they were able to learn and to override initial suspiciousness. Patients decreased their trust less than controls during unfair interactions. Anxious attachment was associated with higher basic trust and higher trust during unfair interactions and predicted trust independent of group status. Discussion Patients showed decreased basic trust but were able to learn from the trustworthy behaviour of their counterpart. Worries about the acceptance by others and low self-esteem are associated with psychosis and attachment anxiety and may explain behaviour that is focused on conciliation, rather than self-protection.

  19. ABFAB. Attachment to the breast and family attitudes to breastfeeding. The effect of breastfeeding education in the middle of pregnancy on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21556494

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenström Ulla

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has proven difficult to reach World Health Organization (WHO recommendations that infants be exclusively breastfed from birth to six months of age 12, yet there is limited knowledge about interventions that are effective in increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration. Particularly lacking is evidence about how to maintain breastfeeding rates in countries which already have a high initiation of breastfeeding. This study aims to determine whether mid-pregnancy breastfeeding education, with a focus on either attitudes to breastfeeding or on technical aspects of breastfeeding, has an effect on rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Secondary aims of the study are to: explore what factors might affect the duration of breastfeeding and evaluate the interventions from the participant and childbirth facilitator perspectives. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial (RCT design will be used. Women having their first baby, and planning to give birth as public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital (RWH, Melbourne, will be approached at 18–20 weeks of pregnancy and invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomly allocated to a control group or one of two group interventions: a previously designed and trialled tool to teach practical aspects of breastfeeding or an exploration of family attitudes to breastfeeding. The latter was developed and piloted by the investigators in conjunction with the group facilitators, prior to trial commencement. The interventions are planned to take place at 20–25 weeks. Data will be collected by questionnaire at recruitment, at interview in hospital after the birth and by telephone interview six months later. Medical/obstetric outcomes will be obtained from the medical record. The sample size (972 was calculated to identify an increase in breastfeeding initiation from 75 to 85% and an increase from 40 to 50% in breastfeeding at six months.

  20. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  1. Demographic factors related to maternal and child attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Isabel Giraldo Montoya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postpartum is one of the decisive moments to strengthen the attachment between the mother and child relationship; however, there are demographic factors that can limit this interaction and become a disadvantage for the proper development of the child. Objective: Determine the demographic factors related to maternal child attachment in the postpartum during the year 2014. Materials and methods: An analytical transversal study was carried out with a sample of 117 mothers with their newborn. The instrument Mother-child relationship was used. The variables to determine attachment were: breastfeeding, interest, response, language and tact. They were evaluated on a numerical scale whose final score allowed to determine whether there was a healthy or at-risk attachment. A logistic regression model was implemented to explore the association between demographic variables and at-risk attachment. Results: The median age was 27 years with an interquartile range between 22 and 31. 54.7% lived in free union and 34.2% had fulfilled high school studies. Healthy attachment was presented in 80.3% of the mothers. Nevertheless, 60.7% had low initial motivation for breastfeeding which could lead to at-risk attachment. Statistical association between at-risk attachment, marital status and schooling was found, but the only variable that explained this association was the civil status: single (RP = 4.88 IC 95% P = 0.48. Conclusion: According to the multivariate model, at-risk attachment is associated with the civil status: single.

  2. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students.

  3. The establishment of an in vitro gene bank in Dianthus spiculifolius Schur and D. glacialis ssp. gelidus (Schott Nym. et Kotschy Tutin: I. The initiation of a tissue collection and the characterization of the cultures in minimal growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Holobiuc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the plants have to cope with the warming of the climate. As a consequence of this process more than half of the plant species could become vulnerable or threatened until 2080. Romania has a high plant diversity, with endemic and endangered plant species, the measures of biodiversity conservation being necessary. The integrated approach of biodiversity conservation involves both in situ and ex situ strategies. Among ex situ methods of conservation, besides the traditional ones (including field and botanic collection and seed banks, in vitro tissues techniques offer a viable alternative. The germplasm collections can efficiently preserve the species (of economic, scientific and conservative importance, in the same time being a source of plant material for international exchanges and for reintroduction in the native habitats.The "in vitro gene banking" term refers to in vitro tissues cultures from many accessions of a target species and involves the collection of plant material from field or from native habitats, the elaboration of sterilization, micropropagation and maintaining protocols. These collections have to be maintained in optimal conditions, morphologically and genetically characterized. The aim of our work was to characterize the response of the plant material to the minimal in vitro growth protocol for medium-term cultures achievement as a prerequisite condition for an active gene bank establishment in two rare Caryophyllaceae taxa: Dianthus spiculifolius and D. glacialis ssp. gelidus. Among different factors previously tested for medium-term preservation in Dianthus genus, mannitol proved to be more efficient for minimal cultures achievement. In vitro, the cultures were evaluated concerning their growth, regenerability and enzyme activity (POX, SOD, CAT as a response to the preservation conditions in the incipient phase of the initiation of the in vitro collection. The two species considered in this study showed a

  4. The methodology of in vitro cultuvation of opium poppy and production of homozygous materials for breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Klíma, Miroslav; Vyvadilová, Miroslava; Kučera, Vratislav

    2014-01-01

    The methodology includes several options for preparing and maintaining initial donor F1 plants with respect to breeder’s possibilities. The next part presents the basic techniques for explant preparation, establishing of in vitro culture, regeneration of shoots and whole plants, transferring to non-sterile conditions, multiplying, identification and selection of diploid materials for further breeding. Attached there are specifications of cultivation media used. Important stages are documented...

  5. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor......), a large-scale sustainable urban development project in Copenhagen. Invoking Laurent Thévenot’s pragmatic sociology of ‘regimes of engagement’, we sketch a culturally sensitive approach to urban ecological activism, highlighting the critical moral capacities involved in building new forms of ‘commonality...... of urban politics as inclusive learning processes, more hospitable to a wider diversity of familiar attachments to cities and their ecologies....

  6. Effect of denture cleansing solutions on different retentive attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürkcüoğlu, Isin; Özkir, Serhat E; Köroğlu, Aysegül; Sahin, Onur; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    Various Locator abutments and attachments are available commercially for use in overdenture patients. Patients are advised to use cleansing agents to keep their overdentures clean. The effect of different cleansing agents on attachments with different retention is not known. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the retention of 3 Locator abutment attachments after they were soaked in 3 different cleansing solutions. An implant analog with a diameter of 4.1 mm was embedded into acrylic resin, and 1 Locator abutment was placed onto the analog. Seven specimens of clear, pink, and blue Locator attachments (n=7) were soaked in 3 different denture-cleansing solutions (NaOCl, sodium perborate, sodium perborate-sodium bicarbonate) for a time simulating 6 months of clinical use. The control group was soaked in tap water. A testing machine was used to test the attachments' retention. The retention of the attachments after they were soaked in denture cleansers was compared among the groups with repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The retention of the clear attachments was significantly less after they had been soaked in sodium bicarbonate-containing denture cleanser (P=.001). The retention of the pink Locator attachments was no different after they had been soaked in the different solutions, and the retention of the blue Locator attachments decreased significantly after they had been soaked in the NaOCl and sodium bicarbonate cleansing agents (P=.002). Attachments of different colors and retention were affected differently by cleansing agents. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Net of Friends: Investigating Friendship by Integrating Attachment Theory and Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; Karantzas, Gery C; Selcuk, Emre

    2017-11-01

    The current article focuses on attachment style-an individual difference widely studied in the field of close relationships-and its application to the study of social networks. Specifically, we investigated whether attachment style predicts perception and management of social networks. In Study 1, we examined the associations of attachment style with perceptions of network tie strength and multiplexity. In Studies 2a and 2b, we investigated the association between attachment style and network management skills (initiating, maintaining, and dissolving ties) and whether network management skills mediated the associations of attachment style with network tie strength and multiplexity. In Study 3, experimentally enhancing attachment security made people more likely to initiate and less likely to dissolve social ties (for the latter, especially among those high on avoidance or anxiety). As for maintenance, security priming also increased maintenance; however, mainly among people high on attachment anxiety or low on attachment avoidance.

  8. Using attachment theory in mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kerri

    Attachment theory is a useful way to understand the bond between children and the people with whom they have emotional ties--usually caregivers. The theory can also help us to understand any adult relationship that provides closeness and a sense of attachment, especially in times of stress or need. Understanding the nature, cause and effect of the role and function of attachment from a training and development perspective, and different styles of attachment, may improve the quality of the mentoring experience for both mentors and mentees.

  9. [Effect of chondroitin sulfate-A attached titanium surface on culture osteoblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Chen, Zhiqing; Wei, Dapeng

    2003-07-01

    To investigation the in vitro effect of CS-A attached titanium surface on the culture of osteoblast. We examined the cell proliferation, the ALP activities, and the Calcium contents in the Ostelblast cultured on the Titanium surfaces attached with different concentrations of CS-A Calcium. The CS-A promots the proliferation of osteoblast and increases the calcium content on the titanium disks. The biocompatibility of titanium was improved after CS-A attached titanium surface.

  10. Comparison of changes in retentive force of three stud attachments for implant overdentures

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su-Min; Choi, Jae-Won; Jeon, Young-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Lee, So-Hyoun; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the changes in retentive force of stud attachments for implant overdentures by in vitro 2-year-wear simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three commercially available attachment systems were investigated: Kerator blue, O-ring red, and EZ lock. Two implant fixtures were embedded in parallel in each custom base mounting. Five pairs of each attachment system were tested. A universal testing machine was used to measure the retentive force during 2500 inser...

  11. Systemic therapy and attachment narratives: Attachment Narrative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  13. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  14. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment...

  15. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  16. Adult Attachment Style and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.

  17. Quality of Object Relations and Security of Attachment as Predictors of Early Therapeutic Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Gregory A.; Anderson, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Security of attachment and quality of object relations were measured as predictors of initial impressions of the therapeutic alliance as well as dropout. Fifty-five individual psychotherapy clients were administered the Revised Adult Attachment Scale and the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory prior to their initial therapy…

  18. Attachment styles and clinical correlates in people at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Debra A; Stochl, Jan; Hodgekins, Joanne; Iglesias-González, Maria; Chipps, Penelope; Painter, Michelle; Jones, Peter B; Perez, Jesus

    2017-04-24

    Evidence suggests that attachment styles may influence subclinical psychosis phenotypes (schizotypy) and affective disorders and may play a part in the association between psychosis and childhood adversity. However, the role of attachment in the initial stages of psychosis remains poorly understood. Our main aim was to describe and compare attachment styles in 60 individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) and a matched sample of 60 healthy volunteers (HV). The HV had lower anxious and avoidant attachment scores than the UHR individuals (p attachment. In the HV group, depression, anxiety, schizotypy paranoia, and social anxiety were correlated with insecure attachment. This difference and some discrepancies with previous studies involving UHR suggest that individuals at UHR may compose a heterogeneous group; some experience significant mood and/or anxiety symptoms that may not be explained by specific attachment styles. Nonetheless, measuring attachment in UHR individuals could help maximize therapeutic relationships to enhance recovery. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Testing maternal depression and attachment style as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Roggman, Lori A; Green, Beth L; Robinson, JoAnn; Spieker, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal depression, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on four parenting outcomes assessed at age three. Participants (N = 947) were drawn from six sites of the Early Head Start National Research and Evaluation Project, a multi-site randomized trial. Findings suggest more positive program effects for mothers with less initial attachment avoidance or attachment anxiety. First, baseline attachment avoidance moderated Early Head Start program effects on observed maternal supportiveness, such that program mothers with lower baseline attachment avoidance were rated as more supportive of their three-year-olds than program mothers with higher baseline attachment avoidance. Second, program effects on spanking varied depending on mothers' baseline attachment anxiety.

  20. Assessment of the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network Standardized Procedure for In Vitro Malaria Drug Sensitivity Testing Using SYBR Green Assay for Field Samples with Various Initial Parasitemia Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruiyot, Agnes C; Auschwitz, Jennifer M; Lee, Patricia J; Yeda, Redemptah A; Okello, Charles O; Leed, Susan E; Talwar, Mayank; Murthy, Tushar; Gaona, Heather W; Hickman, Mark R; Akala, Hoseah M; Kamau, Edwin; Johnson, Jacob D

    2016-04-01

    The malaria SYBR green assay, which is used to profilein vitrodrug susceptibility ofPlasmodium falciparum, is a reliable drug screening and surveillance tool. Malaria field surveillance efforts provide isolates with various low levels of parasitemia. To be advantageous, malaria drug sensitivity assays should perform reproducibly among various starting parasitemia levels rather than at one fixed initial value. We examined the SYBR green assay standardized procedure developed by the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) for its sensitivity and ability to accurately determine the drug concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50% (IC50) in samples with a range of initial parasitemia levels. The initial sensitivity determination of the WWARN procedure yielded a detection limit of 0.019% parasitemia.P. falciparumlaboratory strains and field isolates with various levels of initial parasitemia were then subjected to a range of doses of common antimalarials. The IC50s were comparable for laboratory strains with between 0.0375% and 0.6% parasitemia and for field isolates with between 0.075% and 0.6% parasitemia for all drugs tested. Furthermore, assay quality (Z') analysis indicated that the WWARN procedure displays high robustness, allowing for drug testing of malaria field samples within the derived range of initial parasitemia. The use of the WWARN procedure should allow for the inclusion of more malaria field samples in malaria drug sensitivity screens that would have otherwise been excluded due to low initial parasitemia levels. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction.

  2. Attachment, ethology and adult psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Pat

    2004-03-01

    This article discusses Bowlby's development of an ethological-evolutionary perspective, and its implications for psychotherapy with adults. According to Bowlby, attachment behavior is instinctive, having emerged throughout the course of evolution to ensure protection and actual survival. Because the environment affects how attachment behavior unfolds, adverse experiences can divert developmental pathways away from resilience, toward dysfunction and emotional distress. Psychotherapy offers the experience of an attachment relationship. Part of the process involves helping patients understand that feelings such as fear and anxiety are inherent responses to safeguard affectional relationships when they are endangered. As working models are re-appraised and revised, there is emphasis on clarifying the attachment experiences that may have intensified these natural feelings.

  3. Facilitating attachment after international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Natalie L

    2009-01-01

    Americans have increasingly turned to international adoption (IA) as an alternative way to build a family. Unfortunately, IA families are often being developed under conditions of loss, and sometimes these families struggle to form healthy attachments to each other. Disordered attachment (the failure to form a reciprocal, loving bond between parent and child) can occur, and can have devastating consequences. In some instances, IA children have been relinquished into state foster care systems; other families simply struggle for years caring for a developmentally delayed child who appears to have no emotion for his/her adoptive family. Nurses are likely to have contact with IA families and can use their education about attachment and bonding to help facilitate attachment in these developing families. Swanson's caring theory provides a clinically useful guide to meet this need.

  4. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  5. Histologic evaluation of new attachment in humans. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, G M; Granet, M; Stevens, M; Emerson, J; Corio, R; Mellonig, J; Lewis, S B; Peltzman, B; Romberg, E; Risom, L

    1985-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the potential for regeneration of a new attachment (alveolar bone, cementum and a functional periodontal ligament) in patients whose attachment apparatus had been destroyed by periodontal disease. In each of the three parts of the investigation, the most apical level of calculus on the root served as a histologic reference point to measure regeneration. In Part I, attempts were made to initiate the formation of a new attachment by surgical debridement, crown removal (coronectomy) and submersion of the vital root below the mucosa. Nonsubmerged, surgically debrided defects served as controls. In Part II, debrided intrabony defects were treated with and without demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft and the associated vital roots were submerged. Part III evaluated potential for regeneration of a new attachment in nonsubmerged roots with and without the use of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft. Gingival grafts were placed over the experimental and control sites in an attempt to retard epithelial migration. Biopsies were obtained in 6 months and regeneration was evaluated histometrically. Preliminary results in 7 patients and 24 intrabony defects indicate that new attachment is possible on pathologically exposed root surfaces in a submerged environment with and without the incorporation of demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts. New attachment was observed on pathologically exposed root surfaces in a nonsubmerged environment when intrabony defects were grafted with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft. New attachment was not observed on nongrafted, nonsubmerged, defects with and without the placement of gingival grafts over the defects.

  6. Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars to cabbage and lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Manan

    2010-04-30

    This study investigated the ability of five Salmonella enterica serovars to attach to and colonize intact and cut lettuce (Iceberg, Romaine) and cabbage surfaces. Biofilm formation and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Populations of loosely and strongly attached Salmonella were obtained to calculate the attachment strength (S(R)). Biofilm formation, as determined by microtiter plate assay, varied with strain and growth medium used. Salmonella Tennessee and S. Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to S. Newport, S. Negev, and S. Braenderup. Biofilm formation was also stronger when Salmonella spp. were grown in diluted TSB (1:10). S. Tennessee, which produced strong biofilms, attached to produce surfaces at significantly higher numbers than the populations of S. Negev. Overall, S. Tennessee displayed more biofilm formation in vitro and attached more strongly to lettuce than other serovars. All Salmonella serovars attached rapidly on intact and cut produce surfaces. Salmonella spp. attached to Romaine lettuce at significantly higher numbers than those attached to Iceberg lettuce or cabbage. Salmonella attached preferentially to cut surface of all produce; however, the difference between Salmonella populations attached to intact and cut surfaces was similar (P>0.05). Salmonella attachment to both intact and cut produce surfaces increased with time. The overall attachment strength of Salmonella was significantly lower on cabbage (0.12) followed by Iceberg (0.23) and Romaine lettuce (0.34). Cabbage, intact or cut, did not support attachment of Salmonella as well as Romaine lettuce. Understanding the attachment mechanisms of Salmonella to produce may be useful in developing new intervention strategies to prevent produce outbreaks. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Osteoblasts Interaction with PLGA Membranes Functionalized with Titanium Film Nanolayer by PECVD. In vitro Assessment of Surface Influence on Cell Adhesion during Initial Cell to Material Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Terriza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available New biomaterials for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR, both resorbable and non-resorbable, are being developed to stimulate bone tissue formation. Thus, the in vitro study of cell behavior towards material surface properties turns a prerequisite to assess both biocompatibility and bioactivity of any material intended to be used for clinical purposes. For this purpose, we have developed in vitro studies on normal human osteoblasts (HOB® HOB® osteoblasts grown on a resorbable Poly (lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA membrane foil functionalized by a very thin film (around 15 nm of TiO2 (i.e., TiO2/PLGA membranes, designed to be used as barrier membrane. To avoid any alteration of the membranes, the titanium films were deposited at room temperature in one step by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Characterization of the functionalized membranes proved that the thin titanium layer completely covers the PLGA foils that remains practically unmodified in their interior after the deposition process and stands the standard sterilization protocols. Both morphological changes and cytoskeletal reorganization, together with the focal adhesion development observed in HOB osteoblasts, significantly related to TiO2 treated PLGA in which the Ti deposition method described has revealed to be a valuable tool to increase bioactivity of PLGA membranes, by combining cell nanotopography cues with the incorporation of bioactive factors.

  8. Osteoblasts Interaction with PLGA Membranes Functionalized with Titanium Film Nanolayer by PECVD. In vitro Assessment of Surface Influence on Cell Adhesion during Initial Cell to Material Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terriza, Antonia; Vilches-Pérez, José I.; González-Caballero, Juan L.; de la Orden, Emilio; Yubero, Francisco; Barranco, Angel; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustín R.; Vilches, José; Salido, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    New biomaterials for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR), both resorbable and non-resorbable, are being developed to stimulate bone tissue formation. Thus, the in vitro study of cell behavior towards material surface properties turns a prerequisite to assess both biocompatibility and bioactivity of any material intended to be used for clinical purposes. For this purpose, we have developed in vitro studies on normal human osteoblasts (HOB®) HOB® osteoblasts grown on a resorbable Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) membrane foil functionalized by a very thin film (around 15 nm) of TiO2 (i.e., TiO2/PLGA membranes), designed to be used as barrier membrane. To avoid any alteration of the membranes, the titanium films were deposited at room temperature in one step by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Characterization of the functionalized membranes proved that the thin titanium layer completely covers the PLGA foils that remains practically unmodified in their interior after the deposition process and stands the standard sterilization protocols. Both morphological changes and cytoskeletal reorganization, together with the focal adhesion development observed in HOB osteoblasts, significantly related to TiO2 treated PLGA in which the Ti deposition method described has revealed to be a valuable tool to increase bioactivity of PLGA membranes, by combining cell nanotopography cues with the incorporation of bioactive factors. PMID:28788538

  9. Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael B; Wen, Zhiyou

    2010-01-01

    Algal biofuel production has gained a renewed interest in recent years but is still not economically feasible due to several limitations related to algal culture. The objective of this study is to explore a novel attached culture system for growing the alga Chlorella sp. as biodiesel feedstock, with dairy manure wastewater being used as growth medium. Among supporting materials tested for algal attachment, polystyrene foam led to a firm attachment, high biomass yield (25.65 g/m(2), dry basis), and high fatty acid yield (2.31 g/m(2)). The biomass attached on the supporting material surface was harvested by scraping; the residual colonies left on the surface served as inoculum for regrowth. The algae regrowth on the colony-established surface resulted in a higher biomass yield than that from the initial growth on fresh surface due to the downtime saved for initial algal attachment. The 10-day regrowth culture resulted in a high biodiesel production potential with a fatty acid methyl esters yield of 2.59 g/m(2) and a productivity of 0.26 g/m(-2) day(-1). The attached algal culture also removed 61-79% total nitrogen and 62-93% total phosphorus from dairy manure wastewater, depending on different culture conditions. The biomass harvested from the attached growth system (through scraping) had a water content of 93.75%, similar to that harvested from suspended culture system (through centrifugation). Collectively, the attached algal culture system with polystyrene foam as a supporting material demonstrated a good performance in terms of biomass yield, biodiesel production potential, ease to harvest biomass, and physical robustness for reuse.

  10. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  11. Characterization of Decellularized Heart Matrices as Biomaterials for Regular and Whole Organ Tissue Engineering and Initial In-vitro Recellularization with Ips Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Juliana L; de Carvalho, Pablo Herthel; Gomes, Dawidson A; Goes, Alfredo M

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering strategies, based on solid/porous scaffolds, suffer from several limitations, such as ineffective vascularization, poor cell distribution and organization within scaffold, in addition to low final cell density, among others. Therefore, the search for other tissue engineering approaches constitutes an active area of investigation. Decellularized matrices (DM) present major advantages compared to solid scaffolds, such as ideal chemical composition, the preservation of vascularization structure and perfect three-dimensional structure. In the present study, we aimed to characterize and investigate murine heart decellularized matrices as biomaterials for regular and whole organ tissue engineering. Heart decellularized matrices were characterized according to: 1. DNA content, through DNA quantificationo and PCR of isolated genomic DNA; 2. Histological structure, assessed after Hematoxylin and Eosin, as well as Masson’s Trichrome stainings; 3. Surface nanostructure analysis, performed, using SEM. Those essays allowed us to conclude that DM was indeed decellularized, with preserved extracellular matrix structure. Following characterization, decellularized heart slices were seeded with induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS). As expected, but – to the best of our knowledge - never shown before, decellularization of murine heart matrices maintained matrix biocompatibility, as iPS cells rapidly attached to the surface of the material and proliferated. Strikingly though, heart DM presented a differentiation induction effect over those cells, which lost their pluripotency markers after 7 days of culture in the DM. Such loss of differentiation markers was observed, even though bFGF containing media mTSR was used during such period. Gene expression of iPS cells cultured on DM will be further analyzed, in order to assess the effects of culturing pluripotent stem cells in decellularized heart matrices. PMID:26207188

  12. Initial in vitro and in vivo assessment of Au@DTDTPA-RGD nanoparticles for Gd-MRI and 68Ga-PET dual modality imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoukalas, Charalmpos [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece); Laurent, Gautier; Jiménez Sánchez, Gloria [Université de Franche-Comté, Institut UTINAM (France); Tsotakos, Theodoros [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece); Bazzi, Rana [Université de Franche-Comté, Institut UTINAM (France); Stellas, Dimitris; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens (Greece); Moulopoulos, Lia; Koutoulidis, Vasilis [Department of Radiology, Areteion Hospital, University of Athens Medical School (Greece); Paravatou-Petsotas, Maria; Xanthopoulos, Stavros [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece); Roux, Stephane [Université de Franche-Comté, Institut UTINAM (France); Bouziotis, Penelope [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece)

    2015-05-18

    Gadolinium chelate coated gold nanoparticles (Au@DTDTPA) can be applied as contrast agents for both in vivo X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. In this work, our aim was to radiolabel and evaluate this gold nanoparticle with Ga-68, in order to produce a dual modality PET/MRI imaging probe. For a typical preparation of 68Ga-labeled nanoparticles, the Au@DTDTPA nanoparticles (Au@DTDTPA/Au@DTDTPA-RGD) were mixed with ammonium acetate buffer, pH 5 and 40 MBq of 68Ga eluate. The mixture was then incubated for 45 min at 65 ÅãC. Radiochemical purity was determined by ITLC. In vitro stability of both radiolabeled species was assessed in saline and serum. In vitro cell binding experiments were performed on integrin ανβ3 receptor-positive U87MG cancer cells. Non-specific Au@DTDTPA was used for comparison. Ex vivo biodistribution studies and in vivo PET and MRI imaging studies in U87MG tumor-bearing SCID mice followed. The Au@DTDTPA nanoparticles were labeled with Gallium-68 at high radiochemical yield (>95%) and were stable at RT, and in the presence of serum, for up to 3 h. The cell binding assay on U87MG glioma cells proved that 68Ga-cRGD-Au@DTDTPA had specific recognition for these cells. Biodistribution studies in U87MG tumor-bearing SCID mice showed that the tumor to muscle ratio increased from 1 to 2 h p.i. (3,71 ± 0.22 and 4,69 ± 0.09 respectively), showing a clear differentiation between the affected and the non-affected tissue. The acquired PET and MRI images were in accordance to the ex vivo biodistribution results. The preliminary results of this study warrant the need for further development of Au@DTDTPA nanoparticles radiolabeled with Ga-68, as possible dual-modality PET/MRI imaging agents.

  13. Attachment and exploration in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Reis, Harry T

    2003-08-01

    In the present work, the relationship between attachment and exploration in adulthood is examined from both theoretical and empirical standpoints. Theoretically, attachment theory's exploration system is linked to R. W. White's (1959) concept of effectance motivation, and to the motive and goals constructs that are central to the achievement motivation literature. Empirically, 4 studies are presented that document a link between adult attachment (operationalized using categorical, continuous, and dimensional measures) and achievement motives (need for achievement and fear of failure) and achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and approach relative to avoidance personal strivings). Mediational analyses establish the role of challenge construal, threat construal, and competence valuation in accounting for the observed relationships.

  14. Parent characteristics linked with daughters' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C; Parnell, Michele M; Urbaniak, Geoffrey C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between parent characteristics and daughters' attachment styles for 90 female undergraduates and their married biological parents. Parents with a secure attachment pattern were rated as more accepting, less controlling, more competent, and more consistent in showing love and affection to their daughter in contrast to parents with an insecure attachment pattern. Significant positive associations were found between mothers' fearful attachment scores and the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive attachment scores of daughters. Daughters of matched secure parents were more likely to report a secure attachment style, while daughters of matched insecure parents were more likely to report an insecure attachment style.

  15. Effect of enamel organic matrix on the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesions in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Linglin; Zou Ling; Li Jiyao; Hao Yuqing; Xiao Liying; Zhou Xuedong; Li Wei, E-mail: leewei2000@sina.co, E-mail: zhll_sc@yahoo.c [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2009-06-15

    Galla chinensis, a natural traditional Chinese medicine with main composition of tannic acid and gallic acid, is formed when the Chinese sumac aphid Baker (Melaphis chinensis bell) parasitizes the levels of Rhus chinensis Mill. Galla chinensis has shown the potential to enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, but the mechanism is still unknown. This study was to investigate whether the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries. Bovine sound enamel blocks and non-organic enamel blocks were demineralized and exposed to a 12 day pH cycling. During the pH cycling, 30 specimens with the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into three groups, and treated with 1 g L{sup -1} NaF (group A), 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B1) or double deionized water (group C1). Twenty specimens without the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into two groups, and treated with 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B2) or double deionized water (group C2). The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of all the specimens were analysed by transverse microradiography. The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of group B1 were less than those of groups B2, C1 and C2, and there were no statistical differences among groups B2, C1 and C2. In conclusion, Galla chinensis can enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, and the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in this potential of Galla chinensis.

  16. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  17. Stochasticity of bacterial attachment and its predictability by the extended derjaguin-landau-verwey-overbeek theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Teck Wah R; Nguyen, Vu Tuan; McMeekin, Thomas; Fegan, Narelle; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial attachment onto materials has been suggested to be stochastic by some authors but nonstochastic and based on surface properties by others. We investigated this by attaching pairwise combinations of two Salmonella enterica serovar Sofia (S. Sofia) strains (with different physicochemical and attachment properties) with one strain each of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Infantis, or S. enterica serovar Virchow (all with similar physicochemical and attachment abilities) in ratios of 0.428, 1, and 2.333 onto glass, stainless steel, Teflon, and polysulfone. Attached bacterial cells were recovered and counted. If the ratio of attached cells of each Salmonella serovar pair recovered was the same as the initial inoculum ratio, the attachment process was deemed stochastic. Experimental outcomes from the study were compared to those predicted by the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory. Significant differences (P attached ratios for serovar pairs containing S. Sofia S1296a for all different ratios were apparent for all materials. For S. Sofia S1635-containing pairs, 7 out of 12 combinations of serovar pairs and materials had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratio of 0.428. Five out of 12 and 10 out of 12 samples had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratios of 1 and 2.333, respectively. These results demonstrate that bacterial attachment to different materials is likely to be nonstochastic only when the key physicochemical properties of the bacteria were significantly different (P theory could successfully predict the attachment of some individual isolates to particular materials but could not be used to predict the likelihood of stochasticity in pairwise attachment experiments.

  18. The teacher´s role in identifying and supporting children with attachment problems in daycare centres

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnari, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this investigation has two parts: to determine and highlight methods of identification of attachment problems and to suggest compensating practices for teachers with the aim of establishing a secure attachment in the classroom. A secondary goal is to identify how current practice accords with relevant theory. A final aim is to facilitate an awareness of attachment that initiates reflection and discussion in the educational community. Bowlby´s attachment theory and Bronf...

  19. Calcium Increases Xylella fastidiosa Surface Attachment, Biofilm Formation, and Twitching Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luisa F.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, a process thought to be influenced by the chemical composition of xylem sap. In this work, the effect of calcium on the production of X. fastidiosa biofilm and movement was analyzed under in vitro conditions. After a dose-response study with 96-well plates using eight metals, the strongest increase of biofilm formation was observed when medium was supplemented with at least 1.0 mM CaCl2. The removal of Ca by extracellular (EGTA, 1.5 mM) and intracellular [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM), 75 μM] chelators reduced biofilm formation without compromising planktonic growth. The concentration of Ca influenced the force of adhesion to the substrate, biofilm thickness, cell-to-cell aggregation, and twitching motility, as shown by assays with microfluidic chambers and other assays. The effect of Ca on attachment was lost when cells were treated with tetracycline, suggesting that Ca has a metabolic or regulatory role in cell adhesion. A double mutant (fimA pilO) lacking type I and type IV pili did not improve biofilm formation or attachment when Ca was added to the medium, while single mutants of type I (fimA) or type IV (pilB) pili formed more biofilm under conditions of higher Ca concentrations. The concentration of Ca in the medium did not significantly influence the levels of exopolysaccharide produced. Our findings indicate that the role of Ca in biofilm formation may be related to the initial surface and cell-to-cell attachment and colonization stages of biofilm establishment, which rely on critical functions by fimbrial structures. PMID:22194297

  20. An in vitro comparison of irrigation using photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming, ultrasonic, sonic and needle techniques in removing calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, H; Akcay, M; Capar, I D; Saygili, G; Gok, T; Ertas, H

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of various techniques including photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS), ultrasonic, sonic and needle irrigation on the removal of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] from artificial grooves created in root canals. The root canals of 48 extracted single-rooted teeth with straight canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary instruments up to size 40. After the specimens had been split longitudinally, a standardized groove was prepared in the apical part of one segment that was filled with Ca(OH)2 powder mixed with distilled water. Each tooth was reassembled and the apices closed with wax. The specimens were irrigated for 60 s with one of the following techniques: needle irrigation using 17% EDTA, PIPS with 17% EDTA, ultrasonic irrigation using 17% EDTA and sonic irrigation (EndoActivator) using 17% EDTA. The root segments were then disassembled, and the amount of remaining Ca(OH)2 evaluated under a stereomicroscope at 25× magnification. A pixel count of Ca(OH)2 remaining on the artificially created grooves was recorded as a percentage of the overall groove surface. The data were evaluated statistically using one-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference post hoc tests at 95% confidence level (P = 0.05). Photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming was superior in removing Ca(OH)2 as compared to needle irrigation (P Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of a minimally invasive procedure for sacroiliac joint fusion – an in vitro biomechanical analysis of initial and cycled properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey DP

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Derek P Lindsey,1 Luis Perez-Orribo,2 Nestor Rodriguez-Martinez,2 Phillip M Reyes,2 Anna Newcomb,2 Alexandria Cable,2 Grace Hickam,2 Scott A Yerby,1 Neil R Crawford21SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA; 2Spinal Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAIntroduction: Sacroiliac (SI joint pain has become a recognized factor in low back pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a minimally invasive surgical SI joint fusion procedure on the in vitro biomechanics of the SI joint before and after cyclic loading.Methods: Seven cadaveric specimens were tested under the following conditions: intact, posterior ligaments (PL and pubic symphysis (PS cut, treated (three implants placed, and after 5,000 cycles of flexion–extension. The range of motion (ROM in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation was determined with an applied 7.5 N • m moment using an optoelectronic system. Results for each ROM were compared using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA with a Holm–Šidák post-hoc test.Results: Placement of three fusion devices decreased the flexion–extension ROM. Lateral bending and axial rotation were not significantly altered. All PL/PS cut and post-cyclic ROMs were larger than in the intact condition. The 5,000 cycles of flexion–extension did not lead to a significant increase in any ROMs.Discussion: In the current model, placement of three 7.0 mm iFuse Implants significantly decreased the flexion–extension ROM. Joint ROM was not increased by 5,000 flexion–extension cycles.Keywords: biomechanics, iliosacral, arthrodesis, cadaver

  2. Maternal-fetal attachment and prenatal diagnosis of heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel, Patricia; Zielinsky, Paulo; Grings, Cristiane; Pimentel, Julia; Azevedo, Liege; Paniagua, Rafaele; Nicoloso, Luiz H

    2014-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are differences in the level of maternal-fetal attachment before and after fetal echocardiography in the presence or absence of cardiac abnormalities. Cohort study in which the mothers responded to a validated Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale. The study compared a group of pregnant women with diagnosis of fetal heart disease (FHD) with a group without this diagnosis ("no fetal heart disease" - NFHD). 197 pregnant women were included, 96 FHD and 101 NFHD. Maternal-fetal attachment at the initial and final periods showed no significant baseline differences between groups (p=0.081). At the final period, migration from medium to high level of attachment was significantly higher in FHD (p=0.017). Transition from medium to high levels comparing the initial and final periods was more pronounced in FHD (p=0.009). Diagnosis of fetal heart disease increases the level of maternal-fetal attachment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electron attachment to boron trichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tav, Cumali; Datskos, Panos G.; Pinnaduwage, Lal A.

    1998-11-01

    Low-energy electron attachment to BCl3 was measured using an electron swarm technique. The parent negative ion, BCl3-, was observed within a narrow electron range close to thermal energy. Previous negative ion measurements in BCl3 discharges, which yielded seemingly inconsistent results, can be shown to be self-consistent based on the present observations.

  4. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult

  5. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  6. Blockade of the NFκB pathway drives differentiating glioblastoma-initiating cells into senescence both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L; Ruiz-Ontañon, P; Vazquez-Barquero, A; Lafarga, M; Berciano, M T; Aldaz, B; Grande, L; Casafont, I; Segura, V; Robles, E F; Suarez, D; Garcia, L F; Martinez-Climent, J A; Fernandez-Luna, J L

    2011-08-11

    Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most devastating cancers and presents unique challenges to therapy because of its aggressive behavior. Cancer-initiating or progenitor cells have been described to be the only cell population with tumorigenic capacity in glioblastoma. Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies targeting these cells or the early precursors may be beneficial. We have established different cultures of glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs) derived from surgical specimens and found that, after induction of differentiation, the NFκB transcriptional pathway was activated, as determined by analyzing key proteins such as p65 and IκB and the upregulation of a number of target genes. We also showed that blockade of nuclear factor (NF)κB signaling in differentiating GICs by different genetic strategies or treatment with small-molecule inhibitors, promoted replication arrest and senescence. This effect was partly mediated by reduced levels of the NFκB target gene cyclin D1, because its downregulation by RNA interference reproduced a similar phenotype. Furthermore, these results were confirmed in a xenograft model. Intravenous treatment of immunodeficient mice bearing human GIC-derived tumors with a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the NFκB pathway induced senescence of tumor cells but no ultrastructural alterations of the brain parenchyma were detected. These findings reveal that activation of NFκB may keep differentiating GICs from acquiring a mature postmitotic phenotype, thus allowing cell proliferation, and support the rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed to promote premature senescence of differentiating GICs by blocking key factors within the NFκB pathway.

  7. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Dominic; Rao, Roopa S; Anbu, Jayaraman; Chidambara Murthy, K N

    2017-12-01

    The earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) has shown proven antiproliferative effect against breast, liver, gastrointestinal, and brain cancer, but it is least explored in oral cancer. The present in vitro study is an attempt to investigate the antiproliferative activity of ECF on oral cancer cell line squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-9. ECF was collected from the species Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) stored at -80°C. Percentage inhibition of ECF on squamous cell carcinoma-9 cells in vitro was recorded at 24 h. Protein estimation was done using Bradford protein assay validated by the biuret method. Cytotoxicity was tested at 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/ml concentrations by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in SCC-9 cells in vitro . GraphPad Prism 7.0 software was used to calculate the inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ). Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference between samples. The test samples EE, EF, and PE inhibited the growth of SCC-9 cells significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC 50 values were found to be 4.6, 44.69, and 5.27 μg/ml, respectively. The antiproliferative effect was found to be variable among the three earthworm species with EE showing the most promising effect followed by PE and EF. Establishing the antiproliferative effect of ECF on oral cancer cells could be an initial step toward drug development and future anticancer research. The preliminary investigation has shown that ECF has a promising antiproliferative effect on oral cancer cells in vitro . The present pilot study evaluated the in vitro antiproliferative effect of earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) of Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) on squamous cell carcinoma-9 cell line. The ECF inhibitory activity was promising at inhibitory concentration values of 4.6, 44.69, and 5.27 μg/ml, respectively. Further studies pertaining to antiproliferative mechanism of EE

  8. Electron attachment to indole and related molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelli, Alberto; Jones, Derek; Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A.

    2013-11-01

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0-6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of indoline (I), indene (II), indole (III), 2-methylen-1,3,3-trimethylindoline (IV), and 2,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0-14 eV energy range. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method is also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The loss of a hydrogen atom from the parent molecular anion ([M-H]-) provides the most intense signal in compounds I-IV. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo involving initial hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen atom of the indole moiety, present in a variety of biologically important molecules.

  9. Chip Attach Scheduling in Semiconductor Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chip attach is the bottleneck operation in semiconductor assembly. Chip attach scheduling is in nature unrelated parallel machine scheduling considering practical issues, for example, machine-job qualification, sequence-dependant setup times, initial machine status, and engineering time. The major scheduling objective is to minimize the total weighted unsatisfied Target Production Volume in the schedule horizon. To apply Q-learning algorithm, the scheduling problem is converted into reinforcement learning problem by constructing elaborate system state representation, actions, and reward function. We select five heuristics as actions and prove the equivalence of reward function and the scheduling objective function. We also conduct experiments with industrial datasets to compare the Q-learning algorithm, five action heuristics, and Largest Weight First (LWF heuristics used in industry. Experiment results show that Q-learning is remarkably superior to the six heuristics. Compared with LWF, Q-learning reduces three performance measures, objective function value, unsatisfied Target Production Volume index, and unsatisfied job type index, by considerable amounts of 80.92%, 52.20%, and 31.81%, respectively.

  10. Reactive Attachment Disorder in Adopted and Foster Care Children: Implications for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinehart, Michelle A.; Scott, David A.; Barfield, Hannah G.

    2012-01-01

    A disruption in the initial attachment formed between an infant and a primary caregiver often leads to some type of disordered or disorganized attachment. While research has been conducted on the etiology, symptoms, and effective forms of therapy regarding this disorder, much definitive information remains unknown or unclear. With the increasing…

  11. Engineered microtopographies and surface chemistries direct cell attachment and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Chelsea Marie

    Harrison, in 1914, first recognized that cells respond to physicochemical cues such as substratum topography when he observed that fibroblasts elongated while cultured on spider silk. Recently, techniques developed in the micro-electronics industry have been used to create molds for producing microscaled topographies with various shapes and spatial arrangements. Although these patterning techniques are well-established, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying cell sensing and response to microtopographies. In this work cellular micro-environments with varying surface topographies and chemistries were evaluated with marine organisms and mammalian cells to investigate cellular sensing and response. Biofouling---the accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on submerged surfaces---is an environmental and economic concern. Engineered topographies, replicated in polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (PDMSe) and functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) hydrogels, were evaluated for inhibition of marine fouling organism attachment. Microtopographies replicated in PDMSe inhibited attachment of the marine bacterium, Cobetia marina up to 99% versus smooth. The average normalized attachment densities of cells of C. marina and zoospores of the green algae Ulva on PDMSe topographies scaled inversely with the Engineered Roughness Index (ERIII), a representation of surface energy. Attachment densities of Ulva from four assays and C. marina from two growth phases to PDMSe surfaces scaled inversely with one equation: ERI II multiplied by the Reynolds number of the organism (Re) (R 2 = 0.77). The same microtopographies created in PDMSe reduced the initial attachment density and attachment strength of cells of the diatoms Navicula incerta and Seminavis robusta compared to smooth PDMSe. The average normalized attachment density of Navicula after exposure to shear stress (48 Pa) was correlated with the contact area between the diatom and a

  12. DNA oxidation as a potential molecular mechanism mediating drug-induced birth defects: phenytoin and structurally related teratogens initiate the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in vitro and in vivo in murine maternal hepatic and embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Wells, P G

    1995-11-01

    A considerable number of teratogens, including the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin and structurally related drugs and environmental chemicals, may be bioactivated by peroxidases, such as prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) and lipoxygenases (LPOs), to a reactive free radical intermediate that initiates birth defects. However, the molecular targets of the reactive free radical intermediates mediating chemical teratogenesis, and hence the fundamental determinants of susceptibility, are poorly understood. In these studies, a teratogenic dose of phenytoin (65 mg/kg), when injected into pregnant CD-1 mice during organogenesis on gestational day 12, initiated the oxidation of DNA in maternal hepatic and embryonic nuclei, forming 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Significant maternal and embryonic DNA oxidation occurred at 6 and 3 h, respectively, suggesting relative embryonic deficiencies in free radical-related cytoprotective enzymes, although the rates appeared similar. Maximal DNA oxidation in both maternal and embryonic tissues occurred at 6 h, presumably reflecting the balance of DNA oxidation and repair, the latter of which appeared similar in both tissues. Inhibition of phenytoin-initiated embryonic DNA oxidation by the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (41.5 mg/kg), and by acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg/kg), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase component of PHS, was consistent with the previously reported reduction by these inhibitors of phenytoin-initiated murine birth defects. In vitro studies using a horseradish peroxidase (0.5 mg/ml)-H2O2 (5.45 micrograms/ml) bioactivating system for drug-initiated oxidation of 2'-deoxyguanosine (3.74 mM), indicated that the potency of xenobiotic-initiated formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine for the structurally related drugs and metabolites phenytoin, 5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin, trimethadione, dimethadione, l-mephenytoin, l-nirvanol, d-nirvanol (80 microM each), or thalidomide (64 micro

  13. Trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Gobin, Robyn L; Kaehler, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective.

  14. Attitudes toward people with disabilities: the perspective of attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Findler, Liora; Werner, Shirli

    2010-08-01

    Attachment theory was employed as the theoretical framework for the purpose of examining attitudes toward people with disabilities. A total of 404 Jewish Israeli students without disabilities completed the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS) and the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR). Reading a scenario about an encounter with a person with a disability gave rise to more negative emotions than reading a similar scenario about an encounter with a person without a disability, regardless of participants' attachment orientations. However, attachment orientations moderated participants' positive cognitions and distancing behaviors. Findings suggest a dynamic process of self-regulation when reacting to a written scenario about people with disabilities. This process consists of an initial spontaneous negative emotional response accompanied by compensatory positive cognitions and behavioral tendencies.

  15. Mechanisms to Avoid and Correct Erroneous Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Lampson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In dividing vertebrate cells multiple microtubules must connect to mitotic kinetochores in a highly stereotypical manner, with each sister kinetochore forming microtubule attachments to only one spindle pole. The exact sequence of events by which this goal is achieved varies considerably from cell to cell because of the variable locations of kinetochores and spindle poles, and randomness of initial microtubule attachments. These chance encounters with the kinetochores nonetheless ultimately lead to the desired outcome with high fidelity and in a limited time frame, providing one of the most startling examples of biological self-organization. This chapter discusses mechanisms that contribute to accurate chromosome segregation by helping dividing cells to avoid and resolve improper microtubule attachments.

  16. The change in retentive values of locator attachments and hader clips over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtimovska, Elizabeta; Masri, Radi; Driscoll, Carl F; Romberg, Elaine

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine early changes in retentive values of implant overdenture attachments during multiple pulls. Two implant attachment systems (Hader bar and clip, Locator system) were used in this study. The experimental groups were divided into yellow Hader clips, white Locator attachments, and green Locator attachments. Each group consisted of 21 matrix attachments. The attachments were placed into a custom-made acrylic resin block seated passively on another acrylic block containing a Hader bar or two Locator abutments with different angulations. Each attachment was subjected to 20 consecutive pulls using a universal testing machine. The peak load-to-dislodgement of the attachments after each pull was documented, and the percent reduction of the peak load-to-dislodgement was calculated. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's honestly significant difference test were used for data analyses. A p < or = 0.05 was considered significant. There was a significant difference in the percent reduction in peak load-to-dislodgement between the attachments after the first pull (p= 0.005) and after the final pull (p= 0.0001). The yellow Hader clips exhibited the least percent reduction in peak load-to-dislodgement (6.50 +/- 3.59%) after the first pull, followed by the white Locator attachments (8.60 +/- 4.42%); the green Locator attachments exhibited the greatest reduction (11.05 +/- 4.94%). The results of this in vitro study demonstrate that retentive values of the Locator attachments are reduced significantly after multiple pulls. Although this reduction might not be noticeable to the patient, it is recommended that the clinician place and remove the overdenture multiple times before delivery.

  17. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.

    Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy

  18. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Development of the Korean Paternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (K-PAFAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Iee Noh, PhD, RN

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The K-PAFAS demonstrated initial validity and reliability. It was short, and relatively easy for use in evaluating the degree of paternal-fetal attachment in the antenatal management stage.

  20. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  1. Hormonal treatment reduces psychobiological distress in gender identity disorder, independently of the attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Pace, Valeria; Todarello, Orlando

    2013-12-01

    Gender identity disorder may be a stressful situation. Hormonal treatment seemed to improve the general health as it reduces psychological and social distress. The attachment style seemed to regulate distress in insecure individuals as they are more exposed to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysregulation and subjective stress. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence of psychobiological distress and insecure attachment in transsexuals and to study their stress levels with reference to the hormonal treatment and the attachment pattern. We investigated 70 transsexual patients. We measured the cortisol levels and the perceived stress before starting the hormonal therapy and after about 12 months. We studied the representation of attachment in transsexuals by a backward investigation in the relations between them and their caregivers. We used blood samples for assessing cortisol awakening response (CAR); we used the Perceived Stress Scale for evaluating self-reported perceived stress and the Adult Attachment Interview to determine attachment styles. At enrollment, transsexuals reported elevated CAR; their values were out of normal. They expressed higher perceived stress and more attachment insecurity, with respect to normative sample data. When treated with hormone therapy, transsexuals reported significantly lower CAR (P stress (P stress in untreated transsexuals (P stress by attachment. Our results suggested that untreated patients suffer from a higher degree of stress and that attachment insecurity negatively impacts the stress management. Initiating the hormonal treatment seemed to have a positive effect in reducing stress levels, whatever the attachment style may be. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. After Love: Attachment Styles and Grief Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1996-01-01

    Examines the association of attachment organization and recalled grief responses following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Data based on college students' (N=118) responses resulted in four interpretable grief themes. Preoccupied attachment predicted self-reproach, fearful attachment predicted partner blame, whereas both fearful and…

  3. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  4. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  5. Loneliness and Attachment Patterns in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Diana Taylor; Baum, Steven K.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between loneliness and patterns of attachment in 47 college students. Results revealed a moderate to strong relationship between feeling lonely and early disrupted attachment, consistent with the notion that underlying attachment disorders may affect psychological development and social behavior. (JAC)

  6. Secondary Attachments and Adolescent Self Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Price, Carolyn; Greene, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    In a study examining attachments to celebrity figures, 79 male and female fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders and college sophomores described themselves and their favorite celebrities. It was found that such attachments are equally important to males and females, and that gender and age affect the nature of the attachment. (DM)

  7. Preferred Attachment in Affiliation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloznelis, Mindaugas; Götze, Friedrich

    2014-08-01

    Vertices of an affiliation network are linked to attributes and two vertices are declared adjacent whenever they share a common attribute. For example, two customers of an internet shop (or video-sharing website) are called adjacent if they have purchased (or downloaded) the same or similar items. Assuming that each newly arrived customer is linked preferentially to already popular items we obtain a preferred attachment affiliation network that evolves in time. We show that the fraction of customers having neighbours scales as for large . Here is the ratio between the two intensities: intensity of the flow of customers and that of the newly arriving items.

  8. THE RIEDER AUTOMATIC RIFLE ATTACHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-01-01

    In March 1981, Mrs H. J. R. Rieder donated her husband's presentation British .303 SMLE Rifle No 1 Mark III (number M-45374) with the Rieder Automatic Rifle Attachment to the Military Museum at the Castle in Cape Town. With it were a number of photographs, letters, documents and plans concerning this once secret invention which was tested outside the Castle during the Second World War. Fortunately, the documents donated by Mrs Rieder include a list of the numbers of the 18 rifles to which Mr ...

  9. Attachment style among outpatients with substance use disorders in psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidhagen, Ylva; Holmqvist, Rolf; Philips, Björn

    2018-02-05

    To explore the associations between self-rated attachment style, psychological distress and substance use among substance use disorder (SUD) outpatients in psychological treatment. In this practice-based study, 108 outpatients were asked to fill in the Experiences in Close Relationships - Short form, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) at treatment start and end. Patients were given psychological treatments with a directive, reflective or supportive orientation. An insecure attachment style was more common among the SUD outpatients, compared to non-clinical groups. Patients with a fearful attachment style scored higher on psychological distress than patients with a secure attachment style. The associations between the attachment dimensions and psychological distress were stronger than those between attachment and SUD. Significantly more patients had a secure attachment style at treatment end. This study shows significant relations between patients' attachment style and their initial psychological distress. The causal relationship between attachment style and psychological distress is, however, not clear and can likely go in both directions. The psychological treatment of patients with SUD contributed significantly to changes from insecure to secure attachment style. We found among patients with SUD a strong relation between patients' attachment style and their psychological distress. Knowledge of the patient's attachment style may help the therapist to tailor the treatment to the patient's needs. A change from insecure to secure attachment style can be an important goal for a SUD treatment, as it may prevent the patient from using defence strategies involving substance use for regulating emotions and interpersonal relationships. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Spatial control of neuronal cell attachment and differentiation on covalently patterned laminin oligopeptide substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, J P; Bellamkonda, R; Bekos, E J; Gardella, J A; Mathieu, H J; Ruiz, L; Aebischer, P

    1994-12-01

    The spatial control of neuronal cell attachment and differentiation via specific receptor mediated interactions, may provide an effective means for the in vitro reconstruction of neuronal cell architecture. In this study, receptor-specific oligopeptide sequences derived from the extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule laminin, a potent neural cell attachment and differentiation promoter were covalently bound on fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) films. The degree of receptor-specific cell attachment and the ability to spatially control neurite outgrowth by covalently patterning the oligopeptide sequences on the FEP film surface were assessed. FEP films were first chemically activated with a Radio Frequency Glow Discharge (RFGD) process that covalently replaces the surface fluorine atoms with reactive hydroxyl groups. Oligopeptides containing the YIGSR sequence from the B1 chain of laminin and the water soluble oligopeptide containing the IKVAV sequence (CSRARKQAASIKVAVSADR) from the A chain were covalently bound to the hydroxylated FEP films. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) verified the covalent attachment of the oligopeptides to the material surface. The degree of receptor mediated NG108-15 cell attachment on immobilized CDPGYIGSR films was determined using competitive binding media. A 78% reduction in cell attachment was observed on films containing CDPGYIGSR in the cell plating medium. Only a 23% reduction in cell attachment was noted on films plated in medium containing a mock CDPGYIGSK sequence. FEP films immobilized with the IKVAV oligopeptide sequence were shown to mediate PC12 cell attachment and a competitive binding medium also significantly attenuated cell attachment on the immobilized films. The spatial patterning of these oligopeptide sequences to the FEP surface was shown to localize cell attachment and neurite extension on the patterned pathways. The surrounding unmodified FEP surface was inhibitory in serum containing medium and

  11. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  12. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Tayebeh Reyhani; Aliye Shojafar; Morteza Modares Gharavi; Saeed Vaghee; Toktam Kazemeini; Shadi Shayan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients afte...

  13. Influência das concavidades radiculares nas perdas clínicas de inserção, detectadas no exame clínico periodontal inicial The influence of root concavities on clinical attachment loss diagnosed at the initial evaluation of periodontal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Emilio PUSTIGLIONI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi estabelecer a influência das concavidades radiculares na perda clínica de inserção (PCI diagnosticada no exame clínico periodontal inicial. Os dados de PCI foram obtidos dos primeiros e segundos pré-molares, caninos, incisivos laterais e centrais superiores e inferiores, de 163 pacientes. Os dados foram coletados das fichas periodontais dos pacientes que procuraram a Clínica do curso de Pós-Graduação em Periodontia da FOUSP. Foi realizada sondagem em todos os dentes para que se obtivesse as seguintes medidas: distância da linha esmalte cemento à margem gengival, profundidade clínica de sondagem (PCS nos sítios distovestibular (DV, centrovestibular (CV, mesiovestibular (MV, distolingual (DL, centrolingual (CL e mesiolingual (ML. Os dados foram incluídos no estudo quando pelo menos um dos sítios apresentasse PCI ³ 4 mm. Após a análise estatística (Friedman ANOVA test CV e CL mostraram valores de PCI estatisticamente menores para todos os dentes superiores e inferiores. Clinicamente CV mostrou os menores valores de perda clínica de inserção entre todos os dentes analisados, seguido de CL. Embora, baseados em nossos resultados, não exista correlação estatística entre PCI e a presença de concavidades radiculares, não podemos subestimar as últimas no exame clínico inicial, diagnóstico, prognóstico, planejamento cirúrgico e na fase de controle e manutenção do tratamento periodontal.The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of root concavities on clinical attachment loss (CAL that was diagnosed at the initial evaluation of periodontal patients. CAL data were analyzed in the following teeth of 163 patients: upper and lower second and first bicuspids, cuspids, lateral and central incisors. Data were retrieved from the initial dental chart of patients seeking treatment at the Periodontics Graduate Clinic, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo. Probing was accomplished

  14. Attachment and problem behavior of adolescents during residential treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, M.A.M.; Schuengel, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Attachment theory suggests that representations of previous attachment experiences may explain differences in psychosocial functioning. However, the nature of the association in clinical populations is unclear. Attachment representations were classified on the basis of Adult Attachment Interviews

  15. Networked Attached Devices at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, W

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) diagnostic instruments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are based on the Network Attached Device (NAD) concept. Each pickup or sensor has its own resources such as timing, data acquisition and processing. NADs are individually connected to the network, thus reducing the brittleness inherent in tightly coupled systems. This architecture allows an individual device to fail or to be serviced or removed without disrupting other devices. This paper describes our implementation of the nearly 400 NADs to be deployed. The hardware consists of rack-mounted PCs with standard motherboards and PCI data-acquisition boards. The software environment is based on LabVIEW and EPICS. LabVIEW supports the agile development demanded by modern diagnostic systems. EPICS is the control system standard for the entire SNS facility. To achieve high performance, LabVIEW and EPICS communicate through shared memory. SNS diagnostics are developed by a multi-laboratory partnership including ORNL, BNL, LAN...

  16. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  17. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  18. Place attachment and natural environmental risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Alves, Susana; De Dominicis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about place attachment affecting natural environmental risk perception and coping. A systematic search of social science databases revealed 31 works (1996–2016) directly addressing place attachment in relation to different types of natural hazard risks (e.g., seismic, volcanic, etc.......). Across different contexts, the research shows: (a) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and natural environmental risk perception; (b) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and risk coping; and (c) mediating and moderating relationships. In particular......, results show that: (a) highly attached individuals perceive natural environmental risks but underestimate their potential effects; (b) highly attached individuals are unwilling to relocate when facing natural environmental risks and more likely to return to risky areas after a natural environmental...

  19. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have......Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...

  20. Attached cultivation for improving the biomass productivity of Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanlan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-04-01

    To improve cultivation efficiency for microalgae Spirulina platensis is related to increase its potential use as food source and as an effective alternative for CO2 fixation. The present work attempted to establish a technique, namely attached cultivation, for S. platensis. Laboratory experiments were made firstly to investigate optimal conditions on attached cultivation. The optimal conditions were found: 25 g m(-2) for initial inoculum density using electrostatic flocking cloth as substrata, light intensity lower than 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1), CO2 enriched air flow (0.5%) at a superficial aeration rate of 0.0056 m s(-1) in a NaHCO3-free Zarrouk medium. An outdoor attached cultivation bench-scale bioreactor was built and a 10d culture of S. platensis was carried out with daily harvesting. A high footprint areal biomass productivity of 60 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained. The nutrition of S. platensis with attached cultivation is identical to that with conventional liquid cultivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Giardia flagellar motility is not directly required to maintain attachment to surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A House

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Giardia trophozoites attach to the intestinal microvilli (or inert surfaces using an undefined "suction-based" mechanism, and remain attached during cell division to avoid peristalsis. Flagellar motility is a key factor in Giardia's pathogenesis and colonization of the host small intestine. Specifically, the beating of the ventral flagella, one of four pairs of motile flagella, has been proposed to generate a hydrodynamic force that results in suction-based attachment via the adjacent ventral disc. We aimed to test this prevailing "hydrodynamic model" of attachment mediated by flagellar motility. We defined four distinct stages of attachment by assessing surface contacts of the trophozoite with the substrate during attachment using TIRF microscopy (TIRFM. The lateral crest of the ventral disc forms a continuous perimeter seal with the substrate, a cytological indication that trophozoites are fully attached. Using trophozoites with two types of molecularly engineered defects in flagellar beating, we determined that neither ventral flagellar beating, nor any flagellar beating, is necessary for the maintenance of attachment. Following a morpholino-based knockdown of PF16, a central pair protein, both the beating and morphology of flagella were defective, but trophozoites could still initiate proper surface contacts as seen using TIRFM and could maintain attachment in several biophysical assays. Trophozoites with impaired motility were able to attach as well as motile cells. We also generated a strain with defects in the ventral flagellar waveform by overexpressing a dominant negative form of alpha2-annexin::GFP (D122A, D275A. This dominant negative alpha2-annexin strain could initiate attachment and had only a slight decrease in the ability to withstand normal and shear forces. The time needed for attachment did increase in trophozoites with overall defective flagellar beating, however. Thus while not directly required for attachment, flagellar

  2. Fundamentals in Microalgae Harvesting: From Flocculation to Self-attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan

    Microalgae are a very promising source of biodiesel and other renewable energy due to their fast grow rates, high lipid contents and tremendous potential for water conservation and CO2 biofixation. However, a bottleneck issue with algae biofuel manufacturing is the lack of cost-effective harvesting methods. This research focuses on the technologies for improved microalgae harvesting to enable commercially viable and environmentally friendly biodiesel production. The first objective of this study was to optimize flocculation of marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata with metal salts, aluminum sulfate (A.S.) and ferric chloride (F.C.) via response surface methodology. It was found that there existed a positive stoichiometric relationship between the flocculant dose (FD) and the initial biomass concentration (IABC). Optimum flocculation conditions were predicted at IABC of 1.7 g/l, pH 8.3, and FD of 383.5 microM for A.S., and IABC of 2.2 g/l, pH 7.9, and FD of 438.1 microM for F.C., under which the predicted maximum harvested solid concentration of algae were 32.98 and 30.10 g/l by using A.S. and F.C., respectively. The second objective was to investigate the mechanism of microalgae flocculation with metal salts. The theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO) was applied to understand the flocculation mechanism of a freshwater alga Scenedesmus dimorphus and a marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata under various pH and aluminum sulphate ionic strengths. Effective flocculation was achieved as a result of charge neutralization and sweep flocculation. When low flocculant dosage (microalgae offered possibilities in design of a novel semi-immobilized algal production and harvesting method, which exploited cell to substrata interactions instead of cell-to-cell interactions. In such method, a solid carrier was used to grow and accumulate algal cells and the cost of harvesting and drying can be simply reduced by easy algae-water separation. In order to enable the

  3. Testing the retention of attachments for implant overdentures - validation of an original force measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromentin, O; Lassauzay, C; Abi Nader, S; Feine, J; de Albuquerque Junior, R F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an original portable device to measure attachment retention of implant overdentures both in the lab and in clinical settings. The device was built with a digital force measurement gauge (Imada) secured to a vertical wheel stand associated with a customized support to hold and position the denture in adjustable angulations. Sixteen matrix and patrix cylindrical stud attachments (Locator) were randomly assigned as in vitro test specimens. Attachment abutments were secured in an implant analogue hung to the digital force gauge or to the load cell of a traction machine used as the gold standard (Instron Universal Testing Machine). Matrices were secured in a denture duplicate attached to the customized support, permitting reproducibility of their position on both pulling devices. Attachment retention in the axial direction was evaluated by measuring maximum dislodging force or peak load during five consecutive linear dislodgments of each attachment on both devices. After a wear simulation, retention was measured again at several time periods. The peak load measurements with the customized Imada device were similar to those obtained with the gold standard Instron machine. These findings suggest that the proposed portable device can provide accurate information on the retentive properties of attachment systems for removable dental prostheses.

  4. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  5. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  6. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  7. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  8. Attachment theory and reactive attachment disorder: theoretical perspectives and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lyons T

    2007-02-01

    Attachment theory and reactive attachment disorder (RAD). To highlight current perspectives on attachment theory, RAD, and treatment implications using a case study of an 8-year-old patient with RAD. Selected multidisciplinary literature related to attachment theory and RAD. The literature provides a body of work that substantiates the importance of early attachment relationships to human development and highlights gaps in our knowledge related to treatment of children with RAD. The quality of early attachment relationships is correlated with future personality and brain development. Attachment disturbances are associated with psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. Although evidence for the effective treatment of children with attachment disorders is minimal and inconclusive, the two major perspectives, developmental psychology and neuropsychoanalysis, offer guidelines for practice.

  9. Attachment and the Child in School. Part I: Attachment Theory and the 'Dependent' Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This article uses the framework of attachment theory to describe a behavior pattern, the anxious resistant/ambivalent attachment pattern. Examples from educational practice illustrate the condition. Possible intervention approaches are suggested. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  10. Multiple roles of genome-attached bacteriophage terminal proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Salas, Margarita, E-mail: msalas@cbm.csic.es

    2014-11-15

    Protein-primed replication constitutes a generalized mechanism to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes, including viruses, gram-positive bacteria, linear plasmids and mobile elements. By this mechanism a specific amino acid primes replication and becomes covalently linked to the genome ends. Despite the fact that TPs lack sequence homology, they share a similar structural arrangement, with the priming residue in the C-terminal half of the protein and an accumulation of positively charged residues at the N-terminal end. In addition, various bacteriophage TPs have been shown to have DNA-binding capacity that targets TPs and their attached genomes to the host nucleoid. Furthermore, a number of bacteriophage TPs from different viral families and with diverse hosts also contain putative nuclear localization signals and localize in the eukaryotic nucleus, which could lead to the transport of the attached DNA. This suggests a possible role of bacteriophage TPs in prokaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. - Highlights: • Protein-primed genome replication constitutes a strategy to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes. • Bacteriophage terminal proteins (TPs) are covalently attached to viral genomes by their primary function priming DNA replication. • TPs are also DNA-binding proteins and target phage genomes to the host nucleoid. • TPs can also localize in the eukaryotic nucleus and may have a role in phage-mediated interkingdom gene transfer.

  11. Smartphone attachment for stethoscope recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    With the ubiquity of smartphones and the rising technology of 3D printing, novel devices can be developed that leverage the "computer in your pocket" and rapid prototyping technologies toward scientific, medical, engineering, and creative purposes. This paper describes such a device: a simple 3D-printed extension for Apple's iPhone that allows the sound from an off-the-shelf acoustic stethoscope to be recorded using the phone's built-in microphone. The attachment's digital 3D files can be easily shared, modified for similar phones and devices capable of recording audio, and in combination with 3D printing technology allow for fabrication of a durable device without need for an entire factory of expensive and specialized machining tools. It is hoped that by releasing this device as an open source set of printable files that can be downloaded and reproduced cheaply, others can make use of these developments where access to cost-prohibitive, specialized medical instruments are not available. Coupled with specialized smartphone software ("apps"), more sophisticated and automated diagnostics may also be possible on-site.

  12. The effects of mortality salience on relationship strivings and beliefs: the moderating role of attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Findler, Liora; Mikulincer, Mario

    2002-09-01

    This series of studies examined mortality salience effects on relationship strivings, while exploring the moderating role of attachment style. In the three studies, Israeli university students completed an attachment style scale, were assigned to a mortality salience or neutral condition, and then completed scales tapping specific relationship strivings and beliefs. Study 1 (N = 104) examined participants' willingness to initiate social interactions with a hypothetical same-sex person; Study 2 (N = 100) examined appraisals of interpersonal competence; and Study 3 (N = 108) examined reports of rejection sensitivity. Findings revealed that mortality salience led to more willingness to initiate social interactions, lower rejection sensitivity and more positive appraisals of interpersonal competence than a control condition. These mortality salience effects were found mainly among persons who scored low on attachment anxiety or attachment avoidance. Findings were discussed in light of the terror management function of close relationships.

  13. Parent attachment, childrearing behaviour, and child attachment: Mediated effect that predict externalizing behaviour in preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6 clinically referred for EB and their parents from a middle-high income population. Child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-set; parent's rememb...

  14. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

  15. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  16. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  17. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  18. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  19. Attachment style, family and romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, P G; Salter, K; Purves, D G

    2001-06-01

    In 1987 Hazan and Shaver showed that patterns of romantic love reflected attachment styles. In an extension of that study with 39 men and 33 women in college (ages 18-36 years), this research shows that family relationships may also affect romantic relationships indirectly through their association with attachment styles.

  20. Attachment Theory and Neuroscience for Care Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas J; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a model for care managers that is based on attachment theory supplemented by knowledge from neuroscience. Together, attachment theory and basic knowledge from neuroscience provide for both an organizing conceptual framework and a scientific, measureable approach to assessment and planning interventions in a care plan.

  1. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  2. An Attachment Model of University Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steffen; Gore, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Students with high levels of connectedness to the university have been found to be more likely to complete their college degree than are students with low levels of university connectedness. This study examined the role of parental and peer attachment as distal predictors of school connectedness. As predicted, it was found that attachment style to…

  3. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…

  4. Attachment Parenting: A Style That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of attachment parenting, which emphasizes parental commitment, a low-stress pregnancy, childbirth preparation, breast-feeding with child-led weaning, prompt response to the baby's crying, flexible sleeping arrangements, close-knit father-mother-baby functioning, and the avoidance of detachment parenting. Attachment parenting…

  5. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  6. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Pasco; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael; Viding, Essi; Fonagy, Peter; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Twin studies consistently point to limited genetic influence on attachment security in the infancy period, but no study has examined whether this remains the case in later development. This study presents the findings from a twin study examining the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on attachment in…

  7. Argument Status and PP-Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Julie E.; Blodgett, Allison

    2006-01-01

    Prepositional phrase attachment was investigated in temporarily ambiguous sentences. Both attachment site (noun phrase or verb phrase) and argument status (argument or adjunct) were manipulated to test the hypothesis that arguments are processed differently than adjuncts. Contrary to this hypothesis, some previous research suggested that arguments…

  8. Forgiveness and health: The role of attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawler-Row, K.A.; Hyatt-Edwards, L.; Wünsch, K.L.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment was examined for its association to forgiveness and health. Young adults were interviewed about a time of conflict with a parent; during rest and interview periods, readings of blood pressure and heart rate were taken. Participants completed surveys of forgiveness, attachment,

  9. Selective neuronal cell attachment to a covalently patterned monoamine on fluorinated ethylene propylene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, J P; Bellamkonda, R; Jacob, J; Vargo, T G; Gardella, J A; Aebischer, P

    1993-07-01

    The patterned covalent surface addition of a monoamine to fluorinated ethylene propylene films (FEP) controls both cellular attachment and differentiation in defined media conditions. A radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) process was used to replace FEP surface fluorine atoms with hydroxyl groups. The primary amine was then covalently attached by polymerizing aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) via the hydroxyl functionalities. The selective attachment of cells to the APTES regions was determined to be dependent upon the initial adsorption of albumin to the patterned FEP membrane. Albumin was determined to enhance cellular attachment to the APTES regions and prevent attachment to the unmodified FEP areas for both an NB2a neuroblastoma cell line and primary rat endothelial cells. If albumin were not preadsorbed onto the membrane, selective attachment to the modified regions would not occur. Radiolabeling albumin with 125I demonstrated the preference of albumin for adsorption onto the monoamine surface where the cells preferentially attached. Both hydrophobic and ionic forces contributed to the adsorption process. Although selective cellular attachment to the patterned APTES regions could be achieved by albumin preadsorption to the surface, the neuroblastoma cells did not significantly differentiate unless additional serum components were supplemented to the media.

  10. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  11. Variations in Early Attachment Mechanisms Contribute to Attachment Quality: Case Studies Including Babies Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, Andrea; Ruiz, Nina; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2016-01-01

    Three boys (an extremely preterm, a moderate preterm twin and a full-term toddler; all 12 to 15 months old) were selected from a large sample to investigate mechanisms of parent-child attachments, specifically of babies born preterm. Attachments were observed at home with the Attachment-Q-Sort (AQS) as well as in the lab with the Strange Situation…

  12. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Mueller, Sven C; De Raedt, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years) completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  13. Attachment and Autism: Parental Attachment Representations and Relational Behaviors in the Parent-Child Dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seskin, Lynn; Feliciano, Eileen; Tippy, Gil; Yedloutschnig, Ruby; Sossin, K. Mark; Yasik, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    While attachment research has demonstrated that parents' internal working models of attachment relationships tend to be transmitted to their children, affecting children's developmental trajectories, this study specifically examines associations between adult attachment status and observable parent, child, and dyadic behaviors among children with…

  14. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  15. Adhesins Involved in Attachment to Abiotic Surfaces by Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Cécile; Ducret, Adrien; Hardy, Gail G; Brun, Yves V

    2015-08-01

    During the first step of biofilm formation, initial attachment is dictated by physicochemical and electrostatic interactions between the surface and the bacterial envelope. Depending on the nature of these interactions, attachment can be transient or permanent. To achieve irreversible attachment, bacterial cells have developed a series of surface adhesins promoting specific or nonspecific adhesion under various environmental conditions. This article reviews the recent advances in our understanding of the secretion, assembly, and regulation of the bacterial adhesins during biofilm formation, with a particular emphasis on the fimbrial, nonfimbrial, and discrete polysaccharide adhesins in Gram-negative bacteria.

  16. Correlation between extracellular fibrils and attachment of Rhizobium leguminosarum to pea root hair tips

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, G; Kijne, J W; Lugtenberg, E. J. J.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a project meant to characterize molecules involved in nodulation, a semiquantitative microscopic assay was developed for measuring attachment of Rhizobium leguminosarum cells to pea root hair tips, i.e., the site at which R. leguminosarum initiates nodulation. This form of attachment, designated as cap formation, was dependent on the incubation pH and growth phase, with optimal attachment at pH 7.5 and with bacteria in the early stationary phase of growth. Addition of glucose to th...

  17. Proteomics insights: proteins related to larval attachment and metamorphosis of marine invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The transition in an animal from a pelagic larval stage to a sessile benthic juvenile typically requires major morphological and behavioral changes. Larval competency, attachment and initiation of metamorphosis are thought to be regulated by intrinsic chemical signals and specific sets of proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate larval attachment and metamorphosis in marine invertebrates have yet to be fully elucidated. Despite the many challenges associated with analysis of ...

  18. Ultra-thin PbS sheets by two-dimensional oriented attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Schliehe, Constanze; Juarez, Beatriz H.; Pelletier, Marie; Jander, Sebastian; Greshnykh, Denis; Nagel, Mona; Meyer, Andreas; Foerster, Stephan; Kornowski, Andreas; Klinke, Christian; Weller, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Controlling anisotropy is a key concept to generate complex functionality in advanced materials. For this, oriented attachment of nanocrystal building blocks, a self assembly of particles into larger single crystalline objects, is one of the most promising approaches in nanotechnology. We report here the 2D oriented attachment of PbS nanocrystals into ultra-thin single crystal sheets with dimensions on the micrometer scale. We found that this process is initiated by co-solvents which alter nu...

  19. The Antimicrobial Activity of Porphyrin Attached Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lesley

    2008-03-01

    We are interested in testing the antimicrobial activity of a porphyrin that is attached to a polymer. The porphyrin (5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pryridyl)) was synthesized from methyl 4-formyl benzoate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and pyrrole and attached to a copolymer of polystyrene/poly(vinyl benzyl chloride), which was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The antimicrobial activity of the polymer-attached porphyrin was then determined for gram-negative E. Coli grown to 0.80 OD. In this procedure, glass slides were coated with polymer-attached porphyrin via dip-coating, and the E. Coli bacteria were plated in Luria Broth media. The plates were subsequently exposed to light overnight before they were incubated as porphyrins act as photo-sensitizers when irradiated with light. The polymer-attached porphyrin did exhibit antimicrobial activity and parameters that affect its efficiency will be discussed.

  20. Perceived parental attachment and achievement motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, M; Baruss, Imants

    2011-12-01

    A significant amount of research in attachment theory has been devoted to factors affecting academic achievement, but less attention has been given to the role of attachment in the relation between academic achievement and achievement motivation. The current preliminary study examined the role of perceived parental attachment in achievement motivation. Self-report data obtained from the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Achievement Goals Questionnaire, and the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory were collected from 50 university students with a mean age of 18.8 yr. Correlation and regression analyses indicated that parental facilitation of independence correlated significantly and negatively with fear of failure. Results yielded partial support for the hypothesis that performance-oriented goals are related to a fear of failure, whereas mastery-oriented goals are not. The results also suggest that high parental attachment in the case of high-frequency religious practitioners is related to an increased chance of acquiring a more avoidance-oriented achievement motivation.

  1. Silicon-nanowire based attachment of silicon chips for mouse embryo labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, S; Novo, S; Duch, M; Gómez-Martínez, R; Fernández-Regúlez, M; San Paulo, A; Nogués, C; Esteve, J; Ibañez, E; Plaza, J A

    2015-03-21

    The adhesion of small silicon chips to cells has many potential applications as direct interconnection of the cells to the external world can be accomplished. Hence, although some typical applications of silicon nanowires integrated into microsystems are focused on achieving a cell-on-a-chip strategy, we are interested in obtaining chip-on-a-cell systems. This paper reports the design, technological development and characterization of polysilicon barcodes featuring silicon nanowires as nanoscale attachment to identify and track living mouse embryos during their in vitro development. The chips are attached to the outer surface of the Zona Pellucida, the cover that surrounds oocytes and embryos, to avoid the direct contact between the chip and the embryo cell membrane. Two attachment methodologies, rolling and pushpin, which allow two entirely different levels of applied forces to attach the chips to living embryos, are evaluated. The former consists of rolling the mouse embryos over one barcode with the silicon nanowires facing upwards, while in the latter, the barcode is pushed against the embryo with a micropipette. The effect on in vitro embryo development and the retention rate related to the calculated applied forces are stated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy inspection, which allowed high-resolution imaging, also confirms the physical attachment of the nanowires with some of them piercing or wrapped by the Zona Pellucida and revealed extraordinary bent silicon nanowires.

  2. 77 FR 4007 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... further discussion, see Korea AD Initiation Checklist and Mexico AD Initiation Checklist, at Attachment II...) of the Act, Korea AD Initiation Checklist, and Mexico AD Initiation Checklist, at Attachment II... International Trade Administration Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea and Mexico: Initiation...

  3. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-01-31

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  4. Adult attachment, couple attachment, and children's adaptation to school: an integrated attachment template and family risk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Mehta, Neera

    2009-01-01

    Most attachment theorists assume that parenting style is the central mechanism linking the quality of parents' attachment with their parents and adaptation in their children. Outside the attachment tradition, family risk models assume that many family factors affect children's adaptation, chief among them being couple relationship quality. The present study tests an integrated model that considers both theoretical and empirical links between attachment theory and family risk research. Seventy-three fathers and mothers whose first child was about to make the transition to elementary school were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and a new Couple Attachment Interview. The parents were also observed in separate visits during kindergarten year in interaction with each other and with their child. At the end of first grade, we obtained children's academic achievement test results and teachers' checklist observations of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Structural equations revealed that a family risk model that includes information from working models of attachment and observations of couple interaction predicts substantial variation in children's adaptation to elementary school.

  5. Effect of RGD Peptide-Coated TiO2 Nanotubes on the Attachment, Proliferation, and Functionality of Bone-Related Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghan Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to characterize an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptide immobilized on TiO2 nanotubes. In addition, we investigated the effects of the RGD peptide-coated TiO2 nanotubes on the cellular response, proliferation, and functionality of osteogenic-induced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs, which are osteoclasts that have been induced by bone marrow macrophages. The RGD peptide was grafted covalently onto the surface of TiO2 nanotubes based on the results of SEM, FT-IR, and XPS. Furthermore, the RGD peptide promoted the initial attachment and proliferation of the hMSCs, regardless of the size of the TiO2 nanotubes. However, the RGD peptide did not prominently affect the osteogenic functionality of the hMSCs because the peptide suppressed hMSC motility associated with osteogenic differentiation. The result of an in vitro osteoclast test showed that the RGD peptide accelerated the initial attachment of preosteoclasts and the formation of mature osteoclasts, which could resorb the bone matrix. Therefore, we believe that an RGD coating on TiO2 nanotubes synthesized on Ti implants might not offer significant acceleration of bone formation in vivo because osteoblasts and osteoclasts reside in the same compartment.

  6. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy: Validation of the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I F

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioural, cognitive-behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis by monitoring clients' verbal activity. These results also provide information regarding the ways in which differences in attachment status play out in therapy sessions and further the study of attachment in psychotherapy from a pre-treatment client factor to a process variable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Patient Attachment Coding System is a valid measure of attachment that can classify clients' attachment based on any single psychotherapy transcript, in many therapeutic modalities Client differences in attachment manifest in part independently of the therapist's contributions Client adult attachment patterns are likely to affect psychotherapeutic processes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Longitudinal association between adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, Katherine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci. Results indicated that greater insecurity to parents and peers in adolescence predicted a more anxious romantic attachment style and greater use of emotion-oriented strategies in adulthood. Concurrently, anxious adult attachment style was related to more emotion-oriented strategies, whereas an avoidant attachment style was related to less support-seeking. Analyses also identified emotion-oriented coping strategies as a partial mediator of the link between adolescent attachment insecurity to parents and adult anxious attachment, and a complete mediator of the association between adolescent attachment insecurity to peers and adult anxious attachment. These findings support the core assumption of continuity in attachment theory, where relationships to parents influence close romantic relationships in adulthood.

  8. Attachment security and immunity in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Battisti, Francesca; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Baldassari, Maurizio; Copertaro, Alfredo; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Biondi, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Attachment security is associated with health and possibly autonomic and endocrine reactivity to stress, however the relationship between attachment style and immune function has not yet been investigated. A random sample of 61 female nurses provided a blood sample and completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Immune measures included immunophenotypic analysis, lymphocyte proliferative response to Phytohemagglutinin, and NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC). Statistical analysis focused on the relationship between attachment-related anxiety or avoidance and immune measures. Multiple regression was used to control for perceived stress and support, alexithymia, health-related behaviors possibly influencing immunity, and use of anti-inflammatory drugs, tobacco or alcohol. Attachment-related anxiety was not associated with any immune parameter. Attachment-related avoidance was associated with lower NKCC. This association was independent from the number of circulating NK cells, which suggests a change in cell functionality. Perceived stress was also associated with lower NKCC. This study suggests a link between attachment security and immunity. While our findings should be interpreted with great caution and need replication, they are consistent with previous work suggesting that insecure attachment may be a risk factor for health and may relate to biological processes relevant to health.

  9. Stressful life experiences and attachment in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper aimed to explore relations between stressful life experiences and attachment in adolescence. The sample included 279 adolescents of both sexes, who were students of first two years at the University of Novi Sad. Attachment styles were assessed by RQ (Relationship Questionnaire, Bartolomew & Horowitz, 1991, and stressful experiences by Risk Scale (Grossman et al., 1990. The average score on the Risk scale indicated that participants had relatively small number of stressful events; but majority had at least two stressful experiences. The most frequent event was loss of family member (61,2% of participants and traffic accident (40,6% of participants. Participants with secure and insecure attachment styles had similar number of stressful experiences in their lives. Difference between these groups was significant only in the case stressors that origin from the characteristics of the family and intrafamilial relations, which was more frequent experience in participants with insecure attachment styles. However, the results showed that stressful experiences may have negative influence on security of attachment, i.e. on positivity of model of self. The highest and statistically significant contribution was made by separation from family and by family characteristics. The results are discussed in context of attachment theory and previous research data on effects of stressful and traumatic events on security of attachment.

  10. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervai Judit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief.

  11. The relation of infant attachment to attachment and cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping

    2014-09-01

    In China, research on the relation of mother-infant attachment to children's development is scarce. This study sought to investigate the relation of mother-infant attachment to attachment, cognitive and behavioural development in young children. This study used a longitudinal study design. The subjects included healthy infants (n=160) aged 12 to 18 months. Ainsworth's "Strange Situation Procedure" was used to evaluate mother-infant attachment types. The attachment Q-set (AQS) was used to evaluate the attachment between young children and their mothers. The Bayley scale of infant development-second edition (BSID-II) was used to evaluate cognitive developmental level in early childhood. Achenbach's child behaviour checklist (CBCL) for 2- to 3-year-olds was used to investigate behavioural problems. In total, 118 young children (73.8%) completed the follow-up; 89.7% of infants with secure attachment and 85.0% of infants with insecure attachment still demonstrated this type of attachment in early childhood (κ=0.738, pdevelopment index (MDI) in early childhood than did infants with secure attachment, especially the resistant type. In addition, resistant infants were reported to have greater social withdrawal, sleep problems and aggressive behaviour in early childhood. There is a high consistency in attachment development from infancy to early childhood. Secure mother-infant attachment predicts a better cognitive and behavioural outcome; whereas insecure attachment, especially the resistant attachment, may lead to a lower cognitive level and greater behavioural problems in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 78 FR 45502 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Countervailing Duty Investigation Initiation Checklist: Oil Country Tubular Goods from India (``India CVD Initiation Checklist''), at Attachment II, and Countervailing Duty Investigation Initiation Checklist: Oil...

  13. Effects of Methylcellulose on Cellulolytic Bacteria Attachment and Rice Straw Degradation in the Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Guyn Sung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of methylcellulose on the attachment of major cellulolytic bacteria on rice straw and its digestibility. Rice straw was incubated with ruminal mixture with or without 0.1% methylcellulose (MC. The attachment of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus populations on rice straw was measured using real-time PCR with specific primer sets. Methylcellulose at the level of 0.1% decreased the attachment of all three major cellulolytic bacteria. In particular, MC treatment reduced (p<0.05 attachment of F. succinogenes on rice straw after 10 min of incubation while a significant reduction (p<0.05 in attachment was not observed until 4 h incubation in the case of R. flavefaciens and R. albus. This result indicated F. succinogenes responded to MC more sensitively and earlier than R. flavefaciens and R. albus. Dry matter digestibility of rice straw was subsequently inhibited by 0.1% MC, and there was a significant difference between control and MC treatment (p<0.05. Incubated cultures containing MC had higher pH and lower gas production than controls. Current data clearly indicated that the attachment of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus on rice straw was inhibited by MC, which apparently reduced rice straw digestion.

  14. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... anchor bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum...

  15. Antifouling performance of cross-linked hydrogels: refinement of an attachment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Chelsea M; Finlay, John A; Clay, Gemma; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Brennan, Anthony B

    2011-04-11

    Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA), PEGDMA-co-glycidyl methacrylate (PEGDMA-co-GMA), and PEGDMA-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PEGDMA-co-HEMA) hydrogels were polymerized using ammonium persulfate and ascorbic acid as radical initiators. Surface energies of the hydrogels and a standard, poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSe), were characterized using captive bubble and sessile drop measurements, respectively (γ = 52 mN/m, γ(0) = 19 mN/m). The chemical composition of the hydrogels was characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. All three hydrogel compositions reduced significantly (p = 0.05) initial attachment of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza (up to 97%), cells of the diatom Navicula incerta (up to 58%) and the bacterium Cobetia marina (up to 62%), compared to a smooth PDMSe standard. A shear stress (45 Pa), generated in a water channel, eliminated up to 95% of the initially attached cells of Navicula from the smooth hydrogel surfaces relative to smooth PDMSe surfaces. Compared to the PDMSe standard, 79% of the cells of C. marina were removed from all smooth hydrogel compositions when exposed to a 50 Pa wall shear stress. Attachment of spores of the green alga Ulva to microtopographies replicated in PEGDMA-co-HEMA was also evaluated. The Sharklet AF microtopography patterned, PEGDMA-co-HEMA surfaces reduced attachment of spores of Ulva by 97% compared to a smooth PDMSe standard. The attachment densities of spores to engineered microtopographies in PDMSe and PEGDMA-co-HEMA were shown to correlate with a modified attachment model through the inclusion of a surface energy term. Attachment densities of spores of Ulva to engineered topographies replicated in a material other than PDMSe are now correlated with the attachment model (R(2) = 0.80).

  16. The relationship between attachment style and placement of parents in adults' attachment networks over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julal, F S; Carnelley, K B; Rowe, A

    2017-08-01

    Using a bull's-eye hierarchical mapping technique (HMT), the present study examined placement of parents in adults' attachment networks over time. We hypothesized that attachment style would predict distance at which network members (mother, father, and romantic partner) would be placed from the core-self over time. Participants completed the HMT on two occasions, 12 months apart. Concurrently and over time, fathers were placed further from the core-self than mothers. Attachment style explained unique variance, beyond that accounted for by individual and relationship characteristics. Specifically, network members with whom participants reported greater attachment insecurity were placed further from the core-self concurrently. Mothers with whom participants reported greater attachment insecurity were placed further from the core-self over time. Unsatisfactory attachment relationships with father and partner and those marked by higher attachment insecurity were more likely to be excluded from attachment networks over time. Findings suggest that attachment style, relationship quality, romantic relationship status, and parents' marital status determine the placement of parents in adults' attachment networks.

  17. [The interpretation of attachment in the Szondi test and in the questionnaire processes of attachment theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török I, András; Vincze, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    [corrected] The Szondi-test is widely applied in clinical diagnostics in Hungary too, and the evidence resulting from the theory is that we can get information about attachment during its interpreting. Its validity is proven by empirical research and clinical experiences. By analyzing the modern attachment theory more thoroughly, it becomes clear in what ways the Szondi-test constellations regarding attachment are different from the classificationbased on questionnaires, allowing the discrete measurement of the attachment style. With the Szondi-test the classification to attachment style is more insecure, but if it is completed with exploration, it is more informative in vector C (vector of relation, attachment information), while short questionnaires make the classification to attachment style possible. In our empirical analysis we represent the integration of the above mentioned clinical and theoretical experiences. In the present analysis we compare the vector C and S constellation of the two-profile Szondi-test of 80 persons with the dimensions of ECR-R questionnaire and with Collins and Read's questionnaire classification regarding attachment style. The statistical results refer to the fact that there is a legitimacy to compare questionnaire processes allowing the discrete classification of attachment and the Szondi-test's information content regarding attachment. With applying the methods together, we get a unique, complementary section of the information relating to attachment. Comparing the two methods (projective and questionnaire) establishes the need of theoretical integration as well. We also make an attempt to explain Fraley's evolutionary non-adaptivity of avoidant attachment, in the case of whose presence adaptivity of early attachment, counterbalancing the exploration and security need, and providing closeness--farness loses its balance.

  18. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may ...

  19. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment

  20. Emotion regulation: influences of attachment relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J

    1994-01-01

    Emotion regulation and quality of attachment are closely linked. It has been proposed here that one influence on individual differences in emotion regulation may be a child's attachment history. Individuals characterized by the flexible ability to accept and integrate both positive and negative emotions are generally securely attached; on the other hand, individuals characterized by either limited or heightened negative affect are more likely to be insecurely attached. While acknowledging the role of infant temperament, I have focused on the role of social factors in examining the link between emotion regulation and attachment. The approach to emotion regulation taken here--that emotion regulation is adaptive in helping a child attain her goals--is esentially a functionalist approach (Bretherton et al., 1986; Campos et al., 1983), consistent with earlier views of emotions as important regulators of interpersonal relationships (Charlesworth, 1982; Izard, 1977). It has been proposed that patterns of emotion regulation serve an important function for the infant: the function of maintaining the relationship with the attachment figure. Emotion regulation has been described as serving this function in two ways. First, the function of maintaining the relationship is thought to be served when infant emotion regulation contributes to the infant's more generalized regulation of the attachment system in response to experiences with the caregiver. Infants who have experienced rejection (insecure/avoidant infants) are thought to minimize negative affect in order to avoid the risk of further rejection. Infants whose mothers have been relatively unavailable or inconsistently available (insecure/ambivalent infants) are thought to maximize negative affect in order to increase the likelihood of gaining the attention of a frequently unavailable caregiver. Both these patterns of emotion regulation help ensure that the child will remain close to the parent and thereby be protected

  1. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Nishola Rawatlal; Wendy Kliewer; Basil J Pillay

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates...

  2. Attachment and the Development of Relationship Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Seifert; Kathryn Seifert M

    2016-01-01

    Thoughtful observations and research can help society understand violence and enable us to find ways of preventing future instances of horrible events. Healthy, developmentally appropriate, and successful attachments need to be formed in order for children to grow up to be healthy adults. Violence appears to be, in part, the result of rejections or failed attachments at the three critical periods of human development: early childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Trauma and/or rejection ...

  3. Attachment of Agrobacterium to Plant Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Matthysse, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens binds to the surfaces of inanimate objects, plants, and fungi. These bacteria are excellent colonizers of root surfaces. In addition, they also bind to soil particles and to the surface of artificial or man-made substances, such as polyesters and plastics. The mechanisms of attachment to these different surfaces have not been completely elucidated. At least two types of binding have been described unipolarpolysaccharide-dependent polar attachment and unipolar polysac...

  4. Attachment Stimulates Exopolysaccharide Synthesis by a Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevivere, Philippe; Kirchman, David L.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that solid surfaces may stimulate attached bacteria to produce exopolymers. Addition of sand to shake-flask cultures seemed to induce exopolymer synthesis by a number of subsurface isolates, as revealed by optical microscopy. Several additional lines of evidence indicated that exopolymer production by attached cells (in continuous-flow sand-packed columns) was greater than by their free-living counterparts. Total carbohydrates and extracellular polysaccharid...

  5. Attachment Stimulates Exopolysaccharide Synthesis by a Bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevivere, P.; Kirchman, D. L.

    1993-07-28

    Addition of sand to shake-flask cultures seemed to induce exopolymer synthesis by a number of subsurface bacterial isolates, as revealed by optical microscopy. Several additional lines of evidence indicate that exopolymer production by attached cells (in continuous-flow, sand-packed columns) was greater than by their free-living counterparts. The mechanism by which attachment stimulated exopolymer synthesis did not involve changes of the specific growth rate, growth stage, or limiting nutrient.

  6. A Comprehensive Review of New Attachment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Calculus attachment in cemental separations . J Periodontol 40: 125, 1969 . 34. Schaffer, E. M.: Histologic...121, 1965. 30. Zander, H. A.: The attachment of calculus to root surfaces. J Periodontol 24: 16, 1953. 31. Kopczyk, R. A., and Conroy, C. W.: The...periodontology. J Periodontol 40: 155, 1969 . 4. Waerhaug, J .: Review of Cohen: "Role of periodontal surgery." J Dent Res 50: 219, 1971. 5. Melcher,

  7. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Maddi, S. R. (2004). Hardiness: An operationalization of existential cour- age. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 44, 279–298. doi: 10.1177...but not challenge, predict positive mood. These results suggest that more secure attachment style and psychological hardiness serve as resilience...S. (1978). Pat- terns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hill- sdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A

  8. Aberrant attachment of orbicularis oculi: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Ritu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A morphological peculiarity was observed in the form of an aberrant lateral bony attachment of the orbital part of the Orbicularis oculi muscle on the zygomatic bone, during routine dissection of a cadaver of an adult male of Indian origin. Fibers of this part of the muscle are not known to show any lateral attachment on bone. This paper discusses the presentation, probable embryological cause and clinical implications of this unusual finding.

  9. Exploring the causal effect of interpretation bias on attachment expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Winter, S.; Bosmans, G.; Salemink, E.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory implies that children's inclination to interpret attachment figures behavior as supportive and available causally influences children's trust in their attachment figure's availability. An experiment was conducted to test whether training children (8–12 years old) to interpret

  10. Anxious attachment may be a vulnerability factor for developing embitterment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, D.; Middendorp, H. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    By predisposing to ego-defensive strategies in social situations, a negative attachment history may promote embitterment. The present study identified attachment anxiety - more than attachment avoidance - as a possible vulnerability factor for the development and maintenance of embitterment. This

  11. Relationships between adult attachment style ratings and sleep disturbances in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G Camelia; McWilliams, Lachlan A

    2015-07-01

    Recent research with small non-clinical and clinical samples suggests a positive association between attachment insecurity and sleep disturbances. The present study extends this line of research by exploring this relationship in a large sample of the U.S. population and by statistically adjusting for health conditions and psychiatric disorders as potential confounds. The data used were from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=5692). The main interview consisted of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview used to assess psychiatric diagnoses. Ratings of three adult attachment styles (viz., secure, avoidant, and anxious) were obtained along with self-reports of health conditions and four sleep disturbances (viz., difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and daytime sleepiness). Bivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that ratings of secure attachment were negatively associated with each sleep disturbance and ratings of insecure attachment were positively associated with each sleep disturbance. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between the attachment ratings and sleep disturbances while statistically controlling for sociodemographic variables, the presence of a health condition, and psychiatric disorders (viz., depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, anxiety disorders, alcohol/substance disorders, and attention deficit disorder). With one exception, the insecure attachment ratings continued to be positively associated with sleep disturbances. The findings demonstrate that attachment insecurity is related to sleep disturbances independent of health conditions and concurrent psychiatric disorders. Research aimed at delineating the mechanisms responsible for these associations is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations in turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-11-01

    The wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations (u) are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer at Reτ = 1000 . We identify the structures of u, which are extended close to the wall. Their height (ly) ranges from the near-wall region to the edge of turbulent boundary layer. They are geometrically self-similar in a sense that the length and width of the structures are proportional to the distance from the wall. The population density of the attached structures shows that the tall attached structures (290 attached eddies addressed by Perry and coworkers. The streamwise turbulent intensity of these tall attached structures follows the logarithmic distribution with the distance from the wall. The wall-attached structures of u identified in the present work are a proper candidate for Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis and these structures exist in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and supported by the Supercomputing Center (KISTI).

  13. Attachment-based intervention for maltreating families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabulsy, George M; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Moss, Ellen; St-Laurent, Diane; Bernier, Annie; Cyr, Chantal; Dubois-Comtois, Karine

    2008-07-01

    This article presents attachment theory-based intervention strategies as a means of addressing the core parent-child interaction deficits that characterize homes in which children are exposed to maltreatment. The article outlines the socioemotional and cognitive outcomes of maltreatment and proposes that although many prevention programs target different parental and family characteristics, few address the core relationship issues that are at stake. Recent research on attachment-based intervention strategies, aimed at improving the sensitivity and responsiveness of the parenting behaviors that children are exposed to, are presented as providing a means of addressing this domain. Attachment theory and research are briefly summarized, and the relational and interactional patterns observed in maltreating families, and their link to infant and child developmental outcome, are described. Research on attachment-based intervention is addressed, with a focus on studies conducted in the context of maltreating or high-risk families. This work is synthesized to present the basic components viewed as critical to effective attachment intervention with maltreating families. Finally, the authors end with recommendations aimed at the effective implementation of attachment-based intervention. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Attachment and hikikomori: a psychosocial developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Alexander; Dickie, Jane R

    2013-02-01

    Hikikomori (acute social withdrawal) is a social issue in Japan that affects both the society and the lives of the individual sufferers. This study aims to connect attachment theory and hikikomori by using a culturally sensitive psychosocial developmental model that outlines the various stages of attachment throughout the developmental years. Twenty-four hikikomori sufferers and 60 comparison group participants were given questionnaires assessing parent and peer relationships, temperament and school experiences. We found the hikikomori participants had a higher incidence of ambivalent attachment, reported more parental and peer rejection and bullying, and expressed greater temperamental shyness. Path analysis supported our developmental model. We found that shy temperament and parental rejection predicted ambivalent attachment, which when coupled with peer rejection predicted hikikomori. Our model implies that treatment and prevention may require attention to attachment insecurities in early childhood, peer rejection in middle childhood and/or early adolescence. We believe it is helpful in understanding hikikomori to first understand how the attachment system balances security with exploration and the anxiety associated with novelty and challenge. Finally, we examine implications of the model for intervention, treatment and future research.

  15. Attachment styles and violence within couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon B; Bond, Michael

    2004-12-01

    This study examined whether an individual's attachment style and/or a couple's combination of attachment styles predicted violence within the marriage and explored whether other variables moderated the risk of violence. Measures of attachment style were administered to 41 discordant couples who presented to four different clinics. The couples' presenting complaints were not violence, and those who did report violence on questioning did not manifest severe violence, i.e., requiring shelters or legal intervention. Self-report measures of violence and marital satisfaction, including problem-solving communication, were also given. Using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, the relative contributions to strength of predicting being a victim of conjugal violence were calculated. An anxious attachment style was a significant predictor of females being victims of violence and of men not being victims. A dismissive style in men was predictive of men being victims when entered into the model with problem solving communication. The combination of anxiously attached females and dismissive males was a potent predictor of violence, and longer duration of marriage and poor problem-solving communication added power to the prediction. Marital interaction, which is influenced by couples' attachment styles and problem-solving communication, is a significant factor in marital partners experiencing physical violence. For couples with milder levels of violence, a more nuanced approach (compared with the legally based approach used for severe violence) seems indicated.

  16. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  17. Attachment stimulates exopolysaccharide synthesis by a bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevivere, P; Kirchman, D L

    1993-10-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that solid surfaces may stimulate attached bacteria to produce exopolymers. Addition of sand to shake-flask cultures seemed to induce exopolymer synthesis by a number of subsurface isolates, as revealed by optical microscopy. Several additional lines of evidence indicated that exopolymer production by attached cells (in continuous-flow sand-packed columns) was greater than by their free-living counterparts. Total carbohydrates and extracellular polysaccharides, both normalized to cell protein, were greater (2.5- and 5-fold, respectively) for attached cells than for free-living cells. Also, adsorption of a polyanion-binding dye to the exopolymer fraction was sixfold greater for attached cells than for unattached cells. When surface-grown cells were resuspended in fresh medium, exopolymer production decreased to the level characteristic of unattached cells, which ruled out the possibility that attached cells comprised a subpopulation of sticky mucoid variants. The mechanism by which attachment stimulated exopolymer synthesis did not involve changes of the specific growth rate, growth stage, or limiting nutrient.

  18. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  19. Extraforaminal ligament attachments of human lumbar nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, G A; Delwel, E J; Hoogland, P V J M; van der Veen, M R; Wuisman, P I J M; Stoeckart, R; Kleinrensink, G J; Snijders, C J

    2005-03-15

    An anatomic study of the extraforaminal attachments of the lumbar spinal nerves was performed using human lumbar spinal columns. To identify and describe the existence of ligamentous structures at each lumbar level that attach lumbar spinal nerves to structures at the level of the extraforaminal region. During the last 120 years, several mechanisms to protect the spinal nerve against traction have been described. All these structures involved are located in the spinal canal, proximal to the intervertebral foramen. Five embalmed human lumbar spines (T12-S1) were used. Bilaterally, the extraforaminal region was dissected to describe and measure anatomic structures and their relationships. Histology was performed with staining on the sites of attachment and along the ligament. The levels T12-L2 show bilaterally 2 ligaments, a superior extraforaminal ligament and an inferior extraforaminal ligament. The superior extraforaminal ligament emerges from the joint capsule of the facet joints and inserts in both, the intervertebral disc and the ventral crista of the intervertebral foramen, passing the spinal nerve laterally. In one specimen on level L2-L3, the superior extraforaminal ligament is not attached to the spinal nerve. The inferior extraforaminal ligament emerges from the intervertebral disc, passing the nerve medially and attaching the spinal nerve. At the levels L2-L5, the inferior extraforaminal ligaments are only attached to the intervertebral disc, not to the joint capsule. Histologically, the ligaments consisted of mainly collagenous structures. Ligamentous connections exist between lumbar extraforaminal spinal nerves and nearby structures.

  20. Wait Up!: Attachment and Sovereign Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Sociologists and feminist scholars have, over many decades, characterised attachment as a social construction that functions to support political and gender conservatism. We accept that attachment theory has seen use to these ends and consider recent deployments of attachment theory as justification for a minimal State within conservative political discourse in the UK since 2009. However, we contest that attachment is reducible to its discursive construction. We consider Judith Butler’s depiction of the infant attached to an abusive caregiver as a foundation and parallel to the position of the adult citizen subjected to punitive cultural norms and political institutions. We develop and qualify Butler’s account, drawing on the insights offered by the work of Lauren Berlant. We also return to Foucault’s Psychiatric Power lectures, in which familial relations are situated as an island of sovereign power within the sea of modern disciplinary institutions. These reflections help advance analysis of three important issues: the social and political implications of attachment research; the relationship between disciplinary and sovereign power in the affective dynamic of subjection; and the political and ethical status of professional activity within the psy disciplines. PMID:28904425

  1. Chronic family adversity and infant attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D S; Vondra, J I

    1993-10-01

    A beginning step in the prevention of psychopathology in children is the identification of conditions and events associated with a disproportionately high incidence of behavior problems. Rutter, Cox, Tupling, Berger and Yule (1975a, British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 493-509) have reported a dramatic increase in the probability of children's adjustment difficulties as a function of multiple family stressors. However, this association has never been tested with infants. Among instruments of infant behavior, attachment classification has been found to be a significant predictor of later adjustment problems, particularly among low-income samples. The present investigation examines the relation between six significant familial stressors and infant attachment security in a sample of 100 low-income parent-infant dyads. Family stressors included parental criminality, maternal depressive symptomatology, maternal personality risk, overcrowding in the home, and the quality of the relationship with a significant other. Cumulative family adversity was found to differentiate secure from insecure infants, but only among families with three or four stressors present. There also was moderate support for one hypothesis derived from attachment theory, namely that stressors more closely associated with maternal functioning are more common among families with insecurely attached infants. Conceptual links between stressors and attachment are discussed, including pathways by which chronic stressors may interfere with the formation and maintenance of secure mother-infant attachment relations.

  2. The relationship between attachment and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  3. [Sibling relations from the family therapy perspective--support, attachment, rivalry and envy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierpka, M

    2001-01-01

    In family therapy, during the last years more and more importance is attached to the dynamics of the sibling subsystem. In the present paper differences between them as well as similarities are discussed from the point of view of family theory. Relevant dimensions like support, attachment, rivalry and envy between brothers and sisters contribute essentially to the family dynamics. In this clinically orientated paper, we describe by means of a case example how the couple's conflicts after their separation is unconsciously repeated in the sibling subsystem. It is shown how the intergenerational dynamics can be interrupted by the initiative of the children and the initiated family therapy.

  4. Does Attachment Get Under the Skin? Adult Romantic Attachment and Cortisol Responses to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietromonaco, Paula R; DeBuse, Casey J; Powers, Sally I

    2013-02-01

    Although many studies indicate that people in low quality relationships are less healthy, precisely how relationships influence health remains unclear. We focus on one physiological pathway that may provide clues to understanding the link between relationships and health: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Evidence indicates that attachment processes in adult romantic relationships are associated with HPA responses to stress (assessed via cortisol levels). Specifically, attachment insecurity predicts different cortisol patterns than does attachment security, especially when the stressor potentially threatens the relationship. Thus, attachment may get under the skin through biological responses to attachment-relevant stressors, but further work is needed to pinpoint the complete physiological and behavioral pathways through which attachment may influence health and disease outcomes.

  5. God as the ultimate attachment figure for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2004-12-01

    Attachment to God among older adults is an area of research that has been neglected thus far. The existence of such an attachment was explored in a study of 109 elders aged 70-97. A modest proportion of elders displayed a strong attachment to God, assessed by coding interview data for indicators of attachment. Strength of attachment to God was related (p God than those with other affiliations. Findings are interpreted in relation to existing literature on attachment to God.

  6. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: the influence of attachment primes on the content of state attachment representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David P.; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  7. Attachment styles at work: Measurement, collegial relationships, and burnout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leiter, Michael P; Day, Arla; Price, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    ...) and with the efficacy dimension of burnout. Overall, compared to attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety was more strongly correlated with experienced and instigated workplace incivility, exhaustion...

  8. 'Adoption and attachment theory' the attachment models of adoptive mothers and the revision of attachment patterns of their late-adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, C S; Zavattini, G C

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the attachment patterns of late-adopted children (aged 4-7) and their adoptive mothers during the first 7- to 8-month period after adoption and aimed to evaluate the effect of adoptive mothers' attachment security on the revision of the attachment patterns of their late-adopted children. We assessed attachment patterns in 20 adoptive dyads and 12 genetically related dyads at two different times: T1 (time 1) within 2 months of adoption and T2 (time 2) 6 months after T1. The children's behavioural attachment patterns were assessed using the Separation-Reunion Procedure and the children's representational (verbal) attachment patterns using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task. The attachment models of the adoptive mothers were classified using the Adult Attachment Interview. We found that there was a significant enhancement of the late-adopted children's attachment security across the time period considered (P= 0.008). Moreover, all the late-adopted children who showed a change from insecurity to security had adoptive mothers with secure attachment models (P= 0.044). However, the matching between maternal attachment models and late-adopted children's attachment patterns (behaviours and representations) was not significant. Our data suggest that revision of the attachment patterns in the late-adopted children is possible but gradual, and that the adoptive mothers' attachment security makes it more likely to occur. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. [Intergenerational transmission of late-adolescent adult attachment styles: does attachment recur?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemasa, Yuji

    2007-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine intergenerational transmission of attachment styles between late-adolescent children and their mothers. The purpose of the study was to reveal whether the two attachment dimensions, "Anxiety (about relationship)" and "Avoidance (of intimacy)" were related between children and their mothers, and whether these relations were mediated by the both children's and mothers' perceptions of parenting. Participants were 209 pairs of late-adolescent children and their mothers. Results revealed that the attachment dimensions of "Anxiety" and "Avoidance" in children significantly correlated to the same dimensions in their mothers. Based on attachment theory, it was hypothesized that intergenerational transmission of attachment styles was caused by the influence of the following factors: "(a) mothers' attachment styles, (b) mothers' perceptions of parenting, (c) children's perceptions of their mothers' parenting, and (d) children's attachment styles", and possible causal models of the influence processes among those variables were developed and tested in the data analyses. The results showed the validity of these processes for the intergenerational transmission of attachment styles. These results are discussed in terms of the relationships between children and mothers and late-adolescent/adult attachment styles.

  10. Assessing attachment: convergent validity of the adult attachment interview and the parental bonding instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, K; Owens, M; Adam, K S; West, M; Sheldon-Keller, A E

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) can provide information about parent-child attachment that is comparable to information obtained from the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), a more complex measure of attachment. One hundred and thirty emotionally and/or behaviourally disturbed adolescents (73 male, 57 female; ages 13-19 years, x = 15.3 +/- 1.47 years) participating in a study of attachment and suicidality completed the PBI and the AAI. Data from these measures were compared within participants. Maternal care and overprotection on the PBI differed significantly by AAI attachment classification (F3,122 = 2.79, p = 0.012), with autonomous participants showing the most optimal and unresolved participants the least optimal PBI results. Maternal love and maternal involvement/role reversal on the AAI were significant predictors of maternal care and maternal overprotection, respectively, on the PBI (R2 = 0.15; R2 = 0.16). These predictions improved when AAI scales measuring idealisation and involving anger towards the mother were included in the regression analyses (R2 = 0.35; R2 = 0.20). Autonomous participants on AAI showed the highest scale correlations across instruments. Attachment information obtained from the PBI and the AAI is comparable in participants with optimal attachment histories, but not in participants showing idealisation or anger towards their mothers. Caution is, therefore, advisable when using the PBI to obtain attachment information in clinical samples where suboptimal attachment histories are likely.

  11. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  12. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M; Scottish Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals Scottish Spca

    2017-05-06

    Attachment to pets has an important role in children's social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  13. A novel GuttaFlow sealer supports cell survival and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Chelsea; Himel, Van T; Lallier, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the biocompatibility of a novel formulation of a silicone-based endodontic sealer GuttaFlow 2 (GF2; Coltène/Whaledent, Langenau, Germany) with the original (GFO) and fast-set (GFF) formulations of GuttaFlow and with an epoxy resin sealer, AHPlus Jet (AH+J; Dentsply, York, PA). Sealers were set into 3 × 5.5 mm discs. Cell culture media was used to extract leachable products at 24 hours and 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were incubated with sealer elutes for 24 hours and evaluated using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the calcein AM assay. Cell attachment was evaluated on set sealer that was either rinsed or unrinsed with cell media for 1 week. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. Both calcein and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays revealed that periodontal ligament cell viability was reduced on AH+J at 1, 2, and 4 weeks compared with all GuttaFlow sealers. There were no differences in cell viability between the GuttaFlow samples, and all displayed high rates of cell survival at all time periods. After 2 hours, cell attachment to the rinsed GFO and GFF samples exceeded the control, and at 24 hours cell attachment on all GuttaFlow samples exceeded the control. AH+J sealers supported significantly less cell attachment when compared with all GuttaFlow sealers. Cell attachment to set sealers showed better cell attachment when rinsed compared with unrinsed. GuttaFlow sealers were more biocompatible than AHJ in vitro. The novel GF2 displayed comparable biocompatibility with GFF and GFO. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The mitotic checkpoint kinase NEK2A regulates kinetochore microtubule attachment stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Cai, X; Yao, J; Ding, X; Wu, Q; Pei, S; Jiang, K; Zhang, Y; Wang, W; Shi, Y; Lai, Y; Shen, J; Teng, M; Huang, H; Fei, Q; Reddy, E S; Zhu, J; Jin, C; Yao, X

    2008-07-03

    Loss or gain of whole chromosome, the form of chromosome instability commonly associated with cancers is thought to arise from aberrant chromosome segregation during cell division. Chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by the interaction of kinetochores with spindle microtubules. Our studies show that NEK2A is a kinetochore-associated protein kinase essential for faithful chromosome segregation. However, it was unclear how NEK2A ensures accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that NEK2A-mediated Hec1 (highly expressed in cancer) phosphorylation is essential for faithful kinetochore microtubule attachments in mitosis. Using phospho-specific antibody, our studies show that NEK2A phosphorylates Hec1 at Ser165 during mitosis. Although such phosphorylation is not required for assembly of Hec1 to the kinetochore, expression of non-phosphorylatable mutant Hec1(S165) perturbed chromosome congression and resulted in a dramatic increase in microtubule attachment errors, including syntelic and monotelic attachments. Our in vitro reconstitution experiment demonstrated that Hec1 binds to microtubule in low affinity and phosphorylation by NEK2A, which prevents aberrant kinetochore-microtubule connections in vivo, increases the affinity of the Ndc80 complex for microtubules in vitro. Thus, our studies illustrate a novel regulatory mechanism in which NEK2A kinase operates a faithful chromosome attachment to spindle microtubule, which prevents chromosome instability during cell division.

  15. Probing the Pathways and Interactions Controlling Crystallization by Particle Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Yoreo, J. J.; Li, D.; Chun, J.; Schenter, G.; Mundy, C.; Rosso, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Crystallization by particle attachment appears to be a widespread mechanism of mineralization. Yet many long-standing questions surrounding nucleation and assembly of precursor particles remain unanswered, due in part to a lack of tools to probe mineralization dynamics with adequate spatial and temporal resolution. Here we report results of liquid phase TEM studies of nucleation and particle assembly in a number of mineral systems. We interpret the results within a framework that considers the impact of both the complexity of free energy landscapes and kinetic factors associated with high supersaturation or slow dynamics. In the calcium carbonate system, the need for high supersturations to overcome the high barrier to nucleation of calcite leads to simultaneous occurrence of multiple pathways, including direct formation of all the common ploymorphs, as well as two-step pathways through which initial precursors, particularly ACC, undergo a direct transformation to a more stable phase. Introduction of highly charged polymers that bind calcium inhibits nucleation, but directs the pathway to a metastable amorphous phase that no longer transforms to more stable polymorphs. Experiments in the iron oxide and oxyhydroxide systems show that, when high supersaturations lead to nucleation of many nanoprticles, further growth occurs through a combination of particle aggregation events and Ostwald ripening. In some cases, aggregation occurs only through oriented attachment on lattice matched faces, leading to single crystals with complex topologies and internal twin boundaries, while in others aggregation results initially in poor co-alignment, but over time the particles undergo atomic rearrangements to achieve a single crystal structure. AFM-based measurements of forces between phyllosilicate surfaces reveal the importance of long-range dispersion interactions in driving alignment, as well as the impact of electrolyte concentration and temperature on the competition of those

  16. Attachment, intellectual disabilities and mental health: research, assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuengel, Carlo; de Schipper, Johanna Clasien; Sterkenburg, Paula S; Kef, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory is highly influential in child and adult mental health research and practice. Research and practice have started now to explore the potential value of an attachment perspective for understanding and alleviating the challenges that persons with intellectual disabilities face in mental health and social participation. Research on attachment and intellectual disabilities is reviewed on its importance for knowledge, assessment and intervention. Progress was found in understanding and distinguishing attachment behaviours, attachment relationships, attachment representations, attachment styles and attachment disorders and their respective implications for assessment and intervention. Of the various attachment-related concepts, insights into attachment behaviours and relationships showed the most promise for practical applications in the field of intellectual disabilities. Findings on representations, styles and disorders were inconclusive or preliminary. Attachment-informed research and practice can be part of emerging developmental understanding of functioning with intellectual disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  18. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  19. Survival and development of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro after assisted hatching, vitrification and in-straw direct rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, G; Holm, P; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an efficient combination of assisted hatching and cryopreservation procedures for producing bovine embryos in vitro. A total of 1312 day 7 blastocysts were subjected randomly to 14 different combinations of three factors: osmotic stress, assisted hatching and vitrification. Re-expansion, initiation and completion of the hatching process, as well as attachment to the culture dish, were analysed by SAS Genmod procedure. Incubation with sucrose was found to decrease survival rates; among the assisted hatching procedures used, zona fenestration resulted in higher survival rates compared with partial zona dissection and controls; and vitrification decreased survival and further development. The combined effect of sucrose incubation and vitrification decreased further development markedly, as did partial zona dissection followed by vitrification. Partial zona dissection performed in medium containing sucrose severely lowered embryo survival. Zona fenestration without sucrose incubation followed by vitrification did not compromise further embryo development: 86%, 84% and 79% of the blastocysts initiated, completed hatching and attached to the bottom, respectively. These data were not different from the controls (80%, 76% and 63%, respectively; P > 0.05). Cell count analysis revealed a decrease in the total number of cells as a result of the assisted hatching and vitrification compared with controls (135 versus 202, respectively; P embryo transfer results (36% pregnancy rate and 30% calving rate) require further improvement, this combination of methods may prove useful in the commercial production of bovine embryos in vitro.

  20. Upward lightning attachment analysis on wind turbines and correlated current parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Ishii, M.; Saito, M.

    2017-01-01

    . The dataset of video recordings and current measurements originates from the Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization Furthermore (NEDO) measurement campaign (2008 – 2013) which documented lightning incidences on wind turbines mainly during the winter season at the Sea of Japan....... for intense upward lightning activity. 172 video recordings of lightning discharges on rotating wind turbines are analysed and attachment angle, detachment angle, and the resulting angular displacement were determined. A classification between self-initiated and other-triggered upward lightning events...... is performed by means of video analysis. The results reveal that the majority of discharges are initiated on vertical blades; however, also attachments to horizontal blades are reported. Horizontal attachment (or a slightly inclined blade state) is often related with a triggered lightning event prior...

  1. Attachment capability of antagonistic yeast Rhodotorula glutinis to Botrytis cinerea contributes to biocontrol efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boqiang eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodotorula glutinis as an antagonism show good biocontrol performance against various postharvest diseases in fruits. In the present study, strong attachment capability of R. glutinis to spores and hyphae of Botrytis cinerea was observed. Further analysis showed that certain protein components on the yeast cell surface played critical role during the interaction between R. glutinis and B. cinerea. The components mainly distributed at the poles of yeast cells and might contain glycosylation modification, as tunicamycin treated yeast cells lost attachment capability to B. cinerea. To investigate contributions of attachment capability of R. glutinis to its biocontrol efficacy, yeast cells were mutagenized with 3% methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMS, and a mutant CE4 with stable non-attaching phenotype was obtained. No significant difference was found on colony, cell morphology, reproductive ability and capsule formation between the mutant and wild type. However, there was a distinct difference in India ink positive staining patterns between the two strains. Moreover, wild type strain of R. glutinis showed better performance on inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea than CE4 strain when yeast cells and B. cinerea were co-cultured in vitro. In biocontrol assay, both wild type and CE4 strains showed significant biocontrol efficacy against gray mould caused by B. cinerea in apple fruit, whereas, control effect of CE4 strain was lower than that of wild type. Our findings provided new evidences that attachment capability of R. glutinis to B. cinerea contributed to its biocontrol efficacy.

  2. Evaluation of blood cell attachment on Er: YAG laser applied root surface using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekici, Ali; Maden, Ilay; Yildiz, Sercan; San, Tangul; Isik, Gulden

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration is dependent on the uninterrupted adhesion, maturation and absorption of fibrin clots to a periodontally compromised root surface. The modification of the root surface with different agents has been used for better fibrin clot formation and blood cell attachment. It is known that Er:YAG laser application on dentin removes the smear layer succesfully. The aim of this study is to observe blood cell attachment and fibrin network formation following ER:YAG laser irradiation on periodontally compromised root surfaces in comparison to chemical root conditioning techniques in vitro. 40 dentin blocks prepared from freshly extracted periodontally compromised hopeless teeth. Specimens were divided in 5 groups; those applied with PBS, EDTA, Citric acid and Er:YAG. They were further divided into two groups: those which had received these applications, and the control group. The specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscope and micrographs were taken. Smear layer and blood cell attachment scoring was performed. In the Er:YAG laser applied group, smear layer were totally removed. In the blood applied specimens, better fibrin clot formation and blood cell attachment were observed in the Er:YAG group. In the group that had been applied with citric acid, the smear layer was also removed. The smear layer could not be fully removed in the EDTA group. Er:YAG laser application on the root dentin seems to form a suitable surface for fibrin clot formation and blood cell attachment. Further clinical studies to support these results are necessitated.

  3. PP2A regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment during meiosis I in oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, An; Shi, Peiliang; Song, Anying; Zou, Dayuan; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Pengyu; Huang, Zan; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-06-02

    Studies using in vitro cultured oocytes have indicated that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase, participates in multiple steps of meiosis. Details of oocyte maturation regulation by PP2A remain unclear and an in vivo model can provide more convincing information. Here, we inactivated PP2A by mutating genes encoding for its catalytic subunits (PP2Acs) in mouse oocytes. We found that eliminating both PP2Acs caused female infertility. Oocytes lacking PP2Acs failed to complete 1(st) meiotic division due to chromosome misalignment and abnormal spindle assembly. In mitosis, PP2A counteracts Aurora kinase B/C (AurkB/C) to facilitate correct kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment. In meiosis I in oocyte, we found that PP2Ac deficiency destabilized KT-MT attachments. Chemical inhibition of AurkB/C in PP2Ac-null oocytes partly restored the formation of lateral/merotelic KT-MT attachments but not correct KT-MT attachments. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PP2Acs are essential for chromosome alignments and regulate the formation of correct KT-MT attachments in meiosis I in oocytes.

  4. Resistance to wear of four matrices with ball attachments for implant overdentures: a fatigue study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchi, Roberto; Vangi, Dario; Virga, Antonio; Guertin, Genevieve; Fazi, Giovanni

    2010-12-01

    The study evaluated in vitro the retention force and the wear resistance over simulated function of four matrix components of ball attachments for implant-retained overdentures. Four types of matrices for ball attachments were evaluated in a fatigue study simulating 5500 cycles of insertion and removal. The matrices used were (1) a Teflon matrix supported by a metal housing, (2) a titanium matrix, (3) a gold alloy matrix, (4) an O-ring matrix using the red color ring for medium retention. Dimensional changes of the ball attachments were investigated with a profilometer. The Teflon matrices showed an increase of 27% in retention at 5500 cycles while the gold alloy matrices showed an increase of 50% in retention in the first 500 cycles and remained relatively stable up to 5500 cycles. On the other hand, titanium matrices and O-ring matrices exhibited progressive loss of retention ending with 68% and 75% of retention loss, respectively, at 5500 cycles. Dimensional analysis by profilometer revealed significant wear on the ball attachment only for titanium matrixes. Gold alloy and Teflon matrices showed the highest retention values without retention loss after 3 years of simulated function. Titanium and O-ring matrices presented a continuous loss of retention with the highest wear on the ball attachments when combined with the titanium matrix. © 2010 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Comparison of changes in retentive force of three stud attachments for implant overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Min; Choi, Jae-Won; Jeon, Young-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Lee, So-Hyoun; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the changes in retentive force of stud attachments for implant overdentures by in vitro 2-year-wear simulation. Three commercially available attachment systems were investigated: Kerator blue, O-ring red, and EZ lock. Two implant fixtures were embedded in parallel in each custom base mounting. Five pairs of each attachment system were tested. A universal testing machine was used to measure the retentive force during 2500 insertion and removal cycles. Surface changes on the components were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Pairwise comparison, was used to compare the retentive force between the groups, and to determine groups that were significantly different (αO-ring and EZ lock attachments. However, no significant difference was detected between Kerator and O-ring (P>.05). After 2500 insertion and removal cycles, the highest retention loss was recorded for O-ring, and no significant difference between Kerator and EZ lock (P>.05). Also, Kerator showed the highest retentive force, followed by EZ lock and O-ring, after 2500 cycles (PO-ring and Kerator were observed to exhibit surface wear and deformation. After 2500 insertion and removal cycles, all attachments exhibited significant loss in retention. Mechanism of retention loss can only be partially explained by surface changes.

  6. Room-temperature attachment of PLGA microspheres to titanium surfaces for implant-based drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongqin; Liu, Qing; Wang, Dongwei; Xie, Tao; Guo, Tailin; Duan, Ke; Weng, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Drug release from implant surfaces is an effective approach to impart biological activities, (e.g., antimicrobial and osteogenic properties) to bone implants. Coatings of polylactide-based polymer are a candidate for this purpose, but a continuous (fully covering) coating may be non-optimal for implant-bone fixation. This study reports a simple room-temperature method for attaching poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres to titanium (Ti) surfaces. Microspheres were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the emulsifier. Microspheres were attached to Ti discs by pipetting as a suspension onto the surfaces followed by vacuum drying. After immersion in shaking water bath for 14 d, a substantial proportion of the microspheres remained attached to the discs. In contrast, if the vacuum-drying procedure was omitted, only a small fraction of the microspheres remained attached to the discs after immersion for only 5 min. Microspheres containing triclosan (a broad-spectrum antibiotic) were attached by porous-surfaced Ti discs. In vitro experiments showed that the microsphere-carrying discs were able to kill Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia Coli, and support the adhesion and growth of primary rat osteoblasts. This simple method may offer a flexible technique for bone implant-based drug release.

  7. Attachment and Learning. Part II: The Learning Profile of the Avoidant and Disorganized Attachment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Using the framework of Attachment Theory, and following on from Part 1, further patterns of Attachment Behaviour are described and linked to responses in the classroom. The Avoidant and Disorganized patterns are described and linked to responses in the classroom to the teacher and to the educational task illustrated by examples from practice.…

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  9. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  10. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  11. [ADHD and attachment processes: are they related?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, N; Maury, M; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2009-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined on the basis of developmentally inappropriate inattention, motor activity and impulsivity that emerges early in development and causes impairment in social and academic functioning. ADHD is described as a multifactorial disease, with a well studied genetic vulnerability, and early environmental factors also playing an important role in the development and course of the disorder. Current aetiological models emphasize interaction between genes and environment. The concept of attachment, as proposed by John Bowlby, reflects quality of early interactions, and should therefore be considered as an early developmental factor. First, clinical findings emphasize similitude between both disorders; emotional dysregulation is an important feature in reactive attachment disorder as well as in ADHD. Emotion regulation is highly related to attachment security in young children and could play a part in the development of early attention processes. Moreover, difficult temperament is associated with higher risk for ADHD on the one hand, and can disturb the process of attachment on the other. Parental caregiving - including maternal sensitivity, positive parenting practices - is a main factor involved in the development of attachment, and has shown to be associated with better outcomes in ADHD children, especially with less oppositional/conduct disorders. Second, the aim of our review is to present clinical studies that have looked for a link between ADHD and attachment: the type of attachment could play a part in the course of the disorder: insecure and disorganised attachment types tend to be associated with a higher risk of externalised behaviors in children. For ADHD, this effect seems to be weaker than for other externalised disorders, and has been shown only in populations of at-risk children. Clinical studies also raise the question of possible links between reactive attachment disorder and ADHD. In children suffering

  12. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  13. Attachment, caregiving, and altruism: boosting attachment security increases compassion and helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Gillath, Omri; Nitzberg, Rachel A

    2005-11-01

    Recent studies based on J. Bowlby's (1969/1982) attachment theory reveal that both dispositional and experimentally enhanced attachment security facilitate cognitive openness and empathy, strengthen self-transcendent values, and foster tolerance of out-group members. Moreover, dispositional attachment security is associated with volunteering to help others in everyday life and to unselfish motives for volunteering. The present article reports 5 experiments, replicated in 2 countries (Israel and the United States), testing the hypothesis that increases in security (accomplished through both implicit and explicit priming techniques) foster compassion and altruistic behavior. The hypothesized effects were consistently obtained, and various alternative explanations were explored and ruled out. Dispositional attachment-related anxiety and avoidance adversely influenced compassion, personal distress, and altruistic behavior in theoretically predictable ways. As expected, attachment security provides a foundation for care-oriented feelings and caregiving behaviors, whereas various forms of insecurity suppress or interfere with compassionate caregiving. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Personality disorders and romantic adult attachment: a comparison of secure and insecure attached child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Stefan; Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias

    2006-04-01

    This study analyzed personality disorders in a group of 33 securely and 51 insecurely attached child molesters. A total of 51 child molesters were selected from a community based educational training program, and the other group was selected from a Belgian prison (n = 33). Research shows that adult attachment styles and personality disorders share a common underlying structure. It is remarkable that very little is known about differences between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. In this study, the authors found that the schizoid personality disorder differed between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. These findings have implications for the aetiology and treatment of child molesters. Future research is necessary to determine patterns of attachment in relationship to personality disorders.

  15. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed.

  16. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy......, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently...... the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis...

  17. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  18. Role of Attachment in Response to Pet Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P.; Orsini, Lisa; Gavish, Roni; Packman, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of attachment on grief severity following the death of a pet. Seventy-one participants who had lost a dog or cat within the past year completed a set of measures that included an attachment measure assessing individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance, strength of the past attachment to the pet, the…

  19. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design feature means either the manufacturer...

  2. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  3. Clinical decision - making review on magnetic attachments versus mechanical attachments in dental prosthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fabiano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Conventional dentures in edentulous patients show some limitations due to the lack of retention, support and stability thus resulting in difficulty to chew. The modern implantology allows to use different implant overdentures and different attachment systems. The selection of the attachment by practitioners is mainly influenced by the clinical experience or technical preferences. Aims The aim of the present review is to provide an adequate background to the clinicians, in order to select the prosthetic attachments according to the current literature. The mechanical attachments have been compared to the magnetic devices, with the aim to guide the decision of the practitioners. Methods Articles topics selection was based on the use of magnetic attachments in dentistry and the comparison between them and mechanical connectors. The databases used were PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science. A critical evaluation of the selected paper has been made to choose the ones that matched the inclusion criteria. Results Nowadays, few studies have compared different attachments in a manner useful for clinical decision-making. The main problem limiting long-term durability of magnetic attachments in the oral fluid is the poor corrosion resistance of permanent magnets and the consequent leaching of cytotoxic ions. Conclusion Magnetic attachments in comparison with other attaching systems can be useful in patients with special needs, in patients with limited interocclusal space, or in patients with neuromuscular limitations, thanks to the automatic reseating properties. However, it’s important to highlight that the mechanical attachments still represent the best choice in common conditions requiring dental prostheses.

  4. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of lightning flashes connecting lightning rods that

  5. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term "Child Attachment Interview" in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  6. Attachment styles and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer; Mickelson, Kristin D

    2004-10-01

    Previous research on attachment theory has focused on mean differences in level of self-esteem among people with different attachment styles. The present study examines the associations between attachment styles and different bases of self-esteem, or contingencies of self-worth, among a sample of 795 college students. Results showed that attachment security was related to basing self-worth on family support. Both the preoccupied attachment style and fearful attachment style were related to basing self-worth on physical attractiveness. The dismissing attachment style was related to basing self-worth less on others' approval, family support, and God's love.

  7. Adult attachment and incidental memory for emotional words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanxin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A dual task of attachment priming and memory recognition was proposed to explore the effect of adult attachment styles on the incidental memory for emotional words. Subjects completed an attachment priming task which intends to activate internal working model of attachment by describing attachment-related scenes, and then an incidental memory recognition test of words which differ in emotional meaning and relevance of attachment styles. Signal detection theory was used to compare the discriminability index and decision criterion of emotional words in subjects of different attachment style. Results showed that subjects with secure attachment styles performed better than insecure-attached subjects in the memory recognition test, in terms of higher hit rate, lower false alarm rate, and higher discriminability index. We extended the influence of attachment styles on cognition to lower level of incidental memory, not just on higher cognitive level with emotional arousal as suggested by previous research.

  8. Symplectic and antiplectic waves in an array of beating cilia attached to a closed body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Aref; Najafi, Ali

    2017-05-01

    By taking into account the hydrodynamic interactions in a one dimensional array of model cilia attached to a no-slip cylinderical surface, we investigate their synchronized motion. We show how the emergence of metachronal waves depends on the initial state of the system and investigate the conditions under which the formation of symplectic and antiplectic waves are possible.

  9. Towards understanding inter-strain attachment variations of Escherichia coli during transport in saturated quartz sand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J.W.; Lutterodt, G.; Roling, W.F.M.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2010-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is an indicator of fecal contamination in aquifers, limited research has been devoted to understanding the biological processes involved in the initial attachment of E. coli transported in abiotic porous media. The roles of the various surface structures of E. coli, like

  10. Infant-parent attachment: Definition, types, antecedents, measurement and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Attachment theory is one of the most popular and empirically grounded theories relating to parenting. The purpose of the present article is to review some pertinent aspects of attachment theory and findings from attachment research. Attachment is one specific aspect of the relationship between a child and a parent with its purpose being to make a child safe, secure and protected. Attachment is distinguished from other aspects of parenting, such as disciplining, entertaining and teaching. Comm...

  11. [Attachment behavior with respect to mothers and fathers and attachment representations in five and seven-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Lilith; Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Zweyer, Karen

    2007-01-01

    During preschool and early school age attachment quality can be assessed by different means: at the behavioral level by the Strange Situation (SS), at the representational level by semiprojective methods using story stems or pictures. Both methods gain access to different levels of a theoretically assumed inner working model of attachment, in which attachment at the behavioral level is supposed to be person specific, attachment at the representational level generalized. This study aimed at analyzing whether attachment behavior to mother and father is associated, and how it is linked to the generalized attachment representation. It was also examined whether in the case of no association between mother and father attachment behavior towards the major attachment figure is linked to the attachment representation. In the Duesseldorf study 67 children aged 5 years were observed in the SS with mother, 31 of them also in the SS with father. At the age of 6.5 years an attachment story completion task was conducted. When person specific attachment to mother and father was congruent (SS secure n=6, or insecure n=8) the attachment representation was consistent as well, when father and mother attachment were discrepant no association with attachment representation could be found. The findings did not confirm a stronger influence of the major attachment figure on the formation of the attachment representation.

  12. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  13. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Parental Attachment and Children’s Memory for Attachment-Relevant Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, Helen M.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence that parents’ attachment is associated with children’s memory, less is known about the mechanisms underlying this association or the contexts in which the association is most meaningful. The present study examined whether parents’ attachment predicted children’s memory for stories about attachment-related topics, whether the cohesiveness of children’s stories mediated the association between attachment and memory, and whether the association varied by interview support at retrieval. Five- to 6-year-olds completed attachment-relevant stories while parents provided information about their romantic attachment. Children’s stories were coded for cohesiveness. A week later, children’s memory for their stories was tested by either a supportive or non-supportive interviewer. When the interview was non-supportive, greater parental avoidance was associated with poorer memory, whereas when the interview was supportive, greater parental avoidance was associated with fewer errors. Findings provide insight into the context under which parents’ attachment is most influential in shaping children’s memory. PMID:29308006

  15. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  16. Viii. Attachment and sleep among toddlers: disentangling attachment security and dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Bernier, Annie; Simard, Valérie; Bordeleau, Stéphanie; Carrier, Julie

    2015-03-01

    Many scholars have proposed that parent-child attachment security should favor child sleep. Research has yet, however, to provide convincing support for this hypothesis. The current study used objective measures of sleep and attachment to assess the longitudinal links between mother-child attachment security and subsequent sleep, controlling for child dependency. Sixty-two middle-class families (30 girls) were met twice, when children were 15 months (Wave 1; W1) and 2 years of age (Wave 2; W2). At W1, mother-child attachment was assessed with the observer version of the Attachment Q-Sort. At W2, children wore an actigraph monitor for 72 hr. Results indicated that children more securely attached to their mothers subsequently slept more at night and had higher sleep efficiency, and these predictions were not confounded by child dependency. These findings suggest a unique role for secure attachment relationships in the development of young children's sleep regulation, while addressing methodological issues that have long precluded consensus in this literature. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. No Strings Attached: Open Source Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Imagine downloading a new software application and not having to worry about licensing, finding dollars in the budget, or incurring additional maintenance costs. Imagine finding a Web design tool in the public domain--free for use. Imagine major universities that provide online courses with no strings attached. Imagine online textbooks without a…

  18. Surface-attached orthogonal gradient hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnayan Kannan, Pandiyarajan; Genzer, Jan

    Gradient materials play a significant role in the creation of artificial implants due to their potential to reduce stress concentration when two or more structures with different mechanical properties are joined together, e . g . , tendon, a fibrous protein that connects the soft and hard muscle tissues in our body. We employ free radical polymerization to synthesize random copolymers containing 90% of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm), 5% photo-active methacrylyloxybenzophenone (MABP) and 5% thermally-active styrenesulfonylazide (SSAz) crosslinkers. The presence of MABP and SSAz facilitates adjusting gel density on a flat support in two orthogonal directions by spatially and independently controlling UV dosage and temperature. The swelling behavior (α) of the gels in water and methanol is examined using a spectroscopic ellipsometry and the degree of swelling depends on the extent of crosslinking that ranges from α = 1-1.2 (highly crosslinked gels) to α = 4-5 (loosely crosslinked gels). We compare the network properties surface-attached gels and un-attached identical counterparts and confirm that the linear swelling ratio of surface-attached networks is higher than that of the corresponding un-attached gels.

  19. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  20. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended for use in prosthetic dentistry in... partial denture, to connect either an upper or lower partial denture to a tooth or a crown, or to connect...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of fluorophore attached silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    - sized using starch as both reducing and stabilizing agent. Such starch stabilized silver nanoparticles were attached with rhodamine 6G for in vivo studies. So far no in vivo study was done for silver nanoparticles in animals except for some in ...

  2. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disorders reported in childhood and adolescence. Strydom et al.[9] found that even ... Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a .... between family communication and conflict on depressive symptoms reported by adolescents.

  3. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  4. Morphological Heterogeneity and Attachment of Phaeobacter inhibens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Segev

    Full Text Available The Roseobacter clade is a key group of bacteria in the ocean exhibiting diverse metabolic repertoires and a wide range of symbiotic life-styles. Many Roseobacters possess remarkable capabilities of attachment to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. When attached to each other, these bacteria form multi-cellular structures called rosettes. Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied Roseobacter, exhibits various cell sizes and morphologies that are either associated with rosettes or occur as single cells. Here we describe the distribution of P. inhibens morphologies and rosettes within a population. We detect an N-acetylglucosamine-containing polysaccharide on the poles of some cells and at the center of all rosettes. We demonstrate that rosettes are formed by the attachment of individual cells at the polysaccharide-containing pole rather than by cell division. Finally, we show that P. inhibens attachment to abiotic surfaces is hindered by the presence of DNA from itself, but not from other bacteria. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that cell adhesiveness is likely to play a significant role in the life cycle of P. inhibens as well as other Roseobacters.

  5. Morphological Heterogeneity and Attachment of Phaeobacter inhibens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Einat; Tellez, Adèle; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Roseobacter clade is a key group of bacteria in the ocean exhibiting diverse metabolic repertoires and a wide range of symbiotic life-styles. Many Roseobacters possess remarkable capabilities of attachment to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. When attached to each other, these bacteria form multi-cellular structures called rosettes. Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied Roseobacter, exhibits various cell sizes and morphologies that are either associated with rosettes or occur as single cells. Here we describe the distribution of P. inhibens morphologies and rosettes within a population. We detect an N-acetylglucosamine-containing polysaccharide on the poles of some cells and at the center of all rosettes. We demonstrate that rosettes are formed by the attachment of individual cells at the polysaccharide-containing pole rather than by cell division. Finally, we show that P. inhibens attachment to abiotic surfaces is hindered by the presence of DNA from itself, but not from other bacteria. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that cell adhesiveness is likely to play a significant role in the life cycle of P. inhibens as well as other Roseobacters.

  6. Parental Attachment as Predictor of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaik, Lee Phaik; Abdullah, Maria Chong; Elias, Habibah; Uli, Jegak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between adolescents' parental attachment and delinquent behaviour in the aspects of trust, communication and alienation. In this study, delinquent behaviour refers to the set of behaviours which is against any mainstream established rules or norms. It is believed that delinquent…

  7. Being Different: Relational Demography and Organizational Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsue, Anne S.; Egan, Terri D.

    1992-01-01

    Draws on self-categorization theory (use of social characteristics to define psychological groups and promote positive self-identity) to explore the effects of demographic diversity on an individual's psychological and behavior attachment to an organization. Membership in a majority-dominated social group may both satisfy the minority member's…

  8. Attachment Contexts of Adolescent Friendship and Romance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judi Beinstein; Hoicowitz, Tova

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare memories of attachments to parents, friends, and romantic partners in relation to the maintenance of high school friendships and romantic relationships. College students recorded the length of their friendships and romantic relationships during high school and rated the quality of each. They also rated…

  9. Topological systems versus attachment relations | Guido ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The manuscript makes a category-theoretic comparison between the concepts of topological system of S. Vickers and attachment relation of C. Guido. With the help of the recent definition of the notions in the framework of an arbitrary variety of algebras, we consider functorial relationships between the categories of such ...

  10. Attachment Theory: Implications for School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Janice H.; Kennedy, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    The effective practice of school psychology requires a strong research and theoretical base, a framework that encompasses developmental processes and outcomes, both adaptive and maladaptive, which facilitates assessment and intervention and offers insight into classroom and family dynamics. Attachment theory provides the school psychologist with…

  11. Effect of attachment strategies on bipartite networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganguly, N.; Saha, S.; Maiti, A.

    2013-01-01

    of the emergent topological properties. We present a detail analysis of various growth strategies, including sequential and parallel addition of nodes, as well as with and without replacement attachment kernels. Analytical results have been compared with stochastic simulations as well as with real systems showing...

  12. Perceptions towards private medical practitioners\\' attachments for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To describe perceptions of medical students, recent medical graduates, faculty of the College of Medicine, University of Malawi and private medical practitioners (PMPs) towards an attachment of undergraduate medical students in private medical doctors' offices. Method Qualitative cross sectional study conducted ...

  13. Clinical Perspective Attachment, parenting styles and bullying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent–adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents.

  14. The statistical behaviour of attached eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, J. D.; Marusic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis forms the basis of an established model of the logarithmic layer in wall-bounded turbulent flows in which this inertially dominated region is characterised by a hierarchy of geometrically self-similar eddying motions that scale with their distance to the wall. The hypothesis has gained considerable support from high Reynolds number measurements of the second-order moments of the fluctuating velocities. Recently, Meneveau and Marusic ["Generalized logarithmic law for high-order moments in turbulent boundary layers," J. Fluid Mech. 719, R1 (2013)] presented experimental evidence that all even-ordered moments of the streamwise velocity will exhibit a logarithmic dependence on the distance from the wall. They demonstrated that this was consistent with the attached eddy hypothesis, so long as the velocity distribution is assumed to be Gaussian (which allows the use of the central limit theorem). In this paper, we derive this result from the attached eddy model without assuming a Gaussian velocity distribution, and find that such logarithmic behaviours are valid in the large Reynolds number limit. We also revisit the physical and mathematical basis of the attached eddy hypothesis, in order to increase rigour and minimise the assumptions required to apply the hypothesis. To this end, we have extended the proof of Campbell's theorem to apply to the velocity field corresponding to a forest of variously sized eddies that are randomly placed on the wall. This enables us to derive all moments of the velocity in the logarithmic region, including cross-correlations between different components of the velocity. By contrast, previous studies of the attached eddy hypothesis have considered only the mean velocity and its second order moments. From this, we obtain qualitatively correct skewnesses and flatnesses for the spanwise and wall-normal fluctuations. The issue of the Reynolds number dependence of von Kármán's constant is also addressed.

  15. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  16. Attachment, Development, and Mental Health in Abused and Neglected Preschool Children in Foster Care: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz

    2016-09-22

    A proper preparation for foster parents to care for abused and neglected children includes effective training and initial diagnostics in order to plan individual treatment. Hence, a basic knowledge about the main psychosocial and developmental problems associated with abuse and neglect and their prevalence in foster children is needed. For this purpose, a systematical literature review and a series of meta-analyses were conducted. A total of 25 studies reporting data on development (n = 4,033), mental health (n = 726), and attachment (n = 255) of foster children in preschool age met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analyses indicated prevalence rates of approximately 40% for developmental, mental health problems, and insecure attachment. Rates of disorganized attachment were estimated to 22%. These findings outline the necessity of an initial trauma-oriented diagnostics and trainings for foster parents that address foster children's development, mental health, and disorganized attachment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. 78 FR 59001 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Investigation Initiation Checklist: Chlorinated Isocyanurates from the People's Republic of China (``Initiation Checklist''), at Attachment II, Analysis of Industry Support for the Petitions Covering Chlorinated...

  18. Attachment style predicts 6-month improvement in psychoticism in persons with at-risk mental states for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Yanet; Tizón, Jorge L; Artigue, Jordi; Kwapil, Thomas R; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2012-11-01

    Insecure attachment may influence vulnerability to and outcome of psychotic symptomatology. The present study examined whether attachment style predicted symptoms and functioning of at-risk mental state (ARMS) patients after 6 months of psychosocial intervention, over and above the effects of initial clinical severity and premorbid social adjustment (PSA). Symptoms and functioning were assessed at baseline and 6 months later in 31 ARMS patients (mean age = 15.7). No patient received antipsychotic medication, but all engaged in intense psychosocial needs-adapted treatment. Clinicians (unaware of the aims of the study) rated attachment, PSA, symptoms, and functioning. Attachment was not related to baseline clinical severity. However, improvement in psychoticism was predicted by attachment (in particular by secure, preoccupied and dismissing) beyond the effects of baseline clinical severity and PSA. Secure attachment also predicted improvements in disorganization and functioning. Poor PSA predicted less improvement in disorganization and negative symptoms but did not impact psychoticism. The three attachment prototypes that predicted improvement in psychoticism (secure, preoccupied and dismissing) share the existence of at least one positive psychological model (either about self or about others). It may be that the psychosocial intervention helped ARMS patients to disconfirm negative models and/or reinforce positive ones. Patients' attachment styles were not related to baseline clinical severity but impacted improvement of positive symptoms. These findings appear consistent with evidence that impaired self-esteem and dysfunctional self and others schemas constitute risk factors for reality distortion. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Attachment and Invasion of Neisseria meningitidis to Host Cells Is Related to Surface Hydrophobicity, Bacterial Cell Size and Capsule

    OpenAIRE

    Bartley, Stephanie N.; Yih-Ling Tzeng; Kathryn Heel; Lee, Chiang W.; Shakeel Mowlaboccus; Torsten Seemann; Wei Lu; Ya-Hsun Lin; Ryan, Catherine S.; Christopher Peacock; Stephens, David S.; Davies, John K.; Kahler, Charlene M.

    2013-01-01

    We compared exemplar strains from two hypervirulent clonal complexes, strain NMB-CDC from ST-8/11 cc and strain MC58 from ST-32/269 cc, in host cell attachment and invasion. Strain NMB-CDC attached to and invaded host cells at a significantly greater frequency than strain MC58. Type IV pili retained the primary role for initial attachment to host cells for both isolates regardless of pilin class and glycosylation pattern. In strain MC58, the serogroup B capsule was the major inhibitory determ...

  20. Activating attachment representations during memory retrieval modulates intrusive traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images. The attachment group had less distress, and reported fewer subsequent intrusions than the control group. Attachment style moderated these effects such that individuals with an avoidant attachment style were not impacted by the attachment prime. These findings suggest that priming attachment security decreases distress during memory reactivation, and this may reduce subsequent intrusive memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A) and Ku temporally regulate repair of radiation-induced clustered genome lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Anil K.; Hegde, Pavana M.; Pandey, Arvind; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Yu, Yaping; Calsou, Patrick; Chen, David; Lees-Miller, Susan P.; Mitra, Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces highly cytotoxic double-strand breaks (DSBs) and also clustered oxidized bases in mammalian genomes. Base excision repair (BER) of bi-stranded oxidized bases could generate additional DSBs as repair intermediates in the vicinity of direct DSBs, leading to loss of DNA fragments. This could be avoided if DSB repair via DNA-PK-mediated nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) precedes BER initiated by NEIL1 and other DNA glycosylases (DGs). Here we show that DNA-PK subunit Ku inhibits DGs via direct interaction. The scaffold attachment factor (SAF)-A, (also called hnRNP-U), phosphorylated at Ser59 by DNA-PK early after IR treatment, is linked to transient release of chromatin-bound NEIL1, thus preventing BER. SAF-A is subsequently dephosphorylated. Ku inhibition of DGs in vitro is relieved by unphosphorylated SAF-A, but not by the phosphomimetic Asp59 mutant. We thus propose that SAF-A, in concert with Ku, temporally regulates base damage repair in irradiated cell genome. PMID:27303920

  2. Microfluidic accumulation assay probes attachment of biofilm forming diatom cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kim A; Schwarze, Jana; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2017-08-01

    Testing of fouling release (FR) technologies is of great relevance for discovery of the next generation of protective marine coatings. In this paper, an accumulation assay to test diatom interaction under laminar flow with the model organism Navicula perminuta is introduced. Using time lapse microscopy with large area sampling allows determination of the accumulation kinetics of the diatom on three model surfaces with different surface properties at different wall shear stresses. The hydrodynamic conditions within the flow cell are described and a suitable shear stress range to perform accumulation experiments is identified at which statistically significant discrimination of surfaces is possible. The observed trends compare well to published adhesion preferences of N. perminuta. Also, previously determined trends of critical wall shear stresses required for cell removal from the same set of functionalized interfaces shows consistent trends. Initial attachment mediated by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) present outside the diatoms leads to the conclusion that the FR potential of the tested coating candidates can be deducted from dynamic accumulation experiments under well-defined hydrodynamic conditions. As well as testing new coating candidates for their FR properties, monitoring of the adhesion process under flow provides additional information on the mechanism and geometry of attachment and the population kinetics.

  3. Attachment models in incarcerated sex offenders: a preliminary Italian study using the adult attachment interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattagliano, Ignazio; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Costantini, Alessandro; Laquale, Giovanni Michele; Latrofa, Alessandra; Papagna, Sonia; Sette, Giovanna; Taurino, Alessandro; Terlizzi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A group of sex offenders (clinical group: n = 19) was compared to a nonclinical sample matched by age, years of education, and gender (control group A: n = 19) to verify a higher incidence of insecure attachment models among sex offenders. In addition, we tested whether sex offenders were characterized by specific childhood experiences, compared to control adults (control group B: n = 19) with the same secure/insecure attachment classification. Results showed significant differences between offenders and control adults on both the AAI continuous score and the distribution of the two-way attachment classifications. Furthermore, sex offenders reported more intense experiences of rejection by the father figure and abuse in the family context during early childhood compared to not offenders subjects with the same attachment classification. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Does Attachment Get Under the Skin? Adult Romantic Attachment and Cortisol Responses to Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pietromonaco, Paula R.; DeBuse, Casey J.; Powers, Sally I.

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies indicate that people in low quality relationships are less healthy, precisely how relationships influence health remains unclear. We focus on one physiological pathway that may provide clues to understanding the link between relationships and health: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Evidence indicates that attachment processes in adult romantic relationships are associated with HPA responses to stress (assessed via cortisol levels). Specifically, attachment...

  5. Measuring Infant Attachment Security in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): Adaptation of the Attachment Q-set

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, James J.; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2010-01-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult’s availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they...

  6. Strain Distribution of Intact Rat Rotator Cuff Tendon-to-Bone Attachments and Attachments With Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Ryan C; Peloquin, John M; Lemmon, Elisabeth A; Szostek, Adrianna; Elliott, Dawn M; Killian, Megan L

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to experimentally track the tissue-scale strains of the tendon-bone attachment with and without a localized defect. We hypothesized that attachments with a localized defect would develop strain concentrations and would be weaker than intact attachments. Uniaxial tensile tests and digital image correlation were performed on rat infraspinatus tendon-to-bone attachments with defects (defect group) and without defects (intact group). Biomechanical properties were calculated, and tissue-scale strain distributions were quantified for superior and inferior fibrous and calcified regions. At the macroscale, the defect group exhibited reduced stiffness (31.3±3.7 N/mm), reduced ultimate load (24.7±3.8 N), and reduced area under the curve at ultimate stress (3.7±1.5 J/m2) compared to intact attachments (42.4±4.3 N/mm, 39.3±3.7 N, and 5.6±1.4 J/m2, respectively). Transverse strain increased with increasing axial load in the fibrous region of the defect group but did not change for the intact group. Shear strain of the superior fibrous region was significantly higher in the defect group compared to intact group near yield load. This work experimentally identified that attachments may resist failure by distributing strain across the interface and that strain concentrations develop near attachment defects. By establishing the tissue-scale deformation patterns of the attachment, we gained insight into the micromechanical behavior of this interfacial tissue and bolstered our understanding of the deformation mechanisms associated with its ability to resist failure.

  7. Inhibition of human scleral fibroblast cell attachment to collagen type I by TGFBIp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Lilian; Rada, Jody A Summers

    2009-08-01

    Transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp; 68 kDa) is a secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that has been demonstrated to regulate cell attachment in a variety of cell types. The sclera synthesizes and secretes TGFBIp, which may function to facilitate scleral ECM remodeling events associated with myopia development. Here the authors report that human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs) express TGFBI and that its protein product, TGFBIp, mediates an effect on cell attachment. TGFBI/TGFBIp expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunoblot of HSF lysates and culture supernatants. The effect of rTGFBIp (50 microg/mL) on cell attachment to collagen type I was determined with the use of fluid-phase cell attachment assays in HSFs, human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), and human corneal stroma fibroblasts (HCFs). Binding assays using biotinylated rTGFBIp were used to assess TGFBIp binding to the HSF surface. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to determine both alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 expression and localization to the HSF cell surface. HSFs expressed TGFBI and secreted TGFBIp (approximately 833 ng/h). rTGFBIp significantly decreased (25 microg/mL; P collagen type I, whereas rTGFBIp did not significantly affect cell attachment of HFFs (P = 0.50) or HCFs (P = 0.24) to collagen compared with BSA. Integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 were detected on the cell surface, and both anti-alphavbeta3 and anti-alphavbeta5 functionally blocked rTGFBIp binding to HSFs. TGFBIp plays an inhibitory role in HSF attachment to collagen type I in vitro through interactions with alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 integrin receptors. These results suggest that TGFBIp may modulate scleral cell-matrix interactions in vivo, thereby affecting scleral viscoelasticity.

  8. Inelastic electron interaction (attachment/ionization) with deoxyribose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptasińska, S.; Denifl, S.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

    2004-05-01

    We have investigated experimentally the formation of anions and cations of deoxyribose sugar (C5H10O4) via inelastic electron interaction (attachment/ionization) using a monochromatic electron beam in combination with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion yields were measured as a function of the incident electron energy between about 0 and 20 eV. As in the case of other biomolecules (nucleobases and amino acids), low energy electron attachment leads to destruction of the molecule via dissociative electron attachment reactions. In contrast to the previously investigated biomolecules dehydrogenation is not the predominant reaction channel for deoxyribose; the anion with the highest dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section of deoxyribose is formed by the release of neutral particles equal to two water molecules. Moreover, several of the DEA reactions proceed already with "zero energy" incident electrons. In addition, the fragmentation pattern of positively charged ions of deoxyribose also indicates strong decomposition of the molecule by incident electrons. For sugar the relative amount of fragment ions compared to that of the parent cation is about an order of magnitude larger than in the case of nucleobases. We determined an ionization energy value for C5H10O4+ of 10.51±0.11 eV, which is in good agreement with ab initio calculations. For the fragment ion C5H6O2+ we obtained a threshold energy lower than the ionization energy of the parent molecular ion. All of these results have important bearing for the question of what happens in exposure of living tissue to ionizing radiation. Energy deposition into irradiated cells produces electrons as the dominant secondary species. At an early time after irradiation these electrons exist as ballistic electrons with an initial energy distribution up to several tens of electron volts. It is just this energy regime for which we find in the present study rather characteristic differences in the outcome of electron

  9. Assessing Attachment Representations in Adolescents: Discriminant Validation of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Buchheim, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of attachment to human development and clinical risk is well established for children and adults, yet there is relatively limited knowledge about attachment in adolescence due to the poor availability of construct valid measures. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a reliable and valid instrument to assess adult attachment status. This study examines for the first time the discriminant validity of the AAP in adolescents. In our sample of 79 teenagers between 15 and 18 years, 42 % were classified as secure, 34 % as insecure-dismissing, 13 % as insecure-preoccupied and 11 % as unresolved. The results demonstrated discriminant validity for using the AAP in that age group, with no associations between attachment classifications and verbal intelligence, social desirability, story length or sociodemographic variables. These results poise the AAP to be used in clinical intervention and large-scale research investigating normative and atypical developmental correlates and sequelae of attachment, including psychopathology in adolescence.

  10. Childhood attachment and abuse: long-term effects on adult attachment, depression, and conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, T; Janoff-Bulman, R

    1997-10-01

    The primary aim was to determine the relative contributions of early attachment and abuse history to adult attachment, depression, and conflict resolution behaviors. Differences between abused and nonabused respondents were also assessed. A multi-scale questionnaire was completed by 879 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to answer the primary research question, and analyses also compared the 26.4% of respondents who reported childhood abuse with those who did not. Respondents who indicated they had been abused as children reported less secure childhood and adult relationships than their nonabused counterparts. They were also more depressed and more likely to use destructive behaviors in conflict situations. Although both adult romantic attachment and respondents' depression scores were best accounted for by childhood attachment to mother and father rather than abuse history, the opposite pattern of results emerged for conflict resolution behaviors. In this case, abuse history was the stronger predictor, and parental attachment did not account for any significant additional variance. Results suggest that the long-term impact of childhood abuse may be mediated by early attachment experiences, whereas the long-term impact of abuse on conflict resolution behaviors may be considerably more direct.

  11. The Multimodal Assessment of Adult Attachment Security: Developing the Biometric Attachment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Federico; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Persiaux, Gwenaelle; Morales, Michelle; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-04-06

    Attachment theory has been proven essential for mental health, including psychopathology, development, and interpersonal relationships. Validated psychometric instruments to measure attachment abound but suffer from shortcomings common to traditional psychometrics. Recent developments in multimodal fusion and machine learning pave the way for new automated and objective psychometric instruments for adult attachment that combine psychophysiological, linguistic, and behavioral analyses in the assessment of the construct. The aim of this study was to present a new exposure-based, automatic, and objective adult-attachment assessment, the Biometric Attachment Test (BAT), which exposes participants to a short standardized set of visual and music stimuli, whereas their immediate reactions and verbal responses, captured by several computer sense modalities, are automatically analyzed for scoring and classification. We also aimed to empirically validate two of its assumptions: its capacity to measure attachment security and the viability of using themes as placeholders for rotating stimuli. A total of 59 French participants from the general population were assessed using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), and the Attachment Multiple Model Interview (AMMI) as ground truth for attachment security. They were then exposed to three different BAT stimuli sets, whereas their faces, voices, heart rate (HR), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded. Psychophysiological features, such as skin-conductance response (SCR) and Bayevsky stress index; behavioral features, such as gaze and facial expressions; as well as linguistic and paralinguistic features, were automatically extracted. An exploratory analysis was conducted using correlation matrices to uncover the features that are most associated with attachment security. A confirmatory analysis was conducted by creating a single composite effects index and by testing it

  12. Retention and wear behaviors of two implant overdenture stud-type attachments at different implant angulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Bae, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-05-01

    Implant angulation should be considered when selecting an attachment. Some in vitro studies have investigated the relationship between implant angulation and changes in the retention force of the stud attachment, but few studies have evaluated the effect of cyclic loading and repeated cycles of insertion and removal on the stud attachment. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of implant angulation on the retentive characteristics of overdentures with 2 different stud attachments, an experimental system and O-rings in red and orange, after cyclic loading and repeated insertion and removal cycles. The canine region of a mandibular experimental model was fitted with 2 implant fixtures with 2 different stud attachment systems at implant angulations of 0, 15, or 30 degrees. A mastication simulator was used to simulate cyclic loading, and a universal testing machine was used to evaluate retentive force changes after repeated insertion and removal cycles. To simulate the numbers of mastication and insertion and removal cycles per annum, 400000 cyclic loadings and 1080 insertion and removal cycles were performed. Wear patterns and attachment surface deformations were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (α=.05/3=.017), and the paired-sample Student t test (α=.05). When retentive forces before and after testing were compared, O-ring showed significant retention loss at all implant angulations (P.05), whereas the 30-degree model showed a significant increase in retentive force (P=.001). At all implant angulations, retention loss increased significantly for the orange O-ring, followed by the red O-ring, and the experimental system (PO-ring rubber matrix than of the experimental zirconia ball. Upon completion of the experiment, wear and deformation were found for all attachment systems. Even when implants are not installed in parallel, the

  13. Lethal fish hook attachment - An unusual occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-02-01

    A 39-year-old fisherman is reported who was dragged into the water from a boat after he became entangled in fishing line. His death was attributed to salt water drowning. At autopsy the cause of death was confirmed and the mechanism of the lethal event elucidated. Specifically, a large fish hook attached to line was embedded in his right wrist. The hook had passed beneath flexor tendons and had firmly attached him to fishing line that was being dropped from the vessel. There were no other significant injuries or underlying diseases present. This case demonstrates another rare situation in the commercial fishing industry that may result in a victim being dragged from a boat and drowned. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Smartphone Magnification Attachment: Microscope or Magnifying Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergemöller, Timo; Laumann, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Today smartphones and tablets do not merely pervade our daily life, but also play a major role in STEM education in general, and in experimental investigations in particular. Enabling teachers and students to make use of these new techniques in physics lessons requires supplying capable and affordable applications. Our article presents the improvement of a low-cost technique turning smartphones into powerful magnifying glasses or microscopes. Adding only a 3D-printed clip attached to the smartphone's camera and inserting a small glass bead in this clip enables smartphones to take pictures with up to 780x magnification (see Fig. 1). In addition, the construction of the smartphone attachments helps to explain and examine the differences between magnifying glasses and microscopes, and shows that the widespread term "smartphone microscope" for this technique is inaccurate from a physics educational perspective.

  15. Cesarean Births and Attachment Behaviors of Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    first object is usually the mother. Freud recognized the helplessness of the infancy phase. From a translation by Jones (1957), Freud said that the...intense emotional bonds between them. This first relationship sets the stage for future close relationships ( Freud , 1960). The relationship to the mother...smiling as stimuli that induces a mother to respond to and interact with her infant. Attachment also exists in adolescence and adulthood. At these

  16. Sites of ubiquitin attachment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Lo, Russell S; Eng, Jimmy K; von Haller, Priska D; Fields, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Sites of ubiquitin modification have been identified by mass spectrometry based on the increase in molecular mass of a tryptic peptide carrying two additional glycine residues from the ubiquitin moiety. However, such peptides with GG shifts have been difficult to discover. We identify 870 unique sites of ubiquitin attachment on 438 different proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  18. The attachments of children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R F

    1991-11-01

    Subjects for this research were 52 foster children (mean ages 7 years, 11 months) and their natural and foster parents. Case history files provided information concerning reasons for placing the children in foster care. Foster parents completed the Parent/Child Reunion Inventory (Marcus, 1988) measuring the "quality of reunion behavior" following separation. Foster mothers also completed the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983), and measures of adult empathy were collected from both foster parents. Foster care workers rated the quality and intensity of attachment between the child and all parents. Finally, foster children were interviewed concerning their social supports, perception of affection from adults, and the quality of their relationships with adults and friends. Results showed that behavior and school achievement problems were predictable from measures of the quality of attachment with parents. The mean number of behavior problems of foster children were found to be midway between clinical and nonclinical norm groups. Children's perceptions of friends' behavior and degree of control over friends were related to their adjustment. Case history variables were also related to behavior problems and attachment.

  19. Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.

  20. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  1. SPRAYER INSTALLATION ATTACHED TO THE AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘCHEAUA Fănel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A continually development of the global market economy has in foreground a strong increase in consumer goods demand and offer. The agricultural products have a significant share of total transactions performed on the market. Therefore, it is important that on the cultivated field areas to be obtained optimum harvests that ensure a continuous farms development based on higher crop yields. Today there are many solutions to make the agriculture more efficient regarding crops yield obtained. The use of herbicides aims to maintain the farm lands clean of weeds that may have harmful effects on crops. They can be administered mechanized on large areas using herbicides autonomous installations or attached to the tractor. The agricultural tractor is the machine that performs most of the mechanized works in farmlands using attached auxiliary equipment. The agricultural auxiliary equipments have undergone a continuous development over time. This paper performs a functional description for the sprayer installation assembly that can be attached to the agricultural tractor.

  2. Chronic diseases as predictors of labour market attachment after participation in subsidised re-employment programme: a 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Chioma A; Peutere, Laura; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Pekka J

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about the work patterns of re-employed people. We investigated the labour market attachment trajectories of re-employed people and assessed the influence of chronic diseases on these trajectories. The study was based on register data of 18 944 people (aged 18-60 years) who participated in a subsidised re-employment programme in Finland. Latent class growth analysis with zero-inflated Poisson was used to model the labour market attachment trajectories over a 6-year follow-up time. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between chronic diseases and labour market attachment trajectories, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, size of town and calendar year in subsidised re-employment programme. We identified four distinct labour market attachment trajectories, namely: strengthening (a relatively stable attachment throughout the follow-up time; 77%), delayed (initial weak attachment increasing later; 6%), leavers (attachment declined with time; 10%) and none-attached (weak attachment throughout the study period; 7%). We found that severe mental problems strongly increased the likelihood of belonging in the leavers (OR 3.61; 95% CI 2.23 to 5.37) and none-attached (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.91 to 6.10) trajectories, while chronic hypertension was associated with none-attached (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.77) trajectory. The associations between other chronic diseases (diabetes, heart disease, asthma and arthritics) and labour market attachment trajectories were less evident. Re-employed people appear to follow distinct labour market attachment trajectories over time. Having chronic diseases, especially mental disorders appear to increase the risk for relatively poor labour market attachment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Spatial control of cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation using ion-beam induced thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tttanaka@riken.jp; Suzuki, Yoshiaki

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Cellular films can be obtained ion-beam irradiation and cell culture. • Film shapes were controlled by patterned irradiation. • Cellular films were firmly attached each other. • Tubular constructions were fabricated by wide-patterned irradiation. • Nerve growth direction was controlled by varying the pattern widths. - Abstract: In this study, cellular films were fabricated by ion-beam irradiation into poly-L-lactic acid sheets and cell culture. The cellular film shapes can be controlled by pattern masks. We performed spatial cell patterning using three types of cells: fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and nerve-like cells. First, multi-layered cellular construct was fabricated by stacking fibroblast cellular films. When three cellular films were stacked and incubated, these films firmly attached to each other. Second, tubular constructs were fabricated by endothelial cell culture on linearly patterned surfaces with wide widths of 80, 120, 160, and 200 μm. The patterned cellular films were rounded into vessel-like structure. The diameters of the constructs depend upon the pattern widths. Finally, we controlled cell attachment and nerve growth of nerve-like cells by using linearly patterned surfaces with narrow widths of 10, 30, and 50 μm. Nerve growth direction was controlled by varying the pattern widths. In the case of 10 μm, the attached cells and nerve growth were straight on the patterned thin films. These cell patterning techniques are expected to have applications in tissue engineering, cell transplantation, and in vitro tissue modeling.

  4. Neuron attachment properties of carbon negative-ion implanted bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2002-05-01

    Modification of a bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid (PLA) by negative carbon ion implantation was investigated with resect to radiation effects on surface physical properties and nerve-cell attachment properties. Carbon negative ions were implanted to PLA at energy of 5-30 keV with a dose of 10 14-10 16 ions/cm 2. Most C-implanted PLA samples showed contact angles near 80° and almost same as that of unimplanted PLA, although a few samples at 5 keV and less 3×10 14 ions/cm 2 had contact angles larger than 90°. The attachment properties of nerve cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal phechromocytoma) in vitro were studied. PC-12h cells attached on the unimplanted region in C-implanted PLA samples at 5 and 10 keV. On the contrary, the nerve cells attached on only implanted region for the C-implanted PLA sample at 30 keV and 1×10 15 ions/cm 2.

  5. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Jianke; He, Xiaoye; Lv, Ou; Cheng, Yujiang; Liu, Run

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the relative activities of the purified pomegranate peels polyphenols (PPPs) with some other plant polyphenols including punicalagin, ellagic acid, gallic acid, phlorizin, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the lipid metabolism regulation, and the cholesterol efflux mechanisms of PPPs and punicalagin were also investigated. In this paper, a convenient and accurate in vitro HL7702 steatosis hepatic cell model was applied to evaluate the lipid-lowering effects of the tested polyphenols. The results showed that PPPs possessed the strongest lipid-lowering effects. Prevention group (treated with polyphenols when establishing of steatosis model) was more effective than treatment group (treated with polyphenols after establishment of steatosis model). Punicalagin displayed the strongest lipid-lowering effects among all the tested components of pomegranate peel polyphenols. Moreover, PPPs and punicalagin (10, 20, 40 μg/mL) significantly increased the mRNA expression of LXRα (Liver X receptor alpha) and its target genes-ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) in a dose-dependent manner in HL7702 steatosis hepatic cells. The high mRNA expression of LXRα and ABCA1, next to lovastatin, was observed in cells treated with 40 μg/mL of PPPs. These in vitro findings suggested that PPPs might have great potential in the clinic treatment of hyperlipemia.

  6. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, M R; Abouhosseini Tabari, M; Moghadamnia, A A

    2017-01-01

    In Iranian folk medicine Artemisia sieberi has been used for treatment of parasite infections in human and animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of A. sieberi essential oil (EO) against Trichomonas gallinae . Trichomonas gallinae were recovered by wet mount method from infected native pigeons. The in vitro assays were accomplished in multi-well plates containing metronidazole (MTZ) as a standard antitrichomonal and EO in final concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 μg/ml of culture medium containing 10 4 parasites. The in vivo assay was performed on 40 experimentally infected pigeons receiving 25 and 50 mg/kg of MTZ and EO for 7 successive days. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis was performed to reveal chemical constituents of the EO. At 20 µg/ml, MTZ resulted in no viable trophozoite in culture medium after 24 h incubation period. While the 24 h MIC of EO was 10 µg/ml. Treatment with EO at dose of 50 mg/kg after 4 days led to full recovery of infected pigeons but for MTZ at the same dose 5 days were spent. Major constituents of EO were α-thujone (31.5%) and β-thujone (11.92%). Data of the present study introduced A. sieberi as a natural potent antitrichomonal agent effective against T. gallinae .

  7. Separation from parents during childhood trauma predicts adult attachment security and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R A; Creamer, M; O'Donnell, M; Forbes, D; Felmingham, K L; Silove, D; Malhi, G; van Hoof, M; McFarlane, A C; Nickerson, A

    2017-08-01

    Prolonged separation from parental support is a risk factor for psychopathology. This study assessed the impact of brief separation from parents during childhood trauma on adult attachment tendencies and post-traumatic stress. Children (n = 806) exposed to a major Australian bushfire disaster in 1983 and matched controls (n = 725) were assessed in the aftermath of the fires (mean age 7-8 years) via parent reports of trauma exposure and separation from parents during the fires. Participants (n = 500) were subsequently assessed 28 years after initial assessment on the Experiences in Close Relationships scale to assess attachment security, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was assessed using the PTSD checklist. Being separated from parents was significantly related to having an avoidant attachment style as an adult (B = -3.69, s.e. = 1.48, β = -0.23, p = 0.013). Avoidant attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.31, p = 0.045), avoidance (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p = 0.001) and numbing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.18, p = 0.001), numbing (B = 0.03, β = 0.30, s.e. = 0.01, p attachments during childhood trauma can have long-lasting effects on one's attachment security, and that this can be associated with adult post-traumatic psychopathology.

  8. Towards understanding inter-strain attachment variations of Escherichia coli during transport in saturated quartz sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppen, Jan Willem; Lutterodt, George; Röling, Wilfred F M; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Although Escherichia coli is an indicator of fecal contamination in aquifers, limited research has been devoted to understanding the biological processes involved in the initial attachment of E. coli transported in abiotic porous media. The roles of the various surface structures of E. coli, like lipopolysaccharides (LPS), autotransporter proteins, and fimbriae are unknown. The objective of this research was to establish the effects of variations in surface characteristics of the outer membrane of E. coli on the attachment efficiency of 54 E. coli strains upon transport in saturated quartz sand under identical flow conditions. We used column experiments to assess retention of the E. coli strains, and we determined sphericity, motility, zeta-potential, and aggregation of all strains. LPS composition was determined based on known serotypes, and the presence/absence of 22 genes encoding surface characteristics was determined with qualitative PCR. The results indicated that under identical flow conditions, there was a variation of two orders of magnitude in the maximum breakthrough concentrations of the 54 E. coli strains. Of all factors we investigated, no single factor was able to explain attachment efficiency variations statistically significantly. However, low attachment efficiencies were associated (p=0.13) with LPS containing saccharides with phosphate and/or carboxyl groups. These saccharide groups are acidic and likely charged with a negative O-atom, which reduced attachment to the negatively charged quartz surface. In addition, of the 22 genes tested, Afa was most associated (p=0.21) with attachment efficiency. The work presented here bridges knowledge on colloid transport and molecular microbiology, and tries to offer a more holistic view on the attachment of planktonic E. coli bacteria to (abiotic) quartz grain surfaces. Future research should involve the use of microbiological techniques in order to be able to map the unique or grouped characteristics of E

  9. Attachment and autonomy problems in adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, R.G.; van Vroenhoven, S.; Karreman, A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attachment security and autonomy were examined in adults with ADHD. Insecure attachment and autonomy problems were expected to be negatively associated with general psychological functioning. Method: Questionnaires were administered (Relationship Questionnaire, Autonomy-Connectedness

  10. Psychophysiology in Attachment Interviews: Converging Evidence for Deactivating Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Mary; Kobak, R. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Monitored skin conductance of college students while they recalled experiences of separation, rejection, and threat from parents. Students who diverted attention from attachment information to deal with attachment-related issues showed increases in skin conductance levels from baseline. (BC)

  11. Parental Attachment and Eating Behaviors in Late Adolescent Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber-Leigh Rush

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Females demonstrating unhealthy eating behaviors in early adolescence may continue to exhibit them in later years, yet there is little empirical research including late adolescents. Attachment theories suggest that adolescents with eating disorders demonstrate insecure attachments to parents. This non-experimental descriptive study in 249 late adolescent females examined the relationship between eating behaviors and parental attachment, and explored the relationship between selected demographic variables and parental attachment. Participants responded to an electronically collected survey of demographic variables, self-reported eating behaviors, and completed the Parent Attachment Questionnaire. Participants reporting healthy eating behaviors had higher scores on two of the three maternal scales, indicating a greater level of attachment. Significantly higher scores were found for two maternal and two paternal attachment scales for selected sociodemographic variables. Quantifying parental attachment in late adolescent females enhances understanding of eating disorders in this population and may help to identify issues important to address in therapy.

  12. The use and limitations of attachment theory in child psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Attachment theory and research has proliferated in recent years, spawning new ideas and applications to child therapy. Some of those interventions are creative and useful and rest on solid theory and research, whereas others derive from tenuous assumptions. As an important developmental construct, attachment plays a role in every therapy, but defining that role can be difficult. Therapists must recognize the significance of attachment in treatment but not at the expense of recognizing and treating other issues. This article provides an overview of attachment theory and attachment-based interventions and discusses how to apply those constructs to therapeutic work with children. It reviews attachment theory, assessment, and treatments, and discusses how attachment-focused interventions can be combined with other therapeutic needs and methods. It also considers limitations in the current clinical application of attachment and makes recommendations for further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Gender moderates the relationship between attachment insecurities and emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velotti, P.; D’Aguanno, M.; de Campora, G.; di Francescantonio, S.; Garofalo, C.; Giromini, L.; Petrocchi, C.; Terrasi, M.; Zavattini, G.C.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment styles and emotion regulation is well documented, and emotion dysregulation is considered characteristic of individuals with insecure attachment styles. Although gender differences in emotion regulation have often been reported, it is not clear whether the association

  14. Direction-specific interactions control crystal growth by oriented attachment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; Lee, Jonathan R I; Frandsen, Cathrine; Banfield, Jillian F; De Yoreo, James J

    2012-01-01

    The oriented attachment of molecular clusters and nanoparticles in solution is now recognized as an important mechanism of crystal growth in many materials, yet the alignment process and attachment...

  15. Developmental trajectories and longitudinal mediation effects of self-esteem, peer attachment, child maltreatment and depression on early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Soyoung; Lee, Yanghee

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the developmental trajectories of peer attachment, self-esteem, depression, and child maltreatment, and to understand the longitudinal mediation effects that peer attachment and self-esteem have on the influence of perceived abuse on early adolescent depression. This study uses Year 1 to Year 5 data of the 4th grader panel of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (KYPS) and utilizes a multivariate latent growth model to analyze the main variables in the applicable data between 5th (i.e., Year 2) and 8th (i.e., Year 5) grades. The results indicate that from the 5th to the 8th grade, the degree of abuse and depression increases while self-esteem gradually decreases with slowly lowering peer attachment. A significant distribution of the initial values and the rate of change were present for all main variables of the study, confirming individual differences in time wise changes. Further, more exposure to abuse correlated with a decrease in self-esteem, while an increase in self-esteem greatly reduced depression. The initial value of self-esteem showed a partial mediation effect, whereas the rate of change indicated a full mediation effect with a significant longitudinal mediation effect. More experience of abuse during early adolescence indicated a lower degree of peer attachment, and a higher peer attachment was related to decreased depression. A significant partial mediation effect was present for both the initial value and the rate of change of peer attachment, and a longitudinal mediation effect was present. This study confirmed that self-esteem in early adolescents is an important protective factor that can greatly reduce the degree of depression, and suggests continuous interventions conducted to increase self-esteem in adolescence. Furthermore, by determining that peer attachment decreases the degree of depression in children at risk, the study emphasizes the healing aspect of adolescent peer attachment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  16. Acellular dermal matrix allograft used to gain attached gingiva in a case of epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buduneli, Eralp; Ilgenli, Tunç; Buduneli, Nurcan; Ozdemir, Fezal

    2003-11-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an acquired disease or inherited as either autosomal dominant or recessive with an incidence of 1/50,000. The prominent clinical characteristic of the disease is the development of bullae or vesicles in mucosa or skin in response to minor trauma. A female patient with a dystrophic type of EB had been put in a maintenance regimen after completion of the initial phase of periodontal therapy and followed for 7 years. The purpose of this report is to document acellular dermal matrix allograft application to increase the width of the attached gingiva in this patient experiencing difficulty in chewing and performing plaque control due to the dramatic loss of attached gingiva after 7 years of supportive periodontal therapy. Under local anaesthesia and antibiotic coverage, the acellular dermal matrix allograft was applied in the anterior region of the upper jaw in order to increase the width of attached gingiva, thereby improving patient comfort. The healing was uneventful and a significant gain in attached gingiva dimensions was observed 9 months after the periodontal surgery. The procedure avoided a second surgical site, provided satisfactory results from an aesthetic point of view, and improved patient comfort. Acellular dermal matrix allograft may be regarded as an alternative in the treatment of EB cases to increase the width of attached gingiva and facilitate maintenance of the dentition.

  17. Long-distance romantic couples: an attachment theoretical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carole Pistole, M

    2010-04-01

    This article provides an attachment theoretical perspective of long-distance romantic relationships (LDRs). Attachment applies specifically to the separation-reunion cycle that is an inherent aspect of LDRs. Attachment theory components and normative functioning are presented along with illustrative examples from LDR reports to demonstrate the theory's relevance. Counseling implications, related to proximity maintenance and separation protest, the attachment-caregiving interface, and other issues (e.g., culture), are followed by research considerations and the conclusion.

  18. The application of attachment theory to a psychotherapy case

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the psychotherapeutic use of Attachment Theory. Attachment Theory is an interpersonal theory which refers to the way an individual internalises an emotional-cognitive model of his relationships with his various attachment figures. These models of ways of relating are reflected in the way an individual speaks. The methodology of the study entailed conducting the semi-structured Adult Attachment Interview to elicit a psychotherapy client's narr...

  19. From secure dependency to attachment: Mary Ainsworth's integration of Blatz's security theory into Bowlby's attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen, Lenny; van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, René

    2016-02-01

    John Bowlby is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, with the help of Mary Ainsworth. Through her Uganda and Baltimore studies Ainsworth provided empirical evidence for attachment theory, and she contributed the notion of the secure base and exploratory behavior, the Strange Situation Procedure and its classification system, and the notion of maternal sensitivity. On closer scrutiny, many of these contributions appear to be heavily influenced by William Blatz and his security theory. Even though Blatz's influence on Ainsworth has been generally acknowledged, this article, partly based on understudied correspondence from several personal archives, is the first to show which specific parts of attachment theory can be traced back directly to Blatz and his security theory. When Ainsworth started working with Bowlby in the 1950s, around the time he turned to evolutionary theory for an explanation of his findings, she integrated much of Blatzian security theory into Bowlby's theory in the making and used her theoretical and practical experience to enrich attachment theory. Even though Blatz is hardly mentioned nowadays, several of his ideas live on in attachment theory. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Mental representations of attachment in eating disorders: a pilot study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Guiducci, Valentina

    2009-07-01

    Mental representations of attachment in a sample of adults with Eating Disorders (ED) were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Sixty subjects participated in the study: 30 non-clinical and 30 clinical. The results obtained showed a specific distribution of attachment patterns in the clinical sample: 10% Free/Autonomous (F), 47% Insecure-Dismissing (Ds), 17% Insecure-Entangled/Preoccupied (E) and about 26% disorganized (CC/U). The two samples differed in their attachment pattern distribution and were significantly different on some coding system scales. Further information was obtained by analyzing differences between the three ED subtypes considered (i.e. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder) and by investigating the differential role of the two parental figures in the definition of attachment representations. Results showed potential benefits in using the AAI coding system scales in addition to the main classifications in order to understand better the developmental issues involved in these disorders. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  1. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  2. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5955 Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment...

  3. A literature update on maternal-fetal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L

    2008-01-01

    To critically review and synthesize original research published since 2000 designed to measure factors that influence maternal-fetal attachment. EBSCOhost Research Databases that included PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS were searched for journal articles published in the past 7 years (2000-2007) that examined variables thought to increase, decrease, or cause no change in level of maternal-fetal attachment. Keyword searches included maternal-fetal attachment, parental attachment, and prenatal attachment. Twenty-two studies were selected that met the inclusion criteria of original research, clear delineation of the measurement of maternal-fetal attachment, measurement of maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy, and inclusion of women or couples, or both. Studies measuring maternal-fetal attachment included a broad range of variables as potential risk or protective factors, or both. Factors associated with higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment included family support, greater psychological well-being, and having an ultrasound performed. Factors such as depression, substance abuse, and higher anxiety levels were associated with lower levels of maternal-fetal attachment. The large majority of studies reviewed were limited by small, homogenous samples deemed insufficient to detect significant differences, inconsistent measurement of maternal-fetal attachment during gestational periods, and cross-sectional designs. Further research is essential to identify factors influencing maternal-fetal attachment. Specifically, research needs to be conducted on larger sample sizes of greater racial and ethnic diversity.

  4. The Development of Maternal Attachment: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Summaries of papers presented in a symposium deal with a related series of four issues concerning the development of maternal attachment: Is maternal attachment best conceptualized and measured as an emotional tie or as observable behavior? Is there continuity in the development of maternal attachment from the prenatal to postpartum period? Can…

  5. Is Imprinting an Appropriate Model for Human Infant Attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. L.; Leiderman, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    Results of animal imprinting studies were generalized to attempt prediction of development of attachment in 28 polymatrically reared Kenyan Gusii infants, ages 6 to 30 months. While results provide evidence against a sensitive phase for attachment, an association was found between age of attachment and developmental level/caregiving history.…

  6. Precursors and sequelae of attachment in foster children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on attachment of foster children by examining factors associated with attachment relationships of children raised from birth by the same parents. The sample included 61 children between 26 to 88 months of age and their foster caregivers. Attachment security and caregiver

  7. Attachment and Social Problem Solving in Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others

    This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…

  8. Love Relationships: Attachment Style and the Investment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, Carole M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined association of adult attachment styles and Rusbult's investment model of relationships. Responses from 239 participants indicated those who are securely attached experience greater satisfaction, fewer costs, and greater commitment in their relationships than do other attachment groups. Other findings and implications for counseling were…

  9. Growth of preferential attachment random graphs via continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Departments of Mathematics and Statistics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011,. USA. 2Department of Statistics, Iowa State ... Introduction and results. Preferential attachment processes have ... rential attachment', that is by attaching new vertices to existing nodes with probabilities proportional to their 'weight'. When the ...

  10. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  11. Attachment Theory in Supervision: A Critical Incident Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole; Fitch, Jenelle C.

    2008-01-01

    Critical incident experiences are a powerful source of counselor development (T. M. Skovholt & P. R. McCarthy, 1988a, 1988b) and are relevant to attachment issues. An attachment theory perspective of supervision is presented and applied to a critical incident case scenario. By focusing on the behavioral systems (i.e., attachment, caregiving, and…

  12. Fathers in Attachment Theory and Research: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of attachment research on fathers as a backdrop against which the other contributions to this volume can be viewed. Empirical research on child-father attachment progressed in four phases and began before Bowlby in 1969 published the first volume of his attachment trilogy. During each phase a different set of…

  13. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; De Yoreo, James J.; Kwon, Youngeun

    2010-04-20

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  14. 12 CFR 1511.8 - Notice of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of attachment. 1511.8 Section 1511.8....8 Notice of attachment. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by a... or other notice of attachment in any particular case or class of cases. ...

  15. The difficult patient: an attachment perspective | Panzer | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stressors such as illness, injury and hospitalisation are likely to activate attachment behaviours. The way people react to these stressors (i.e. their illness behaviour) varies widely and is strongly correlated with their attachment style. In this paper we briefly review attachment theory, with reference to difficult patient ...

  16. Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

  17. Stereoselective synthesis, in vitro, and initial in vivo evaluation of 1-methylpiperidin-4-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IPIP): a novel radioiodinated molecular probe with high affinity for the muscarinic receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Daniel W. E-mail: mcphersod@CSR.NIH.GOV; Breeden, William K.; Beets, Arnold L.; Luo, Huimin; Sood, Victor; Knapp, Furn F

    2001-11-01

    1-Methylpiperidin-4-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IPIP) was investigated as a potential radioiodinated molecular probe targeted to the muscarinic receptor complex. The IPIP stereoisomers were synthesized via a chiral intermediate in >95% enantiomeric excess. The R-isomers demonstrated a M{sub 1} to M{sub 2} subtype selectivity of approximately 3 to 1 and the S-isomers demonstrated non-subtype selective binding in vitro. IPIP was radiolabeled with iodide-125 with an average radiochemical yield of 74.4% ({+-}14.8, n 5), specific activities >800 mCi/{mu}mol, and radiochemical purities >97%. In vivo the Z-isomers demonstrated high uniform cerebral uptake suggesting non-subtype selective binding. In contrast, E-R-IPIP, after allowing a low uptake in M{sub 2} rich areas to clear, demonstrated a retention of activity in M{sub 1} and M{sub 4} rich cerebral regions. In addition, the cerebral uptake of E-R-IPIP and Z-S-IPIP were inhibited by 70-90% via pretreatment with R-QNB, an established muscarinic antagonist. An ex vivo metabolism study demonstrated Z-S-IPIP was stable at the receptor site with an absence of radiolabeled metabolites.

  18. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierl, Mario; Jörger, Michael; Rosker, Patrik; Reisner, Andreas

    2015-01-20

    Biofilm formation on catheters is thought to contribute to persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) which represent the most frequent nosocomial infections. Understanding of factors relevant for CAUTI pathogenesis and evaluation of new therapeutics or interference strategies requires a model system that mirrors the physico-chemical conditions prevailing in a catheterized human bladder. The described in vitro dynamic model of a catheterized bladder enables to emulate many of the characteristics of a catheterized human bladder albeit in the absence of a bladder epithelium. A minor modification compared to the original model system (Stickler, et al. , 1999) allows temperature maintenance of the top 10 cm of the catheter, thereby enabling reproducible monitoring of biofilm formation on the internal catheter surface.

  19. In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    LuIs, Henrique Soares; Luis, Luis Soares; Bernardo, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Mouthrinses are used, by many of our patients, as a complement to daily dental hygiene routine. The use of a toothbrush and an interproximal cleaning method may not be enough to control dental plaque. Essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses are effective for the prevention of dental caries and gingivitis. To study the effect of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on dental plaque bacteria, an in vitro study was developed. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and aerobic and anaerobic dental plaque nonspecific bacteria. Samples of human dental plaque were collected from consenting participants and bacteria isolated. Disk-diffusion tests were performed to obtain the minimum concentration of the mouth rinses necessary to inhibit bacterial growth. The ability of the commercial mouth rinses to inhibit bacterial growth was studied in comparison to a positive control (0.2% chlorhexidine) and a negative laboratorial control (sterilized water). The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be inferior to the commercial essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses concentrations. Delmopinol and essential oils have significant antibacterial properties shown in vitro only for aerobic bacteria, and for S. mutans, Lactobacillus, and anaerobic bacteria, the results were not statistically significant. Essential oils and chlorhexidine are statistically similar and better than delmopinol for aerobic bacteria growth inhibition. For the other bacteria, essential oils and delmopinol are not statistically promising. Results show that essential oils only may help patients to maintain good oral health as a complement to daily brushing and interproximal cleaning.

  20. In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    There is a paucity of efficacious antimicrobials (especially oral) against clinically relevant species of Nocardia To date, all species of Nocardia have been susceptible to linezolid, the first commercially available oxazolidinone. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with previously reported improved in vitro and in vivo (intracellular) potency against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium sp. and Nocardia brasiliensis Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-recommended broth microdilution method, 101 isolates of Nocardia spp., including 29 Nocardia cyriacigeorgica , 17 Nocardia farcinica , 13 Nocardia nova complex, 21 Nocardia brasiliensis , 5 Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis , and 5 Nocardia wallacei isolates and 11 isolates of less common species, were tested for susceptibility to tedizolid and linezolid. For the most common clinically significant species of Nocardia , tedizolid MIC 50 values were 0.25 μg/ml for N. nova complex, N. brasiliensis , N. pseudobrasiliensis , and N. wallacei , compared to linezolid MIC 50 values of 1, 2, 0.5, and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Tedizolid and linezolid MIC 90 values were 2 μg/ml for N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis Tedizolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values for both N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica were 0.5 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively, compared to linezolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values of 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Based on MIC 90 values, this study showed that tedizolid was 2- to 3-fold more active than linezolid in vitro against most common species of Nocardia , with the exception of the N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis , for which values were the same. These results may warrant evaluation of tedizolid as a potential treatment option for Nocardia infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Pressure distribution of implant-supported removable partial dentures with stress-breaking attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Kentaro; Kurihara, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yasunori; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2014-04-01

    This in vitro study investigated the pressure distribution of the implant-supported removable partial dentures (RPDs) with the stress-breaking attachments under the occlusal force. The experimental model of bilateral missing premolars and molars was modified from a commercial simulation model. Five pressure sensors were embedded near the bilateral first molars, first premolars, and medio-lingual alveolar crest. Two implants were placed near the second molars, and they were connected to the denture base using the following conditions: complete separation between the denture base and implant with cover screws (CRPD), flexible connection with a stress-breaking ball (SBB) attachment, and rigid connection without stress breaking with healing caps (HC). The pressure at five different areas of the soft tissue and the displacement of the RPDs were simultaneously measured, loading up to 50 N. The coefficient of variation (CV) for each connection was calculated from all data of the pressure at five areas to evaluate the pressure distribution. The pressure on medio-lingual alveolar crest and molars of the HC was less than SBB and CRPD. In contrast, the pressure on premolars of SBB was greater than for the HC and CRPD. The CV of SBB was less than that of HC and CRPD. Denture displacement of HC and SBB was less than for CRPD. Within the in vitro limitations, precise denture settlements and pressure distribution under the denture base could be controlled using an SBB attachment. An SBB attachment might be able to protect the implant from harmful force. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of the Korean Paternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (K-PAFAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nan Iee; Yeom, Hye-Ah

    2017-06-01

    This study is a methodological study aimed to develop the Korean Paternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (K-PAFAS) to measure the level of attachment between the father and the expected baby, and to examine its validity and reliability. The K-PAFAS was developed in four steps. The first step involved derivation of the initial items through review of the literature and in-depth interviews with 10 expectant fathers. The second step was the process of expert panel review, examining content validity for the initial items. In the third step, items were examined for their usability through a preliminary survey with 30 expectant fathers. As the last step, the final K-PAFAS was applied to 200 participants and examined for its psychometric profile. K-PAFAS consisted of 20 items, and used a 5-point Likert scale with the total score ranging from 20 points to 100 points. A higher score indicated a higher level of attachment between the father and his unborn child. The K-PAFAS was composed of four factors. The K-PAFAS demonstrated satisfactory criterion validity, which was supported by its significant correlations with the Paternal Antenatal Attachment Scale, the Korean Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. The Cronbach α of the K-PAFAS was .89. In test-retest reliability, the K-PAFAS showed a correlation coefficient of .91. The K-PAFAS demonstrated initial validity and reliability. It was short, and relatively easy for use in evaluating the degree of paternal-fetal attachment in the antenatal management stage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Best friend attachment versus peer attachment in the prediction of adolescent psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ross B

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the utility of the newly developed Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale (AFAS) for the prediction of adolescent psychological health and school attitude. High school students (266 males, 229 females) were recruited from private and public schools in the Australian Capital Territory with ages of participants ranging from 13 to 19 years. Self-report measures of depression, self-esteem, self-competence and school attitude were administered in addition to the AFAS and a short-form of the Inventory of Parental and Peer Attachment (IPPA). Regression analyses revealed that the AFAS Anxious and Avoidant scales added to the prediction of depression, self-esteem, self-competence, and school attitude beyond the contribution of the IPPA. It is concluded that the AFAS taps aspects of adolescent attachment relationships not assessed by the IPPA and provides a useful contribution to research and practice in the area of adolescent psycho-social adjustment.

  4. Attachment and continuing bonds in bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Simonič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the attachment in a relationship being one of the factors which co-form the grieving process after conjugal loss. In this integrative study about the grieving process after the loss of a partner due to sudden or expected death one or two years after the loss, the author determined that the relationship between partners represents an important indicator of the grieving process. Due to the sensitive nature of the process, the method used was a case study (seven participants were interviewed and a circular research process. The functioning of grieving persons in different areas of life was assessed with a semi-structured interview, specifically designed for this research, and with an adapted version of the Attachment Test, a part of Picture Test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc and Žvelc, 2000. It was ascertained that particular contents in the grieving process are specifically connected with the type of relationship prior to death (ambivalent and closely connected/dependent relationship and the experiencing of the present position in relation to the deceased partner. Due to the fact that knowledge about possible maintenance/continuance of the bond between the partners has only recently become the locus of empirical research, the present study could not yet fully evaluate what kind of experience of current relationship position towards the partner contributes to healthy separation and individuation processes, i.e. grieving. Although the findings are limited to the specific context of each individual participant, the case study ascertained certain patterns in the relation between the grieving process and the attachment between partners, which indicates that there is a possibility of these in the wider population.

  5. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  6. Semiautomatic Probe-And-Drogue Attachment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanagas, John D.

    1988-01-01

    Spring-loaded pawls provide quick coupling. As probe enters drogue during coupling, three spring-loaded pawls in probe latch probe in drogue, preventing accidental uncoupling. Then worm-gear mechanism turned by standard 0.25-in. (6.35-mm) tool transfers motion to central threaded shaft, extending cap at tip of probe until all play taken up. This centers probe in drogue and renders coupling pawls to extend again. New mechanism useful for coupling modular components in other applications where ease and security of attachment, precise final alignment, and ease of removal important and where stresses and bending reasonably low.

  7. Is social attachment an addictive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Thomas R

    2003-08-01

    There is a considerable literature on the neurobiology of reward, based largely on studies of addiction or substance abuse. This review considers the possibility that the neural circuits that mediate reward evolved for ethologically relevant cues, such as social attachment. Specifically, mesocorticolimbic dopamine appears important for maternal behavior in rats and pair bonding in monogamous voles. It is not yet clear that dopamine in this pathway mediates the hedonic properties of social bond formation or whether dopamine's role is more relevant to developing associative networks or assigning salience to social stimuli. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) appear to be critical for linking social signals to the mesocorticolimbic circuit.

  8. Attachments to the common-place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on ethnographic work concerning on-going collective efforts in the Japanese city of Kyoto aiming to reposition a vernacular style of wooden housing, known as kyō-machiya, into a hybrid eco-design widely considered an appropriate local response to the global challenges of climate...... change. To understand the dynamic interplay of architecture and community-building in this case, the article stages a theoretical debate on the politics of shared attachments between three proponents of French pragmatic sociology: Bruno Latour, Antoine Hennion, and Laurent Thévenot. Drawing in particular...

  9. Attachment and Children’s Biased Attentional Processing: Evidence for the Exclusion of Attachment-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Mueller, Sven C.; De Raedt, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8–12 years) completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother’s face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother’s neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother’s neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother’s face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information. PMID:25061662

  10. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  11. Initial contact of glioblastoma cells with existing normal brain endothelial cells strengthen the barrier function via fibroblast growth factor 2 secretion: a new in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nakagawa, Shinsuke; Thuy, Dinh Ha Duy; Ujifuku, Kenta; Kamada, Kensaku; Hayashi, Kentaro; Matsuo, Takayuki; Nagata, Izumi; Niwa, Masami

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells invade along the existing normal capillaries in brain. Normal capillary endothelial cells function as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that limits permeability of chemicals into the brain. To investigate whether GBM cells modulate the BBB function of normal endothelial cells, we developed a new in vitro BBB model with primary cultures of rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs), pericytes, and astrocytes. Cells were plated on a membrane with 8 μm pores, either as a monolayer or as a BBB model with triple layer culture. The BBB model consisted of RBEC on the luminal side as a bottom, and pericytes and astrocytes on the abluminal side as a top of the chamber. Human GBM cell line, LN-18 cells, or lung cancer cell line, NCI-H1299 cells, placed on either the RBEC monolayer or the BBB model increased the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) values against the model, which peaked within 72 h after the tumor cell application. The TEER value gradually returned to baseline with LN-18 cells, whereas the value quickly dropped to the baseline in 24 h with NCI-H1299 cells. NCI-H1299 cells invaded into the RBEC layer through the membrane, but LN-18 cells did not. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) strengthens the endothelial cell BBB function by increased occludin and ZO-1 expression. In our model, LN-18 and NCI-H1299 cells secreted FGF-2, and a neutralization antibody to FGF-2 inhibited LN-18 cells enhanced BBB function. These results suggest that FGF-2 would be a novel therapeutic target for GBM in the perivascular invasive front.

  12. Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect and Smear Layer Removal Using Photon-Initiated Photoacoustic Streaming Aided Irrigation Versus a Conventional Irrigation in Single-Rooted Canals: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofei; Yin, Xingzhe; Chang, Jeffrey W.W.; Wang, Yu; Cheung, Gary S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The Er:YAG laser with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) technique was reported to be effective in root canal disinfection. This study attempted to further investigate the antibacterial efficacy and smear layer removal ability of PIPS in comparison with conventional syringe irrigation in vitro. Methods: For antibacterial analysis, 48 single-rooted human teeth were prepared and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and then divided into six groups of eight roots each. The colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter were determined after infection as the baseline. Then, the teeth were subjected to either PIPS plus 3% sodium hypochlorite (PIPS+NaOCl) or conventional syringe irrigation with 0.9% saline, 3% NaOCl, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), or 3% NaOCl alternating with 17% EDTA. The reduction of CFUs in the individual group was determined. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the canal walls for E. faecalis colonization was performed. For comparing the smear removal efficacy, another 48 single-rooted teeth, assigned to different groups as mentioned, were irrigated after mechanical instrumentation. The presence of a smear layer at different levels of the root canal was scored by SEM examination. Results: No significant differences were found in CFU reduction. No bacteria could be observed by SEM in the NaOCl, NaOCl+EDTA, and PIPS+NaOCl groups. The scores of smear layer of the NaOCl+EDTA and PIPS+NaOCl groups were significantly lower than those of the other groups in the coronal and middle third of the root canal. None of the methods can effectively remove smear layer in the apical third. Conclusions: PIPS system supplied with NaOCl and conventional syringe irrigation with NaOCl+EDTA are comparable in their ability to remove E. faecalis and smear layer in single-rooted canals. PMID:23863104

  13. 47 CFR 27.1231 - Initiating the transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initiating the transition. 27.1231 Section 27... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs § 27.1231 Initiating the... whether the downconverting antenna is mounted on a structure attached to the building or on a free...

  14. University involvement in sustainability initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Thrane, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    With an outset in the case of Aalborg University, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research & education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education and on the univer......With an outset in the case of Aalborg University, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research & education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education...... is Sustainable Development understood at executive level at the university? How (if at all) is sustainable development integrated in the core activities of the university? How is the university attached to ‘real life outside the ivory tower', e.g. through the establishing of Public-Private-Academic Partnerships...

  15. Adolescent Attachment Trajectories with Mothers and Fathers: The Importance of Parent-Child Relationship Experiences and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Holly; Dolan, Elaine A.; Buhrmester, Duane

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated how attachment with mothers and fathers changes during adolescence, and how gender and parent-child relationship experiences are associated with attachment trajectories. The relative importance of specific positive and negative relationship experiences on attachment trajectories was also examined. An initial sample of 223 adolescents reported on relationship experiences and attachment avoidance and anxiety with mothers and fathers in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (final N=110; Mage=11.90 years at onset, SD=.43). Mothers and fathers reported on relationship experiences with adolescents. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that security with parents increased during adolescence. Positive relationship experiences (companionship, satisfaction, approval, support) predicted increases in security and negative experiences (pressure, criticism) predicted decreases in security. Females reported less avoidance than males. PMID:26347590

  16. Attachment Capability of Antagonistic Yeast Rhodotorula glutinis to Botrytis cinerea Contributes to Biocontrol Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boqiang; Peng, Huaimin; Tian, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis as an antagonism show good biocontrol performance against various post-harvest diseases in fruits. In the present study, strong attachment capability of R. glutinis to spores and hyphae of Botrytis cinerea was observed. Further analysis showed that certain protein components on the yeast cell surface played critical role during the interaction between R. glutinis and B. cinerea. The components mainly distributed at the poles of yeast cells and might contain glycosylation modification, as tunicamycin treated yeast cells lost attachment capability to B. cinerea. To investigate contributions of attachment capability of R. glutinis to its biocontrol efficacy, yeast cells were mutagenized with 3% methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMS), and a mutant CE4 with stable non-attaching phenotype was obtained. No significant difference was found on colony, cell morphology, reproductive ability, and capsule formation between the mutant and wild-type. However, there was a distinct difference in India ink positive staining patterns between the two strains. Moreover, wild-type strain of R. glutinis showed better performance on inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea than CE4 strain when yeast cells and B. cinerea were co-cultured in vitro. In biocontrol assay, both wild-type and CE4 strains showed significant biocontrol efficacy against gray mold caused by B. cinerea in apple fruit, whereas, control effect of CE4 strain was lower than that of wild-type. Our findings provided new evidences that attachment capability of R. glutinis to B. cinerea contributed to its biocontrol efficacy.

  17. A systematic review of adult attachment and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Ray P C; Dickson, Joanne M; Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Cunliffe, Alexandra; Taylor, Peter J

    2017-03-15

    Attachment has been implicated in the development of social anxiety. Our aim was to synthesise the extant literature exploring the role of adult attachment in these disorders. Search terms relating to social anxiety and attachment were entered into MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using and adapted version of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality assessment tool. Eligible studies employed validated social anxiety and attachment assessments in adult clinical and analogue samples. The review included cross sectional, interventional and longitudinal research. Of the 30 identified studies, 28 showed a positive association between attachment insecurity and social anxiety. This association was particularly strong when considering attachment anxiety. Cognitive variables and evolutionary behaviours were identified as potential mediators, concordant with psychological theory. Due to a lack of longitudinal research, the direction of effect between attachment and social anxiety variables could not be inferred. There was substantial heterogeneity in the way that attachment was conceptualised and assessed across studies. The literature indicates that attachment style is associated with social anxiety. Clinicians may wish to consider attachment theory when working clinically with this population. In the future, it may be useful to target the processes that mediate the relationship between attachment and social anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010. Hazan a Shaver (1987 applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Feeney, 1999. Brennan, Clark a Shaver (1998 created four-dimensional model of attachment which was based on Ainsworth´s theory as well. The model was formed of two dimensions - anxiety and avoidance. The authors identified four types of attachment: secure, fearful, dismissive and preoccupied style of attachment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998. Satisfaction in romantic relationship can be explained as a degree in which is relationship for a human enojyable. Attachment influences satisfaction in relationship in terms of meeting need of proximity and safety (Mikulincer, Florian, Cowan, & Cowan, 2002. Several researches show that safe attachment is associated with higher satisfaction in marriage and on the other hand people with insecure style of attachment show lower degree of satisfaction in relationship (Alexandrov, Cowan, & Cowan, 2005; Treboux, Crowell, & Waters, 2004. At the same time style of attachment of the partner also influences individual a lot, satisfaction does not depend only on his own style of attachment but also on attachment of his partner (Farinelli, & McEwan, 2009. The study examined relations between the relationship attachment and marital satisfaction. The goal was to explain the relationship between the adult attachment and marital satisfaction of the individual and her/his husband/wife. The research examined relationship between adult attachment and marital satisfaction as well. Quantitative questionnaire survey: The battery consisted of

  19. The association between state attachment security and state Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Pepping

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions.

  20. Mediators of the Link Between Adult Attachment and Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon G. Caldwell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to be mindfully aware of the present moment without judgment is associated with a number of positive psychological and physiological outcomes. Experiences in attachment relationships are related to specific cognitive-emotional patterns that may contribute to dispositional mindfulness. A sample of adults (N = 93 completed questionnaires regarding adult attachment, rumination, thought suppression, attentional control, and mindfulness. Attachment-related avoidance predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by thought suppression and poorer attentional control. Attachment-related anxiety also predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by rumination and poorer attentional control. The results suggest that in the context of insecure attachment relationships thought suppression and rumination defend against personal and interpersonal losses by deactivating (in the case of avoidance or hyperactivating (in the case of anxiety the attachment system. These habitual defensive patterns may be important links between adult attachment orientations and mindfulness.

  1. Parental rules, parent and peer attachment, and adolescent drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Family factors have been widely implicated in the development of adolescent drinking behaviors. These include parental attachment and parental rules concerning drinking behaviors. Moreover, throughout adolescence attachment to parents gives way to attachment to peers, and parental rules about alcohol use become less strict. The present study examined the relationship between parental and peer attachment, parental rules on drinking and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1,724) of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Controlling for school grade (proxy for age), sex and the non-independence of respondents (clustering at school level) results showed that scores on a parental rules on drinking questionnaire were a significant statistical predictor when comparing moderate drinkers and abstainers, as well as moderate drinkers and problematic drinkers. Scores on both attachment scales were also significant, but only in the comparison between moderate and problematic drinkers, with lower attachment to parents and higher attachment to peers associated with problematic drinking.

  2. Relationship between attachment and executive dysfunction in the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pellejero, José M; Núñez, Juan L

    2017-07-14

    The executive functions of the homeless may be contributing to the success or failure of social integration processes. The goal of this study was to analyze the relationship between attachment and executive dysfunction in the homeless, specifically, to analyze the prevalence of adult attachment and executive dysfunction patterns, as well as the predictive power of different types of attachment for executive functioning. Participants were 107 homeless. Descriptive analysis revealed the prevalence of insecure attachment, and a high prevalence of clinically significant executive dysfunction. Regression analysis showed that attachment predicts all the executive functions, although the predictive power of attachment decreased when entering the variable drug addiction. People in a situation of chronic social exclusion are characterized by an insecure attachment style and moderate levels of executive dysfunction.

  3. A Galloping Energy Harvester with Attached Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Petr; Khovanov, Igor; Tucker-Harvey, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic energy harvesters are a promising technology for the operation of wireless sensors and microelectromechanical systems, as well as providing the possibility of harvesting wind energy in applications were conventional wind turbines are ineffective, such as in highly turbulent flows, or unreliable, such as in harsh environmental conditions. The development of aeroelastic energy harvesters to date has focused on the flutter of airfoils, the galloping of prismatic structures, and the vortex induced vibrations. We present a novel type of galloping energy harvester with the flow becoming attached when the oscillation amplitude is high enough. With the flow attached, the harvester blade acts closer to an aerofoil than a bluff body, which results in a higher efficiency. The dynamics of a prototype device has been characterised experimentally with the use of a motion tracking system. The flow structure in the vicinity of the device has been studied using smoke visualisation and PIV measurements. A lumped parameter mathematical model has been developed and related to the experimental results.

  4. Electron attachment to gas-phase uracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denifl, S.; Ptasińska, S.; Hanel, G.; Gstir, B.; Probst, M.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

    2004-04-01

    We present results about dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to gas-phase uracil (U) for incident electron energies between 0 and 14 eV using a crossed electron/molecule beam apparatus. The most abundant negative ion formed via DEA is (U-H)-, where the resonance with the highest intensity appears at 1.01 eV. The anion yield of (U-H)- shows a number of peaks, which can be explained in part as being due to the formation of different (U-H)- isomers. Our results are compared with high level ab initio calculations using the G2MP2 method. There was no measurable amount of a parent ion U-. We also report the occurrence of 12 other fragments produced by dissociative electron attachment to uracil but with lower cross sections than (U-H)-. In addition we observed a parasitic contaminating process for conditions where uracil was introduced simultaneously with calibrant gases SF6 and CCl4 that leads to a sharp peak in the (U-H)- cross section close to 0 eV. For (U-H)- and all other fragments we determined rough measures for the absolute partial cross section yielding in the case of (U-H)- a peak value of σ (at 1.01 eV)=3×10-20 m2.

  5. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair.

  6. Points d’attache : Derrida, Cixous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hughes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Les manuscrits échangés entre Hélène Cixous et Jacques Derrida portent les traces de leur amitié, dont le dialogue traverse des décennies d’écriture littéraire et philosophique. Sur les manuscrits du Prénom de Dieu, de Voiles, et de « Circonfession » – qui ont circulé entre les deux auteurs – on peut lire les marginalia, la ponctuation élargie, et la mise en page reconstituée comme des points d’attache entre manuscrit, écrivain, et lecteur. Nous sommes amenés à considérer la surface de l’objet manuscrit comme un lieu de rencontres perpétuelles qui réactivent l’écriture en archive et au-delà – sujet qui regagne en urgence quant aux nouvelles technologies comme les logiciels de traitement de texte et les disques durs. Ces objets textuels servent aussi bien à lier les deux écrivains à la scène de l’écriture, le lecteur étant pris à témoin, qu’à renouer les attaches entre Cixous et Derrida, les solidifiant à travers l’écriture – même de manière posthume.

  7. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O.; Arena, L.; Griffiths, D.

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  8. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  9. In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lucas Pereira; Ferreira-Filho, Julio Cesar Campos; Martins, Julia Medeiros; Alves, Caroline Vieira; Santiago, Bianca Marques; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to verify in vitro adherence of E. corrodens and S. oralis to the surface of tongue piercings made of surgical steel, titanium, Bioplast, and Teflon. For this, 160 piercings were used for the count of Colony Forming Units (CFU) and 32 piercings for analysis under scanning electron microscopy. Of these, 96 (24 of each type) were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth and 50  μ L of inoculum at 37°C/24 h. The other 96 piercings formed the control group and were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth at 37°C/24 h. Plates were incubated at 37°C/48 h for counting of CFU/mL and data were submitted to statistical analysis ( p value steel showed lower bacterial adherence. The adherence of S. oralis differed among piercings, showing lower colonization ( p steel piercings. The four types of piercings were susceptible to colonization by E. corrodens and S. oralis , and bacterial adhesion was more significant in those made of Bioplast and Teflon. The piercings presented bacterial colonies on their surface, being higher in plastic piercings probably due to their uneven and rough surface.

  10. Distribution of lifetimes of kinetochore-microtubule attachments: interplay of energy landscape, molecular motors and microtubule (de-)polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K.; Shtylla, Blerta; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2014-06-01

    Before a cell divides into two daughter cells, chromosomes are replicated resulting in two sister chromosomes embracing each other. Each sister chromosome is bound to a separate proteinous structure, called kinetochore (kt), that captures the tip of a filamentous protein, called microtubule (MT). Two oppositely oriented MTs pull the two kts attached to two sister chromosomes, thereby pulling the two sisters away from each other. Here we theoretically study an even simpler system, namely an isolated kt coupled to a single MT; this system mimics an in vitro experiment where a single kt-MT attachment is reconstituted using purified extracts from budding yeast. Our models not only account for the experimentally observed ‘catch-bond-like’ behavior of the kt-MT coupling, but also make new predictions on the probability distribution of the lifetimes of the attachments. In principle, our new predictions can be tested by analyzing the data collected in the in vitro experiments, provided that the experiment is repeated a sufficiently large number of times. Our theory provides a deep insight into the effects of (a) size, (b) energetics, and (c) stochastic kinetics of the kt-MT coupling on the distribution of the lifetimes of these attachments.

  11. Microdrill Initiative - Initial Market Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears & Associates, Inc

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a major research and development initiative to create a small, fast, inexpensive and environmentally friendly rig for drilling 5000 feet boreholes to investigate potential oil and gas reservoirs. DOE wishes to get input from petroleum industry operators, service companies and equipment suppliers on the operation and application of this coiled-tubing-based drilling unit. To that end, DOE has asked Spears & Associates, Inc. (SAI) to prepare a special state-of-the-market report and assist during a DOE-sponsored project-scoping workshop in Albuquerque near the end of April 2003. The scope of the project is four-fold: (1) Evaluate the history, status and future of demand for very small bore-hole drilling; (2) Measure the market for coiled tubing drilling and describe the state-of-the-art; (3) Identify companies and individuals who should have an interest in micro drilling and invite them to the DOE workshop; and (4) Participate in 3 concurrent workshop sessions, record and evaluate participant comments and report workshop conclusions.

  12. Interview Investigation of Insecure Attachment Styles as Mediators between Poor Childhood Care and Schizophrenia-Spectrum Phenomenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sheinbaum

    Full Text Available Insecure attachment styles have received theoretical attention and some initial empirical support as mediators between childhood adverse experiences and psychotic phenomena; however, further specificity needs investigating. The present interview study aimed to examine (i whether two forms of poor childhood care, namely parental antipathy and role reversal, were associated with subclinical positive and negative symptoms and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder (PD traits, and (ii whether such associations were mediated by specific insecure attachment styles.A total of 214 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for subclinical symptoms (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, schizophrenia-spectrum PDs (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders, poor childhood care (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview, and attachment style (Attachment Style Interview. Participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and all the analyses were conducted partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms.Both parental antipathy and role reversal were associated with subclinical positive symptoms and with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Role reversal was also associated with subclinical negative symptoms. Angry-dismissive attachment mediated associations between antipathy and subclinical positive symptoms and both angry-dismissive and enmeshed attachment mediated associations of antipathy with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Enmeshed attachment mediated associations of role reversal with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits.Attachment theory can inform lifespan models of how adverse developmental environments may increase the risk for psychosis. Insecure attachment provides a promising mechanism for understanding the development of schizophrenia-spectrum phenomenology and may offer a useful target for prophylactic intervention.

  13. Interview Investigation of Insecure Attachment Styles as Mediators between Poor Childhood Care and Schizophrenia-Spectrum Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Bifulco, Antonia; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    Background Insecure attachment styles have received theoretical attention and some initial empirical support as mediators between childhood adverse experiences and psychotic phenomena; however, further specificity needs investigating. The present interview study aimed to examine (i) whether two forms of poor childhood care, namely parental antipathy and role reversal, were associated with subclinical positive and negative symptoms and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder (PD) traits, and (ii) whether such associations were mediated by specific insecure attachment styles. Method A total of 214 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for subclinical symptoms (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States), schizophrenia-spectrum PDs (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders), poor childhood care (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview), and attachment style (Attachment Style Interview). Participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and all the analyses were conducted partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms. Results Both parental antipathy and role reversal were associated with subclinical positive symptoms and with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Role reversal was also associated with subclinical negative symptoms. Angry-dismissive attachment mediated associations between antipathy and subclinical positive symptoms and both angry-dismissive and enmeshed attachment mediated associations of antipathy with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Enmeshed attachment mediated associations of role reversal with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Conclusions Attachment theory can inform lifespan models of how adverse developmental environments may increase the risk for psychosis. Insecure attachment provides a promising mechanism for understanding the development of schizophrenia-spectrum phenomenology and may offer a useful target for prophylactic intervention. PMID:26247601

  14. Technical Scientific Attaches and domotics. A special issue; Technisch Wetenschappelijk Attaches en domotica. Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinenberg, R.A. [Ministerie van Economische Zaken, The Hague (Netherlands); Uythof, B.H. [Invenit, Domotica Platform Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Benedetti, D [Ufficio Tecnico-Scientifico, Ambasciata del Regno dei Paesi Bassi, Rome (Italy); Van Wijngaarden, W.L. [Buero fuer Wissenschaft und Technologie, Kgl. Niederlaendische Botschaft, Bonn (Germany); Leniger, H.D.F. [Bureau du Conseiller Scientifique et Technique, Ambassade des Pays-Bas, Paris (France); Kieboom, J.P. [Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Singapore (Singapore); Van Kooij, E.H. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Tokyo (Japan); Schuurmans, H.J.A. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In this Dutch magazine Dutch businesses and institutes are informed about technological developments in industrialized countries (USA, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Germany, France and Italy). In this special issue attaches in the different countries present information on developments and trends with respect to domotics, building automation, home networks, etc.

  15. Childhood attachment and schizophrenia: the "attachment-developmental-cognitive" (ADC) hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric syndrome whose exact causes remain unclear. However, current scientific consensus has highlighted the importance of neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive processes in the development of schizophrenic symptoms. Research over the past three decades, motivated by the findings of the World Health Organization's large-scale studies, has highlighted the importance of psychosocial adversities - including childhood abuse and neglect - in this disorder. In this paper, I propose a hypothesis based on John Bowlby's framework of attachment theory, which I have termed the attachment-developmental-cognitive (ADC) hypothesis. The ADC hypothesis integrates recent developments related to (1) existing models of schizophrenia, (2) studies examining the effect of attachment on brain biology and cognitive development, and (3) various known facts about the course and outcome of this disorder. In doing so, it explains how disturbed childhood attachment leads to core psychological and neurochemical abnormalities which are implicated in the genesis of schizophrenia and also affect its outcome. The ADC hypothesis compasses and expands on earlier formulations, such as the "social defeat" and "traumagenic" models, and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of schizophrenia. Ways of testing and refining this hypothesis are outlined as avenues for future research. Though provisional, the ADC hypothesis is entirely consistent with both biological and psychosocial research into the origins of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  17. Attachment mental states and inferred pathways of development in borderline personality disorder: a study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Fossati, Andrea; Guiducci, Valentina

    2011-09-01

    We report the outcome of an investigation on how specific attachment states of mind and corresponding risk factors related to different DSM Axis I comorbidities in subjects with BPD. Mental representations of attachment in four BPD sub-groups (BPD and Anxiety/Mood Disorders, BPD and Substance Use and Abuse Disorders, BPD and Alcohol Use and Abuse Disorders, and BPD and Eating Disorders) were assessed in 140 BPD subjects using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). In addition to the global attachment picture in which Insecure organized (Dismissing 51% and Enmeshed 35%) and Insecure disorganized categories (40%) were overrepresented, significant differences in attachment category were found between the four BPD sub-groups. Axis I comorbidities corresponded with attachment features on the internalizing/externalizing functioning dimension of the disorder. Furthermore, specific constellations of inferred developmental antecedents and attachment states of mind corresponded differentially with the BPD sub-groups. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  18. Tuning the Density of Poly(ethylene glycol Chains to Control Mammalian Cell and Bacterial Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Ani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of biomaterials with polymer chains has attracted great attention because of their ability to control biointerfacial interactions such as protein adsorption, cell attachment and bacterial biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to control the immobilisation of biomolecules on silicon wafers using poly(ethylene glycol(PEG chains by a “grafting to” technique. In particular, to control the polymer chain graft density in order to capture proteins and preserve their activity in cell culture as well as find the optimal density that would totally prevent bacterial attachment. The PEG graft density was varied by changing the polymer solubility using an increasing salt concentration. The silicon substrates were initially modified with aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES, where the surface density of amine groups was optimised using different concentrations. The results showed under specific conditions, the PEG density was highest with grafting under “cloud point” conditions. The modified surfaces were characterised with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and water contact angle measurements. In addition, all modified surfaces were tested with protein solutions and in cell (mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteoblast-like cells and bacterial (Pseudomonas aeruginosa attachment assays. Overall, the lowest protein adsorption was observed on the highest polymer graft density, bacterial adhesion was very low on all modified surfaces, and it can be seen that the attachment of mammalian cells gradually increased as the PEG grafting density decreased, reaching the maximum attachment at medium PEG densities. The results demonstrate that, at certain PEG surface coverages, mammalian cell attachment can be tuned with the potential to optimise their behaviour with controlled serum protein adsorption.

  19. Activity of glucose oxidase immobilized onto Fe3+ attached hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözügeçer, Sevgi; Bayramgil, Nursel Pekel

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HMPC) insoluble films were prepared by (60)Co-γ irradiation of 10% (w/w) aqueous solutions of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. The adsorption of Fe(3+) onto HPMC films was studied in the range of pH 3.0-7.0. The effect of initial concentrations of Fe(3+) solutions on adsorption capacity was studied in the range of 100-1000 ppm. Maximum adsorption capacity was found as 250 mg Fe(3+)/g dry HPMC film at pH 5.0. The structure and the morphology of Fe(3+)-attached HPMC film were evaluated by using FTIR/ATR and SEM-EDX methods. Glucose oxidase (GOX) immobilization on both pristine HPMC and maximum Fe(3+)-attached HPMC film was investigated in aqueous solutions containing different amount of GOX and at different pHs. Maximum GOX adsorption capacity was found as 500 mg/g Fe(3+)-attached HPMC film. Residual activity of GOX on pristine HPMC and Fe(3+)-attached HPMC films was investigated with changing pH. While maximum residual GOX activity was observed at pH 6.0 for free enzyme, it was obtained by HPMC and Fe(3+)-attached HPMC at pH 7.0. GOX desorption studies were achieved by using pH 6.0 buffer (I=0.02 M) and 0.1 M EDTA solutions. The long-term stability and activity studies of GOX, which is immobilized onto Fe(3+)-attached HPMC films are still under our investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothibe, Mmamosheledi Elsie; Kahler-Venter, Christinah; Osuch, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Commercial herbal medicines (CHMs) being marketed as immune boosters or tonics, have gained widespread popularity. The many herbal mixtures sold have not been tested for efficacy and safety, despite their modern packaging and presentations. It is imperative that these herbal mixtures be investigated for their effects on human neutrophils. The selected herbal mixture (HM), Stametta ™ Body healing liquid, is common in retail outlets in Pretoria, South Africa (SA) and is used as an immune booster or intended to strengthen the body. Isolated neutrophils as well as those in whole blood phagocytes were obtained from blood samples collected from consenting healthy adult volunteers. The neutrophils were incubated with the HM at different strengths, and taken through a luminol-enhanced luminescence assay, using activators- phorbol myristate acetate and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. The HM had variable stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the luminescence activity of healthy isolated and non-isolated human neutrophils. The effects, ranging from weak to potent were either directly or inversely related to the concentration of the HM and were mediated through a direct protein kinase C activating mechanism and an indirect formyl peptide receptor-linked mechanism. The findings have shown the immunomodulatory potential of Stametta ™. The in vitro inhibitory and stimulatory effects on neutrophils which are furthermore time-based, suggest variable effects on the immune system, which may be beneficial as well as risky. The effects at different concentrations highlight the importance of appropriate dosing. It would therefore be prudent to caution users of this commercial herbal medicine accordingly.

  1. Electron attachment to 5-chloro uracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denifl, S.; Matejcik, S.; Gstir, B.; Hanel, G.; Probst, M.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

    2003-03-01

    Electron attachment (EA) and dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to 5-chloro uracil (5-ClU) was studied in the gas phase using a crossed electron/molecule beams technique. Besides production of a parent anion via a zero energy resonance, ion yields of nine different negative ions were observed in the electron energy range from about 0 to 14 eV. In the electron energy range from about zero to 5 eV, the formation of a transient negative ion was induced by electron attachment to the π* resonances located at about 0.24, 1.5, and 3.6 eV leading subsequently by unimolecular decay to various negative fragment ions. Absolute partial cross sections for EA and DEA to 5-ClU were obtained from the measured ion yields using a simple calibrating method. The dominant negative ion observed in the present experiment was (C4H2N2O2)- (corresponding to 5-ClU minus HCl) with a mass to charge ratio of 110, followed by Cl- ion (mass to charge ratios 35 and 37), the partial cross sections being σ(0.23 eV)=5×10-18 m2 and σ(0.23 eV)=3×10-18 m2, respectively. The parent anion produced (5-ClU)- has only a cross section value of σ(0 eV)=3×10-20 m2. The energetic thresholds for the formation of particular negative ions from 5-ClU in the gas phase were calculated at the G2(MP2) level of theory and compared with the experimental results. On the basis of these calculations structure and relative stability of some of the fragment ions was predicted. In the case of the two most abundant ions, their formation was observed well below the calculated electron energy threshold. The formation of these negative ions below the thermodynamic threshold is explained in terms of the high vibrational energy of the 5-ClU prior to the EA process.

  2. Vascular catheters with a nonleaching poly-sulfobetaine surface modification reduce thrombus formation and microbial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger S; Zhang, Zheng; Bouchard, Michael; Li, Jun; Lapp, Heather S; Brotske, Gregory R; Lucchino, David L; Weaver, Douglas; Roth, Laurence A; Coury, Arthur; Biggerstaff, John; Sukavaneshvar, Sivaprasad; Langer, Robert; Loose, Christopher

    2012-09-26

    Adherence of proteins, cells, and microorganisms to the surface of venous catheters contributes to catheter occlusion, venous thrombosis, thrombotic embolism, and infections. These complications lengthen hospital stays and increase patient morbidity and mortality. Current technologies for inhibiting these complications are limited in duration of efficacy and may induce adverse side effects. To prevent complications over the life span of a device without using active drugs, we modified a catheter with the nonleaching polymeric sulfobetaine (polySB), which coordinates water molecules to the catheter surface. The modified surface effectively reduced protein, mammalian cell, and microbial attachment in vitro and in vivo. Relative to commercial catheters, polySB-modified catheters exposed to human blood in vitro had a >98% reduction in the attachment and a significant reduction in activation of platelets, lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils. Additionally, the accumulation of thrombotic material on the catheter surface was reduced by >99% even after catheters were exposed to serum in vitro for 60 days. In vivo, in a highly thrombogenic canine model, device- and vessel-associated thrombus was reduced by 99%. In vitro adherence of a broad spectrum of microorganisms was reduced on both the external and the internal surfaces of polySB-modified catheters compared to unmodified catheters. When unmodified and polySB-modified catheters were exposed to the same bacterial challenge and implanted into animals, 50% less inflammation and fewer bacteria were associated with polySB-modified catheters. This nonleaching, polySB-modified catheter could have a major impact on reducing thrombosis and infection, thus improving patient health.

  3. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzyeh Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the  SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  4. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  5. Comparing fibroblast attachment in root surface scaling with Er, Cr:YSGG laser versus ultrasonic scaler: A SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Lotfi, Ghogha; Harandi, Mohammad; Ayremlou, Sara; A M Kalhori, Katayoun; Gholami, Gholam Ali; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh

    2017-08-01

    The regeneration of periodontal support is the main concern in periodontal therapy. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the fibroblasts attachment on root surfaces after scaling with Er, Cr:YSGG laser and ultrasonic instruments using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 72 root plates of ∼6 × 4 × 1 mm(3) in dimension were prepared from 27 single-rooted human mature teeth and were then divided into four groups. One group irradiated with a G6 tip of Er, Cr:YSGG laser (2.78 µm, 0.75 W, pulse duration of 140 µs, repetition rate of 20 Hz) for 5 to 7 s, and the other groups were scaled with ultrasonic alone or laser-ultrasonic. The control group was subjected to neither laser nor ultrasonic scaling. Subsequently, Viability and proliferation rates were done using MTT assay on days 3 and 5. Finally the cell attachment was observed using SEM. The data derived from MTT and cell-attachment analysis indicated that laser-ultrasonic scaling tended to increase cell-viability by the lapse of time (within 3-5 days), with significantly better cell-attachment compared with other groups on days 3 and 5 (p Cr:YSGG laser and ultrasonic scaling may promote fibroblast attachment on dentinal root surfaces more than laser or ultrasonic scaling alone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dynamics of Dissociative Electron Attachment to Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescigno, T. N.; Douguet, N.; Fonseca, S.; Orel, A. E.; Slaughter, D. S.; Belkacem, A.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a theoretical ad experimental study of dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to CH4. The total DEA cross section is dominated by a single broad peak centered near 10 eV, leading predominantly to H-/CH4 and CH2-/CH4dissociation channels. We will present evidence that both of these ion channels result from excitation of a triply degenerate Feshbach resonance (doubly excited negative ion state) of 2T2 symmetry whose parent is the lowest excited triplet state of the neutral molecule. We will present calculated angular distributions based on analysis of the entrance amplitudes obtained from the results of complex Kohn scattering calculations along with experimentally measured angular distributions obtained using the COLTRIMS method. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the LBNL and supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences.

  7. Localized attachment loss in Pendred syndrome: incidental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C G Dileep; Pradeep, A R

    2007-05-01

    Pendred syndrome is a rare, inherited, autosomal recessive disorder with an iodine organification defect of thyroxin produced by the thyroid gland. Its clinical features include sensorineural hearing loss, classically congenital and prelingual, and goiter. This is the first case report of Pendred syndrome in the dental literature with oral findings that include localized extensive attachment loss involving mandibular incisor teeth and idiopathic hypercementosis involving multiple teeth in addition to other oral manifestations, suggesting hypothyroidism-like macroglossia and macrocheilia. Furthermore, serum alkaline phosphatase along with inorganic calcium and phosphate levels were also elevated. Peripheral neutrophil function test suggested a defective function of neutrophils. Management of the case included augmenting thyroxin supplementation, in consultation with an endocrinologist, and extraction of hopeless mandibular central incisors followed by placement of immediate transitional dentures. A comprehensive medical history and systemic and laboratory evaluations should be considered a prerequisite to identify, manage, and report such rare conditions in routine clinical practice.

  8. My Story has No Strings Attached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    In the retail industry, consumer credit is sometimes seen as a dangerous parasite that can become bigger than its host. Credit cards are marketing devices that aim at easing the attachment between consumers and goods. Credit cards are also value meters that trace every single transaction. Credit...... cards can even be “gardening” tools. Sowing is the name used in Chile’s retail industry to call the data management strategy that consists of extending the credit limit of low income customers depending on their payment behavior. Data on previous transactions and behavior replaces collateral. Credit...... cards are not only used by the persons whose names are on the cards; People borrow and loan their cards, or, more precisely, their cards’ credit limits. Credit cards do not trace behavior but hidden networks. Can social relations act as parasites on credit – uninvited guests whose host is already...

  9. In vitro tooth cleaning efficacy of manual toothbrushes around brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schätzle, Marc; Imfeld, Thomas; Sener, Beatrice; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this laboratory study was to assess the potential cleaning efficacy of nine different toothbrushes around brackets in vitro. Standard and Mini Diamond brackets were fixed on coloured teeth in a special model, coated with white titanium oxide, brushed in a machine with different manual toothbrushes (three different types: planar, staged, and v-shaped bristle field), and tested with a horizontal motion for 1 minute. After brushing, the teeth were scanned and the black surfaces were planimetrically assessed using a grey scale. Tooth areas which were black again after brushing indicated tooth surface contact of the filaments. The remaining white tooth areas around the brackets indicated 'plaque-retentive' niches. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way test of variance for individual comparison. Bonferroni adjustment was used for multiple testing, and comparison of bracket size with Wilcoxon signed rank test. In the most critical area of 2 mm around the brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the different toothbrushes evaluated. The untouched area ranged from 11 to 26 per cent of the initially whitened tooth surface. By pooling the toothbrushes according to their design, the median cleaning efficacy of the v-shaped (73.1 per cent) and staged (75.6 per cent) toothbrushes resulted in significantly superior cleaning efficacy than planar toothbrushes (60.7 per cent) for standard brackets. For mini bracket type, staged toothbrushes showed a significantly better mean cleaning efficacy (77.8 per cent) than planar (65 per cent) and v-shaped (72.4 per cent) toothbrushes. Staged and v-shaped brush designs resulted in superior cleaning efficacy of teeth with fixed orthodontic attachments than toothbrushes with a planar bristle field. None of the tested toothbrushes showed a consistent, significantly higher cleaning efficacy than the others in this in vitro experiment.

  10. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  11. The Nature of Attachment Relationships and Grief Responses in Older Adults: An Attachment Path Model of Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Yan; Kane, Robert T; Priddis, Lynn; Hudson, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Various researchers have theorized that bereaved adults who report non-secure attachment are at higher risk of pathological grief. Yet past findings on avoidant attachment representations and grief have yielded limited and contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted with older adults to identify the psychological processes that mediate between self-reported attachment representations and the patterns of grief. To examine the impacts of avoidant attachment and anxious attachment dimensions on emotion and non-acceptance, in response to the loss of a conjugal partner, and the mediating effect of yearning thoughts. Men (N = 21) and women (N = 68) aged 60 years and above who had lost a partner within the last 12 to 72 months were invited to participate. Participants rated their levels of yearning thoughts about the deceased, emotions and non-acceptance on the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG-Present), and their type and level of general romantic attachment on the Experiences In Close Relationship questionnaire (ECR). Structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated that individuals who reported higher levels of avoidant attachment reported less emotional responses and less non-acceptance. SEM also showed that individuals who reported higher levels of anxious attachment reported greater emotional responses and greater non-acceptance. SEM further indicated that these relationships were mediated by yearning thoughts. People adopt different grief coping patterns according to their self-reported attachment representations, with the nature of their yearning thoughts influencing the process. Grief therapy may be organized according to individual differences in attachment representations.

  12. Association of attachment disorganization, attachment-related emotion regulation, and cortisol response after standardized psychosocial stress procedure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment representations are related to maintaining biological homeostasis, including physiological stress and emotional regulation. Therefore, recent research has focused on attachment stress regulation and hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA axis reactivity. However, the attachment disorganization underlying emotion regulation associated with the HPA axis response has not yet been investigated. In our study, the attachment representation and the HPA-axis reactivity by cortisol level before and after the Trier Social Stress Test were assessed in a sample of 98 healthy non-clinical subjects. As expected, approximately 30% of this sample showed a disorganized attachment representation. The subjects’ unresolved attachment (breakdown of emotional regulation showed a prolonged cortisol recovery. No differences were found between the attachment patterns in the increase and the delta of the cortisol response. However, the cortisol reactivity differed significantly for the occurrence of emotional regulation. The subjects with a high occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation showed a higher cortisol response than the subjects with an unresolved attachment and the ones with a low occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation. Regulating the negative emotions of stressful situations may require more attention as it might lead to an increased activation of the physiological system.

  13. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  14. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  16. Attachment and autonomy problems in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koemans, Rosalien G; van Vroenhoven, Susanne; Karreman, Annemiek; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2015-05-01

    Attachment security and autonomy were examined in adults with ADHD. Insecure attachment and autonomy problems were expected to be negatively associated with general psychological functioning. Questionnaires were administered (Relationship Questionnaire, Autonomy-Connectedness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory) in 84 late-diagnosed adults with ADHD. Only 18% of participants were securely attached, as opposed to 59% in the normal population. Concerning autonomy, participants scored below average on self-awareness, above average on sensitivity to others, and average on capacity to manage new situations compared with the normal population. The preoccupiedly attached group reported more problems in psychological functioning than the secure and dismissive group. Sensitivity to others and capacity to manage new situations were associated with psychological functioning; self-awareness was not. Attachment security and autonomy contributed to general psychological functioning. Attachment and autonomy problems do exist in adults with ADHD and contribute negatively to their psychological functioning. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  17. Intergenerational transmission of trauma: exploring mother-infant prenatal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Kami L; Goff, Briana S Nelson

    2007-02-01

    Early childhood attachment and bonding and the intergenerational transmission of trauma are two key areas to address to understand the connection between parental trauma and the parent-child relationship. The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between trauma and past parental attachment behaviors of 41 expectant mothers and the subsequent development of attachment and bonding with their unborn child. Results of the current study suggest that trauma history, in general, does not negatively impact expectant mothers' current prenatal attachment with their unborn child. However, interpersonal trauma history does appear to have negative effects on prenatal attachment. These results point to the importance of understanding the role of interpersonal trauma exposure on prenatal attachment.

  18. Activating attachment representations impact how we retrieve autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Bali, Agnes

    2017-09-01

    Although much research indicates that proximity to attachment figures confers many psychological benefits, there is little evidence pertaining to how attachment activation may impact autobiographical memory retrieval. Following a negative mood induction to elicit overgeneral autobiographical retrieval, participants (N = 70) were administered an induction in which they imagined a person who is a strong attachment figure or an acquaintance. Participants then completed an autobiographical memory task to retrieve memories in response to neutral and negative cue words. Attachment priming resulted in less distress, increased retrieval of specific memories, and reduced retrieval of categoric memories. These findings indicate that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can impact on the specificity of autobiographical memory retrieval, and extends prevailing models of autobiographical memory by integrating them with attachment theory.

  19. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Wright MD, FRCPsych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years. This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research.

  20. Priming the Secure Attachment Schema Affects the Emotional Face Processing Bias in Attachment Anxiety: An fMRI Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingting; Chen, Xu; Hu, Jia; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Our study explored how priming with a secure base schema affects the processing of emotional facial stimuli in individuals with attachment anxiety. We enrolled 42 undergraduate students between 18 and 27 years of age, and divided them into two groups: attachment anxiety and attachment secure. All participants were primed under two conditions, the secure priming using references to the partner, and neutral priming using neutral references. We performed repeated attachment security priming combined with a dual-task paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants' reaction times in terms of responding to the facial stimuli were also measured. Attachment security priming can facilitate an individual's processing of positive emotional faces; for instance, the presentation of the partner's name was associated with stronger activities in a wide range of brain regions and faster reaction times for positive facial expressions in the subjects. The current finding of higher activity in the left-hemisphere regions for secure priming rather than neutral priming is consistent with the prediction that attachment security priming triggers the spread of the activation of a positive emotional state. However, the difference in brain activity during processing of both, positive and negative emotional facial stimuli between the two priming conditions appeared in the attachment anxiety group alone. This study indicates that the effect of attachment secure priming on the processing of emotional facial stimuli could be mediated by chronic attachment anxiety. In addition, it highlights the association between higher-order processes of the attachment system (secure attachment schema priming) and early-stage information processing system (attention), given the increased attention toward the effects of secure base schema on the processing of emotion- and attachment-related information among the insecure population. Thus, the following study has applications in providing