WorldWideScience

Sample records for vitro bovine embryo

  1. Bovine in-vitro embryo production and its contribution towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    ... of the Kenyan livestock farmers and boost food security. It discusses the technical aspects of the procedures involved in the in-vitro production of bovine embryos and embryo transfer, with special reference to the application of the techniques in Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Production of embryos in the laboratory ...

  2. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2015-01-01

    be improved, and aspects related to the oocyte donor, oocyte maturation and the recipients are addressed in the following. Also, some of the future aspects of genomic selection and systems biology are addressed with particular focus on the Brazilian-Danish collaboration in the so-called GIFT-project.......In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  3. Vitrification of in vitro produced bovine embryos: in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A G; Valcárcel, A; de las Heras, M A; de Matos, D G; Furnus, C; Brogliatti, G

    2002-09-16

    The efficacy of different vitrification solutions to cryopreserve in vitro produced bovine blastocysts was evaluated based upon in vitro development of embryos in culture and on in vivo development of embryos transferred into recipients. In the first experiment, ethylene glycol + glycerol (Eg + Gly) + different sucrose concentrations were evaluated. There were no significant differences in development rates among solutions. As for hatching, the Eg + Gly + 0.1 M sucrose group had a greater rate as compared with Eg + Gly + 0 M sucrose and Eg + Gly + 0.5 M sucrose groups in the evaluations of Day 6, Day 7 and Day 6 + Day 7 embryos; and, Eg + Gly + 0.3 M sucrose group had a greater rate as compared with the Eg + Gly + 0 M sucrose and Eg + Gly + 0.5 M sucrose groups in evaluations of Day 6 and Day 6 + Day 7 embryos. There were no significant differences in development and hatching rates between Day 6 and 7 in in vitro produced bovine embryos within each treatment group. There were significant differences in nuclei number after vitrification between Eg + Gly + 0.1 M and Eg + Gly + 0 M sucrose groups and the Eg + Gly + 0.5 M sucrose group. Pregnancy after 60 days of transfer and calving rates showed a difference between in vivo produced embryos freshly transferred and in vitro produced embryos vitrified with Eg + Gly + 0.3 M. There were no significant differences in gestation length and sex ratio between treatments. As for birth weight, there were significant differences between fresh in vivo produced embryos and all treatments of in vitro produced embryos. There were significant differences in dystocial parturition between in vivo produced embryos and all treatments with in vitro produced embryos. These results demonstrate that vitrification can be used successfully in the cryopreservation of in vitro produced bovine embryos, and that it might be considered for use in commercial programs. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract.

  5. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.K. de [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade da Ceilândia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Salles, L.P. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Rosa e Silva, A.A.M. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2015-01-23

    Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract.

  6. Lipid content and cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos treated with forskolin before vitrification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melissa Meneghel; Priscila Chediek Dall’Acqua; Marcela Ambrogi; Beatriz C.S. Leão; Nathália A.S. Rocha-Frigoni; Gisele Z. Mingoti

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intracytoplasmic lipid content, development and cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos treated with different concentrations of forskolin before vitrification...

  7. Closed pulled straw vitrification of in vitro-produced and in vivo-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X L; Deng, W; Liu, F J; Li, Y H; Li, X X; Zhang, Y L; Zan, L S

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the closed pulled straw (CPS) method for cryopreserving in vitro-produced and in vivo-produced bovine (Bos taurus) embryos. Based on the open pulled straw (OPS) protocol, the top end of a CPS was closed by tweezers (heated in a flame) to prevent the cryoprotectant medium containing embryos from contacting the liquid nitrogen. Bovine in vitro or in vivo morulae and early blastocyst embryos were frozen by slow cryopreservation, OPS vitrification, or CPS vitrification. Morphology of postthawed embryos was evaluated, and normal embryos were used for successive culture for 72h. There were no significant differences between OPS and CPS freezing groups in postthawed in vitro-produced embryos with respect to rates of morphologically normal embryos (mean+/-SD, 87.9+/-5.2% vs. 85.4+/-4.9%), survival at 24h (58.0+/-6.8% vs. 56.3+/-4.4%), and survival at 72h (35.2+/-6.0% vs. 34.9+/-6.7%). However, both OPS and CPS vitrification resulted in higher postthaw rates of morphologically normal embryo and survival at 24 and 72h than those of the slow-freezing method (Pvitrification was a feasible method to cryopreserve both in vitro-derived and in vivo-derived bovine embryos. This method not only eliminated the risk of embryo contamination by preventing contact with liquid nitrogen but also retained the advantages of the OPS vitrification method. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. In vitro production of bovine embryos derived from individual donors in the Corral® dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteeuw, Maaike; Wydooghe, Eline; Mullaart, Erik; Knijn, Hiemke M; Van Soom, Ann

    2017-06-15

    Since the identity of the embryo is of outmost importance during commercial in vitro embryo production, bovine oocytes and embryos have to be cultured strictly per donor. Due to the rather low yield of oocytes collected after ovum pick-up (OPU) per individual cow, oocyte maturation and embryo culture take place in small groups, which is often associated with inferior embryo development. The objective of this study was to improve embryonic development in small donor groups by using the Corral® dish. This commercial dish is designed for human embryo production. It contains two central wells that are divided into quadrants by a semi-permeable wall. In human embryo culture, one embryo is placed per quadrant, allowing individual follow-up while embryos are exposed to a common medium. In our study, small groups of oocytes and subsequently embryos of different bovine donors were placed in the Corral® dish, each donor group in a separate quadrant. In two experiments, the Corral® dish was evaluated during in vitro maturation (IVM) and/or in vitro culture (IVC) by grouping oocytes and embryos of individual bovine donors per quadrant. At day 7, a significantly higher blastocyst rate was noted in the Corral® dish used during IVM and IVC than when only used during IVM (12.9% ± 2.10 versus 22.8% ± 2.67) (P vitro embryo production (IVP) in cattle; allowing to allocate oocytes and/or embryos per donor. As fresh embryo transfers on day 7 have higher pregnancy outcomes, the Corral® dish offers an added value for commercial OPU/IVP, since a higher blastocyst development at day 7 is obtained when the Corral® dish is used during IVM and IVC.

  9. In vitro evaluation and pregnancy rates after vitrification of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A G; de Matos, D G; Furnus, C C; Brogliatti, G M

    1998-10-01

    The efficacy of different vitrification solutions to cryopreserve in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts was evaluated based on in vitro development of embryos in culture and on in vivo development of embryos transferred into recipients. In the first experiment, 2 vitrification solutions were compared: propylene glycol + glycerol (Pg + Gly) and ethylene glycol + Ficoll + sucrose (EFS). Differences in the overall development and hatching rates in favor of EFS were found (56.4 vs 33.3% and 35.4 vs 13.3%; P vitrification solutions were compared: EFS, modified EFS (EFSm) and ethylene glycol + glycerol (Eg + Gly). The vitrification solutions EFSm and Eg + Gly yield higher hatching rates than did EFS (57.7 vs 59.6 vs 35.7%; P vitrification solutions: EFSm and Eg + Gly. There were no differences between them based on the results obtained after transfer (35.2 vs 43.7%). The vitrification solutions EFSm and Eg + Gly have resulted in good pregnancy rates. These results demonstrated that vitrification can be used successfully in the cryopreservation of in-vitro produced bovine embryos, and it might be considered for use in commercial programs.

  10. Effects of steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) on in vitro bovine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Panter, K E; Gaffield, W; Evans, R C; Bunch, T D

    2005-02-01

    alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine are two naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and solanidine-N-oxide is a corresponding steroidal aglycone. The objective of this research was to screen potential cyto-toxicity of these potato glycoalkaloids using bovine oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization techniques and subsequent embryonic development as the in vitro model. A randomized complete block design with four in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) treatments (Experiment 1) and four in vitro embryo culture (IVC) treatments (Experiment 2) was used. In Experiment 1, bovine oocytes (n=2506) were matured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVM medium only. The in vitro matured oocytes were then subject to routine IVF and IVC procedures. Results indicated that exposure of bovine oocytes to the steroidal glycoalkaloids during in vitro maturation inhibited subsequent pre-implantation embryo development. Potency of the embryo-toxicity varied between these steroidal glycoalkaloids. In Experiment 2, IVM/IVF derived bovine embryos (n=2370) were cultured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVC medium only. The results showed that the pre-implantation embryo development is inhibited by exposure to these glycoalkaloids. This effect is significant during the later pre-implantation embryo development period as indicated by fewer numbers of expanded and hatched blastocysts produced in the media containing these alkaloids. Therefore, we conclude that in vitro exposure of oocytes and fertilized ova to the steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes inhibits pre-implantation embryo development. Furthermore, we suggest that ingestion of Solanum species containing toxic amounts of glycoalkaloids may have negative effects on pre-implantation embryonic survival.

  11. Phosphorylated H2AX in parthenogenetically activated, in vitro fertilized and cloned bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A F; Melo, L M; Freitas, V J F; Salamone, D F

    2015-08-01

    In vitro embryo production methods induce DNA damage in the embryos. In response to these injuries, histone H2AX is phosphorylated (γH2AX) and forms foci at the sites of DNA breaks to recruit repair proteins. In this work, we quantified the DNA damage in bovine embryos undergoing parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) by measuring γH2AX accumulation at different developmental stages: 1-cell, 2-cell and blastocyst. At the 1-cell stage, IVF embryos exhibited a greater number of γH2AX foci (606.1 ± 103.2) and greater area of γH2AX staining (12923.6 ± 3214.1) than did PA and SCNT embryos. No differences at the 2-cell stage were observed among embryo types. Although PA, IVF and SCNT were associated with different blastocyst formation rates (31.1%, 19.7% and 8.3%, P DNA damage was comparable among those embryos developing to the blastocyst stage among different methods for in vitro embryo production. While IVF resulted in increased damage at the 1-cell embryo stage, no difference was observed between PA and SCNT embryos at any developmental stage. The decrease in the number of double-stranded breaks at the blastocyst stage seems to indicate that DNA repair mechanisms are functional during embryo development.

  12. In vitro and in vivo quality of bovine embryos in vitro produced with sex-sorted sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Trigal, B.; Gómez, E.; Caamaño, J.N. (José); Muñoz, M.; Moreno, Javier; Carrocera, S.; Martín, D.; Díez, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we analyzed the effects of three culture systems on developmental ability of bovine embryos in vitro produced with sexed sperm, the survival to vitrification (cryologic vitrification method) of such blastocysts, and their pregnancy rates after embryo transfer to recipients, both as fresh and after vitrification/warming. Finally, we measured the accuracy of the sorting protocol by a polymerase chain reaction-based method to validate the embryo sex at blastocyst stages. We confirme...

  13. Developmental kinetics of in vitro-produced bovine embryos: An aid for making decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrocera, S; Caamaño, J N; Trigal, B; Martín, D; Díez, C

    2016-03-15

    Embryo developmental kinetics and embryo survival after cryopreservation have been correlated with embryo quality and viability. The main objectives of this work were to analyze developmental ability and quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos in relation to their kinetics and to establish a criterion of quality to predict further viability. Embryos were classified and grouped by their specific stage of development (2, 3-4, or ≥ 5 cells) at 44 hours post insemination (hpi) and cultured separately up to Day 8. On Days 7 and 8, good quality expanded blastocysts were vitrified or frozen. Cryopreserved surviving hatched embryos were stained for cell counts. Embryos at a more advanced stage (3-4 cells, and ≥5 cells) developed to morulae (P embryos that had cleaved once by 44 hpi. Vitrification improved the hatching rates of blastocysts at 48 hours (P embryos (3-4 cells and ≥5 cells). After vitrification/warming, blastocysts coming from 3- to 4-cell embryos had higher hatching rates at 48 hours than those that came from ≥5-cell embryos. With regard to differential cell counts, no effect of the initial developmental stage was observed after warming/thawing. However, trophectoderm and total cells were higher in vitrified/warmed than in the frozen/thawed embryos (P embryos at 44 hpi, after the evaluation of their in vitro embryo development, could be used as noninvasive markers of embryo developmental competence and may help to select IVF embryos that would be more suitable for cryopreservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cryopreservation affects the quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinshoff, H; Wilkening, S; Hanstedt, A; Brüning, K; Wrenzycki, C

    2011-11-01

    There are still immense differences in the quality of in vitro produced embryos compared to their in vivo generated counterparts. These differences include a higher sensitivity of in vitro produced embryos towards cryopreservation. The quality of such embryos has been evaluated by morphological examination as well as the assessment of total cell numbers, pregnancy rates and in few cases through the analysis of their gene expression. The aim of the present study was to determine whether different cryopreservation methods have an influence on the quality of in vitro produced embryos after thawing. Bovine blastocysts were produced in a standard culture system (SOFaa). Having reached the stage of an expanding blastocyst on day 7, embryos were randomly either vitrified (n = 106) or cryopreserved conventionally (n = 131). Reexpansion (24h post thawing; 86/106 [81.1 ± 20.3%] of the vitrified embryos, 104/131 [79.4 ± 16.5%] of the conventionally cryopreserved embryos respectively) and hatching rates (48 h post thawing; 67/106 [63.2 ± 24.5%] of the vitrified embryos, 80/131 [61.1 ± 29.3%] of the conventionally cryopreserved embryos respectively) were similar. No significant differences in total cell numbers as well as live-dead cell ratio could be seen in hatched blastocysts of either cryopreservation group as well as in a control group (embryos cultured up to the stage of a hatched blastocyst and not cryopreserved by either method). Additionally, RT-qPCR was used to assess the relative abundance of eight developmentally important genes (HSPA1A, SLC2A1, SLC2A3, DSC2, CDH1, TJP1, DNMT3A, IFNT2) in hatched embryos of all groups. The results revealed significant differences in 4 of 8 (HSPA1A, SLC2A1, TJP1, DSC2) gene transcripts when comparing vitrified embryos to embryos of the control group and in 6 of 8 gene transcripts (HSPA1A, SLC2A1, TJP1, SLC2A3, DNMT3A, IFNT2) when comparing slow frozen embryos to embryos of the control group. Furthermore, the comparison of

  15. Vitrification of in vitro produced bovine embryos: effect of embryonic block and developmental kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, V; Hosseini, S M; Forouzanfar, M; Hajian, M; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate whether the kinetics and stage of embryo development affect cryosurvival of in vitro produced bovine embryos, cleaved embryos were categorized in six groups based on their developmental kinetics regarding the stage of embryonic block in bovine (8-16 cell stage): I and II--early (day 2) and late (day 3) 5-8 cell, III and IV--early (day 3) and late (day 4) 8-16 cell, and V and VI--early (day 4) and late (day 5) morula. The cryosurvival and developmental competence of these embryos were compared with each other and also with the corresponding control groups. The potential of 5-8 cell stage embryos to survive vitrification and further develop towards blastocyst stage was significantly lower than vitrified and un-vitrified 8-16 cell and morula stage embryos. These results suggest that, the survival rate and potential of embryos to develop towards blastocyst stage might be affected by the kinetic of the embryo development. Moreover, the results of this study indicated that the optimal stages of early embryo vitrification are post-embryonic block. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of developmental changes in bovine in vitro produced embryos following exposure to bovine Herpesvirus type 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Mariana PC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Herpesvirus type-5 (BoHV-5 is a neurovirulent α-Herpesvirus which is potentially pathogenic for cows and suspected to be associated with reproductive disorders. Interestingly, natural transmission of BoHV-5 by contaminated semen was recently described in Australia. Additionally, BoHV-5 was also isolated from the semen of a healthy bull in the same country and incriminated in a natural outbreak of reproductive disease after artificial insemination. In contrast with BoHV-1, experimental exposure of in vitro produced bovine embryos to BoHV-5 does not affect embryo viability and seems to inhibit some pathways of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for these phenomena are poorly understood. In this study, we examined mitochondrial activity, antioxidant protection, stress response and developmental rates of in vitro produced bovine embryos that were exposed and unexposed to BoHV-5. Methods For this purpose, bovine embryos produced in vitro were assayed for cell markers after experimental infection of oocytes (n = 30; five repetitions, in vitro fertilization and development. The indirect immunofluorescence was employed to measure the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1, anti-oxidant like protein 1 (AOP-1, heat shock protein 70.1 (Hsp 70.1 and also viral antigens in embryos derived from BoHV-5 exposed and unexposed oocytes. The determination of gene transcripts of mitochondrial activity (SOD1, antioxidant protection (AOP-1 and stress response (Hsp70.1 were evaluated using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. MitoTracker Green FM, JC-1 and Hoechst 33342-staining were used to evaluate mitochondrial distribution, segregation patterns and embryos morphology. The intensity of labeling was graded semi-quantitatively and embryos considered intensively marked were used for statistical analysis. Results The quality of the produced embryos was not affected by exposure to BoHV-5. Of the 357

  17. Developmental, qualitative, and ultrastructural differences between ovine and bovine embryos produced in vivo or in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Dimitrios; Fair, Trudee; Papadopoulos, Serafeim; Boland, Maurice P; Lonergan, Patrick

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare bovine and ovine oocytes in terms of (1) developmental rates following maturation, fertilization, and culture in vitro, (2) the quality of blastocysts produced in vitro, assessed in terms of their ability to undergo cryopreservation, and (3) the ultrastructural morphology of these blastocysts. In vitro blastocysts were produced following oocyte maturation/fertilization and culture of presumptive zygotes in synthetic oviduct fluid. In vivo blastocysts were used as a control from both species. In Experiment 1, the cleavage rate of bovine oocytes was significantly higher than that of ovine oocytes (78.3% vs. 58.0%, respectively, P bovine and ovine, respectively, P vitrification, there was no difference in survival between in vivo produced bovine and ovine blastocysts (72 hr: 85.7% vs. 75.0%). However, IVP ovine blastocysts survived at significantly higher rates than IVP bovine blastocysts at all time points (72 hr: 47.4% vs. 18.1%, P bovine IVP blastocysts, which also displayed electron-lucent mitochondria and large intercellular cavities. These observations may in part explain the species differences observed in terms of cryotolerance. In conclusion, the quality of ovine blastocysts was significantly higher than their bovine counterparts produced under identical in vitro conditions suggesting inherent species differences between these two groups affecting embryo quality. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Vitrification of bovine embryos followed by in vitro hatching and expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J F; Oliveira, C M; Lienou, L L; Cavalcante, T V; Alexandrino, E; Santos, R R; Rodrigues, A P R; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R; Dias, F E F

    2017-12-18

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bovine embryo vitrification by applying three different vitrification solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) at different concentrations (10, 20 or 25% each) combined with 1.0 M glucose or 1.0 M sucrose, on the in vitro hatching and expansion rates. Healthy oocytes were selected for in vitro maturation and fertilization from 200 bovine ovaries, and subsequently cultured up to the blastocyst stage (n = 800). Control (n = 200) and vitrified cells (n = 100 per treatment; 600 in total) were cultured for an extra 24 or 48 h to evaluate hatching and expansion, respectively. Vitrification significantly decreased embryonic re-expansion and hatching rates independently of the tested solution when compared with control embryos, but solutions with 25% EG + 25% DMSO resulted in the highest re-expansion (75%) and hatching (70%) rates, independently of the added sugar. The addition of sucrose resulted in higher rates of re-expanded and hatched embryos when compared with glucose addition. We concluded that the combination of 25% EG + 25% DMSO and 1.0 M sucrose allowed hatching and expansion of vitrified-warmed bovine embryos produced in vitro.

  19. The effects of ovalbumin as a protein source during the in vitro production of bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Almeida Drummond Tetzner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Embryo quality is influenced by the culture conditions that affect in vitro maturation (IVM, fertilization (IVF and culture (IVC rates. The present study investigated the feasibility of producing bovine embryos after the replacement of fetal calf serum (FCS and bovine serum albumin (BSA by ovalbumin (OVA. The IVM and IVC medium were supplemented with 10% FCS, 4 mg/mL BSA, or 4 mg/mL OVA. The IVF medium was supplemented with 6 mg/mL BSA or OVA. For IVM, supplementation with FCS, BSA, and OVA did not affect nuclear maturation or cortical granule migration. Higher rates of formation of two pronuclei were obtained when FCS was employed for IVM (79.97%, regardless of the supplement used for IVF, and when BSA was used for IVF (59.4%, regardless of the supplement used for IVM. Supplementation with OVA for IVM+IVC (20.40% and for IVF (22.15% was inferior to supplementation with FCS for IVM+IVC (30.47% and with BSA for IVF (28.91% for blastocyst development. Hatching rates were lower using OVA for IVM+IVC (23.02% and for IVF (28.93% compared with FCS and BSA under the same conditions (40.78 and 34.82%, respectively and BSA for IVF (36.82%. Supplementation with OVA for IVM+IVC and IVF resulted in reduced inner cell mass, trophectoderm cells and total blastocyst cell numbers (17.29, 37.88, and 55.17, respectively. In conclusion, OVA is a protein source for bovine in vitro embryo production, although the quantity and quality of bovine blastocysts using only ovalbumin in the entire in vitro production process are lower than those obtained in the presence of FCS and BSA, when used as supplements in any step of bovine in vitro embryo production.

  20. Improved cryopreservation of in vitro-produced bovine embryos using a chemically defined freezing medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, P; Baudot, A; Guyader-Joly, C; Guérin, P; Louis, G; Buff, S

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluates a new synthetic substitute (CRYO3, Ref. 5617, Stem Alpha, France) for animal-based products in bovine embryo cryopreservation solutions. During the experiment, fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as references. A combination of a thermodynamic approach using differential scanning calorimetry and a biological approach using in vitro-produced bovine embryo slow-freezing was used to characterize cryopreservation solutions containing CRYO3, FCS and BSA. The CRYO3 and fetal calf serum (FCS) slow-freezing solutions were made from Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline containing 1.5 m ethylene glycol, 0.1 m sucrose and 20% (v.v(-1)) of CRYO3 or FCS. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution was made by adding 0.1 m sucrose to a commercial solution containing 1.5 m ethylene glycol and 4 g L(-1) BSA. These solutions were evaluated using three characteristics: the end of melting temperature, the enthalpy of crystallization (thermodynamic approach) and the embryo survival and hatching rates after in vitro culture (biological approach). The CRYO3 and FCS solutions had similar thermodynamic properties. In contrast, the thermodynamic characteristics of the BSA solution were different from those of the FCS and CRYO3 solutions. Nevertheless, the embryo survival and hatching rates obtained with the BSA and FCS solutions were not different. Similar biological properties can thus be obtained with slow freezing solutions that have different physical properties within a defined range. The embryo survival rate after 48 h of in vitro culture obtained with the CRYO3 solution (81.5%) was higher than that obtained with the BSA (42.2%, P = 0.000 12) and FCS solutions (58%, P = 0.016). Similarly, the embryo hatching rate after 72 h of in vitro culture was higher with the CRYO3 solution (61.1%) than with the BSA (31.1%, P = 0.0055) and FCS solutions (36%, P = 0.018). We conclude that CRYO3 can be used as a chemically defined substitute for animal

  1. Serum free embryo culture medium improves in vitro survival of bovine blastocysts to vitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, E.; Rodríguez, A; Muñoz, M.; Caamaño, J.N. (José); Hidalgo, C.O. (Carlos); Morán, E.; Facal, Nieves; Díez, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of co-culture with Vero cells during the in vitro maturation (IVM) and three culture media, B2+5% fetal calf serum (FCS) on Vero cells, synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF)+5% FCS, and SOF+20 gL(-1) bovine serum albumin (BSA), on the developmental competence of the embryos and their ability to survive vitrification/warming. We also tested the effect of morphological quality and the age of the embryo on its sensitivity to vitrification. The IVM system ...

  2. Serum free embryo culture medium improves in vitro survival of bovine blastocysts to vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, E; Rodríguez, A; Muñoz, M; Caamaño, J N; Hidalgo, C O; Morán, E; Facal, N; Díez, C

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of co-culture with Vero cells during the in vitro maturation (IVM) and three culture media, B2+5% fetal calf serum (FCS) on Vero cells, synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF)+5% FCS, and SOF+20 gL(-1) bovine serum albumin (BSA), on the developmental competence of the embryos and their ability to survive vitrification/warming. We also tested the effect of morphological quality and the age of the embryo on its sensitivity to vitrification. The IVM system neither affects the embryo development up to Day 7 nor survival rates after vitrification. The culture of embryos in SOF+FCS and in Vero cells+B2 allowed obtaining more Day 6 and Day 7 blastocysts, and a higher % of Day 7 blastocysts vitrified than culture in SOF+BSA. Contrarily, on Day 8, more blastocysts were vitrified in SOF+BSA than in SOF+FCS. Blastocysts quality affected development after vitrification/warming, and Day 7 embryos showed higher survival rates than their Day 8 counterparts. Day 7 blastocysts produced in Vero cells or in SOF+BSA survived at higher rates than those produced in SOF+FCS at 24 and 48 h after warming. Embryo culture with BSA allows obtaining hatching rates after vitrification/warming higher than those obtained after co-culture with Vero cells in B2 and FCS. Moreover, this system provides hatching rates from Day 8 blastocysts comparable to those obtained on Day 7 in Vero cells. Further studies, including embryo transfer to recipients, are needed to clarify factors affecting the freezability of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

  3. Cryotop vitrification for in vitro produced bovine and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryos at different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to vitrify in vitro produced (IVP buffalo and bovine embryos at different stages of development by an advanced version of the “minimal volume approaches”: the Cryotop method. In both experiments, the embryos were vitrified at the tight morula (TM, early blastocyst (eBl, blastocyst (Bl, expanded blastocyst (xBl and, only for buffalo, at the hatched blastocyst (hBl stage. After warming, the embryos were cultured in vitro for 24 hours. Stage of development affected the freezability of IVP embryos of both species with the highest embryo survival rates at advanced stages (xBl=76% and hBl=75% for buffalos and xBl=75% for bovine. These results suggest that Cryotop vitrification is an efficient method for buffalo and bovine IVP embryo cryopreservation.

  4. Freezing of in vitro produced bovine embryos in animal protein-free medium containing vegetal peptones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F; Vrancken, M; Verhaeghe, B; Verhoeye, F; Schneider, Y-J; Massip, A; Donnay, I

    2006-09-15

    Successful cryopreservation is essential for a large-scale dispersal of bovine in vitro produced (IVP) embryos that have been shown to be more sensitive to cryopreservation than their in vivo counterparts. On the other hand, the use of animal proteins in freezing media increases sanitary risks. We first replaced animal proteins, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the freezing medium by plant-derived peptides (vegetal peptones). A batch of wheat peptones was selected after a preliminary experiment showing the absence of toxicity of concentrationsanimal protein-free freezing medium containing 1.8 mg/mL peptones. No beneficial effect of adding 1 mg/mL sodium hyaluronate or 100 microM beta-mercaptoethanol was observed on embryo survival or quality. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that vegetal peptones can replace BSA in freezing media without affecting blastocyst survival and quality.

  5. Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in association with the in vitro production of bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielanski, A; Loewen, K S; Del Campo, M R; Sirard, M A; Willadsen, S

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether oocytes obtained from bovine ovaries collected at commercial abattoirs for use in in vitro fertilization programs would be contaminated with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). In total, of 85 samples tested containing 759 embryos produced by in vitro fertilization, 2 (2.4%) were positive for BHV-1 while none were positive for BVDV. The follicular fluid collected during oocyte aspiration tested positive in 11.8% for BVH-1 and in 4.7% for BVDV. Oviductal cells used to co-culture zygotes/embryos tested positive for BHV-1 and BVDV in 6.2% and 1.2% samples respectively.

  6. Inclusion of bovine lipoproteins and the vitamin E analogue, Trolox, during in vitro culture of bovine embryos changes both embryo and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Watt, R G; Ashworth, C J; McEvoy, T G

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated effects of lipoproteins and Trolox (vitamin E analogue) on bovine embryo and fetal development. The treatments were: in vitro culture (IVC) in synthetic oviducal fluid alone (SOF); with bovine lipoproteins (2% v/v; SOFLP); with Trolox (100μM; SOFT); and with lipoproteins and Trolox (SOFLPT). In vitro culture with lipoproteins increased fatty acid content of blastocysts (PTrolox had no effect (P>0.05). Whereas lipoproteins reduced zygote development to blastocysts (P=0.03), Trolox facilitated increased development (PTrolox (P>0.05) had no effect on blastocyst morphological grade. Pregnancy rates resulting from synchronous transfer of IVP embryos were not affected by IVC treatment. At Day 70 of pregnancy, compared with SOF, fetal weight was lower in SOFLP but not SOFLPT (interaction, PTrolox. Placentome numbers were greater in SOF and SOFLPT compared with SOFLP and SOFT (interaction, P=0.002); superior embryo grades were also associated with increased numbers of placentomes (P=0.024). In conclusion, the interactive effects of lipoprotein and Trolox inclusion on in vitro embryo development were also evident in fetal development at Day 70.

  7. In vitro and in vivo quality of bovine embryos in vitro produced with sex-sorted sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigal, B; Gómez, E; Caamaño, J N; Muñoz, M; Moreno, J; Carrocera, S; Martín, D; Diez, C

    2012-10-15

    In this work we analyzed the effects of three culture systems on developmental ability of bovine embryos in vitro produced with sexed sperm, the survival to vitrification (cryologic vitrification method) of such blastocysts, and their pregnancy rates after embryo transfer to recipients, both as fresh and after vitrification/warming. Finally, we measured the accuracy of the sorting protocol by a polymerase chain reaction-based method to validate the embryo sex at blastocyst stages. We confirmed an individual effect of the bull as well as development rates of embryos produced with sorted sperm lower than embryos with unsorted sperm, independent of the culture system used. The cryoresistance to vitrification of embryos produced with sexed sperm did not differ from that of conventionally produced embryos (re-expansion rates at 24 and 48 h: 74.6% vs. 75.5%, and 64.5% vs. 68.1% for embryos produced with conventional and sorted sperm, respectively; hatching rates at 48 h: 63.55% vs. 55.5% for embryos produced with conventional and sorted sperm, respectively). Finally, no significant differences were found in pregnancy rates after the embryo transfer of fresh and vitrified/warmed blastocysts (52.8% vs. 42.0%, respectively; P > 0.05). Male and female embryos produced with sorted sperm showed the same quality in terms of developmental ability, cryoresistance, and pregnancy rates after transfer. Our culture system, coupled with the vitrification in fiber plugs, provides good quality sex-known embryos which survive vitrification at similar rates than embryos produced with conventional unsorted sperm; also it produces good pregnancy rates after transfer of sexed embryos both fresh and after vitrification and warming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of different culture systems on the in vitro production of bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Daniela Costa; Dode, Margot Alves Nunes; Rumpf, Rodolfo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the development potential and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos cultured individually or in groups. After IVM and IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in groups or individually, either in drops or in the modified "well of the well" (mWOW) system. In Experiment 1, four culture systems were utilized: T1: drop in group (control); T2: mWOW in groups; T3: mWOW individually; and T4: drop individually. Cleavage and blastocyst rates at Days 6, 7 and 8 and total cell number of Day 6 blastocysts were similar (P > 0.05) for all treatments. However, in Day 7 blastocysts, total cell number was lower (P embryos cultured individually in a small drop than those cultured in the mWOW. In Experiment 2, blastocysts of T1, T2 and T3 were allocated into two groups, control and vitrified. After warming, the vitrified embryos were cultured for 72 h. At 48 h, the development of the Days 6 and 7 embryos was similar (P > 0.05) for all treatments in the control group. For the vitrified embryos, lower hatching rates (P embryos cultured in groups in the mWOW system had the same blastocyst rates but better quality (measured by their survival after vitrification) than those cultured individually in the mWOW system.

  9. Crucial surviving aspects for vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Mateus José; Paschoal, Daniela Martins; da Silva Rascado, Tatiana; Crocomo, Letícia Ferrari; Magalhães, Luis Carlos Oña; Junior, Alício Martins; Machado, Rui; da Cruz Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to correlate some parameters (cleavage, blastocyst production, quality degree score, total cell number, fresh apoptosis and lipid content) with embryo survival after cryopreservation. A total of 1727 in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts were used to establish the parameters (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)) for cleavage (85.6 ± 0.8), blastocyst production (39.9 ± 1.4), quality degree score (1.6 ± 0.1), total cell number (140.1 ± 2.9), fresh apoptosis (20.8 ± 1.1) and lipid content (21.3 ± 0.8 droplets). On the same way 1316 blastocysts were vitrified for the determination of post-cryopreservation embryo survival (49.4 ± 1.9). Fresh apoptosis rate and total lipid droplets value were correlated (P embryo survival after cryopreservation (r = 0.91 and r = 0.59; respectively). However, cleavage, blastocyst production, quality degree score and total cell number were not correlated (P > 0.05) with embryo cryotolerance (r = 0.23, r = 0.38, r = 0.22 and r = 0.28; respectively). Therefore, the increased lipid content was moderately correlated with apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts. On the other hand, increased apoptosis in fresh blastocysts was strongly correlated with apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts, which indicated that the apoptosis rate in fresh embryos was a better parameter than the lipid content to predict post-vitrification embryo survival.

  10. Effect of vitrification using the Cryotop method on the gene expression profile of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Leme, Ligiane; Dufort, Isabelle; Spricigo, José Felipe Warmling; Braga, Thiago Felipe; Sirard, Marc-André; Franco, Maurício Machaim; Dode, Margot Alves Nunes

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyzed the changes in gene expression induced by the Cryotop vitrification technique in bovine blastocyst-stage embryos, using Agilent EmbryoGENE microarray slides. Bovine in vitro-produced embryos were vitrified and compared with nonvitrified (control) embryos. After vitrification, embryos were warmed and cultured for an additional 4 hours. Survived embryos were used for microarray analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) quantification. Survival rates were higher (P vitrification seems to be the activation of the apoptosis pathway in some cells. Indeed, FOSL1 is part of the activating protein 1 transcription factor complex and is implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Therefore, our results suggest that a limited increase in the rate of apoptosis was the only detectable response of the embryos to vitrification stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cryopreservation and sexing of in vivo- and in vitro-produced bovine embryos for their practical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Keiichiro

    2004-02-01

    My research awarded includes contributions to cryopreservation and sexing of bovine embryos produced in vitro and in vivo, as follows; (1) In vivo-derived morulae and blastocysts were cryopreserved in the presence of 10% glycerol, and the embryos were transferred into recipients after two-step dilution of glycerol in straw, with a practically acceptable pregnancy rate. (2) The survival rate of 16-cell stage embryos frozen in the medium with ethylene glycol was higher than that with DMSO or 1,2-propanediol. Addition of linoleic acid-albumin to culture medium enhanced the survival rate of post-thaw bovine 16-cell stage in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. (3) Polarization of cytoplasmic lipid droplets by centrifugation of 2-cell stage embryos was found effective to increase freezing tolerance in 16-cell stage embryos developed from the centrifuged embryos, because blastomeres of 16-cell stage embryos were mostly lipid-free. (4) The usefulness of gel-loading tip (GL-Tip) as a container for ultra-rapid vitrification was demonstrated in IVP embryos from 2-cell to blastocyst stages, with a higher in vitro survival than the conventional two-step freezing. (5) PCR analysis for sexing of in vivo-derived Day-7 embryos indicated that male embryos developed faster and graded higher than female embryos. But such correlation between genetic sex and embryonic development was not found in IVP embryos obtained from individual cows. (6) Addition of 0.1-1.0% deproteinized hemodialysate product from calf blood to culture medium increased the producing efficiency of demi-embryos with good quality. Female embryos rather than male embryos required a longer time to repair after bisection. (7) In vivo-derived bovine embryos after biopsy for sexing by PCR analysis and subsequent vitrification using GL-Tips are available to practical use in the field. (8) Introduction of primer extension preamplification-PCR and purification of DNA product before standard sexing PCR of biopsy samples from Day 3

  12. Cryopreservation of bovine in vitro produced embryos using ethylene glycol in controlled freezing or vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, V; Niemann, H

    1999-03-01

    In this study, the cryoprotectant ethylene glycol (EG) was tested for its ability to improve and facilitate the cryopreservation of in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos. Embryos were cryopreserved in EG solutions supplemented with either newborn calf serum (NBCS) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). To assess EG toxicity, the embryos were equilibrated in EG concentrations from 1.8 to 8.9 M at room temperature for 10 min and then cultured for 72 h on a cumulus cell monolayer. The hatching rate was highest for day 7 blastocysts frozen in 3.6 M EG (98%) and was not different from the control group (85%). The controlled freezing (0.3 degrees C/min to -35 degrees C) of expanded day 7 blastocysts resulted in a hatching rate of 81%, which was similar to that of the nonfrozen controls (76%). Differential staining revealed only very few degenerate blastomeres attributed to freezing and thawing. Upon direct nonsurgical transfer of day 7 expanded blastocysts frozen in 3.6 M EG, a pregnancy rate of 43% was achieved, while the pregnancy rate after transfer of other developmental stages was significantly lower (22% with expanded day 8 blastocysts). When bovine IVP embryos were incubated at room temperature in 7.2 M EG preceded by preequilibration in 3.6 M EG, the hatching rate of day 7 expanded blastocysts reached 93%. Upon vitrification of IVP day 7 and day 8 blastocysts and expanded blastocysts in 7.2 M EG, the latter showed a higher hatching rate (42%) than blastocysts (12%). Overall, PVA as supplement to the basic freezing solution instead of NBCS had deleterious effects on survival after controlled freezing or vitrification. The simple cryopreservation protocol employed in this study and the low toxicity of ethylene glycol highlight the usefulness of this approach for controlled freezing of IVP embryos. However, further experiments are needed to improve the pregnancy rate following embryo transfer and to enhance survival after vitrification. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Vitrification of in vitro-produced bovine embryos matured inmodified TCM-199 medium

    OpenAIRE

    SANDAL, ASİYE İZEM; ÖZDAŞ, Özen Banu

    2015-01-01

    In vitro-produced bovine embryos matured in modified Tissue Culture Medium 199 (TCM-199) were vitrified at the 7th and 8th days of culture, and development at 48 h after warming was recorded. Ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir, and the oocytes were recovered by slicing method and divided into two main groups. The first group included cysteamine in the TCM-199 (Group A) and the second did not (Group B). They were incubated for 24 h at 38.8 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in humidified a...

  14. Supplementation of fetal bovine serum alters histone modification H3R26me2 during preimplantation development of in vitro produced bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Arnold

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In vitro production (IVP of bovine embryos is not only of great economic importance to the cattle industry, but is also an important model for studying embryo development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histone modification, H3R26me2 during pre-implantation development of IVP bovine embryos cultured with or without serum supplementation and how these in vitro treatments compared to in vivo embryos at the morula stage. After in vitro maturation and fertilization, bovine embryos were cultured with either 0 or 2.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Development was evaluated and embryos were collected and fixed at different stages during development (2-, 4-, 8-, 16-cell, morula and blastocyst. Fixed embryos were then used for immunofluorescence utilizing an antibody for H3R26me2. Images of stained embryos were analyzed as a percentage of total DNA. Embryos cultured with 2.5% FBS developed to blastocysts at a greater rate than 0%FBS groups (34.85±5.43% vs. 23.38±2.93%; P<0.05. Levels of H3R26me2 changed for both groups over development. In the 0%FBS group, the greatest amount of H3R26me2 staining was at the 4-cell (P<0.05, 16-cell (P<0.05 and morula (P<0.05 stages. In the 2.5%FBS group, only 4-cell stage embryos were significantly higher than all other stages (P<0.01. Morula stage in vivo embryos had similar levels as the 0%FBS group, and both were significantly higher than the 2.5%FBS group. These results suggest that the histone modification H3R26me2 is regulated during development of pre-implantation bovine embryos, and that culture conditions greatly alter this regulation.

  15. In vitro assessment of a direct transfer vitrification procedure for bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Chillòn, L F; Walker, D J; de la Torre-Sanchez, J F; Seidel, G E

    2006-04-01

    We developed a simple vitrification technique for bovine embryos that could permit direct transfer. Embryos were produced in-vitro by standard procedures. The base medium for cryopreservation was a chemically defined medium similar to SOF + 25 mM Hepes and 0.25% fatty acid free bovine serum albumin (FAF-BSA) (HCDM2). In experiment 1, embryos were first exposed to 3.5M ethylene glycol (V1) for 1, 2 or 3 min at room temperature (20-24 degrees C), and then moved to 7 M ethylene glycol (V2) at 4 or 20-24 degrees C and loaded in 0.25-mL straws. After 45 s in 7 M ethylene glycol, straws were placed in liquid nitrogen. Embryos that were loaded at 20-24 degrees C had higher survival rates than those loaded at 4 degrees C (Pembryos survived well after 15 min in straws if warmed at 37 degrees C. In experiment 3, ethylene glycol concentration (3, 4 or 5 M) and exposure time (0.5 or 1 min) during two-step addition of cryoprotectant were studied for bovine morulae. In experiment 4, morulae were exposed to V2 for 30 or 45 s in HCDM2 or Vigro holding medium and then held in 22-24 degrees C air or 37 degrees C water post-warming. Experiment 5 was like experiment 4 except blastocysts were used. Overall survival rates of blastocysts in experiment 5 averaged 80% of non-vitrified controls after 48 h culture. The survival rates with in vitro-produced morulae in experiments 1, 3 and 4 were unacceptable. Vitrification solutions based on Vigro tended to result in higher survival than HCDM2 for blastocysts, but not morulae. In experiment 6, the survival rate in vitro of in vivo-produced morulae and blastocysts after two-step vitrification was nearly 100%. Our vitrification technique was very effective for in vitro produced blastocysts, but not for in vitro-produced morulae.

  16. Effect of bovine oviductal extracellular vesicles on embryo development and quality in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera-Vasquez, Ricaurte; Hamdi, Meriem; Maillo, Veronica; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; Yáñez-Mó, María; Rizos, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracellular vesicles (EV) from oviductal fluid (OF), either from the ampulla or isthmus, on the development and quality of in vitro-cultured bovine embryos. Zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF + 3 mg/mL BSA) without calf serum (C- group), in the presence of 3 × 105 EV/mL from ampullary or isthmic OF at either 1 × 104 g (10 K) or 1 × 105 g (100 K), and compared with SOF + 5% FCS (C+ group). OF-EV size and concentration were assessed by electron microscopy and nanotracking analysis system. Embryo development was recorded on Days 7-9, and blastocyst quality was assessed through cryotolerance and gene expression analysis. Lower blastocyst yield was observed on Day 7 in the C- and OF-EV groups (12.0-14.3%) compared with C+ (20.6%); however, these differences were compensated at Days 8 and 9 (Day 9: 28.5-30.8%). Importantly, the survival rate of blastocysts produced with isthmic 100 K OF-EV was higher than that of C+ and C- group at 72 h after vitrification and warming (80.1 vs 34.5 and 50.5% respectively, P produced in the presence of 100 K isthmic OF-EV upregulated the water channel AQP3 and DNMT3A and SNRPN transcripts compared with the C+, with the expression in C- being intermediate. The lipid receptor LDLR was downregulated in C+ compared with all other groups. In conclusion, the addition of oviductal fluid extracellular vesicles from isthmus, to in vitro culture of bovine embryos in the absence of serum improves the development and quality of the embryos produced. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  17. In vitro maturation and embryo development of bovine oocytes after meiosis blockage with MPF inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Groke Marques

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the bovine oocyte maturation and embryo development after in vitro fertilization. The maturation of the oocytes was blocked using Butyrolactone I and Roscovitine using pre-maturation medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS. The ocytes were divided in four groups: Control 0 hour, Control (24 hours of maturation, Roscovitine (maturation blockage with 50mM Roscovitine during 24 hours followed by 24 hours of maturation, and Butyrolactone I (maturation blockage with 150mM Butyrolactone I during 24 hours followed by 24 hours of maturation. The oocytes were fixed and stained with aceto orcein to evaluate the nuclear maturation. After the maturation period, the remaining oocytes of the Control group, Roscovitine, and Butyrolactone I were fertilized in vitro. Embryo development was assessed by the cleavage rate (D3 and blastocysts formation (D7. The Butyrolactone I group had similar rates of germinal vesical stage oocytes during blockage, and Metaphase 2 after maturation, comparing to Control group at 0 hour and Control group, respectively. On the other hand, the Roscovitine group had lower rates of vesical stage oocytes during blockage, and Metaphase 2 after maturation comparing to Control groups. After in vitro fertilization, higher rates of cleavage were observed in Control and Butyrolactone I groups. For the blastocyst formation rate, the Control group showed better results than Roscovitine group. In summary, Butyrolactone I group had similar results to the Control group, and for this reason, is suitable for pre-maturation of bovine oocytes using FCS. In contrast, Roscovitine group had lower oocyte maturation and embryo development.

  18. Cryotop vitrification for in vitro produced bovine and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos at different stages of development

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gasparrini; G. Campanile; D. Vecchio; L. Boccia; L. Attanasio; De Rosa, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to vitrify in vitro produced (IVP) buffalo and bovine embryos at different stages of development by an advanced version of the “minimal volume approaches”: the Cryotop method. In both experiments, the embryos were vitrified at the tight morula (TM), early blastocyst (eBl), blastocyst (Bl), expanded blastocyst (xBl) and, only for buffalo, at the hatched blastocyst (hBl) stage. After warming, the embryos were cultured in vitro fo...

  19. Lipid content and cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos treated with forskolin before vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Meneghel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intracytoplasmic lipid content, development and cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos treated with different concentrations of forskolin before vitrification. Embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into four groups. In the treatment groups, forskolin was added to the in vitro culture medium on Day 6 and incubated for 24 hours in one of the following concentrations: 2.5μM (Forsk 2.5 group, 5.0μM (Forsk 5.0 group or 10.0μM (Forsk 10.0 group. Embryos from the control group were cultured without forskolin. On Day 7 of culture, the expanded blastocysts were stained with the lipophilic dye Sudan Black B for determination of the intracytoplasmic lipid content or were cryopreserved via the Vitri-Ingá® procedure. Although there were no significant differences (P>0.05 in the blastocyst rates between the Control group (44.9% and the other treatments, the embryo production was lower (P0.05 to that found in Forsk 2.5 (0.92±0.03 and Forsk 10.0 groups (1.06±0.03 groups; however the lipid accumulation in blastocysts from Forsk 5.0 group (0.82±0.04 was lower than in the Control group (P<0.05. Based on these results, Forsk 5.0 treatment was tested for cryotolerance and it was observed that the blastocoel re-expansion rate evaluated 24 hours after warming was greater (P<0.05 in Forsk 5.0 group (72.2% compared to the Control group (46.2%. In conclusion, pre-treatment with forskolin at a concentration of 5.0 μM for 24 hours before vitrification is effective in reducing the intracytoplasmic lipid content and, consequently, improves cryotolerance of IVP bovine embryos.

  20. Factors affecting the outcome of in vitro bovine embryo production using ovum pick-up-derived cumulus oocyte complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merton, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of bovine ovum pick up (OPU) followed by in vitro embryo production (IVP) has been driven by the desire of both beef and dairy cattle breeders to enhance genetic improvement. The work presented in this thesis focuses on optimizing the efficiency and efficacy of the OPU-IVP program.

  1. Oil-free culture system for in vitro bovine embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo B.D. Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of oil to avoid water evaporation from cell culture has several disadvantages, amongst which there is the migration of compounds from media to oil and from oil to media. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osmolality of a culture system using four-well plates with water in the central hole as an alternative to in vitro bovine embryo production (IVP. In addition, the osmolality changes of the oocyte washing medium were assessed in 35mm dishes with or without 2 mL of silicon oil overlay. Osmolality of oocyte washing medium changed a great deal over time after 60 minutes on a 39°C heated plate (291 mOsm kg-1, which was not detected when the medium was overlaid with silicon oil (280 mOsm kg-1; P0.05. Blastocyst rates were higher when embryos were cultured in presence of water or oil (29.7 and 29.9% for water and 33% in oil conventional microdrop system, except in the group that oocytes were washed in hyperosmotic washing medium (15.1%; P<0.05. Groups cultured in absence of water in the central hole had lower blastocyst rates (P<0.05 independently of exposure (15.5% or not (16.2 and 16.8% to hyperosmotic washing medium. In conclusion, four-well plates with water in the central hole can be an alternative to replace oil overlay for bovine IVP, maintaining stable osmolality and embryo development rates.

  2. Genome stability of bovine in vivo-conceived cleavage-stage embryos is higher compared to in vitro-produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tšuiko, Olga; Catteeuw, Maaike; Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Destouni, Aspasia; Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo; Besenfelder, Urban; Havlicek, Vitezslav; Smits, Katrien; Kurg, Ants; Salumets, Andres; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Voet, Thierry; Van Soom, Ann; Robert Vermeesch, Joris

    2017-11-01

    Is the rate and nature of chromosome instability (CIN) similar between bovine in vivo-derived and in vitro-cultured cleavage-stage embryos? There is a major difference regarding chromosome stability of in vivo-derived and in vitro-cultured embryos, as CIN is significantly lower in in vivo-derived cleavage-stage embryos compared to in vitro-cultured embryos. CIN is common during in vitro embryogenesis and is associated with early embryonic loss in humans, but the stability of in vivo-conceived cleavage-stage embryos remains largely unknown. Because human in vivo preimplantation embryos are not accessible, bovine (Bos taurus) embryos were used to study CIN in vivo. Five young, healthy, cycling Holstein Friesian heifers were used to analyze single blastomeres of in vivo embryos, in vitro embryos produced by ovum pick up with ovarian stimulation (OPU-IVF), and in vitro embryos produced from in vitro matured oocytes retrieved without ovarian stimulation (IVM-IVF). Single blastomeres were isolated from embryos, whole-genome amplified and hybridized on Illumina BovineHD BeadChip arrays together with the bulk DNA from the donor cows (mothers) and the bull (father). DNA was also obtained from the parents of the bull and from the parents of the cows (paternal and maternal grandparents, respectively). Subsequently, genome-wide haplotyping and copy-number profiling was applied to investigate the genomic architecture of 171 single bovine blastomeres of 16 in vivo, 13 OPU-IVF and 13 IVM-IVF embryos. The genomic stability of single blastomeres in both of the in vitro-cultured embryo cohorts was severely compromised (P vitro than in embryos derived in vivo. Only 18.8% of in vivo-derived embryos contained at least one blastomere with chromosomal anomalies, compared to 69.2% of OPU-IVF embryos (P vitro procedures exacerbate chromosomal abnormalities during early embryo development. Hence, the present study highlights that IVF treatment compromises embryo viability and should be

  3. New device for the vitrification and in-straw warming of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Roser; Mogas, Teresa

    2014-04-01

    Two experiments were designed to test the use of a new device designed to vitrify and in-straw warm in vitro produced (IVP) embryos, which can potentially be used for their direct transfer to recipient females in field conditions. In experiment 1, IVP embryos from both prepubertal and adult animals were vitrified on cryotops and warmed in steps (1, 0.5 and 0M sucrose; protocol W3) or directly in 0.5M (protocol W1/0.5) or 0M sucrose (protocol W1/0). Similar survival rates were recorded 24h after warming for calf embryos irrespective of the warming procedure (W3: 79.2%, W1/0.5: 62.5%, W1/0: 66.7%). For cow embryos, survival rates at 24h post-warming were significantly higher when embryos were warmed using the W3 (85.7%) or W1/0.5 (89.1%) protocols compared to the W1/0 protocol (70.5%). In experiment 2, IVP embryos were vitrified on the new designed device followed by their in-straw cryoprotectant (0.5M sucrose) dilution/warming and different warming temperatures (45, 50, 60 and 70°C) were tested. When warming solution passed through the new vitrification/warming device at 45°C, 61.5% of blastocysts were fully re-expanded or hatched at 24h post-warming, being not significantly different to the control (65%). Other warming temperatures triggered significantly lower survival rates at 24h post-warming. No significant differences were detected in total cell numbers and blastocyst apoptosis indices in response to vitrification followed by warming at 45°C respect to the control. Our findings indicate that the new device allows vitrification and in-straw warming of IVP bovine embryos, being a useful option for their direct transfer in field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Osmotic challenge and expression of aquaporin 3 and Na/K ATPase genes in bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Luiz Sergio Almeida; Boite, Mariana Cortes; Wohlres-Viana, Sabine; Mota, Gustavo Bruno; Serapiao, Raquel Varela; Sa, Wanderlei Ferreira; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira; Nogueira, Luiz Altamiro Garcia

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of culture media and stage of development in the osmotic ability of in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos and the expression of aquaporin 3 (Aqp3) and Na/K ATPase isoform 1 (ATPAse1) genes in embryos (i) with different ability to undergo rehydration and (ii) following vitrification. In experiment 1, in vitro fertilized presumptive zygotes were co-cultured in SOFaac or modified CR2aa medium and embryos at blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stages at day 7 post-insemination were exposed to NaCl hypertonic medium (900 mOsm) for 5 min following 120 min of culture in isotonic medium in order to evaluate dehydration and rehydration, respectively. No difference (P>0.05) on blastocyst rate was found between CR2aa and SOFaac medium but embryos co-cultured in SOFaac medium underwent greater (PEmbryos at expanded blastocyst stage underwent greater dehydration but slower rehydration than embryos at blastocysts stage (P0.05) on relative amount of transcripts was found in either genes. In the experiment 3, expanded blastocysts produced in a co-culture system were vitrified, warmed and then cultured for 72 h for analysis of embryo survival and amount of Aqp3 and ATPase1 transcripts. Lower (Pembryo survival rate was found for vitrified-warmed embryos (57.9%) than for their fresh counterparts (84.6%). There was no difference on expression of ATPase1 gene but lower (Pembryos. In conclusion, embryo ability to undergo shrinkage and swelling is influenced by medium used in a co-culture system and by embryo stage. Rehydrating ability of embryos after exposure to NaCl hypertonic medium is not associated with variations on expression of Aqp3 and ATPase1 genes, but the vitrification can alter gene expression of in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos produced in a co-culture system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 during in vitro oocyte maturation and in vitro culture of bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetglas M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I on in vitro maturation (IVM (experiment I and on in vitro embryo development (experiment II of bovine oocytes fertilized in vitro, were evaluated in terms of cleavage (CR, blastocyst (BR and hatching (HR rates. For IVM, immature cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with Hepes, sodium bicarbonate, sodium pyruvate, additives, fetal calf serum (B-199 medium and gonadotropins (14 U/ml PMSG and 7 U/ml hCG. For embryo development, the oocytes/zygotes were cultured in B-199 medium with bovine oviduct epithelial cells in suspension under silicon oil. Treatments for in vitro culture conditions for both experiments were: 1- B-199 + 200 ng/ml IGF-I; 2- B-199 + 100 ng/ml IGF-I; 3- B-199 + 50 ng/ml IGF-I; 4- B-199 + 10 ng/ml IGF-I; 5- B-199 + 0 ng/ml IGF-I. All cultures were performed at 38.5ºC in 5% CO2 in air and the data were analyzed by chi-square test. In experiment I, there were no differences (P>0.05 among treatments for CR, BR or HR. In experiment II, the addition of IGF-I to the embryo culture medium (ECM resulted in a significant increase in CR while for BR and HR this effect was not observed. The addition of 200 ng/ml IGF-I to ECM increased CR (71.1% when compared to 100 ng/ml IGF-I (57.6% or control (56.7% groups, however, there were no differences when compared to 50 (69.4% or 10 ng/ml (73.1% groups. There was no beneficial effect of the addition of IGF-I in the IVM or ECM media on the in vitro development of embryos produced from oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro.

  6. L-ergothioneine supplementation during culture improves quality of bovine in vitro-produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, G; Albero, G; Neglia, G; De Canditiis, C; Bifulco, G; Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether supplementation of bovine culture medium with the natural antioxidant L-ergothioneine (LE), improves in vitro blastocyst development and quality, assessed as resistance to cryopreservation, total cells number, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis index. Abattoir-derived oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro according to standard procedure. Twenty hours after IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid with 0, 0.05 mM, 0.1 mM, 0.5 mM, and 1 mM of LE (experiment 1) at 39 °C under humidified air with 5% CO2, 7% O2, and 88% N2. On the basis of the results of this dose-response trial, the range of concentrations to test was reduced in experiment 2, in which presumptive zygotes were cultured with 0, 0.05 mM, and 0.1 mM of LE. On Day 7, embryo yields were assessed, and the blastocysts (BL) were vitrified by Cryotop method in 16.5% ethylene glycol, 16.5% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose. Finally, BL produced on Day 8 in the absence (control) and presence of 0.1 mM LE were used for transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and differential staining to evaluate, respectively the apoptotic rate and the allocation of cells into inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm lineages (experiment 3). Despite similar blastocyst yields, supplementation of culture medium with 0.1 mM LE improved the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos compared to the control group, as indicated by higher (P culture (48.5%, 50.0%, and 63.8%, respectively with 0, 0.05, and 0.1 mM LE). Interestingly, when embryos were cultured in the presence of 0.1 mM LE, the percentage of BL with the most physiological ICM:total cells ratio (20%-40%) increased (85.1 vs. 66.0%, P culture medium with 0.1 mM LE improves embryo quality, as indicated by the improved cryotolerance, the lower apoptotic rate, and the higher percentage of BL with the most physiological ICM:total cells ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitrification of in vitro produced bovine embryos at different ages using one- and three-step addition of cryoprotective additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Suzuki, T

    1997-01-01

    The effect of embryo age on development and ratio of live: dead cells after vitrification and warming was examined. One-step and three-step addition of cryoprotectants in vitrification solution (40% ethylene glycol, 0.3 M trehalose and 12% polyvinylpyrrolidone) were compared using in vitro produced (IVP) bovine blastocysts and expanded blastocysts. Rates of development and hatching were 74.2% and 41.9% for Day 7, 57.8% and 23.8% for Day 8, 33.7% and 6.1% for Day 9 embryos with one-step addition. In three-step addition, those rates were 86.2% and 77.3% for Day 7, 72.3% and 39.0% for Day 8, 47.3% and 10.5% for Day 9 embryos. Day 7 embryos showed highest (P embryos with three-step addition was higher (P embryos (P bovine embryos against vitrification and the potential for three-step addition of cryoprotectants to yield a higher survival rate after warming than with one-step addition.

  8. Effect of addition of hyaluronan to embryo culture medium on survival of bovine embryos in vitro following vitrification and establishment of pregnancy after transfer to recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J; Bonilla, L; Hansen, P J

    2009-04-15

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether addition of hyaluronan to culture medium could improve survival of bovine embryos after vitrification or following embryo transfer. In Experiment 1, embryos were produced in vitro and cultured for 7 days in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) containing one of four concentrations of hyaluronan (0, 0.1, 0.5, or 1mg/mL), with or without 4 mg/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA). On Day 7 after insemination, blastocysts and expanded blastocysts were vitrified using open-pulled straws. At a concentration of 1mg/mL, hyaluronan increased (Pembryo hatching rate at 24 and 72 h. Treatment with BSA caused a slight reduction in cleavage rate (Pembryos were produced in vitro and cultured in modified SOF containing 4 mg/mL BSA, with or without 1mg/mL hyaluronan. At 159-162 h after insemination, grade 1 morula, blastocysts and expanded blastocysts were harvested for embryo transfer. Harvested embryos were transferred individually to lactating Holstein recipients with a palpable corpus luteum on Day 7 after presumptive ovulation. There was an interaction (Pembryo stage on pregnancy rate. Recipients that received morula and blastocyst stage embryos treated with hyaluronan had a higher pregnancy rate than recipients that received control embryos of the same stage. There was no effect of hyaluronan on pregnancy rates of recipients that received expanded blastocysts. In conclusion, addition of hyaluronan to embryo culture enhanced blastocyst yield, improved survival following vitrification, and enhanced the post-transfer survival of fresh morula and blastocyst stage embryos.

  9. Effects of different cryopreservation methods on post-thaw culture conditions of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicacio, Alessandra Corallo; Simões, Renata; de Paula-Lopes, Fabiola Freitas; de Barros, Flavia Regina Oliveira; Peres, Maria Angelica; Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz D'Avila; Visintin, Jose Antonio

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation protocols on subsequent development of in vitro produced bovine embryos under different culture conditions. Expanded in vitro produced blastocysts (n = 600) harvested on days 7-9 were submitted to controlled freezing [slow freezing group: 10% ethylene glycol (EG) for 10 min and 1.2°C/min cryopreservation]; quick-freezing [rapid freezing group: 10% EG for 10 min, 20% EG + 20% glycerol (Gly) for 30 s]; or vitrification [vitrification group: 10% EG for 10 min, 25% EG + 25% Gly for 30 s] protocols. Control group embryos were not exposed to cryoprotectant or cryopreservation protocols and the hatching rate was evaluated on day 12 post-insemination. In order to evaluate development, frozen-thawed embryos were subjected to granulosa cell co-culture in TCM199 or SOFaa for 4 days. Data were analyzed by PROC MIXED model using SAS Systems for Windows®. Values were significant at p embryos cultured in TCM199, slow freezing and vitrification group hatching rates were 44.65 ± 5.94% and 9.43 ± 6.77%, respectively. In embryos cultured in SOFaa, slow freezing and vitrification groups showed hatching rates of 11.65 ± 3.37 and 8.67 ± 4.47%, respectively. In contrast, the rapid freezing group embryos did not hatch, regardless of culture medium. The slow freezing group showed higher hatching rates than other cryopreservation groups. Under such conditions, controlled freezing (1.2°C/min) can be an alternative to cryopreservation of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

  10. Effect of cysteamine supplementation of in vitro matured bovine oocytes on chilling sensitivity and development of embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2007-04-01

    In vitro techniques for production of bovine embryos including in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC) are becoming increasingly employed for a variety of research purposes. However, decreased viability following cryopreservation by conventional methods has limited commercial applications of these technologies. A practical alternative to facilitate transport would be to arrest development by chilling without freezing. The present research was undertaken to evaluate chilling sensitivity of IVM-IVF embryos at different stages of development, and to determine possible beneficial effects of cysteamine treatment during IVM, previously shown to enhance embryo development in culture, on survival following chilling at different stages. Embryos produced by standard IVM-IVF-IVC methods were chilled to 0 degrees C for 30 min at 2-cell (30-34 h post-insemination, hpi), 8-cell (48-52 hpi) or blastocyst (166-170 hpi) stages. Viability after chilling was assessed by IVC with development to expanded blastocyst stage determined on days 7 and 8 post-insemination (pi) and hatching blastocyst stage determined on days 9 and 10 pi. Control embryos at the same stages were handled similarly, but without chilling, and development during culture similarly assessed. The effect of cysteamine supplementation (100 microM) of the IVM medium was determined for both chilled and non-chilled (control) embryos. Cysteamine supplementation during IVM had no significant effect on oocyte maturation or fertilization, but increased the proportions of oocytes developing to blastocyst stage by day 7 (13.7+/-0.9% versus 7.2+/-0.9%; Pchilling of blastocysts produced by IVM-IVF of oocytes matured in media supplemented with cysteamine offers promise for applications requiring short-term storage to facilitate transport of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

  11. Vitrification of in vitro-produced bovine embryos by addition of ethylene glycol in one-step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D J; Campos-Chillon, L F; Seidel, G E

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to simplify two-step addition of cryoprotectant for vitrification of bovine embryos by developing a one-step procedure. Survival was calculated as a percentage of non-vitrified controls developed from the same batch of oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine blastocysts were vitrified following one- or two-step addition of cryoprotectant. Exposure of embryos to cryoprotectant in one-step resulted in survival rates not significantly lower (p > 0.1) than those obtained by two-step addition (85% vs 98%, respectively). Based on these results, experiments 2-4 were designed to test one-step addition of cryoprotectant more rigorously. Experiment 2 exposed day 7 blastocysts to 6, 7 or 8 M ethylene glycol for 2.5 or 3.5 min. At 24 h post-vitrification, survival of embryos was similar, irrespective of ethylene glycol concentration or exposure time (6 M 38%, 7 M 51%, 8 M 59%; 2.5 min 54%, 3.5 min 45%). In experiment 3, blastocysts were exposed to 7 M ethylene glycol for shorter times (30 or 60 s); 30 s exposure resulted in decreased survival (8% vs 31%, p bovine morulae, exposed to 7 M ethylene glycol for 1 or 1.5 min. There was no difference in survival between exposure times of 1 or 1.5 min (28% vs 45%, respectively; p > 0.1). It is unclear why many embryos survive vitrification with one-step addition of cryoprotectant, but others do not. Although, one-step addition of cryoprotectant simplifies the vitrification procedure, survival rates were inadequate for routine cryopreservation of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

  12. Differential glycolytic and glycogenogenic transduction pathways in male and female bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Herreros, M; Aparicio, I M; Rath, D; Fair, T; Lonergan, P

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that developmental kinetic rates following IVF are lower in female than in male blastocysts and that this may be related to differences in glucose metabolism. In addition, an inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibits glucose uptake in murine blastocysts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and compare the expression of proteins involved in glucose metabolism (hexokinase-I, HK-I; phosphofructokinase-1, PFK-1; pyruvate kinase 1/2, PK1/2; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH; glucose transporter-1, GLUT-1; and glycogen synthase kinase-3, GSK-3) in male and female bovine blastocysts to determine whether PI3-K has a role in the regulation of the expression of these proteins. Hexokinase-I, PFK-1, PK1/2, GAPDH and GLUT-1 were present in bovine embryos. Protein expression of these proteins and GSK-3 was significantly higher in male compared with female blastocysts. Inhibition of PI3-K with LY294002 significantly decreased the expression of HK-I, PFK-1, GAPDH, GSK-3A/B and GLUT-1. Results showed that the expression of glycolytic proteins HK-I, PFK-1, GAPDH and PK1/2, and the transporters GLUT-1 and GSK-3 is regulated by PI3-K in bovine blastocysts. Moreover, the differential protein expression observed between male and female blastocysts might explain the faster developmental kinetics seen in males, as the expression of main proteins involved in glycolysis and glycogenogenesis was significantly higher in male than female bovine embryos and also could explain the sensitivity of male embryos to a high concentration of glucose, as a positive correlation between GLUT-1 expression and glucose uptake in embryos has been demonstrated.

  13. Production of female bovine embryos with sex-sorted sperm using intracytoplasmic sperm injection: efficiency and in vitro developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyun-Tae; Bang, Jae-Il; Kim, Seong-Su; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Jin, Jong-In; Kim, Heyng-Lyool; Jung, In-Suk; Suh, Tae-Kwang; Ghanem, Nasser; Wang, Zhongde; Kong, Il-Keun

    2014-03-15

    The production of embryos with a preselected sex sperm is important in the livestock industry. In this study, we examined the efficiency of producing female embryos by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with flow cytometry sorted (ssICSI) and unsorted (usICSI) bovine sperm, and their developmental competence in vitro. For comparison, bovine embryos were also produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) with sorted (ssIVF) and unsorted (usIVF) bovine sperm. The semen used in this study was from a bull selected for its high fertility and blastocyst developmental competence among four bulls. We first examined and compared pronuclear (PN) formation and cleavage rates of the produced embryos among the treatment groups. Our results demonstrated that PN formation rates (judged by two pronucleus [2PN]) and cleavage rates in ssIVF group (23.1% and 43.6%) were lower than those in the usIVF (71.1% and 71.6%), usICSI (73.1% and 92.8%) and ssICSI (75% and 79.1%) groups, respectively (P sex-sorting. Of note, we achieved a blastocyst formation rate in the ssICSI group to be comparable with the usIVF group. We then examined embryo quality by counting the number of normal and apoptotic cells in blastocysts. It was found that, despite the fact that blastocyst formation rate in the ssIVF group was significantly lower than those in the usIVF, usICSI and ssICSI groups, there was no difference in total and apoptotic cell numbers among these groups (P > 0.05). Finally, karyotyping analysis demonstrated that the proportion of female embryos in the ssICSI and ssIVF groups was 100%, whereas it was 58.8% and 57.8% in the usIVF and usICSI groups, respectively. In conclusion, ICSI with flow cytometry sorted bovine sperm provides an alternative approach to produce embryos with predetermined sex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Melatonin improves the quality of in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos: implications for blastocyst development, cryotolerance, and modifications of relevant gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhou, YanHua; Tan, DunXian; Zhu, ShiEn; Dai, YunPing; Liu, GuoShi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of melatonin on the kinetics of embryo development and quality of blastocyst during the process of in vitro bovine embryo culture. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were fertilized after in vitro maturation. The presumed zygotes were cultured in in vitro culture medium supplemented with or without 10(-7) M melatonin. The cleavage rate, 8-cell rate and blastocyst rate were examined to identify the kinetics of embryo development. The hatched blastocyst rate, mortality rate after thawing and the relevant transcript abundance were measured to evaluate the quality of blastocyst. The results showed that melatonin significantly promoted the cleavage rate and 8-cell embryo yield of in vitro produced bovine embryo. In addition, significantly more blastocysts were observed by Day 7 of embryo culture at the presence of melatonin. These results indicated that melatonin accelerated the development of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Following vitrification at Day 7 of embryo culture, melatonin (10(-7) M) significantly increased the hatched blastocyst rate from 24 h to 72 h and decreased the mortality rate from 48 h to 72 h after thawing. The presence of melatonin during the embryo culture resulted in a significant increase in the gene expressions of DNMT3A, OCC, CDH1 and decrease in that of AQP3 after thawing. In conclusion, melatonin not only promoted blastocyst yield and accelerated in vitro bovine embryo development, but also improved the quality of blastocysts which was indexed by an elevated cryotolerance and the up-regulated expressions of developmentally important genes.

  15. Melatonin improves the quality of in vitro produced (IVP bovine embryos: implications for blastocyst development, cryotolerance, and modifications of relevant gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential effects of melatonin on the kinetics of embryo development and quality of blastocyst during the process of in vitro bovine embryo culture. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were fertilized after in vitro maturation. The presumed zygotes were cultured in in vitro culture medium supplemented with or without 10(-7 M melatonin. The cleavage rate, 8-cell rate and blastocyst rate were examined to identify the kinetics of embryo development. The hatched blastocyst rate, mortality rate after thawing and the relevant transcript abundance were measured to evaluate the quality of blastocyst. The results showed that melatonin significantly promoted the cleavage rate and 8-cell embryo yield of in vitro produced bovine embryo. In addition, significantly more blastocysts were observed by Day 7 of embryo culture at the presence of melatonin. These results indicated that melatonin accelerated the development of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Following vitrification at Day 7 of embryo culture, melatonin (10(-7 M significantly increased the hatched blastocyst rate from 24 h to 72 h and decreased the mortality rate from 48 h to 72 h after thawing. The presence of melatonin during the embryo culture resulted in a significant increase in the gene expressions of DNMT3A, OCC, CDH1 and decrease in that of AQP3 after thawing. In conclusion, melatonin not only promoted blastocyst yield and accelerated in vitro bovine embryo development, but also improved the quality of blastocysts which was indexed by an elevated cryotolerance and the up-regulated expressions of developmentally important genes.

  16. Inhibition of apoptosis by caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK improves cryotolerance of in vitro derived bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pero, Maria Elena; Zullo, Gianluigi; Esposito, Luigi; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Lombardi, Pietro; De Canditiis, Carolina; Neglia, Gianluca; Gasparrini, Bianca

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-FMK) during cryopreservation and post-warming in vitro culture improves cryotolerance of bovine in vitro produced (IVP) embryos. Abattoir derived bovine oocytes were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured according to standard procedure. On Day 7, embryo yields were assessed and blastocysts randomly divided in 2 groups: vitrification and post-warming culture in the absence (n = 184) or presence (n = 156) of 20 μM Z-VAD-FMK. Resistance to cryopreservation was evaluated post-warming culture by assessing the survival rate and hatching rate. Differential staining combined with in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) technique was performed to evaluate total cells number, cell allocation into inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) lineages, as well as the DNA fragmentation rate of vitrified blastocysts, while immunohystochemical staining was used to assess the level of cleaved-caspase 3. It was demonstrated that inhibition of caspase activity by Z-VAD-FMK increases embryo cryotolerance, as indicated by higher survival (76.1 vs 51.1%; P vitrification/warming and post-warming culture partially inhibits cryopreservation-induced apoptosis by reducing the level of active caspase 3, suggesting a potential use as an additive to ameliorate the efficiency of embryo cryopreservation in cattle, critical for a further diffusion of IVEP technology in the field. Further studies are though needed to evaluate the effect of Z-VAD-FMK on post-transfer embryo development before considering a commercial application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Comparison on in vitro fertilized bovine embryos cultured in KSOM or SOF and cryopreserved by slow freezing or vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedambale, T L; Dinnyés, A; Groen, W; Dobrinsky, J R; Tian, X C; Yang, X

    2004-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify an improved in vitro cell-free embryo culture system and to compare post-warming development of in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos following vitrification versus slow freezing. In Experiment 1, non-selected presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated to four medium treatments without co-culture: (1) SOF + 5% FCS for 9 days; (2) KSOM + 0.1% BSA for 4 days and then KSOM + 1% BSA to Day 9; (3) SOF + 5% FCS for 4 days and then KSOM + 1% BSA to Day 9; and (4) KSOM + 0.1% BSA for 4 days and then SOF + 5% FCS to Day 9. Treatment 4 (sequential KSOM-SOF culture system) improved (P > 0.05) morulae (47%), early blastocysts (26%), Day-7 blastocysts (36%), cell numbers, as well as total hatching rate (79%) compared to KSOM alone (Treatment 2). Embryos cultured in KSOM + BSA alone developed slowly and most of them hatched late on Day 9, compared to other treatments. In Experiment 2, the sequential KSOM-SOF culture system was used and Day-7 blastocysts were subjected to following cryopreservation comparison: (1) vitrification (VS3a, 6.5 M glycerol); or (2) slow freezing (1.36 M glycerol). Warmed embryos were cultured in SOF with 7.5% FCS. Higher embryo development and hatching rates (P vitrification at 6h (71%), 24h (64%), and 48h (60%) post-warming compared to slow freezing (48, 40, and 31%, respectively). Following transfer of vitrified embryos to synchronized recipients, a 30% pregnancy rate was obtained. In conclusion, replacing KSOM with SOF after 4 days of culture produced better quality blastocysts. Vitrification using VS3a may be used more effectively to cryopreserve in vitro produced embryos than the conventional slow freezing method.

  18. Supplementation with small-extracellular vesicles from ovarian follicular fluid during in vitro production modulates bovine embryo development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gabriella M.; del Collado, Maite; Sampaio, Rafael V.; Sangalli, Juliano R.; Silva, Luciano A.; Pinaffi, Fábio V. L.; Jardim, Izabelle B.; Cesar, Marcelo C.; Nogueira, Marcelo F. G.; Cesar, Aline S. M.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Perecin, Felipe; Meirelles, Flávio V.

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy success results from the interaction of multiple factors, among them are folliculogenesis and early embryonic development. Failure during these different processes can lead to difficulties in conception. Alternatives to overcome these problems are based on assisted reproductive techniques. Extracellular vesicles are cell-secreted vesicles present in different body fluids and contain bioactive materials, such as messenger RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), and proteins. Thus, our hypothesis is that extracellular vesicles from follicular fluid from 3–6 mm ovarian follicles can modulate bovine embryo development in vitro. To test our hypothesis follicular fluid from bovine ovaries was aspirated and small-extracellular vesicles (extracellular vesicles (EVs) were utilized for functional experiments investigating their role in modulating messenger RNA, microRNA as well as global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation levels of bovine blastocysts. EVs from 3–6 mm follicles were used for RNA-seq and miRNA analysis. Functional annotation analysis of the EVs transcripts revealed messages related to chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. EVs treatment during oocyte maturation and embryo development causes changes in blastocyst rates, as well as changes in the transcription levels of genes related to embryonic metabolism and development. Supplementation with EVs from 3–6 mm follicles during oocyte maturation and early embryo development (until the 4-cell stage) increased the levels of bta-miR-631 (enriched in EVs from 3–6 mm follicles) in embryos. Interestingly, the addition of EVs from 3–6 mm follicles induced changes in global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation levels compared to embryos produced by the standard in vitro production system. Our results indicate that the supplementation of culture media with EVs isolated from the follicular fluid of 3–6 mm follicles during oocyte maturation and early embryo development can partially modify

  19. In vitro maturation supplements affect developmental competence of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes and embryo quality after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räty, Mervi; Ketoja, Elise; Pitkänen, Timo; Ahola, Virpi; Kananen, Kirsi; Peippo, Jaana

    2011-12-01

    Oocyte quality affects subsequent embryo development and quality. We examined the impact of bovine oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) conditions on subsequent embryo yield, quality and cryosurvival. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were sampled for cytological and gene expression analysis after IVM in TCM199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 4 mg/ml of fatty-acid-free bovine serum albumin (FAFBSA), 4 mg/ml of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), FAFBSA with epidermal growth factor (EGF, 100 ng/ml) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I, 100 ng/ml) (FAFBSAGF), PVP with EGF and IGF-I (PVPGF) or PVP with single strength BME and MEM amino acids (PVPAA). The remaining COCs were fertilized. On day 7 (IVF=day 0) quality 1 blastocysts were vitrified or analyzed for glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1) expression levels. The remaining blastocysts (days 7-9) were evaluated for morphology and total cell counts. After warming, survival and hatching rates were evaluated followed by total cell counts and Glut-1 expression levels. Only PVPGF IVM resulted in embryo production rates comparable to those recorded with FBS IVM. Growth factors with FAFBSA and amino acids with PVP reduced embryo production rates whereas the effect of the growth factors with PVP was negligible. Insulin-like growth factor 2 binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) and beta cell translocation gene 4 (BTG4) were revealed as potential candidates for oocyte developmental competence, and secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) for cumulus cell expansion. There were no differences among treatments in hatching rates of vitrified embryos after warming. However, total cell numbers and Glut-1 expression levels at 72 h were affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon-activated gas filtration during in vitro culture increased pregnancy rate following transfer of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merton, J S; Vermeulen, Z L; Otter, T; Mullaart, E; de Ruigh, L; Hasler, J F

    2007-04-15

    Many environmental conditions for in vitro embryo production (IVP) systems for cattle have been relatively standardised, e.g. media composition, temperature, pH, water quality, and atmospheric composition. However, little attention has been paid to the quality of ambient laboratory air and the gas environment in incubators. Although a few studies have examined the effects of chemical air contamination on IVP of human embryos, there are no published accounts for domestic animal embryos. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of an intra-incubator carbon-activated air filtration system (CODA) during in vitro culture (IVC) on embryonic development and subsequent pregnancy rate of bovine embryos. Immature cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) were obtained twice-weekly by ultrasonic-guided transvaginal oocyte aspiration. The COCs were matured in TCM199/FCS/LH/FSH, fertilized with frozen-thawed Percoll-separated semen, and subsequently cultured for 7 day in SOFaaBSA. Day 7 embryos were transferred either fresh or frozen/thawed. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 factorial; presumptive zygotes were placed either in a conventional CO(2)-O(2)-N(2) incubator (Control group) or in an identical CO(2)-O(2)-N(2) incubator with a CODA intra-incubator air purification unit (CODA group) for IVC. The embryo production rate at Day 7 was not affected by the CODA air purification unit (23.4 and 24.7% morulae and blastocysts per oocyte for control and CODA, respectively) nor was there any significant effect on embryo stage or quality. However, the pregnancy rate was improved (P=0.043) for both fresh (46.3% versus 41.0%) and frozen/thawed embryos (40.8% versus 35.6%). In conclusion, atmospheric purification by the CODA intra-incubator air purification unit significantly increased pregnancy rate following transfer of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

  1. Solid-surface vitrification and in-straw dilution after warming of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villamil, P; Ongaratto, F L; Fernandez Taranco, M; Bó, G A

    2014-02-01

    Three experiments were designed to test a solid-surface vitrification system for bovine in vitro-produced embryos and to develop a simple method of in-straw dilution after warming, which can be potentially used for direct transfer in the field. Experiment 1 evaluated embryo survival rates (i.e. re-expansion and hatching) after vitrification and warming in three different solutions: VS1 (20% ethylene glycol (EG) + 20% propanediol (PROH) + 0.25 m trehalose (Tr)), VS2 (20% EG + 1M Tr) or VS3 (30% EG + 0.75 m Tr). Re-expansion and hatching rates were higher (p vitrification: glass micropipettes or solid surface, using the VS1 or VS3 solutions. No significant differences were detected between the two methods; but re-expansion and hatching rates were higher (p vitrification using simplified EG-based solutions and in-straw dilution with holding media may be a practical alternative for cryopreservation and direct transfer of in vitro-produced bovine embryos. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effect of resveratrol supplementation during culture on the quality and cryotolerance of bovine in vitro produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, A; Albero, G; Zullo, G; Neglia, G; Abdel-Wahab, A; Bifulco, G; Zicarelli, L; Gasparrini, B

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether resveratrol supplementation of bovine culture medium improves in vitro blastocyst development, embryo cryotolerance and cell numbers. Abattoir-derived oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro according to standard procedure. Twenty hours after IVF, zygotes were cultured in SOF medium, supplemented with 0 (control, n=439), 0.25μM (n=422), 0.5μM (n=447) and 1μM resveratrol (n=416). On Day 7 (IVF=Day 0) blastocysts were vitrified by cryotop in 16.5% ethylene glycol, 16.5% dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.5M sucrose. Development rate, i.e. the percentage of embryos resuming development to reach a more advanced stage, and hatching rate were evaluated after 24 and 48h culture. Blastocysts cultured with (0.5μM) and without resveratrol underwent differential staining to count inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells. Resveratrol during culture did not increase blastocyst yields (57.1, 57.7, 59.2 and 46.6%, respectively in 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1μM resveratrol). However, 0.5μM resveratrol improved embryo cryotolerance compared to the control, as indicated by higher development rates (67.3% vs 50.3%, respectively; Pculture. Blastocysts produced in the control and in 0.5μM resveratrol groups had similar numbers of ICM (34.1 and 36.4, respectively), TE (88.1 and 85.3, respectively) and total (122.2 and 121.7, respectively) cells. In conclusion, low levels of resveratrol during in vitro culture improve the quality of IVP bovine embryos, as indicated by their increased resistance to cryopreservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of cryopreservation and in vitro culture of bovine fibroblasts on histone acetylation levels and in vitro development of hand-made cloned embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Leibo, S.P.; Wirtu, G.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relative acetylation levels of histone 3 in lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in cultured and cryopreserved bovine fibroblasts was measured and we determined the influence of the epigenetic status of three cultured (C1, C2 and C3) donor cell lines on the in vitro development of reconstructed bovine embryos. Results showed that cryopreservation did not alter the overall acetylation levels of H3K9 in bovine fibroblasts analysed immediately after thawing (frozen/thawed) compared with fibroblasts cultured for a period of time after thawing. However, reduced cleavage rates were noted in embryos reconstructed with fibroblasts used immediately after thawing. Cell passage affects the levels of H3K9ac in bovine fibroblasts, decreasing after P1 and donor cells with lower H3K9ac produced a greater frequency of embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Cryopreservation did not influence the total cell and ICM numbers, or the ICM/TPD ratios of reconstructed embryos. However, the genetic source of donor cells did influence the total number of cells and the trophectoderm cell numbers, and the cell passage influenced the total ICM cell numbers. ?? Copyright Cambridge University Press 2010.

  4. Ultra-Structural Alterations in In Vitro Produced Four-Cell Bovine Embryos Following Controlled Slow Freezing or Vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, T; Popken, J; Guengoer, T; Yilmaz, O; Uyanikgil, Y; Ates, U; Baka, M; Oztas, E; Zakhartchenko, V

    2016-08-01

    Cryopreservation is the process of freezing and preserving cells and tissues at low temperatures. Controlled slow freezing and vitrification have successfully been used for cryopreservation of mammalian embryos. We investigated the effect of these two cryopreservation methods on in vitro produced four-cell stage bovine embryos which were classified according to their quality and separated into three groups. The first group was maintained as untreated controls (n = 350). Embryos of the second (n = 385) and the third (n = 385) groups were cryopreserved either by controlled slow freezing or by vitrification. Embryos in groups 2 and 3 were thawed after 1 day. Hundred embryos were randomly selected from the control group, and 100 morphologically intact embryos from the second and third group were thawed after 1 day and cultured to observe the development up to the blastocyst stage. The blastocyst development rate was 22% in the control group, 1% in the slow-freezing group and 3% in the vitrification group. Remaining embryos of all three groups were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy with subsequent histological staining procedures. Cryopreservation caused degenerative changes at the ultra-structural level. Compared with vitrification, slow freezing caused an increased mitochondrial degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, disruption of the nuclear and plasma membrane integrity, organelle disintegration, cytoskeletal damage, a reduced thickness of the zona pellucida and a formation of fractures in the zona pellucida. Further studies are required to understand and decrease the harmful effects of cryopreservation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The influence of in vitro fertilization and embryo culture on the embryo epigenetic constituents and the possible consequences in the bovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirard, M-A

    2017-08-01

    Medically assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro embryo production, are increasingly being used to palliate infertility. Eggs are produced following a hormonal regimen that stimulates the ovaries to produce a large number of oocytes. Collected oocytes are then fertilized in vitro and allowed to develop in vitro until they are either frozen or transferred to mothers. There are controversial reports on the adverse impacts of these technologies on early embryos and their potential long-term effects. Using newly developed technological platforms that enable global gene expression and global DNA methylation profiling, we evaluated gene perturbations caused by such artificial procedures. We know that cells in the early embryo produce all cells in the body and are able to respond to their in vitro environment. However, it is not known whether gene perturbations are part of a normal response to the environment or are due to distress and will have long-term impacts. While the mouse is an established genetic model used for quality control of culture media in clinics, the bovine is a large mono-ovulating mammal with similar embryonic kinetics as humans during the studied developmental window. These model systems are critical to understand the effects of assisted reproduction without the confounding impact of infertility and without the limitations imposed by the scarcity of donated human samples and ethical issues. The data presented in this review come mostly from our own experimentation, publications, and collaborations. Together they demonstrate that the in vitro environment has a significant impact on embryos at the transcriptomic level and at the DNA methylation level.

  6. Lipid content and apoptosis of in vitro-produced bovine embryos as determinants of susceptibility to vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Mateus José; Paschoal, Daniela Martins; Rascado, Tatiana da Silva; Magalhães, Luis Carlos Oña; Crocomo, Letícia Ferrari; de Lima-Neto, João Ferreira; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz

    2011-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate supplementation of fetal calf serum (FCS) and phenazine ethosulfate (PES), a metabolic regulator that inhibits fatty acid synthesis, in culture media during in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos. Taking oocyte fertilization (n = 4,320) as Day 0, four concentrations of FCS (0, 2.5, 5, and 10%) and three periods of exposure to PES (without addition-CONTROL; after 60 h-PES Day 2.5 of embryo culture; and after 96 h-PES Day 4) were evaluated. Increasing FCS concentration in the culture media enhanced lipid accumulation (P vitrification (2.5%: 81.6 ± 2.5 vs 10%: 67.3 ± 3.5, P vitrification ( 72.0 ± 3.0 vs PES Day 2.5: 79.9 ± 2.8 or PES Day 4: 86.2 ± 2.4, P vitrification. Moreover, embryo quality, represented by the fresh apoptosis rate, was better than lipid content for predicting embryo survival after vitrification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro production of bovine embryos: cumulus/granulosa cell gene expression patterns point to early atresia as beneficial for oocyte competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Razza, Eduardo; Pedersen, Hanne S.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro production (IW) of bovine embryos has become widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. Here, we review novel data on cumulus/granulosa cell gene expression, as determined by RNAseq on cellular material from pooled follicular fluids at the single animal level, a...

  8. Active caspase-3 and ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis in spontaneous and induced cell death in bovine in vitro produced pre-implantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørret, Jakob O.; Fabian, Dusan; Avery, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated chronological onset and involvement of active caspase-3, apoptotic nuclear morphology, and TUNEL-labeling, as well as ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis, in both spontaneous and induced cell death during pre-implantation development of bovine in vitro produced...... embryos. Pre-implantation embryos (2-cell to Day 8 blastocysts) were cultured with either no supplementation (untreated) or with 10 µM staurosporine for 24 hr (treated). Embryos were subjected to immunohistochemical staining of active caspase-3, TUNEL-reaction for detection of DNA degradation and DAPI...

  9. Effects of flunixin meglumine and prostaglandin F2 α treatments on the development and quality of bovine embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-S; Bang, J-I; Fakruzzaman, M; Lee, K-L; Ko, D-H; Ghanem, N; Wang, Z; Kong, I-K

    2014-12-01

    Assisted reproduction procedures, such as embryo transfer (ET) and artificial insemination (AI), in cattle could induce the secretion of prostaglandin F2 -alpha (PGF2 α) from uterine horns which may in turn interrupt embryo development and implantation. This study investigated the effect of flunixin meglumine (FM), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) and FM combined with PGF2α supplementation in culture medium (IVC-II) on the development and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos. The development rate of embryos was significantly higher in the FM group (33.3%) than in control (24.3%), PGF2 α (23.9%) and FM + PGF2 α groups (24.5%). The percentage of hatched blastocysts was also higher (p < 0.05) in the FM group (41.2%) than in the control (27.8%) and PGF2 α groups (19.8%). While, there was no significant difference in total cell number in all experimental groups, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in the PGF2 α group (8.2 ± 6.6) than in the control (4.7 ± 3.2), FM (4.7 ± 2.5) and FM + PGF2 α (4.9 ± 3.4) groups. Detected by real-time PCR, secreted vesicle seminal protein 1 (SSLP1) and prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene expression decreased (p < 0.05) in the PGF2 α group. However, SSLP1 and PTGS2 gene expression in the FM + PGF2 α group returned to their baseline levels, similar to the control and FM groups. Caspase 3 (CAPS3) gene expression increased in the PGF2 α group compared with other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, addition of FM in vitro culture significantly improved embryo development as well as alleviated the negative impact of PGF2 α. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Cellular alteration after dilution of cryoprotective solutions used for the vitrification of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidi, S; Van Langendonckt, A; Massip, A; Dessy, F; Donnay, I

    1999-08-01

    Embryo quality of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts was assessed at several steps of a vitrification procedure in which glycerol and ethylene glycol were used as cryoprotectants (3-step equilibration with cryoprotectants followed by vitrification, dilution of the cryoprotectants in 0.85 M galactose then in embryo transfer freezing medium [ETF], and finally co-culture for periods). To visualize cell membrane alterations, double staining was performed using a cell permeant fluorochrome (bisbenzimide--BIS) and a nonpermeant one (propidium iodide--PI). In Experiment 1, the effect of the vitrification procedure on the hatching rate and total cell number was assessed 72 h after treatment. Hatching rate and the number of stained nuclei were decreased in comparison with untreated embryos when blastocysts were exposed to the whole procedure with or without vitrification (respectively 42 and 53% vs 76% for hatching and 128 +/- 17 and 141 +/- 17 vs 226 +/- 13 for stained nuclei). In Experiment 2, the effect of cryoprotectants and their dilution was evaluated on membrane permeability and total cell numbers at various steps of the vitrification procedure. Blastocysts exposed only to cryoprotectant solutions and stained immediately after dilution in galactose showed no modification. After dilution in ETF, the total number of stained nuclei decreased, and the number of blastomeres showing membrane permeabilization (PI-stained) increased (respectively, 74 +/- 5 vs 110 +/- 5 and 32 +/- 2% vs 0.1 +/- 1.8%). In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that the total number of stained nuclei after ethanol fixation (membrane permeabilization) was higher when embryos treated up to dilution in ETF were stained with PI than when the same embryos were stained with BIS. This suggests that, for unknown reasons, some nuclei of the treated embryos were not stained with BIS. Membrane permeabilization and inability of BIS to stain some nuclei were the most obvious alterations probably induced by osmotic

  11. Reduction in cytoplasmic lipid content in bovine embryos cultured in vitro with linoleic acid in semi-defined medium is correlated with increases in cryotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, Mônica F; Leão, Beatriz Caetano da Silva; Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália Alves de Souza; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Mingoti, Gisele Zoccal

    2016-08-01

    We examined whether culturing embryos with linoleic acid (LA) in semi-defined medium reduces lipid accumulation and improves cryosurvival after vitrification. Embryos were cultured with LA (100 μM) and a semi-defined medium was used during in vitro culture (IVC), in which the fetal calf serum was substituted by bovine serum albumin (BSA). There was a reduction (P embryos stained with the fluorescent dye Nile Red), consequently increasing (P = 0.0490) the embryo survival after 24h of culture post-warming ( 50.0% versus LA: 71.7%). The results question the criteria used to evaluate the efficiency of an in vitro production system specifically with relation to the maximum number of blastocysts produced and suggest that might be more appropriate to improve the desired characteristics of embryos generated in accordance with the specific purpose of in vitro embryo production, commercial or scientific. In conclusion, supplying LA to serum-free culture medium was found to adversely affect the rates of embryo development to the blastocyst stage, but significantly reduced embryo lipid accumulation and improved cryopreservation survival.

  12. Effect of culture system on survival rate of vitrified bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, A; Nazari, H; Ahmadi, E; Heidari, B; Shams-Esfandabadi, N

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of in vitro culture system on bovine blastocyst yield and quality after vitrification. In Experiment 1, IVM/IVF zygotes were allocated to three culture conditions: (I) Oviductal cells-SOF (OCM-SOF); (II) Oviductal cells-TCM (OCM-TCM); and (III) SOF for 8 days. There was no significant difference between blastocyst rates among groups. In Experiment 2, the IVP-blastocysts in three above culture conditions were vitrified within groups segregated according to age (Day 7 and 8) and blastocoelic cavity size (early and expanded blastocysts). A trend of higher survival rate was obtained in vitrified/warmed early blastocysts compared with expanded ones, so that the difference in OCM-TCM group was significant (P<0.001). Higher survival and hatching rates (P<0.001) were obtained in OCM-SOF and OCM-TCM groups (co-culture) compared with SOF group and the age of blastocyst had no effect on post-thaw survival and hatching rates. In Experiment 3, after staining of blastocysts, in fresh blastocysts the highest number of trophectoderm cells was observed in OCM-TCM group and the number of inner cell mass (ICM) was higher in co-culture groups than SOF group (P<0.001). In vitrified/warmed blastocysts the number of ICM and trophectoderm cells in co-culture groups was higher than SOF group (P<0.001) except for the ICM of expanded blastocysts. In conclusion, in our culture conditions, the blastocyst yield is not influenced by culture system, while the cryotolerance of IVP-blastocysts is positively influenced by the presence of somatic cells. Moreover, the expanded blastocysts are more susceptible to cryoinjury than early blastocysts.

  13. Comparison of different fertilisation media for an in vitro maturation?fertilisation?culture system using flow-cytometrically sorted X chromosome-bearing spermatozoa for bovine embryo production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Luis B; Bogliotti, Yanina; Chitwood, James L; Fresno, Cristóbal; Ortega, Hugo H; Kjelland, Michael E; Ross, Pablo J

    2015-05-13

    High demand exists among commercial cattle producers for in vitro-derived bovine embryos fertilised with female sex-sorted spermatozoa from high-value breeding stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate three fertilisation media, namely M199, synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) and Tyrode's albumin-lactate-pyruvate (TALP), on IVF performance using female sex-sorted spermatozoa. In all, 1143, 1220 and 1041 cumulus-oocyte complexes were fertilised in M199, SOF and TALP, respectively. There were significant differences among fertilisation media (P fertilisation medium. Embryos derived from SOF and TALP fertilisation media had higher numbers of ICM, TE and total cells than those fertilised in M199. In conclusion, fertilisation media affected cleavage rate, as well as subsequent embryo development, quality and hatching ability. SOF and TALP fertilisation media produced significantly more embryos of higher quality than M199.

  14. Membrane lipid profile monitored by mass spectrometry detected differences between fresh and vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Beatriz C S; Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália A S; Cabral, Elaine C; Franco, Marcos F; Ferreira, Christina R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Mingoti, Gisele Z

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vitrification on membrane lipid profile obtained by mass spectrometry (MS) of in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been used to obtain individual embryo membrane lipid profiles. Due to conditions of analysis, mainly membrane lipids, most favorably phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and sphingomyelins (SMs) have been detected. The following ions described by their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) and respective attribution presented increased relative abundance (1.2-20×) in the vitrified group: 703.5 [SM (16:0) + H]+; 722.5 [PC (40:3) + Na]+; 758.5 [PC (34:2) + H]+; 762.5 [PC (34:0) + H]+; 790.5 [PC (36:0) + H]+ and 810.5 [PC (38:4) + H]+ and/or [PC (36:1) + Na]+. The ion with a m/z 744.5 [PCp (34:1) and/or PCe (34:2)] was 3.4-fold more abundant in the fresh group. Interestingly, ions with m/z 722.5 or 744.5 indicate the presence of lipid species, which are more resistant to enzymatic degradation as they contain fatty acyl residues linked through ether type bonds (alkyl ether or plasmalogens, indicated by the lowercase 'e' and 'p', respectively) to the glycerol structure. The results indicate that cryopreservation impacts the membrane lipid profile, and that these alterations can be properly monitored by MALDI-MS. Membrane lipids can therefore be evaluated by MALDI-MS to monitor the effect of cryopreservation on membrane lipids, and to investigate changes in lipid profile that may reflect the metabolic response to the cryopreservation stress or changes in the environmental conditions.

  15. Correlation between the cryosurvival, cell number and diameter in bovine in vitro produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Alper; Cevik, Mesut

    2016-10-01

    The selection of quality embryos is a prerequisite of cryopreservation process. Present study was conducted to examine the correlation between the diameter and cryotolerance, on the cell number of the cryopreserved embryos. The blastocyst stage embryos were collected at culture days 7-9, evaluated morphologically under a microscope and divided according to the diameter into three groups: Group 1; (larger than 150 μm), Group 2; (diameter of 100-150 μm), Group 3; (smaller than 100 μm). Blastocysts were vitrified-thawed using the classical vitrification method and then cultured in SOF medium drops at 24 h. Blastocysts were considered viable if they re-expanded or hatched from the zona pellucidae. Finally re-expanded blastocysts from the Group 1 and Group 2 to determine the differential count of cells in the ICM and TE. The re-expansion ability of blastocysts 100-150 μm in diameter (69.56%) was significantly higher than other groups (52.17 and 47.36%). The value of the correlation coefficient between the re-expansion rate and cell number of blastocysts in the group 2 (r = 0.784) tended to be higher than that in the group 1 (r = 0.512) and group 3 (r = 0.491) (p < 0.05). For ICM/total cell ratio yield group 2 embryos showed higher rate (0.28), compared to the other groups (0.19 and 0.16). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the correlation between diameter of embryos and their cryosurvival based on re-expansion ability and cell allocation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of fetal calf serum, phenazine ethosulfate and either glucose or fructose during in vitro culture of bovine embryos on embryonic development after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló-Fimbres, M; Seidel, G E

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated effects of hexoses, fetal calf serum (FCS), and phenazine ethosulfate (PES) during the culture of bovine embryos on blastocyst development and survival after cryopreservation by slow freezing or vitrification. The basal, control medium was chemically defined (CDM) plus 0.5% fatty acid-free BSA. In vitro-produced bovine zygotes were cultured in CDM-1 with 0.5 mM glucose; after 60 hr, 8-cell embryos were cultured 4.5 days in CDM-2. The 8-cell embryos were randomly allocated to a 2 x 3 x 2 x 3 factorial experimental design with two energy substrates (2 mM glucose or fructose); three additives (0.3 microM PES, 10% FCS, and control); two cryopreservation methods using no animal products (conventional slow freezing or vitrification); and semen from three bulls with two replicates for each bull. A total of 1,107 blastocysts were produced. Fructose resulted in 13% more blastocysts per oocyte than glucose (37.2% vs. 32.9%), and per 8-cell embryo (51.3% vs. 45.3%; P 0.1) control, FCS, or PES for blastocysts per oocyte or per 8-cell embryo. There was a significant interaction (P embryos with PES, which reduces cytoplasmic lipid content, improved cryotolerance of bovine embryos; post-cryopreservation survival of blastocysts averaged over vitrification and slow freezing (between which there was no difference) was 91.9%, 84.9%, and 60.2% of unfrozen controls (P < 0.01) for PES, control, and FCS groups, respectively. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Efficacy of mechanical micro-vibration in the development of bovine embryos during in vitro maturation and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Honda, Tatsutoshi; Hatoya, Shingo; Inaba, Toshio; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2018-02-06

    It is currently unclear how mechanical micro-vibration affects the in vitro culture of embryos in Japanese Black cow. In the experimental groups, immature oocytes and fertilized embryos were cultured using the micro-vibration culture system with the vibration set for 5 sec at intervals of 60 min and frequency of 20, 40, or 80 Hz, respectively, during in vitro maturation and in vitro development. Compared with the control group, the rate of blastocyst development significantly increased in the 40 Hz group. In addition, the number of blastocyst cells reduced significantly in the 80 Hz group. In conclusion, the development of blastocysts in cows is facilitated by providing moderate mechanical micro-vibration to immature oocytes and embryos during the in vitro maturation and in vitro development.

  18. Survival of vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos after a one-step warming in-straw cryoprotectant dilution procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, J N; Gómez, E; Trigal, B; Muñoz, M; Carrocera, S; Martín, D; Díez, C

    2015-03-15

    Vitrification is an alternative to slow-rate freezing for cryopreserving bovine embryos. However, this technology requires simplification if it is to be used under field conditions. The main objective of this work was to develop a new system for the direct transfer of vitrified embryos to be used under farm conditions. For this, three objectives were set: (1) to compare the effect of vitrification, using the cryologic vitrification method (CVM), and slow-rate freezing on bovine embryo development and quality; (2) to develop a one-step warming procedure for bovine in vitro-produced (IVP) vitrified (by CVM) embryos; and (3) to assess the effects on embryo survival of a new method for the direct transfer of vitrified IVP bovine blastocysts. In vitro-produced blastocysts were initially either vitrified by CVM or subjected to slow freezing to compare embryo survival and quality (experiment 1). No differences were detected between these cryopreservation techniques in terms of the survival and quality variables at 24 hours or in terms of the proteins expressed. However, at 48 hours the vitrified embryos showed higher hatching rates, greater total cell numbers, and lower apoptotic indices (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, CVM-vitrified IVP blastocysts were warmed by the conventional two-step or one-step warming procedure by incubating them at 41 °C in 0.25 M sucrose for 10 minutes, 0.15 M sucrose for 10 minutes, or 0.25 M sucrose for 5 minutes. In addition, embryo transfer (ET) was performed using vitrified embryos warmed by the one-step procedure in 0.25 M sucrose solution for 5 minutes. As a control group, IVP fresh embryos were transferred to recipient females. No differences were observed in embryo survival or total cell number between any of the warming procedures. Moreover, no significant differences for pregnancy at 60 days were found between the ET groups. In experiment 3, expanded IVP blastocysts were then either vitrified using a conventional or a

  19. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... can also be applied to human embryos, using different primers, designed for human DNA. Key words: sexing, embryo, PCR, bovine. INTRODUCTION. In vitro fertilization represents nowadays a modern assisted reproductive technology that can be applied to couples with fertility problems that make natural ...

  20. Vitrification of early-stage bovine and equine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Chillòn, L F; Suh, T K; Barcelo-Fimbres, M; Seidel, G E; Carnevale, E M

    2009-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine an optimal method and stage of development for vitrification of bovine zygotes or early embryos; and (2) use the optimal procedure for bovine embryos to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of early embryos. Initially, bovine embryos produced by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were frozen and vitrified in 0.25mL straws with minimal success. A subsequent experiment was done using two vitrification methods and super open pulled straws (OPS) with 1- or 8-cell bovine embryos. In Method 1 (EG-O), embryos were exposed to 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG) for 5min, 7M ethylene glycol and 0.6M galactose for 30s, loaded in an OPS, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. In Method 2 (EG-DMSO), embryos were exposed to 1.1M ethylene glycol and 1.1M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 3min, 2.5M ethylene glycol, 2.5M DMSO and 0.5M galactose for 30s, and loaded and plunged as for EG-O. Cryoprotectants were removed after warming in three steps. One- and eight-cell bovine embryos were cultured for 7 and 4.5 d, respectively, after warming, and control embryos were cultured without vitrification. Cleavage rates of 1-cell embryos were similar (P>0.05) for vitrified and control embryos, although the blastocyst rates for EG-O and control embryos were similar and higher (Pvitrification and warming. In summary, a successful method was established for vitrification of early-stage bovine embryos, and this method was used to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of 2- to 8-cell embryos produced by ICSI.

  1. Hepes na produção de embriões bovinos in vitro Hepes on in vitro production of bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcos Montagner

    2000-06-01

    of pH changes in maturation and embryo development media, buffered with different HEPES concentrations. Initially, the effect of different concentrations of HEPES (0, 12.5 and 25.0mM on the variation of pH in the maturation (modified TCM-199 and embryonic development (modified KSOM media was evaluated at room temperature (25ºC and in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 39ºC. In another experiment, the effect of HEPES on in vitro oocyte maturation was determined. Oocytes were maturated in TCM-199 modified either with 25.0mM of HEPES (HEPES group; n = 137 or without HEPES (control group; n = 142, performing 7 replicates and evaluating the rate of blastocyst. In this study, the medium used for fertilization was Fert-TALP while for embryo development was KSOM with 10% of fetal bovine serum with monolayer of oviduct epithelial cells. A third experiment was designed to determine the effect of HEPES on embryo development. The zygotes were divided in two groups and co-incubated with oviduct epithelial cells in modified KSOM with 10% of fetal bovine serum without HEPES (n = 95 or with 25.0mM of HEPES (n = 92. For this experiment, it was used embryos with two or more cells and the embryo development was considered from cleavage to expanded blastocyst (Bx, 7 and 9 days after insemination. The oocytes and embryos were incubated at temperature of 39ºC, an atmosphere containing 5% CO2 in air and saturated humidity. The media with 25.0mM of HEPES were more efficient in minimizing the range of pH than those with 12.5mM or without HEPES. To determine the effect of HEPES during in vitro oocyte maturation, the percentage of Bl considered either the total number of oocytes or the total number of cleavages was higher in the HEPES group (21.9% or 42.9%, respectively than those obtained in the control group (10.56% or 16.67%, respectively. When HEPES was added to embryo culture medium, the percentage of Bx (45.65% was higher than that obtained in medium without HEPES (11.58%; p<0.01. The

  2. Forskolin effect on the cryosurvival of in vitro-produced bovine embryos in the presence or absence of fetal calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Daniela Martins; Sudano, Mateus José; Guastali, Midyan Daroz; Dias Maziero, Rosiára Rosária; Crocomo, Letícia Ferrari; Oña Magalhães, Luis Carlos; da Silva Rascado, Tatiana; Martins, Alicio; da Cruz Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the viability and cryotolerance of zebu embryos produced in vitro with or without the addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) and forskolin (F). Embryos produced in vivo were used as a control. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid supplemented with amino acids (SOFaa), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and with (2.5%) or without (0%) FCS. On day 6 of growth, the embryos from each group were divided into treatments with or without 10 μM F to induce embryonic lipolysis, comprising a total of four experimental groups: 2.5% FCS, 0% FCS, 2.5% + F and 0% + F. For vitrification, embryos were exposed to vitrification solution 1 (5 M EG (ethylene glycol)) for 3 min and then transferred to vitrification solution 2 (7 M EG, 0.5 M galactose solution and 18% (w/v) Ficoll 70) before being introduced to liquid nitrogen. The presence of FCS in the culture medium resulted in the production of embryos with a similar rate of damaged cells compared with in vivo-produced embryos. After vitrification, the 2.5% FCS group had a significantly higher rate of damaged cells when compared with the other groups (P vitrification.

  3. Developmental kinetics of the first cell cycles of bovine in vitro PRODUCED EMBRYOS IN RELATION TO THEIR IN VITRO VIABILITY AND SEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P; Shukri, N.N; Vajta, Gabor

    1998-01-01

    The development of bovine IVP-embryos was observed in a time-lapse culture system to determine cell cycle lengths of 1) embryos that developed into compact morulae (CM) or blastocysts (BL) within 174 h after insemination (viable), 2) embryos that arrested during earlier stages (nonviable) and 3......) male and female embryos. In 4 replicates, inseminated oocytes were cultured on a microscope stage in 3 to 4 groups on a granulosa cell monolayer in supplemented TCM 199. Images were sequentially recorded and stored at 30-min intervals. All embryos that could be identified throughout the culture period...... were included (n=392), and the times of cleavage events noted. After culture, 100 CM or BL were randomly selected for sexing by PCR. BL developed equally well in the time-lapse and control culture systems (36 vs 38. The respective lengths of the first 4 cell cycles of viable embryos were 32.0 + 3.9, g...

  4. Effect of urea during in vitro maturation on nuclear maturation and embryo development of bovine cumulus-oocyte-complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de A.A.C.; Cesar, M.L.F.; Kruip, T.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    High concentrations of urea in reproductive tract fluids are detrimental to bovine reproduction. Therefore, in experiment 1, the effect of 6 mM urea on nuclear maturation of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COC) collected from abattoir ovaries was studied. After 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h of in vitro

  5. Improvement of bovine in vitro embryo production by ovarian follicular wave synchronization prior to ovum pick-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, F L B; Morotti, F; Seneda, M M; Colombo, A H B; Andreazzi, M A; Emanuelli, I P; Rigolon, L P

    2017-11-26

    This study evaluated the effects of the synchronization of ovarian follicular wave emergence on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production. Bos indicus cows (n = 20) were divided into two groups (control vs. synchronization) and subjected to repeated ovum pick-up (OPU) sessions (8 replicates each, with an interval of 21 days in a 2 × 2 crossover design) and subsequent in vitro embryo production. Cows in the control group (n = 10) were submitted to OPU procedures without any stimulation every 21 days. Animals in the synchronization group received a protocol-based progesterone implant, estradiol benzoate and prostaglandin on a random day of the estrus cycle (Day 0) and the OPU was performed on Day 5. After in vitro production, embryos were transferred to recipients synchronized at a fixed time and the diagnosis was performed 60 days later. An evaluation of the parameters for each OPU session revealed that donors that received the synchronization protocol pre-OPU showed a greater number of embryos (5.9 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.4; P = 0.037), higher rate of embryo production (45.8% vs. 38.5%; P = 0.001) and higher mean number of conceptions per group (2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2; P = 0.07) in relation to the group that did not receive hormonal treatment. We concluded that synchronization of the follicular wave prior to OPU showed positive effects on in vitro embryo production as well as on pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors affecting survival rates of in vitro produced bovine embryos after vitrification and direct in-straw rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, G; Holm, P; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    1996-12-16

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibilities of simplification, and to outline the limits of application, of a vitrification method for cow embryos. Morulae and blastocysts were produced by in vitro fertilization of slaughterhouse-derived, in vitro matured oocytes with frozen-thawed bull semen, and subsequent culture on a granulosa cell monolayer. Vitrification was performed by equilibration of embryos with 12.5% ethylene glycol and 12.5% dimethylsulphoxide at 20-22 degrees C for 60 s, then with 25% ethylene glycol and 25% dimethylsulphoxide at 4 degrees C for another 60 s. Embryos were then loaded in straws, placed in liquid nitrogen vapour for 2 min, and then plunged. Straws were thawed in a 22 degrees C water-bath, the embryos were directly rehydrated and further incubated in straw, and were then expelled and cultured in vitro for 72 h. In the first experiment, embryos of different age and developmental stage (Day 5 compacted morulae, Day 6 early blastocysts, Days 6 and 7 blastocysts, Day 7 expanded blastocysts and Day 8 hatched blastocysts) as well as Days 7 and 5 blastocysts previously subjected to partial zone dissection were vitrified. After thawing, the re-expansion rates of blastocysts and zona-dissected embryos did not differ (67 and 87%, respectively), and hatching was more frequent for blastocysts frozen in advanced developmental stages (34, 47 and 63% for early blastocysts, blastocysts and expanded blastocysts, respectively). The re-expansion rate of morulae was lower (10%) and no hatching of these embryos was observed. In the second experiment, Day 7 expanded blastocysts were vitrified using PBS, PBS+albumin, TCM199 and TCM199+calf serum as holding media. No differences in re-expansion and hatching rates were seen. However, when incubation with the concentrated cryoprotectant solution was performed at 20-22 degrees C, the embryo survival rate decreased (PBS+albumin) or no embryo survived (TCM199+calf serum) the vitrification procedure. In

  7. The effects of macromolecular and serum supplements and oxygen tension during bovine in vitro procedures on kinetics of oocyte maturation and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoti, Gisele Zoccal; Castro, Viviane Sggobi Dias Caiado; Méo, Simone Cristina; Sá Barretto, Letícia Siqueira; Garcia, Joaquim Mansano

    2011-06-01

    Aiming to standardize in vitro production of bovine embryos and to obtain supplements to replace serum in culture media, this study evaluated the nuclear maturation kinetics and embryonic development in bovine after in vitro maturation (IVM) and culture (IVC) with several macromolecules (animal origin: bovine serum albumin (BSA), fetal calf serum (FCS); synthetic: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Ficoll, and Knockout) at two oxygen tensions (20% and 5% O(2)). Regarding nuclear kinetics, neither the presence of the expected stage (metaphase I, transition anaphase to telophase, and metaphase II) at each evaluation moment (6, 18, and 24 h after IVM, respectively) nor the accelerated polar body emission (at 18 h after IVM) related developmental competence to blastocyst stage when different supplements were compared. Independently of supplement, cleavage rates at 20% O(2) (61.6-79.2%) were higher than at 5% O(2) (38.9-58.7%). At 20% O(2), higher blastocyst and hatching rates, respectively, were obtained in treatments BSA, FCS, Knockout, and control group (IVM with FCS and IVC with BSA + FCS, 14.0-23.5% and 6.8-15.4%) in comparison to PVA, PVP, and Ficoll (0%). The same was observed at 5% O(2) for blastocyst rates with BSA, FCS, Knockout, and control (5.4-16.8%) and for hatching rates with BSA, FCS, and control (2.0-11.1%). We can conclude that producing bovine embryos at 20% O(2) during the entire IVP process resulted in higher developmental rates than at 5% O(2). In addition, while defined macromolecules PVA, PVP, and Ficoll were not suitable for embryonic development, the synthetic serum Knockout was able to replace serum and albumin for IVP in bovine at 20% O(2).

  8. Effect of container, vitrification volume and warming solution on cryosurvival of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, G L; Mucci, N C; Kaiser, G G; Alberio, R H

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present research was to develop a low cost and easy to perform vitrification method for in vitro-produced cattle embryos. Effect of container material was evaluated (plastic straw compared to glass capillary, experiment 1), two volume sample (1 compared to 0.5 microL, experiment 2) and warming solution composition medium (Tissue Culture Medium 199 (TCM-199) compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS), experiment 3) as modifications of the open pulled straw (OPS) system in order to reduce embryo damage caused by exposure to cold. In all experiments, day 7 and expanded blastocysts of cattle were exposed to the vitrification solution 1 for 3 min and 30s in solution 2. After this, embryos were placed in a droplet and loaded in a narrow end container, and immediately submerged into liquid nitrogen. For warming, vitrified embryos were plunged into warming solution 1 for 3 min, and transferred into warming solution 2 for 1 min. Fresh embryos kept in culture were used as control group. Hatching rates were recorded in all cases at day 13. In experiment 1 there was no significant effect of container material on hatching rates. Postwarming survival rate of vitrified embryos was lower than control (27.5% plastic straws, 18.9% glass capillary and 80.5% control, Pstraw (OPS) procedure, and that PBS can replace TCM-199 in warming solutions, but lesser hatching rates should be expected.

  9. Effect of mating between the donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on the in vitro production of bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Toledo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on in vitro production (IVP parameters of bovine embryos comparing the mean number of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture, the rate of suitable oocytes, and cleavage and blastocyst rates. Data from 1,000 follicular aspiration sessions (OPU, including 500 in donor cows of the Holstein breed and 500 of the Gyr breed, were collected. The results were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test and chi-square test, adopting a level of significance of 5%. The mean number and standard deviation of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture were 15.1±13.0 and 8.7±7.6 for the Holstein breed and 15.5±11.9 and 9.1±7.9 for the Gyr breed. The rates of suitable oocytes were 57.7% and 58.5% for Holstein and Gyr breeds, respectively. A significant difference between breeds was observed for the number of oocytes suitable for culture (P<0.05, but not for the number of recovered oocytes or rates of suitable oocytes (P>0.05. Similarly, the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull influenced cleavage and blastocyst rates (P<0.05. The cleavage rates were 65.7, 60.3, 59.6 and 56.5% for the combinations (donor breed x bull breed Holstein x Holstein (G1, Holstein x Gyr (G2, Gyr x Holstein (G3 and Gyr x Gyr (G4, respectively, with G1>G2, G1>G3, G1>G4, G2=G3, G2>G4, and G3>G4. The blastocyst rates were 28.1, 33.3, 26.8 and 31.0%, respectively, with G1>G2, G1=G3, G1

  10. Cell apoptosis and lipid content of in vitro-produced, vitrified bovine embryos treated with forskolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Daniela Martins; Sudano, Mateus José; Schwarz, Kátia Regina Lancellotti; Maziero, Rosiára Rosário Dias; Guastali, Midyan Daroz; Crocomo, Letícia Ferrari; Magalhães, Luis Carlos Oña; Martins, Alício; Leal, Claudia Lima Verde; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fetal calf serum in culture medium influences embryo quality, causing a reduction in postcryopreservation survival. Forskolin has been used to induce lipolysis and increase cryotolerance, functioning as an activator of adenylate cyclase and elevating cAMP levels. In the present experiment, bovine zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid with amino acid plus 2.5% fetal calf serum for 6 days, when forskolin was added in three concentrations: 2.5, 5, and 10 μM. Treatment with forskolin lasted for 24 hours. Blastocyst formation rate, quantification of lipid granules, total cell numbers, and apoptosis rate were evaluated. In a second assessment, embryos were vitrified, and warming, re-expansion rate, total cell numbers, and apoptosis rate were also evaluated. There was no difference due to forskolin in blastocyst formation or re-expansion rates after vitrification. However, lipid measurements were lower (control: 136.8 and F 2.5 μM: 128.5; P < 0.05), and number of cells per embryo higher (control: 140.1 and F 2.5 μM: 173.5; P < 0.05) than controls for 2.5 μM forskolin but not for higher forskolin concentrations. The number of intact cells per embryo was higher, and the rate of apoptosis was lower in fresh than in vitrified embryos (number of cells of warmed embryos, control: 104.1, F 2.5 μM: 101.3, F 5 μM: 115.4, F 10 μM: 95.1; apoptotic of fresh cells, control: 12.1%, F 2.5 μM: 16.7%, F 5 μM: 11.1%, F 10 μM: 14.2%; and apoptotic warmed embryos, control: 22.3%, F 2.5 μM: 37.3%, F 5 μM: 33.2%, F 10 μM: 30.3%; P < 0.05). It was concluded that forskolin is an effective lipolytic agent even at low concentrations, leading to formation of blastocysts with a comparatively larger number of cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression profile of genes as indicators of developmental competence and quality of in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cánepa

    Full Text Available Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit β5, PSMB5 and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3 in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART.

  12. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 on in vitro bovine embryo production and cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalón-Medina, V A; Bedford-Guaus, S J; Gilbert, R O; Siqueira, L C; Esposito, G; Schneider, A; Cheong, S H; Butler, W R

    2014-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers can affect the lipid profile and signaling of cells and thereby alter their function. A total of 5,700 bovine oocytes were used in a structured series of experiments to test the effects of CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12 in vitro. In experiment 1, high doses of each CLA isomer during in vitro maturation (IVM) were compared with high or low doses during the entire in vitro culture (IVC) of parthenogenetic embryos. High doses of the CLA isomers ranged from 50 to 200 μM and low doses were 15 and 25 μM. In experiment 2, the low doses of each CLA isomer were tested during IVM/IVC on embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF). Experiment 3 compared the effects of 15 μM doses of each CLA isomer during IVM or IVC of IVF embryos. In experiment 4, post-rewarming survival rates and blastomere counts were assessed for embryos supplemented with each CLA isomer during IVM or for 36 h before vitrification. In experiment 1, when either CLA isomer was provided only during IVM, we observed no effects on overall rates of maturation, cleavage, or blastocysts (92.2 ± 1.6%, 78.3 ± 4.1%, and 28.9 ± 5.1%, respectively). However, high doses of each CLA isomer, but not low doses, during the entire embryo culture period decreased blastocyst rates (5-20%) in a dose-dependent manner. Cleavage rates improved with 15 or 50 μM CLA trans-10,cis-12. Progesterone concentrations in maturation media were significantly increased by high doses of each CLA isomer compared with control, but low doses of CLA isomers had no effect. In experiment 2 with IVF embryos, low doses of each CLA isomer did not alter cleavage rates (average 84.9 ± 1.9%) and only 25 μM CLA trans-10,cis-12 during IVC reduced blastocyst rates below those of controls (25.5 ± 2.1 vs. 38.2 ± 2.3%). The lipid content of embryos was increased and relative expression of the BIRC5 (baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5) gene was depressed by CLA trans-10,cis-12. In experiment 3

  13. Characterization of microRNA in bovine in vitro culture media associated with embryo quality and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Khatib, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    Dairy cattle fertility has declined over time due to factors including reduced fertilization and early embryonic loss. To counter fertility problems and better study preimplantation embryonic development, in vitro production systems have been developed. These systems largely assess embryos based on their morphology, which is not a strong indicator of developmental potential. Currently, no biomarkers can be used to noninvasively survey an embryo's potential in terms of its development and ability to establish a pregnancy. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize and identify microRNA (miRNA) in culture media of embryos of differing developmental competence for future development as noninvasive biomarkers of embryo quality. The MiRNA sequencing of media conditioned by blastocyst and degenerate (those that failed to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage) embryos, revealed 11 differentially expressed miRNA; all were higher in concentration in degenerate conditioned media. Differential expression of mature microRNA (miR)-24, miR-191, and miR-148a was further validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Functional analysis of miR-24 revealed that addition of a mimic miRNA to culture media of morulae embryos resulted in a 27.3% decrease in development to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, expression of miR-24 was 44.29-fold higher in blastocysts cultured with a miR-24 mimic compared with control blastocysts. Interestingly, the expression of CDKN1b, a target gene of miR-24 was repressed in embryos grown in the presence of the miRNA mimic. Mimic supplementation experiments suggest that miRNA are taken up by the embryo and that extracellular miRNA affect embryonic development. Overall, identification of a rich extracellular milieu in conditioned media sets the framework for future studies to determine the long-term predictive ability of embryo-based miRNA biomarkers on pregnancy outcome. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  14. Effects of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum supplementing repair cultures on pre- and post-warm viability of biopsied bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsushima, Kenji; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Shimizu, Manabu; Okimura, Tomoko; Izaike, Yoshiaki

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA) or fetal calf serum (FCS) on the re-expansion of biopsied blastocysts and post-warm viability of subsequently vitrified embryos. Firstly, blastocysts produced in vitro were biopsied at Day 7 and cultured to allow repair in TCM199 with 0.3% BSA or 5% FCS for 24 h. The re-expansion rates and mean total numbers of cells of the re-expanded embryos after the repair culture with BSA were almost the same as that with FCS. Secondly, after biopsied embryos were similarly cultured for repair with BSA or FCS, re-expanded embryos were selected for vitrification. After warming and exposure to 0.5 M sucrose with 20% FCS in mPBS, the embryos were cultured in TCM199 with 5% FCS for 24 h. The re-expansion rate and mean total number of cells in re-expanded blastocysts in the BSA treatment group (97.4 +/- 2.9% and 106 +/- 42) was significantly higher than that in the FCS treatment group (51.6 +/- 9.1% and 61 +/- 38), respectively (Pbovine biopsied blastocysts; but, compared with BSA supplementation, FCS supplementation during repair culture reduces the post-warm viability of biopsied and subsequently vitrified embryos.

  15. Effects of vitrification medium composition on the survival of bovine in vitro produced embryos, following in straw-dilution, in vitro and in vivo following transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, P A; Tervit, H R; Niemann, H

    2000-02-28

    This study examined the effects of adding a macromolecule, polyvinylpyrrolidone (10% PVP) and a sugar (0.3 M trehalose) to vitrification solutions (VS) containing either one (40% ethylene glycol [EG], two (25% EG+25% DMSO) or three (20% EG+20% DMSO+10% 1, 3-butanediol [BD]) permeable cryoprotectants on the survival and hatching of IVP bovine embryos, following vitrification, warming and in-straw cryoprotectant dilution. Grade 1 and 2 compact morulae and blastocysts were selected on Day 7 (Day 0=IVF) of culture in SOFaaBSA and equilibrated for 10 min at room temperature in 10% EG. Following exposure, for up to 1 min at 4 degrees C, to one of the above VS (with or without PVP+trehalose), the embryos were loaded into straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following warming and in-straw cryoprotectant dilution, the embryos were cultured for 48 h to assess hatching. There was no effect of VS on the survival of embryos after 24 h, however fewer compact morulae than blastocysts survived after 24 h (24% vs. 75%; Pvitrification (fresh vs. vitrified; 1/5 [20%] vs. 3/18 [17]). These data demonstrate that a VS comprising three cryoprotectants, rather than one, enables more embryos to hatch during post-thaw culture and that the survival, following direct transfer of these vitrified embryos, is not different to non-vitrified embryos.

  16. Blocking connexin channels improves embryo development of vitrified bovine blastocysts

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Escribano, Nerea; Szymanska, Katarzyna; BOL, MELISSA; Vandenberghe, Lynn; Decrock, Elke; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Van den Abbeel, Etienne; Soom, Ann Van; Leybaert, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are required for normal embryo development and implantation. They form gap junctions (GJs) connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and hemichannels (HCs), which are normally closed but open in response to stress conditions. Excessive HC opening is detrimental for cell function and may lead to cell death. We found that hatching of in vitro-produced bovine embryos, matured in serum-containing conditions, was significantly improved when vitrification/warming was done in the pr...

  17. Supplementation of l-carnitine during in vitro maturation improves embryo development from less competent bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knitlova, Drahomira; Hulinska, Pavlina; Jeseta, Michal; Hanzalova, Katerina; Kempisty, Bartosz; Machatkova, Marie

    2017-10-15

    The present study was designed to define the impact of l-carnitine, supplemented during maturation, on bovine oocytes with different meiotic competence in terms of their IVF outcomes. Meiotically more competent (MMC) and less competent (MLC) oocytes were obtained separately from differently sized follicles at selected phases of folliculogenesis. The oocytes were matured with or without l-carnitine, fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage. The oocytes were examined for nuclear maturation, mitochondrial cluster formation, lipid consumption, fertilization and embryo development. The proportion of oocytes at metaphase II was significantly higher in the l-carnitine-treated MMC than that in the l-carnitine-treated MLC oocytes. However in comparison with the untreated controls, the proportion of MII oocytes with mitochondrial clusters was significantly higher only in the l-carnitine-treated MLC oocytes, which also showed a significantly lower mean lipid content. The l-carnitine-treated MLC oocytes showed significantly higher fertilization and syngamy rates than the untreated MLC oocytes. On the other hand, in the l-carnitine-treated MMC oocytes, the fertilization rate was similar to that of the untreated controls and the syngamy rate was significantly delayed. Although no significant differences in cleavage on Day 2 were found among all oocyte categories, l-carnitine treatment resulted in a significantly higher blastocyst yield in the MLC oocytes on Day 7 and Day 8 and a significantly higher proportion of expanded blastocysts in relation to the total number of blastocysts in MMC oocytes on Day 8. It can be concluded that l-carnitine supplementation during maturation improves the development of bovine embryos from meiotically less competent oocytes and accelerates blastocyst formation from more competent oocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ratio of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive nuclei to total cell number is higher in day 7 than in day 8 vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, M; Räty, M; Jauhiainen, L; Paranko, J; Raula, J; Makarevich, A

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to find a reliable functional criterion for the evaluation of the proliferation potential of bovine in vitro-produced embryos. We used immunocytochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) combined with propidium iodide (PI) staining and subsequent confocal laser scanning microscopy together with routine morphological evaluation under a stereomicroscope to study fresh Day 7, 8, and 9, and cryopreserved Day 7 and 8 embryos. The ratio of PCNA/PI-positive nuclei was equal in fresh Day 7 and Day 8 embryos and significantly lower in Day 9 embryos. In general, Day 7 embryos tolerated the cryopreservation treatments better than Day 8 embryos. Vitrification in normal straws was especially detrimental to Day 8 embryos. In fresh Day 7 and 8 embryos, the PCNA results were in agreement with stereomicroscopic evaluation. However, in Day 9 fresh and in Day 7 and 8 treated embryos, the missing PCNA revealed disorders that were not observed under morphological evaluation. PCNA immunocytochemistry is an effective method to obtain information about the functional state of nuclei. The ratio of PCNA-positive nuclei can provide more information and numerical data about the developmental potential of bovine embryos after cryopreservation.

  19. Cryosurvival of in vitro produced bovine embryos supplemented with l-Carnitine and concurrent reduction of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held-Hoelker, E; Klein, S L; Rings, F; Salilew-Wondim, D; Saeed-Zidane, M; Neuhoff, C; Tesfaye, D; Schellander, K; Hoelker, M

    2017-07-01

    Lipid accumulation is associated with reduced embryonic quality, causing limited survival after cryopreservation. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to reveal the effects of supplementation of a lipid reducing agent, l-carnitine and the removal of fatty acids during in vitro culture on the morphological as well as on the molecular level. To accomplish that, presumptive zygotes were cultured in 4 contrasting groups: namely SOFaa medium supplemented with BSA, (BSA), SOFaa medium supplemented with fatty acid free BSA (FAF), SOFaa medium supplemented with BSA as well as l-Carnitine (BSA + LC) and SOFaa medium concurrently supplemented with fatty acid free BSA and l-Carnitine (FAF + LC). Considering the developmental rates, no impact of different treatments was observed. Conversely, treatment groups clearly affected lipid content, with the lowest amounts detected in embryos derived from FAF and BSA + LC groups, implicating that both removal of fatty acids and supplementation of LC reduces lipid content effectively. Importantly, survival rates after cryopreservation show that LC significantly affects the kinetics of re-expansion, with the highest hatching rates detected for embryos cultured in FAF + LC (p < 0.05). Noteworthy, the highest cryotolerance did not go along with lowest lipid contents. Finally, metabolic alterations between the groups were reflected in different abundances of selected candidate genes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress response, like AMPKA1, ACC and PGC1 α or KEAP1 and SOD1. All in all, highly beneficial effects on survival rates after cryopreservation have been detected when embryos were cultured in absence of fatty acids and concurrent presence of l-Carnitine. Highest cryotolerance, however, did not correlate with lowest lipid contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  1. Effect of the cryopreservation method used, the embryonic stage and the use of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Simões Rafagnin Marinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA might be able to improve the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced (IVP embryos. The effect of two CLA isomers on the cryotolerance of bovine IVP embryos, as well as that of the stage of embryonic development and the method used for cryopreservation was evaluated by three experiments. In Experiment 1, oocytes (n = 3,917 were fertilized in vitro and cultured with 0, 50, 100, or 200 ?M trans-10, cis-12 (t10, c12 CLA. In Experiment 2, fertilized oocytes (n = 2,131 were cultured with 100 ?M t10, c12 or cis-9, trans-11 (c9, t11 CLA, or a combination of both isomers. The embryos were vitrified at the blastocyst (BL or the expanded blastocyst (EB stage. In Experiment 3, oocytes (n = 1,720 were fertilized and cultured with or without 100 ?M t10, c12 CLA, and the blastocysts were vitrified or frozen. Blastocyst development rate as well as the rates of re-expansion and hatching after thawing was recorded. Moreover, the mean cell number and mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 as well as fatty acid synthase (FASN multienzyme complex were determined. In Experiment 1, the highest concentration of t10, c12 CLA that did not reduce blastocyst development rate was 100 ?M. In Experiment 2, the rates of re-expansion and hatching among the EBs obtained through IVP after supplementation with t10, c12 CLA (73.1% and 57.7%, with c9, t11 CLA (80.0% and 68.6%, with the combination (78.3% and 52.2%, and with the control group (85.4% and 58.3% were similar. At the BL stage, the rates of re-expansion and hatching were lower than those at the EB stage, and CLA combination allowed a hatching rate (8.0% lower than that observed in the control group (40.0%. In Experiment 3, the hatching rates for vitrified EBs (vitrified control; 67.4% and vitrified CLA EBs (65.8% were higher than those obtained for frozen EBs, exposed (13.3% or not exposed (28.6% to CLA. In addition, in Experiment 3, the hatching rate was

  2. Maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes using the S-enantiomer of roscovitine: effects on maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryo development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Pilar; Romar, Raquel; Payton, Rebecca R; McCann, Lisa; Saxton, Arnold M; Edwards, J Lannett

    2005-01-01

    The overall objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the S-enantiomer of roscovitine (inhibitor of p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase) to maintain bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage for extended times after removal from antral follicles without compromising subsequent maturation, fertilization and embryo development. Oocytes were cultured in 0, 12.5, 25 or 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine for 24 h. Hoechst staining showed that 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine maintained >90% of oocytes at the GV stage and inhibited gonadotropin-induced cumulus expansion. Fewer oocytes underwent nuclear maturation after in vitro maturation (Hoechst staining) when cultured in 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine for 66 versus 21 or 42 h. Zona pellucida (ZP) hardening (pronase resistance), cortical granule types (lens culinaris agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate), nuclear maturation and fertilization with frozen-thawed spermatozoa (Hoechst staining) were assessed after culture of oocytes in 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine for 0, 24 or 48 h. Neither ZP hardening, nor nuclear maturation nor fertilization were altered by roscovitine culture for 48 h. A higher proportion of oocytes had a type III cortical granule pattern (premature translocation to the oolemma) after roscovitine culture for 48 h. However, embryo development was not compromised as cleavage, development to 8-16 cell and blastocyst stages were at least comparable in control and roscovitine-treated oocytes. In conclusion, the studies have shown that S-roscovitine reversibly maintained bovine oocytes at the GV stage for 48 h. However, maintenance of oocytes in static culture for 48 h was not sufficient to improve development above non-treated controls.

  3. Reduced levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and apoptotic status are not correlated with increases in cryotolerance of bovine embryos produced in vitro in the presence of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália A S; Leão, Beatriz C S; Nogueira, Ériklis; Accorsi, Mônica F; Mingoti, Gisele Z

    2014-01-01

    The effects of intracellular (cysteine and β-mercaptoethanol) and extracellular (catalase) antioxidant supplementation at different times during in vitro production (IVM and/or in vitro culture (IVC)) on bovine embryo development, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, apoptosis and re-expansion rates after a vitrification-thawing process were examined. Blastocyst frequencies were not affected by either antioxidant supplementation (40.5%-56.4%) or the timing of supplementation (41.7%-55.4%) compared with control (48.7%; P>0.05). Similarly, antioxidants and the moment of supplementation did not affect (P>0.05) the total number of blastomeres (86.2-90.5 and 84.4-90.5, respectively) compared with control (85.7). However, the percentage of apoptotic cells was reduced (P0.05) from that in the control group (1.00). Re-expansion rates were not affected (P>0.05) by the treatments (50.0%-93.0%). In conclusion, antioxidant supplementation during IVM and/or IVC reduces intracellular ROS and the rate of apoptosis; however, supplementation does not increase embryonic development and survival after vitrification.

  4. Effect of two activation treatments and age of blastomere karyoplasts on in vitro development of bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; Holm, P; Vajta, G

    2001-01-01

    .7 +/- 5.1 vs. 31.4 +/- 4.5 [mean +/- SEM]). In contrast, nuclear transfer blastocyst rates per fused embryo were lower (P rates using day 3, 4, and 5 donors and using CHX and DMAP activation treatments were 31.9 +/- 5.0, 31.7 +/- 6.2, 20.......4 +/- 7.3 and 27.8 +/- 4.7, 20.1 +/- 7.5, 12.7 +/- 8.3, respectively. Blastocyst rate per fused embryo was negatively correlated (P = 0.0091) with the total number of blastomeres per donor embryo. Despite this inverse relationship, the calculated potential blastocyst yield per donor embryo was positively...

  5. Developmental disparity between in vitro-produced and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine days 14 and 21 embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexopoulos, Natalie I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde

    2008-01-01

    , immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy to establish in vivo developmental milestones. Following morphological examination, samples were characterized for the presence of epiblast (POU5F1), mesoderm (VIM), and neuroectoderm (TUBB3). On D14, only 25, 15, and 7% of IVP, SUZI, and HMC embryos were...

  6. Effects of bovine oviduct epithelial cells, fetal calf serum and bovine serum albumin on gene expression in single bovine embryos produced in the synthetic oviduct fluid culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Øzdas, Øzen Banu; Farstad, Wenche; Tverdal, Aage; Olsaker, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    In this study the synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) system with bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) co-culture is compared with an SOF system with common protein supplements. One thousand six hundred bovine embryos were cultured in SOF media supplemented with BOEC, fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Eight different culture groups were assigned according to the different supplementation factors. Developmental competence and the expression levels of five genes, namely glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP), connexin43 (Cx43), (2)-actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), analysed as mRNA by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were measured on bovine embryos cultured for 9 days. Gene expression of these in vitro-produced embryos was compared with the gene expression of in vivo-produced embryos. There was no significant difference found in embryo developmental competence between the Day 9 embryos in BOEC co-culture, FCS and BSA supplements in SOF media. However, differences in gene expression were observed. With respect to gene expression in in vivo and in vitro embryos, BOEC co-culture affected the same genes as did supplementation with FCS and BSA. HSP was the only gene that differed significantly between in vitro and in vivo embryos. When the different in vitro groups were compared, a significant difference between the BOEC co-culture and the FCS supplementation groups due to Glut-1 expression was observed.

  7. Factors affecting survival rates of in vitro produced bovine embryos after vitrification and direct in-straw rehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajta, Gábor; Holm, Peter; Greve, Torben

    1996-01-01

    and developmental stage (Day 5 compacted morulae, Day 6 early blastocysts, Days 6 and 7 blastocysts, Day 7 expanded blastocysts and Day 8 hatched blastocysts) as well as Days 7 and 5 blastocysts previously subjected to partial zona dissection were vitrified. After thawing, the re-expansion rates of blastocysts...... and zona-dissected embryos did not differ (67 and 87%, respectively), and hatching was more frequent for blastocysts frozen in advanced developmental stages (34, 47 and 63% for early blastocysts, blastocysts and expanded blastocysts, respectively). The re-expansion rate of morulae was lower (10......%) and no hatching of these embryos was observed. In the second experiment, Day 7 expanded blastocysts were vitrified using PBS, PBS + albumin, TCM199 and TCM 199 + calf serum as holding media. No differences in re-expansion and hatching rates were seen. However, when incubation with the concentrated cryoprotectant...

  8. Analysis of the expression of putatively imprinted genes in bovine peri-implantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Alexopoulos, N.I.; Cooney, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    imprinted genes (Ata3, Dlk1, Gnas, Grb10, Magel2, Mest-1, Ndn and Sgce) in bovine peri-implantation embryos. Two embryonic developmental stages were examined, Day 14 and Day 21. The gene expression pattern of single embryos was recorded for in vivo, in vitro produced (IVP) and parthenogenetic embryos....... The IVP embryos allow us to estimate the effect of in vitro procedures and the analysis of parthenogenetic embryos provides provisional information on maternal genomic imprinting. Among the 8 genes investigated, only Mest-1 showed differential expression in Day 21 parthenogenetic embryos compared...... to in vivo and IVP counterparts, indicating maternal imprinting of this gene. In addition, our expression analysis of single embryos revealed a more heterogeneous gene expression in IVP than in in vivo developed embryos, adding further to the hypothesis of transcriptional dysregulation induced by in vitro...

  9. Effects of embryo-derived exosomes on the development of bovine cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengxiang; Qing, Suzhu; Liu, Ruiqi; Qin, Hongyu; Wang, Weiwei; Qiao, Fang; Ge, Hui; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Cui, Wei; Wang, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The developmental competence of in vitro cultured (IVC) embryos is markedly lower than that of their in vivo counterparts, suggesting the need for optimization of IVC protocols. Embryo culture medium is routinely replaced three days after initial culture in bovine, however, whether this protocol is superior to continuous nonrenewal culture method under current conditions remains unclear. Using bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos as the model, our results showed that compared with routine renewal treatment, nonrenewal culture system significantly improved blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality (increased total cell number, decreased stress and apoptosis, enhanced Oct-4 expression and ratio of ICM/TE), as well as following development to term. Existence and function of SCNT embryo-derived exosomes were then investigated to reveal the cause of impaired development induced by culture medium replacement. Exosomes were successfully isolated through differential centrifugation and identified by both electron microscopy and immunostaining against exosomal membrane marker CD9. Supplementation of extracted exosomes into freshly renewed medium significantly rescued not only blastocyst formation and quality (in vitro development), but also following growth to term (in vivo development). Notably, ratio of ICM/TE and calving rate were enhanced to a similar level as that in nonrenewal group. In conclusion, our results for the first time indicate that 1: bovine SCNT embryos can secrete exosomes into chemically defined culture medium during IVC; 2: secreted exosomes are essential for SCNT blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality, and following development to term; 3: removal of exosomes induced by culture medium replacement impairs SCNT embryo development, which can be avoided by nonrenewal culture procedure or markedly recovered by exosome supplementation.

  10. Microorganisms in cryopreserved semen and culture media used in the in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Dávila; Santos, Vanessa G; Braga, Patrícia A C; Ferreira, Christina R; Ballottin, Daniela; Tasic, Ljubica; Basso, Andréa C; Sanches, Bruno V; Pontes, José H F; da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Garboggini, Fabiana Fantinatti; Eberlin, Marcos N; Tata, Alessandra

    2013-09-01

    Commercial cattle breeders produce their own herd offspring for the dairy and beef market using artificial insemination. The procedure involves sanitary risks associated with the collection and commercialization of the germplasm, and the in vitro production and transfer of the bovine embryos must be monitored by strict health surveillance. To avoid the spreading of infectious diseases, one must rely on using controlled and monitored germplasm, media, and reagents that are guaranteed free of pathogens. In this article, we investigated the use of a new mass spectrometric approach for fast and accurate identification of bacteria and fungi in bovine semen and in culture media employed in the embryo in vitro production process. The microorganisms isolated from samples obtained in a commercial bovine embryo IVP setting were identified in a few minutes by their conserved peptide/protein profile, obtained applying matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), matched against a commercial database. The successful microorganisms MS identification has been confirmed by DNA amplification and sequencing. Therefore, the MS technique seems to offer a powerful tool for rapid and accurate microorganism identification in semen and culture media samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of reproductive biotechnology for the recovery of endangered breeds: birth of the first calf of Murciana-Levantina bovine breed derived by OPU, in vitro production and embryo vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S; Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, J; Astiz, S; Peinado, B; Almela, L; Poto, A

    2013-12-01

    In a conservation project, reproductive biotechnology was implemented for the recovery and conservation of an endangered bovine breed in Spain. The breed Murciana-Levantina, declared to be worthy of special protection status (http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2006/1000464/index.html), is of great interest because of its hardness, longevity, docility and disease resistance. This contribution describes the birth of the first calf of this breed obtained by reproductive biotechnology, using ultrasound-guided punction and aspiration of ovarian follicles, in vitro embryo production, vitrification of embryos by a cryotop device and, finally, the transfer of cryopreserved embryos to recipient heifers of a commercial dairy herd. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Nucleolar changes in bovine nucleotransferred embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, V; Vignon, X; LeBourhis, D; Renard, J P; Fléchon, J E

    2002-02-01

    This study focused on nucleolar changes in bovine embryos reconstructed from enucleated mature oocytes fused with blastomeres of morulae or with cultured, serum unstarved bovine fetal skin fibroblasts (embryonic vs. somatic cloning). The nucleotransferred (NT) embryos were collected and fixed at time intervals of 1-2 h (early 1-cell stage), 10-15 h (late 1-cell stage), 22-24 h (2-cell stage), 37-38 h (4-cell stage), 40-41 h (early 8-cell stage), 47-48 h (late 8-cell stage), and 55 h (16-cell stage) after fusion. Immunocytochemistry by light and electron microscopy was used for structure-function characterization of nucleolar components. Antibodies against RNA, protein B23, protein C23, and fibrillarin were applied. In addition, DNA was localized by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) technique, and the functional organization of chromatin was determined with the nick-translation immunogold approach. The results show that fully reticulated (active) nucleoli observed in donor cells immediately before fusion as well as in the early 1-cell stage after fusion were progressively transformed into nucleolar bodies displaying decreasing numbers of vacuoles from the 2- to 4-cell stage in both types of reconstructed embryos. At the late 8-cell stage, morphological signs of resuming nucleolar activity were detected. Numerous new small vacuoles appeared, and chromatin blocks reassociated with the nucleolar body. During this period, nick-translation technique revealed numerous active DNA sites in the periphery of chromatin blocks associated with the nucleolar body. Fully reticulated nucleoli were again observed as early as the 16-cell stage of embryonic cloned embryos. In comparison, the embryos obtained by fetal cloning displayed a lower tendency to develop, mainly during the first cell cycle and during the period of presumed reactivation. Correlatively, the changes in nucleolar morphology (desegregation and rebuilding) were at least delayed in many somatic NT

  13. Efeito de diferentes meios de cultivo no desenvolvimento e proporção do sexo de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro Effect of different culture media on development and sex ratio of bovine embryos fertilized in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G.T. Gilardi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de meios de cultivo sobre o desenvolvimento e proporção do sexo de embriões bovinos fertilizados in vitro. Complexos cumulus-oócitos obtidos de ovários de matadouro foram maturados e fertilizados in vitro. Os zigotos (n= 484 foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em meio CR2aa, contendo soro fetal bovino (SFB (T1, albumina sérica bovina (BSA (T2 ou BSA mais insulina:transferrina:selênio e vitaminas (BSA+ (T3, no cultivo embrionário in vitro, a uma atmosfera de 5% CO2 a 38,8ºC em ar. A taxa de clivagem foi observada 72-76 horas pós-fertilização (PF e a taxa de blastocistos com sete e oito dias PF. Os blastocistos (n= 63 foram sexados pela técnica de reação em cadeia de polimerase. A taxa de clivagem em T2 foi maior (P0,05 entre T2 e T3, porém menor (P0,05 entre os tratamentos. O T1 influenciou o desenvolvimento de blastocistos, mas não teve efeito sobre a proporção do sexo.The effect of culture media on the development and on the sex ratio of bovine embryos fertilized in vitro was studied. Cumulus oocyte-complexes from slaughterhouse ovaries were matured and fertilized in vitro. Zygotes (n= 484 were randomly allotted to different culture media and cultured with their cumulus cells in CR2aa medium and an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 38.8ºC. The fetal calf serum (FCS, bovine seric albumin (BSA or BSA plus insulin:transferrin:selenium and vitamins (BSA+ supplementation effect on embryo culture was evaluated. Cleavage rate was assessed at 72-76h post-fertilization (PF and blastocyst rate on days 7 and 8 PF. The blastocysts (n= 63 were also sexed using polymerase chain reaction. Cleavage rate for BSA medium supplemented was higher (P0.05, but lower (P<0.01 than FCS. Culture medium FCS supplemented affected blastocyst development but not the sex ratio.

  14. Post-hatching development of the porcine and bovine embryo-defining criteria for expected development in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlsted, Morten; Du, Yutao; Vajta, Gábor

    2006-01-01

    Particular attention has been paid to the pre-hatching period of embryonic development although blastocyst development is a poor indicator of embryo viability. Post-hatching embryonic dev elopment in vitro would allow for establishment of more accurate tools for evaluating developmental potential...... without the need for transfer to recipient animals. Such a system would require (1) definition of milestones of expected post-hatching embryonic development in vivo; and (2) development of adequate culture systems. We propose a stereomicroscopical staging system for post-hatching embryos defining...

  15. Preimplantation bovine embryos: Pathobiology of Haemophilus somnus exposure and resistance mechanisms to vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Preimplantation bovine embryos were exposed in vitro to H. somnus to determine if the bacteria would adhere to zona pellucida-intact (ZP-I) embryos or adhere to or infect ZP-free embryos. The effect of H. somnus on embryonic development in vitro was also investigated. Electrophoretic comparisons of outer membrane proteins of H. somnus revealed 2 major protein bands common to 10 H. somnus isolates. A monoclonal antibody produced against the outer membrane proteins reacted to one of the major protein bands. The sensitivity of a nucleic acid probe for detection of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was validated in cells in culture and used to determine if the synthetic double-stranded complex of polyriboinosinic and polyribocytidylic acids (poly I:C) would induce viral resistance in cultured bovine embryos. Two {sup 32}P-nick translated probes of high specific activity prepared from plasmids containing nucleic acid sequences of VSV virus were employed for viral mRNA detection in the tissue culture cells using a DNA-hybridization dot-blot technique. Using one of the probes, the technique was applied to detect differences in viral replication between four groups of bovine embryos (nonexposed, exposed to VSV virus, poly I:C-treated, and poly I:C-treated and exposed to VSV). The nucleic acid probe was sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in quantities of VSV mRNA among embryo treatment groups, resulting in the demonstration that resistance to viral infection was induced in day 9 bovine embryos.

  16. Evaluation of the Cryotech Vitrification Kit for bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnisky, C; Alvarez, G M; Cetica, P D; Dalvit, G C

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess commercially available Cryotech Vitrification Kit, in terms of survival, in vitro development and pregnancy rate for bovine embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from ovaries obtained from slaughtered cows and then matured in vitro for 22 h. COCs were fertilized by sex-sorted sperm in IVF-mSOF and cultured in IVC-mSOF for 7 days to the blastocyst stage. Blastocysts were vitrified with the Cryotech Vitrification Kit(®) and then either warmed to check viability or transferred to synchronized heifers. We observed 100% survival of the in vitro produced blastocysts and obtained the same pregnancy rate (46.8%) as that obtained using fresh in vitro produced blastocysts. We thus conclude that the Cryotech vitrification method is a valid alternative to other vitrification or slow-cooling methods in the bovine species and that it is ready for livestock production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in cumulus cell gene expression indicate the benefit of a pre-maturation step to improve in-vitro bovine embryo production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieci, Cecilia; Lodde, Valentina; Labreque, Rémi; Dufort, Isabelle; Tessaro, Irene; Sirard, Marc-André; Luciano, Alberto M

    2016-12-01

    Does the gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC) accompanying oocytes with different degrees of chromatin compaction within the germinal vesicle (GV) reflect the oocyte's quality and response in culture during in-vitro embryo production (IVP). The transcriptomic profile of the CC is related to oocyte competence, setting the stage for the development of customized pre-maturation strategies to improve IVP. Oocytes complete the acquisition of their competence during antral follicle development. During this period, the chromatin configuration within the GV changes dynamically and is indicative of oocyte's developmental potential. The interactions between somatic and germ cells modulate chromatin morphology and function and are critical for acquisition of oocyte competence. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were isolated from 0.5 to 6 mm antral follicles. Surrounding CC were separated from the oocyte and classified as GV0, GV1, GV2 and GV3 according to the degree of the oocyte's chromatin compaction. RNA extracted from CC of each group was amplified and hybridized on a bovine embryo-specific 44 K Agilent slide. The CC_GV1, CC_GV2 and CC_GV3 classes were each hybridized against the CC_GV0 class, representing an early oocyte differentiation stage with poor development competence. The data were normalized and fold changes of the differentially expressed genes were determined. Microarray data were validated using quantitative RT-PCR on selected targets. Microarray data were further analyzed through: (i) between-group analysis (BGA), which classifies the samples according to their transcriptomic profiles; (ii) cluster analysis according to the expression profile of each gene; and (iii) Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to study gene regulation patterns and predicted functions. Furthermore, CC of each GV group were cultured and apoptotic cells were assessed after 3 h by caspase analysis. Finally, based on the analysis of CC transcriptomic profiles and the

  18. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Patterns of Bovine Blastocysts Developed In Vivo from Embryos Completed Different Stages of Development In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available Early embryonic loss and altered gene expression in in vitro produced blastocysts are believed to be partly caused by aberrant DNA methylation. However, specific embryonic stage which is sensitive to in vitro culture conditions to alter the DNA methylation profile of the resulting blastocysts remained unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the stage specific effect of in vitro culture environment on the DNA methylation response of the resulting blastocysts. For this, embryos cultured in vitro until zygote (ZY, 4-cell (4C or 16-cell (16C were transferred to recipients and the blastocysts were recovery at day 7 of the estrous cycle. Another embryo group was cultured in vitro until blastocyst stage (IVP. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of ZY, 4C, 16C and IVP blastocyst groups were then determined with reference to blastocysts developed completely under in vivo condition (VO using EmbryoGENE DNA Methylation Array. To assess the contribution of methylation changes on gene expression patterns, the DNA methylation data was superimposed to the transcriptome profile data. The degree of DNA methylation dysregulation in the promoter and/or gene body regions of the resulting blastocysts was correlated with successive stages of development the embryos advanced under in vitro culture before transfer to the in vivo condition. Genomic enrichment analysis revealed that in 4C and 16C blastocyst groups, hypermethylated loci were outpacing the hypomethylated ones in intronic, exonic, promoter and proximal promoter regions, whereas the reverse was observed in ZY blastocyst group. However, in the IVP group, as much hypermethylated as hypomethylated probes were detected in gene body and promoter regions. In addition, gene ontology analysis indicated that differentially methylated regions were found to affected several biological functions including ATP binding in the ZY group, programmed cell death in the 4C, glycolysis in 16C and genetic

  19. Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is initiated in the third cell cycle of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anne Sørig; Avery, Birthe; Dieleman, Steph J.

    2006-01-01

    Transcription from the embryos own ribosomal genes is initiated in most species at the same time as the maternal-embryonic transition. Recently data have indicated that a minor activation may take place during the third embryonic cell cycle in the bovine, one cell cycle before the major activation...... bovine embryos were investigated to allow comparison of transcription initiation. Signs of active transcription of rRNA were observed in the third cell cycle in 29% of the in vitro produced embryos (n=35) and in 58% of the in vivo developed embryos (n=11). Signs of active transcription of rRNA were...... not apparent in the early phase of the fourth cell cycle but restarted later on. All embryos in the fifth or later cell cycles were all transcribing rRNA. The signs of rRNA synthesis during the third and fourth embryonic cell cycles could be blocked by actinomycin D, which is a strong inhibitor of RNA...

  20. Expression of microRNAs in bovine and human pre-implantation embryo culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Salih, Sana M.; Khatib, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short non-coding RNAs which act to regulate expression of genes driving numerous cellular processes. These RNAs are secreted within exosomes from cells into the extracellular environment where they may act as signaling molecules. In addition, they are relatively stable and are specifically expressed in association to certain cancers making them strong candidates as biological markers. Moreover, miRNAs have been detected in body fluids including urine, milk, saliva, semen, and blood plasma. However, it is unknown whether they are secreted by embryonic cells into the culture media. Given that miRNAs are expressed throughout embryonic cellular divisions and embryonic genome activation, we hypothesized that they are secreted from the embryo into the extracellular environment and may play a role in the developmental competence of bovine embryos. To test this hypothesis, bovine embryos were cultured individually from day 5 to day 8 of development in an in vitro fertilization system and gene expression of 5 miRNAs was analyzed in both embryos and culture media. Differential miRNA gene expression was observed between embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and those that failed to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage, deemed degenerate embryos. MiR-25, miR-302c, miR-196a2, and miR-181a expression was found to be higher in degenerate embryos compared to blastocyst embryos. Interestingly, these miRNAs were also found to be expressed in the culture media of both bovine and human pre-implantation embryos. Overall, our results show for the first time that miRNAs are secreted from pre-implantation embryos into culture media and that miRNA expression may correlate with developmental competence of the embryo. Expression of miRNAs in in vitro culture media could allow for the development of biological markers for selection of better quality embryos and for subsequent successful pregnancy. PMID:24795753

  1. Expression of microRNAs in bovine and human pre-implantation embryo culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna eKropp

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA are short non-coding RNAs which act to regulate expression of genes driving numerous cellular processes. These RNAs are secreted within exosomes from cells into the extracellular environment where they may act as signaling molecules. In addition, they are relatively stable and are specifically expressed in association to certain cancers making them strong candidates as biological markers. Moreover, miRNAs have been detected in body fluids including urine, milk, saliva, semen, and blood plasma. However, it is unknown whether they are secreted by embryonic cells into the culture media. Given that miRNAs are expressed throughout embryonic cellular divisions and embryonic genome activation, we hypothesized that they are secreted from the embryo into the extracellular environment and may play a role in the developmental competence of bovine embryos. To test this hypothesis, bovine embryos were cultured individually from day 5 to day 8 of development in an in vitro fertilization system and gene expression of 5 miRNAs was analyzed in both embryos and culture media. Differential miRNA gene expression was observed between embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and those that failed to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage, deemed degenerate embryos. MiR-25, mir-302c, miR-196a2, and miR-181a expression was found to be higher in degenerate embryos compared to blastocyst embryos. Interestingly, these miRNAs were also found to be expressed in the culture media of both bovine and human pre-implantation embryos. Overall, our results show for the first time that miRNAs are secreted from pre-implantation embryos into culture media and that miRNA expression may correlate with developmental competence of the embryo. Expression of miRNAs in in vitro culture media could allow for the development of biological markers for selection of better quality embryos and for subsequent successful pregnancy.

  2. In-straw cryoprotectant dilution for bovine embryos vitrified using Cryotop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Hirai, Tomokazu; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Yamanouchi, Tadayuki; Misumi, Koji; Ohtake, Masaki; Somfai, Tamas; Kobayashi, Shuji; Saito, Norio; Matoba, Satoko; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in-straw dilution method suitable for 1-step bovine embryo transfer of vitrified embryos using the Cryotop vitrification-straw dilution (CVSD) method. The development of embryos vitrified using the CVSD method was compared with those of embryos cryopreserved using in-straw vitrification-dilution (ISVD) and conventional slow freezing, outside dilution of straw (SFODS) methods. In Experiment 1, in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos cryopreserved using the CVSD method were diluted, warmed and exposed to the dilution solution at various times. When vitrified IVP embryos were exposed to the dilution solution for 30 min after warming, the rates of embryos developing to the hatched blastocyst stage after 72 h of culture (62.0-72.5%) were significantly lower (Pembryos exposed to the solution for 5 and 10 min (82.4-94.3%), irrespective of supplementation with 0.3 M sucrose in the dilution solution. In Experiment 2, the rate of embryos developing to the hatching blastocyst stage after 48 h of culture in IVP embryos cryopreserved using the SFODS method (75.0%) was significantly (Pembryos cryopreserved using the CVSD and ISVD methods (93.2 and 97.3%, respectively). In Experiment 3, when in vivo-produced embryos that had been cryopreserved using the CVSD, ISVD and SFODS methods and fresh embryos were transferred to recipient animals, no significant differences were observed in the conception and delivery rates among groups. In Experiment 4, when IVP embryos derived from oocytes collected by ovum pick-up that had been cryopreserved using the CVSD and ISVD methods and fresh embryos were transferred to recipient animals, no significant differences were observed in the conception rates among groups. Our results indicate that this simplified regimen of warming and diluting Cryotop-vitrified embryos may enable 1-step bovine embryo transfer without the requirement of a microscope or other laboratory equipment.

  3. Influence of antral follicle size on oocyte characteristics and embryo development in the bovine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lequarre, Anne Sophie; Vigneron, Céline; Ribaucour, Fabrice

    2005-01-01

    The developmental competence of bovine oocytes isolated from antral follicles of different sizes was assessed in three European laboratories (Belgium, UCL; Denmark, DIAS; France, INRA). Using the same protocol for in vitro production of embryos, the oocytes isolated from follicles with a diameter...... ≥6 mm always gave a higher blastocyst rate than oocytes from follicles...

  4. Preimplantation death of xenomitochondrial mouse embryo harbouring bovine mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Manabu; Koyama, Shiori; Iimura, Satomi; Yamazaki, Wataru; Tanaka, Aiko; Kohri, Nanami; Sasaki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria, cellular organelles playing essential roles in eukaryotic cell metabolism, are thought to have evolved from bacteria. The organization of mtDNA is remarkably uniform across species, reflecting its vital and conserved role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Our objectives were to evaluate the compatibility of xenogeneic mitochondria in the development of preimplantation embryos in mammals. Mouse embryos harbouring bovine mitochondria (mtB-M embryos) were prepared by the cell-fusion technique employing the haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). The mtB-M embryos showed developmental delay at embryonic days (E) 3.5 after insemination. Furthermore, none of the mtB-M embryos could implant into the maternal uterus after embryo transfer, whereas control mouse embryos into which mitochondria from another mouse had been transferred developed as well as did non-manipulated embryos. When we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) of mouse and bovine ND5, we found that the mtB-M embryos contained 8.3% of bovine mitochondria at the blastocyst stage. Thus, contamination with mitochondria from another species induces embryonic lethality prior to implantation into the maternal uterus. The heteroplasmic state of these xenogeneic mitochondria could have detrimental effects on preimplantation development, leading to preservation of species-specific mitochondrial integrity in mammals. PMID:26416548

  5. Studies of In Vitro Embryo Culture of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LiLi; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-09-01

    Different with other fishes, the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is ovoviviparity, which retain their fertilized eggs within the follicle throughout gestation. The synchronously growing diplotene oocytes store nutrients in droplets and yolk, before their maturation and fertilization. The lecithotrophic strategy of development entails the provisioning of embryos with resources from the maternal yolk deposit rather than from a placenta, it allows the extracorporeal culture of guppy embryo. Studies on their early development of live bearers like the guppy including lineage tracing and genetic manipulations, have been limited. Therefore, to optimize conditions of embryo in vitro culture, explanted embryos from pregnant females were incubated in embryo medium (L-15 medium, supplemented with 5, 10, 15, 20% fetal bovine serum, respectively). We investigated whether the contents of FBS in vitro culture medium impact the development of embryos, and whether they would hatch in vitro. Our study found that in 5% of FBS of the medium, although embryos developed significantly slower in vitro than in the ovary, it was impossible to exactly quantify the developmental delay in culture, due to the obvious spread in developmental stage within each batch of eggs, and embryos can only be maintained until the early-eyed. And although in culture with 20% FBS the embryos can sustain rapid development of early stage, but cannot be cultured for the entire period of their embryonic development and ultimately died. In the medium with 10% and 15% FBS, the embryos seems well developed, even some can continue to grow after follicle ruptures until it can be fed. We also observed that embryonic in these two culture conditions were significantly different in development speed, in 15% it is faster than 10%. But 10% FBS appears to be more optimizing condition than 15% one on development process of embryos and survival rate to larvae stage.

  6. Influence of recipient cytoplasm cell stage on transcription in bovine nucleus transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Steven D.; Soloy, Eva; Kanka, Jiri

    1996-01-01

    Nucleus transfer for the production of multiple embryos derived from a donor embryo relies upon the reprogramming of the donor nucleus so that it behaves similar to a zygotic nucleus. One indication of nucleus reprogramming is the RNA synthetic activity. In normal bovine embryogenesis, the embryo...... relies upon maternally derived RNA transcripts up to the 8-cell stage, at which time it begins to transcribe its own RNA. In this experiment, RNA synthesis was detected in nucleus transfer embryos (NTE) and control embryos by pulsing with 3H-uridine, fixation, and autoradiography on semithin sections....... NTE were produced using either a MII phase (nonactivated) cytoplasts at 32 hr of maturation or S-phase (activated) cytoplasts activated with calcium ionophore A23187 and cycloheximide treatment approximately 8 hr prior to fusion with a blastomere from an in-vitro-produced morula stage embryo at 32 hr...

  7. Purification of binder of sperm protein 1 (BSP1) and its effects on bovine in vitro embryo development after fertilization with ejaculated and epididymal sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villamil, P; Hoyos-Marulanda, V; Martins, J A M; Oliveira, A N; Aguiar, L H; Moreno, F B; Velho, A L M C S; Monteiro-Moreira, A C; Moreira, R A; Vasconcelos, I M; Bertolini, M; Moura, A A

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated functional aspects of binder of sperm 1 (BSP1) in the bovine species. In a first experiment, cumulus-oocyte complexes (n = 1274) were incubated with frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm (18 hours) in Fert-TALP medium containing: heparin, 10, 20, or 40 μg/mL BSP1. Heparin followed by gelatin affinity chromatography was used for purification of BSP1 from bovine seminal vesicle fluid. With ejaculated sperm, cleavage rates were similar when Fert-TALP medium was incubated with heparin (74.1 ± 2.7%), 10 μg/mL BSP1 (77.8 ± 3.1%), or 20 μg/mL BSP1 (74 ± 2.0%). Day-7 blastocyst rates were equivalent after incubations with heparin (40.8 ± 5.0%) and 10 μg/mL BSP1 (34.1 ± 4.4%), but reduced after 20 μg/mL BSP1 (22.4 ± 2.9%) and 40 μg/mL BSP1 (19.3 ± 4.1%; P epididymal sperm (18 hours) in Fert-TALP medium containing: no heparin, heparin, 10, 20, or 40 μg/mL. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were similar after treatments with heparin (68.5 ± 1.3% and 24.7 ± 3.2%, respectively) or without heparin (65.5 ± 1.8% and 27.3 ± 1.6%, respectively). Cleavage was higher after treatment with any BSP1 concentrations (74.2 ± 2.7%-79.0 ± 1.1%) than without heparin (P epididymal sperm, as observed with ejaculated sperm. On the basis of immunocytochemistry, there was BSP1 binding to frozen-thawed ejaculated but not to epididymal sperm. Also, anti-BSP1 reaction remained on ejaculated sperm (as expected) and appeared on epididymal sperm after incubation with purified BSP1. Acrosome reaction of ejaculated and epididymal sperm was induced after incubation with purified BSP1 as well, indicating an effect of BSP1 on capacitation. In conclusion, purified BSP1 from bull seminal vesicles was able to bind to and induce capacitation of ejaculated and epididymal sperm. Also, BSP1 added to fertilization media and allowed proper cleavage and embryo development, with the effects being modulated by previous exposure or not of spermatozoa to seminal plasma. Copyright

  8. In vivo and in vitro development of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii interspecific cloned embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua SU,Lei CHENG,Yu GAO,Kun LIU,Zhuying WEI,Chunling BAI,Fengxia YIN,Li GAO,Guangpeng LI,Shorgan BOU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan antelope is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, China, and is now considered an endangered species. As a possible rescue strategy, the development of embryos constructed by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT was examined. Tibetan antelope fibroblast cells were transferred into enucleated bovine, ovine and caprine oocytes. These cloned embryos were then cultured in vitro or in the oviducts of intermediate animals. Less than 0.5% of the reconstructed antelope-bovine embryos cultured in vitro developed to the blastocyst stage. However, when the cloned antelope-bovine embryos were transferred to caprine oviducts, about 1.6% of the embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. In contrast, only 0.7% of the antelope-ovine embryos developed to the morula stage and none developed to blastocysts in ovine oviducts. The treatment of donor cells and bovine oocytes with trichostatin A did not improve the embryo development even when cultured in the oviducts of ovine and caprine. When the antelope-bovine embryos, constructed from oocytes treated with roscovitine or trichostatin A, were cultured in rabbit oviducts 2.3% and 14.3% developed to blastocysts, respectively. It is concluded that although some success was achieved with the protocols used, interspecies cloning of Tibetan antelope presents difficulties still to be overcome. The mechanisms resulting in the low embryo development need investigation and progress might require a deeper understanding of cellular reprogramming.

  9. Efeito do transporte no desenvolvimento de embriões bovinos cultivados in vitro a fresco ou reaquecidos após vitrificação Effect of transportation on development of fresh or vitrified-warmed bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Almeida Ramos

    2006-12-01

    bovine embryos, fresh or warmed, after submitted to different periods of transportation (6h-12h. Oocytes obtained from ovaries collected from slaughterhouse were matured, fertilized and cultured in vitro. After seven days, grades I and II blastocysts (according to IETS manual were selected and vitrified after exposition to PBS solution with 5% fetal calf serum (HM, added with 10% ethylene glycol (EG and 10% of dymetil sulfoxide (DMSO, for one minute, followed by HM solution with 20% EG and 20% DMSO, for 20 seconds. Embryos were loaded into open pulled straws (OPS and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Warming was performed at 39ºC by embryo exposure to decreasing concentration of sucrose (0.25 and 0.15M, for five minutes in each step. The warmed embryos were distributed in three groups: V0: in vitro cultured after warmed; V6: embryos loaded into straws and kept for 6 hours at 35ºC, before in vitro culture; and V12: embryos loaded into straws and kept for 12 hours at 35ºC, before in vitro culture. Each group was evaluated by control groups of fresh embryos (C0, C6 and C12, respectively. The embryos were co-cultured with cumulus cells in TCM-199 micro droplets added with SFB. Re-expansion and hatching rates after 48 hours in culture were evaluated and results were compared by the Chi-square test. Re-expanded rates among groups V0, V6 and V12 as well as hatching rates among vitrified groups and among control groups did not differ. However, hatching rates were different between vitrified groups and their respective controls. The satisfactory rates of hatching suggest that it is possible to transport warmed and fresh in vitro produced embryos for periods up to 12 hours.

  10. Proteome analysis of early lineage specification in bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demant, Myriam; Deutsch, Daniela R; Fröhlich, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J

    2015-02-01

    During mammalian embryo development, the zygote undergoes embryonic cleavage in the oviduct and reaches the uterus at the morula stage, when compaction and early lineage specification take place. To increase knowledge about the associated changes of the embryonic protein repertoire, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of in vitro produced bovine morulae and blastocysts (six biological replicates), using an iTRAQ-based approach. A total of 560 proteins were identified of which 502 were quantified. The abundance of 140 proteins was significantly different between morulae and blastocysts, among them nucleophosmin (NPM1), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (EIF5A), receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (GNB2L1/RACK1), and annexin A6 (ANXA6) with increased, and glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (GSTM3), peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), and aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) with decreased abundance in blastocysts. Seventy-three percent of abundance altered proteins increased, reflecting an increase of translation activity in this period. This is further supported by an increase in the abundance of proteins involved in the translation machinery and the synthesis of ATP. Additionally, a complementary 2D saturation DIGE analysis led to the detection of protein isoforms, e.g. of GSTM3 and PRDX2, relevant for this period of mammalian development, and exemplarily verified the results of the iTRAQ approach. In summary, our systematic differential proteome analysis of bovine morulae and blastocysts revealed new molecular correlates of early lineage specification and differentiation events during bovine embryogenesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Falha na sexagem por inibição do desenvolvimento de embri��es bovinos produzidos in vitro com anticorpos anti H-Y Failure of sexing by developmental arrest of bovine embryos in vitro produced with H-Y antisera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Resende

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro, em estádio de mórula, foram cultivados em meio contendo anticorpos anti H-Y de alto título proveniente de ratos por 24h e, após este tempo, classificados em dois grupos: 1 embriões inibidos em estádio de mórula (classificados como machos e 2 embriões que se desenvolveram e formaram a blastocele (classificados como fêmeas. O sexo de 311 embriões, distribuídos em três grupos de concentração dos anticorpos, 3%, 5% ou 7%, foi identificado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase. Não houve desvio da proporção entre machos e fêmeas (P>0,05 nos grupos em que se utilizaram os anticorpos anti H-Y, quando comparadas ao grupo-controle, sem adição de anticorpos anti H-Y. Diferentemente dos resultados obtidos utilizando-se embriões bovinos produzidos in vivo, a sexagem com anticorpos anti H-Y de alto título em embriões produzidos in vitro não propiciou sucesso.In vitro produced bovine embryos at morula stage were cultured in medium containing high titer of rat H-Y antisera for 24h. The embryos were classified in two groups: 1 embryos arrested at morula stage (classified as males; and 2 embryos that developed and formed a blastocoele (classified as female. The sex of 311 embryos, divided in three groups of concentration of H-Y antisera, 3%, 5% or 7%, was identified by polimerase chain reaction. The results showed no difference (P>0.05 on sexual deviation in groups in which the H-Y antisera was added, in relation to control group, in which no H-Y antisera was added. In contrast with results obtained with in vivo produced bovine embryos, the sexing of in vitro produced bovine embryos with high H-Y antisera titer did not succed.

  12. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    (nonactivated) or S phase (activated) cytoplasts. Control embryos were fixed at the two-, four-, early eight- and late eight-cell stages; nuclear transfer embryos were fixed at 1 and 3 hr post fusion and at the two-, four-, and eight-cell stages. Control embryos possessed a nucleolar precursor body throughout...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  13. High survival and hatching rates following vitrification of embryos at blastocyst stage: a bovine model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Y J; Chung, Jin-Tae; Tan, Seang Lin; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2007-04-01

    Cryopreservation of embryos at the blastocyst stage may provide an effective method to increase the cumulative pregnancy rate for each treatment cycle of ovarian-stimulated IVF. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and hatching rate of bovine blastocysts following vitrification using a method designed for oocytes, with a view to introducing this methodology into human assisted reproduction technology and reproductive medicine. Bovine blastocysts were produced from abattoir materials subjected to in-vitro maturation and in-vitro fertilization. Survival rate of the bovine blastocysts was 100% (94/94) following vitrification using a method designed for oocyte cryopreservation. There was no difference in the hatching rate of the bovine blastocysts between control (62.5%: 60/96) and vitrified (61.7%: 58/94) groups. The number of dead cells in the blastocysts was not significantly different between control (5.0 +/- 2.9) and vitrified (9.5 +/- 4.0) groups. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that bovine blastocysts can be vitrified successfully using a procedure designed for oocyte cryopreservation. It is possible that this method may also be successful for the cryopreservation of human embryos. A further study into this is currently being organized.

  14. A three-dimensional culture system using alginate hydrogel prolongs hatched cattle embryo development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Gao, Hui; Wu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Shuai-Shuai; Li, Ming-Jie; Bai, Jia-Hua; Liu, Yan; Evans, Alexander; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2015-07-15

    No successful method exists to maintain the three-dimensional architecture of hatched embryos in vitro. Alginate, a linear polysaccharide derived from brown algae, has characteristics that make it an ideal material as a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix for in vitro cell, tissue, or embryo culture. In this study, alginate hydrogel was used for IVC of posthatched bovine embryos to observe their development under the 3D system. In vitro-fertilized and parthenogenetically activated posthatched bovine blastocysts were cultured in an alginate encapsulation culture system (AECS), an alginate overlay culture system (AOCS), or control culture system. After 18 days of culture, the survival rate of embryos cultured in AECS was higher than that in the control group (P cultured in the normal culture system, 9.09% of them attached to the bottoms of the plastic wells and grew rapidly, with the largest area of an attached embryo being 66.00 mm(2) on Day 32. The embryos cultured in AOCS developed monovesicular or multivesicular morphologies. Total cell number of the embryos cultured in AECS on Day 19 was significantly higher than that of embryos on Day 8. Additionally, AECS and AOCS supported differentiation of the embryonic cells. Binuclear cells were visible in Day-26 adherent embryos, and the messenger RNA expression patterns of Cdx2 and Oct4 in AOCS-cultured embryos were similar to those in vivo embryos, whereas IFNT and ISG15 messenger RNA were still expressed in Day-26 and Day-32 prolong-cultured embryos. In conclusion, AECS and AOCS did support cell proliferation, elongation, and differentiation of hatched bovine embryos during prolonged IVC. The culture system will be useful to further investigate the molecular mechanisms controlling ruminant embryo elongation and implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo versus in vitro produced bovine ova: similarities and differences relevant for practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter; Callesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    - Abstract This present review describes some differences and similarities between bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro. The first part outlines the respective environments during maturation, fertilisation and early embryonic development of the two types of embryos and compares their mor-...

  16. Relation between physical properties of the zona pellucida and viability of bovine embryos after slow-freezing and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, F; Metelo, R

    2005-06-01

    In vitro-produced bovine morulae/blastocyst embryos (n = 119) were slow-frozen and vitrified and the physical alterations of the zona pellucida (ZP) was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to find an explanation for the loss of developmental capacity of the embryos after freezing/thawing. A control group was provided, in which embryos (n = 38) were neither frozen nor vitrified. Embryos were in vitro-cultured in a standard CO2 Heraeus incubator and their viability was assessed 24 and 48 h after the start of culture, evaluating their morphological aspect. After 24 h of culture, embryo survival rate for slow-freezing/thawed (n = 23), vitrified/thawed (n = 20) and control embryos (n = 20) was 39, 27 and 90%, and 35, 14 and 65% after 48 h of culture, respectively. For evaluation of physical changes occurring in ZP, 20 embryos were slow-frozen, 18 were vitrified and 18 were used as control. All embryos were fixed, dried and examined under an SEM. Embryo's diameter, as well as the number of pores and their diameter was measured in squares of 6.4 microm width. We observed that, on average, the diameter of the embryos (92.26 +/- 10.15 microm) did not differ significantly among all embryos. As far as the diameter of the pores in the outer surface of the ZP is concerned, the results revealed a significant difference (P embryos. For the number of pores, statistical differences (p embryos (45.4 +/- 7.3 vs 38.2 +/- 8.2). It is possible that ZP functions as a barrier which is positive when dealing with pathogens, but is harmful when nutrients were supplied from the outside, especially at 48 h of culture. Results indicate that the steps of cryopreservation cause alterations in ZP, with irreversible damage on the further developmental competence of bovine embryos.

  17. Nucleolar development and allocation of key nucleolar proteins require de novo transcription in bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarcova, Olga; Laurincik, Jozef; Avery, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether key nucleolar proteins involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription and processing are transcribed de novo or from maternally inherited messenger RNAs (mRNA) in bovine embryos, and to which extent de novo transcription of these proteins mRNA...... embryos cultured from the 2-cell stage with or without (control groups) a-amanitin, which blocks the RNA plymerases II and III transcription and, thus the synthesis of mRNA. In the control groups, weak autoradiographic labelling was initially observed in the periphery of few nuclei at the 4-cell...... is required for the development of functional nucleoli during the major activation of the embryonic genome. Immunofluorescence for localization of key nucleolar proteins, autoradiography for detection of transcriptional activity, and transmission electron microscopy were applied to in vitro produc ed bovine...

  18. Homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining repair pathways in bovine embryos with different developmental competence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrique Barreta, Marcos [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario de Curitibanos, Curitibanos, SC (Brazil); Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Reproducao Animal-BioRep, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garziera Gasperin, Bernardo; Braga Rissi, Vitor; Cesaro, Matheus Pedrotti de [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Reproducao Animal-BioRep, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Ferreira, Rogerio [Centro de Educacao Superior do Oeste-Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Chapeco, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Joao Francisco de; Goncalves, Paulo Bayard Dias [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Reproducao Animal-BioRep, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bordignon, Vilceu, E-mail: vilceu.bordignon@mcgill.ca [Department of Animal Science, McGill University, Ste-Anne-De-Bellevue, QC (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the expression of genes controlling homologous recombination (HR), and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA-repair pathways in bovine embryos of different developmental potential. It also evaluated whether bovine embryos can respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced with ultraviolet irradiation by regulating expression of genes involved in HR and NHEJ repair pathways. Embryos with high, intermediate or low developmental competence were selected based on the cleavage time after in vitro insemination and were removed from in vitro culture before (36 h), during (72 h) and after (96 h) the expected period of embryonic genome activation. All studied genes were expressed before, during and after the genome activation period regardless the developmental competence of the embryos. Higher mRNA expression of 53BP1 and RAD52 was found before genome activation in embryos with low developmental competence. Expression of 53BP1, RAD51 and KU70 was downregulated at 72 h and upregulated at 168 h post-insemination in response to DSBs induced by ultraviolet irradiation. In conclusion, important genes controlling HR and NHEJ DNA-repair pathways are expressed in bovine embryos, however genes participating in these pathways are only regulated after the period of embryo genome activation in response to ultraviolet-induced DSBs.

  19. Effect of spermatozoa motility hyperactivation factors and gamete coincubation duration on in vitro bovine embryo development using flow cytometrically sorted spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Luis B; Bogliotti, Yanina; Chitwood, James L; Fresno, Cristóbal; Ortega, Hugo H; Kjelland, Michael E; Ross, Pablo J

    2016-02-24

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sperm motility enhancers and different IVF times on cleavage, polyspermy, blastocyst formation, embryo quality and hatching ability. In Experiment 1, sex-sorted X chromosome-bearing Bos taurus spermatozoa were incubated for 30 min before 18 h fertilisation with hyperactivating factors, namely 10 mM caffeine (CA), 5 mM theophylline (TH), 10 mM caffeine and 5 mM theophylline (CA + TH); and untreated spermatozoa (control). In Experiment 2, matured B. taurus oocytes were fertilised using a short (8 h) or standard (18 h) fertilisation length, comparing two different fertilisation media, namely synthetic oviducal fluid (SOF) fertilisation medium (SOF-FERT) and M199 fertilisation medium (M199-FERT). Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher in the CA + TH group (77% and 27%, respectively) compared with the control group (71% and 21%, respectively). Cleavage rates and blastocyst formation were significantly lower for the shortest fertilisation time (8 h) in M199-FERT medium (42% and 12%, respectively). The SOF-FERT medium with an 8 h fertilisation time resulted in the highest cleavage rates and blastocyst formation (74% and 29%, respectively). The SOF-FERT medium produced the highest embryo quality (50% Grade 1) and hatching rate (66%). Motility enhancers did not affect polyspermy rates, whereas polyspermy was affected when fertilisation length was extended from 8 h (3%) to 18 h (9%) and in M199-FERT (14%) compared with SOF-FERT (6%). We conclude that adding the motility enhancers CA and TH to sex sorted spermatozoa and Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate (TALP)-Sperm can improve cleavage and embryo development rates without increasing polyspermy. In addition, shortening the oocyte-sperm coincubation time (8 h) resulted in similar overall embryo performance rates compared with the prolonged (18 h) interval.

  20. The effect of biopsy during precompacted morula stage on post vitrification development of blastocyst derived bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Abolfazl; Borjian, Sara; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Nazari, Hassan; Heidari, Banafsheh

    2010-04-01

    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo biopsy in commercial embryo transfer programs for genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of bovine blastocyst derived from embryos biopsied at different pre-compacted morulae stages by assessment of cryosurvivability of the resulting blastocysts. The in vitro produced bovine embryos were subjected to biopsy at days 2, 3, and 4 post-insemination with different cell numbers (4 to 16-cells). Embryo cell biopsy was carried out in a 100 µl drop of H-SOF following pronase drilling by aspiration of one blastomere. The biopsied embryos were then cultured in SOFaaBSA co-cultured with oviduct cells-monolayer until blastocyst formation. The blastocysts were cryopreserved at room temperature after exposure of equilibration (glycerol 1.4 M for 5 min and then glycerol 1.4 M and ethylene glycol 3.6 M for 5 min) and vitrification solutions (3.4 M glycerol and 4.6 M ethylene glycol). The blastocysts were loaded into the center of 0.25 ml straws separated by air bubbles from 2 columns of sucrose 0.5 M and plunged immediately into liquid nitrogen. There was no significant difference in cryosurvivability of vitrified-warmed blastocysts derived form biopsied embryos at different pre-compacted morula stages. The quality of biopsy derived blastocysts was identical to that of non-biopsy derived ones in terms of post vitrifcation survival and hatching rates. In conclusion there was no preference between different times of embryo biopsy at precompacted morula stages in term of cryosurvivability of biopsy derived bovine blastocysts.

  1. Change in energy metabolism of in vitro produced embryos: an alternative to make them more cryoresistant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Renata Oliveira Dias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For the development of in vitro produced (IVP as well as in vivo produced bovine embryos, it is extremely important that their energy metabolism works properly because the embryo must be able to metabolize energy substrates that are necessary for producing energy. Lipids play an important role in early embryonic development, acting as source of energy for oocytes and embryos. However, it is known that oocytes and embryos, mainly IVP, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cytoplasm. Although they are extremely important in embryonic development, lipids have been associated with the reduced survival of bovine embryos following cryopreservation. There is evidence that at least four different categories of lipids affect embryo survival after cryopreservation, including triglycerides (TAG, free fatty acids, cholesterol and phospholipids. Thus, many studies are being conducted to improve the resistance of IVP embryos to the cryopreservation process by reducing the concentration or removing the source of serum from the medium or by reducing oocyte/embryo lipids using mechanical or chemical means. Regarding the use of delipidating agents that reduce the uptake and synthesis of fatty acids (FA by cells, substances such as phenazine ethosulfate (PES, forskolin, L-carnitine and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA have been utilized. This review aims to address important issues related to embryonic energy metabolism, the importance of lipid metabolism and its relation to the cryopreservation of IVP bovine embryos by summarizing the latest research in this field.

  2. A SIMPLE AND EFFICIENT VITRIFICATION METHOD FOR IN-STRAW DILUTION AND DIRECT TRANSFER OF BOVINE EMBRYOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youwen; Fu, Xiangwei; Chen, Long; Feng, Chuntao; Bi, Jianghua; Mo, Xianhong; Cheng, Keren; Zhang, Rina; Li, Shujing; Zhu, Shien

    2015-01-01

    An easy and user friendly protocol that produces consistent results will facilitate the commercial application of embryo vitrification technology in the field. This study was designed to develop a simple and efficient vitrification, in-straw dilution and direct transfer method for bovine embryos. After being vitrified and in-straw thawed, in vivo-derived and in vitro-produced bovine embryos were subjected to in vitro culture or embryo transplantation. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in survival rates (100.0% vs. 93.9%) and expansion rates (93.8% vs. 87.5%) between in vivo-derived and in vitro-produced blastocysts after vitrification and in-straw dilution. And there was also no significant difference (P > 0.05) in conception rates (56.5% vs. 58.8%) after ET between cryopreserved and fresh in vivo-derived blastocysts. Vitrification using EG-based vitrification solution and in-straw dilution with PBS-based diluent is a simple and efficient method for cryopreservation and direct transfer of bovine embryos.

  3. Efeito do citrato e taurina em meio CR2aa no desenvolvimento de embriões bovinos fecundados in vitro Effect of citrate and taurine added to CR2aa medium on the development of in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.A. Camargo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do citrato em meio CR2aa suplementado com soro fetal bovino (SFB ou livre de proteínas séricas e sua associação com taurina no desenvolvimento de embriões bovinos fecundados in vitro. Embriões foram cultivados em CR2aa contendo 0, 0,5, 1,0 e 3,0mM citrato, suplementado com 10% SFB (experimento 1 ou com álcool polivinil (PVA; experimento 2. No terceiro experimento, embriões foram cultivados em meio com 0,5mM citrato, ou 7mM taurina, ou com a associação de ambos, suplementado com SFB. Os cultivos foram realizados com células do cumulus em ambiente a 38,8ºC com 5% de CO2 em ar atmosférico. Melhora no desenvolvimento embrionário foi observado no cultivo de embriões em CR2aa com 0,5 e 1,0mM citrato na ausência de SFB (P0,05 a produção de embriões ou o número de células. Citrato em meio CR2aa pode ser uma alternativa para cultivo embrionário em condições atmosféricas com 5% de CO2 em ar na ausência de proteína sérica.The effect of citrate added to CR2aa medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS or serum-proteinfree and its association with taurine on the development of in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos was evaluated. Embryos were cultured with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0mM citrate, in CR2aa supplemented with 10% FCS (experiment 1, or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA; experiment 2. In experiment 3, embryos were cultured with 0.5mM citrate, 7.0mM taurine or with association of both, in medium supplemented with FCS. Embryo culture was performed with cumulus cells at 38.8ºC in 5% CO2 under air for all experiments. Positive effect on embryo development was only observed with 0.5 and 1.0mM citrate in FCS-free CR2aa (P0.05 embryo rate nor total cell number. Citrate in CR2aa medium can be an alternative for serumfree embryo culture under 5% CO2 in air, absence of serum protein.

  4. Effect of estrous cow serum during bovine embryo culture on blastocyst development and cryotolerance after slow freezing or vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, N; Aller, J; Kaiser, G G; Hozbor, F; Cabodevila, J; Alberio, R H

    2006-05-01

    The present study investigated the effect of estrous cow serum (ECS) during culture of bovine embryos on blastocyst development and survival after cryopreservation by slow freezing or vitrification. Embryos were derived from in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of abbatoir-derived oocytes. At Day 3, embryos were cultured in three different media: Charles Ronsenkrans medium + amino acids (CR1aa; without bovine serum albumin (BSA)) + 5% estrous cow serum (CR1-ECS), CR1aa + 3 mg/mL BSA (CR1-BSA) or CR1aa + 5% ECS + 3 mg/mL BSA (CR1-ECS-BSA). At 7.5 d post-insemination (PI), blastocyst yield and quality were evaluated; blastocysts and expanded blastocysts from each media were cryopreserved by Open Pulled Straw (OPS) vitrification method or slow freezing (1.5 M ethylene glycol, EM). Total blastocyst yield did not differ among CR1-ECS, CR1-BSA and CR1-ECS-BSA (30.9, 33.1 and 32.9%, respectively, P Embryo survival (hatching rate) was higher in vitrified versus slow-frozen embryos (43% versus 12%, respectively, P embryos cultured in CR1-BSA (40.3%) compared with those cultured in serum-containing media (CR1-ECS, 21.5% and CR1-ECS-BSA, 19.8%; P produce in vitro bovine embryos in serum-free culture medium without affecting blastocyst yield and quality; (b) serum-free medium produced the best quality embryos (in terms of post-cryopreservation survival); and (c) vitrification yielded the highest post-cryopreservation survival rates, regardless of the presence of serum in the culture medium.

  5. Fetal calf serum enhances in vitro production of Bos taurus indicus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivas, F G; Brum, D S; Fialho, S S; Saliba, W P; Alvim, M T T; Bernardi, M L; Rubin, M I B; Silva, C A M

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fetal calf serum (FCS) on the quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Cumulus oocyte-complexes (COCs, n = 2 449) recovered by ovum pick-up from Bos taurus indicus donors were randomly assigned to experimental groups. Sperm selected by Percoll gradient was used for in vitro fertilization (insemination = Day 0). In Experiment 1 (n = 1 745 COCs), zygotes were cultured in vitro in Synthetic Oviduct Fluid + 4 mg/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA), or BSA + 2% FCS (BSA+FCS). In Experiment 2 (n = 704 COCs), the COCs were cultured in SOF + BSA, BSA + 2% FCS, or BSA + 2% FCS on D4 (BSA + FCSD4). In Experiment 1, blastocyst yield (51%) and Quality I blastocysts (41%) at Day 7 were higher (P bovine embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro produced and cloned embryos: Effects on pregnancy, parturition and offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruip, T.A.M.; Daas, den J.H.G.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier reports have indicated that the transfers of bovine and ovine embryos produced by in vitro procedures (IVP) or by nuclear transfer (NT) have resulted in the birth of heavy offspring. The present paper presents summary information from 30 data sets obtained worldwide (WW) on IVP and NT in

  7. Attachment of Coxiella burnetii to the zona pellucida of in vitro produced goat embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, J L; Alsaleh, A; Mermillod, P; Souza-Fabjan, J M G; Rodolakis, A; Rousset, E; Dubreil, L; Bruyas, J F; Roux, C; Fieni, F

    2018-01-15

    Previous work demonstrated that after infection of in vivo derived caprine embryos, Coxiella burnetti (C. burnetii) showed a strong tendency to adhere to the zona pellicida (ZP). To investigate the risk of C. burnetii transmission via embryo transfer of in vitro-produced goat embryos the aim of this study was, (i) to evaluate the ability of C. burnetii to adhere to the intact zona pellicida of in vitro-produced goat embryos and to determine by confocal microscopy the location of the bacteria, (ii) to test the efficacy of IETS recommended rules for the washing of bovine embryos to eliminate C. burnetii. One hundred ZP-intact caprine embryos, produced in vitro, at the 8 to 16 cell stage, were randomly divided into 11 batches of eight to nine embryos. Nine batches were incubated for 18 h with 109Coxiella/ml of CbB1 strain (IASP, INRA Tours). The embryos then were recovered and washed in batches in 10 successive baths following the IETS guidelines. In parallel, two batches of embryos were subjected to similar procedures but without exposure to C. burnetii, to serve as the control group. One of the nine batches of infected embryos and one of the two non-infected control batches were separated to perform immunolabeling to locate the bacteria. C. burnetii DNA was detected by C-PCR in all eight batches of infected embryos after 10 successive washings. However, bacterial DNA was not detected in the embryo control batch. The first five washing media of the infected group were consistently found to be positive and Coxiella DNA was detected in the wash bath up to the 10th wash for two batches. After immunolabeling, the observation of embryos under confocal microscopy allowed C. burnetti to be found on the external part of the zona pellucida without deep penetration. This study clearly demonstrates that C. burnetii, after in vitro infection at 109Coxiella/ml, stick strongly to the external part of the zona pellucida of in vitro produced caprine embryos without

  8. MODELO TEÓRICO PARA EXPLICAR LA ACUMULACIÓN DE GOTAS LIPÍDICAS EN EMBRIONES BOVINOS MACHOS O HEMBRAS PRODUCIDOS in vitro Theoretical Model For Explaining Accumulation Of Fat Drops In In Vitro Produced Bovine Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMAR CAMARGO

    Full Text Available La glucosa 6-fosfato deshidrogenasa (G6PD, codificada por un gen ubicado en el cromosoma X, es la enzima limitante de vía de las pentosas fosfato (PF. La entrada de la glucosa así como su flujo y el rendimiento metabólico de esta vía están determinados tanto por los mismos niveles glucosa así como por la actividad de la G6PD. Por esta vía, la glucosa regula la trascripción de varios genes lipogénicos. En algunos embriones hembra producidos in vitro, se registra un retardo en la normal inactivación de uno de sus cromosomas X, lo cual se traduce en una doble actividad de los genes allí ubicados, si se compara con los embriones macho producidos in vitro. Se postula entonces que, la sobre-regulación de la vía PF a consecuencia de la doble dosis de su enzima limitante (G6PD y en presencia de elevados niveles de glucosa (mayores a 2,5 mM en el medio de cultivo, conllevaría a un dimorfismo sexual en relación con la transcripción de los genes Acetil CoA Carboxilasa Alfa (en adelante ACACA, símbolo oficial de la acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha, y la Sintetasa de Ácidos Grasos (en edelante FASN, símbolo oficial de la fatty acid synthase que corriente abajo codifican para las enzimas limitantes en la síntesis de lípidos. Este dimorfismo sexual para el fenotipo metabolismo de lípidos, derivaría en una mayor acumulación citoplasmática de gotas lipídicas en los embriones hembra en comparación con los embriones machos que, de ser así, tendría efectos expansivos sobre el metabolismo general, la actividad transcripcional de otros genes y sobre la resistencia a la criopreservación.The encoding gene for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is located on chromosome X. This enzyme regulates the entrance of glucose into the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP. Besides, throughout this route, glucose regulates the transcription of some lipogenic genes. Compared with in vitro produced male embryos, and due to a delaying in X

  9. Nucleologenesis and embryonic genome activation are defective in interspecies cloned embryos between bovine ooplasm and rhesus monkey somatic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yong-Mahn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT has been proposed as a tool to address basic developmental questions and to improve the feasibility of cell therapy. However, the low efficiency of iSCNT embryonic development is a crucial problem when compared to in vitro fertilization (IVF and intraspecies SCNT. Thus, we examined the effect of donor cell species on the early development of SCNT embryos after reconstruction with bovine ooplasm. Results No apparent difference in cleavage rate was found among IVF, monkey-bovine (MB-iSCNT, and bovine-bovine (BB-SCNT embryos. However, MB-iSCNT embryos failed to develop beyond the 8- or 16-cell stages and lacked expression of the genes involved in embryonic genome activation (EGA at the 8-cell stage. From ultrastructural observations made during the peri-EGA period using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, we found that the nucleoli of MB-iSCNT embryos were morphologically abnormal or arrested at the primary stage of nucleologenesis. Consistent with the TEM analysis, nucleolar component proteins, such as upstream binding transcription factor, fibrillarin, nucleolin, and nucleophosmin, showed decreased expression and were structurally disorganized in MB-iSCNT embryos compared to IVF and BB-SCNT embryos, as revealed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. Conclusion The down-regulation of housekeeping and imprinting genes, abnormal nucleolar morphology, and aberrant patterns of nucleolar proteins during EGA resulted in developmental failure in MB-iSCNT embryos. These results provide insight into the unresolved problems of early embryonic development in iSCNT embryos.

  10. Ultrastructure of bovine in vitro-produced blastocysts cryopreserved by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohboshi, S; Fujihara, N; Yoshida, T; Tomagane, H

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine ultrastructural aspects of bovine in vitro-produced blastocysts associated with cryopreservation by vitrification. Morphologically good embryos were used and treated with ethylene-glycol-based vitrification solution (VS). The untreated embryos had conventional fine structure. The post-warming embryos treated with direct exposure to VS (one-step procedure) showed cellular damage structurally by cryopreservation, which included loss of microvilli, disruption of the plasma membrane, mitochondrial changes and swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, nuclei and junctional regions seemed to be resistant to cryoinjury. In contrast, the post-warming embryos pre-equilibrated with 10% ethylene glycol for 5 min and subsequent exposure to VS (two-step procedure) showed less damage than those treated by the one-step procedure. Post-warming embryos treated by the two-step procedure were cultured in vitro for 18 h. Some embryos survived and their structures re-formed to the former state, while other embryos showed serious injuries and could not reconstitute the blastocoele. Three post-warming embryos treated by the two-step procedure that survived after in vitro culture were transferred to three recipients and one of these resulted in pregnancy. These results indicate that cryopreservation by vitrification can damage membranous structures of the cells of bovine embryos, the extent and nature of this damage being dependent on the vitrification procedure.

  11. Comparison of transcriptomic landscapes of bovine embryos using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib Hasan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in sequencing technologies have opened a new era of high throughput investigations. Although RNA-seq has been demonstrated in many organisms, no study has provided a comprehensive investigation of the bovine transcriptome using RNA-seq. Results In this study, we provide a deep survey of the bovine embryonic transcriptomes, the first application of RNA-seq in cattle. Embryos cultured in vitro were used as models to study early embryonic development in cattle. RNA amplified from limited amounts of starting total RNA were sequenced and mapped to the reference genome to obtain digital gene expression at single base resolution. In particular, gene expression estimates from more than 1.6 million unannotated bases in 1785 novel transcribed units were obtained. We compared the transcriptomes of embryos showing distinct developmental statuses and found genes that showed differential overall expression as well as alternative splicing. Conclusion Our study demonstrates the power of RNA-seq and provides further understanding of bovine preimplantation embryonic development at a fine scale.

  12. Efficient introgression of allelic variants by embryo-mediated editing of the bovine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingwei; Wagner, Stefan; Lu, Dan; Maclean, Paul; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; Laible, Götz

    2015-07-09

    The recent development of designer nucleases allows for the efficient and precise introduction of genetic change into livestock genomes. Most studies so far have focused on the introduction of random mutations in cultured cells and the use of nuclear transfer to generate animals with edited genotypes. To circumvent the intrinsic uncertainties of random mutations and the inefficiencies of nuclear transfer we directed our efforts to the introduction of specific genetic changes by homology-driven repair directly in in vitro produced embryos. Initially, we injected zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-encoding mRNA or DNA into bovine zygotes to verify cleavage activity at their target site within the gene for beta-lactoglobulin (LGB) and detected ZFN-induced random mutations in 30% to 80% of embryos. Next, to precisely change the LGB sequence, we co-injected ZFNs or transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) with DNA oligonucleotides (ODNs). Analysis of co-injected embryos showed targeted changes in up to 33% (ZFNs) and 46% (TALENs) of blastocysts. Deep sequence analysis of selected embryos revealed contributions of the targeted LGB allele can reach 100% which implies that genome editing by zygote injections can facilitate the one-step generation of non-mosaic livestock animals with pre-designed biallelic modifications.

  13. [Ectopic pregnancy following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudik, R; Fliess, F R; Bernt, W D; Meissner, J; Kunkel, S

    1984-01-01

    A report is given about one case of ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and transfer of three embryos. Possible causes of ectopic pregnancies following embryo transfer and conclusions are discussed.

  14. Embryo density may affect embryo quality during in vitro culture in a microwell group culture dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Adam; Kaszas, Zita; Murber, Akos; Rigo, Janos; Urbancsek, Janos; Fancsovits, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Culturing embryos in groups is a common practice in mammalian embryology. Since the introduction of different microwell dishes, it is possible to identify oocytes or embryos individually. As embryo density (embryo-to-volume ratio) may affect the development and viability of the embryos, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different embryo densities on embryo quality. Data of 1337 embryos from 228 in vitro fertilization treatment cycles were retrospectively analyzed. Embryos were cultured in a 25 μl microdrop in a microwell group culture dish containing 9 microwells. Three density groups were defined: Group 1 with 2-4 (6.3-12.5 μl/embryo), Group 2 with 5-6 (4.2-5.0 μl/embryo), and Group 3 with 7-9 (2.8-3.6 μl/embryo) embryos. Proportion of good quality embryos was higher in Group 2 on both days (D2: 18.9 vs. 31.5 vs. 24.7%; p Culturing 5-6 embryos together in a culture volume of 25 μl may benefit embryo quality. As low egg number, position, and distance of the embryos may influence embryo quality, results should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression in bovine somatic cell chromatin transfer embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Grier P

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reprogramming of a somatic genome to produce a healthy clone by somatic cells nuclear transfer (SCNT is a rare event and the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly defined. When serial or successive rounds of cloning are performed, blastocyst and full term development rates decline even further with the increasing rounds of cloning. Identifying the "cumulative errors" could reveal the epigenetic reprogramming blocks in animal cloning. Results Bovine clones from up to four generations of successive cloning were produced by chromatin transfer (CT. Using Affymetrix bovine microarrays we determined that the transcriptomes of blastocysts derived from the first and the fourth rounds of cloning (CT1 and CT4 respectively have undergone an extensive reprogramming and were more similar to blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF than to the donor cells used for the first and the fourth rounds of chromatin transfer (DC1 and DC4 respectively. However a set of transcripts in the cloned embryos showed a misregulated pattern when compared to IVF embryos. Among the genes consistently upregulated in both CT groups compared to the IVF embryos were genes involved in regulation of cytoskeleton and cell shape. Among the genes consistently upregulated in IVF embryos compared to both CT groups were genes involved in chromatin remodelling and stress coping. Conclusion The present study provides a data set that could contribute in our understanding of epigenetic errors in somatic cell chromatin transfer. Identifying "cumulative errors" after serial cloning could reveal some of the epigenetic reprogramming blocks shedding light on the reprogramming process, important for both basic and applied research.

  16. Gene expression profiles of vitrified in vitro- and in vivo-derived bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Digdem Aktoprakligil; Agca, Cansu; Aksu, Soner; Bagis, Haydar; Akkoc, Tolga; Caputcu, Arzu Tas; Arat, Sezen; Taskin, Ali Cihan; Kizil, Sedat H; Karasahin, Tahir; Akyol, Numan; Satilmis, Muharrem; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Ustuner, Burcu; Nur, Zekeriya; Agca, Yuksel

    2012-09-01

    Vitrification is becoming a preferred method for pre-implantation embryo cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to determine the differentially expressed genes of in vivo- and in vitro-produced bovine embryos after vitrification. In vitro- (IVF) and in vivo-derived (IVV) bovine blastocysts were identified as follows: in vitro-produced fresh (IVF-F), in vitro-produced vitrified (IVF-V), in vivo-derived fresh (IVV-F), in vivo-derived vitrified (IVV-V). The microarray results showed that 53 genes were differentially regulated between IVF and IVV, and 121 genes were differentially regulated between fresh and vitrified blastocysts (P vitro bovine blastocyst production protocols used in this study caused no major gene expression differences compared to those of in vivo-produced blastocysts. After vitrification, however, in vitro-produced blastocysts showed major gene expression differences compared to in vivo blastocysts. This study suggests that in vitro-produced embryos are of comparable quality to their in vivo counterparts. Vitrification of in vitro blastocysts, on the other hand, causes significant up-regulation of genes that are involved in stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Increasing of blastocyst rate and gene expression in co-culture of bovine embryos with adult adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Moysés S; Nascimento, Hamilton S; Costa, Mayra P R; Costa, Nathália N; Brito, Karynne N L; Lopes, Cinthia T A; Santos, Simone S D; Cordeiro, Marcela S; Ohashi, Otávio M

    2016-10-01

    Despite advances in the composition of defined embryo culture media, co-culture with somatic cells is still used for bovine in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in many laboratories worldwide. Granulosa cells are most often used for this purpose, although recent work suggests that co-culture with stem cells of adult or embryonic origin or their derived biomaterials may improve mouse, cattle, and pig embryo development. In experiment 1, in vitro produced bovine embryos were co-cultured in the presence of two concentrations of bovine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal cells (b-ATMSCs; 103 and 104 cells/mL), in b-ATMSC preconditioned medium (SOF-Cond), or SOF alone (control). In experiment 2, co-culture with 104 b-ATMSCs/mL was compared to the traditional granulosa cell co-culture system (Gran). In experiment 1, co-culture with 104 b-ATMSCs/mL improved blastocyst rates in comparison to conditioned and control media (p culture with 104 b-ATMSCs/mL improved not only blastocyst rates but also quality as assessed by increased total cell numbers and mRNA expression levels for POU5F1 and G6PDH (p culture of bovine embryos with b-ATMSCs was more beneficial than the traditional co-culture system with granulosa cells. We speculate that the microenvironmental modulatory potential of MSCs, by means of soluble substances and exosome secretions, could be responsible for the positive effects observed. Further experiments must be done to evaluate if this beneficial effect in vitro also translates to an increase in offspring following embryo transfer. Moreover, this study provides an interesting platform to study the basic requirements during preimplantation embryo development, which, in turn, may aid the improvement of embryo culture protocols in bovine and other species.

  18. In vitro production of embryos in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasorras, V; Giuliano, S; Miragaya, M

    2013-01-10

    Studies in reproductive biotechnology techniques have been minimal in South American camelids (SAC). Complex reproductive characteristics of these species contribute to slow progress. Nevertheless, some techniques, such as in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and nuclear transfer have been applied and have produced advances in knowledge on embryo environment and in vitro conditions necessary for development. Embryo production may have a high impact in both domestic and wild camelids population. Studies addressed to improve in vitro embryo production and oocyte collection could be a potential key to develop IVF and embryo production as a routine procedure in camelids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oocyte pre-IVM with caffeine improves bovine embryo survival after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Ulloa, Sandra Milena; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Herrmann, Doris; Hadeler, Klaus-Gerd; Aldag, Patrick; Baulain, Ulrich; Niemann, Heiner

    2016-09-15

    Cryopreservation of in vitro produced bovine embryos is associated with significantly reduced survival rates, mainly due to insufficient quality of the embryos. Caffeine supplementation during IVM has been used to delay meiotic resumption and concomitantly also increased embryo quality. Here, we investigated the influence of pre-IVM with caffeine on oocyte maturation, intraoocyte cAMP concentration, developmental competence after IVF, and blastocyst cryotolerance. Oocytes were obtained by slicing of ovaries and were submitted to either 2 hours culture before IVM with or without caffeine (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 mM), or standard IVM (no pre-IVM). Oocytes were in vitro matured and fertilized and zygotes were cultured under standard in vitro conditions until Day 8. Expanded blastocysts derived from either standard control or the 10-mM caffeine treatments were submitted to vitrification. Caffeine delayed meiotic resumption after 9-hour IVM in a concentration-dependent manner. The cAMP levels were similar before and after IVM. Matured oocytes, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were reduced in the 30-mM caffeine concentration and were similar among the other treatment groups. Number and proportion of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells in blastocysts did not differ among treatments. Forty-eight hours after thawing, hatching rates were higher in the 10-mM caffeine group (73.8%) compared with the standard control (59.7%). Reexpansion rates and total number of cells after 48 hours were similar in both treatments. The ratio of live/total cells was higher in the caffeine treatment. These results suggest that caffeine supplementation before IVM delayed meiotic resumption and improved blastocyst quality shown in higher cryotolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Human embryo-conditioned medium stimulates in vitro endometrial angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapiteijn, K.; Koolwijk, P.; Weiden, R.M.F. van der; Nieuw Amerongen, G. van; Plaisier, M.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Helmerhorst, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Successful implantation and placentation depend on the interaction between the endometrium and the embryo. Angiogenesis is crucial at this time. In this article we investigate the direct influence of the human embryo on in vitro endometrial angiogenesis. Design: In vitro study. Setting:

  1. Inbreeding effects on in vitro embryo production traits in Guzerá cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, B C; Balieiro, J C C; Ventura, R V; Bruneli, F A T; Peixoto, M G C D

    2017-11-01

    Inbreeding has been associated with the impairment of reproductive performance in many cattle breeds. Although the usage of reproductive biotechnologies has been increasing in bovine populations, not much attention has been given to the impact of inbreeding over cow's performance on artificial reproduction. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of inbreeding on in vitro embryo production in a Guzerá breed population. The inbreeding coefficient (F), calculated as half of the co-ancestry of the individual's parents, was used as an estimate of inbreeding. The inbreeding coefficients of the donor, sire (used on in vitro fertilization) and of the embryos were included, separately, in the proposed models either as classificatory or continuous variables (linear and quadratic effects). The percentage of non-inbred individuals (or embryos) and mean F of donors, embryos and sires were 29.38%; 35.76%; 42.86% and 1.98±2.68; 1.32±3.13; 2.08±2.79, respectively. Two different models were considered, one for oocyte production traits and other for embryo production traits. The increase of F of the donor significantly (P0.05) effects were observed for the sire (father of the embryos) inbreeding coefficient over the traits analysed. Embryo's F influenced (Pvitro environment. Submitting highly inbred Guzerá female donors to in vitro embryo production may, in the long-term, have negative implications on the number of embryos obtained per cow and increase the relative costs of the improvement programmes based on this technology. High levels of inbreeding should be avoided when selecting Guzerá female donors and planning in vitro fertilization mating.

  2. PreImplantation Factor (PIF correlates with early mammalian embryo development-bovine and murine models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulam Carolyn B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PreImplantation Factor (PIF, a novel peptide secreted by viable embryos is essential for pregnancy: PIF modulates local immunity, promotes decidual pro-adhesion molecules and enhances trophoblast invasion. To determine the role of PIF in post-fertilization embryo development, we measured the peptide's concentration in the culture medium and tested endogenous PIF's potential trophic effects and direct interaction with the embryo. Methods Determine PIF levels in culture medium of multiple mouse and single bovine embryos cultured up to the blastocyst stage using PIF-ELISA. Examine the inhibitory effects of anti-PIF-monoclonal antibody (mAb added to medium on cultured mouse embryos development. Test FITC-PIF uptake by cultured bovine blastocysts using fluorescent microscopy. Results PIF levels in mouse embryo culture medium significantly increased from the morula to the blastocyst stage (ANOVA, P = 0.01. In contrast, atretic embryos medium was similar to the medium only control. Detectable - though low - PIF levels were secreted already by 2-cell stage mouse embryos. In single bovine IVF-derived embryos, PIF levels in medium at day 3 of culture were higher than non-cleaving embryos (control (P = 0.01 and at day 7 were higher than day 3 (P = 0.03. In non-cleaving embryos culture medium was similar to medium alone (control. Anti-PIF-mAb added to mouse embryo cultures lowered blastocyst formation rate 3-fold in a dose-dependent manner (2-way contingency table, multiple groups, X2; P = 0.01 as compared with non-specific mouse mAb, and medium alone, control. FITC-PIF was taken-up by cultured bovine blastocysts, but not by scrambled FITC-PIF (control. Conclusions PIF is an early embryo viability marker that has a direct supportive role on embryo development in culture. PIF-ELISA use to assess IVF embryo quality prior to transfer is warranted. Overall, our data supports PIF's endogenous self sustaining role in embryo development and the

  3. In vitro culture and embryo metabolism of cattle and sheep embryos - a decade of achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J G

    2000-07-02

    At the beginning of the 1990s, co-culture of cattle and sheep embryos was the most favoured method to support embryo development, but the use of this system has hampered progress in raising the efficiency of embryo production. Furthermore, little was known of the requirements of embryos and the biochemistry of early embryo development. As the decade progressed, energy metabolism studies improved our understanding of the energy substrate requirements for embryo development. Furthermore, an appreciation of the reproductive tract environment increased. This resulted in more "defined" systems, which have evolved further in the development of "sequential" media systems, where components change in accordance to the needs of the embryo. Nevertheless, wholly defined systems, such as the replacement of albumin with PVA, are less able to support similar levels of development as protein-containing medium, and the resulting embryos are metabolically compromised. This highlights the nutritive role of albumin. One area in which much work has been conducted, but yet no unifying theory has emerged, is that of the interactive roles of growth factors (including autocrine/paracrine), cytokines and extra-cellular matrix molecules in the development of a viable embryo. A new concept is that of regulation of energy metabolism. Compounds such as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), NaN(3) and 2,4-dinitrophenol have been shown to increase embryo development and quality of resulting embryos. This demonstrates that the process of ATP production is a key regulator of in vitro embryo development.

  4. Low serum concentration in bovine embryo culture enhances early blastocyst rates on Day-6 with quality traits in the expanded blastocyst stage similar to BSA-cultured embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, A; Muñoz, M; Martín-González, D; Carrocera, S; Martínez-Nistal, A; Gómez, E

    2017-06-01

    In bovine, single in vitro embryo culture in protein-free medium from Day-6 to Day-7 leads to expanded blastocyst (XB) with improved pregnancy and birth rates after cryopreservation. Under these conditions, early blastocysts (EB) progress to the XB stage at higher rates than morulae (M). However, embryo production with BSA in culture prior to Day-6 leads to low EB rates. We investigated whether a very low FCS concentration (0.1%) in culture from Day-1 to Day-6 would improve EB rates and, subsequently, increase XB rates on Day-7 after single culture in protein-free medium. The quality of embryos produced was evaluated in terms of survival to cryopreservation, apoptosis percentage, lipid accumulation and transfer to recipients. On Day-6, EB rates from embryos cultured with FCS were higher than with BSA (P=0.022). On Day-7, XB rates were higher in embryos from Day-6 EB than from Day-6M, both with and without FCS (Pvitrification/warming of Day-7 XB, 100% embryos survived at 24h in all treatments, and total cell number and apoptosis percentage were not affected by the presence of FCS or embryonic stage on Day-6. Cryopreserved and fresh embryos produced with FCS until Day-6, and then deprived of protein and cultured individually, led to pregnancies after ET. In conclusion, minute FCS concentration improves EB rates on Day-6 leading, after one-day single culture without protein, to more XBs. The quality of XB produced with FCS compares well with XB produced with BSA in terms of apoptosis, lipid accumulation and pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Extracellular Vesicles from BOEC in In Vitro Embryo Development and Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricaurte Lopera-Vásquez

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of conditioned media (CM and Extracellular Vesicles (EVs derived from bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC lines on the developmental capacity of bovine zygotes and the quality of embryos produced in vitro, presumptive zygotes were cultured under specific conditions. In experiment 1, zygotes were cultured either on monolayers from BOEC extended culture (E, together with fresh BOEC suspension cells, or with BOEC-CM from fresh or E-monolayers. In experiment 2, EVs were isolated from BOEC-CM and characterized (150-200 nm by Nanosight® and electron microscopy. Zygotes were cultured in the presence of 3x10(5 EVs/mL, 1.5x10(5 EVs/mL or 7.5x10(4 EVs/mL of fresh or frozen BOEC-EVs. In experiment 3, zygotes were cultured in absence of FCS but with EVs from BOEC-E that had been cultured in different culture media. In experiment 4, zygotes were cultured in SOF+5% normal-FCS, or EV-depleted-FCS. In all cases, cleavage rate (Day 2 and blastocyst development (Day 7-9 was assessed. Blastocysts on Days 7/8 were used for quality evaluation through differential cell count, cryotolerance and gene expression patterns. No differences were found among all FCS-containing groups in cleavage rate or blastocyst yield. However, embryos derived from BOEC-CM had more trophectoderm cells, while embryos derived from BOEC-EVs, both fresh and frozen, has more trophectoderm and total cells. More embryos survived vitrification in the BOEC-CM and BOEC-EV groups. In contrast, more embryos survived in the EV-depleted-FCS than in normal-FCS group. Gene expression patterns were modified for PAG1 for embryos cultured with EVs in the presence of FCS and for IFN-T, PLAC8, PAG1, CX43, and GAPDH in the absence of FCS. In conclusion, EVs from FCS have a deleterious effect on embryo quality. BOEC-CM and EVs during in vitro culture had a positive effect on the quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos, suggesting that EVs have functional communication between the

  6. Extracellular Vesicles from BOEC in In Vitro Embryo Development and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera-Vásquez, Ricaurte; Hamdi, Meriem; Fernandez-Fuertes, Beatriz; Maillo, Verónica; Beltrán-Breña, Paula; Calle, Alexandra; Redruello, Alberto; López-Martín, Soraya; Gutierrez-Adán, Alfonso; Yañez-Mó, María; Ramirez, Miguel Ángel; Rizos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of conditioned media (CM) and Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) derived from bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) lines on the developmental capacity of bovine zygotes and the quality of embryos produced in vitro, presumptive zygotes were cultured under specific conditions. In experiment 1, zygotes were cultured either on monolayers from BOEC extended culture (E), together with fresh BOEC suspension cells, or with BOEC-CM from fresh or E-monolayers. In experiment 2, EVs were isolated from BOEC-CM and characterized (150-200 nm) by Nanosight® and electron microscopy. Zygotes were cultured in the presence of 3x10(5) EVs/mL, 1.5x10(5) EVs/mL or 7.5x10(4) EVs/mL of fresh or frozen BOEC-EVs. In experiment 3, zygotes were cultured in absence of FCS but with EVs from BOEC-E that had been cultured in different culture media. In experiment 4, zygotes were cultured in SOF+5% normal-FCS, or EV-depleted-FCS. In all cases, cleavage rate (Day 2) and blastocyst development (Day 7-9) was assessed. Blastocysts on Days 7/8 were used for quality evaluation through differential cell count, cryotolerance and gene expression patterns. No differences were found among all FCS-containing groups in cleavage rate or blastocyst yield. However, embryos derived from BOEC-CM had more trophectoderm cells, while embryos derived from BOEC-EVs, both fresh and frozen, has more trophectoderm and total cells. More embryos survived vitrification in the BOEC-CM and BOEC-EV groups. In contrast, more embryos survived in the EV-depleted-FCS than in normal-FCS group. Gene expression patterns were modified for PAG1 for embryos cultured with EVs in the presence of FCS and for IFN-T, PLAC8, PAG1, CX43, and GAPDH in the absence of FCS. In conclusion, EVs from FCS have a deleterious effect on embryo quality. BOEC-CM and EVs during in vitro culture had a positive effect on the quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos, suggesting that EVs have functional communication between the oviduct and

  7. Kinetics of early in vitro development of bovine in vivo- and in vitro-derived zygotes produced and/or cultured in chemically defined or serum-containing media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P; Booth, P J; Callesen, H

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of the in vitro development of early embryos from bovine zygotes derived in vitro and in vitro were compared, investigating the effect of serum during in vitro maturation and fertilization (IVM-IVF) and in culture. Zygotes were collected from superovulated heifers or produced in vitr...

  8. In vitro production of horse embryos: fundamental aspects

    OpenAIRE

    López Tremoleda, Jordi

    2003-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproduction have provided valuable tools for sub-fertility treatment and for selective breeding in animals. In horses, techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer are used successfully to aid genetic progress but the commercial application of other assisted reproductive techniques, such as in vitro production of embryos (IVP), has been severely restricted by their low efficiency. The development of culture systems that can support embryo developmen...

  9. Pre- and Peri-/Post-Compaction Follistatin Treatment Increases In Vitro Production of Cattle Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhenhua

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that maternal (oocyte derived follistatin (FST expression is positively associated with bovine oocyte competence and exogenous follistatin treatment during the pre-compaction period of development (d 1-3 post insemination is stimulatory to bovine early embryogenesis in vitro [blastocyst rates and cell numbers/allocation to trophectoderm (TE]. In the present study, bovine embryos were treated with exogenous follistatin during d 1-3, d 4-7 and d 1-7 post insemination to test the hypothesis that embryotropic effects of exogenous follistatin are specific to the pre-compaction period (d 1-3 of early embryogenesis. Follistatin treatment during d 4-7 (peri-/post-compaction period of embryo culture increased proportion of embryos reaching blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stage and total cell numbers compared to controls, but blastocyst rates and total cell numbers were lower than observed following d 1-3 (pre-compaction follistatin treatment. Follistatin supplementation during d 1-7 of embryo culture increased development to blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stages and blastocyst total cell numbers compared to d 1-3 and d 4-7 follistatin treatment and untreated controls. A similar increase in blastocyst CDX2 mRNA and protein (TE cell marker was observed in response to d 1-3, d 4-7 and d 1-7 follistatin treatment. However, an elevation in blastocyst BMP4 protein (TE cell regulator was observed in response to d 1-3 and d 1-7, but not d 4-7 (peri-/post-compaction follistatin treatment. In summary, our study revealed the potential utility of follistatin treatment for increasing the success rate of in vitro embryo production in cattle. Such results also expand our understanding of the embryotropic actions of follistatin and demonstrate that follistatin actions on blastocyst development and cell allocation to the TE layer are not specific to the pre-compaction period.

  10. SEPARATION OF X-BEARING BOVINE SPERM BY CENTRIFUGATION IN CONTINUOUS PERCOLL AND OPTIPREP DENSITY GRADIENT: EFFECT IN SPERM VIABILITY AND IN VITRO EMBRYO PRODUCTION SEPARAÇÃO DE ESPERMATOZOIDES PORTADORES DO CROMOSSOMO X BOVINO POR CENTRIFUGAÇÃO EM GRADIENTE DE DENSIDADE CONTÍNUO DE PERCOLL E OPTIPREP: EFEITO SOBRE A VIABILIDADE ESPERMÁTICA E NA PRODUÇÃO IN VITRO DE EMBRIÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Costa Lucio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to separate X-bearing bovine sperm by continuous Percoll and OptiPrep density gradients and to validate the sexing of resultant in vitro produced embryos by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Frozen/thawed sperm was layered on density gradients which were previously prepared in polystyrene tubes, 24 h before procedures and maintained at 4 °C. The tubes were centrifuged at 500 x g for 15 min at 22 °C. Supernatants were gently aspirated and the sperm recovered from the bottom of the tubes. Viability and integrity of sperm were evaluated by Trypan Blue/Giemsa stain. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were determined by in vitro production of embryos and PCR was performed for identification of the embryos’ genetic sex. No damage in viability and acrossomal integrity and in cleavage and blastocyst rates was found in the Percoll and OptiPrep treatment compared to the non-centrifuged group (P>0.05. The percentage of female embryos in the Percoll and OptiPrep group was 63.0 and 47.6%, respectively. The female embryos in control group were 48.7%. A sexual deviation in the Percoll density gradient was achieved without reduction of sperm viability and in vitro production rates.

    KEY WORDS: Bovine, centrifugation, in vitro production of embryos, PCR, X-bearing sperm.

    O objetivo deste estudo foi separar espermatozoides bovinos portadores do cromossomo X pela centrifugação em gradiente de densidade contínuo de Percoll e OptiPrep, e validar a sexagem pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR, dos embriões produzidos in vitro. Para a sexagem, espermatozoides descongelados foram depositados nos gradientes de densidade, previamente preparados, em tubos de poliestireno, 24 horas antes da sexagem e mantidos a 4°C. Centrifugou-se a 500 x g por quinze minutos a 22°C. Os sobrenadantes foram aspirados, e os espermatozoides recuperados do

  11. Oocyte maturation, embryo development and gene expression following two different methods of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Mehdi; Kafi, Mojtaba; Ebrahimi, Bita; Fatehi, Roya; Jamalzadeh, Mahboobeh

    2017-03-01

    To examine the maturational competence, embryo development and expression of genes involved in oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion (GDF9, BMP15, HAS2, TNFAIP6, FGF17 and FSHr) following two standard methods of bovine COCs vitrification. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from slaughtered ovaries and then distributed into three groups: non-vitrified COCs (control), vitrification 1 group (V1); vitrification was performed by 15% ethylene glycol (EG) and 15% DMSO in holding media (TCM-199 with 20% FCS); and vitrification 2 group (V2); vitrification was performed by 40% EG in holding media. After vitrification, COCs were warmed in two steps and cultured and then evaluated for nuclear maturation, embryo development and gene expressions. The mean (±SD) percentages of nuclear maturation and blastocyst/cleaved were higher in control group (79.5 ± 8.0 and 31.0 ± 5.1%) than the V1 (34.8 ± 9.1 and 4.4 ± 5.1%) and V2 (47.8 ± 11.7 and 7.1 ± 5.8%) groups (P vitrification groups (P vitrification procedure and conditions. Using EG alone for vitrification of bovine immature COCs, resulted in higher expression of GDF9, BMP15 and production of more in vitro matured and cleaved oocytes.

  12. Identification and characteristics of extracellular vesicles from bovine blastocysts produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellisho, Edwin A; Velásquez, Alejandra E; Nuñez, María J; Cabezas, Joel G; Cueto, Juan A; Fader, Claudio; Castro, Fidel O; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Lleretny

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified within different body fluids and cell culture media. However, there is very little information on the secretion of these vesicles during early embryonic development. The aims of this work were first to demonstrate the secretion of extracellular vesicles by pre-implantation bovine embryos and second to identify and characterize the population of EVs secreted by bovine blastocysts during the period from day seven to nine of embryo culture and its correlation with further embryo development up to day 11. Bovine embryos were produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) or parthenogenetic activation (PA) and cultured until blastocyst stage. Blastocyst selection was performed at day 7 post IVF/PA considering two variables: stage of development and quality of embryos. Selected blastocysts were cultured in vitro for 48 hours in groups (exp. 1) or individually (exp. 2) in SOF media depleted of exosomes. At day 9 post IVF/PA the media was collected and EVs isolated by ultracentrifugation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of heterogeneous vesicles of different sizes and population: microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXs) of rounded shape, enclosed by a lipid bi-layer and ranging from 30 to 385 nm of diameter. Flow cytometry analysis allowed identifying CD63 and CD9 proteins as exosome markers. Nanoparticle tracking analysis generated a large number of variables, which required the use of multivariate statistics. The results indicated that the concentration of vesicles is higher in those blastocysts with arrested development from day 9 up to day 11 of in vitro development (6.7 x 108 particles/ml) derived from IVF (p <0.05), compared to PA blastocysts (4.7 x 108 particles/ml). Likewise, the profile (concentration and diameter) of particles secreted by embryos derived from IVF were different from those secreted by PA embryos. In conclusion, we demonstrated that bovine blastocysts secrete MVs/EXs to the culture

  13. Effects of oocyte quality, incubation time and maturation environment on the number of chromosomal abnormalities in IVF-derived early bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastian; Dorado, Jesus; Hidalgo, Manuel; Anter, Jaouad; De Luca, Leonardo; Genero, Enrique; Moreno-Millán, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are one of the major causes of embryo developmental failures in mammals. The occurrence of these types of abnormalities is higher in in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of oocyte morphology and maturation conditions on the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplantational embryos. To this end, 790 early cattle embryos derived from oocytes with different morphologies and matured under different conditions, including maturation period (24 v. 36h) and maturation media (five different serum supplements in TCM-199), were evaluated cytogenetically in three sequential experiments. The rates of normal diploidy and abnormal haploidy, polyploidy and aneuploidy were determined in each embryo. Throughout all the experiments, the rate of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly (P<0.05) affected by oocyte morphology and maturation conditions (maturation time and culture medium). Lower morphological quality was associated with a high rate of chromosome abnormalities (P<0.05). Moreover, polyploidy was associated with increased maturation time (P<0.01), whereas the maturation medium significantly (P<0.05) affected the rates of haploidy and polyploidy. In general, supplementing the maturation medium with oestrous cow serum or fetal calf serum resulted in higher rates of chromosomal aberrations (P<0.05) compared with the other serum supplements tested (bovine steer serum, anoestroues cow serum, bovine amniotic fluid and bovine serum albumin). On the basis of the results of the present study, we conclude that the morphological quality of oocytes and the maturation conditions affect the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in IVP bovine embryos.

  14. Phytohemagglutinin facilitates the aggregation of blastomere pairs from Day 5 donor embryos with Day 4 host embryos for chimeric bovine embryo multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmet, Kilian; Reichenbach, Myriam; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Wolf, Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    Multiplication of bovine embryos by the production of aggregation chimeras is based on the concept that few blastomeres of a donor embryo form the inner cell mass (ICM) and thus the embryo proper, whereas cells of a host embryo preferentially contribute to the trophectoderm (TE), the progenitor cells of the embryonic part of the placenta. We aggregated two fluorescent blastomeres from enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic Day 5 morulae with two Day 4 embryos that did not complete their first cleavage until 27 hours after IVF and tested the effect of phytohemagglutinin-L (PHA) on chimeric embryo formation. The resulting blastocysts were characterized by differential staining of cell lineages using the TE-specific factor CDX2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy to facilitate the precise localization of eGFP-positive cells. The proportions of blastocyst development of sandwich aggregates with (n = 99) and without PHA (n = 46) were 85.9% and 54.3% (P multiplication of genetically valuable donor embryos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex determination and milk protein genotyping of preimplantation stage bovine embryos using multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawala, P L; Wagner, V A; Geldermann, H

    1992-11-01

    A method for determining the sex and milk protein genotypes (RFLPs) of preimplantation stage bovine embryos using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described. Day 6 to 7 embryos were micromanipulated to isolate 5 to 6 cells. These cells were then dried in reaction tubes for transport to the laboratory. Subsequently, two sets of PCRs were performed using Y chromosome, k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin gene specific primers, followed by electrophoretic analysis of the PCR products. The presence or absence of the Y chromosome was ascertained in 90 of 92 embryos. Moreover, the k-casein specific fragment was amplified and detected in all these embryos. The PCR products were digested in order to genotype the k-casein gene. In 70% of the embryos, the beta-lactoglobulin specific fragment was amplified, although together with some unspecific fragments.

  16. Comparison of the efficacy of conventional slow freezing and rapid cryopreservation methods for bovine embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagtendonk-de Leeuw, van A.M.; Daas, den J.H.; Kruip, T.A.; Rail, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    Day 7 bovine morulae and early blastocysts were randomly assigned to one of four cryopreservation methods: (i) a modified conventional controlled slow freezing and stepwise dilution after thawing; and three methods which enable direct transfer of the embryo into the recipient upon thawing: (ii)

  17. Morbidity-mortality and performance evaluation of Brahman calves from in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta-Oliveira Andreza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP increases the reproductive potential of genetically superior cows, enabling a larger scale of embryo production when compared with other biotechnologies. However, deleterious effects such as abnormal fetal growth, longer gestation period, increased birth weight, abortion, preterm birth and higher rates of neonatal mortality have been attributed to IVP. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of in vitro embryo production and artificial insemination (AI on gestation length, complications with birth, birth weight, method of feeding colostrum, passive transfer of immunity, morbidity-mortality, and performance in Brahman calves. Results Whilst gestation length and birth weight were significantly increased in IVP-derived calves, no difference in weaning weight was observed between groups. The passive transfer of immunity (PT, was assessed in IVP (n = 80 and AI (n = 20 groups 24 hours after birth by determination of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and gammaglobulin activity as well as by quantification of the concentration of total protein in serum. No differences in passive transfer or incidences of dystocia and diseases at weaning were observed between groups. Birth weight, method of feeding colostrum and dystocia were not correlated with PT in either group. Conclusions In this study, in vitro embryo production did not affect the health status, development, or passive transfer of immunity in Brahman calves.

  18. Vitrification of in vitro produced bovine blastocysts: methodological studies and developmental capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnay, I; Auquier, P; Kaidi, S; Carolan, C; Lonergan, P; Mermillod, P; Massip, A

    1998-08-21

    Methodological studies were undertaken to test the validity of a three-step vitrification procedure for bovine in vitro produced embryos using glycerol and ethylene glycol as cryoprotectants. Embryos were produced in a low-phosphate culture system (medium VT1 + 10% foetal calf serum) and vitrified at day 7 post-insemination either in a mixture of 25% glycerol--25% ethylene glycol or a mixture of 10% glycerol--40% ethylene glycol. In the first mixture 67% (n = 283) of blastocysts were re-expanded after 72 h of culture and 53% were hatched while in the second one (n = 65) only 5% survived. The mean number of cells of the surviving blastocysts was correlated with the rate of survival (R2 = 0.47; P = 0.0024). Embryo size (diameter to 180 microm) did not influence blastocyst survival or cell number, but hatching rate was higher for embryos > 180 microm. Embryo survival, hatching rate and cell number 72 h post-warming were not affected by the mode of vitrification (direct plunging into nitrogen liquid or vitrification into nitrogen liquid vapour), the mode of preparation of the vitrification solutions (molar or molal basis) or by the concentration of galactose used as a diluent (0 to 0.85 M). Only one calf was born after transfer of 22 vitrified blastocysts. These results confirm the apparent lack of correlation for cryopreserved embryos between in vitro survival or hatching and viability after transfer.

  19. Screening of biotechnical parameters for production of bovine inter-subspecies embryonic chimeras by the aggregation of tetraploid Bos indicus and diploid crossbred Bos taurus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Eduardo M; Satrapa, Rafael A; Emanuelli, Isabele P; Barros, Ciro M; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-03-01

    The aggregation of a tetraploid zebu embryo (Bos indicus, a thermotolerant breed) with a diploid taurine embryo (Bos taurus, a thermosensitive breed) should create a complete taurine fetus, whose extra-embryonic components, e.g., the chorion, is derived mainly from the zebu embryo. These zebu-derived extra-embryonic components may interact positively with the taurine embryo/fetus during pregnancy in a tropical environment. We tested different parameters for the production of tetraploid Nelore (Bos indicus) embryos to be combined via aggregation with crossbred Bos taurus (diploid) embryos in order to produce viable chimeric blastocysts. Bovine (Bos indicus or crossbred Bos taurus) embryos were produced in vitro according to standard procedures. Two-cell Bos indicus embryos were submitted to electrofusion with varying numbers of pulses (1 or 2), voltages (0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.4 and 5.0 kV/cm) and time (20, 25, 50 and 60 μs) to produce tetraploid embryos. Electrofused embryos were cultured with crossbred non-fused embryos to form chimeras that developed until the blastocyst stage. The best fusion parameter was 0.75 kV/cm for 60 μs. Four chimeric blastocysts (tetraploid Nelore with diploid crossbred Holstein) were formed after 31 attempts in 4 replicates (13%). We established an optimal procedure for the production of tetraploid Bos indicus (4n) embryos and embryonic chimeras by aggregation of crossbred Bos taurus (2n) with Bos indicus (4n) embryos. This technique would be valid in applied research, by producing exclusively taurine calves, but with placental elements from the Bos indicus breed, following transfer of these chimeras into recipient cows. Copyright © 2015 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient production of sex-identified and cryosurvived bovine in-vitro produced blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Keiichiro; Hamada, Yukako

    2004-04-15

    To establish a protocol for production of bovine in-vitro produced (IVP) blastocysts that were sex-identified and cryopreserved, we examined the sexing efficiency and accuracy of Day-3 and Day-4 embryos by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the development of the biopsied embryos into Day-7 blastocysts and the freezability of these blastocysts by vitrification in gel-loading tips. One or two blastomeres were isolated from IVP embryos at either the 8-cell or 16-cell stage (Days 3 and 4, respectively) by a pressing-out method, and were then subjected to primer extension preamplification (PEP)-PCR. The successful sex-identification rate of biopsied samples amplified, purified and analyzed for sex by a second PCR (88.9%) was higher than that of those amplified and analyzed without purification (32.0%). Developmental rates into Day-7 blastocysts of biopsied embryos (Day-3, 65.5%; Day-4, 70.8%) were similar to those of non-biopsied control embryos (Day-3, 74.5%; Day-4, 65.1%). Total cell numbers and the inner cell mass (ICM) ratio of blastocysts derived from biopsied embryos were also comparable with those of control embryos. Blastocysts were vitrified-warmed in the presence of 20% DMSO, 20% ethylene glycol and 0.6M sucrose using gel-loading tips as containers. The proportions of biopsied blastocysts that were hatched or hatching rates after warming were high, regardless of the biopsy time (Day-3, 94.1%; Day-4, 91.9%), similar to the rates for control blastocysts (Day-3, 97.5%; Day-4, 96.9%). In conclusion, a protocol that allows sexing of Day-3 and Day-4 bovine embryos without compromising either the developmental ability to the blastocyst stage or freezability of Day-7 blastocysts was developed.

  1. Application of hollow fiber vitrification for cryopreservation of bovine early cleavage stage embryos and porcine morula-blastomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikura, Ayuko; Matsunari, Hitomi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Hatae, Shota; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2016-04-22

    A novel hollow fiber vitrification (HFV) method was applied to materials that have previously been difficult to cryopreserve, thereby expanding the potential application of this method. The results showed that zona-free porcine morulae and their isolated blastomeres remained viable even after vitrification. The rate of development to blastocysts after vitrification was similar for zona-free and zona-intact morulae (21/23, 91.3% for both). Vitrified blastomeres had a developmental potential equal to that of non-vitrified blastomeres (blastocyst formation rate after reaggregation: 16/17, 94.1% for both). The HFV method was also effective for the cryopreservation of in vitro matured/fertilized bovine embryos at the 2- to 4-cell, 8- to 16-cell and morula stages. The blastocyst formation rates of vitrified embryos (66.1-82.5%) were similar to those of non-vitrified embryos (74.5-82.5%). These results indicate that this novel HFV method is an effective tool for embryo cryopreservation that can enhance current practices in reproductive biology.

  2. Forced collapse of the blastocoel enhances survival of cryotop vitrified bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Hun; Lee, Enok; Son, Hyeong-Hoon; Yeon, Ji-Yeong; Koo, Deog-Bon

    2013-04-01

    Freezing of bovine blastocysts has been widely used to improve the feasibility of cattle production by the embryo transfer technique. However, the low survival of vitrified-warmed embryos and their further development are crucial problems. Particularly, the production of offspring in vitrified-warmed bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is very low. Thus, we examined the effects of forced blastocoel collapse (FBC) before vitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched embryos on the survival rate and apoptosis index after warming. Under optimal conditions, the overall survival rates in vitrified-warmed bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts were higher in FBC groups than in non-FBC groups (pvitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental potential of vitrified holstein cattle embryos fertilized in vitro with sex-sorted sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Guo, Z; Su, L; Nedambale, T L; Zhang, J; Schenk, J; Moreno, J F; Dinnyés, A; Ji, W; Tian, X C; Yang, X; Du, F

    2006-07-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a feasible way to utilize sex-sorted sperm to produce offspring of a predetermined sex in the livestock industry. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of various factors on bovine IVF and to systematically improve the efficiency of IVF production using sex-sorted sperm. Both bulls and sorting contributed to the variability among differential development rates of embryos fertilized by sexed sperm. Increased sorting pressures (275.8 to 344.75 kPa) did not have a significant effect on the in vitro fertility of the sorted sperm; neither did an extended period of 9 to 14 h from semen collection to sorting. As few as 600 sorted sperm were used to fertilize an oocyte, resulting in blastocyst development of 33.2%. Postwarming of vitrified sexed IVF embryos resulted in high morphological survival (96.3%) and hatching (84.4%) rates, similar to those fertilized by nonsexed sperm (93.1 and 80.6%, respectively). A 40.9% pregnancy rate was established following the transfer of 3,627 vitrified, sexed embryos into synchronized recipients. This was not different from the rates with nonsexed IVF (41.9%, n = 481), or in vivo-produced (53.1%, n = 192) embryos. Of 458 calves born, 442 (96.5%) were female and 99.6% appeared normal. These technologies (sperm sexing-IVF-vitrification-embryo transfer) provide farmers, as well as the livestock industry, with a valuable option for herd expansion and heifer replacement programs. In summary, calves were produced using embryos fertilized by sex-sorted sperm in vitro and cryopreserved by rapid cooling vitrification.

  4. Different co-culture systems have the same impact on bovine embryo transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A Vitorino; Canon, E; Jouneau, L; Archilla, C; Laffont, L; Moroldo, M; Ruffini, S; Corbin, E; Mermillod, P; Duranthon, V

    2017-11-01

    During the last few years, several co-culture systems using either BOEC or VERO feeder cells have been developed to improve bovine embryo development and these systems give better results at high oxygen concentration (20%). In parallel, the SOF medium, used at 5% O2, has been developed to mimic the oviduct fluid. Since 2010s, the SOF medium has become popular in improving bovine embryo development and authors have started to associate this medium to co-culture systems. Nevertheless, little is known about the putative benefit of this association on early development. To address this question, we have compared embryo transcriptomes in four different culture conditions: SOF with BOEC or VERO at 20% O2, and SOF without feeders at 5% or 20% O2 Embryos have been analyzed at 16-cell and blastocyst stages. Co-culture systems did not improve the developmental rate when compared to 5% O2 Direct comparison of the two co-culture systems failed to highlight major differences in embryo transcriptome at both developmental stages. Both feeder cell types appear to regulate the same cytokines and growth factors pathways, and thus to influence embryo physiology in the same way. In blastocysts, when compared to culture in SOF at 5% O2, BOEC or VERO seems to reduce cell survival and differentiation by, at least, negatively regulating STAT3 and STAT5 pathways. Collectively, in SOF medium both blastocysts rate and embryo transcriptome suggest no influence of feeder origin on bovine early development and no beneficial impact of co-culture systems when compared to 5% O2. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  5. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of the recipient within a bovine embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Duica A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.

  6. Effect of maternal age on the ratio of cleavage and mitochondrial DNA copy number in early developmental stage bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Shun; Goto, Hiroya; Kuwayama, Takehito; Monji, Yasunori; Iwata, Hisataka

    2013-01-01

    Age-associated deterioration in both the quality and quantity of mitochondria occurs in older women. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of age on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA number) in early developmental stage bovine embryos as well as the dynamics of mtDNA number during early embryo development. Real-time PCR was used to determine mtDNA number. In vitro-produced embryos 48 h after insemination derived from Japanese black cows, ranging in age from 25 to 209 months were categorized based on their cleavage status. There was an overall negative relationship between the age of the cow and cleavage status, to the extent that the ratio of embryos cleaved over the 4-cell stage was greater in younger cows. The mtDNA number did not differ among the cleaved status of embryos. In the next experiment, oocytes collected from each donor cow were divided into 2 groups containing 10 oocytes each, in order to compare the mtDNA number of mature oocytes and early developmental stage embryos within individuals. Upon comparing the mtDNA number between oocytes at the M2 stage and early developmental stage 48 h post insemination, mtDNA number was found to decrease in most cows, but was found to increase in some cows. In conclusion, age affects the cleaving ability of oocytes, and very old cows (> 180 months) tend to have lower mtDNA numbers in their oocytes. The change in mtDNA number during early development varied among individual cows, although overall, it showed a tendency to decrease.

  7. Vitrification of immature feline oocytes with a commercial kit for bovine embryo vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparicio, M; Ruggeri, E; Luvoni, G C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a commercial kit for bovine embryo vitrification for cryopreserving cat oocytes and to evaluate comparatively the effects of its use with slow freezing procedure on cryotolerance in terms of morphology and oocyte resumption of meiosis. Germinal vesicle stage oocytes isolated from cat ovaries were either vitrified (n = 72) using a vitrification kit for bovine embryo or slow frozen (n = 69) by exposing oocyte to ethylene glycol solution before being transferred to a programmable embryo freezer. After thawing and warming, oocytes were cultured for 48 h and then were examined for meiosis resumption using bisbenzimide fluorescent staining (Hoechst 33342). Fresh immature oocytes (n = 92) were used as the control group. The proportion of oocytes recovered in a morphologically normal state after thawing/warming was significantly higher in frozen oocytes (94.5%) than in the vitrified ones (75%, p vitrification compared to 60.9% of those submitted to slow freezing procedure (p bovine embryos retain their capacity to resume meiosis after warming and culture, albeit at lower rates than slow frozen oocytes. Vitrification and slow freezing methods show similar proportions of oocytes with normal morphology after culture, which demonstrate that thawed and warmed oocytes that resist to cryodamage have the same chances to maintain their integrity after 48 h of culture. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. mRNA fragments in in vitro culture media are associated with bovine preimplantation embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Khatib, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) systems have been used to bypass problems of fertilization and early embryonic development. However, embryos produced by IVP are commonly selected for implantation based on morphological assessment, which is not a strong indicator of establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, there is a need to identify additional indicators of embryonic developmental potential. Previous studies have identified microRNA expression in in vitro culture media to be indicative of embryo quality in both bovine and human embryos. Like microRNAs, mRNAs have been shown to be secreted from cells into the extracellular environment, but it is unknown whether or not these RNAs are secreted by embryos. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine whether mRNAs are secreted into in vitro culture media and if their expression in the media is indicative of embryo quality. In vitro culture medium was generated and collected from both blastocyst and degenerate (those which fail to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage) embryos. Small-RNA sequencing revealed that many mRNA fragments were present in the culture media. A total of 17 mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between blastocyst and degenerate conditioned media. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR for fragments of mRNA POSTN and VSNL-1, in four additional biological replicates of media. To better understand the mechanisms of mRNA secretion into the media, the expression of a predicted RNA binding protein of POSTN, PUM2, was knocked down using an antisense oligonucleotide gapmer. Supplementation of a PUM2 gapmer significantly reduced blastocyst development and decreased secretion of POSTN mRNA into the media. Overall, differential mRNA expression in the media was repeatable and sets the framework for future study of mRNA biomarkers in in vitro culture media to improve predictability of reproductive performance.

  9. Melatonin inhibits paraquat-induced cell death in bovine preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yun-Wei; Sun, Ye-Qing; Sun, Wei-Jun; Du, Wei-Hua; Hao, Hai-Sheng; Zhao, Shan-Jiang; Zhu, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Preimplantation embryos are sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage that can be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from normal embryonic metabolism and/or the external surroundings. Paraquat (PQ), a commonly used pesticide and potent ROS generator, can induce embryotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin on PQ-induced damage during embryonic development in bovine preimplantation embryos. PQ treatment significantly reduced the ability of bovine embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage, and the addition of melatonin markedly reversed the developmental failure caused by PQ (20.9% versus 14.3%). Apoptotic assay showed that melatonin pretreatment did not change the total cell number in blastocysts, but the incidence of apoptotic nuclei and the release of cytochrome c were significantly decreased. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that melatonin pre-incubation significantly altered the expression levels of genes associated with redox signaling, particularly by attenuating the transcript level of Txnip and reinforcing the expression of Trx. Furthermore, melatonin pretreatment significantly reduced the expression of the pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and Bax, while the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and XIAP was unaffected. Western blot analysis showed that melatonin protected bovine embryos from PQ-induced damage in a p38-dependent manner, but extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) did not appear to be involved. Together, these results identify an underlying mechanism by which melatonin enhances the developmental potential of bovine preimplantation embryos under oxidative stress conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of Temporary Meiotic Attenuation of Oocytes with Butyrolactone I and Roscovitine in Resistance to Bovine Embryos on Vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziero, R R D; Guaitolini, C R F; Paschoal, D M; Kievitsbosch, T; Guastali, M D; Moraes, C N; Landim-Alvarenga, F C

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to produce in vitro bovine embryos by the addition of two drugs, which is responsible for oocyte meiosis inhibition: roscovitine (ROS) and butyrolactone I (BL-I). Oocytes were recovered from slaughtered cows and matured in a commercial medium and maintained in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Oocytes were maintained for 6 h in an in vitro maturation (IVM) medium containing ROS (12.5 μm), BL-I (50 μm) and association of drugs (ROS 6.25 μm and BL-I 25 μm). Oocytes were cultured for 18 h in an agent-free medium for the resumption of meiosis. After 24 h of maturation, oocytes were inseminated in the commercial in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOFaa medium in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. On day 3, rate of cleavage was evaluated and on days 6 and 7, rate of blastocyst formation. BL-I and its association with the ROS increased the rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation (p vitrification process, presenting a higher rate of embryonic re-expansion (p < 0.05). In conclusion, block of meiosis using BL-I or its association with ROS increased the rate of blastocyst formation, and the association of ROS+BL-I resulted in a better resistance to the embryo cryopreservation process. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Short- and long-term outcomes of the absence of protein during bovine blastocyst formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Ríos, A; Maillo, V; Muñoz, M; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Carrocera, S; Martín-González, D; Fernandez-Buznego, A; Gómez, E

    2017-06-01

    In cattle, individual in vitro embryo culture after Day 6 benefits development, allowing non-invasive analysis of culture medium. However, undefined supplements in culture reduce analytical reliability. In this study we assayed the short- and long-term performance of embryos after bovine serum albumin removal over a 24-h period in individual culture. The absence of protein decreased embryo development and cell counts in the inner cell mass without affecting blastocyst sex ratio. However, the absence of protein produced embryos with an improved tendency to survive vitrification after 24h in culture (P=0.07). After transfer to recipients, birth rates of embryos that had been cultured with protein tended to decrease (Pembryos cultured with or without protein. In fresh blastocysts cultured without protein, gene expression analysis showed higher abundance (Pembryos cultured without protein (P<0.01). The absence of protein results in fewer blastocysts but improved long-term viability after cryopreservation.

  12. Vitrification of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro inflicts selective damage to the inner cell mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, E; Muñoz, M; Rodríguez, A; Caamaño, J N; Facal, N; Díez, C

    2009-04-01

    In contrast to the embryos derived from live animals, the embryos produced in vitro undergo increased damage and reduced survival after cryopreservation, particularly when produced with serum. In medium containing serum, retinoic acid increases cell numbers in the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm without altering their relative proportions in the bovine blastocyst. In this work, in medium without serum, we analyzed the contribution of retinoic acid to the development of blastocyst and survival to vitrification, and found a strong cell reduction in the inner mass when compared to the trophectoderm. Day-6 in vitro-produced morulae were treated for 24 h with retinoic acid (0.7 and 1.4 microm) and subsequently cultured without additives for a further 24 h period. Day-8 blastocyst production and cell counts in hatched blastocysts were unaffected by retinoic acid. However, Day-7 expanded, vitrified embryos produced with retinoic acid 1.4 microm survived at lower rates than controls when cultured after warming. Vitrification greatly reduced cell numbers in the inner mass (p vitro survival to cryopreservation is sometimes scarcely informative on the viability of the embryo after transfer to recipients.

  13. Cholesterol added prior to vitrification on the cryotolerance of immature and in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcarons, Núria; Morató, Roser; Vendrell, Meritxell; Yeste, Marc; López-Bejar, Manel; Rajapaksha, Kosala; Anzar, Muhammad; Mogas, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether incorporating cholesterol-loaded methyl-β-cyclodextrin (CLC) in the bovine oocyte plasma membrane improves oocyte tolerance to vitrification. In vitro matured oocytes were incubated with 2 mg/ml BODIPY-labeled CLC for different time intervals in FCS or PVA supplemented medium or exposed to different CLC concentrations to examine the subcellular localization of cholesterol by confocal microscopy live-cell imaging. Subsequently, the effects of optimized CLC concentrations and incubation times prior to vitrification on early embryo development were assessed. Then, we evaluated the effects of pretreatment with 2 mg/ml CLC for 30 min before the vitrification of immature (GV) and in vitro matured (MII) oocytes on developmental competence and gene expression. Our results indicate a high plasma membrane labeling intensity after 30 min of incubation with 2 mg/ml CLC for 30 min, regardless of the holding medium used. When oocytes were incubated with 1 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml of CLC, intense labeling was observed at the plasma membrane after 40, 30 and 20 min, respectively. CLC pre-treatment before the vitrification of bovine oocytes did not affect subsequent cleavage and embryo development rates irrespective of CLC concentrations, incubation times or meiotic stage. However, pretreatment seems to improve the quality of embryos derived from vitrified oocytes, mainly when oocytes were vitrified at the GV stage.

  14. Cholesterol added prior to vitrification on the cryotolerance of immature and in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Arcarons

    Full Text Available This study examines whether incorporating cholesterol-loaded methyl-β-cyclodextrin (CLC in the bovine oocyte plasma membrane improves oocyte tolerance to vitrification. In vitro matured oocytes were incubated with 2 mg/ml BODIPY-labeled CLC for different time intervals in FCS or PVA supplemented medium or exposed to different CLC concentrations to examine the subcellular localization of cholesterol by confocal microscopy live-cell imaging. Subsequently, the effects of optimized CLC concentrations and incubation times prior to vitrification on early embryo development were assessed. Then, we evaluated the effects of pretreatment with 2 mg/ml CLC for 30 min before the vitrification of immature (GV and in vitro matured (MII oocytes on developmental competence and gene expression. Our results indicate a high plasma membrane labeling intensity after 30 min of incubation with 2 mg/ml CLC for 30 min, regardless of the holding medium used. When oocytes were incubated with 1 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml of CLC, intense labeling was observed at the plasma membrane after 40, 30 and 20 min, respectively. CLC pre-treatment before the vitrification of bovine oocytes did not affect subsequent cleavage and embryo development rates irrespective of CLC concentrations, incubation times or meiotic stage. However, pretreatment seems to improve the quality of embryos derived from vitrified oocytes, mainly when oocytes were vitrified at the GV stage.

  15. Debating Elective Single Embryo Transfer after in vitro Fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has restored hope to millions of infertile couples globally, with In vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer offered in virtually all. ART units. This development in medicine lead to the delivery of the first test tube baby named Louise Brown on July 25,. 1978 in Oldham, England after a ...

  16. Debating elective single embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of embryos transferred after in vitro fertilization (IVF) have been a topic of debate for over a decade now. Due to the risk associated with multiple pregnancy, there has been a global effort at reducing the multiple pregnancy rates to a minimum while maintaining an acceptable level of successful IVF pregnancy ...

  17. Miliary tuberculosis after in vitro fertilization and embryo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: With the development of assisted reproductive technology, more patients with infertility prefer to get pregnant by in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation (IVF-ET). But the indications of IVF-ET must be strictly controlled by the clinicians. Case report: We described a case of a 29-year-old pregnant Chinese ...

  18. In vitro culture of mouse embryos amniotic fluid ID human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... Human amniotic fluid was compared with Ham's F-10 culture medium as a possible alternative for use in in vitro fertilisation. The cleavage success of mouse embryos in human amniotic fluid (experimental group) was 92% compared with 86% in. Ham's F-10 medium. It is concluded that human amniotic.

  19. Leucemia inhibitory factor; investigating the time-dependent effect on viability of vitrified bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, A; Cevik, M

    2017-12-01

    Leucemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is involved in various reproductive processes, including sperm development, regulation of ovulation, as well as blastocyst formation, hatching and implantation in embryos. Moreover, LIF has also been shown significantly to enhance the blastocyst formation rates of bovine embryos, a finding that remains controversial. Our purpose was to investigate time-dependent effect of LIF on bovine embryo culture, especially in terms of addition timing. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in five different groups. In this study, 100 ng/ml LIF was added to the culture medium were as follows; control: SOF alone, group A: at day 0 (fertilization day), group B: at day 4 post-insemination (p.i.), group C: at day 4 to 7 (p.i. before vitrification) and group D: at day 8 (p.i. after thawing). Addition of LIF to the culture medium at day 4 significantly increased the percentage of blastocyst rate when compared day 0, day 4 at 6/7 and control group (41.8% versus 24.3%, 19.7%, 34.6%). In conclusion, the addition of LIF only on day 4 (p.i.) to the culture medium was found to be beneficial for bovine embryonic development based on several measures, including blastocysts rate, re-expansion rate and cellular cryotolerance after vitrification. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Calves born after direct transfer of vitrified bovine in vitro-produced blastocysts derived from vitrified immature oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A D; Forell, F; Feltrin, C; Rodrigues, J L

    2008-06-01

    Vitrification has been the method of choice for the cryopreservation of bovine oocytes, as rapid cooling decreases chilling sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo survival and the viability of immature oocytes vitrified using super-cooled liquid nitrogen. Immature oocytes were randomly allocated to three groups: (i) non-vitrified control group, (ii) vitrified in normal (-196 degrees C) liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) and (iii) vitrified in super-cooled LN(2) (vitrification containers. Immature oocytes were in vitro-matured, fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage. In vitro viability was assessed by cleavage and blastocyst rates on days 2 and 7 of culture respectively. Vitrified blastocysts derived from the immature vitrified oocytes were directly transferred to synchronous recipients. The in vitro embryo development of vitrified immature oocytes was not influenced by the LN(2) state. After direct transfer (one embryo per recipient) of 16 embryos obtained from immature vitrified oocytes (eight from each vitrified group), two healthy calves were born in each group. These results indicated that vitrification of immature bovine oocytes using glass micropipettes under normal or super-cooled LN(2), resulted in viable blastocysts and live calves following in vitro embryo production.

  1. Kinetics data from bovine sex-specific embryo development from three different bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present kinetics data from bovine sex-specific embryo development. Embryos were originated using sex-sorted semen from three different Nelore bulls, and semen from the same batch was used for X-and Y-chromosome spermatozoa sorting. Data was obtained for six time points (24, 48, 96, 120, and 144 h.p.i.. Analyses for each bull׳s embryos (1, 2 and 3 is presented for female and male groups separately. Also, grouped data analysis, considering bull and sex interaction, is shown. For further interpretation and discussion, see "Cell death is involved in sexual dimorphism during preimplantation development" (Oliveira et al., 2015 [1].

  2. In Vitro Growth and Maturation of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes Collected from Early Antral Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAO, Yuji; SOMFAI, Tamás; NARUSE, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Cryopreservation of growing oocytes enriches the choice of timing and location of artificial embryo production. However, completion of oocyte growth after warming is crucial when using such cryopreserved oocytes. Our research objective was to develop a sequential system that incorporates cryopreservation of growing bovine oocytes and their subsequent in vitro growth. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes with a mean oocyte diameter of approximately 100 µm were vitrified-warmed and then cultured for 14 days. The percentage of surviving oocytes following cryopreservation and 14-day culture was approximately 80%. More than half of the surviving oocytes were capable of maturing to metaphase II after in vitro maturation; the rate was comparable to that of control oocytes grown in vitro without cryopreservation. Taken together, the combined protocols for vitrification-warming of growing oocytes and subsequent in vitro growth can produce oocytes capable of undergoing meiotic maturation. PMID:24126072

  3. A simple and efficient method to transfect small interference RNA into bovine SCNT embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, LiJun; Li, WenZhe; Mao, QingFu; Wang, YongSheng; Li, Qian; Hua, Song; Zhang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    RNA interference is an important tool to study the gene function. Microinjection and electroporation are usually used to transfer DNA, small interference RNA (siRNA), morpholinos, and protein into oocytes or embryos. This study used a simple and effective method to transfect siRNA into bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. In this method, siRNA transfection and electrofusion of SCNT were combined. A pair of platinum microelectrodes was used during SCNT to complete electrofusion. A CY3-labeled siRNA-targeted DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) was chosen to verify the siRNA transfection efficiency of this approach. First, a suitable concentration of siRNA was mixed with Zimmermann's fusion medium. Reconstructed embryos were then added into the microdrops of the mixed fusion medium to simultaneously transfect the siRNA and electrofuse the SCNT embryos. Our results showed that transfecting DNMT1 siRNA via the proposed method caused obvious CY3 fluorescence and significant downregulation of DNMT1 messenger RNA, DNMT1 protein, and global DNA methylation levels in the SCNT embryos. Meanwhile, the survival rate after electrofusion (90.4% vs. 89.4% vs. 89.1%, P > 0.05) and developmental rates of the SCNT embryos (72.8% vs. 74.9% vs. 72.4%, P > 0.05; 29.7% vs. 31.7% vs. 29.7%, P > 0.05) were not significantly affected. In summary, siRNAs were effectively transfected into the SCNT embryos via the proposed method and exert their functions, and the normal development of preimplantation SCNT embryos was not affected by the method used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell counts and survival to vitrification of bovine in vitro produced blastocysts subjected to sublethal high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigal, B; Muñoz, M; Gómez, E; Caamaño, J N; Martin, D; Carrocera, S; Casais, R; Diez, C

    2013-04-01

    This work analyses the effects of a high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on in vitro survival of in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos vitrified with the Cryologic Vitrification Method (CVM). Consequences on embryo quality in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation, and levels of embryonic Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp-70) were also examined. Day 7 and 8 bovine in vitro-produced blastocysts were submitted to an HHP treatment (60 MPa, at 32 °C for 1 h) and allowed to recover for 1 or 2 h in culture medium. The HHP treatment did not improve blastocyst survival rates after vitrification/warming. Survival (24 h post-warming) and hatching (48 h post-warming) rates were 79.3 ± 4.9 and 51.8 ± 4.2 vs 73.9 ± 4.2 and 44.7 ± 4.1 for untreated controls and HHP-treated embryos, respectively. Total cell numbers measured in fresh embryos were reduced after 1 h at 32 °C, with or without HHP treatment, indicating that cell proliferation was stopped as a result of stress. Vitrified HHP-treated embryos that hatched at 48 h after warming showed increased cell numbers in their ICM compared with untreated controls (50.2 ± 3.1 vs 38.8 ± 2.7), indicating higher embryo quality. Treatment of blastocysts with HHP did not alter the level of the Hsp-70 protein. In our conditions, HHP treatment did not affect the cryoresistance of these embryos. However, combination of HHP treatment and vitrification in fibreplugs resulted in an increase in the ICM cell number of hatched embryos 48 h post-warming. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. mRNA Fragments in In-Vitro Culture Media are Associated with Bovine Preimplantation Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna eKropp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro production (IVP systems have been used to bypass problems of fertilization and early embryonic development. However, embryos produced by IVP are commonly selected for implantation based on morphological assessment, which is not a strong indicator of establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, there is a need to identify additional indicators of embryonic developmental potential. Previous studies have identified microRNA expression in in vitro culture media to be indicative of embryo quality in both bovine and human embryos. Like microRNAs, mRNAs have been shown to be secreted from cells into the extracellular environment, but it is unknown whether or not these RNAs are secreted by embryos. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine whether mRNAs are secreted into in vitro culture media and if their expression in the media is indicative of embryo quality. In vitro culture medium was generated and collected from both blastocyst and degenerate (those which fail to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage embryos. Small-RNA sequencing revealed that many mRNA fragments were present in the culture media. A total of 17 mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between blastocyst and degenerated conditioned media. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR for

  6. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial...

  7. Protection of bovine monozygotic twin by means of embryo microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Monaci

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Após a microcirurgia dos embriões bovinos para a obtenção de gêmeos monozigóticos, passa-se ao exame dos resultados obtidos com o transplante dos mesmos nas receptoras, tendo sido este efetuado imediatamente após a duplicação, ou após o seu desenvolvimento "in vitro" por 36 horas, obtendo uma taxa de gravidez de 42% e de 72% respectivamente.

  8. Temperature and photoperiod responses of soybean embryos cultured in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Patterson, R. P.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Temperature and photoperiod each have direct effects on growth rate of excised embryos of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). To determine if the effects of photoperiod are altered by temperature, embryos of 'Ransom II' were cultured in vitro at 18, 24, and 30 degrees C under photoperiod durations of 12 and 18 h at an irradiance of 9 W m-2 (700 to 850 nm) and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 58 micromoles m-2 s-1 (400 to 700 nm). Accumulation rates of fresh and dry weight were greater under 18-h than 12-h photoperiods over the entire range of temperature. Water content of the culture embryos was not affected by photoperiod but was greater at 18 and 30 than 24 degrees C. The accumulation rate of dry weight increased from 18 to 26 but declined at 30 degrees C.

  9. Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplatation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille L.; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Tonny S.

    2014-01-01

    The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass differenti......The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass...... fluid and cellular components were isolated from 12 ovoid and three elongated embryos and using nano-high-performance liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation proteomic analysis, a total of 9652 unique proteins were identified. We performed...

  10. Survival and development of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro after assisted hatching, vitrification and in-straw direct rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, G; Holm, P; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an efficient combination of assisted hatching and cryopreservation procedures for producing bovine embryos in vitro. A total of 1312 day 7 blastocysts were subjected randomly to 14 different combinations of three factors: osmotic stress, assisted hatching and vitrification. Re-expansion, initiation and completion of the hatching process, as well as attachment to the culture dish, were analysed by SAS Genmod procedure. Incubation with sucrose was found to decrease survival rates; among the assisted hatching procedures used, zona fenestration resulted in higher survival rates compared with partial zona dissection and controls; and vitrification decreased survival and further development. The combined effect of sucrose incubation and vitrification decreased further development markedly, as did partial zona dissection followed by vitrification. Partial zona dissection performed in medium containing sucrose severely lowered embryo survival. Zona fenestration without sucrose incubation followed by vitrification did not compromise further embryo development: 86%, 84% and 79% of the blastocysts initiated, completed hatching and attached to the bottom, respectively. These data were not different from the controls (80%, 76% and 63%, respectively; P > 0.05). Cell count analysis revealed a decrease in the total number of cells as a result of the assisted hatching and vitrification compared with controls (135 versus 202, respectively; P embryo transfer results (36% pregnancy rate and 30% calving rate) require further improvement, this combination of methods may prove useful in the commercial production of bovine embryos in vitro.

  11. In vitro development of embryos from experimentally Kerack-addicted Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mohammadzadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal drug exposure, as a common public health concern, is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects on early embryo development. Objective: To investigate the in vitro development of - embryo from experimentally Kerack-addicted mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five female mice were studied in five groups: control, vehicle, and three experimental groups of Kerack-dependent mice (I, II, and III which received different doses of Kerack for 14 days. After the establishment of addiction model (7 days, experimental groups I, II, and III were given Kerack intraperitoneally at the doses of 5, 35, and 70 mg/kg, twice a day for a period of 7 days, respectively. The vehicle group received normal saline and lemon juice whilst the control group just received water and food. Morulae were obtained through oviduct flashing. The survived embryos were cultured in T6+ 5mg/ml bovine serum albumin. The developmental rates up to hatched stage daily and embryo quality (differential staining and Tunnel staining were also assessed Results: The developmental potential of embryos obtained from the addicted mother was significantly decreased in comparison with control group. There was a significant reduction in the rate of blastocyst formation in the high dose Kerack dependent group. However, in addicted mice there was reduction in the total cell number (40.92% vs. 65.08% in control and, inner cell mass percentage (17.17% vs. 26.15% in control while apoptotic cells numbers were increased (7.17 vs. 1.46 in control (p<0.05. Conclusion: The Kerack addiction during pregnancy retards preimplantation development and induces apoptosis.

  12. Nuclear and nuclear reprogramming during the first cell cycle in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Petrovicova, Ida; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The immediate events of genomic reprogramming at somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are to high degree unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the nuclear and nucleolar changes during the first cell cycle. Bovine SCNT embryos were produced from starved bovine fibroblasts and fixed......, somatic cell nuclei introduced into enucleated oocytes displayed chromatin condensation, partial nuclear envelope breakdown, nucleolar desegregation and transcriptional quiescence already at 0.5 hpa. Somatic cell cytoplasm remained temporally attached to introduced nucleus and nucleolus was partially...... restored indicating somatic influence in the early SCNT phases. At 1-3 hpa, chromatin gradually decondensed toward the nucleus periphery and nuclear envelope reformed. From 4 hpa, the somatic cell nucleus gained a PN-like appearance and displayed NPBs suggesting ooplasmic control of development....

  13. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  14. Expression and distribution of cell adhesion-related proteins in bovine parthenogenetic embryos: The effects of oocyte vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Fu, Xiangwei; Zhou, Guangbin; Yue, Mingxing; Zhou, Yanhua; Zhu, Shien

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to investigate expression of cell adhesion-related proteins (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and the cytoskeletal protein F-actin) in bovine parthenogenetic embryos derived from vitrified-warmed oocytes. Bovine oocytes at metaphase II were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) untreated (control); (2) exposed to vitrification solution without freezing (toxicity); and (3) vitrified and warmed by the open-pulled straw method (vitrification). After parthenogenetic activation, in the vitrification group compared with the control, the timing of compaction was delayed in (108-120 vs. 96-108 hours, respectively), and the percentage of blastocysts that developed from eight-cell embryos was lower (32.08% vs. 61.03%; P vitrification delayed embryo compaction by affecting adhesion junction formation and function, immunostaining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were done to characterize distribution patterns (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and the cytoskeletal protein F-actin) and expression levels of cell adhesion-related proteins (β-catenin). Distribution of β-catenin in eight-cell embryos from the vitrification group changed dramatically compared with the control and toxicity groups. Relative expression of β-catenin at the mRNA and protein levels was lower (P bovine parthenogenetic eight-cell embryos derived from vitrified-warmed oocytes were associated with embryo compaction and reduced competence for subsequent embryo development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of in vitro culture and transfection condition of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to optimize the in vitro culture and transfection efficiency of bovine primary spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To this end, SSCs were obtained from newborn Holstein bull calves by two-step enzymatic digestion. After enrichment and culture, SSCs were characterized by using alkaline phosphatase ...

  16. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... To investigate the effect of different concentrations of melatonin on bovine oocytes in vitro maturation, varying concentrations of melatonin .... solution (30 - 35°C) containing 100 IU/ml penicillin and 100 g/ml streptomycin (15140-122 .... The adverse effect will compromise fertility potential (Peter and Adashi, ...

  17. STUDIES REGARDING CULTURE MEDIUM INFLUENCE ON IN VITRO REGENERATION FROM WHEAT IMATURE EMBRYOS

    OpenAIRE

    M. DANCI; OANA DANCI; F. BERBENTEA

    2013-01-01

    Surnamed „embryos’ saving method”, embryos culture is an in vitro technique used for over half of the century for saving the distant hybridization products, that would have degenerate in other conditions. Immature embryos culture is used for initiation of in vitro cultures imposed by the impossibility of using other explants for some of the plant species. Wheat is one of the crops that immature embryos culture technique is suitable for. This methods principle is based on aseptic embryos excis...

  18. Effects of Two Types of Melatonin-Loaded Nanocapsules with Distinct Supramolecular Structures: Polymeric (NC) and Lipid-Core Nanocapsules (LNC) on Bovine Embryo Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Remião, Mariana Härter; Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Domingues, William Borges; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Jornada, Denise Soledade; Deschamps, João Carlos; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Bordignon, Vilceu; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been used as a supplement in culture medium to improve the efficiency of in vitro produced mammalian embryos. Through its ability to scavenge toxic oxygen derivatives and regulate cellular mRNA levels for antioxidant enzymes, this molecule has been shown to play a protective role against damage by free radicals, to which in vitro cultured embryos are exposed during early development. In vivo and in vitro studies have been performed showing that the use of nanocapsules as active substances carriers increases stability, bioavailability and biodistribution of drugs, such as melatonin, to the cells and tissues, improving their antioxidant properties. These properties can be modulated through the manipulation of formula composition, especially in relation to the supramolecular structures of the nanocapsule core and the surface area that greatly influences drug release mechanisms in biological environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two types of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules with distinct supramolecular structures, polymeric (NC) and lipid-core (LNC) nanocapsules, on in vitro cultured bovine embryos. Embryonic development, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA levels of genes involved in cell apoptosis, ROS and cell pluripotency were evaluated after supplementation of culture medium with non-encapsulated melatonin (Mel), melatonin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (Mel-NC) and melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Mel-LNC) at 10-6, 10-9, and 10-12 M drug concentrations. The highest hatching rate was observed in embryos treated with 10-9 M Mel-LNC. When compared to Mel and Mel-NC treatments at the same concentration (10-9 M), Mel-LNC increased embryo cell number, decreased cell apoptosis and ROS levels, down-regulated mRNA levels of BAX, CASP3, and SHC1 genes, and up-regulated mRNA levels of CAT and SOD2 genes. These findings indicate that nanoencapsulation with LNC increases the protective effects of melatonin

  19. Inositol and In Vitro Fertilization with Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Simi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, studies on inositol supplementation during in vitro fertilization program (IVF have gained particular importance due to the effect of this molecule on reducing insulin resistance improving ovarian function, oocyte quality, and embryo and pregnancy rates and reducing gonadotropin amount during stimulation. Inositol and its isoforms, especially myoinositol (MYO, are often used as prestimulation therapy in infertile patients undergoing IVF cycle. Inositol supplementation started three months before ovarian stimulation, resulting in significant improvements in hormonal responses, reducing the amount of FSH necessary for optimal follicle development and serum levels of 17beta-estradiol measured the day of hCG injection. As shown by growing number of trials, MYO supplementation improves oocyte quality by reducing the number of degenerated and immature oocytes, in this way increasing the quality of embryos produced. Inositol can also improve the quality of sperm parameters in those patients affected by oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.

  20. Embryo cryopreservation and in vitro culture of preimplantation embryos in Campbell's hamster (Phodopus campbelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavsky, Sergei; Brusentsev, Eugeny; Kizilova, Elena; Igonina, Tatyana; Abramova, Tatyana; Rozhkova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to compare different protocols of Campbell's hamster (Phodopus campbelli) embryos freezing-thawing and to explore the possibilities of their in vitro culture. First, the embryos were flushed from the reproductive ducts 2 days post coitum at the two-cell stage and cultured in rat one-cell embryo culture medium (R1ECM) for 48 hours. Most (86.7%) of the two-cell embryos developed to blastocysts in R1ECM. Second, the embryos at the two- to eight-cell stages were flushed on the third day post coitum. The eight-cell embryos were frozen in 0.25 mL straws according to standard procedures of slow cooling. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used either as a single cryoprotectant or in a mixture with sucrose. The survival of frozen-thawed embryos was assessed by double staining with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. The use of EG as a single cryoprotectant resulted in fewer alive embryos when compared with control (fresh embryos), but combined use of EG and sucrose improved the survival rate after thawing. Furthermore, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor rat (2 ng/mL) improved the rate of the hamster frozen-thawed embryo development in vitro by increasing the final cell number and alleviating nuclear fragmentation. Our data show the first attempt in freezing and thawing Campbell's hamster embryos and report the possibility of successful in vitro culture for this species in R1ECM supplemented with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of oocyte vitrification on epigenetic status in early bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanhuan; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Tengfei; Zou, Pengda; Wang, Yongsheng; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation has a great impact on subsequent embryonic development. Currently, several studies have primarily focused on the consequences of vitrification and the development potential of cellular structures. This study determined whether oocyte vitrification caused epigenetic instabilities of bovine embryos. The effects of oocyte vitrification on DNA methylation, histone modifications, and putative imprinted genes' expression in early embryos derived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection were examined. Results showed that oocyte vitrification did not affect zygote cleavage rates (67.0% vs. 73.8% control, P > 0.05) but reduced the blastocyst rate (9.6% vs. 23.0%, P vitrification group during the early cleavage phases. No differences were observed for DNA methylation, H3K9me3, and acH3K9 in the inner cell mass of blastocysts, whereas decreased levels of DNA methylation and acH3K9 (P vitrification. The expression of putative-imprinted genes PEG10, XIST, and KCNQ1O1T was upregulated in blastocysts. These epigenetic abnormalities may be partially explained by altered expression of genes associated with epigenetic regulations. DNA methylation and H3K9 modification suggest that oocyte vitrification may excessively relax the chromosomes of oocytes and early cleavage embryos. In conclusion, these epigenetic indexes could be used as damage markers of oocyte vitrification during early embryonic development, which offers a new insight to assess oocyte vitrification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro testing of defense reactions in zygotic and somatic embryos of Abies numidica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense of desiccated cotyledonary somatic embryos and mature zygotic embryos of Abies numidica was tested in vitro by dual cultures with tester, fungus Phaeolus schweinitzii. Both types of embryos expressed defense reactions manifested by inhibited growth of fungal tester towards the embryos. Mycelial growth was described by logistic sigmoid growth model with a single asymptote. Mutual comparisons of mycelial growth in presence of zygotic and somatic embryos showed significant differences in parameters of mycelium growth curves towards the embryos. Larger defense reactions were observed in zygotic embryos relative to somatic embryos and unlimited control cultivations without embryo. The possible role of auxin in the defense response of plant embryos is discussed.

  3. Survival and developmental competence of bovine embryos at different developmental stages and separated blastomeres after vitrification in different solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanpanich, Theesit; Suttirojpattana, Tayita; Takayama, Mari; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dochi, Osamu; Parnpai, Rangsun; Imai, Kei

    2018-01-01

    Generating techniques to enhance the success of blastomere separation is important for bovine economy, because it increases the number of transferable embryos. This study aimed to identify the optimum cryoprotectants for the vitrification of bovine embryos and the separation of blastomeres at different stages. In experiment 1, expanded blastocysts were vitrified in two different vitrification solutions, either (1) ethylene glycol (EG) + propylene glycol (PG) or (2) EG. The survival rate of blastocysts in the EG + PG was higher than that of the EG. In experiment 2, intact two-cell and eight-cell stage embryos were vitrified in the same solutions used in experiment 1. The EG + PG produced more dead embryos than the EG (P < 0.05). In the EG, the rate of blastocyst formation was similar for the vitrified two- and eight-cell embryos and the non-vitrified ywo-cell embryos. In experiment 3, separated blastomeres of two- and eight-cell embryos were vitrified in EG. There was no difference in the rate of blastocyst formation and total number of cells between the two vitrified groups. In summary, at the blastocyst stage, EG + PG was superior, based on both survival rates and cell numbers; however, at the 2-8 cell stage, the use of EG alone was better than the other groups. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Susceptibility of in vitro produced hatched bovine blastocysts to infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandaele Leen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8, which caused an epidemic in ruminants in central Western Europe in 2006 and 2007, seems to differ from other bluetongue serotypes in that it can spread transplacentally and has been associated with an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive problems. For these reasons, and also because BTV-8 is threatening to spread to other parts of the world, there is a need for more information on the consequences of infection during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hatched (i.e. zona pellucida-free in vitro produced bovine blastocysts at 8-9 days post insemination are susceptible to BTV-8 and whether such infection induces cell death as indicated by apoptosis. Exposure of hatched in vitro produced bovine blastocysts for 1 h to a medium containing 103.8 or 104.9 TCID50 of the virus resulted in active viral replication in between 25 and 100% of the cells at 72 h post exposure. The infected blastocysts also showed growth arrest as evidenced by lower total cell numbers and a significant level of cellular apoptosis. We conclude from this in vitro study that some of the reproductive problems that are reported when cattle herds are infected with BTV-8 may be attributed to direct infection of blastocysts and other early-stage embryos in utero.

  5. Equine cloning: in vitro and in vivo development of aggregated embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Andrés; Jarazo, Javier; Olivera, Ramiro; Salamone, Daniel F

    2012-07-01

    The production of cloned equine embryos remains highly inefficient. Embryo aggregation has not yet been tested in the equine, and it might represent an interesting strategy to improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effect of cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro and in vivo equine embryo development. Zona-free reconstructed embryos were individually cultured in microwells (nonaggregated group) or as 2- or 3-embryo aggregates (aggregated groups). For in vitro development, they were cultured until blastocyst stage and then either fixed for Oct-4 immunocytochemical staining or maintained in in vitro culture where blastocyst expansion was measured daily until Day 17 or the day on which they collapsed. For in vivo assays, Day 7-8 blastocysts were transferred to synchronized mares and resultant vesicles, and cloned embryos were measured by ultrasonography. Embryo aggregation improved blastocyst rates on a per well basis, and aggregation did not imply additional oocytes to obtain blastocysts. Embryo aggregation improved embryo quality, nevertheless it did not affect Day 8 and Day 16 blastocyst Oct-4 expression patterns. Equine cloned blastocysts expanded and increased their cell numbers when they were maintained in in vitro culture, describing a particular pattern of embryo growth that was unexpectedly independent of embryo aggregation, as all embryos reached similar size after Day 7. Early pregnancy rates were higher using blastocysts derived from aggregated embryos, and advanced pregnancies as live healthy foals also resulted from aggregated embryos. These results indicate that the strategy of aggregating embryos can improve their development, supporting the establishment of equine cloned pregnancies.

  6. Effect of breed and corpus luteum on pregnancy rate of bovine embryo recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériklis Nogueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate pregnancy rates of recipients of different breed groups (Nellore and crossbreed, as well as the effects of size and type of the corpus luteum (CL on plasmatic concentrations of progesterone and pregnancy rates of embryo recipients. A total of 152 heifers were synchronized with progesterone implants and on the day of embryo transfer, previously obtained by superovulation and frozen in ethylene glycol, the diameter and type of the corpus luteum (cavitary and compact was measured and blood was collected for progesterone measurement. The pregnancy rate was 44.1%, with a diameter of corpus luteum higher in recipients that became pregnant (2.03±0.41 compared with non-pregnant ones (1.86±0.34 cm. Plasmatic concentrations of progesterone did not differ between pregnant (1.50±1.05 and non-pregnant (1.31±0.91 ng/mL animals. The type of corpus luteum did not influence the pregnancy rates. Only Angus and crossbred Marchigiana differ among themselves in pregnancy rates (33.3 and 59.2%, respectively. The pregnancy probability was affected only by CL diameter, but not by P4 plasmatic concentration. Selection of the corpus luteum size at the time of embryo transfer is an important factor to increase pregnancy rates in recipients, and compact and cavitary corpora lutea do not influence the pregnancy rates of bovine embryo recipients. Nellore recipients have pregnancy rates that are satisfactory and comparable to crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus recipients.

  7. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  8. [In vitro study of the interactions between bovine herpesvirus 4 and the bovine host cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplasschen, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was devoted to the study of the interactions between bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) and bovine cells in vitro. It led to the discovery of two interesting properties of BVH-4 replication cycle: first, the cellular receptor heparan sulfate was proven to mediate BVH-4 binding to target cells. This is the first description of the implication of heparan sulfate in the binding process of a gammaherpesvirus. Second, using synchronised cells, the replication of BVH-4 DNA was proven to be dependent on the S phase of the cell cycle. This dependence could explain some properties of BVH-4 infection in vitro and could play an important role in the biology of the infection in vivo. Finally, in order to produce monoclonal antibodies against BVH-4 IE1 and IE2 proteins, the genes coding for these proteins were cloned and expressed in prokaryotic cells.

  9. Consequences of transfer of an in vitro-produced embryo for the dam and resultant calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, L; Block, J; Denicol, A C; Hansen, P J

    2014-01-01

    No reports exist on consequences of in vitro production (IVP) of embryos for the postnatal development of the calf or on postparturient function of the dam of the calf. Three hypotheses were evaluated: calves born as a result of transfer of an IVP embryo have reduced neonatal survival and altered postnatal growth, fertility, and milk yield compared with artificial insemination (AI) calves; cows giving birth to IVP calves have lower milk yield and fertility and higher incidence of postparturient disease than cows giving birth to AI calves; and the medium used for IVP affects the incidence of developmental abnormalities. In the first experiment, calves were produced by AI using conventional semen or by embryo transfer (ET) using a fresh or vitrified embryo produced in vitro with X-sorted semen. Gestation length was longer for cows receiving a vitrified embryo than for cows receiving a fresh embryo or AI. The percentage of dams experiencing calving difficulty was higher for ET than AI. We observed a tendency for incidence of retained placenta to be higher for ET than AI but found no significant effect of treatment on incidence of prolapse or metritis, pregnancy rate at first service, services per conception, or any measured characteristic of milk production in the subsequent lactation. Among Holstein heifers produced by AI or ET, treatment had no effect on birth weight but the variance tended to be greater in the ET groups. More Holstein heifer calves tended to be born dead, died, or were euthanized within the first 20d of life for the ET groups than for AI. Similarly, the proportion of Holstein heifer calves that either died or were culled for poor health after 20d of age was greater for the ET groups than for AI. We observed no effect of ET compared with AI on age at first service or on the percentage of heifers pregnant at first service, calf growth, or milk yield or composition in the first 120d in milk of the first lactation. In a second experiment, embryos were

  10. Impact of proximal cytoplasmic droplets on quality traits and in-vitro embryo production efficiency of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira Janaina T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCDs, a remnant of germ cell cytoplasm, are common non-specific morphological defects in bovine semen. This study evaluated the effect of higher percentages of PCDs on the quality of frozen-thawed bovine semen, embryo production and early embryo development. Methods Three ejaculates from each of five (group 1: PCD ≤ 1%, control and eight adult Bos indicus bulls (group 2: PCD ≥ 24% were analysed. Semen samples were examined for: post-thaw motility, vigour of movement, concentration, sperm morphology, slow thermoresistance test (STT, membrane integrity, acrosome status, mitochondrial function using fluorescent probes association (FITC-PSA, PI and JC-1 and sperm chromatin integrity using acridine orange assay. Two bulls from group 2, with 28.5% and 48.5% PCD, respectively, and three bulls from the control group, each with 0% PCD, were selected for IVF (in vitro fertilisation. Results Semen analyses revealed a significant correlation (P Conclusion Higher PCD levels influenced spermatozoa quality traits. IVF and embryo development data showed that cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst hatching may have been influenced by the interaction of morphology traits and individual bull effects.

  11. Automatized image processing of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro for quantitative variable determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, José Celso; Passalia, Felipe José; Matos, Felipe Delestro; Takahashi, Maria Beatriz; Maserati, Marc Peter, Jr.; Alves, Mayra Fernanda; de Almeida, Tamie Guibu; Cardoso, Bruna Lopes; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Nogueira, Marcelo Fábio Gouveia

    2017-12-01

    There is currently no objective, real-time and non-invasive method for evaluating the quality of mammalian embryos. In this study, we processed images of in vitro produced bovine blastocysts to obtain a deeper comprehension of the embryonic morphological aspects that are related to the standard evaluation of blastocysts. Information was extracted from 482 digital images of blastocysts. The resulting imaging data were individually evaluated by three experienced embryologists who graded their quality. To avoid evaluation bias, each image was related to the modal value of the evaluations. Automated image processing produced 36 quantitative variables for each image. The images, the modal and individual quality grades, and the variables extracted could potentially be used in the development of artificial intelligence techniques (e.g., evolutionary algorithms and artificial neural networks), multivariate modelling and the study of defined structures of the whole blastocyst.

  12. Germination in vitro embryo of Walnut (Juglans boliviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Guzmán Jheanete

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian Juglans is an important forest species found in the rain forests of Bolivia. The seed of this species is recalcitrant with hardened cover, which hinders germination and propagation of the species. The aim of this study was to determine the culture medium for in vitro germination of mature embryos of Bolivian Juglans. Technique initially scarification and disinfection process was determined. Subsequently in vitro culture was performed using the culture medium Woody Plant Medium (WPM with the addition of plant growth regulators (indole butyric acid and 6-benzyl aminopurine in different concentrations. As control WPM, culture medium was used 100%. Response variables evaluated were percentage of contamination and germination; vitroplant length, number of leaves, number of shoots, number of roots per vitroplant, root length and percentage of survival. The plantlets in vitro germination in treatments and the control in the middle l culture WPM supplemented with 0.15 mg / l of IBA and 1.5 mg / l BAP was 90%; other treatments inhibit the growth of the stem and roots of plantlets.

  13. Effect of Culture System on Developmental Competence, Cryosurvival and DNA-Fragmentation of In Vitro Bovine Blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the effect of two in vitro embryo culture systems (co-culturesystem versus cell-free sequential-media on developmental competence, cryosurvival and DNAfragmentationof in vitro developed bovine blastocysts.Materials and Methods: Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured in Ménézo's B2 (B2 plusvero-cells or sequential synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF for eight days. Subsequently, half of theexpanded blastocysts developed in both groups were vitrified, warmed within 30 minutes and postwarmingembryos along with their corresponding non-vitrified embryos were cultured for twoadditional days in the same medium used before vitrification. Embryo development, cryosurvivaland apoptosis were compared between the groups.Results: For non-vitrified embryos, culture in SOF significantly promoted the potency of embryosto develop into blastocysts compared with the co-culture system. The difference in post vitrificationsurvival rate of SOF blastocysts (83.3% was insignificant compared with co-culture (84.3%.However, while total cell number of warmed blastocysts in the co-culture system was significantlyhigher in the co-culture versus the sequential system (215.4 vs. 170.4, the quality of survived embryosin terms of hatching ability and apoptosis was adversely affected by co-culture compared with SOF(65.0% vs. 74.3%, and 13.5% vs. 10.0%, respectively; p<0.05.Conclusion: Although co-culture system may increase the viability of embryos followingcryopreservation, the potency and dynamics of blastocyst formation significantly increased withsequential media compared to the co-culture system which can compensate for the lower efficiency ofsequential media for vitrification/warming purposes.

  14. Beneficial effects of serum supplementation during in vitro production of porcine embryos on their ability to survive cryopreservation by open pulled straw vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Hongsheng; Agca, Yuksel; Critser, Elizabeth S; Critser, John K

    2005-10-01

    The ability of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro, in the presence or absence of serum, to survive cryopreservation was investigated in this experiment. Porcine oocytes were matured, fertilized and cultured in vitro using serum-free culture systems. Starting at Day 4 of in vitro embryo culture (Day 0 = fertilization), the culture medium was supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Embryos were cultured under these conditions until Day 6. Embryos cultured with only BSA supplementation served as serum-free controls. Day 6 blastocysts and expanded blastocysts of excellent quality were vitrified using the open pulled straw method. After warming, blastocysts were cultured in the presence of 10% FBS for an additional 18 h to recover. Portions of blastocysts from both groups, without cryopreservation, were also cultured under the same conditions to serve as non-vitrified controls. To further investigate the influence of FBS on the quality of embryos produced, the total cell numbers in Day 6 blastocysts from both groups were compared. In addition, the ratio of viable to total cells in fully recovered blastocysts at each group was examined. Blastocysts produced in the presence of FBS had an increased ability to survive cryopreservation and also had a higher cell number compared to those produced in serum-free systems (P vitro production of porcine embryos is beneficial to the ability of a blastocyst to survive cryopreservation.

  15. In vitro and in vivo Development of Cloned Ovine Embryos using in vitro and in vivo Matured Oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P; Nagashima, H; Sun, F-J

    1995-01-01

    Cloning of sheep embryos by nucleus transplantation can be achieved by using in vivo matured (oviductal) oocytes and in vivo culture. However, these steps involve cumbersome procedures. Therefore, the effects of in vivo vs. the equivalent in vitro procedures on the pre-implantation development...... matured oocytes were enucleated and fused with inserted blastomeres from donor embryos. In vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and allowed to age prior to blastomere insertion and electrofusion. Fused embryos were cultured for approximately 132 h either in vivo in ligated sheep oviducts or in vitro...

  16. Effect of conventional controlled-rate freezing and vitrification on morphology and metabolism of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidi, S; Bernard, S; Lambert, P; Massip, A; Dessy, F; Donnay, I

    2001-10-01

    This study compares the effects of conventional controlled-rate freezing and vitrification on the morphology and metabolism of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts. Day 7 expanded blastocysts cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid with 5% fetal calf serum were frozen in 1.36 M glycerol, 0.25 M sucrose or vitrified in 25% glycerol, 25% ethylene glycol. Cell alterations and in vitro development were evaluated immediately after thawing or after 72 h. The effect of cryopreservation on inner cell mass and trophectoderm (TE) cell number as well as glucose, pyruvate, and oxygen uptakes, and lactate release by blastocysts were evaluated. Immediately after thawing, blastocysts showed equivalent cell membrane permeabilization after both cryopreservation procedures, while alterations in nuclear staining were more frequent in vitrified embryos. After culture, similar survival and hatching rates were observed. Both procedures decreased cell number immediately after thawing and after 72 h. However, the number of TE cells was lower in frozen embryos than in vitrified ones. In relation to this, frozen blastocysts showed a decrease in glucose, pyruvate, and oxygen uptake, although those parameters were not altered in vitrified embryos. An increased glycolytic activity was also observed in frozen embryos, indicating a stress response to this procedure.

  17. Vitrification of immature bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes: effects of cryoprotectants, the vitrification procedure and warming time on cleavage and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice-Biensch, Jennifer R; Singh, Jaswant; Mapletoft, Reuben J; Anzar, Muhammad

    2012-09-06

    The present studies evaluated the effects of cryoprotectants, the vitrification procedure and time in the warming solution containing sucrose on cleavage and embryo development of immature (GV stage) bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, COCs (n = 420) were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) CONTROL GROUP: no treatment; 2) VS1 group: COCs were exposed to vitrification solution 1 (VS1) containing 7.5% ethylene glycol [EG] + 7.5% dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO] + 20% calf serum [CS] in TCM-199 at 37 C for 5 min; 3) VS1 + VS2 group: COCs were exposed to VS1 for 5 min followed by VS2 (15% EG + 15% DMSO + 17.1% sucrose + 20% CS) at 37 C for 45-60 sec; and 4) Vitrified group: COCs were exposed to VS1 and VS2, loaded on cryotops, vitrified in liquid nitrogen and then warmed in TCM-199 + 17.1% sucrose + 20% CS at 37 C for 1 min. In Experiment 2, COCs (n = 581) were assigned to the same groups, but those in VS1, VS1 + VS2 and Vitrified groups were sub-divided and exposed to the warming solution for either 1 or 5 min. After treatment and/or warming, all COCs in both experiments underwent in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture. Cleavage and blastocyst rates did not differ among Control, VS1 and VS1 + VS2 groups in either experiment. In Experiment 2, there was no effect of time in the warming solution.However, both cleavage and blastocyst rates were lower (P bovine COCs. However, cleavage rate and early embryo development were reduced following the vitrification and warming.

  18. A mRNA landscape of bovine embryos after standard and MAPK-inhibited culture conditions : a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkhof, Bas; Helena T. A. van Tol; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Riemers, Frank M; IJzer, Sascha G; Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Haagsman, Henk P; Roelen, Bernard A. J.; Holstege, FCP

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genes and signalling pathways involved in pluripotency have been studied extensively in mouse and human pre-implantation embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells. The unsuccessful attempts to generate ES cell lines from other species including cattle suggests that other genes and pathways are involved in maintaining pluripotency in these species. To investigate which genes are involved in bovine pluripotency, expression profiles were generated from morula, blastocyst, trophectoderm a...

  19. A mRNA landscape of bovine embryos after standard and MAPK-inhibited culture conditions: a comparative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkhof, B.; van Tol, H.T.; Groot Koerkamp, M J; Riemers, F M; IJzer, S.G.; Mashayekhi, K.; Haagsman, H P; Roelen, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genes and signalling pathways involved in pluripotency have been studied extensively in mouse and human pre-implantation embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells. The unsuccessful attempts to generate ES cell lines from other species including cattle suggests that other genes and pathways are involved in maintaining pluripotency in these species. To investigate which genes are involved in bovine pluripotency, expression profiles were generated from morula, blastocyst, trophectoderm an...

  20. The effect of vitrification of immature bovine oocytes to the subsequent in vitro development and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Marwa S; Baron, E; Carvalhais, I; Chaveiro, A; Pavani, K; da Silva, F Moreira

    2015-12-01

    Immature bovine oocytes were vitrified using the cryotop method and their post-warming survivability and capability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development were evaluated. In addition throughout the embryonic 2-cell, 4-cell, morula and blastocyst stages, the expression of four developmentally important genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1 and HSPA14) was analysed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immature oocytes (n = 550) were randomly assigned to non-vitrified (fresh) or cryotop vitrification groups using ethylene glycol (EG) with 1,2 propanediol (PROH) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). After warming, oocytes survivability, embryo cleavage and embryonic developmental rates were not statistically different between the two cryoprotectants groups. However, the DMSO group had a lower (P vitrification of immature bovine oocytes, both for embryonic developmental competence and at the molecular level. Moreover, PROH showed some advantage over DMSO as a cryoprotectant.

  1. The Necessity of OCT-4 and CDX2 for Early Development and Gene Expression Involved in Differentiation of Inner Cell Mass and Trophectoderm Lineages in Bovine Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Kazuki; Emura, Natsuko; Fujii, Takashi; Hirayama, Hiroki; Kageyama, Soichi; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Sawai, Ken

    2016-10-01

    The functions of POU class 5 transcription factor 1 (Oct-4) and caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) in the differentiation of the murine inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) have been described in detail. However, little is known about the roles of OCT-4 and CDX2 in preimplantation bovine embryos. To elucidate their functions during early development in bovine embryos, we performed OCT-4 and CDX2 downregulation using RNA interference. We injected OCT-4- or CDX2-specific short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into bovine zygotes. The rate of blastocyst development of OCT-4-downregulated embryos was lower compared with uninjected or control siRNA-injected embryos. Gene expression analysis revealed decreased CDX2 and fibroblast growth factor 4 expression in OCT-4-downregulated embryos. CDX2-downregulated embryos developed to the blastocyst stage; however, in most cases, blastocoel formation was delayed. Gene expression analysis revealed decreased GATA3 expression and elevated NANOG expression in CDX2-downregulated embryos. In conclusion, OCT-4 and CDX2 are essential for early development and gene expression involved in differentiation of ICM and TE lineages in bovine embryos.

  2. Developmental competence in vitro and in vivo of bovine IVF blastocyst after 15 years of vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y; Zeng, S; Fu, X; Jia, B; Li, S; An, X; Chen, Y; Zhu, S

    2014-01-01

    It is uncertain whether long-term cryopreservation affects embryonic development. This study was to investigate the effects of long-term cryopreservation on in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of bovine blastocysts. The blastocysts were randomly allocated into 3 groups based on the storage time: 0.5-year group, 1-year group and 15-years group. The thawed blastocysts were subjected to in vitro culture or embryo transplantation. Significantly lower survival rate (89.2%) and re-expansion rate (70.3%) of blastocysts were obtained from 15-years group compared with those of 0.5-year (97.5% and 87.5%) and 1-year (100% and 84.2%) groups (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the hatching rate (39.5% to 42.5%) among the three groups and the pregnancy rate between 1-year (35.0%) and 15-years (36.4%) groups. Although in vitro developmental competence of the 15 years cryopreserved blastocysts was decreased slightly, the pregnancy outcome was not affected.

  3. Effect of medium additives during liquid storage on developmental competence of in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttirojpattana, Tayita; Somfai, Tamas; Matoba, Satoko; Parnpai, Rangsun; Nagai, Takashi; Geshi, Masaya

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to improve the developmental competence of bovine oocytes during their liquid storage by using additives. In vitro matured oocytes were stored for 20 h at 25°C in HEPES buffered TCM 199 medium (base medium). After storage, in vitro embryo development after in vitro fertilization was compared to those of non-stored (control) ones. Addition of 10% (v/v) newborn calf serum or 10.27 mmol/L pyruvate alone to the base medium did not improve blastocyst formation rates in stored oocytes; however, their simultaneous addition significantly improved the rate compared with those stored in base medium (P serum had a synergic effect to moderate the reduction of oocyte quality during storage, whereas mitochondrial membrane pore inhibitor CsA and the antioxidant DTT did not affect their developmental competence. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Effects of Differences in Dietary Protein and Varying the Interval from Collection of Bovine Embryos to Freezing on Embryo Quality and Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jousan, Frank Dean

    2002-01-01

    High levels of dietary protein may be detrimental to reproductive performance in cattle. The objective of Exp. 1 was to determine the effects of differences in dietary protein on the production and quality of bovine embryos collected from superovulated donors. Angus cows were randomly assigned to receive one of three experimental diets: a daily ration of 5.7 kg poultry litter, 2.0 kg hay, 3.1 kg corn, and 0.5 kg peanut hulls (LITTER; n = 15); a daily ration of 6.2 kg peanut hulls, 2.2 k...

  5. In-vitro propagation of Picralima nitida (Stapf) through embryo culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryo abortion in wide crosses and seed dormancy has hampered the mass propagation of selected tree germplasm from the wild. An in vitro plant regeneration protocol was successfully established in Picralima nitida (Stapf), a medicinal tropical plant, by culturing excised embryo from mature seeds collected from the ...

  6. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for…

  7. The effect of season on aspects of in vitro embryo production in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jean

    Peer-reviewed paper: 10th World Conference on Animal Production. 275. The effect of season on aspects of in vitro embryo production in sub-fertile beef cows. J.M. Rust. 1#. , D.S. Visser ... factors such as season. The elements of IVEP such as ovarian follicular populations, oocyte recovery rates, oocyte quality and embryo.

  8. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M

    2002-01-01

    Earlier reports indicate that calves derived from in vitro produced (IVP) embryos are more susceptible to neonatal disease than calves produced after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether calves born after IVP embryos show an alt...

  9. Effect of MEM vitamins and forskolin on embryo development and vitrification tolerance of in vitro-produced pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, C; Gomis, J; Almiñana, C; Maside, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gil, M A; Sánchez, A; Parrilla, I; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2013-01-30

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the effect of in vitro maturation (IVM) medium supplementation with MEM vitamins on in vitro embryo development and sensitivity to vitrification of Day 6 blastocysts and (2) to evaluate whether the addition of forskolin to in vitro culture (IVC) medium enhances blastocyst survival following Super Open Pulled Straw (SOPS) vitrification. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs; n=4000) were matured with 0.0% or 0.05% (v/v) MEM vitamins. After 44h of IVM, the oocytes were in vitro fertilized, and presumptive zygotes were cultured. At Day 5 of IVC, embryos from both experimental groups were cultured for 24h with 0 or 10μM forskolin, achieving a 2×2 factorial design. The blastocyst formation rate was assessed on Day 6, and subsets of samples from the four experimental groups were vitrified (n=469) or kept fresh (n=546). Fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocysts were cultured for 24h prior to embryo survival and total blastocyst cell number assessment. The MEM vitamins increased (Pvitamins improved the blastocyst formation rate, and the addition of 10μM forskolin to the culture medium increased survival in Day 6 in vitro-produced blastocysts after SOPS vitrification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of bovine sperm chromatin integrity evaluated using three different methods on in vitro fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L S; Siqueira, A F P; Hamilton, T R S; Mendes, C M; Visintin, J A; Assumpção, M E O A

    2018-02-01

    In vitro fertility potential of individual bulls is still relatively uncharacterized. Classical sperm analysis does not include the evaluation of all sperm characteristics and thus, some cell compartments could be neglected. In humans, sperm DNA integrity has already proven to have major influence in embryo development and assisted reproduction techniques successfully. In bovine, some studies already correlated chromatin integrity with field fertility. However, none of those have attempted to relate DNA assessment approaches such as chromatin deficiency (CMA3), chromatin stability (SCSA; AO+) and DNA fragmentation (COMET assay) to predict in vitro bull fertility. To this purpose, we selected bulls with high and low in vitro fertility (n = 6/group), based on embryo development rate (blastocyst/cleavage rate). We then performed CMA3, SCSA test and COMET assay to verify if the difference of in vitro fertility may be related to DNA alterations evaluated by these assays. For the three tests performed, our results showed only differences in the percentage of cells with chromatin deficiency (CMA3+; high: 0.19 ± 0.03 vs low: 0.04 ± 0.04; p = 0.03). No difference for chromatin stability and any of COMET assay categories (grade I to grade IV) was observed between high and low in vitro fertility bulls. A positive correlation between AO + cells and grade IV cells was found. Despite the difference between groups in CMA3 analysis, our results suggest that protamine deficiency in bovine spermatozoa may not have a strong biological impact to explain the difference of in vitro fertility between the bulls used in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Accurate and noninvasive embryos screening during in vitro fertilization (IVF) assisted by Raman analysis of embryos culture medium Accurate and noninvasive embryos screening during IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A. G.; Peng, J.; Zhao, Q. H.; Su, L.; Wang, X. H.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, J.

    2012-04-01

    In combination with morphological evaluation tests, we employ Raman spectroscopy to select higher potential reproductive embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF) based on chemical composition of embryos culture medium. In this study, 57 Raman spectra are acquired from both higher and lower quality embryos culture medium (ECM) from 10 patients which have been preliminarily confirmed by clinical assay. Data are fit by using a linear combination model of least squares method in which 12 basis spectra represent the chemical features of ECM. The final fitting coefficients provide insight into the chemical compositions of culture medium samples and are subsequently used as criterion to evaluate the quality of embryos. The relative fitting coefficients ratios of sodium pyruvate/albumin and phenylalanine/albumin seem act as key roles in the embryo screening, attaining 85.7% accuracy in comparison with clinical pregnancy. The good results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy therefore is an important candidate for an accurate and noninvasive screening of higher quality embryos, which potentially decrease the time-consuming clinical trials during IVF.

  12. In vitro maturation is associated with increased early embryo arrest without impairing morphokinetic development of useable embryos progressing to blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, M L; Ryan, J P; Keelan, J A; Hart, R

    2015-08-01

    Does polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or in vitro maturation (IVM) treatment affect embryo development events and morphokinetic parameters after time-lapse incubation? There was an increase in some abnormal phenotypic events in PCOS-IVM embryos as well as an increase in early arrest of PCOS-IVM and PCOS-ICSI embryos; however, IVM treatment or PCOS status did not alter morphokinetic development of embryos suitable for transfer of vitrification. IVM has been less successful than standard IVF in terms of clinical pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates. There is currently no information available about the development of IVM embryos according to time-lapse analysis. This article represents a prospective case-control study. The study involved 93 participants who underwent 93 treatment cycles. Cycles were completed between January 2013 and July 2014. Participants were recruited for the study at Fertility Specialists of WA and Fertility Specialists South, Perth, Western Australia. Of the PCOS diagnosed patients, 32 underwent IVM treatment (PCOS-IVM) and 23 had standard ICSI treatment (PCOS-ICSI). There were 38 patients without PCOS who underwent standard ICSI treatment comprising the control group (control-ICSI). The PCOS-IVM group showed significantly more embryos with multinucleated two cells (P = 0.041), multinucleated four cells (P = 0.001) and uneven two cells (P = 0.033) compared with the control-ICSI group, but not the PCOS-ICSI group. There were no significant differences in the rates of any abnormal events between the PCOS-ICSI and control-ICSI groups. Embryo arrest between Days 2 and 3 was higher in the PCOS-IVM and PCOS-ICSI groups compared with the control-ICSI group (P events from embryos generated using this approach for patients diagnosed with PCOS and shows that embryos generated from IVM have an increased rate of early embryo arrest, however; morphokinetic development is not impaired in embryos that progress to the useable blastocyst stage. The

  13. Non-invasive assessment of in-vitro embryo quality to improve transfer success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    embryos before the transfer to a recipient still remains challenging. Presently, the predominant non-invasive technique for selecting viable embryos is based on morphology, where parameters such as rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation as well as developmental kinetics are evaluated mostly...... subjectively. The simple morphological approach is, however, inadequate for the prediction of embryo quality, and several studies have focused on developing new non-invasive methods using molecular approaches based particularly on proteomics, metabolomics and most recently small non-coding RNA, including micro......RNA. This review outlines the potential of several non-invasive in-vitro methods based on analysis of spent embryo culture medium....

  14. Cloned embryos from semen. Part 2: Intergeneric nuclear transfer of semen-derived eland (Taurotragus oryx) epithelial cells into bovine oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel-Themaat, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Pope, C.E.; Lopez, M.; Wirtu, G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Cole, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Bondioli, K.R.; Godke, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The production of cloned offspring by nuclear transfer (NT) of semen-derived somatic cells holds considerable potential for the incorporation of novel genes into endangered species populations. Because oocytes from endangered species are scarce, domestic species oocytes are often used as cytoplasts for interspecies NT. In the present study, epithelial cells isolated from eland semen were used for intergeneric transfer (IgNT) into enucleated bovine oocytes and compared with bovine NT embryos. Cleavage rates of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos were similar (80 vs. 83%, respectively; p > 0.05); however, development to the morula and blastocyst stage was higher for bovine NT embryos (38 and 21%, respectively; p progress through the early cleavage stage arrest can (a) synthesize DNA, (b) progress through subsequent cell cycles, and (c) may have the potential to develop further. ?? 2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  15. In vitro bulblet regeneration from immature embryos of Muscari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high frequency bulblet regeneration was achieved for endemic and endangered ornamental plant Muscari azureum using immature embryos. Immature embryos of M. azureum were cultured on callus induction medium consisting of N6 mineral salts and vitamins, 400 mg/L casein + 40 g/L sucrose + 2 g/l L-proline, 2 mg/L ...

  16. Pretreatment of in vitro matured bovine oocytes with docetaxel before vitrification: Effects on cytoskeleton integrity and developmental ability after warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasombat, Jakkhaphan; Nagai, Takashi; Parnpai, Rangsun; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2015-10-01

    The stabilization of spindle fibersis important for successful vitrification of bovine oocytes because microtubules and other cytoskeleton fibers (CSF) can be damaged during vitrification, resulting in failure of fertilization after thawing. Docetaxel, a stabilizing agent, could potentially reduce CSF damage of bovine oocytes induced during vitrification. However, there have been no reports on the effects of docetaxel on their vitrification. Experiment 1 was conducted to investigate the effects of various doses of docetaxel (0.0, 0.05, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM) in preincubation medium of in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes on their developmental ability after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The results show that 0.05 μM docetaxel had no adverse effect on embryo development, while docetaxel at a concentration of ⩾0.5 μM inhibited development. Experiments 2 and 3 were conducted to investigate the effects of preincubation of IVM bovine oocytes with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min prior to vitrification-warming on CSF integrity (Experiment 2), and on oocyte survival and viability after IVF (Experiment 3). When preincubated with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min before vitrification, post-thawed oocytes had less CSF damage and higher survival rates compared with those untreated with docetaxel before vitrification. Surviving oocytes also had higher rates of cleavage and development to the blastocyst stage after IVF. In conclusion, preincubation of IVM bovine oocytes with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min before vitrification was effective at preventing CSF damage during vitrification, and improving oocyte viability after warming and subsequent cleavage and blastocyst formation after IVF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of plasminogen activators in preimplantation rat embryos developed in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har-Vardi Iris

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo implantation plays a major role in embryogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy. Plasminogen activators (PAs have been implicated in mammalian fertilization, early stages of development and embryo implantation. The invasion of trophoblast cells into the endometrium during the implantation process can be blocked by inhibitors of serine proteases, illustrating the role of these enzymes in the invasion process. As in vitro developing embryos resulted in lower implantation rate than those developed in vivo we assume that a reduced PAs activity may lead to it. There is hardly any information regarding qualitative or quantitative differences in expression of PAs in preimplantation embryos, or comparisons between in vivo and in vitro developed embryos. The purpose of this study was to assess the expression of urokinase type (uPA and tissue type (tPA plasminogen activators in in vivo and in vitro preimplantation development in rat embryos using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and computerized image analysis. Methods Zygotes, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula and blastocyst stages of development were flushed from the reproductive tract (control groups of Wistar rats. Zygotes were flushed and grown in vitro to the above mentioned developmental stages and comprised the experimental groups. Immunofluorescence microscopy and computerized image analysis were used to evaluate both qualitative (localization and quantitative expression of plasminogen activators. Results uPA and tPA were found to be expressed in rat embryos throughout their preimplantation development, both in vivo and in vitro. While uPA was localized mainly in the cell cytoplasm, the tPA was detected mainly on cell surface and in the perivitelline space. In blastocysts, both in vivo and in vitro, uPA and tPA were localized in the trophectoderm cells. Total uPA content per embryo was higher in the in vivo as compared with the in vitro developed embryos at all stages

  18. OPTIMISATION OF TOTAL RNA EXTRACTION FROM BOVINE OOCYTES AND EMBRYOS FOR GENE EXPRESSION STUDIES AND EFFECTS OF CRYOPROTECTANTS ON TOTAL RNA EXTRACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, K C; Baron, E E; Faheem, M; Chaveiro, A; Da Silva, F Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is required for understanding bovine oocytes meiotic maturation as well as the potential of embryonic development. In the present study a standardized reagent protocol for total RNA extraction was designed for bovine oocytes and embryos, which is considered specific and less expensive. For such purpose oocytes (n = 795) recovered from about 80 ovaries were divided in three groups: Group 1 modified Trizol (MTP, n = 355); Group 2 Guanidinium thiocyanate protocol (GNTC, n = 140) and Group 3 Commercial Kit protocol (CKP, n = 60). Oocytes belonging to group 1 (n = 100) and 3 (n = 20) were subjected to vitrification using two cryoprotectants 1,2 propandiol (PROH) or Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The 240 remaining oocytes were divided into 3 groups in which 100 were used, in fresh, for in vitro fertilization, and 140 oocytes were vitrified using PROH (n = 70) and DMSO (n = 70) as cryoprotectants, being then fertilized in vitro after thawing. Embryos were used nine days after fertilization. Gene amplification (SDHA, (GAPDH and DNMT1) was performed in oocytes, and gene quantification (DNMT1) in in vitro produced embryos at the stage of blastocyst (n = 10). Efficiency of the extraction was further compared. The purity of all samples to different protocols ranged from 1.10 to 1.25 for GNTC protocol; from 2.05 to 2.63 for the CKP and from 1.50 to 2.11 for the developed MTP, being the last one nearest to the expected purity levels for RNA samples (1.7 to 2.0). On average, for 30 fresh oocytes, from spectrophotometer readings, total RNA concentration was 127.8 ± 9.3 ng μl(-1) for MTP, against 46.4 ± 9.5 ng μl(-1) from CKP and 476 ± 12.9 ng μl(-1) for GNTC protocol. Using the MTP to evaluate RNA in 30 vitrified/thawed oocytes, resulted in a total RNA concentration of 61.3 ± 3.3 ng μl(-1) and 40.0 μ 12.4 ng μ(-1), respectively for DMSO and PROH. Regarding total RNA concentration and purity, in blastocyst stage, more purity was observed in DMSO as compared to

  19. Does the transfer of a poor quality embryo together with a good quality embryo affect the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintner, Eliana Muskin; Hershko-Klement, Anat; Tzadikevitch, Keren; Ghetler, Yehudith; Gonen, Ofer; Wintner, Oren; Shulman, Adrian; Wiser, Amir

    2017-01-13

    IVF cycles which result in only one good quality embryo, and a second poor quality embryo present a dilemma when the decision involves transferring two embryos. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a poor quality embryo has a negative effect on a good quality embryo when transferred along with a good quality embryo. We retrospectively evaluated in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles involving single embryo transfers (SET) and double embryo transfers (DET). Embryo quality was divided into poor "P" and good "G" quality. The main outcome measures were: live birth, implantation rate, miscarriage rate, clinical pregnancy rate and multiple pregnancy ratio. Six hundred three women were included. The study group consisted of 180 (29.9%) patients who had a double embryo transfer (DET) with one poor quality embryo and one good quality embryo (P + G). Control 1 group included 303 (50.2%) patients who had DET with two good quality embryos (G + G), and control 2 group consisted of 120 (19.9%) patients who had a single embryo transfer (SET) with one good quality embryo (G). Live birth rates were not significantly different when compared between study groups: 30.8% in the SET group (G), 27.2% in the (G + P) group and 33.7% in the (G + G) group. The SET group had the highest implantation rate (33.9%) compared to the DET groups (21.8% (G + P), 25.4% (G + G)) (P =0.022). The clinical pregnancy rate was 33.3% in the SET group (G), 33.3% in the (G + P) group, and 39.3% in the (G + G) group (P =0.39). The miscarriage rate was comparable in all groups. A poor quality embryo does not negatively affect a good quality embryo, when transferred together in a double embryo transfer.

  20. Validating reference microRNAs for normalizing qRT-PCR data in bovine oocytes and preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdipour, Mahdi; van Tol, Helena T A; Stout, Tom A E; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2015-06-12

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene targets. Accurate quantification of miRNA expression using validated internal controls should aid in the understanding of their role in epigenetic modification of genome function. To date, most studies that have examined miRNA expression levels have used the global mean expression of all expressed genes or the expression of reference mRNAs or nuclear RNAs for normalization. We analyzed the suitability of a number of miRNAs as potential expression normalizers in bovine oocytes and early embryos, and porcine oocytes. The stages examined were bovine oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II stages, bovine zygotes, 2, 4 and 8 cell embryos, morulae and blastocysts, as well as porcine cumulus oocyte complexes, GV, metaphase I and II oocytes. qRT-PCR was performed to quantify expression of miR-93, miR-103, miR-26a, miR-191, miR-23b, Let-7a and U6 for bovine samples and miR-21, miR-26a, miR-93, miR-103, miR-148a, miR-182 and miR-191 for porcine oocytes. The average starting material for each sample was determined using specific standard curves for each primer set. Subsequently, geNorm and BestKeeper software were used to identify a set of stably expressed miRNAs. Stepwise removal to determine the optimum number of reference miRNAs identified miR-93 and miR-103 as the most stably expressed in bovine samples and miR-26a, miR-191 and miR-93 in porcine samples. The combination of miR-93 and miR-103 is optimal for normalizing miRNA expression for qPCR experiments on bovine oocytes and preimplantation embryos; the preferred combination for porcine oocytes is miR-26a, miR-191 and miR-93.

  1. Vitrification of bovine blastocysts pretreated with sublethal hydrostatic pressure stress: evaluation of post-thaw in vitro development and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira Filho, E; Caixeta, E S; Pribenszky, C; Molnar, M; Horvath, A; Harnos, A; Franco, M M; Rumpf, R

    2011-01-01

    Sublethal stress treatment has been reported to enhance gametes' performance in subsequent procedures, such as cryopreservation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different equilibration times between the termination of a sublethal hydrostatic pressure (HP) stress treatment and the initiation of vitrification on the post-thaw survival, continued in vitro development, hatching rate and gene expression of selected candidate genes of in vitro-produced (IVP) expanded bovine blastocysts. Day 7 IVP blastocysts were subjected to 600 bar pressure for 60 min at 32°C. Immediately after pressure treatment (HP0h) or after 1 or 2h incubation (HP1h and HP2h groups, respectively), embryos were either vitrified and warmed using the open pulled straw method, followed by 72 h in vitro culture or were stored at -80°C until gene expression analysis. Re-expansion and hatching rates after vitrification-warming were significantly (Pbovine embryos.

  2. Fruit maturation and in vitro germination of macaw palm embryos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -industrial potential. Seed dormancy in palm species may be due to embryo immaturity, which could result from delayed embryogenesis. We evaluated the correspondence between the visual characteristics of maturing fruits and their ...

  3. Calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) is involved in porcine in vitro fertilisation and early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Liu, Y; Larsen, K; Hou, Y P; Callesen, H

    2017-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that extracellular calcium is necessary in fertilisation and embryo development but the mechanism is still not well understood. The present study mainly focussed on the extracellular calcium effector called the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) and examined its expression in porcine gametes and embryos and its function during fertilisation and early embryo development. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, CASR was found to be expressed in porcine oocytes, spermatozoa and embryos at different developmental stages. Functionally, medium supplementation with a CASR agonist or an antagonist during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) was tested. During fertilisation, the presence of a CASR agonist increased sperm penetration rate and decreased polyspermy rate leading to an increased normal fertilisation rate. During embryo development, for the IVF embryos, agonist treatment during IVC significantly increased cleavage rate and blastocyst formation rate compared with the control group. Furthermore, parthenogenetically activated embryos showed similar results with lower cleavage and blastocyst formation rates in the antagonist group than in the other groups. It was concluded that CASR, as the effector of extracellular calcium, modulates porcine fertilisation and early embryo development.

  4. Synthesis and assembly of infectious bovine papillomavirus particles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Stenzel, D J; Sun, X Y; Frazer, I H

    1993-04-01

    Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) virions were produced in vitro using vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing the BPV-1 L1 and L2 capsid proteins. Particles morphologically resembling papillomaviruses were observed in the nucleus of cells infected with a VV recombinant for the BPV-1 L1 protein, and greater numbers of similar particles were seen in the nuclei of cells infected with a VV double recombinant for L1 and L2. Virus-like particles (VLPs) assembled in cells infected with the VV double recombinant for BPV-1 L1 and L2, and not those assembled in cells infected with the VV recombinant for BPV-1 L1 alone, were able to package BPV-1 DNA. Transcription of the BPV-1 E1 viral open reading frame was observed after a mouse fibroblast cell line was exposed to VLPs produced using a BPV-1 L1/L2 VV recombinant in a cell line containing episomal BPV-1 DNA. E1 transcription was not observed when the VLPs were pre-incubated with antibodies to the capsid protein of BPV-1. This system should allow an in vitro approach to the definition of the BPV-1 cellular receptor.

  5. Cryopreservation and In Vitro culture of Preimplantation Embryos in Djungarian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusentsev, E Yu; Abramova, T O; Rozhkova, I N; Igonina, T N; Naprimerov, V A; Feoktistova, N Yu; Amstislavsky, S Ya

    2015-08-01

    Although embryo cryobanking was applied to Syrian golden and to Campbell's hamsters, no attempt has been made at freezing embryos in Djungarian hamsters. Four-cell stage embryos were flushed from the reproductive ducts of pregnant females before noon of the third-day post coitum and frozen in 0.25-ml straws according to standard procedures of slow cooling. A mixture of permeating (ethylene glycol) and non-permeating (sucrose) cryoprotectants was used. The thawing was performed by incubating at RT for 40 s followed by 40 s in a water bath at 30.0°C. Most (66.7%) of the non-frozen four-cell embryos developed up to the morula stage in rat one-cell embryo culture medium (R1ECM). The use of hamster embryo culture medium (HECM) yielded fewer morulas (18.2%) during the same 24-h period of culture. The rate of embryo's surviving the freezing-thawing procedures, as estimated by light microscopy, was 60.7-68.8%. After 24-h culturing in R1ECM, 64.7% of frozen-thawed four-cell embryos developed and all of them reached the morula stage. Supplementation of R1ECM with GM-CSF (2 ng/ml) improved the rate of Djungarian hamster frozen-thawed embryo development: 100% of the four-cell stage embryos developed, 50% of them achieved the morula stage, and 50% developed even further and reached the blastocyst stage within 24 h of culturing. This study reports the world's first successful transfer of frozen-thawed Djungarian hamster embryos yielding term pups. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate the possibility of applying some key reproductive technologies, that is, embryo freezing/cryopreservation and in vitro culture, to Djungarian hamsters. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.

  7. Effect of B-mercaptoethanol on the viability of IVM/IVF/IVC bovine embryos during long-distance transportation in plastic straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Kuwayama, M; Hamano, S; Takahashi, M; Okano, A; Kadokawa, H; Kariya, T; Nagai, T

    1996-10-15

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) on the quality and viability of bovine blastocysts derived from in-vitro culture (IVC) of in-vitro matured and fertilized (TVM-IVF) oocytes during their transport between 2 distant places. Follicular oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained at a slaughterhouse and were cultured for 20 to 21 h in modified TCM-199. The IVM oocytes were fertilized in vitro with frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Fertilized oocytes were cultured for 7 d, and embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage were used for the experiments. The blastocysts, packed in straws with transportation medium that consisted of modified TCM-199 with HEPES equilibrated in air and supplemented with 20 % calf serum and 0, 10, 50, 100 or 150 microM beta-ME, were transported at 37 degrees C from Tokyo to Sapporo by air (18.3 h). The quality of blastocysts was assessed and ranked as excellent (A), good (B), fair (C) or poor (D) after transportation. The percentages of blastocysts ranked as A or B were significantly higher (P plastic straws for several hours without control of CO2 and that the concentration of beta-ME used in this experiment is not detrimental to the blastocysts.

  8. Improved bovine embryo production in an oviduct-on-a-chip system: prevention of poly-spermic fertilization and parthenogenic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Marcia A M M; Henning, Heiko H W; Costa, Pedro F; Malda, Jos; Melchels, Ferry P; Wubbolts, R; Stout, Tom A E; Vos, Peter L A M; Gadella, Bart M

    2017-02-28

    The oviduct provides the natural micro-environment for gamete interaction, fertilization and early embryo development in mammals, such as the cow. In conventional culture systems, bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) undergo a rapid loss of essential differentiated cell properties; we aimed to develop a more physiological in vitro oviduct culture system capable of supporting fertilization. U-shaped chambers were produced using stereo-lithography and mounted with polycarbonate membranes, which were used as culture inserts for primary BOECs. Cells were grown to confluence and cultured at an air-liquid interface for 4 to 6 weeks and subsequently either fixed for immune staining, incubated with sperm cells for live-cell imaging, or used in an oocyte penetration study. Confluent BOEC cultures maintained polarization and differentiation status for at least 6 weeks. When sperm and oocytes were introduced into the system, the BOECs supported oocyte penetration in the absence of artificial sperm capacitation factors while also preventing polyspermy and parthenogenic activation, both of which occur in classical in vitro fertilization systems. Moreover, this "oviduct-on-a-chip" allowed live imaging of sperm-oviduct epithelium binding and release. Taken together, we describe for the first time the use of 3D-printing as a step further on bio-mimicking the oviduct, with polarized and differentiated BOECs in a tubular shape that can be perfused or manipulated, which is suitable for live imaging and supports in vitro fertilization.

  9. PRODUCTION OF IN VITRO EMBRYO USING SEXED SPERM OF 5/8 GIROLANDO BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pábola Santos Nascimento

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the "in vitro" blastocyst rate production using bovine sexed semen. Semen from three bulls was used to verify the individual's semen variation, cleavage rates and embryo production. In this study, we employed reproductive biotechnologies, computer analysis of post-thawed semen and fluorescent probes for sperm cells integrity analysis (plasma membrane, acrosome membrane and mitochondrial potential. A total of 959 oocysts went through in vitro maturation steps for in vitro fertilization and cultivation, being 473 with sexed semen and 486 with conventional semen. The cleavage rate was observed in blastocysts on D2 and D7. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software using analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student's t-test was used to detect differences between groups, and chi-square analysis for in vitro production results (P <0.05 . The results differed between conventional (31.06% and sexed semen (21.10% in the obtainment of blastocyst. When the blastocyst production was individually compared in sexed semen samples (27.69%, 17.93% and 25.56%, bulls 1, 2 and 3, respectively we verified T2

  10. The Responses of Mouse Preimplantation Embryos to Leptin In Vitro in a Transgenerational Model for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kšiňanová

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that leptin can directly mediate the negative effect of maternal obesity on preimplantation embryos. As previously shown, maternal obesity retards early embryonic development in vivo and increases the incidence of apoptosis in blastocysts. When two-cell embryos isolated from control and obese mice were transferred to identical (leptin free conditions in vitro, no differences in any growth or quality parameters were recorded, including apoptosis incidence in blastocysts. Embryos isolated from control mice responded to transfer to environments with a high concentration of leptin (10 ng/mL with a significant increase in arrest at the first or subsequent cell cycle. However, the majority of non-arrested embryos developed into blastocysts, showing morphology comparable to those cultured in the leptin-free group. On the other hand, the exposure of embryos isolated from obese mice to high leptin concentration in vitro did not retard their development. Furthermore, these embryos developed into blastocysts, showing a lower incidence of apoptosis. In vivo-developed blastocysts recovered from obese mice showed elevated expression levels of the proapoptotic gene BAX and the insulin-responsive glucose transporter gene SLC2A4. In conclusion, elevated leptin levels have both positive and negative effects on preimplantation embryo development in vitro, a response that likely depends on the body condition of the embryo donor. Moreover, these results suggest that leptin acts as a survival factor rather than an apoptotic inductor in embryonic cells. Since no elevations in the expression of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR or fat metabolism-associated genes (PLIN2, SLC27A4 were recorded in blastocysts recovered from obese mice, the role of leptin in mediating the effects of obesity on embryos at the peripheral level is likely lower than expected.

  11. [Influence of patient age and the number of good-quality-embryos transferred on multiple gestation in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Ji; Gong, Fei; Lin, Ge; Lu, Chang-Fu; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2008-08-01

    To observe the influence of patient's age, and the number of transferred-good-quality-embryos on multiple gestation rates in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. In this retrospective study, a total of 4,395 patients who transferred fresh embryo between Jan 2004 and Nov 2006 was analyzed. According to the age, the patients were divided into 2 groups: aged or= 35 (953 cycles). We regularly transferred 2 - 3 embryos. If the patients had only one embryo, one was transferred. And those patients who had only 2 embryos, even if they were more than 35 years old or it would be the second time for them to transfer, were transferred 2 embryos. The influence of female age and the number of good quality embryos transferred on the multiple gestation rates in IVF-ET cycle was analyzed. (1) The multiple gestation rate of the groups of 1 good quality embryo, 2 good quality embryos, or 3 good quality embryos transferred were 21.08% (35/166), 31.41% (413/1315), and 42.37% (75/177), respectively in women aged good quality embryos transferred group and 3 good quality embryos transferred group. (2) The multiple gestation rates of the groups of 1 good quality embryo, 2 good quality embryos, or 3 good quality embryos transferred were 19.51% (8/41), 20.65% (19/92), and 40.66% (74/182), respectively, in women aged >or= 35; there were no significant differences between 1 good quality embryo transferred group and 2 good quality embryos transferred group. The pregnancy rates of these groups were 19.07% (41/215), 33.70% (92/273), and 39.14% (182/465), respectively; there were no significant differences between 2 good quality embryos transferred group and 3 good quality embryos transferred group. (3) The pregnancy rate of the patients aged or= 35 [33.05% (315/953)]. The transfer of 2 good quality embryos results in similar pregnancy rates and significantly reduced multiple gestation rates when compared to the transfer of 3 good quality embryos in women regardless of their

  12. Hormonal protocols for in vitro production of Zebu and taurine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio de Carvalho Fernandes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of hormonal synchronization protocols, associated or not with follicular development stimulation, on the recovery of oocytes and on in vitro production of Bos indicus and B. taurus embryos, in different seasons. Ultrasound-guided follicular aspirations (n=237 were performed without pre-treatment (G1, control group and after follicular wave synchronization (G2, or after follicular wave synchronization and follicle growth induction (G3. Bos indicus produced more oocytes and embryos than B. taurus (18.7±0.9 vs. 11.9±0.6 oocytes and 4.8±0.3 vs. 2.1±0.2 embryos. On average, oocyte and embryo yields were higher in G3 than in G2, and both were greater than in G1, which lead to a higher conversion of oocytes to embryos in these treatments. The hot or the cold season did not affect the B. indicus outcomes, whereas, in B. taurus, both oocyte recovery and embryo production were higher in the cold season. Follicular wave synchronization improves ovum pick-up and in vitro production of embryos in both cattle subspecies evaluated.

  13. The effect of media, serum and temperature on in vitro survival of bovine blastocysts after Open Pulled Straw (OPS) vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, G; Rindom, N; Peura, T T; Holm, P; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    1999-10-01

    The recently introduced Open Pulled Straw (OPS) vitrification technique has successfully been used for cryopreserving porcine embryos as well as for bovine embryos and oocytes. The aim of this work is to investigate several factors on the in vitro survival of bovine blastocysts. In 5 experiments, a total of 862 in vitro produced blastocysts and expanded blastocysts was vitrified and warmed using the OPS technology, then cultured in vitro for an additional 3 days. The culture medium in Experiments 1 to 4 was SOFaa with supplements and 5% calf serum (CS). In Experiment 1, the replacement of TCM-199 + 20% CS with PBS + 20% CS in the holding medium during vitrification and warming did not result in significant differences in the re-expansion (92 vs 95%) and hatching rates (79 vs 72%). In Experiment 2, the PBS holding medium was supplemented with either 20% CS, 5 mg/mL bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 3 mg/mL polyvinylalcohol (PVA). Although the re-expansion rates did not differ (98, 95 and 93%, respectively), there was a decrease in the hatching rate after vitrification with PVA (77 and 78 vs 51%, respectively). In Experiment 3, the influence of temperature of equilibration media prior to and rehydration media after the vitrification was investigated. When the temperature of these media was adjusted to 20 degrees C instead of the standard 35 degrees C, both the re-expansion and the hatching rates decreased markedly. However, increasing the time of equilibration with the diluted cryoprotectant solution at 20 degrees C eliminated these differences. In Experiment 4, the ethylene-glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide cryoprotectant mixture was replaced with ethylene glycol-ficoll-trehalose solution. No difference in the re-expansion (89 vs 96%, respectively) or hatching rate (79 vs 84%, respectively) was detected. In Experiment 5, the vitrified-warmed blastocysts were cultured in SOFaa medium supplemented with 5% CS or 5 mg/mL BSA. Although the re-expansion rates were identical in

  14. Effects of culture media conditions on production of eggs fertilized in vitro of embryos derived from ovary of high grade Hanwoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Young; Jung, Yun Gil; Seo, Byoung Boo

    2016-01-01

    hence, it might be a better option for future applications for in vitro culture of bovine embryos.

  15. Debating Elective Single Embryo Transfer after in vitro Fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marqueta J, Pareja A, et al. Impact of the Spanish Fertility. Society guidelines on the number of embryos to transfer. Reprod Biomed Online 2010;21:667‑75. 21. Ryan GL, Sparks AE, Sipe CS, Syrop CH, Dokras A, Van. Voorhis BJ. A mandatory single blastocyst transfer policy with educational campaign in a United States ...

  16. In vitro production of horse embryos: fundamental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Tremoleda, Jordi

    2003-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproduction have provided valuable tools for sub-fertility treatment and for selective breeding in animals. In horses, techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer are used successfully to aid genetic progress but the commercial application of other

  17. Vitrification of immature bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes: effects of cryoprotectants, the vitrification procedure and warming time on cleavage and embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prentice-Biensch Jennifer R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present studies evaluated the effects of cryoprotectants, the vitrification procedure and time in the warming solution containing sucrose on cleavage and embryo development of immature (GV stage bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs. Methods Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, COCs (n = 420 were randomly assigned to four groups: 1 Control group: no treatment; 2 VS1 group: COCs were exposed to vitrification solution 1 (VS1 containing 7.5% ethylene glycol [EG] + 7.5% dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO] + 20% calf serum [CS] in TCM-199 at 37 C for 5 min; 3 VS1 + VS2 group: COCs were exposed to VS1 for 5 min followed by VS2 (15% EG + 15% DMSO + 17.1% sucrose + 20% CS at 37 C for 45–60 sec; and 4 Vitrified group: COCs were exposed to VS1 and VS2, loaded on cryotops, vitrified in liquid nitrogen and then warmed in TCM-199 + 17.1% sucrose + 20% CS at 37 C for 1 min. In Experiment 2, COCs (n = 581 were assigned to the same groups, but those in VS1, VS1 + VS2 and Vitrified groups were sub-divided and exposed to the warming solution for either 1 or 5 min. After treatment and/or warming, all COCs in both experiments underwent in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture. Results Cleavage and blastocyst rates did not differ among Control, VS1 and VS1 + VS2 groups in either experiment. In Experiment 2, there was no effect of time in the warming solution. However, both cleavage and blastocyst rates were lower (P  Conclusions The permeating cryoprotectants (EG and DMSO present in VS1 and VS2 solutions and the time in the warming solution containing sucrose had no adverse effects on cleavage and blastocyst rates of immature bovine COCs. However, cleavage rate and early embryo development were reduced following the vitrification and warming.

  18. Efficient edition of the bovine PRNP prion gene in somatic cells and IVF embryos using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, R J; Fernandez-Martín, R; Savy, V; Canel, N G; Gismondi, M I; Kues, W A; Carlson, D F; Fahrenkrug, S C; Niemann, H; Taboga, O A; Ferraris, S; Salamone, D F

    2016-11-01

    The recently developed engineered nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas) 9, provide new opportunities for gene editing in a straightforward manner. However, few reports are available regarding CRISPR application and efficiency in cattle. Here, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was used with the aim of inducing knockout and knock-in alleles of the bovine PRNP gene, responsible for mad cow disease, both in bovine fetal fibroblasts and in IVF embryos. Five single-guide RNAs were designed to target 875 bp of PRNP exon 3, and all five were codelivered with Cas9. The feasibility of inducing homologous recombination (HR) was evaluated with a reporter vector carrying EGFP flanked by 1 kbp PRNP regions (pHRegfp). For somatic cells, plasmids coding for Cas9 and for each of the five single-guide RNAs (pCMVCas9 and pSPgRNAs) were transfected under two different conditions (1X and 2X). For IVF zygotes, cytoplasmic injection was conducted with either plasmids or mRNA. For plasmid injection groups, 1 pg pCMVCas9 + 0.1 pg of each pSPgRNA (DNA2X) was used per zygote. In the case of RNA, two amounts (RNA1X and RNA2X) were compared. To assess the occurrence of HR, a group additionally cotransfected or coinjected with pHRegfp plasmid was included. Somatic cell lysates were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and surveyor assay. In the case of embryos, the in vitro development and the genotype of blastocysts were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. In somatic cells, 2X transfection resulted in indels and large deletions of the targeted PRNP region. Regarding embryo injection, higher blastocyst rates were obtained for RNA injected groups (46/103 [44.6%] and 55/116 [47.4%] for RNA1X and RNA2X) than for the DNA2X group (26/140 [18.6%], P < 0.05). In 46% (26/56) of the total sequenced blastocysts, specific gene editing was

  19. Effects of griseofulvin on in vitro porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yi-Liang; Zhang, Xia; Zhao, Jian-Guo; Spate, Lee; Zhao, Ming-Tao; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Schatten, Heide

    2012-08-01

    Griseofulvin is an orally administered antifungal drug that affects microtubule formation in vitro and interferes with microtubule dynamics in vivo as clearly shown for mitotic cells in several cell systems. This article reports the effects of griseofulvin on in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes and subsequent effects on embryo development. Our results revealed a concentration-dependent effect on meiotic spindles with 20-40 μM griseofulvin affecting oocyte maturation, and 40 μM affecting fertilization and embryo development. These concentrations of griseofulvin did not affect mitochondrial and cortical granule distribution that also depend on microtubule and cytoskeletal functions during oocyte maturation. Specific effects on the meiotic spindle included spindle disorganization and aberrant chromosome separation displayed as prominent chromosome clusters in oocytes treated with 40 μM griseofulvin. These results strongly suggested that griseofulvin affected porcine oocyte in vitro maturation and following embryo development by disturbing microtubule dynamics. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. In Vitro Digestibility of Rapeseed and Bovine Whey Protein Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehnke, Marcel Skejovic; Rehder, Alina; Sørensen, Susanne; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup

    2018-01-24

    Partial replacement of animal protein sources with plant proteins is highly relevant for the food industry, but potential effects on protein digestibility need to be established. In this study, the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of four protein sources and their mixtures (50:50 w/w ratio) was investigated using a transient pepsin hydrolysis (1 h) followed by pancreatin (1 h). The protein sources consisted of napin-rich rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) protein concentrates (RPCs; RP1, RP2) prepared in pilot scale and major bovine whey proteins (WPs; α-LA, alpha-lactalbumin; β-LG, beta-lactoglobulin). IVPD of individual protein sources was higher for WPs compared to RPCs. The RP2/β-LG mixture resulted in an unexpected high IVPD equivalent to β-LG protein alone. Protein mixtures containing RP1 showed a new IVPD response type due to the negative influence of a high trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) level. Improved IVPD of RP1 alone and in protein mixtures was obtained by lowering the TIA level using dithiothreitol (DTT). These results showed that napin-rich protein products prepared by appropriate processing can be combined with specific WPs in mixtures to improve the IVPD.

  1. High doses of lipid-core nanocapsules do not affect bovine embryonic development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Caroline G; Remião, Mariana H; Bruinsmann, Franciele A; Lopes, Isadora A R; Borges, Morgana A; Feijó, Ana Laura S; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S; Campos, Vinicius F; Seixas, Fabiana K; Collares, Tiago

    2017-12-01

    The improvement of in vitro embryo production by culture media supplementation has been a potential tool to increase blastocyst quality and development. Recently, lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC), which were developed for biomedical applications as a drug-delivery system, have demonstrated beneficial effects on in vitro embryo production studies. LNCs have a core composed of sorbitan monostearate dispersed in capric/caprylic triglyceride. Based on that, we firstly investigated if LNCs supplemented during in vitro oocyte maturation had affinity to the mineral oil placed over the top of the IVM media. Also, the effects of LNC supplementation in different concentrations (0; 0.94; 4.71; 23.56; 117.80 and 589.00μg/mL) during the in vitro maturation protocol were evaluated in oocytes and blastocysts by in vitro tests. LNCs seemed not to migrate to the mineral oil overlay during the in vitro oocyte maturation. Interestingly, LNCs did not show toxic effects in the oocyte in vitro maturation rate, cumulus cells expansion and oocyte viability. The highest LNCs concentration tested (589μg/mL) generated the lowest ROS and GSH levels, and reduced apoptosis rate when compared to the control. Additionally, toxic effects in embryo development and quality were not observed. The LNC supramolecular structure demonstrated to be a promising nanocarrier to deliver molecules in oocytes and embryos, aiming the improvement of the embryo in vitro development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Personal experiences in the introduction of laboratory methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, F R; Sudik, R

    1984-01-01

    Our laboratory technique includes recovery and handling with gametes outside the body, in vitro fertilization, culture of embryos, and finally embryo-transfer. Time-table, culture media and technique of the cultivation as well as laboratory devices are described and than compared with informations about methods from other teams. The necessity of transport of the follicle fluids from operating theatre to laboratory is given caused by local conditions. All dates about number of oocytes (73), quantities of preovulatory oocytes (47) and cleavage rates (55%) are descended from 30 laparoscopic oocyte recoveries of the 2. in vitro fertilization program of the university woman hospital in Rostock, January and February 1984.

  3. Embryo survival and birth rate after minimum volume vitrification or slow freezing of in vivo and in vitro produced ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Cuadro, F; Barrera, N; Crispo, M; Menchaca, A

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes and birth rate of in vivo derived vs. in vitro produced ovine embryos submitted to different cryopreservation methods. A total of 197 in vivo and 240 in vitro produced embryos were cryopreserved either by conventional freezing, or by vitrification with Cryotop or Spatula MVD methods on Day 6 after insemination/fertilization. After thawing/warming and transfer, embryo survival rate on Day 30 of gestation was affected by the source of the embryos (in vivo 53.3%, in vitro 20.8%; P vitro produced embryos, survival rate was 7.3% for conventional freezing, 38.7% for Cryotop, and 11.4% for Spatula MVD. Fetal loss from Day 30 to birth showed a tendency to be greater for in vitro (15.0%) rather than for in vivo produced embryos (5.7%), and was not affected by the cryopreservation method. Gestation length, weight at birth and lamb survival rate after birth were not affected by the source of the embryo, the cryopreservation method or stage of development (average: 150.5 ± 1.8 days; 4232.8 ± 102.8 g; 85.4%; respectively). This study demonstrates that embryo survival and birth rate of both in vivo and in vitro produced ovine embryos are improved by vitrification with the minimum volume Cryotop method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Finding biomarkers in non-model species: literature mining of transcription factors involved in bovine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turenne, Nicolas; Tiys, Evgeniy; Ivanisenko, Vladimir; Yudin, Nikolay; Ignatieva, Elena; Valour, Damien; Degrelle, Séverine A; Hue, Isabelle

    2012-08-29

    Since processes in well-known model organisms have specific features different from those in Bos taurus, the organism under study, a good way to describe gene regulation in ruminant embryos would be a species-specific consideration of closely related species to cattle, sheep and pig. However, as highlighted by a recent report, gene dictionaries in pig are smaller than in cattle, bringing a risk to reduce the gene resources to be mined (and so for sheep dictionaries). Bioinformatics approaches that allow an integration of available information on gene function in model organisms, taking into account their specificity, are thus needed. Besides these closely related and biologically relevant species, there is indeed much more knowledge of (i) trophoblast proliferation and differentiation or (ii) embryogenesis in human and mouse species, which provides opportunities for reconstructing proliferation and/or differentiation processes in other mammalian embryos, including ruminants. The necessary knowledge can be obtained partly from (i) stem cell or cancer research to supply useful information on molecular agents or molecular interactions at work in cell proliferation and (ii) mouse embryogenesis to supply useful information on embryo differentiation. However, the total number of publications for all these topics and species is great and their manual processing would be tedious and time consuming. This is why we used text mining for automated text analysis and automated knowledge extraction. To evaluate the quality of this "mining", we took advantage of studies that reported gene expression profiles during the elongation of bovine embryos and defined a list of transcription factors (or TF, n = 64) that we used as biological "gold standard". When successful, the "mining" approach would identify them all, as well as novel ones. To gain knowledge on molecular-genetic regulations in a non model organism, we offer an approach based on literature-mining and score

  5. Finding biomarkers in non-model species: literature mining of transcription factors involved in bovine embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turenne Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since processes in well-known model organisms have specific features different from those in Bos taurus, the organism under study, a good way to describe gene regulation in ruminant embryos would be a species-specific consideration of closely related species to cattle, sheep and pig. However, as highlighted by a recent report, gene dictionaries in pig are smaller than in cattle, bringing a risk to reduce the gene resources to be mined (and so for sheep dictionaries. Bioinformatics approaches that allow an integration of available information on gene function in model organisms, taking into account their specificity, are thus needed. Besides these closely related and biologically relevant species, there is indeed much more knowledge of (i trophoblast proliferation and differentiation or (ii embryogenesis in human and mouse species, which provides opportunities for reconstructing proliferation and/or differentiation processes in other mammalian embryos, including ruminants. The necessary knowledge can be obtained partly from (i stem cell or cancer research to supply useful information on molecular agents or molecular interactions at work in cell proliferation and (ii mouse embryogenesis to supply useful information on embryo differentiation. However, the total number of publications for all these topics and species is great and their manual processing would be tedious and time consuming. This is why we used text mining for automated text analysis and automated knowledge extraction. To evaluate the quality of this “mining”, we took advantage of studies that reported gene expression profiles during the elongation of bovine embryos and defined a list of transcription factors (or TF, n = 64 that we used as biological “gold standard”. When successful, the “mining” approach would identify them all, as well as novel ones. Methods To gain knowledge on molecular-genetic regulations in a non model organism, we offer an

  6. Hyperspectral microscopy can detect metabolic heterogeneity within bovine post-compaction embryos incubated under two oxygen concentrations (7% versus 20%).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L; Gosnell, Martin; Anwer, Ayad G; White, Melissa; Purdey, Malcolm; Abell, Andrew D; Goldys, Ewa M; Thompson, Jeremy G

    2017-10-01

    Can we separate embryos cultured under either 7% or 20% oxygen atmospheres by measuring their metabolic heterogeneity? Metabolic heterogeneity and changes in metabolic profiles in morula exposed to two different oxygen concentrations were not detectable using traditional fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence but were detectable using hyperspectral microscopy. Increased genetic and morphological blastomere heterogeneity is associated with compromised developmental competence of embryos and currently forms the basis for embryo scoring within the clinic. However, there remains uncertainty over the accuracy of current techniques, such as PGS and time-lapse microscopy, to predict subsequent pregnancy establishment. The impact of two oxygen concentrations (7% = optimal and 20% = stressed) during post-fertilisation embryo culture was assessed. Cattle embryos were exposed to the different oxygen concentrations for 8 days (D8; embryo developmental competence) or 5 days (D5; metabolism measurements). Between 3 and 4 experimental replicates were performed, with 40-50 embryos per replicate used for the developmental competency experiment, 10-20 embryos per replicate for the fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence experiments and a total of 21-22 embryos used for the hyperspectral microscopy study. In-vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos were utilised for this study. Post-fertilisation, embryos were exposed to 7% or 20% oxygen. To determine impact of oxygen concentrations on embryo viability, blastocyst development was assessed on D8. On D5, metabolic heterogeneity was assessed in morula (on-time) embryos using fluorophores probes (active mitochondria, hydrogen peroxide and reduced glutathione), two-channel autofluorescence (FAD and NAD(P)H) and 18-channel hyperspectral microscopy. Exposure to 20% oxygen following fertilisation significantly reduced total blastocyst, expanded and hatched blastocyst rates by 1.4-, 1.9- and 2.8-fold, respectively, compared to 7% oxygen

  7. Using CR1aa versus KSOM as the culture medium for in vitro embryo production of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Triwulaninngsih

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted at the laboratory of in vitro fertilization in the Department of Animal Science University of Wisconsin, USA. These embryos can be used for improving genetic value of Indonesian cattle. Oocytes were matured in TCM- 199 medium (in 5% CO2 incubator and at 390C enriched with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH 10 μl/ml, oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml and 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS. The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with motile sperm and incubation between sperm and oocytes in fertilization medium Tyroide Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP for 20 hours. All zygotes were cultured in CR1aa (n=1549 medium versus modification of protein-free pottasium simplex optimized medium (KSOM (n=675 up to blastocyst stage and were fed FCS 5 μl/50 μl medium on day 6, as treatment A and B respectively. Data were analyzed by completely randomized design with SAS program. Percentages of cleavage, morula, blastocyst, expanded blastocyst, unfertilized and degenerated ova in this study were 91.4% vs 75.6 %; 75.6% vs 58.9%; 61.5% vs 38.5%; 31.2% vs 5.1%, 8.6% vs 24.4%, 15.7% vs 8% which were significantly different (P<0.01 for treatment CR1aa and KSOM respectively. Based on this study, CR1aa medium is better culture medium than KSOM for efficient in vitro production (IVP of bovine embryos.

  8. In vitro teratogenicity of acetylsalicylic acid on rat embryos: studies with various culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicurel, L; Schmid, B

    1986-04-01

    Rat embryos taken at day 9.5 of gestation were exposed in vitro to acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) using various culture conditions. It was observed that embryos were sensitive to aspirin emulsified in olive oil at concentrations greater than or equal to 150 micrograms/ml. Between 43% and 66% of the embryos exhibited multiple malformations depending on the culture medium, 100% homologous rat serum or Waymouth medium supplemented with 50% rat serum, respectively. At concentrations greater than or equal to 400 micrograms/ml aspirin induced further toxic effects on embryo growth and differentiation. When gelatin was used as the drug-delivery system, aspirin at concentrations of greater than or equal to 150 micrograms/ml induced some malformations (mainly irregular somite shapes) in 57% of the embryos cultured in Waymouth medium, but in only 13% of the embryos grown in 100% serum. At concentrations which were greater than or equal to 400 micrograms/ml aspirin induced dysmorphogenic effects in all embryos, without any concomittant toxicity.

  9. Raman spectrum: A potential biomarker for embryo assessment during in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiayi; Xu, Tian; Tan, Xiaofang; Jin, Hua; Shao, Jun; Li, Haibo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether Raman spectrum is consistent with the morphological scoring of the embryo of day 3 during in vitro fertilization (IVF). The spent culture media of embryo of day 3 from 10 patients were collected and analyzed. The samples were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and graded according to the standard embryo scoring system simultaneously. Data showed that the Raman spectra obtained from the droplet of media were useful, as they can act as the characteristic signature for protein and amino acids. The Raman biospectroscopy-based metabonomics profiling of spent media was consistent with the result of conventional morphological evaluation. In conclusion, this technology offers great potential for the development of tools allowing rapid non-invasive assessment of the quality of embryo of day 3 during IVF.

  10. STUDIES REGARDING CULTURE MEDIUM INFLUENCE ON IN VITRO REGENERATION FROM WHEAT IMATURE EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DANCI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Surnamed „embryos’ saving method”, embryos culture is an in vitro technique used for over half of the century for saving the distant hybridization products, that would have degenerate in other conditions. Immature embryos culture is used for initiation of in vitro cultures imposed by the impossibility of using other explants for some of the plant species. Wheat is one of the crops that immature embryos culture technique is suitable for. This methods principle is based on aseptic embryos excision and their inoculation to an adequate culture medium. In vitro culture results depend in a greater manner of the basic culture medium and the hormonal balance used. Immature embryos isolated from two Romanian wheat cultivars – Dropia and Lovrin 41 – were inoculated for callus production on two types of basic media added with 2,4 D. The selected calluses were transferred on MS basic medium and several parameters were registered. Both cultivars emphasized a good callusing capacity, in a different percentage depending on the culture media used, such as 71,09 – 94,45%.. big differences between the cultivars regarding embriogenic callus frequency, shooting callus frequency and regenerated plants percentage were registered.

  11. Improved bovine embryo production in an oviduct-on-a-chip system : prevention of poly-spermic fertilization and parthenogenic activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraz, Marcia A.M.M.; Henning, Heiko H.W.; Costa, Pedro F.; Malda, Jos; Melchels, Ferry P.W.; Wubbolts, Richard; Stout, Tom A.E.; Vos, Peter L.A.M.; Gadella, Bart M.

    2017-01-01

    The oviduct provides the natural micro-environment for gamete interaction, fertilization and early embryo development in mammals, such as the cow. In conventional culture systems, bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) undergo a rapid loss of essential differentiated cell properties; we aimed to

  12. Alcohol consumption and quality of embryos obtained in programmes of in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wdowiak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Infertility is defined as a state when a couple fails to conceive a pregnancy after one year of regular intercourse without the use of contraception. Alcohol consumption is one of the main stimulants which negatively affect the female and male reproductive system. objective. The objective of the study was analysis of the effect of alcohol consumption by the examined women on the quality of embryos obtained during in vitro fertilization programmes. material and methods. The study covered 54 women who received treatment due to infertility. The database and statistical analyses were performed using computer software STATISTICA 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland. results. The study showed that 42.59% from among 100% of the women in the study consumed alcohol. In the group of women who consumed alcohol, class A embryos constituted 4.35%, class B embryos – 86.96%, while embryos of class C – 8.69%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the classes of embryos and alcohol consumption by the women examined (p=0.001. In addition, a statistically significant relationship was found between the amount of alcohol consumed and the classes of embryos (p=0.005. A significantly larger number of class B embryos came from women who consumed more than 25 grams of ethyl alcohol daily (72.72%, compared to those who consumed alcohol sporadically (44.44%, or those who abstained entirely from alcohol (30.00%. conclusions. Alcohol consumption causes the development of poorer quality embryos. Significantly more embryos of class B came from oocytes of women who consumed alcohol, compared to class A. An active campaign against alcohol consumption should be carried out among women at reproductive age to safeguard their fertility and future motherhood.

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of lyophilized bovine bone biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of bone grafts in orthopedic, maxillofacial and dental surgery has been growing. Nevertheless, both fresh autografts and frozen allografts have limitations, and therefore, alternative synthetic or natural biomaterials, such as processed and lyophilized bovine bone graft have been developed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of lyophilized bovine bone manufactured in a semi-industrial scale, according to a modifical protocol developed by the authors. METHODS: Samples of bovine cancellous bone were processed according to a protocol developed by Kakiuchi et al., and modified to process samples of bovine cancellous bone. The following trials were performed: in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo acute systemic toxicity, in vivo oral irritation potential, in vitro pyrogenic reaction, and bioburden. RESULTS: The in vitro evaluation of lyophilized bovine cancellous bone revealed an absence of cytotoxicity in 100% of the samples. Regarding in vivo evaluation of acute systemic toxicity, neither macroscopic abnormalities nor deaths were noted in the animals. Pyrogenicity was not greater than 0.125 UE/ml in any of the samples. The bioburden revealed negative results for microbial growth before sterilization. Regarding the oral irritation potential, in vivo evaluation at 24 and 72 hours showed that the animals had no edema or erythema on the oral mucosa. CONCLUSION: The protocol changes established by the authors to prepare lyophilized bovine cancellous bone at a semi-industrial scale is reproducible and yielded a product with excellent biocompatibility.

  14. Application of in vitro production-embryo transfer in the protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... The advances of assisted reproductive technology (ART) can effectively protect and multiply the superior genes of lactation and reproduction within the dairy farms. Key words: In vitro production, embryo transfer, genetics potential, dairy cattle. INTRODUCTION. Since the birth of the first calf derived from in ...

  15. In vitro culture of mouse embryos in human amniotic fluid | Coetzee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human amniotic fluid was compared with Ham's F-10 culture medium as a possible alternative for use in in vitro fertilisation. The cleavage success of mouse embryos in human amniotic fluid (experimental group) was 92% compared with 86% in Ham's F-10 medium. It is concluded that human amniotic fluid is a viable ...

  16. Application of in vitro production-embryo transfer in the protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... reproductive technology (ART) can effectively protect and multiply the superior genes of lactation and reproduction within the dairy farms. Key words: In vitro production, embryo ..... In this context, generator cows at the end of their first year of life are prepared for artificial insemination and pregnancy. Also, it.

  17. Early aberrations in chromatin dynamics in embryos produced under In vitro conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    decondensation and nucleolar development at the four-cell stage, and ultimately culminating in failure of proper first lineage segregation at the blastocyst stage, demonstrated by poorly defined inner cell mass. Interestingly, in vitro produced (IVP) embryos also lacked a heterochromatin halo around nucleolar...

  18. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes (Bos taurus) helps to preserve oocyte integrity after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Conca, M; Vendrell, M; Sabés-Alsina, M; Mogas, T; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2017-10-01

    Oocyte vitrification causes less cell stress than slow cooling, but cytoskeletal and spindle alterations may occur affecting the oocyte competence. In vitro maturation (IVM) supplementation with different antioxidant molecules has been performed to attenuate this harmful stress. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) supplementation has previously shown to have positive effects in bovine and mouse in vitro embryo development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CoQ10 during bovine oocyte IVM and vitrification. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) (n = 311) were cultured under standard maturation conditions with 0 μM (control), 25 μM and 50 μM CoQ10 supplementation. After 22 hr, a cohort of 170 oocytes both from the control and from CoQ10 -supplemented groups were vitrified, warmed and returned to incubation until 24 hr of maturation, while the rest of the oocytes (n = 141) remained fresh. Then, oocyte survival was assessed morphologically by stereomicroscopy. Oocytes from all groups were then fixed and stained for assessing cortical granules (CG) migration and nuclear stage. High rates of oocyte MII progression and appropriate CG migration as a continuous layer beneath the plasma membrane were obtained both in control and in CoQ10 groups. Results showed that although vitrification has great impact in survival of IVM bovine oocytes, 50 μM CoQ10 supplementation significantly improved oocyte survival (p = .045) and reduced the premature CG exocytosis, helping to preserve the CG migration pattern (31.3% control vs. 54.5% in 50 μM CoQ10 ; p = .039), attenuating the negative effects of vitrification. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Male fertility status is associated with DNA methylation signatures in sperm and transcriptomic profiles of bovine preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Carrillo, José A; Namous, Hadjer; Daniels, Alyssa; Salih, Sana M; Song, Jiuzhou; Khatib, Hasan

    2017-04-05

    Infertility in dairy cattle is a concern where reduced fertilization rates and high embryonic loss are contributing factors. Studies of the paternal contribution to reproductive performance are limited. However, recent discoveries have shown that, in addition to DNA, sperm delivers transcription factors and epigenetic components that are required for fertilization and proper embryonic development. Hence, characterization of the paternal contribution at the time of fertilization is warranted. We hypothesized that sire fertility is associated with differences in DNA methylation patterns in sperm and that the embryonic transcriptomic profiles are influenced by the fertility status of the bull. Embryos were generated in vitro by fertilization with either a high or low fertility Holstein bull. Blastocysts derived from each high and low fertility bulls were evaluated for morphology, development, and transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Sequencing. Additionally, DNA methylation signatures of sperm from high and low fertility sires were characterized by performing whole-genome DNA methylation binding domain sequencing. Embryo morphology and developmental capacity did not differ between embryos generated from either a high or low fertility bull. However, RNA-Sequencing revealed 98 genes to be differentially expressed at a false discovery rate fertility bull derived embryos, and 33 genes were upregulated in low fertility derived embryos. Expression of the genes CYCS, EEA1, SLC16A7, MEPCE, and TFB2M was validated in three new pairs of biological replicates of embryos. The role of the differentially expressed gene TFB2M in embryonic development was further assessed through expression knockdown at the zygotic stage, which resulted in decreased development to the blastocyst stage. Assessment of the epigenetic signature of spermatozoa between high and low fertility bulls revealed 76 differentially methylated regions. Despite similar morphology and development to the blastocyst

  20. Evidence of Placental Autophagy during Early Pregnancy after Transfer of In Vitro Produced (IVP Sheep Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Toschi

    Full Text Available Pregnancies obtained by Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART are associated with limited maternal nutrient uptake. Our previous studies shown that in vitro culture of sheep embryos is associated with vascularization defects in their placentae and consequent reduction of embryo growth. Autophagy is a pro-survival cellular mechanism triggered by nutrient insufficiency. Therefore, the goal of our present study was to determine if autophagy is involved in early placental development after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP embryos. To do this, placentae obtained following transfer of IVP sheep embryos were compared with placentae obtained after natural mating (control-CTR. The placentae were collected on day 20 post-fertilization and post-mating, respectively, and were analyzed using molecular (qPCR, ultrastructural and histological/immunological approaches. Our results show drastically increased autophagy in IVP placentae: high levels of expression (p<0.05 of canonical markers of cellular autophagy and a high proportion of autophagic cells (35.08%; p<0.001 were observed. We conclude that high autophagic activity in IVP placentae can be a successful temporary counterbalance to the retarded vasculogenesis and the reduction of foetal growth observed in pregnancies after transfer of IVP embryos.

  1. Characteristics of pregnancies and offspring following transfer of bovine in vivo embryos assessed by nanorespirometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Ana Sofia; Madsen, S E; Greve, Torben

    2008-01-01

    It has been speculated whether the metabolism of the pre-implantation embryo may be reflected on the pregnancy and characteristics of the newborn animal. The present study investigated whether respiration rates of individual embryos were correlated with gestation length, type of parturition, birth......, III), stage of development, and diameter and were subsequently transferred individually (n = 43) to synchronized recipients. Gestation length of the recipients (n = 22) was calculated and the type of parturition (no assistance, light traction, heavy traction, or caesarean section) recorded. Sex...... as the interaction of weight at birth and type of parturition (P type of parturition, which was not affected by sex. When embryos were divided into two even-sized categories according to their respiration rates...

  2. Effects of platelet-rich plasma in a model of bovine endometrial inflammation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, M G; C.; Perrini; Esposti, P.; Corradetti, B.; Bizzaro, D.; Riccaboni, P.; Fantinato, E.; Urbani, G.; Gelati, G.; Cremonesi, F.; Lange-Consiglio, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometritis reduces fertility and is responsible for major economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative therapy using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was tested in vivo, after bovine intrauterine administration, and in vitro on endometrial cells. Methods Bovine endometrial cells were cultured until passage (P) 10 with 5?% or 10?% PRP. Effect of PRP on endometrial cell proliferation and on the expression of genes [prostaglandin-...

  3. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Pang, Daxin, E-mail: pdx@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Ouyang, Hongsheng, E-mail: ouyh@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. {yields} The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. {yields} A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 {mu}g/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  4. Production of bovine cloned embryos with donor cells frozen at a slow cooling rate in a conventional freezer (20 C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Leibo, S.P.; Wirtu, G.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Usually, fibroblasts are frozen in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, 10% v/v) at a cooling rate of 1 C/min in a low-temperature (80 C) freezer (LTF) before storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2); however, a LTF is not always available. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate apoptosis and viability of bovine fibroblasts frozen in a LTF or conventional freezer (CF; 20 C) and their subsequent ability for development to blastocyst stage after fusion with enucleated bovine oocytes. Percentages of live cells frozen in LTF (49.5%) and CF (50.6%) were similar, but significantly less than non-frozen control (88%). In both CF and LTF, percentages of live apoptotic cells exposed to LN2 after freezing were lower (4% and 5%, respectively) as compared with unexposed cells (10% and 18%, respectively). Cells frozen in a CF had fewer cell doublings/24 h (0.45) and required more days (9.1) to reach 100% confluence at the first passage (P) after thawing and plating as compared with cells frozen in a LTF (0.96 and 4.0 days, respectively). Hypoploidy at P12 was higher than at P4 in cells frozen in either a CF (37.5% vs. 19.2%) or in a LTF (30.0% vs. 15.4%). A second-generation cryo-solution reduced the incidence of necrosis (29.4%) at 0 h after thawing as compared with that of a first generation cryo-solution (DMEM + DMSO, 60.2%). The percentage of apoptosis in live cells was affected by cooling rate (CF = 1.9% vs. LFT = 0.7%). Development of bovine cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage was not affected by cooling rate or freezer type. ?? 2009 Cambridge University Press.

  5. Bovine parthenogenotes produced by inhibition of first or second polar bodies emission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bevacqua, Romina J; Fernandez-Martin, Rafael; Salamone, Daniel F

    2011-01-01

    .... In this work, we propose a new strategy to produce bovine parthenogenetic embryos inhibiting the emission of the first polar body during in vitro maturation, and allowing the extrusion of the second...

  6. Effect of soybean phosphatidylcholine on lipid profile of bovine oocytes matured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitangui-Molina, Caroline P; Vireque, Alessandra A; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia Roberta A; Santos, Vanessa G; Ferreira, Christina R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos Felipe; Ferriani, Rui A; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina J S

    2017-04-01

    The phospholipid (PL) composition of embryo and oocyte membranes affects thermal phase behavior and several physicochemical properties such as fluidity and permeability. The characterization of PL profiles and the development of suitable in vitro maturation (IVM) protocols, that are able to modify membrane's composition, may result in significant improvements in oocyte developmental potential and cryotolerance. Using soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a model supplement, we evaluated the effect of PL supplementation during IVM on bovine cumulus-oocyte-complex (COC). Substantial changes in the lipid profiles of oocyte membrane were observed and associated with pre-implantation data. The propensity of the PC supplement to become soluble in the maturation medium and/or diffuse into mineral oil was also assessed. Oocytes were matured in TCM without supplementation, i.e. control, (n=922) or supplemented with 50 or 100μM PC (n=994). The maturation media and mineral oil pre- and post- IVM, along with control and PC-treated oocytes were then analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), and the lipid profiles were compared via principal component analysis (PCA). Soybean PCs are bioavailable and stable in IVM medium; further, PCs did not diffuse to the mineral oil, which also remained unaltered by the metabolism of treated oocytes. PC supplementation at 100μM resulted in substantially greater relative abundances of polyunsatured PL, namely PC (32:1), PC (34:2), PC (36:6), PC (36:4), and PC (38:6), in oocyte membrane. These differences indicated that short-term exposure to the PC supplement could indeed modify the lipid composition of IVM-oocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Membrane incorporation of polyunsaturated molecular species of PC was favored, and does so without compromising the viability of the subsequent embryo in regards to cleavage, blastocyst development and hatching rate. The reported approach will allow for the

  7. Chromosomal preparations of human triploid zygotes and embryos fertilized in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macas, E; Suchanek, E; Grizelj, V; Puharic, I; Simunic, V

    1988-12-01

    Forty-eight zygotes with more than two pronuclei were identified after in vitro fertilization, representing 6.1% of all fertilized oocytes. The chromosome preparations from pronuclear stage to the cleaved human embryos were examined. Prophase was found in eight out of ten zygotes. The spreading of chromosomes allowed an adequate counting in only two cases. Six of the eight preparations displayed a late prophase. In this stage each haploid group of chromosomes can be analysed separately. Kariogamy usually occurred 4 to 5 h after the pronuclei had disappeared, and polyploid number of chromosomes were found in well-spread metaphases. The chromosomal preparations were made for eleven human embryos arising from zygotes with three pronuclei. Out of ten preparations, where the chromosomes could be counted, seven embryos (70%) contained hypodiploidic groups of chromosomes. In two of the cases, however, triploid metaphases were found, and in the last one a triploid/diploid mosaicism.

  8. Expression of intracellular interferon-alpha confers antiviral properties in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts and does not affect the full development of SCNT embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Yu

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease, one of the most significant diseases of dairy herds, has substantial effects on farm economics, and currently, disease control measures are limited. In this study, we constructed a vector with a human interferon-α (hIFN-α (without secretory signal sequence gene cassette containing the immediate early promoter of human cytomegalovirus. Stably transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts were obtained by G418 selection, and hIFN-α transgenic embryos were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Forty-six transgenic embryos were transplanted into surrogate cows, and five cows (10.9% became pregnant. Two male cloned calves were born. Expression of hIFN-α was detected in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts, transgenic SCNT embryos, and different tissues from a transgenic SCNT calf at two days old. In transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts, expression of intracellular IFN-α induced resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection, increased apoptosis, and induced the expression of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase gene (PKR and the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene (2'-5' OAS, which are IFN-inducible genes with antiviral activity. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of PKR, 2'-5' OAS, and P53 were significantly increased in wild-type bovine fetal fibroblasts stimulated with extracellular recombinant human IFN-α-2b, showing that intracellular IFN-α induces biological functions similar to extracellular IFN-α. In conclusion, expression of intracellular hIFN-α conferred antiviral properties in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts and did not significantly affect the full development of SCNT embryos. Thus, IFN-α transgenic technology may provide a revolutionary way to achieve elite breeding of livestock.

  9. Growth regulators and darkness increase efficiency in in vitro culture of immature embryos from peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Manzur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world, and extensive breeding efforts are being made to develop new improved strains of this species. In this regard, in vitro culture of immature embryos may help breeders accelerate breeding cycles and overcome interspecific barriers, among other applications. In this study, we have optimized a protocol for in vitro culture of immature embryos of C. annuum. Levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and zeatin have been tested to improve the efficiency (germination rates of this technique in C. annuum embryos at the four main immature stages (i.e. globular, heart, torpedo, and early cotyledonary from four varietal types of this species (California Wonder, Piquillo, Guindilla, and Bola. The effect of 5-day initial incubation in the dark was also tested on the most efficient hormone formulation. On average, relatively low levels of both IAA and zeatin (0.01 mg L−¹ each (M1 provided the highest germination rates, particularly in the advanced stages (torpedo and cotyledonary. To a lesser extent, the lack of these growth regulators (M0 or high IAA (0.2 mg L−¹/low zeatin (0.01 mg L−¹ (M2 combination also had a positive response. On the contrary, high zeatin levels (0.2 mg L−¹ produced very low germination rates or callus development (efficiency 0-7 %. Different responses were also found between genotypes. Thus, considering the best media (M0, M1, M2, Bola embryos had the highest rates. M1 plus 5-days of initial dark incubation (M1-D improved the efficiency rates at all embryo stages, particularly in the earliest (globular embryos which increased from 3 % to > 20 %.

  10. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared...

  11. Full-term potential of goat in vitro produced embryos after different cryopreservation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Silva, José Carlos; Moura, Marcelo Tigre; Silva, Túlio Diego; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Chiamenti, Adauto; Figueirêdo Freitas, Vicente José; Oliveira, Marcos Antonio Lemos

    2017-04-01

    Cryopreservation of preimplantation embryos represents a major challenge due to their shape and relatively large cells. Embryo source and cryopreservation method are key factors to cryotolerance efficiency and few reports have investigated more promising protocols for goat embryos. The study was aimed to compare different cryopreservation methods for goat in vitro produced (IVP) embryos. Goat blastocysts were subjected to conventional freezing (CF), Dimethyl sulfoxide vitrification (DMSO-V) and Dimethylformamide vitrification (DMF-V). Cryopreserved blastocysts were assessed for re-expansion, cell viability and in vivo development rates. Blastocyst re-expansion after cryopreservation was similar between groups, but cell viability was lower for DMF-V (32%) than CF (68%) and DMSO-V (60%). Pregnancy and delivery rates were similar for CF (60% and 50%) and DMSO-V (50% and 45%) and higher then DMF-V (20% and 15%), respectively. Finally, kidding rates were also indistinguishable for CF (40%) and DMSO-V (35%), but higher then DMF-V (12.5%). In conclusion, conventional freezing and vitrification using DMSO have similar efficiencies for cryopreservation of goat IVP embryos and cryoprotectant for vitrification affects its outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondria-targeted DsRed2 protein expression during the early stage of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Min, Sung-Hun; Choi, Hoonsung; Park, Junghyung; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kong, Il-Keun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2016-09-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been widely used as an efficient tool in biomedical research for the generation of transgenic animals from somatic cells with genetic modifications. Although remarkable advances in SCNT techniques have been reported in a variety of mammals, the cloning efficiency in domestic animals is still low due to the developmental defects of SCNT embryos. In particular, recent evidence has revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction is detected during the early development of SCNT embryos. However, there have been relatively few or no studies regarding the development of a system for evaluating mitochondrial behavior or dynamics. For the first time, in mitochondria of bovine SCNT embryos, we developed a method for the visualization of mitochondria and expression of fluorescence proteins. To express red fluorescence in mitochondria of cloned embryos, bovine ear skin fibroblasts, nuclear donor, were stably transfected with a vector carrying mitochondria-targeting DsRed2 gene tagged with V5 epitope (mito-DsRed2-V5 tag) using lentivirus-mediated gene transfer because of its ability to integrate in the cell genome and the potential for long-term transgene expression in the transduced cells and their dividing cells. From western blotting analysis of V5 tag protein using mitochondrial fraction and confocal microscopy of red fluorescence using SCNT embryos, we found that the mitochondrial expression of the mito-DsRed2 protein was detected until the blastocyst stage. In addition, according to image analysis, it may be suggested possible use of the system for visualization of mitochondrial localization and evaluation of mitochondrial behaviors or dynamics in early development of bovine SCNT embryos.

  13. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in bovine preimplantation embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zeveren Alex

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative PCR is a sensitive and very efficient technique to examine gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, in order to gain information about embryo development and to optimize assisted reproductive technologies. Critical to the succesful application of real-time PCR is careful assay design, reaction optimization and validation to maximize sensitivity and accuracy. In most of the studies published GAPD, ACTB or 18S rRNA have been used as a single reference gene without prior verification of their expression stability. Normalization of the data using unstable controls can result in erroneous conclusions, especially when only one reference gene is used. Results In this study the transcription levels of 8 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, GAPD, Histone H2A, TBP, HPRT1, SDHA, YWHAZ and 18S rRNA were determined at different preimplantation stages (2-cell, 8-cell, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst in order to select the most stable genes to normalize quantitative data within different preimplantation embryo stages. Conclusion Using the geNorm application YWHAZ, GAPD and SDHA were found to be the most stable genes across the examined embryonic stages, while the commonly used ACTB was shown to be highly regulated. We recommend the use of the geometric mean of those 3 reference genes as an accurate normalization factor, which allows small expression differences to be reliably measured.

  14. Structural changes of in vitro matured buffalo and bovine oocytes following cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina De Blasi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate chromatin and spindle organization of buffalo and bovine in vitro matured oocytes after vitrification/warming by Cryotop and after their exposure to cryoprotectants (CP. In vitro matured oocytes were vitrified/warmed and exposed to the vitrification/warming solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and sucrose as CP. Two hours after warming, oocytes were fixed and immunostained for microtubules and nuclei and examined by fluorescence microscopy. Data were analyzed by Chi Square test. A higher percentage of Telophase II stage oocytes was found in the toxicity (26 and 34% in bovine and buffalo and the vitrification groups (13 and 7% in bovine and buffalo compared to the control, indicating occurrence of activation. An increased percentage of oocytes with abnormal spindle and chromosome organization was found in oocytes exposed to CP (24 and 13% in bovine; 32 and 30% in buffalo respectively and in those vitrified (26 and 31% in bovine; 26 and 29% in buffalo respectively compared to the control (0 in bovine and 2.5 % in buffalo.

  15. The bovine brain: an in vitro translational model in developmental neuroscience and neurodegenerative research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella ePeruffo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal models provide convenient and clinically relevant tools in the research on neurodegenerative diseases. Studies on developmental disorders extensively rely on the use of laboratory rodents. The present mini-review proposes an alternative translational model, based on the use of fetal bovine brain tissue. The bovine (Bos taurus possesses a large and highly gyrencephalic brain and the long gestation period (41 weeks is comparable to the human pregnancy (38-40 weeks. Primary cultures obtained from fetal bovine brain constitute a validated in vitro model that allows examinations of neurons and/or glial cells under controlled and reproducible conditions. Physiological processes can be also studied on cultured bovine neural cells incubated with specific substrates or by electrically coupled electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor capacitors that permit direct recording from neuronal cells. Bovine neural cells and specific in vitro cell culture could be an alternative in comparative neuroscience and in neurodegenerative research, useful for studying development of normal and altered circuitry in a long gestation mammalian species. Use of bovine tissues would promote a substantial reduction in the use of laboratory animals.

  16. In vitro fertilization and embryo culture strongly impact the placental transcriptome in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fauque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART are increasingly used in humans; however, their impact is now questioned. At blastocyst stage, the trophectoderm is directly in contact with an artificial medium environment, which can impact placental development. This study was designed to carry out an in-depth analysis of the placental transcriptome after ART in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blastocysts were transferred either (1 after in vivo fertilization and development (control group or (2 after in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. Placentas were then analyzed at E10.5. Six percent of transcripts were altered at the two-fold threshold in placentas of manipulated embryos, 2/3 of transcripts being down-regulated. Strikingly, the X-chromosome harbors 11% of altered genes, 2/3 being induced. Imprinted genes were modified similarly to the X. Promoter composition analysis indicates that FOXA transcription factors may be involved in the transcriptional deregulations. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, our study shows that in vitro fertilization associated with embryo culture strongly modify the placental expression profile, long after embryo manipulations, meaning that the stress of artificial environment is memorized after implantation. Expression of X and imprinted genes is also greatly modulated probably to adapt to adverse conditions. Our results highlight the importance of studying human placentas from ART.

  17. A hierarchy of needs? Embryo donation, in vitro fertilisation and the provision of infertility counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Laura

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine how those working in, using and regulating assisted conception clinics discussed infertility counselling and its provision within the context of embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. 35 participants were recruited for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. All data were analysed using thematic analysis. The thematic analysis revealed recurring themes based upon the portrayals of infertility counselling, embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. This paper suggests that an implicit hierarchy exists around those using assisted conception techniques and their infertility counselling requirements, which was dependent upon the assisted conception technique used. As a result, some people using assisted conception techniques felt that their needs had been overlooked due to this covert hierarchy. Those working in, using or regulating assisted conception clinics should not view infertility counselling as restricted to treatments involving donation, or solely for people within the clinical system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of nucleolar-related proteins in porcine preimplantation embryos produced in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Wrenzycki, Christine; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2004-01-01

    embryonic mRNA transcription. Localization of proteins involved in the rRNA transcription (upstream binding factor [UBF], topoisomerase I, RNA polymerase I [RNA Pol I], and the RNA Pol I-associated factor PAF53) and processing (fibrillarin, nucleophosmin, and nucleolin) was assessed by immunocytochemistry....... Moreover, immunolocalization of RNA Pol I, but not of UBF, and the mRNA expression of PAF53 and UBF were significantly reduced or absent after culture with alpha-amanitin, indicating that RNA Pol I, PAF53, and presumably, UBF are derived from de novo embryonic transcription. Embryonic genomic activation...... was delayed in porcine embryos produced in vitro compared to the in vivo-derived counterparts with respect to mRNAs encoding PAF53 and UBF. Moreover, differences existed in the mRNA expression patterns of pRb between in vivo- and in vitro-developed embryos. These findings show, to our knowledge for the first...

  19. A hierarchy of needs? Embryo donation, in vitro fertilisation and the provision of infertility counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the paper is to examine how those working in, using and regulating assisted conception clinics discussed infertility counselling and its provision within the context of embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. Method 35 participants were recruited for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. All data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The thematic analysis revealed recurring themes based upon the portrayals of infertility counselling, embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. Conclusions This paper suggests that an implicit hierarchy exists around those using assisted conception techniques and their infertility counselling requirements, which was dependent upon the assisted conception technique used. As a result, some people using assisted conception techniques felt that their needs had been overlooked due to this covert hierarchy. Practice implications Those working in, using or regulating assisted conception clinics should not view infertility counselling as restricted to treatments involving donation, or solely for people within the clinical system. PMID:21035297

  20. Rethinking In Vitro Embryo Culture: New Developments in Culture Platforms and Potential to Improve Assisted Reproductive Technologies1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary D.; Takayama, Shuichi; Swain, Jason E.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The preponderance of research toward improving embryo development in vitro has focused on manipulation of the chemical soluble environment, including altering basic salt composition, energy substrate concentration, amino acid makeup, and the effect of various growth factors or addition or subtraction of other supplements. In contrast, relatively little work has been done examining the physical requirements of preimplantation embryos and the role culture platforms or devices can play in influencing embryo development within the laboratory. The goal of this review is not to reevaluate the soluble composition of past and current embryo culture media, but rather to consider how other controlled and precise factors such as time, space, mechanical interactions, gradient diffusions, cell movement, and surface interactions might influence embryo development. Novel culture platforms are being developed as a result of interdisciplinary collaborations between biologists and biomedical, material, chemical, and mechanical engineers. These approaches are looking beyond the soluble media composition and examining issues such as media volume and embryo spacing. Furthermore, methods that permit precise and regulated dynamic embryo culture with fluid flow and embryo movement are now available, and novel culture surfaces are being developed and tested. While several factors remain to be investigated to optimize the efficiency of embryo production, manipulation of the embryo culture microenvironment through novel devices and platforms may offer a pathway toward improving embryo development within the laboratory of the future. PMID:21998170

  1. Rethinking in vitro embryo culture: new developments in culture platforms and potential to improve assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary D; Takayama, Shuichi; Swain, Jason E

    2012-03-01

    The preponderance of research toward improving embryo development in vitro has focused on manipulation of the chemical soluble environment, including altering basic salt composition, energy substrate concentration, amino acid makeup, and the effect of various growth factors or addition or subtraction of other supplements. In contrast, relatively little work has been done examining the physical requirements of preimplantation embryos and the role culture platforms or devices can play in influencing embryo development within the laboratory. The goal of this review is not to reevaluate the soluble composition of past and current embryo culture media, but rather to consider how other controlled and precise factors such as time, space, mechanical interactions, gradient diffusions, cell movement, and surface interactions might influence embryo development. Novel culture platforms are being developed as a result of interdisciplinary collaborations between biologists and biomedical, material, chemical, and mechanical engineers. These approaches are looking beyond the soluble media composition and examining issues such as media volume and embryo spacing. Furthermore, methods that permit precise and regulated dynamic embryo culture with fluid flow and embryo movement are now available, and novel culture surfaces are being developed and tested. While several factors remain to be investigated to optimize the efficiency of embryo production, manipulation of the embryo culture microenvironment through novel devices and platforms may offer a pathway toward improving embryo development within the laboratory of the future.

  2. In vitro embryo development in the pig: impact of oocyte maturation milieu on blastocyst morphology and viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidson, Annadie

    2004-01-01

    In this study, porcine embryos were produced in vitro from slaughterhouse sow or gilt oocytes which were matured and fertilized in vitro and subsequently cultured to the blastocyst stage. In vitro produced blastocysts are of poorer quality than their in vivo counterparts, and suffer from a high

  3. Genetic variation in resistance of the preimplantation bovine embryo to heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Reproduction is among the physiological functions in mammals most susceptible to disruption by hyperthermia. Many of the effects of heat stress on function of the oocyte and embryo involve direct effects of elevated temperature (i.e. heat shock) on cellular function. Mammals limit the effects of heat shock by tightly regulating body temperature. This ability is genetically controlled: lines of domestic animals have been developed with superior ability to regulate body temperature during heat stress. Through experimentation in cattle, it is also evident that there is genetic variation in the resistance of cells to the deleterious effects of elevated temperature. Several breeds that were developed in hot climates, including Bos indicus (Brahman, Gir, Nelore and Sahiwal) and Bos taurus (Romosinuano and Senepol) are more resistant to the effects of elevated temperature on cellular function than breeds that evolved in cooler climates (Angus, Holstein and Jersey). Genetic differences are expressed in the preimplantation embryo by Day 4-5 of development (after embryonic genome activation). It is not clear whether genetic differences are expressed in cells in which transcription is repressed (oocytes >100 µm in diameter or embryos at stages before embryonic genome activation). The molecular basis for cellular thermotolerance has also not been established, although there is some suggestion for involvement of heat shock protein 90 and the insulin-like growth factor 1 system. Given the availability of genomic tools for genetic selection, identification of genes controlling cellular resistance to elevated temperature could be followed by progress in selection for those genes within the populations in which they exist. It could also be possible to introduce genes from thermotolerant breeds into thermally sensitive breeds. The ability to edit the genome makes it possible to design new genes that confer protection of cells from stresses like heat shock.

  4. Activation of ribosomal RNA genes in porcine embryos produced in vitro or by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Jakobsen, Anne Sørig

    2007-01-01

    The onset of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis occurs during the second half of the third cell cycle, that is, at the four-cell stage, in porcine embryos developed in vivo. In the present study the onset of rRNA synthesis was investigated in porcine embryos produced in vitro (IVP) or by somatic cell...... nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with an rDNA probe and subsequent visualization of the nucleolar proteins by silver staining. In the 205 IVP embryos investigated, all two-cell embryos (n = 34) were categorized as transcriptionally inactive. At the late four...

  5. In vitro development of cloned embryos derived from miniature pig somatic cells after activation by ultrasound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuchika; Sato, Keisuke; Yoshida, Mitsutoshi

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the activation and development of cloned embryos produced by transferring miniature pig somatic cells into enucleated farm pig oocytes after exposing to ultrasound. The rates of the pronucleus-like structure formation and polar body-like structure extrusion in embryos exposed to ultrasound did not differ from those applied electric pulses. Although there was no significant difference in the blastocyst formation rates between different activation methods, the mean number of cells in the blastocysts developed from embryos activated by exposing to ultrasound was significantly (p ultrasound stimulation can induce the activation and in vitro development of cloned embryos derived from miniature pig somatic cells.

  6. Structural changes of in vitro matured buffalo and bovine oocytes following cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marina De Blasi; Evelina Mariotti; Salvatore Velotto; Marcello Rubessa; Serena Di Francesco; Bianca Gasparrini

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate chromatin and spindle organization of buffalo and bovine in vitro matured oocytes after vitrification/warming by Cryotop and after their exposure to cryoprotectants (CP). In vitro matured oocytes were vitrified/warmed and exposed to the vitrification/warming solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sucrose as CP. Two hours after warming, oocytes were fixed and immunostained for microtubules and nuclei and examined by fluores...

  7. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Miho; Ueda, Mayuko; Miyano, Takashi

    2016-08-25

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4-0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts.

  8. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAKITA, Miho; UEDA, Mayuko; MIYANO, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4−0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts. PMID:27151093

  9. The use of antifreeze protein type III for vitrification of in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Dowglish F; Campelo, Iana S; Silva, Mirelly M A S; Bhat, Maajid H; Teixeira, Darcio I A; Melo, Luciana M; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna M G; Mermillod, Pascal; Freitas, Vicente J F

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of antifreeze protein type III (AFP III) into vitrification medium on meiotic spindle morphology of in vitro matured bovine oocytes as well as the fertilization and blastocyst rates. Mature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were distributed in four groups: control (untreated), vitrified without supplementation (AFP0) or supplemented with 500 (AFP500) or 1000 ng/mL (AFP1000) into vitrification solutions. Samples from each group were used to analyze the organization of meiotic spindle by confocal microscopy and the remaining COC were submitted to in vitro fertilization and culture for eight days. Control group exhibited only 15% of abnormal spindle. However, the spindle morphology was affected in all vitrified groups regardless to AFP concentration: 75.8%, 76.1% and 69.2% (P > 0.05) for AFP0, AFP500 and AFP1000, respectively. Similar cleavage rate was obtained among the vitrified groups (AFP0 = 17.9%, AFP500 = 16.9% and AFP1000 = 17.8%), but lower (P < 0.05) compared with control group (68.7%). At Day 5 of culture, embryo production rate of AFP500 (30.8%) and AFP1000 (25.0%) were similar to control group (49.4%). However, at Day 8 of culture, AFP0, AFP500 and AFP1000 groups exhibited lower (P < 0.05) blastocyst rates (10.0%, 3.8% and 9.4%, respectively) when compared to control (41.1%). In conclusion, AFP III did not preserve meiotic spindle organization against the cryoinjuries. However, the use of AFP III improved embryo development at Day 5 of culture, although this effect was not maintained up to the blastocyst formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antral follicle populations and embryo production--in vitro and in vivo--of Bos indicus-taurus donors from weaning to yearling ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santos, K C; Santos, G M G; Koetz Júnior, C; Morotti, F; Siloto, L S; Marcantonio, T N; Urbano, M R; Oliveira, R L; Lima, D C M; Seneda, M M

    2014-04-01

    Interest in indicus-taurus cattle has been increasing, as these animals are likely to present the best characteristics of Zebu and European bovine breeds. The aim of this study was to compare the embryo production of indicus-taurus donors with high vs low antral follicle counts obtained by ovum pickup/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) and superovulation (SOV)/embryo collection. Braford females at weaning age (3/8 Nelore × 5/8 Hereford, n = 137, 9 ± 1 month old) were subjected to six serial ovarian ultrasonographs and were assigned to two groups according to the number of antral follicles ≥ 3 mm as follows: G-High antral follicular count (AFC, n = 20, mean ≥ 40 follicles) and G-Low AFC (n = 20, mean ≤ 10 follicles). When the females (n = 40) reached 24 months of age, they were subjected to both OPU/IVP and SOV/embryo collection. The average number of follicles remained highly stable throughout all of the ultrasound evaluations (range 0.90-0.92). The mean number of COCs recovered (36.90 ± 13.68 vs 5.80 ± 3.40) was higher (p taurus females. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Interaction of bluetongue virus with preimplantation embryos from mice and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, R A; Howard, T H; Pickett, B W

    1982-11-01

    Preimplantation embryos from mice and cattle were exposed to bluetongue virus in vitro to determine whether the virus would replicate in these early embryos and, if so, what pathologic consequences would ensue. A high proportion of zona pellucida-free, 2-cell embryos and morulae from mice, and morulae from cattle became infected. The infection was rapidly cytopathic in embryos from both species. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to demonstrate accumulation of virus antigen in the blastomeres of these embryos. The zona pellucida of both murine and bovine embryos provided effective protection from virus present in culture fluid.

  12. Reduced competence of immature and mature oocytes vitrified by Cryotop method: assessment by in vitro fertilization and parthenogenetic activation in a bovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Daiane L; Vireque, Alessandra A; Pitangui-Molina, Caroline P; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos F; de Sá Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina J

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the embryo development competence, the nuclear maturation and the viability of germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were derived from bovine ovaries and three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, GV oocytes were vitrified and underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) or not and their nuclear maturation was assessed by orcein staining. In Experiment 2, GV oocytes and MII oocytes were vitrified or not and the viability was assessed by calcein/ethidium homodimer-1 staining. In Experiment 3, MII oocytes matured before or after vitrification were submitted to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA) in order to evaluate embryo development. No difference was found for the nuclear maturation rate in the GV group (50%) and the GV control group (67%; P = 0.23) and for viability rate (56%; 77%; P = 0.055, respectively). However, in the MII group (27%) viability was significantly lower than that of the MII control group (84%; P vitrification by the Cryotop method reduced the capacity for embryo development. Vitrification of GV oocytes, however, did not influence the capacity of meiotic nuclear maturation and they exhibited higher viability following vitrification at the MII stage.

  13. Live Births from Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris Embryos Produced by In Vitro Fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B Nagashima

    Full Text Available Development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART in the dog has resisted progress for decades, due to their unique reproductive physiology. This lack of progress is remarkable given the critical role ART could play in conserving endangered canid species or eradicating heritable disease through gene-editing technologies-an approach that would also advance the dog as a biomedical model. Over 350 heritable disorders/traits in dogs are homologous with human conditions, almost twice the number of any other species. Here we report the first live births from in vitro fertilized embryos in the dog. Adding to the practical significance, these embryos had also been cryopreserved. Changes in handling of both gametes enabled this progress. The medium previously used to capacitate sperm excluded magnesium because it delayed spontaneous acrosome exocytosis. We found that magnesium significantly enhanced sperm hyperactivation and ability to undergo physiologically-induced acrosome exocytosis, two functions essential to fertilize an egg. Unlike other mammals, dogs ovulate a primary oocyte, which reaches metaphase II on Days 4-5 after the luteinizing hormone (LH surge. We found that only on Day 6 are oocytes consistently able to be fertilized. In vitro fertilization of Day 6 oocytes with sperm capacitated in medium supplemented with magnesium resulted in high rates of embryo development (78.8%, n = 146. Intra-oviductal transfer of nineteen cryopreserved, in vitro fertilization (IVF-derived embryos resulted in seven live, healthy puppies. Development of IVF enables modern genetic approaches to be applied more efficiently in dogs, and for gamete rescue to conserve endangered canid species.

  14. Holding immature bovine oocytes in a commercial embryo holding medium: High developmental competence for up to 10 h at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascottini, Osvaldo Bogado; Catteeuw, Maaike; Van Soom, Ann; Opsomer, Geert

    2017-11-04

    Bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP) following Ovum Pick Up (OPU) is all too often hampered by a large time gap between the harvest of oocytes of the first and last OPU session of the day. Immediately after retrieval, oocyte maturation is initiated, resulting in oocytes maturing at different time points which necessitates laborious scheduling of the IVP process. In this study, the potential of a commercial embryo holding medium (EHM; Syngro, Bioniche Inc.) to hold immature bovine oocytes was validated. We assessed the effect of holding time and temperature on (1) oocytes' maturation; (2) blastocyst development and quality at day 8 post insemination; and (3) blastocyst yield in small groups of oocytes/zygotes simulating OPU settings. Oocytes, harvested from slaughterhouse ovaries, were held for 6 h (either at 4 °C, room temperature [RT; 22-25 °C], or 38.5 °C), for 10 h (at 4 °C or RT), and for 14 h (only at RT) in 1 mL sterile glass osmometer tubes filled with EHM prior to standard maturation (22 h at 38.5 °C) and subsequent IVP. Results were compared with controls in which no prior holding was applied. Differences between the treated and control groups were assessed by generalized mixed-effects models and considered significant at P h in EHM at different temperatures remained at the germinal vesicle stage. Holding immature oocytes in EHM for 6 h at 38.5 °C and for 10 h at 4 °C significantly decreased maturation (57.1 ± 4.1% VS 80.9 ± 3.2% and 68.6 ± 3.5% VS 80.7 ± 2.9%; respectively), and development (11.0 ± 1.8% VS 36.2 ± 2.8% and 20.1 ± 3.3% VS 40.6 ± 4.6%) (P h at RT, did not affect the maturation rates (83.2 ± 2.9% and 78.9 ± 3.2%) nor day 8 blastocyst rates (35.2 ± 2.7% and 40.2 ± 4.5%). Prolonging holding time to 14 h in RT decreased maturation and day 8 blastocyst yield (71.9 ± 3.5% VS 84.5 ± 2.7% and 25.7 ± 2.5% VS 39.5 ± 2.8%, respectively) (P h at RT. When subsequently

  15. Membrane lipid profile of in vitro-produced embryos is affected by vitrification but not by long-term dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids for oocyte donor beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Beatriz C S; Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália A S; Nogueira, Ériklis; Cabral, Elaine C; Ferreira, Christina R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Accorsi, Mônica F; Neves, Thiago V; Mingoti, Gisele Z

    2017-06-01

    Dietary rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) rich in linoleic acid (LA) may affect embryo yield, and LA can modulate the molecular mechanisms of lipid uptake in bovine blastocysts produced in vitro. In embryos, membrane lipids, such as phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and sphingomyelins (SMs), affect cryopreservation success. The aim of the present study was to evaluate embryonic developmental rates after the IVF of oocytes retrieved from Nellore heifers fed for approximately 90 days with rumen-protected PUFAs rich in LA. In addition, we evaluated embryo cryotolerance and the membrane structure lipid composition using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry of fresh and vitrified embryos. Embryo development to the blastocyst stage (mean 43.2%) and embryo survival after vitrification and warming (mean 79.3%) were unaffected by diet. The relative abundance of one lipid species (PC ether (PCe; 38:2, which means that this lipid has 38 carbon atoms and 2 double bonds in the fatty acyl residues) was increased after PUFAs supplementation. However, 10 ions were affected by cryopreservation; ions consistent with PC 32:0, PC 34:1, SM 24:1, PC 40:6 or PC 42:9, PC plasmalogen (PCp) 44:10 or PC 42:7, triacylglycerol (TAG) 54:9 and a not assigned ion (m/z 833.2) were lower in blastocysts that survived to the cryopreservation process compared with fresh blastocysts, whereas the abundance of the ions PC 36:3 or PC 34:0, PCe 38:2 or PC 36:6 and PC 36:5 or PCe 38:1 were increased after cryopreservation. Thus, the results demonstrate that the mass spectrometry profiles of PC, SM and TAG species differ significantly in bovine blastocysts upon cryopreservation. Because the lipid ion abundances of fresh and vitrified-warmed embryos were distinct, they can be used as potential markers of post-cryopreservation embryonic survival.

  16. In vitro equine embryo production using air-dried spermatozoa, with different activation protocols and culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, A; Baca Castex, C; Ferrante, A; Pinto, M; Castañeira, C; Trasorras, V; Gambarotta, M C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of air-dried spermatozoa for in vitro production of equine embryos and verify if sperm extract activation and in vivo culture improve in vitro embryo production. Cooled spermatozoa (control) and air-dried spermatozoa stored for 2, 14 or 28 days were used for ICSI sperm extract, or ionomycin was used for oocyte activation, and embryos were in vitro or in vivo (in mare's oviduct) cultured for 7 days. With in vitro culture, cleavage rate was higher when activating with sperm extract (P  0.05). Blastocysts were obtained with cooled spermatozoa, and morulae were achieved using in vivo culture with 28-day storage spermatozoa and ionomycin-activated oocytes. When in vivo culture was performed, sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test and did not show statistical correlation with cleavage nor embryo recovery rates. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced using air-dried spermatozoa stored for several weeks. Sperm extract activation increased cleavage rates but did not improve embryo development. In vivo culture allowed intrauterine stage embryos to be achieved. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. In vitro production of cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiny, O D; Barry, D M; Agaba, M; Godke, R A

    2009-04-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattlexbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that impede production in tropical Africa. This study investigated hybridization between cattle and its closest African wild bovid relative, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). In an attempt to produce cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos in vitro, matured cattle oocytes were subjected to a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure with either homologous cattle (n=1166 oocytes) or heterologous African buffalo (n=1202 oocytes) frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. After IVF, 67.2% of the oocytes inseminated with the homologous cattle sperm cleaved. In contrast, fertilization with buffalo sperm resulted in only a 4.6% cleavage rate. The cleavage intervals were also slower in hybrid embryos than in the IVF-derived cattle embryos. Of the cleaved homologous cattle embryos 52.2% progressed to the morula stage compared with 12.7% for the buffalo hybrid embryos. No hybrid embryos developed beyond the early morula stage, while 40.1% of the cleaved cattlexcattle embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Transfer of buffalo hybrid IVF embryos to domestic cattle surrogates resulted in no pregnancies at 60 days post-transfer. This study indicates that interspecies fertilization of cattle oocytes with African buffalo epididymal sperm can occur in vitro, and that a barrier to hybridization occurs in the early stages of embryonic development. Chromosomal disparity is likely the cause of the fertilization abnormalities, abnormal development and subsequent arrest impairing the formation of hybrid embryos beyond the early morula stage. Transfer of the buffalo hybrid embryos

  18. In vitro culture of individual mouse preimplantation embryos: the role of embryo density, microwells, oxygen, timing and conditioned media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rebecca L; Gardner, David K

    2017-05-01

    Single embryo culture is suboptimal compared with group culture, but necessary for embryo monitoring, and culture systems should be improved for single embryos. Pronucleate mouse embryos were used to assess the effect of culture conditions on single embryo development. Single culture either before or after compaction reduced cell numbers (112.2 ± 3.1; 110.2 ± 3.5) compared with group culture throughout (127.0 ± 3.4; P media volume from 20 µl to 2 µl increased blastocyst cell numbers in single embryos cultured in 5% oxygen (84.4 ± 3.2 versus 97.8 ± 2.8; P Culture in microwell plates for the EmbryoScope and Primo Vision time-lapse systems changed cleavage timings and increased inner cell mass cell number (24.1 ± 1.0; 23.4 ± 1.2) compared with a 2 µl microdrop (18.4 ± 1.0; P media to single embryos increased hatching rate and blastocyst cell number (91.5 ± 4.7 versus 113.1 ± 4.4; P culture before or after compaction is therefore detrimental; oxygen, media volume and microwells influence single embryo development; and embryo-conditioned media may substitute for group culture. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cultivation and characterization of a bovine in vitro model of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeyer, S; Reichl, S; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model of the cornea of bovine cells, to characterise the model by histochemical methods and to investigate permeation of ophthalmic drugs through the model. As in the in vivo situation, an in vitro model of the cornea should consist of all three different types of cells. In the current study, the construction of the in vitro cornea was performed using cells prepared from primary cultures. To investigate the state of the cells in the cultures, growth curves were established. Immunocytochemical determination of keratin and vimentin was performed for all three isolated and sub-cultivated cell types of the bovine cornea. To further simulate the in vivo conditions, corneal epithelial cells were seeded onto the collagen-gel base containing the stromal cells with an underlying sheet of endothelium. Permeation experiments were performed with pilocarpine hydrochloride and timolol hydrogen maleate as model drugs and excised bovine cornea and the in vitro cornea as permeation barriers. The immunohistochemical investigations show that excised bovine cornea and the in vitro model of the cornea are comparable with respect to the expression of keratin K3, indicating that the primarily isolated cells correspond to the different cell types of the cornea. Culturing of the epithelial cells on the complex basis has led to the formation of a corneal epithelium with several layers, closely resembling the morphology of the in vivo epithelium. Although the permeation rates of the drug through the in vitro cornea were always higher, the sequence in which the drugs permeate through the two types of barriers was the same. The drug permeation through the in vitro cornea may therefore be a useful predictive tool to estimate the permeability coefficients of drugs through excised cornea.

  20. Release of sICAM-1 in oocytes and in vitro fertilized human embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Borgatti

    Full Text Available During the last years, several studies have reported the significant relationship between the production of soluble HLA-G molecules (sHLA-G by 48-72 hours early embryos and an increased implantation rate in IVF protocols. As consequence, the detection of HLA-G modulation was suggested as a marker to identify the best embryos to be transferred. On the opposite, no suitable markers are available for the oocyte selection.The major finding of the present paper is that the release of ICAM-1 might be predictive of oocyte maturation. The results obtained are confirmed using three independent methodologies, such as ELISA, Bio-Plex assay and Western blotting. The sICAM-1 release is very high in immature oocytes, decrease in mature oocytes and become even lower in in vitro fertilized embryos. No significant differences were observed in the levels of sICAM-1 release between immature oocytes with different morphological characteristics. On the contrary, when the mature oocytes were subdivided accordingly to morphological criteria, the mean sICAM-I levels in grade 1 oocytes were significantly decreased when compared to grade 2 and 3 oocytes.The reduction of the number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos represents the main target of assisted reproductive medicine. We propose sICAM-1 as a biochemical marker for oocyte maturation and grading, with a possible interesting rebound in assisted reproduction techniques.

  1. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in vitro embryo production in two different defined culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro embryo production (IVEP is largely applied world wide to animal breeding. One of the principal steps of the IVEP is represented by embryo culture (Khurana and Niemann., 2000. In the past, embryos were grown in co-culture systems with other cells such as oviductal epithelial cells, cumulus cells, Buffalo rat liver (BRL and VERO cells (Duszewska et al., 2000. These cells are able to supply the nutrients for embryo development by their replication and metabolism. Nevertheless, the metabolic activity of these cells is also responsible of an early lowering of pH in the culture medium: that needs to be changed every two days. Furthermore, with this culture system it is impossible to standardize all the procedure: in fact the result is dependent from several variables, as the quality of the cells and their concentration in co-culture. The use of defined culture media is necessary to acquire a better comprehension of metabolism and biochemical requirements for IVEP........

  2. MODELAGEM BIOECONÔMICA DA TRANSFERÊNCIA DE EMBRIÕES EM BOVINOS BIOECONOMIC MODEL IN BOVINE EMBRYO TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Travassos Beltrame

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo matemático orientado a eventos de simulação, para auxiliar tomadas de decisão relativas à transferência de embriões em bovinos, considerando-se as dinâmicas de dois componentes da transferência de embriões: receptoras e embriões. Na simulação, não se avaliaram respostas individuais de doadoras a coletas consecutivas e eventos correspondentes na transferência de embriões. Simulou-se o mesmo protocolo para superovulação a todas as doadoras. Receptoras foram sincronizadas simulando-se o uso de prostaglandina. O número de embriões viáveis produzido por doadora e sua variabilidade tiveram como base um processo aleatório de simulação de Monte Carlo, que pressupôs uma distribuição exponencial negativa de densidade de probabilidade. Custos e receitas foram inseridos no modelo por meio de um cenário-base para calcular indicadores econômicos de rentabilidade. A análise sugeriu a impraticabilidade da atividade, se realizada diante do cenário proposto (VPL – R$: 57.596,69. A partir do cenário proposto, o custo médio estimado foi de R$ 1.178,19, e de R$ 980,03, para se obter uma prenhez a partir de uma situação otimizada, sugerida pelo modelo (5/100; 5/190.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Otimização, receptoras, simulação, transferência de embriões, viabilidade econômica.

    A simulation model related to embryo transfer programs in bovine was carried out through a mathematical model directed to events, considering the dynamic of two resources: recipients and embryos. Individual answers of donors to consecutive collections and corresponding events in embryo transfer were not evaluated. The same protocol for superovulation was simulated for all the donor collections, using similar doses of hormones and drugs for all the animals. Recipients were synchronized using prostaglandin. Meantime, the number of viable embryos produced by donor and its variability were based at

  3. Soluble CD146, an innovative and non-invasive biomarker of embryo selection for in vitro fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bouvier

    Full Text Available Although progress was made in in vitro fertilization (IVF techniques, the majority of embryos transferred fail to implant. Morphology embryo scoring is the standard procedure for most of IVF centres for choosing the best embryo, but remains limited since even the embryos classified as "top quality" may not implant. As it has been shown that i CD146 is involved in embryo implantation and ii membrane form is shed to generate soluble CD146 (sCD146, we propose that sCD146 in embryo supernatants may constitute a new biomarker of embryo selection. Immunocytochemical staining showed expression of CD146 in early embryo stages and sCD146 was detected by ELISA and Western-blot in embryo supernatants from D2. We retrospectively studied 126 couples who underwent IVF attempt. The embryo culture medium from each transferred embryo (n = 222 was collected for measurement of sCD146 by ELISA. Significantly higher sCD146 concentrations were present in embryo supernatants that did not implant (n = 185 as compared to those that successfully implanted (n = 37 (1310 +/- 1152 pg.mL-1 vs. 845+/- 1173 pg.mL-1, p = 0.024. Sensitivity analysis performed on single embryo transfers (n = 71 confirmed this association (p = 0.0054. The computed ROC curve established that the optimal sCD146 concentration for embryo implantation is under 1164 pg.mL-1 (sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 48%, PPV: 25% and NPV: 92%. Over this sCD146 threshold, the implantation rate was significantly lower (9% with sCD146 levels >1164 pg.ml-1 vs. 22% with sCD146 levels ≤ 1164 pg.mL-1, p = 0.01. Among the embryos preselected by morphologic scoring, sCD146 determination could allow a better selection of the embryo(s, thus improving the success of elective single embryo transfer. This study establishes the proof of concept for the use of sCD146 as a biomarker for IVF by excluding the embryo with the highest sCD146 level. A multicentre prospective study will now be necessary to further establish its use in

  4. The effect of nutrition during pregnancy on the in vitro production of embryos from resulting lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jennifer M; Kleemann, David O; Walker, Simon K

    2005-04-15

    It is possible to produce offspring from FSH-treated lambs using in vitro maturation and fertilisation procedures but a major constraint is the high embryo wastage after transfer. It is postulated that this wastage is associated, at least in part, with the quality of the harvested oocytes. The aim of this study was thus to determine if nutrition during pregnancy influenced the quality of oocytes collected from resulting lambs. The study was a 2x2x2 factorial that examined the effect of a low (L; 0.7x maintenance) or high (H; 1.5x maintenance) diet provided during three periods (-82 to 70, 71-100 and 101-126 days relative to the date of conception). There were eight treatments namely LLL, LLH, LHL, LHH, HLL, HLH, HHL and HHH. Oocytes were harvested from 9-week-old lambs, matured and fertilised in vitro and the percentages of oocytes and embryos that developed into blastocysts were recorded. There were significant differences between treatments in oocyte and embryo yields and these resulted from complex interactions between diet and the stage of pregnancy. The efficiency of producing blastocysts from oocytes was highest when a H diet was provided between 71 and 110 and/or 101-126 days of pregnancy. These results demonstrate the need to manage nutrition during pregnancy in programs aimed at producing offspring from juvenile animals.

  5. Post-implantation mortality of in vitro produced embryos is associated with DNA methyltransferase 1 dysfunction in sheep placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Grazyna Ewa; D'Agostino, Antonella; Toschi, Paola; Fidanza, Antonella; Zacchini, Federica; Czernik, Marta; Monaco, Federica; Loi, Pasqualino

    2013-02-01

    Is DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) dysfunction involved in epigenetic deregulation of placentae from embryos obtained by assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs)? DNMT1 expression in growing placentae of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is compromised and associated with pregnancy loss. DNMT1 maintains the methylation profile of genes during cell division. The methylation status of genes involved in placenta development is altered in embryos obtained in vitro. Disturbances in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during placentogenesis could be involved in the frequent developmental arrest and loss of IVP embryos. Forty sheep were naturally mated (Group 1, CTR). IVP blastocysts (2-4 per ewe) were surgically transferred to the remaining 46 recipient sheep 6 days after oestrus (Group 2). Twenty-one recipients from Group 1 and 27 recipients from Group 2 were allowed to deliver in order to compare embryo survival in both groups at term (150 days). From the remaining recipients (n = 38), fetuses and placentae of both groups were recovered by paramedian laparotomy at Days 20, 22, 24, 26 and 28 of gestation. Immediately after collection, early placental tissues (chorion-allantois) were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and DNMT1 expression and activity was evaluated. mRNA levels (for DNMT1, HDAC2, PCNA, DMAP1, MEST, IGF2, CDKN1C, H19) and the methylation status of H19 were also analyzed. Furthermore, embryo size and survival rate were measured. Our study shows that DNMT1 expression was reduced in early placentae from sheep IVP embryos. This reduction was associated with growth arrest and subsequent death of the sheep embryos. Conversely, normal levels of DNMT1 and its cofactors were observed in placentae from IVP embryos that survived this developmental bottleneck. Although DNA methylation machinery was severely compromised in IVP placentae only up to Day 24, the low DNMT1 enzymatic activity that persisted after this stage in IVP placentae was not lethal for the

  6. In Vitro Development of Ovine Embryos Following Maturation Under Limited CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG TRI MARGAWATI

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the influence of CO2 during in vitro oocyte maturation on the in vitro ovine embryo development. Three treatments of CO2 were subjected to the oocyte development. Those were 2h gasses prior to maturation in incubator (T1; without CO2 either prior to or over maturation (T2 and CO2 exposure both prior to and over 22h maturation (T3. A total of 324 oocytes were used. Putative zygotes were cultured for seven days and evaluated for their developmental stage. Presence of CO2 (T3 increased the proportion of oocytes reaching Metaphase II ( 66.50 + 3.5%; p0.05. This study suggests that it is possible to mature ovine oocytes in the absence of CO2 without loss its potensial development. It may therefore be an effective method of maturing ovine oocytes during transportation to IVP (in vitro production laboratory.

  7. In Vitro Development of Ovine Embryos Following Maturation Under Limited CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG TRI MARGAWATI

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the influence of CO2 during in vitro oocyte maturation on the in vitro ovine embryo development. Three treatments of CO2 were subjected to the oocyte development. Those were 2h gasses prior to maturation in incubator (T1; without CO2 either prior to or over maturation (T2 and CO2 exposure both prior to and over 22h maturation (T3. A total of 324 oocytes were used. Putative zygotes were cultured for seven days and evaluated for their developmental stage. Presence of CO2 (T3 increased the proportion of oocytes reaching Metaphase II (66.50 ± 3.5%; p0.05. This study suggests that it is possible to mature ovine oocytes in the absence of CO2 without loss its potensial development. It may therefore be an effective method of maturing ovine oocytes during transportation to IVP (in vitro production laboratory.

  8. In vitro rescue of interspecific embryos from Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina da Silva Angelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is the most effective oil producer in tons per hectare. Nevertheless, its increasing cultivation in Latin America is harmed by the “lethal yellowing”. Genetic resistance to this anomaly can be found in the germplasm of American oil palm or caiaué (E. oleifera, a native species from the Amazon rainforest. However, the procedures adopted to induce seeds of E. guineensis to germination frequently result mild for interespecific hybrids. Embryo in vitro cultivation can be a viable option. This work was aimed initially to test liquid MS medium supplemented with different glucose or sucrose concentrations for the in vitro cultivation of zygotic embryos from E. guineensis x E. oleifera controlled pollinations. Additionally we investigated different compost mixtures to acclimatize the regenerated hybrid plantlets. Concentrations of 10, 20 and 30g/L of both sugars were tested on flasks containing five mature zygotic embryos, with 15 repetitions per treatment in a total of 450 explants. The number of embryos displaying shoots and radicles at least 2mm in length per experimental unit was evaluated during phase one of in vitro cultivation. Plantlets displaying shoots and radicles were transferred to phase two of in vitro cultivation and subsequently to acclimatization, under 70% shading with manual water supply. The experiments of acclimatization were conducted with 130 plantlets randomly distributed in pure horticultural compost, 3:1 or 1:1 compost:sand mixtures and each plantlet was defined as an experimental unit. Data were submitted to ANOVA, t test and analyzes of correlation (p≤0.05. Highest emergence rates were 97% for shoots and 73% for radicles, observed in MS medium supplemented with 20g/L (110mM of glucose. This sugar in concentrations of 20 or 30g/L provided balanced shoot/root development, and this was considered one of the reasons for the higher frequency of plantlet establishment. The survival

  9. In vitro rescue of interspecific embryos from Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Paula Cristina da Silva; Moraes, Larissa Alexandra Cardoso; Lopes, Ricardo; Sousa, Nelcimar Reis; da Cunha, Raimundo Nonato Vieira; Quisen, Regina Caetano

    2011-09-01

    The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most effective oil producer in tons per hectare. Nevertheless, its increasing cultivation in Latin America is harmed by the "lethal yellowing". Genetic resistance to this anomaly can be found in the germplasm of American oil palm or caiaué (E. oleifera), a native species from the Amazon rainforest. However, the procedures adopted to induce seeds of E. guineensis to germination frequently result mild for interespecific hybrids. Embryo in vitro cultivation can be a viable option. This work was aimed initially to test liquid MS medium supplemented with different glucose or sucrose concentrations for the in vitro cultivation of zygotic embryos from E. guineensis x E. oleifera controlled pollinations. Additionally we investigated different compost mixtures to acclimatize the regenerated hybrid plantlets. Concentrations of 10, 20 and 30g/L of both sugars were tested on flasks containing five mature zygotic embryos, with 15 repetitions per treatment in a total of 450 explants. The number of embryos displaying shoots and radicles at least 2mm in length per experimental unit was evaluated during phase one of in vitro cultivation. Plantlets displaying shoots and radicles were transferred to phase two of in vitro cultivation and subsequently to acclimatization, under 70% shading with manual water supply. The experiments of acclimatization were conducted with 130 plantlets randomly distributed in pure horticultural compost, 3:1 or 1:1 compost:sand mixtures and each plantlet was defined as an experimental unit. Data were submitted to ANOVA, t test and analyzes of correlation (p < or = 0.05). Highest emergence rates were 97% for shoots and 73% for radicles, observed in MS medium supplemented with 20g/L (110mM) of glucose. This sugar in concentrations of 20 or 30g/L provided balanced shoot/root development, and this was considered one of the reasons for the higher frequency of plantlet establishment. The survival percentage was 55

  10. Early embryonic development and in vitro culture of in vivo produced embryos in the farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, H; Järvinen, M

    2003-09-15

    Early embryonic development and in vitro culture of in vivo produced embryos in the farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) was investigated as a part of an ex situ conservation program of the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), using the European polecat as a model species. The oestrus cycles of 34 yearling polecat females were monitored by visual examination of the vulval swelling and, to induce ovulation, the females were mated once daily on two consecutive days. Sixteen yearling males were used for mating. The females were humanely killed 3-14 days after the first mating and the uteri and oviducts were collected for embryo recovery. Uterine and oviductal flushings yielded a total number of 295 embryos, representing developmental stages from the 1-cell stage to large expanded and hatched blastocysts. On Day 3 after the first mating, only 1-16-cell stage embryos were recovered. Between Days 4 and 6 after the first mating, 1-16-cell stage embryos and morulae were found. The first blastocysts were recovered on Day 7 after the first mating. The first implanted blastocysts were detected on Day 11 after the first mating. A total number of 85 embryos were in vitro cultured after recovery. Blastocyst production rates for in vitro cultured 1-16-cell stage embryos and for morulae/compact morulae were 68 and 84%, respectively. For all cultured embryos, the hatching rate was 15%. The in vitro culture requirements for the preimplantation embryos of the farmed European polecat remain to be determined before further utilization of the technique.

  11. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, M.St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1984-06-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed.

  12. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Expression Profiles of In Vitro Produced Vitrified Bovine Blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongliang; Harrington, Patrick; Zhang, Ming; Marjani, Sadie L; Park, Joonghoon; Kuo, Lynn; Pribenszky, Csaba; Tian, Xiuchun Cindy

    2016-02-17

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been used to pre-condition embryos before essential, yet potentially detrimental procedures such as cryopreservation. However, the mechanisms for HHP are poorly understood. We treated bovine blastocysts with three different HHP (40, 60 and 80 MPa) in combination with three recovery periods (0, 1 h, 2 h post HHP). Re-expansion rates were significantly higher at 40 and 60 but lower at 80 MPa after vitrification-warming in the treated groups than controls. Microarray analysis revealed 399 differentially expressed transcripts, representing 254 unique genes, among different groups. Gene ontology analysis indicated that HHP at 40 and 60 MPa promoted embryo competence through down-regulation of genes in cell death and apoptosis, and up-regulation of genes in RNA processing, cellular growth and proliferation. In contrast, 80 MPa up-regulated genes in apoptosis, and down-regulated protein folding and cell cycle-related genes. Moreover, gene expression was also influenced by the length of the recovery time after HHP. The significantly over-represented categories were apoptosis and cell death in the 1 h group, and protein folding, response to unfolded protein and cell cycle in the 2 h group compared to 0 h. Taken together, HHP promotes competence of vitrified bovine blastocysts through modest transcriptional changes.

  13. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Expression Profiles of In Vitro Produced Vitrified Bovine Blastocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongliang; Harrington, Patrick; Zhang, Ming; Marjani, Sadie L.; Park, Joonghoon; Kuo, Lynn; Pribenszky, Csaba; Tian, Xiuchun (Cindy)

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been used to pre-condition embryos before essential, yet potentially detrimental procedures such as cryopreservation. However, the mechanisms for HHP are poorly understood. We treated bovine blastocysts with three different HHP (40, 60 and 80 MPa) in combination with three recovery periods (0, 1 h, 2 h post HHP). Re-expansion rates were significantly higher at 40 and 60 but lower at 80 MPa after vitrification-warming in the treated groups than controls. Microarray analysis revealed 399 differentially expressed transcripts, representing 254 unique genes, among different groups. Gene ontology analysis indicated that HHP at 40 and 60 MPa promoted embryo competence through down-regulation of genes in cell death and apoptosis, and up-regulation of genes in RNA processing, cellular growth and proliferation. In contrast, 80 MPa up-regulated genes in apoptosis, and down-regulated protein folding and cell cycle-related genes. Moreover, gene expression was also influenced by the length of the recovery time after HHP. The significantly over-represented categories were apoptosis and cell death in the 1 h group, and protein folding, response to unfolded protein and cell cycle in the 2 h group compared to 0 h. Taken together, HHP promotes competence of vitrified bovine blastocysts through modest transcriptional changes. PMID:26883277

  14. Use of versapoint to refashion the cervical canal to overcome unusually difficult embryo transfers and improve in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Smooth atraumatic embryo transfer is paramount for the success of in-vitro fertilization (IVF. In difficult cases, cervical canal manipulation may be required. Aim : To see if surgical correction of the cervical canal or cervical canal refashioning could improve ease of embryo transfer. Setting : Private infertility and IVF hospital. Design : Prospective study. Materials and Methods : Patients: 11 women with failed 1-3 IVF cycles with history of extremely difficult embryo transfers (ETs despite undergoing cervical dilatation in the cycle prior to IVF. Interventions : Operative hysteroscopy using Versapoint for refashioning of the cervical canal. Main Outcome Measures : Ease of ET in the subsequent IVF cycle. Secondary outcome measure was to assess reproductive outcome. Results : Easy and atraumatic ET in the IVF cycle after procedure in 100% patients. PR was 46.5%. Conclusions : Use of Versapoint for refashioning the cervical canal can improve the quality of ET and PR.

  15. Monitoring of chromatin integrity changes in the population of motile bovine sperm capacitated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Rečková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to standardize a method for chromatin integrity assessment in a separated population of bovine sperm and monitor the changes occurring during sperm capacitation stimulated with heparin. Frozen sperm of 11 young bulls of the Czech pied breed with a defined fertility in both in vitro system (from 12.9% to 25.8% embryos and in insemination (from 60.2% to 66.4% pregnancy was used in our experiments.Bovine spermatozoa were isolated by Percoll gradient centrifugation from frozen-thawed semen using Tyrode’s medium (SP-Talp and resuspended in a fertilization medium (IVF-Talp. The spermatozoa were incubated at laboratory temperature at a concentration 25 × 106 per cm3 for 6 h either in IVF-Talp medium with heparin (H+ or without heparin (H–. Samples were obtained immediately after sperm thawing (PS, following motile spermatozoa separation (P0, and their three (P3 and six hour (P6 incubation. The samples were examined by flow cytometry. Two measurements were carried out in each of the samples so that a total of 10 thousand spermatozoa were analysed. Proportion of spermatozoa with undetectable DNA fragmentation index (non-DFI sperm i.e. spermatozoa with undamaged chromatin structure were determined using SCSA-soft software.Chromatin integrity changes of spermatozoa before and after separation and capacitation differed markedly in individual bulls. Separation of motile spermatozoa increased significantly the mean proportion of non-DFI sperm in tested bulls (from 94.2 to 96.4%, P ≤ 0.01. While in most of the bulls the mean proportion of non-DFI sperm remained nearly constant during incubation (H– (mean, P0 – 96.4%, P3 – 95.6%, P6 – 95.5%, it gradually decreased during capacitation (H+ (mean, P0 – 96.4%, P3 – 95.2%, P6 – 94.2%. The differences were statistically significant (P0 vs. P3H+, P0 vs. P6H+, P ≤ 0.05. Significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 in the mean proportion on non-DFI sperm was also found between

  16. Morphologic observation of neutrophil diapedesis across bovine mammary gland epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Xia, L; Turner, J D; Zhao, X

    1995-02-01

    Neutrophils are present in milk of cows as a means of suppressing invading pathogens during mastitis. However, the manner by which neutrophils traverse the secretory epithelia is still not clear: do they diapedese between epithelial cells or do they kill epithelial cells to gain entry into milk? We investigated the process of bovine neutrophil diapedesis across bovine mammary gland epithelium in vitro. The bovine mammary epithelial cell line MAC-T, grown on collagen-coated filters, formed a confluent monolayer with characteristic tight junctions, basal-apical polarity, and functional barriers to the dye trypan blue. Neutrophils added on the apical surface of the monolayer were stimulated to diapedese across the epithelium by the addition of Staphylococcus aureus (10(7) colony-forming units/ml) to the basal compartment. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed the series of events for neutrophil transmigration: accumulation of neutrophils on the surface of epithelial monolayer; projection of pseudopods into intercellular junctions and movement of neutrophils between adjacent epithelial cells; and reapproximation of the lateral epithelial cell membranes and reformation of the apical tight junctions after neutrophils crossed the epithelium. Morphologically, epithelial cell damage caused by neutrophil diapedesis was not evident. This in vitro model provides a two-dimensional epithelial sheet by which neutrophil diapedesis can be qualitatively studied under defined conditions. Results of the study suggest a major mode by which bovine neutrophils diapedese across the alveolar epithelia into milk during mastitis.

  17. In vitro shear stress-induced platelet activation: sensitivity of human and bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qijin; Hofferbert, Bryan V; Koo, Grace; Malinauskas, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    As platelet activation plays a critical role in physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, it is important in the overall hemocompatibility evaluation of new medical devices and biomaterials to assess their effects on platelet function. However, there are currently no widely accepted in vitro test methods to perform this assessment. In an effort to develop effective platelet tests for potential use in medical device evaluation, this study compared the sensitivity of platelet responses to shear stress stimulation of human and bovine blood using multiple platelet activation markers. Fresh whole blood samples anticoagulated with heparin or anticoagulant citrate dextrose, solution A (ACDA) were exposed to shear stresses up to 40 Pa for 2 min using a cone-and-plate rheometer model. Platelet activation was characterized by platelet counts, platelet surface P-selectin expression, and serotonin release into blood plasma. The results indicated that exposure to shear stresses above 20 Pa caused significant changes in all three of the platelet markers for human blood and that the changes were usually greater with ACDA anticoagulation than with heparin. In contrast, for bovine blood, the markers did not change with shear stress stimulation except for plasma serotonin in heparin anticoagulated blood. The differences observed between human and bovine platelet responses suggest that the value of using bovine blood for in vitro platelet testing to evaluate devices may be limited. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. In vitro maintenance, under slow-growth conditions, of oil palm germplasm obtained by embryo rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julcéia Camillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro maintenance of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera accessions under slow-growth conditions. Plants produced by embryo rescue were subject to 1/2MS culture medium supplemented with the carbohydrates sucrose, mannitol, and sorbitol at 1, 2, and 3% under 20 and 25±2ºC. After 12 months, the temperature of 20°C reduced plant growth. Sucrose is the most appropriate carbohydrate for maintaining the quality of the plants, whereas mannitol and sorbitol result in a reduced plant survival.

  19. Effect of copper during bovine oocytes maturation on preimplantation embryo development

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Diana E.

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de tesis consistió en evaluar el efecto de la adición de Cu durante la maduración in vitro (MIV) de ovocitos bovinos y sus consecuencias en el desarrollo embrionario preimplantacional. Para tal fin, se establecieron los siguientes objetivos: 1) evaluar la asociación entre las concentraciones de Cu en licor folicular y en plasma; 2) estudiar el efecto del Cu sobre la MIV; 3) evaluar el efecto del Cu durante la MIV sobre la capacidad de desarrollo embrionario y 4) determinar...

  20. Embryo quality and impact of specific embryo characteristics on ongoing implantation in unselected embryos derived from modified natural cycle in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, Marie-Jose; Hoek, Annemieke; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Heineman, Maas Jan; van Echten-Arends, Janny; Arts, Eus G. J. M.

    Objective: To study the implantation potential of unselected embryos derived from modified natural cycle IVF according to their morphological characteristics. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Academic department of reproductive medicine. Patient(S): A series of 449 single embryo transfers derived from

  1. Uso da uréia como suplemento protéico na dieta de doadoras e receptoras de embriões bovinos Urea as a protein supplementation in the diet of bovine embryo donors and recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amílcar Gasperin Barreto

    2003-02-01

    degenerated embryos (0.5, 1.0 and 1.83, as well as in vitro eclosion rate (81.48, 78.57 and 84.62%, for the groups S, S+U and U, respectively. The 66 recipients were kept on Braquiaria decumbens pasture with 1.25kg of concentrate supplements for the S, S+U and U groups. Frozen embryos were thawed and transferred after 37 days. There was no significant statistical difference in pregnancy rates at 30 days (25, 28 and 28.57%, and 60 days of pregnancy (16.67, 28 and 25%. It may be concluded that urea can replace the soybean meal in concentrated rations for supplementation of bovine embryo donors and recipients since there were no negative effects in embryo quality, eclosion rate and recipient fertility.

  2. Three-step in vitro maturation culture of bovine oocytes imitating temporal changes of estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations in preovulatory follicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsuo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to evaluate the effect of three-step in vitro maturation (IVM culture system imitating estradiol-17β (E2 and progesterone (P4 concentrations in preovulatory follicles on in vitro bovine embryo production. The cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs were collected from follicles (2 to 8 mm in diameter of bovine ovaries obtained from a local slaughterhouse. For IVM, the COCs were cultured for 22 h in a three-step system: (1 culture in medium 199, containing 700 ng mL−1 E2 and 50 ng mL−1 P4, for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 E2 and 150 ng mL−1 P4 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 20 ng mL−1 E2 and 300 ng mL−1 P4 for 6 h (EP group; (2 culture in the medium containing 700 ng mL−1 E2 for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 E2 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 20 ng mL−1 E2 for 6 h (E group; or (3 culture in the medium containing 50 ng mL−1 P4 for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 P4 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 300 ng mL−1 P4 for 6 h (P group. The COCs were cultured in the medium containing 1000 ng mL−1 E2 for 22 h (control group. After IVM, the COCs were co-incubated with sperm and further cultured. At 48 h after insemination, the cleavage rate of embryos was not different among the groups. At 192 h after insemination, the blastocyst formation rate of EP group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The total cell number of blastocysts did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the three-step IVM culture system of bovine oocytes imitating temporal changes of E2 and P4 concentrations in preovulatory follicular fluid improves the developmental potential of embryos in vitro.

  3. Detection of early cleavage embryos improves pregnancy and delivery rates of Day 3 embryo transfer during in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-I; Lee, Tsung-Hsien; Huang, Chun-Chia; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chung-Hsien; Lee, Maw-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    This study established a simple criterion for improving the pregnancy and delivery rates of Day 3 embryo transfer for in vitro fertilization (IVF) by assessing the early cleavage of two-cell stage embryos. In total, 258 cycle patients undergoing an IVF and Day 3 embryo transfer program were recruited. All cycles were divided into four groups containing viable Day 3 embryos and those (A) with distinct early cleavage (equal-sized blastomeres and ≤10% fragmentation: ECA grade); (B) with indistinct early cleavage (equal sized blastomeres, >2 blastomeres, or >10% fragmentation: ECB grade); (C) without early cleavage [no early cleavage (NEC grade)]; or (D) without early cleavage being assessed (control) at 25-27 after insemination. The percentage of viable Day 3 embryos from ECA grade (75.1%, 507/675) was significantly higher than that from ECB grade (19.2%, 151/403) or NEC grade (27.1%, 127/469) embryos (p ECA group [65.7% (65/990) and 48.5% (48/990), respectively] were significantly higher than those in the ECB group [30.8% (4/13) and 7.7% (1/13), respectively] or NEC group [36.8% (14/38) and 23.7% (9/38), respectively; all p ECA group (32.3%, 129/400) was higher than those in the ECB (6.8%, 4/59) and NEC (13.0%, 18/136) groups (p < 0.01). Simple selection using the early cleavage morphology may improve the pregnancy and delivery rates of Day 3 embryo transfer programs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF RECOVERY MEDIA ON THE IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT CAPACITY OF THE PREIMPLANTATIONAL MOUSE EMBRYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADA CEAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate Bufered Saline with 0.4% BSA and M2 medium are one of the most common media used in embryorecovery. The aim of our paper was to investigate if the recovery media used for the recovery of the mouseembryo is influencing in vitro developmental capacity. As biological material we used 10 used were mousefemales, age 2 months superovulated with 5UI PMSG (Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropine and 5 UI hCG(human Corionic Gonadotropine. The embryos used were recovered, by oviduct flushing, at 24 hours from theidentification of the vaginal plug. The majority of the embryos (78.3% were in two cells stage. A total of 123, 2cells embryos were cultivated in M16 medium. The evolution of the embryos was examined at 24, 48 and 72hours interval. The proportion of hatched blastocyst was higher at the embryos recovered with M2 (53.7%compared with the embryos recovered with PBS 0.4% BSA. The difference is statistically very significant(p<0.001. Embryos recovered in M2 media have a higher in vitro developmental capacity compared with theembryos recovered in PBS media supplemented with 0,4% BSA, possibly because of the sodium bicarbonate andlactate used in M2 media for pH regulation.

  5. Retinoic acid effects on nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) administration during in vitro maturation (IVM) on bovine oocytes maturation was determined. Concentrations of t-RA (RA; 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μM) and 0.1% ethanol (vehicle) were included in the maturation medium. Ovaries collected from the local abattoir were ...

  6. Biopsy of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization affects development in C57BL/6 mouse strain

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Atsushi; Ward, Monika A.

    2012-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is considered highly successful in respect to its accuracy in detecting genetic anomalies but the effects of embryo biopsy on embryonic/fetal growth and development are less known, particularly in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Here, we compared biopsied (B) and non-biopsied (NB) mouse embryos for their developmental competence. Embryos C57BL/6 (B6) and B6D2F2 (F2) generated by IVF were subjected to single blastomere biopsy at the 4-cell...

  7. Twin pregnancy obtained with frozen-thawed embryos after in vitro maturation in a patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Godin, P. A.; Gaspard, Olivier; Thonon, Fabienne; Jouan, Caroline; Wijzen, F.; Dubois, Michel; Foidart, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: A twin pregnancy was obtained in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome after the transfer of three in vitro maturation-derived day 3 embryos that has been frozen and thawed. Methods: The patient had received mild hMG stimulation followed by hCG injection. After culture for 24 - 48 h, mature oocytes were fertilized by ICSI. Embryos were cultured until day 3; supernumerary embryos were cryopreserved using a slow protocol. Results: Among 15 nonatretic oocytes, 9 matured, 8 were ferti...

  8. State-of-the-art production, conservation and transfer of in-vitro-produced embryos in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognié, Yves; Poulin, Nati; Locatelli, Yann; Mermillod, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Today, although not efficient enough to replace multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production for small ruminants is a platform for new reproductive technologies, such as embryo sexing, transgenesis and cloning. The in vitro embryo-production system developed for sheep and goats is more efficient now than 15 years ago, but could still be improved. Laparoscopic collection of oocytes in live animals treated with gonadotrophin indicates a promising future for the application of this technology to genetic improvement programmes. Oocyte maturation in defined medium with epidermal growth factor and cysteamine appears as efficient as oocyte maturation in follicular fluid-supplemented medium and allows future study of the effect of other factors involved in the cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes from these species. Further efforts have to be made to standardise the semen-capacitating process and to improve the quality and freezability of in-vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The optimisation of IVP procedures for deer species has required the study of the seasonal variation of oocyte competence and the development of a specific methodology to allow the culture of embryos up to the blastocyst stage.

  9. [Demonstration and in vitro study of a complex reaction (rejection and facilitation) of the mother towards the embryo in the urodele amphibian Salamandra salamandra L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, M T; Chateaureynaud-Duprat, P; Voisin, G A

    1975-07-21

    Spleen cells from pregnant (but not from non-pregnant) Salamandra salamandra are cytotoxic in vitro for dissociated epidermal cells from their own embryos. Maternal serum inhibits this cytotoxicity. Analogies and differences are stressed in Salamandra salamandra between allograft rejection mechanisms and immune reactions towards embryos. They may contribute to an explanation of the delayed expulsion of embryos.

  10. Effect of deslorelin acetate treatment in oocyte recovery and in vitro embryo production in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Camila Louise; Trevisol, Eduardo; Crocomo, Leticia Ferrari; Rascado, Tatiana da Silva; Volpato, Rodrigo; Guaitolini, Carlos Renato de Freitas; Lopes, Carlize; Costa, Talita de Almeida; Lopes, Maria Denise

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the effect of contraceptive treatment with deslorelin acetate on in vitro embryo production and oocyte recovery in domestic queens. Methods Twenty-one mature domestic cats were used. Eleven queens (treated group) and one tom were kept in an experimental cattery, and 10 queens were privately owned (control group). When in interestrus or diestrus (day 0) a deslorelin acetate implant (Suprelorin, 4.7 mg/animal) was inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the interscapular region in all queens in the treated group. After 6 months of treatment, all animals were ovariohysterectomized, and the ovaries were used for in vitro embryo production. Percentage of cleavage was determined 18 h after oocyte insemination and blastocyst formation was assessed on the eighth day of culture. The rate of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) recovery was analyzed by an unpaired t-test. The cleavage and blastocyst rates were expressed as percentages and analyzed by Fisher's exact test. All analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism v5.0, with P <0.05 set as the level of significance. Results In the treated group, we recovered 8.3 ± 1.15 grade I COCs per queen; the cleavage rate was 60% and the blastocyst rate was 36%. In the control group, we recovered 18.4 ± 3.21 grade I COCs per queen; the cleavage rate was 55.97% and the blastocyst rate was 34%. Forty percent of treated females did not produce any blastocysts. In the treated group, we observed a significant decrease in COC recovery. Although there was no significant difference in cleavage and blastocyst rates between groups, 40% of treated females did not produce any blastocysts. Conclusions Recovery of grade I COCs is negatively affected by deslorelin treatment in domestic cats. Regarding embryo production, new studies are still necessary to evaluate the success of this technique owing to the individual effect caused by deslorelin acetate.

  11. In vitro blastocyst development of post-thaw vitrified bovine oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Dutta,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the developmental competence of post-thaw vitrified bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs in vitro.Materials and Methods: A total of 129 COCs were cryopreserved using vitrification solution comprising of 15% ethylene glycol (EG + 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO + 0.6 M sucrose in medium TCM-199 with 10% FBS. Immediately, within a minute they are plunged into liquid nitrogen using 0.25 ml straws. Thawing was made with a step wise dilution method. Post-thaw normal vitrified and non-vitrified oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization.Results: Post-thaw survival percentage of vitrified oocytes was 88.37% and maturation performance of vitrified oocytes on the basis of cumulus expansion was 81.58% as compared to non-vitrified control 93.85%. The in vitro fertilization performance of vitrified oocytes was 49.46% as compared to the non-vitrified ones (63.11%. Similarly, blastocyst formation of vitrified oocytes was 21.74% as compared to 32.47% in non-vitrified oocytes.Conclusion: Vitrification of immature bovine oocytes using 7.5% EG + 7.5% DMSO for equilibration and 15% EG +15% DMSO + 0.6 M sucrose as vitrification solution yielded better in vitro fertilization and blastocyst formation rate.

  12. In vitro production of Sudanese camel (Camelus dromedarius) embryos from epididymal spermatozoa and follicular oocytes of slaughtered animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, A E; Gabr, Sh A; Khalil, W A; Shamiah, Sh M; Pan, L; Qin, G; Farouk, M H

    2017-03-28

    Application of assisted reproductive technology in camelidea, such as artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transfer, has been slow in comparison to that for other livestock species. In Egypt, there are few attempts to establish in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) techniques in dromedary camel. The present study was carried out to produce Sudanese camel embryos using in vitro matured oocytes and epididymal spermatozoa. Dromedary camel ovaries were collected from abattoirs and then, the oocytes were aspirated from all the visible follicles on the ovarian surface (~2-8 mm in a diameter). Meanwhile, Fetal Dromedary Camel Serum (FDCS) was obtained from camel fetuses after slaughtering. Thereafter, only Cumulus Oocyte Complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro in the Tissue Culture Medium (TCM-199) complemented with 10% FDCS. Spermatozoa required for in vitro fertilization were collected from testes (epididymal cauda) of the slaughtered camel bulls. The results clearly showed that the maturation rate of oocytes at metaphase II was about 59.5% while the fertilization rate was around 70.4%. Intriguingly, the embryo rates determined were 13.1%, in 2-cell; 0.0%, in 4-cell; 34.7%, in 8-16% cell; 39.1%, in morula and 13.1% in a blastocyst stage. This study represented a successful in vitro production of Sudanese dromedary camel embryos from epididymal sperm cells and in vitro matured oocytes recovered from slaughtered camels.

  13. Short communication. In vitro embryo production can be modified by the previous ovarian response to a superovulatory treatment in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Forcada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two ewes were used to study how the ovarian response to a superovulatory treatment determines quality of oocytes recovered from ovaries after embryo collection, and their developmental capacity after in vitro maturation (IVM and fertilization (IVF. Ewes were superovulated, and seven days after oestrus, embryos were collected and ewes divided into three groups: (+ +, n=19, ewes responding to the treatment with embryos collected after flushing; (+ –, n=8, ewes responding, but only oocytes were found; and (– –, n=5, ewes not responding to the treatment and no embryos collected. Ovaries were recovered and oocytes collected from the three groups. A significant effect of the response to the treatment was observed for oocyte quality, so that (– – ewes presented the higher number of oocytes per ewe (p<0.001. Total number of oocytes selected for IVM and IVF was significantly higher in the same group, in comparison with (+ + and (+ – (p<0.001. Group (+ – ewes presented the lowest maturation (p<0.001, fertilization (p<0.05 and cleavage rates (p<0.001. In conclusion, the ovarian response to a superovulatory treatment determines the number and quality of the oocytes recovered 7 days after the oestrus induced by the hormonal treatment. In vitro techniques could be an important tool to increase embryo production by particular ewes when they are not able to produce a significant amount of in vivo embryos.

  14. HIGH INCIDENCE OF POLYSPERMIC FERTILIZATION IN BOVINE OOCYTES MATURED IN VITRO AFTER CRYOTOP VITRIFICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Im, Gi-Sun; Tashima, Kazuya; Hochi, Shinichi; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    Vitrification with the Cryotop device is the most promising technique for oocyte cryopreservation, but the high post-warming morphological survival of bovine oocytes does not guarantee high developmental competence after in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study was designed to examine achievement of normal fertilization in bovine oocytes vitrified-warmed with the Cryotop device. Oocytes were matured in vitro and vitrified-warmed after complete removal of the cumulus layers. Distribution of cortical granules (CGs) was assessed by Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) lectin staining. Ten hours after IVF, presumptive zygotes were analyzed for pronuclear formation. Day-8 blastocysts were harvested and stained with Hoechst-33342 for total cell counting. Both yield and mean cell number of the blastocysts were impaired by Cryotop vitrification. Incidence of polyspermic fertilization was three-times higher in vitrified oocytes compared to fresh oocytes. No difference in CG distribution was found between vitrified and fresh oocytes. Polyspermic fertilization induced in vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes may be one of the possible causes responsible for their low developmental potential.

  15. Embryonic stem-like cells derived from in vitro produced bovine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Regina Leal de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the derivation of bovine embryonic stem-like (ES-like cells from the inner cell mass (ICM of in vitro produced blastocysts. The ICMs were mechanically isolated and six out of seventeen (35% ICMs could attach to a monolayer of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. Ten days after, primary outgrowths were mechanically dissected into several small clumps and transferred to a new MEF layer. Cells were further propagated and passaged by physical dissociation over a 60 days period. The pluripotency of the bovine ES-like cells was confirmed by RT-PCR of Oct-4 and STAT-3 gene markers. The colonies were weakly stained for alkaline phosphatase and the mesoderm and endoderm differentiation gene markers such as GATA-4 and Flk-1, respectively, were not expressed. Embryoid bodies were spontaneously formed at the seventh passage. Results showed that bovine ES-like cells could be obtained and passaged by mechanical procedures from the fresh in vitro produced blastocysts.

  16. Use of Rat Estrus Serum for in Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Rafati

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Superovulation produces complications in some patients, so invitro maturation of oocytes is used to decrease or eliminate these complications and improve IVF. Moreover, IVM is used for different aspects of reproductive researches. Slaughterhouse ovaries are the main source of oocytes for IVM and IVF studies. Different media has been introduced and experimented for in vitro maturation of oocytes. Animal's serum at estrus stage contains different hormones and proteins which are essential for oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to compare three culture media for in vitro maturation (IVM of bovine oocytes; 1(controlTCM-199, 2HCG and follicular fluid (FF and 3 antibiotic. Methods: Rat estrus serum (RSS or fetal bovine serum (FBS was added to control medium. Total of 1789 compact cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were aspirated from ovaries of slaughtered animals. Oocytes were randomly cultured in mentioned media and incubated in 38.5◦c, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was judged according to cumulus cell expansion or randomly orcein stained oocytes and observation of polar bodies. Results: The results showed that maturation rate was significantly higher in second and third group (90.2%, 78.7% as compared to the control group (p<0.001. There was no significant difference between second and third groups (90.2 % vs. 86.6%. Conclusion: RSS is as effective as FBS for IVM of bovine oocytes and can be used as an alternative.

  17. In vitro inhibition of bovine enamel demineralization by enamel matrix derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jin Mei; Ieong, Cheng Cheng; Xiang, Chen Yang; Lv, Xue Ping; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Xue Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ling Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) affects the demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro and to assess the agent's anti-caries potential. Bovine enamel blocks were prepared and randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per group), which were treated with distilled water (negative control), NaF (positive control), or Emdogain. All three groups were pH-cycled 12 times over 6 days. The percentage of surface enamel microhardness reduction (%SMHR), calcium demineralization rate (CDR), surface roughness, lesion depth and mineral loss after demineralization were examined. Surface morphology of specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The Emdogain and positive control groups showed similar surface roughness, lesion depths and mineral loss, which were significantly lower than those in the negative control group. In addition, the enamel surfaces of both the Emdogain and NaF groups showed much narrower intercrystalline spaces than the surfaces of the negative control group, which exhibited extensive microfractures along the crystal edges. %SMHR differed significantly among all three groups, with the smallest value in the Emdogain group and the greatest in the negative control group. These results indicate that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) can significantly inhibit demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro, suggesting that it has potential as an anti-caries agent. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Individual culture of in vitro produced bovine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela dos Santos Brum

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro foram cultivados individualmente do D7 ao D9, com o intuito de avaliar o seu desenvolvimento posterior. Quarenta e nove embriões, nos estágios de blastocisto inicial, blastocisto e blastocisto expandido foram cultivados, individualmente, em 50ml de meio SOF + 5% SVE, do D7 ao D9 (D0=fecundação. Entre o D7 e D8, os blastocistos foram cultivados em palhetas (TcP ou em placas (CP e, entre o D8 e D9, foram cultivados apenas em placas. O índice de blastocistos que avançaram pelo menos um estágio de desenvolvimento, entre D7 e D8, foi de 71%, 37% e 44% no CP e de 100%, 66% e 36% no TcP, respectivamente para blastocistos iniciais, blastocistos e blastocistos expandidos. O percentual total de embriões que evoluíram do D7 para D8 foi de 50% (12/24 para o CP e de 60% (15/25 para o TcP, os quais não foram significativamente diferentes (P>;0,05. Na avaliação efetuada no D9, não foram constatadas diferenças (P>;0,05 no percentual de blastocistos eclodidos, entre os dois sistemas de cultivo (29% e 24% para CP e TcP, respectivamente. Após coloração fluorescente dos núcleos, não foi observada diferença (P>;0,05 entre o número médio de células dos blastocistos eclodidos (182,66 vs. 202,8 e expandidos (94,5 vs. 88, para o CP e TcP, respectivamente. Blastocistos bovinos produzidos in vitro podem ser cultivados individualmente do D7 ao D9, não havendo efeito do sistema de cultivo empregado (placas ou palhetas sobre a taxa de eclosão e o número de células.

  19. The effect of hepatocyte growth factor on mouse oocyte in vitro maturation and subsequent fertilization and embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Bahadori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte invitro maturation is an enormously promising technology for the treatment of infertility, yet its clinical application remains limited owing to poor success rates. Therefore, this study was devised to evaluate the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF on in vitro maturation of immature mouse oocytes and resulting embryos development. Materials and Method: Cumulus – oocyte complex and germinal vesicle were obtained from eighteen 6-8 weeks-old female NMRI mice 46-48 hours after administration of an injection of 5 IU PMSG (Pregnant Mares’ Serum Gonadotrophin. Oocytes were culture in TCM199 (Tissue culture medium-199 supplemented with dosages of 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 ng/ml of HGF. After 24 hours, metaphase ІІ oocytes were co-incubated with sperms for 4-6 hours in T6 medium. Following isolation of two pronucleus embryos, cleavage of embryos was assessed in the same medium till blastocyst stage. The number of oocytes and embryos was recorded under an invert microscope and the rate of oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryos cleavage until blastocyst stage compared using of student χ2 test. Results: In all compared groups, oocytes growth and embryos development rate in the 20 ng/ml of HGF treatment group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: 20 ng/ml of HGF improved the nuclear maturation and embryo development up to blastocyst stage during culture condition

  20. In vitro embryo production through modification of time and gonadotropin hormone during oocytes maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Triwulaninngsih

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted at the laboratory of in vitro fertilization of the University of Wisconsin, USA. These embryos can be used for improving genetic value of Indonesian cattle. There is transportation constraint in importing oocytes from USA. It takes more than 24 hours to bring it to Indonesia. In fact, oocytes maturation and ready to be fertilized normally requires only 24 hours in 5% CO2 incubator at 38.5°C. Therefore, this research is needed to study the effect of gonadotropin hormone and time for oocyte maturity and ready to be fertilized at a period more than 24 hours. If this problem could be solved then the importation of oocytes could be cheaper and easier than importation of life animals or embryos. Ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse in Wisconsin. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium in 5% CO2 incubator and at 30°C enriched with FSH 10 μl/ml, oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml and 10 % FCS as control of gonadotropin hormone treatment (A; with FSH 10 μl/ml (B; with oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml (C and without gonadotropin hormone (D for 24 hours, 30 hours and 36 hours as time of maturation treatment I, II and III respectively. The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with motile sperm selection by Percoll gradient and incubation between sperm and oocytes in fertilization media (TALP for 20 hours. All zygotes were cultured in modification of KSOM medium up to blastocyst and were fed serum 5 μl/50 μl medium on day 6. Data were analyzed by SAS program. Percentage of cleavage between time of maturation were significant (p0.05. Percentage of blastocyst between time of maturation were not significant (p>0.05, but between gonadotropin hormone treatment A vs B and A vs C and B vs D and C vs D were significant (p0.05. Percentage of cleavage, morula, blastocyst, expanded blastocyst and unertilized ova on this study are 66.73%, 22.43%, 40.33%, 0.81% and 32.51 for 24 hours incubation (I; 61.55%, 25.69%, 32.69%, 0.54% and 27.61% for 30

  1. In vitro effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on bovine spermatozoa motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Norbert; Massanyi, Peter; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Capcarova, Marcela; Tvrda, Eva; Knazicka, Zuzana; Kolesarova, Anna; Danko, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) exposure on bovine semen was monitored. The experimental samples were analyzed in vitro in four time periods (0, 30, 120 and 420 min) and compared with unexposed samples (control). Spermatozoa motility was determined by computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Evaluation of the percentage of motile spermatozoa showed significant (P radiation suggested that the parameters of path and velocity at the beginning of the culture significantly increase, but after longer culture (420 minutes) a significant decrease occur in the experimental group as compared to control. In general, results of this experiment indicate a negative time-dependent effect of 1800 MHz RF-EMW radiation on bovine spermatozoa motility.

  2. The effect of temperature on apoptosis of bovine blood eosinophil granulocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sláma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of temperature on apoptosis of bovine blood eosinophil granulocytes in vitro. Heparinised bovine blood was incubated for 1, 4 and 24 h under following temperatures: 4, 23 and 37 °C. UV irradiation was used as positive control of apoptosis. Eosinophil granu­locytes apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry after simultaneous staining with Annexin-V and propidium iodide. From selected temperatures, 4 °C induced the eosinophil granulocytes apoptosis least. The proportion of apoptotic eosinophil granulocytes amounted to (mean ± SD 1.65 ± 0.46%; 1.76 ± 0.36%; 4.78 ± 1.70% after 1, 4 and 24 h incubation, respectively.

  3. GERMINATION IN VITRO AND E EX VITRO OF EMBRYOS/SEEDS OF Tabebuia serratifolia (VAHL NICH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carlota Nery

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of germination of seeds allows understanding the behavior of seeds during development and theconservation mechanism. For evaluating the germination of the seeds of ipê amarelo collected during seven development stages, 10,18, 25 32, 39, 47 and 53 days after the anthesis, the medium of culture in vitro were tested, MS and WPM, and methods ofdisinfestations of the seeds in the germination ex vitro. Seeds of yellow ipê disinfestations with carbendazim (2% for 2 minutes, sodiumhypochlorite (2% of the active chlorine for 3 minutes and seeds without surface sterilisation, were submitted to the germination teston sand to 30 ºC, under constant white light. In the cultivation in vitro, seeds acquired germinative capacity 39 days after the anthesisand superior germination 53 days after the anthesis, independent of the medium of culture. In the germination ex vitro, the seedsdisinfestations with carbendazim and without surface sterilization presented superior germination, the use of sodium hypochloritecaused fitotoxin effect to the seeds.

  4. Optimization of in vitro conditions for bovine subcutaneous and intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A C; Ortiz-Colòn, G; Doumit, M E; Buskirk, D D

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these experiments was to develop an in vitro cell culture system for differentiation of bovine preadipocytes, which will permit examination of differences in differentiation between intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) bovine preadipocytes. Stromal-vascular cells from bovine i.m. and s.c. adipose depots were isolated and cultured. Clonally derived s.c. preadipocytes were used to determine the ability of insulin, bovine serum lipids, octanoate, acetic acid, dexamethasone (DEX), and troglitazone (TRO) to elicit differentiation of these cells when added to serum-free medium. Addition of 10 and 20 microL/mL of a commercially available serum lipids supplement to low-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 280 nM insulin increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity (P insulin and 20 microL/ mL serum lipids supplement also increased GPDH activity (P insulin, 1 mM octanoate, and 10 mM acetic acid, with 48 h exposure to 0.25 microM DEX caused morphological differentiation in a small number of cells but did not stimulate GPDH activity (P = 0.99). When used together, 280 nM insulin, 20 microL/mL of serum lipids supplement, 40 microM TRO, and 0.25 microM DEX stimulated differentiation compared with the aforementioned treatment (P insulin from this medium reduced GPDH activity by 68% (P insulin, serum lipids, DEX, and TRO. Although TRO enhanced differentiation of bovine preadipocytes, no differential effects of TRO on the differentiation of s.c. and i.m. cells were detected.

  5. In Vitro Maturation and Embryo Development to blastocyst Mouse Germinal Vesicle Oocytes after Vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nikseresht

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Vitrification is a simple and ultra rapid technique for the conservation of fertility. Improving pregnancy rate associate with the use of cryopreserved oocytes would be an important advanced in human assisted reproductive technology (ART. The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival, oocytes maturation and embryo development to the blastocyst stage after vitrification of oocytes germinal vesicle-stage and multi stage Methods: In the present experimental study, germinal vesicle oocytes with or without cumulus cells were transferred to vitrification solution containing 30% (v/v ethylene glycol, 18% (w/v Ficoll-70, and 0.3 M sucrose, either by single step or in a step-wise way. After vitrification and storage in liquid nitrogen, the oocytes were thawed and washed twice in culture medium TCM119, and then subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. Data analysis was performed by using One-way variance and Tukey tests. Results: Oocytes survival, metaphase 2 stage oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo formed blastocyst in vitrification methods multistage were significantly higher than the single step procedure (P<0/05 Conclusion: The Germinal vesicle stage oocytes vitrified with cumulus cells and stepwise procedure had positive effect on the survival, maturation and developmental rate on blastocyst compared to oocytes without cumulus cell and single step procedure. Key words: Germinal Vesicle Oocyte, Blastocyst, Vitrification, Ethylene glycol

  6. In vitro production of buffalo embryos from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to produce buffalo embryos in vitro from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffalo and were collected from the local abattoir. Selected COCs were exposed to a vitrification solution consisting of 40% ethylene glycol (EG plus 0.3 M trehalose and 20% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP for 1 min and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic mini-straws containing 100 µl of 10% sucrose. The loaded cryostraws were cryopreserved by stepwise vitrification and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 4 to 6 months. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of post-thawing morphologically normal immature oocytes (80.7% with a low percentage of damaged oocytes. There were no significant differences in the maturation (82.1%, cleavage (47.6% and buffalo embryo development (15.4% produced by the stepwise vitrified immature oocytes in comparison to the three observations in fresh oocytes (88.3%, 50.4% and 19.4%, respectively, p<0.05.

  7. In vitro production of buffalo embryos from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, Saber Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to produce buffalo embryos in vitro from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffalo and were collected from the local abattoir. Selected COCs were exposed to a vitrification solution consisting of 40% ethylene glycol (EG) plus 0.3 M trehalose and 20% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) for 1 min and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic mini-straws containing 100 microl of 10% sucrose. The loaded cryostraws were cryopreserved by stepwise vitrification and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 4 to 6 months. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of post-thawing morphologically normal immature oocytes (80.7%) with a low percentage of damaged oocytes. There were no significant differences in the maturation (82.1%), cleavage (47.6%) and buffalo embryo development (15.4%) produced by the stepwise vitrified immature oocytes in comparison to the three observations in fresh oocytes (88.3%, 50.4% and 19.4%, respectively, p<0.05).

  8. Embryo technologies and animal health - consequences for the animal following ovum pick-up, in vitro embryo production and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, T G; Alink, F M; Moreira, V C; Watt, R G; Powell, K A

    2006-03-15

    Mammalian reproductive technologies that aim either to complement or to transcend conventional livestock breeding options have contributed to some of the most remarkable achievements in the field of reproductive biology in recent decades. In so doing they have extended our horizons in two distinct dimensions, the first concerning what it is technically possible to achieve and the second relating to the time-frame within which an individual's life-long developmental capability is initially established and ultimately realized or undermined. Our impressions of the benefits and values, or otherwise, of technologies such as in vitro embryo production and nuclear transfer are rightly influenced by the extent to which they impinge on the health of animals either subjected to or derived from them. Here, we consider some of the health implications of oocyte/embryo-centric technologies applied to farm livestock.

  9. Cultivation of Clinostomum marginatum (Digenea: Clinostomatidae) metacercariae in vitro, in chick embryo and in mouse coelom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, O R; Uglem, G L

    1990-08-01

    Metacercariae of Clinostomum marginatum obtained from naturally infected Perca flavescens were cultured by 5 methods. In vitro cultivation at 37 C in twice daily changes of Tyrode's, Na-poor Tyrode's, and Eagle's media failed to produce ovigerous adults after 4-5 days. Metacercariae placed on the chorioallantois of week-old chick embryos at 37 C migrated to the albumen. Only 8 of 123 worms recovered were ovigerous after 4-7 days in ovo. Best success occurred with metacercariae injected in groups of 4 or 6 into the abdominal cavities of male A/J mice. Despite liver lesions and strong inflammatory responses in the host, all 174 worms recovered were ovigerous after 4-8 days. None of 41 mice died prematurely from the procedure or the parasites.

  10. [Correlation between polyspermy and the outcome of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ying-Hui; Xing, Lan-Feng; Jin, Fan; Xu, Chen-Ming

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of polyspermy on IVF outcomes in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer(IVF-ET). METHODS: The data from 496 IVF-ET cycles and 5349 oocytes were analyzed retrospectively. A comparison of a number of fertility parameters with and without polyspermy was done. The fertility parameters were the number of oocytes retrieved, percentage of mature oocytes, fertilization rate, cleavage rate, occytes for ET, pregnancy rate. RESULTS: The percentage of mature occytes, fertilization rate, cleavage rate was 67.0 %,76.7 %and 95.6 %, respectively( Ppolyspermy(23.6 %),but with no statistical significance ( P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Polyspermic fertilization is correlated with improved oocyte receptibility to sperm and could be considered as an encouraging sign for the success of IVF.

  11. Identification of potential biomarkers in donor cows for in vitro embryo production by granulosa cell transcriptomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Salleh, Suraya M; Freude, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    The Ovum Pick Up-In vitro Production (OPU-IVP) of embryos is an advanced reproductive technology used in cattle production but the complex biological mechanisms behind IVP outcomes are not fully understood. In this study we sequenced RNA of granulosa cells collected from Holstein cows at oocyte...... aspiration prior to IVP, to identify candidate genes and biological mechanisms for favourable IVP-related traits in donor cows where IVP was performed separately for each animal. We identified 56 genes significantly associated with IVP scores (BL rate, kinetic and morphology). Among these, BEX2, HEY2, RGN......, TNFAIP6 and TXNDC11 were negatively associated while Mx1 and STC1 were positively associated with all IVP scores. Functional analysis highlighted a wide range of biological mechanisms including apoptosis, cell development and proliferation and four key upstream regulators (COX2, IL1, PRL, TRIM24...

  12. Importance of supply integrity for in vitro fertilization and embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E

    2012-06-01

    The quality of in vitro culture conditions is a key component of a successful clinical embryology laboratory. Many, but not all, supplies used in the embryology laboratory are screened by the supplier with a bioassay. Embryology laboratories use a variety of approaches to verify the quality of mineral oil, protein, and disposables before clinical use; however, a best practice has not been determined. Some laboratories test every supply, even those already screened by the supplier, whereas other laboratories perform as little testing as possible. Despite screening by the supplier, recent reports of embryo toxicity, specifically with mineral oil, highlight that the integrity of the supply system has gaps. This review describes current bioassay quality control testing and discusses how it applies to screening of products with documented lot-to-lot variation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs from vitrified ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Dattena, M; Mayorga Muñoz, I M

    2015-02-01

    It has been reported that different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs. The aim of this study was to test body weight and lambing rate of lambs born from five different in vitro culture systems after vitrification. Oocytes of Sarda sheep were matured in TCM-199 plus 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) using systems: (i) 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA4); (ii) 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA8); (iii) BSA8-hyaluronan (BSA8-HA); (iv) BSA8-charcoal-stripped FBS (BSA8-CH); or (v) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; serum) and fertilized with fresh semen. The presumptive zygotes were cultured up to the blastocyst stage with BSA8, BSA8-HA, BSA8-CH or serum or BSA4. In the third and fifth days of culture 5% charcoal-stripped FBS was added into BSA8-CH and serum, while 8 mg/ml or 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA was added as BSA8, BSA8-HA and BSA4 respectively; 6 mg/ml HA was added to BSA8-HA. In total, 240 vitrified blastocysts were transferred into synchronized ewes. The lambing rate was not significant different between BSA groups or between serum groups (BSA8-CH and serum), while serum groups showed significant lower values when compared with BSA groups. Only BSA8 groups produced heavy lambs (≥4.5 kg) with a significant difference between BSA4 and BSA8 groups (P < 0.05).

  14. In vitro development of donated frozen-thawed human embryos in a prototype static microfluidic device: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieslinger, Dorit C.; Hao, Zhenxia; Vergouw, Carlijn G.; Kostelijk, Elisabeth H.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; le Gac, Severine

    Objective: To compare the development of human embryos in microfluidic devices with culture in standard microdrop dishes, both under static conditions. Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Setting: In vitro fertilization laboratory. Patient(s): One hundred eighteen donated frozen-thawed

  15. Hematocrit and blood osmolality in developing chicken embryos (Gallus gallus): in vivo and in vitro regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewartha, Sarah J; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Burggren, Warren W

    2011-12-15

    Hematocrit (Hct) regulation is a complex process involving potentially many factors. How such regulation develops in vertebrate embryos is still poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the role of blood pH in the regulation of Hct across developmental time in chicken embryos. We hypothesized that blood pH alterations in vitro (i.e., in a test tube) would affect Hct far more than in vivo because of in vivo compensatory regulatory processes for Hct. Large changes in Hct (through mean corpuscular volume (MCV)) and blood osmolality (Osm) occur when the blood was exposed to varying ambient temperatures (T(a)'s) and P(CO2) in vitro alongside an experimentally induced blood pH change from ~7.3 to 8.2. However, homeostatic regulatory mechanisms apparently limited these alterations in vivo. Changes in blood pH in vitro were accompanied by hydration or dehydration of red blood cells depending on embryonic age, resulting in changes in Hct that also were specific to developmental stage, due likely to initial blood gas and [HCO(3)(-)](v) values. Significant linear relationships between Hct and pH (Hct/ΔpH=-21.4%/(pH unit)), Hct and [HCO(3)(-)] (ΔHct/Δ[HCO(3)(-)]=1.6%/(mEq L(-1))) and the mean buffer value (Δ[HCO(3)(-)]/ΔpH=-13.4 (mEq L(-1))/(pH unit)) demonstrate that both pH and [HCO(3)(-)] likely play a role in the regulation of Hct through MCV at least in vitro. Low T(a) (24°C) resulted in relatively large changes in pH with small changes in Hct and Osm in vitro with increased T(a) (42°C) conversely resulting in larger changes in both Hct and Osm. In vivo exposure to altered T(a) caused age-dependent changes in Hct, demonstrating a trend towards increased Hct at higher T(a). Further, exposing embryos to a gas mixture where P(CO2) = 5.1 kPa for >4 h period at T(a) of 37 or 42°C also did not elicit a change in Hct or Osm. Presumably, homeostatic mechanisms ensured that in vivo Hct was stable during a 4-6 h temperature and/or hypercapnic stress. Thus, although blood p

  16. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, Céline; Léandri, Roger; Desch, Laurent; Ernst, Alexandra; Bruno, Céline; Cerf, Charline; Chiron, Alexandra; Souchay, Céline; Burguet, Antoine; Jimenez, Clément; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371) were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium--SSM group) or Global medium (Global group). This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73) conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM). The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded). The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge--270 items) were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (pculture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major), growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002), irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development.

  17. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bouillon

    Full Text Available In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371 were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium--SSM group or Global medium (Global group. This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73 conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM. The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded. The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge--270 items were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (p<0.05. The culture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major, growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002, irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development.

  18. Retinoids, retinoid analogs, and lactoferrin interact and differentially affect cell viability of 2 bovine mammary cell types in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Baumrucker, C R

    2010-07-01

    Two bovine mammary cell types (BME-UV1 and MeBo cells) were used to evaluate the effect of natural retinoids, retinoid analogs, and bovine lactoferrin (bLf) on cell viability in vitro. Experiments with Alamar Blue showed a linear relationship between fluorescence and cell viability index. The BME-UV1 cells exhibited twice the metabolic activity but required half the doubling time of the MeBo cells. The BME-UV1 cells were very sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) inhibition of cell viability (Pretinoid-induced inhibition of cell viability, depending on the type of bovine mammary cell studied.

  19. In vitro rescue of interspecific embryos from Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina da Silva Angelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is the most effective oil producer in tons per hectare. Nevertheless, its increasing cultivation in Latin America is harmed by the “lethal yellowing”. Genetic resistance to this anomaly can be found in the germplasm of American oil palm or caiaué (E. oleifera, a native species from the Amazon rainforest. However, the procedures adopted to induce seeds of E. guineensis to germination frequently result mild for interespecific hybrids. Embryo in vitro cultivation can be a viable option. This work was aimed initially to test liquid MS medium supplemented with different glucose or sucrose concentrations for the in vitro cultivation of zygotic embryos from E. guineensis x E. oleifera controlled pollinations. Additionally we investigated different compost mixtures to acclimatize the regenerated hybrid plantlets. Concentrations of 10, 20 and 30g/L of both sugars were tested on flasks containing five mature zygotic embryos, with 15 repetitions per treatment in a total of 450 explants. The number of embryos displaying shoots and radicles at least 2mm in length per experimental unit was evaluated during phase one of in vitro cultivation. Plantlets displaying shoots and radicles were transferred to phase two of in vitro cultivation and subsequently to acclimatization, under 70% shading with manual water supply. The experiments of acclimatization were conducted with 130 plantlets randomly distributed in pure horticultural compost, 3:1 or 1:1 compost:sand mixtures and each plantlet was defined as an experimental unit. Data were submitted to ANOVA, t test and analyzes of correlation (p≤0.05. Highest emergence rates were 97% for shoots and 73% for radicles, observed in MS medium supplemented with 20g/L (110mM of glucose. This sugar in concentrations of 20 or 30g/L provided balanced shoot/root development, and this was considered one of the reasons for the higher frequency of plantlet establishment. The survival

  20. Embryo vitrification using a novel semi-automated closed system yields in vitro outcomes equivalent to the manual Cryotop method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tammie K; Brandi, Susanna; Tappe, Naomi M; Bradley, Cara K; Vom, Eduardo; Henderson, Chester; Lewis, Craig; Battista, Kristy; Hobbs, Ben; Hobbs, Simon; Syer, John; Lanyon, Sam R; Dopheide, Sacha M; Peura, Teija T; McArthur, Steven J; Bowman, Mark C; Stojanov, Tomas

    2014-11-01

    Can the equilibration steps prior to embryo vitrification be automated? We have developed the 'Gavi' system which automatically performs equilibration steps before closed system vitrification on up to four embryos at a time and gives in vitro outcomes equivalent to the manual Cryotop method. Embryo cryopreservation is an essential component of a successful assisted reproduction clinic, with vitrification providing excellent embryo survival and pregnancy outcomes. However, vitrification is a manual, labour-intensive and highly skilled procedure, and results can vary between embryologists and clinics. A closed system whereby the embryo does not come in direct contact with liquid nitrogen is preferred by many clinics and is a regulatory requirement in some countries. The Gavi system, an automation instrument with a novel closed system device, was used to equilibrate embryos prior to vitrification. Outcomes for embryos automatically processed with the Gavi system were compared with those processed with the manual Cryotop method and with fresh (non-vitrified) controls. The efficacy of the Gavi system (Alpha model) was assessed for mouse (Quackenbush Swiss and F1 C57BL/6J x CBA) zygotes, cleavage stage embryos and blastocysts, and for donated human vitrified-warmed blastocysts. The main outcomes assessed included recovery, survival and in vitro embryo development after vitrification-warming. Cooling and warming rates were measured using a thermocouple probe. Mouse embryos vitrified after processing with the automated Gavi system achieved equivalent in vitro outcomes to that of Cryotop controls. For example, for mouse blastocysts both the Gavi system (n = 176) and manual Cryotop method (n = 172) gave a 99% recovery rate, of which 54 and 50%, respectively, progressed to fully hatched blastocysts 48 h after warming. The outcomes for human blastocysts processed with the Gavi system (n = 23) were also equivalent to Cryotop controls (n = 13) including 100% recovery for both

  1. Zona pellucida damage to human embryos after cryopreservation and the consequences for their blastomere survival and in-vitro viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Abbeel, E; Van Steirteghem, A

    2000-02-01

    The study objective was to quantify zona pellucida (ZP) damage in cryopreserved human embryos. The influence of two different freezing containers was investigated, and the influence of freezing damage on the survival and viability of the embryos evaluated. ZP damage did not differ according to whether embryos originated from in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles or from IVF cycles in association with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The freezing container, however, significantly influenced the occurrence of ZP damage after cryopreservation. More damage was observed when the embryos were frozen-thawed using plastic cryovials than using plastic mini-straws (16.6% versus 2.3%; P plastic mini-straws. The further cleavage of frozen-thawed embryos suitable for transfer was not different whether there was ZP damage or not; however, it was higher when there was 100% blastomere survival as compared with when some blastomeres were damaged (79.0% versus 43.7%; P plastic mini-straws. In conclusion, the aim of a cryopreservation programme should be to have as many fully intact embryos as possible after thawing. Increased ZP damage might indicate a suboptimal cryopreservation procedure.

  2. In Vitro toxicological effects of Fumonisin B1 and Beauvericin on bovine granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Albonico

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1 and beauvericin (BEA are fusariotoxins found to co-exist in food and feed commodities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the individual and combined effects of FB1 and BEA on bovine granulosa cell proliferation and steroid production. Granulosa cells (GC from small bovine follicles (1-5 mm were cultured for 48 hours in 10% fetal bovine serum followed by 48 hours in a serum-free medium containing 500 ng/ml of testosterone (as an estradiol precursor, 30 ng/ml of FSH and 30 ng/ml of IGF-I with and without FB1 (3 µM and BEA (3 µM. At the end of the experiment, the numbers of GC were determined using a Coulter counter (Beckman Coulter, USA and concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in the culture medium were determined by radioimmunoassay. FB1 and BEA, both individually and in combination, showed an inhibitory effect (P 0.05 on estradiol and progesterone production, whereas BEA (3 µM, both alone and in combination with FB1 (3 µM, was found to decrease (P < 0.001 the production of both steroids drastically. In conclusion, this in vitro study indicates that FB1 and BEA, both individually and in combination, may affect GC proliferation to different extents and shows the drastic inhibitory effects of BEA on steroid production.

  3. Bovine liver slices: A multifunctional in vitro model to study the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijk, Jeroen C W; Bovee, Toine F H; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Groot, Maria J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Nielen, Michel W F

    2012-09-01

    Biotransformation of inactive prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can lead to the formation of potent androgens and subsequent androgenic responses in target tissues. In the present study, precision-cut bovine liver slices were used to study the effects of DHEA on the metabolite, transcript and androgenic activity level. Bovine liver slices were exposed for 6h to various concentrations of DHEA. Changes in androgenic activity of the DHEA containing cell culture media were measured using a yeast androgen bioassay and metabolites were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS), while gene expression in the DHEA-treated liver slices was examined using bovine microarrays and compared with the profile as obtained with 17ß-testosterone (17ß-T). An increase in androgenic activity was observed in the bioassay upon testing of samples from incubations of DHEA with liver slices and the formation of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), 5-androstene-3ß,17ß-diol, 17ß-T, 7α-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-keto-DHEA and 17α-T could be confirmed by UPLC-TOFMS analysis. Exposure of liver slices to DHEA and the strong androgen 17ß-T resulted in the identification of significantly up- and down-regulated genes and revealed similar gene expression profiles for both compounds. The results indicate that DHEA itself is biologically not very active, but is rapidly converted by the liver slices into the more androgen active compounds 4-AD and 17ß-T. Moreover, the present data highlight the multi-functionality of bovine liver slices as an in vitro bioactivation model, allowing the assessment of androgen activity or gene expression as effect-based endpoints for prohormone exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequential Analysis of Global Gene Expression Profiles in Immature and In vitro Matured Bovine Oocytes: Potential Molecular Markers of Oocyte Maturation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mamo, Solomon

    2011-03-16

    Abstract Background Without intensive selection, the majority of bovine oocytes submitted to in vitro embryo production (IVP) fail to develop to the blastocyst stage. This is attributed partly to their maturation status and competences. Using the Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Array, global mRNA expression analysis of immature (GV) and in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes was carried out to characterize the transcriptome of bovine oocytes and then use a variety of approaches to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM was real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis. Results 8489 transcripts were detected across the two oocyte groups, of which ~25.0% (2117 transcripts) were differentially expressed (p < 0.001); corresponding to 589 over-expressed and 1528 under-expressed transcripts in the IVM oocytes compared to their immature counterparts. Over expression of transcripts by IVM oocytes is particularly interesting, therefore, a variety of approaches were employed to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM were real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis, including the analysis of transcript abundance in oocytes in vitro matured in the presence of α-amanitin. Subsets of the differentially expressed genes were also validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the gene expression data was classified according to gene ontology and pathway enrichment. Numerous cell cycle linked (CDC2, CDK5, CDK8, HSPA2, MAPK14, TXNL4B), molecular transport (STX5, STX17, SEC22A, SEC22B), and differentiation (NACA) related genes were found to be among the several over-expressed transcripts in GV oocytes compared to the matured counterparts, while ANXA1, PLAU, STC1and LUM were among the over-expressed genes after oocyte maturation. Conclusion Using sequential experiments, we have shown and confirmed transcriptional changes during oocyte maturation. This dataset provides a unique reference resource

  5. RNA profiles of porcine embryos during genome activation reveal complex metabolic switch sensitive to in vitro conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Østrup

    Full Text Available Fertilization is followed by complex changes in cytoplasmic composition and extensive chromatin reprogramming which results in the abundant activation of totipotent embryonic genome at embryonic genome activation (EGA. While chromatin reprogramming has been widely studied in several species, only a handful of reports characterize changing transcriptome profiles and resulting metabolic changes in cleavage stage embryos. The aims of the current study were to investigate RNA profiles of in vivo developed (ivv and in vitro produced (ivt porcine embryos before (2-cell stage and after (late 4-cell stage EGA and determine major metabolic changes that regulate totipotency. The period before EGA was dominated by transcripts responsible for cell cycle regulation, mitosis, RNA translation and processing (including ribosomal machinery, protein catabolism, and chromatin remodelling. Following EGA an increase in the abundance of transcripts involved in transcription, translation, DNA metabolism, histone and chromatin modification, as well as protein catabolism was detected. The further analysis of members of overlapping GO terms revealed that despite that comparable cellular processes are taking place before and after EGA (RNA splicing, protein catabolism, different metabolic pathways are involved. This strongly suggests that a complex metabolic switch accompanies EGA. In vitro conditions significantly altered RNA profiles before EGA, and the character of these changes indicates that they originate from oocyte and are imposed either before oocyte aspiration or during in vitro maturation. IVT embryos have altered content of apoptotic factors, cell cycle regulation factors and spindle components, and transcription factors, which all may contribute to reduced developmental competence of embryos produced in vitro. Overall, our data are in good accordance with previously published, genome-wide profiling data in other species. Moreover, comparison with mouse and

  6. An ovarian bioreactor for in vitro culture of the whole bovine ovary: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotelli, Matthew R; Henningsen, Joseph D; Hopkins, Patrick M; Dederich, Aaron P; Herman, Tessa; Puccinelli, Tracy J; Salih, Sana M

    2016-08-04

    Improved cancer therapeutics and enhanced cancer survivorship have emphasized the severe long-term side effects of chemotherapy. Specifically, studies have linked many chemotherapy agents with primary ovarian insufficiency, although an exact insult model has not yet been determined. To investigate and ultimately solve this problem, a novel device for extended study of mammalian ovaries in vitro was developed. A bioreactor was fabricated for bovine ovarian culture that provides intravascular delivery of media to the ovary through isolation and cannulation of a main ovarian artery branch. Whole ovaries were cultured in vitro using three methods: (1) continuously supplied fresh culture media, (2) recirculated culture media, or (3) continuously supplied fresh culture media supplemented with 500 nM doxorubicin for 24 or 48 h. TUNEL assay was used to assess apoptotic cell percentages in the three groups as compared to uncultured baseline ovaries. The ovary culture method was shown to maintain cell viability by effectively delivering nutrient-enriched pH-balanced media at a constant flow rate. Lower apoptosis observed in ovaries cultured in continuously supplied fresh culture media illustrates that this culture device and method are the first to sustain whole bovine ovary viability for 48 h. Meanwhile, the increase in the percentage of cell apoptosis with doxorubicin treatment indicates that the device can provide an alternative model for testing chemotherapy and chemoprotection treatments to prevent primary ovarian insufficiency in cancer patients. An ovarian bioreactor with consistent culture media flow through an ovarian vasculature-assisted approach maintains short-term whole bovine ovary viability.

  7. Effect of tooth whitening strips on fatigue resistance and flexural strength of bovine dentin in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Tam

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of whitening strips on bovine dentin fatigue resistance and flexural strength in vitro.A total of eighty bovine dentin specimens (2x2x17mm were treated with either: control glycerine gel on plastic film wrap or whitening strips containing 9.5% hydrogen peroxide. Treatment was applied for 30 minutes, twice a day, for 1- or 4-weeks. After the last treatment, ten specimens per group were randomly selected to undergo fatigue testing (106 cycles, 3Hz, 20N while the other ten were subjected to flexural strength testing after ten days of storage in artificial saliva. Kaplan-Meier method with a log rank test, Wilcoxon test and Cox regression were used to assess fatigue test results (p<0.05. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests were used to compare the flexural strength results (p<0.05.There were significant differences in survival during the fatigue test among the groups (p<0.001. Treatment (control or bleach was a significant factor for specimen survival (p<0.001, Exp(B = 33.45. There were significant differences in mean flexural strength (p<0.001. No significant difference was found between "1-wk control" and "4-wk control". The mean flexural strength and fatigue resistance of the "4-wk bleach" were significantly lower than all the other groups.The use of whitening strips reduced the fatigue resistance and flexural strength of bovine dentin in vitro. Until the effect of whitening strips on mechanical properties of human dentin is fully elucidated, it remains prudent to advise patients to avoid excessive direct use of whitening strips on dentin.

  8. IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL ON VIABILITY OF BOVINE SPERMATOZOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lukáčová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP is a toxic xenobiotic compound classified as an endocrine disruptor that bioaccumulates in the body and causes endocrine disruption. NP can result in male reproductive dysfunction, altered testicular development and decreased male fertility. The target of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of NP as an endocrine disruptor on the viability of spermatozoa. We examined the dose- and time-dependent effect of nonylphenol (1, 10, 100 and 200 µg/mL dissolved either in 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and 0.1% ethanol on the viability of bovine spermatozoa after 6 h of in vitro cultivation. The viability of bovine spermatozoa was detected by the MTT cytotoxicity assay. The viability in groups with NP dissolved in 0.1% DMSO was significantly (P 10 µg/mL of NP and was decreased significantly (P<0.001 in all experimental groups with NP dissolved in 0.1% ethanol. After 6 h of culture the MTT assay proved a negative effect of all NP doses on the cell viability. The lowest survival of spermatozoa was determined after the addition of 200 µg/mL of NP. The obtained data indicate that the negative effect of NP on the viability must be seriously considered in the case of exposure to NP in animals and humans.

  9. Effect of cryopreservation technique and season on the survival of in vitro produced cattle embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alisha; Singh, Jaswant; Anzar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Embryo cryopreservation is a major tool for conservation and propagation of genetically superior animals. However, it adversely affects the survival of embryos. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of cryopreservation technique (vitrification compared with slow freezing) and different seasons in which oocytes were obtained on the post-warming survival of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle morulae. In experiment 1, morulae (Day 6 post-IVF), obtained from abattoir-sourced oocytes during spring, summer, fall and winter over a period of 3.5 years, were subjected to either vitrification (n=271 morulae), slow freezing (n=281 morulae) or no freezing (control; n=249 morulae). After warming, the morulae were cultured to the expanded blastocyst stage (Day 8 post-IVF). Data were compared using Glimmix procedure in SAS(®). Blastocyst rate differed (Pvitrification (52±4.6%) and slow freezing (35±4.2%). The re-expansion of vitrified morulae upon warming was not correlated with subsequent blastocyst rate (r=-0.048; P>0.05). The morulae produced during fall season had lesser (Pvitrification group (P>0.05). In conclusion, vitrification is a more desirable technique than slow freezing for cryopreservation of IVP cattle morulae. If the slow freezing method is employed, greater success can be achieved using oocytes collected in the winter and spring with a primary contributing factor being lesser morulae development if oocytes are collected in the fall and also the lesser blastocyst formation of cryopreserved morulae when oocytes are collected in the summer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis for ectopic and heterotopic pregnancies after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-lin; Chen, Xin; Ye, De-sheng; Liu, Yu-dong; He, Yu-xia; Guo, Wei; Chen, Shi-ling

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis factors for ectopic pregnancy (EP) and heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in an attempt to reduce the diagnostic error. Clinical data of patients who underwent IVF-ET treatment and had clinical pregnancy from 12463 cycles were retrospectively analyzed. Their findings of serum β-hCG test and transvaginal ultrasonography were also obtained during follow-up. These patients were divided into two groups according to the diagnosis accuracy of EP/HP: early diagnosis and misdiagnosis/delayed diagnosis. The results showed that the incidence of EP and HP was 3.8% (125/3286) and 0.8% (27/3286) respectively for IVF/ICSI-ET cycle, and 3.8% (55/1431) and 0.7% (10/1431) respectively for frozen- thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycle. Ruptured EP occurred in 28 patients due to initial misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. Related factors fell in 3 categories: (1) clinician factors: misunderstanding of patients' medical history, insufficient training in ultrasonography and unawareness of EP and HP; (2) patient factors: noncompliance with medical orders and lack of communication with clinicians; (3) complicated conditions of EP: atypical symptoms, delayed elevation of serum β-hCG level, early rupture of cornual EP, asymptomatic in early gestation and pregnancy of unknown location. All the factors were interwoven, contributing to the occurrence of EP and HP. It was concluded that complicated conditions are more likely to affect the diagnosis accuracy of EP/HP after IVF-ET. Transvaginal ultrasonography should be performed at 5 weeks of gestation. Intensive follow-up including repeated ultrasonography and serial serum β-hCG tests should be performed in patients with a suspicious diagnosis at admission.

  11. Evaluation of chromatin integrity of motile bovine spermatozoa capacitated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckova, Z; Machatkova, M; Rybar, R; Horakova, J; Hulinska, P; Machal, L

    2008-08-01

    The efficiency of in vitro embryo production is highly variable amongst individual sires in cattle. To eliminate that this variability is not caused by sperm chromatin damage caused by separation or capacitacion, chromatin integrity was evaluated. Seventeen of AI bulls with good NRRs but variable embryo production efficiency were used. For each bull, motile spermatozoa were separated on a Percoll gradient, resuspended in IVF-TALP medium and capacitated with or incubated without heparin for 6 h. Samples before and after separation and after 3-h and 6-h capacitacion or incubation were evaluated by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) and the proportion of sperm with intact chromatin structure was calculated. Based on changes in the non-DFI-sperm proportion, the sires were categorized as DNA-unstable (DNA-us), DNA-stable (DNA-s) and DNA-most stable (DNA-ms) bulls (n=3, n=5 and n=9, respectively). In DNA-us bulls, separation produced a significant increase of the mean non-DFI-sperm proportion (p Capacitacion produced a significant decrease in the mean non-DFI-sperm proportion in H+ sperm (p capacitacion, the mean non-DFI-sperm proportion remained almost unchanged. In DNA-ms bulls, neither separation nor capacitacion had any effect on the mean non-DFI-sperm proportion. It can be concluded that, although separation and capacitacion may produce some changes in sperm chromatin integrity, these are not associated with different in vitro fertility of the bulls involved.

  12. Peroxidized mineral oil increases the oxidant status of culture media and inhibits in vitro porcine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C A; Nohalez, A; Ceron, J J; Rubio, C P; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Martinez, E A; Gil, M A

    2017-11-01

    The use of oils with undetected alterations is a long-recognized problem for in vitro embryo production systems. Since peroxides in oils have been associated with reduced embryo production outcomes, our goals were (1) to evaluate the effects of a batch of mineral oil (MO) that was suspected to be altered on the in vitro production of pig embryos and (2) to determine oil peroxide values throughout culture and the transfer of oxidant agents from oil to culture media. Sunflower oil, which has a completely different chemical composition than MO but a higher oxidative status, and unaltered MO were used as controls. Oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development were affected differently depending on the oil overlay used. While the suspected MO was not able to sustain in vitro maturation and fertilization, the oocytes incubated in the presence of sunflower oil were matured and fertilized similarly to those of the unaltered MO group. Moreover, the cleavage rate of presumed zygotes cultured under the suspected MO was severely reduced compared with those cultured under the other oils, and none of the cleaved embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Although the cleavage rates in the sunflower oil and unaltered MO groups were similar, embryos cultured under sunflower oil also failed to develop to the blastocyst stage. Our results revealed that the suspected MO and sunflower oil had similar levels of peroxides and that these levels were much higher than those of the unaltered MO. The total oxidant status was higher in media incubated under peroxidized oils than in fresh media or media incubated without an oil overlay or under unaltered MO, indicating that oxidant agents were transferred to the incubation media. However, unlike the sunflower oil group, the culture media incubated under the suspected MO had high levels of total oxidant status and low levels of hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen species, suggesting the presence of other unknown oxidant agents in

  13. Embryo development and corresponding factors affecting in vitro germination of Cymbidium faberi × C. sinense hybrid seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fengtong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of embryo development would provide insights into seed quality and subsequent germination events in the interspecific hybridization of Cymbidium faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo’. At the mature stage, 26.1% of the ovules were abnormal. Most of the hybrid embryos could develop normally. Abortions mainly occurred at the zygote (9.5% and 2-4-celled embryo (15.1% stages. No germination was observed at 90 and 105 days after pollination (DAP, when the embryo was at the early globular stage, with abundant organelles but no storage materials. During 110-130 DAP, the globular embryo was formed and the starch grains began to accumulate in plastids. The hybrid seeds collected at 120 DAP showed initiation of germination. Germination significantly increased at 135 DAP and was maximal at 150 DAP, during which period the hybrid embryos developed into the late globular stage. The storage materials, i.e. lipid and protein bodies, began to accumulate and the filamentary structures derived from suspensor cells still persisted. After the seeds matured (160 DAP, the germination percentage declined sharply. Safranin staining revealed that the outer seed coat was totally cuticularized and the inner seed coat appeared as a cuticle layer enclosing the embryo proper tightly, which may be the main factor inhibiting the subsequent germination of hybrid seeds. In conclusion, 150 DAP should be the opportune time for the in vitro germination of C. faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo’ hybrid seeds.

  14. Effects of platelet-rich plasma in a model of bovine endometrial inflammation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Giovanna; Perrini, Claudia; Esposti, Paola; Corradetti, Bruna; Bizzaro, Davide; Riccaboni, Pietro; Fantinato, Eleonora; Urbani, Giuseppe; Gelati, Giorgio; Cremonesi, Fausto; Lange-Consiglio, Anna

    2016-09-13

    Endometritis reduces fertility and is responsible for major economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative therapy using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was tested in vivo, after bovine intrauterine administration, and in vitro on endometrial cells. Bovine endometrial cells were cultured until passage (P) 10 with 5 % or 10 % PRP. Effect of PRP on endometrial cell proliferation and on the expression of genes [prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX2), tumor protein p53 (TP53), oestrogen receptors (ER-α and ER-β), progesterone receptor (PR) and c-Myc] involved in the regulation of oestrus cycle and fetal-maternal interaction were evaluated. Moreover, to evaluate the ability of PRP to counteract inflammation, 10 and 100 ng/ml of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to inflame endometrial cells in vitro for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The expression of genes such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX2/PTGS2), and the release of PGE-2, IL-1β and IL-8 were evaluated. In vivo treatment with PRP increased the detection of PR. In vitro, 5 % PRP at passage 5 increased proliferation rate and induced a significant increase in the expression of all studied genes. Furthermore, the results revealed that 10 ng/ml of LPS is the most effective dose to obtain an inflammatory response, and that PRP treatment significantly down regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. This study lays the foundations for the potential treatment of endometritis with PRP in vivo.

  15. Prediction of the developmental potential of hamster embryos in vitro by precise timing of the third cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, D S; Pinheiro, J C; Bavister, B D

    1995-09-01

    Time-lapse videomicrography was used to determine the timing of early developmental events in hamster embryos in vitro. The time intervals from pronuclear envelope breakdown to the completion of the first cleavage (Dt2), second cleavage (Dt4 = 2-4 cells), third cleavage (Dt8 = 4-8 cells), blastocyst formation, and zona escape were precisely measured to determine whether the variable 'time' (t) can be used to predict the developmental potential of preimplantation embryos. The range of the developmental time interval (Dt) from the second to the third cleavage divisions (Dt8) provided the best indicator for predicting the probabilities of blastocyst formation and zona escape (P = 0.015 and 0.041, respectively). Dt8 was subdivided into consecutive time cutoff points of < or = 750, < or = 800, < or = 850 and < or = 900 min. Of the embryos that took < or = 750 min to complete the third cleavage division, 92% developed into blastocysts and 69% escaped from their zonae pellucidae. When the completion of Dt8 extended to < or = 900 min, the percentages decreased to 75% and 49% for blastocyst formation and zona escape, respectively. This study identifies a specific developmental time interval and a model whereby time can be used as a noninvasive parameter to predict embryo developmental potential in vitro.

  16. The role of RNA polymerase I transcription and embryonic genome activation in nucleolar development in bovine preimplantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Strejcek, F.; Petrovicova, I.

    2008-01-01

    was lacking and clustering of nucleolar proteins was hampered. In conclusion, rDNA transcription is not required for targeting of rRNA processing proteins, rRNA is maternally inherited and target to rDNA independent of transcription, and de novo transcription is required for proper nucleologenesis in cattle.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of RNA polymerase I (RPI) transcription in nucleolar development during major transcriptional activation (MTA) in cattle. Late eight-cell embryos were cultured in the absence (control group) or presence of actinomycin D (AD) (RPI inhibition......, Ad 0.2 µg/ml; total transcriptional inhibition, AD 2.0 µg/ml). Late four-cell embryos were cultured to late eight-cell stage in 0.2 µg/ml AD (MTA prevention, ADLT (long-term total transcriptional inhibition group). Embryos were processed for autoradiography, transmission electron microscopy...

  17. Oxygen tension and oocyte density during in vitro maturation affect the in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Bertani Giotto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte maturation is the key factor affecting the fertilization and embryonic development. Factors such as oocyte density and oxygen tension can directly influence the IMV. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the association of oxygen tensions (5% or 20% with different oocyte densities (1:10?l or 1:20?l in the in vitro maturation (IVM of bovine oocytes on maturation and fertilization rates, ROS production and antioxidant activity. Three experiments were performed with bovine oocytes that were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries. After selection, the oocytes were randomly distributed in four treatments: 1:10/5%; 1:10/20%; 1:20/5%and 1:20/20% for each experiment. In experiment I, nuclear maturation status and cytoplasmic maturation were evaluated through detection of the first polar body by immunofluorescence and the mitochondrial reorganization assay. In experiment II, ROS production and antioxidant activity were analyzed in oocytes and IVM medium after 24 h of maturation through detection of ROS, reduced glutathione (GSH and Superoxide dismutase activity by spectrofluorimetric methods. In experiment III, fertilization was evaluated through pronucleus formation, sperm penetration with or without decondensation and polyspermy rates by immunofluorescence. In experiment I, the nuclear maturation and cytoplasmic maturation were similar among treatments (P>0.05. In experiment II, reactive oxygen species in oocytes were elevated in treatments with low oxygen tension which was independent of oocyte density (P<0.05. Additionally, ROS levels in IVM medium were higher in treatments with high oocyte density by volume of medium, which was independent of oxygen tension (P<0.05. In Experiment III, the fertilization and penetration rates were higher in the treatment with 20% oxygen tension and high oocyte density (P<0.05. Furthermore, a high incidence of polyspermy was observed in groups with high oxygen tension and low oocyte

  18. Exposure to follicular fluid during oocyte maturation and oviductal fluid during post-maturation does not improve in vitro embryo production in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Cécile; Parodi, Olivia; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Nicassio, Michele; Reigner, Fabrice; Deleuze, Stefan; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Goudet, Ghylène

    2017-10-01

    Most wild equids and many domestic horse breeds are at risk of extinction, so there is an urgent need for genome resource banking. Embryos cryopreservation allows the preservation of genetics from male and female and is the fastest method to restore a breed. In the equine, embryo production in vitro would allow the production of several embryos per cycle. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is used to generate horse embryos, but it requires expensive equipment and expertise in micromanipulation, and blastocyst development rates remain low. No conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique for equine embryo production is available. The development of culture conditions able to mimic the maturation of the oocyte in preovulatory follicular fluid (pFF) and the post-maturation in oviductal fluid (OF) may improve embryo production in vitro. Our aim was to analyse the effect of in vitro maturation in pFF and incubation in OF on in vitro maturation of equine oocytes, fertilization using conventional IVF or ICSI, and embryo development after culture in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) or DMEM-F12. Oocytes collected from slaughtered mares or by ovum pick up were matured in vitro in pFF or semi-synthetic maturation medium (MM). The in vitro maturation, fertilization and development rates were not statistically different between pFF and MM. After in vitro maturation, oocytes were incubated with or without OF. Post-maturation in OF did not significantly improve the fertilization and development rates. Thus, in our study, exposure to physiological fluids for oocyte maturation and post-maturation does not improve in vitro embryo production in the horse.

  19. Identification of potential biomarkers in donor cows for in vitro embryo production by granulosa cell transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Salleh, Suraya M.; Freude, Kristine; Pedersen, Hanne S.; Stroebech, Lotte; Callesen, Henrik; Hyttel, Poul; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2017-01-01

    The Ovum Pick Up-In vitro Production (OPU-IVP) of embryos is an advanced reproductive technology used in cattle production but the complex biological mechanisms behind IVP outcomes are not fully understood. In this study we sequenced RNA of granulosa cells collected from Holstein cows at oocyte aspiration prior to IVP, to identify candidate genes and biological mechanisms for favourable IVP-related traits in donor cows where IVP was performed separately for each animal. We identified 56 genes significantly associated with IVP scores (BL rate, kinetic and morphology). Among these, BEX2, HEY2, RGN, TNFAIP6 and TXNDC11 were negatively associated while Mx1 and STC1 were positively associated with all IVP scores. Functional analysis highlighted a wide range of biological mechanisms including apoptosis, cell development and proliferation and four key upstream regulators (COX2, IL1, PRL, TRIM24) involved in these mechanisms. We found a range of evidence that good IVP outcome is positively correlated with early follicular atresia. Furthermore we showed that high genetic index bulls can be used in breeding without reducing the IVP performances. These findings can contribute to the development of biomarkers from follicular fluid content and to improving Genomic Selection (GS) methods that utilize functional information in cattle breeding, allowing a widespread large scale application of GS-IVP. PMID:28403200

  20. Induction of the acrosome reaction test to in vitro estimate embryo production in Nelore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of induction of the acrosome reaction (AR test as a parameter to in vitro estimate embryo production (IVP in Nelore breed and the AR pattern by the Trypan Blue/Giemsa (TB stain were evaluated. Frozen semen samples from ten Nelore bulls were submitted to AR induction and were also evaluated for cleavage and blastocyst rates. The treatments utilized for AR induction were: control (TALP medium, TH (TALP medium + 10μg heparin, TL (TALP medium + 100μg lysophosphatidylcholine and THL (TALP medium + 10μg heparin + 100μg lysophosphatidylcholine. Sperm acrosomal status and viability were evaluated by TB staining at 0 and after 4h incubation at 38°C. The results obtained for AR presented a significant difference (P<0.05 in the percentage of acrosome reacted live sperm after 4h of incubation in the treatments that received heparin. The cleavage and blastocyst rates were 60% and 38% respectively and a significant difference was observed among bulls (P<0.05. It was founded a satisfactory model to estimate the cleavage and blastocyst rates by AR induction test. Therefore, it can be concluded that the induction of the AR test is a valuable tool to predict the IVP in Nelore breed.

  1. Flow cytometric analysis of in vitro bluetongue virus infection of bovine blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt-Boyes, S M; Rossitto, P V; Stott, J L; MacLachlan, N J

    1992-08-01

    Cultures of adherent and non-adherent bovine peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells were inoculated with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10. Some cultures of non-adherent cells were stimulated with interleukin 2 (IL-2) and concanavalin A for 24 h prior to virus inoculation. Cells were harvested at various intervals up to 72 h after inoculation. A panel of leukocyte differentiation antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), specific for bovine CD2, CD4 or CD8, monocytes and granulocytes, B cells, gamma delta T cells or the IL-2 receptor (IL-2r), was directly conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, and a MAb specific for the BTV major core protein VP7 was directly conjugated to phycoerythrin. Cells were labelled with conjugated MAbs in single- and double-label immunofluorescence studies to identify specifically the BTV-infected cells in inoculated cultures. The viability of cells was determined by propidium iodide exclusion, and all analyses were done using flow cytometry. Productive infection of cultures of PBM cells was confirmed by virus titration. The data revealed a clear difference between subsets of bovine PBM cells in susceptibility to infection with BTV in vitro. Monocytes were readily infected with BTV, as were stimulated CD4+ cells, and infection was cytopathic to monocytes and stimulated lymphocytes. The proportion of infected cells decreased after 24 h and virus titres dropped markedly by 72 h in all cultures. CD4+ cells in cultures of unstimulated non-adherent cells inoculated with BTV showed increased expression of IL-2r. The possible relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of BTV infection of cattle is discussed.

  2. The correlation between endometrial thickness and outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rejjal Rafat; Al-Hassan Saad; Coskun Serdar; Al-Ghamdi Ahlam; Awartani Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the relationship between endometrial thickness on day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration (hCG) and pregnancy outcome in a large number of consecutive in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. Methods A retrospective cohort study including all patients who had IVF-ET from January 2003–December 2005 conducted at a tertiary center. Results A total of 2464 cycles were analysed. Pregnancy rate (PR) was 35.8%. PR increased linearly (r =...

  3. Production of bovine cloned embryos with donor cells frozen at a slow cooling rate in a conventional freezer (-20 degrees C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Liliana; Gómez, Martha C; Jenkins, Jill A; Leibo, Stanley P; Wirtu, Gemechu; Dresser, Betsy L; Pope, C Earle

    2009-11-01

    SummaryUsually, fibroblasts are frozen in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, 10% v/v) at a cooling rate of 1 degrees C/min in a low-temperature (-80 degrees C) freezer (LTF) before storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2); however, a LTF is not always available. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate apoptosis and viability of bovine fibroblasts frozen in a LTF or conventional freezer (CF; -20 degrees C) and their subsequent ability for development to blastocyst stage after fusion with enucleated bovine oocytes. Percentages of live cells frozen in LTF (49.5%) and CF (50.6%) were similar, but significantly less than non-frozen control (88%). In both CF and LTF, percentages of live apoptotic cells exposed to LN2 after freezing were lower (4% and 5%, respectively) as compared with unexposed cells (10% and 18%, respectively). Cells frozen in a CF had fewer cell doublings/24 h (0.45) and required more days (9.1) to reach 100% confluence at the first passage (P) after thawing and plating as compared with cells frozen in a LTF (0.96 and 4.0 days, respectively). Hypoploidy at P12 was higher than at P4 in cells frozen in either a CF (37.5% vs. 19.2%) or in a LTF (30.0% vs. 15.4%). A second-generation cryo-solution reduced the incidence of necrosis (29.4%) at 0 h after thawing as compared with that of a first generation cryo-solution (DMEM + DMSO, 60.2%). The percentage of apoptosis in live cells was affected by cooling rate (CF = 1.9% vs. LFT = 0.7%). Development of bovine cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage was not affected by cooling rate or freezer type.

  4. Dynamic changes of the Golgi apparatus during bovine in vitro oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racedo, S E; Rawe, V Y; Niemann, H

    2012-04-01

    For successful fertilization by the male gamete, oocyte cytoplasmic organelles such as the Golgi apparatus have to undergo specific changes: the entire process is known as cytoplasmic maturation. The goal of this study was to unravel the dynamics of the Golgi apparatus in bovine oocytes at critical stages of in vitro maturation, i.e. germinal vesicle (GV), GV breakdown (GVBD), metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II, and to investigate the role of various molecules critically involved therein. The cytoplasmic distribution of proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry and laser confocal microscopy. We applied specific inhibitors, including nocodazole to unravel the functional role of the microtubular elements; sodium orthovanadate, which primarily inhibits cytoplasmic dynein ATPase activity; monastrol which inhibits the kinesin EG5; and roscovitine to inhibit the kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 2A (CDC2A). Prior to GVBD, the Golgi apparatus was translocated from the centre of the cytoplasm to the cortical area in the periphery, where it underwent fragmentation. A second translocation was observed between GVBD and MI stages, when the Golgi apparatus was moved from the cortex to the centre of the cytoplasm. Incubation with the specific inhibitors revealed that microtubules played an active role in the final localization at GVBD, while CDC2A was essential for Golgi fragmentation at GVBD stage. This partitioning was a precondition for the second movement. In conclusion, for the first time we show basic mechanisms critically involved in the regulation of the dynamic changes of Golgi apparatus during meiosis of the bovine oocyte.

  5. Bovine ovarian follicular cysts: in vitro effects of lecirelin, a GnRH analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Cosola, Claudia; Mutinati, Maddalena; Spedicato, Massimo; Minoia, Giuseppe; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of action by which a GnRH analogue may modulate the contractility of the bovine ovarian follicular wall. The in vitro evaluation of the spontaneous basal contractility of bovine preovulatory and cystic follicles was performed, followed by testing the effects of lecirelin, a GnRH analogue, on their basal contractility. Strips of tissue in isolated organ bath were employed. In addition, to better investigate the mechanism of action of lecirelin, the study of the effects of cumulative doses of nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker), phentolamine (an α-adrenoceptor antagonist) and reserpine (an inhibitor of the vesicular up-take of catecholamines) alone and, at the highest doses employed, associated to lecirelin, was set up. The results demonstrate that in basal conditions and after the addition of lecirelin, the strips from preovulatory follicles contract significantly more than strips from cysts. Furthermore, among the patterns of contractility evoked by the three drugs employed, the one induced by nifedipine was the only one unaffected by the addition of lecirelin. The data obtained provide the hypothesis that one of the main mechanisms of action of GnRH, could involve calcium channels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The erosive potential of some alcopops using bovine enamel: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablal, M A; Kaur, J S; Cooper, L; Jarad, F D; Milosevic, A; Higham, S M; Preston, A J

    2009-11-01

    Alcoholic soft drinks have become increasingly popular and have high concentrations of citric acid and alcohol so might have the potential to cause dental erosion. This study aimed to investigate the erosive potential of alcopops on bovine enamel in vitro. Six bovine upper incisors were prepared and sectioned to give six slabs per tooth, 4mm x 4mm each. Each slab was covered with nail varnish, leaving an exposed window (2mm x 2mm). Samples were immersed in 20ml of each of the test solutions for 20min, 1h, and 24h under gentle agitation (100rpm). Enamel surface loss was determined using Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF), Non-contact Profilometry (NCP) and Transverse Microradiography (TMR). Enamel loss occurred with all test drinks and the positive control (p<0.05), and the depth of lesion correlated with pH and time. No significant difference was observed between 20min and 1h exposure, although both times had significantly (p<0.05) greater erosion when compared with baseline. Within each alcopops group significant erosion had occurred at 24h exposure compared with the baseline and previous times. All the tested alcopops resulted in significant enamel loss at 24h (p<0.001) with direct correlation between degree of enamel loss and both pH and increasing exposure time.

  7. Carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) treatment during in vitro culture protects fertilized porcine embryos against oxidative stress induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhye; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Yoon, Junchul David; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Lee, Eunsong; Kim, Dae Young; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2017-12-15

    Compared with the in vivo environment, porcine in vitro embryo-culture systems are suboptimal, as they induce oxidative stress via the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). High ROS levels during early embryonic development cause negative effects, such as apoptosis. In this study, we examined the effects of the antioxidant carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) during in vitro culture (IVC) on embryonic development in porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Zygotes were treated with different concentrations of Ge-132 (0, 100, 200 and 400 μg/ml). All of the Ge-132 treatment groups displayed greater total cell numbers after IVC (98.1, 98.5 and 103.4, respectively) compared with the control group (73.9). The 200 μg/ml Ge-132 treatment group exhibited significantly increased intracellular GSH levels compared with the control group, whereas the ROS generation levels decreased in Ge-132 dose-dependent manner (P cultured under Ge-132 treatment may be associated with KEAP1 signaling cascades involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis during porcine preimplantation embryo development.

  8. Bovine oviductal monolayers cultured under three-dimension conditions secrete factors able to release spermatozoa adhering to the tubal reservoir in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, R; Mollo, V; Braun, S; Barbato, V; Fiorentino, I; Talevi, R

    2013-02-01

    Different in vitro models have been developed to understand the interaction of gametes and embryos with the maternal reproductive tract. We recently showed that bovine oviductal monolayers three-dimensionally cultured in Gray's medium on collagen-coated microporous polycarbonate inserts under liquid-air interface conditions are well polarized, develop cilia, remain viable for at least 3 weeks postconfluence, and mantain the viability of bound spermatozoa significantly better than bidimensionally cultured monolayers. Herein, we used these culture conditions to understand whether: (1) spermatozoa adhering to three-dimensionally cultured oviductal monolayers can be released by heparin or penicillamine as previously shown with bidimensionally cultured oviductal monolayers and explants; and (2) media conditioned by three-dimensionally cultured oviductal monolayers were able to release spermatozoa adhering to oviductal explants. Findings demonstrated that (1) spermatozoa adhering to three-dimensionally cultured oviductal monolayers are readily released by heparin and penicillamine, (2) media conditioned by three-dimensionally cultured oviductal monolayers are able to release spermatozoa bound to oviductal explants, (3) do not depress sperm motility and viability, (4) they improve sperm kinetics, and (5) promote binding to the zona pellucida. In conclusion, in vitro data suggest that the release of spermatozoa adhering to the oviductal reservoir in vivo can be triggered by factors secreted by the oviduct itself that induce sperm capacitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental regulation and modulation of apoptotic genes expression in sheep oocytes and embryos cultured in vitro with L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Reddy, I J; Gupta, Psp; Mondal, S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of L-carnitine (10 mM) on developmental regulation of preimplantation sheep embryos cultured in vitro when supplemented in maturation medium and post-fertilization medium separately. Subsequent objective was to observe the L-carnitine-mediated alteration in expression of apoptotic genes (Bcl2, Bax, Casp3 and PCNA) in sheep oocytes and developing embryos produced in vitro. Oocytes matured with L-carnitine showed significantly (p L-carnitine during post-fertilization period. So it is suggested to use L-carnitine during maturation than post-fertilization period. Antiapoptotic and proliferative effects of L-carnitine were confirmed by inducing culture medium with actinomycin D (apoptotic agent) and TNFα (antiproliferative agent), respectively, with and without L-carnitine. Oocytes and embryos cultured with actinomycin D and TNFα showed developmental arrest with significant (p L-carnitine to actinomycin D and TNFα induced culture medium showed similar result as that of control. L-carnitine supplementation during IVM significantly (p L-carnitine upregulated the expression of Bax in initial developmental stages but downregulated at latter part, whereas the expression of Casp3 was upregulated upto 16-cell stage but after that there was no difference in expression. Expression of GAPDH gene was not affected by L-carnitine supplementation. In conclusion, L-carnitine acted as an antiapoptotic and proliferative compound during embryo development and supplementation of L-carnitine during IVM altered the expression of apoptotic genes in the developmental stages of embryos. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Culture of domestic cat ovarian tissue in vitro and in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, J M V; Leonel, E C R; D'Oliveira, L; Paiva, R E G; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Amorim, C A; Pic-Taylor, A; Lucci, C M

    2016-10-15

    In vitro culture and transplantation procedures are essential protocols employed in the evaluation of ovarian follicle survival and development. Culture in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos is an intermediate method that provides important follicle development information and has not been tested for cat ovaries to date. The aim of this study was to investigate if in vitro and CAM culture could be used as short-term systems to study cat ovarian tissue development. The ovaries of eight cats were dissected into 3-mm(3) cubes, cultured in vitro and in CAM for up to 5 days, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Gomori trichrome. Cell proliferation was analyzed using anti-Ki67. Possible differences among groups were investigated by analysis of variance or the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Bonferroni correction. The T-test or Wilcoxon test was used to verify differences between the CAM and IVC. Results revealed that 87.5% of all follicles were primordial during culture. The percentage of primordial follicles in the morphologically normal follicles (MNF) pool was always higher than 80%, with the exception of Day 3 of CAM culture, but the number of MNF reduced significantly from Day 0 (600 out of 777 follicles) to Day 5 in the CAM (91 out of 171) and IVC (296 out of 686). The number of primordial follicles in 1 mm(3) in Days 2, 3, and 5 in the CAM was significantly lower than that in the control (Day 0). No cellular proliferation was observed in culture. Vascularization occurred in the CAM culture, but with no association to follicular viability. In addition, both methods showed an increase in connective tissue during culture. Although no significant differences were observed in the percentage of MNF, there was a reduction in the total number of follicles, both for IVC and CAM-cultured ovarian tissue. Furthermore, anti-Ki67 did not stain any follicle after Day 0 in IVC or in CAM culture. Neither system was capable of promoting follicle growth and

  11. In vitro germination of zygotic embryos of hybrid BRS Manicoré (E. guineensis X E. oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEILA A.P. BONETTI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interspecific oil palm hybrid BRS Manicoré (E. guineensis x E. oleifera has superior agronomic characteristics. However, the germination rate is low (30% and the process is slow when the seeds are sown in a conventional form. The purpose of this study was to optimize the in vitro germination of zygotic embryos of this hybrid comparing seed lots. The viability of zygotic embryos was evaluated by the tetrazolium test (0.075% for 4 h. The embryos were cultured on MS and Y3 culture media, with and without the addition of NaH2PO4, as well as on MS, MS1/2 and N6 medium. In MS medium containing NaH2PO4, the germination rate was increased from 40 to 70% in comparison with the medium without sodium phosphate. The comparison between the culture media MS, MS 1/2, N6 and Y3 showed that 75% of zygotic embryos cultured in the Y3 medium formed whole plants (with roots and shoots defined, a higher percentage than embryos cultured on MS, MS 1/2 and N6 media (46, 35 and 17% respectively. In the same Y3 culture medium, the embryos were larger (36% ≥ 2 cm and 30% ≥ 5 cm than in the other media. Results obtained by the tetrazolium test were similar to those of germination, showing the effect of the genotype of each seed lot. For the germination and development of plantlets it is essential to add NaH2PO4 to a culture medium containing no phosphate or with a low phosphate concentration.

  12. Fetal Bovine Serum Meningkatkan Maturasi Inti Oosit Kelinci Setelah Dimaturasi Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Kurniani Karja

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the meiotic competence or nuclear maturation of rabbit oocytesmatured in vitro. Oocytes were recovered by mincing the ovaries in modified phosphate buffer saline (m-PBS. Selected cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs with compact cumulus cell mass and a dark, homogenousooplasm were cultured in maturation medium at 38°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air, andthen stained for nuclear maturation. Three experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, COCs werecultured in maturation medium for 18-20, 22-24, and 28-30 h. The proportion of oocytes at metaphase II(MII was similar (P>0.05 at 18-20 (69.2%, 22-24 (66.4%, and 28-30 (71.1 h of culture. In Experiment 2,COCs were cultured in either maturation medium containing 0.04% bovine serum albumine (BSA or 5%fetal bovine serum (FBS for 24 h. The proprotion of oocytes that reached MII were higher (P<0.05 in FBSgroup (79.2% than those of oocytes in BSA group (64%. In Experiment 3, based on the presence or absenceof follicles and corpora lutea, the ovarian pairs were classified into follicular or luteal stages. There was nodifference (P>0.05 among oocytes collected from ovaries in follicular (79.7% and luteal stages (78.7% inthe ability to achieve nuclear maturation. These results indicated that nuclear maturation of rabbitoocytes in vitro was completed at 18-20 h of maturation culture and was not affected by ovary’s reproductivestage. The presence of FBS in the maturation medium enhanced the ability of rabbit oocytes to achievenuclear maturation.

  13. Cryopreservation of human embryos and its contribution to in vitro fertilization success rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Kai Mee; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation of human embryos is now a routine procedure in assisted reproductive technologies laboratories. There is no consensus on the superiority of any protocol, and substantial differences exist among centers in day of embryo cryopreservation, freezing method, selection criteria for which

  14. In vitro production of sexed embryos for gender preselection: high-speed sorting of X-chromosome-bearing sperm to produce pigs after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, D; Long, C R; Dobrinsky, J R; Welch, G R; Schreier, L L; Johnson, L A

    1999-12-01

    The objectives for the present experiments were to apply sperm sexing technology to an in vitro production system with porcine oocytes obtained from slaughterhouse material. On six experimental days, ovaries were obtained from an abattoir, and cumulus-oocyte-complexes were matured in vitro. Semen was collected from mature boars of proven fertility and was sorted for X-chromosome-bearing sperm, using the Beltsville Sperm Sexing Technology incorporating the use of high-speed sorting. A total of 5,378 oocytes were submitted for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Of these, 559 ova were stained for cytogenetic analysis 18 h after IVF. From the remaining 4,819 ova, 1,595 cleaved, and 1,300 of the cleaved embryos were transferred into 26 synchronized recipients (5 control gilts for unsorted sperm, 21 gilts for X-sorted sperm). In a test of two fertilization media (FERT-A vs FERT-B) higher cleavage rates (Psexed sperm (X-sorted) produced 33 females (97%) and one male. Three litters from control transfers produced 23 pigs, 11 of which were female (48%). The sex ratio of the offspring was predicted based on the sort reanalysis of the sorted sperm for DNA content.

  15. Effects of IGF-1 on In Vitro Culture of Bovine Preantral Follicles are Dose-Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, C R; de Azevedo, J L; Silveira, R G; Penitente-Filho, J; Carrascal-Triana, E L; Zolini, A M; Araujo, V R; Torres, Caa; Gonçalves, W G

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effect of different concentrations of the growth factor similar to insulin 1 (IGF-1) in the development, survival and ultrastructure of the bovine preantral follicles cultured in situ. Fragments of bovine ovarian cortical tissue were cultured during 1 and 7 days in 1 ml of α-MEM(+) , supplemented with different concentrations of human recombinant IGF-1 (0, 30, 70 and 100 ng/ml), in an incubator at 37°C and 5% of CO2 in 24-well plates with total replacement of the medium every 2 days. Non-cultured ovarian fragments (control) and ovarian fragments cultured during 1 and 7 days were processed for classic histology, mechanical isolation and electron transmission microscopy (ETM). Parameters such as normality, viability, activation, development, diameter and ultrastructure were evaluated. All statistical analyses were carried out using sas Version 9.2. The results showed that the percentage of follicles morphologically normal in the IGF-1 30 ng/ml treatment was similar to the fresh control (p > 0.05) both on the day 1 and on the day 7 of in vitro culture. In the viability analysis, the cultured treatments maintained the percentage of viable follicles during the entire culture period (p > 0.05). After 7 days of culture, the IGF-1 30 ng/ml treatment showed higher percentages of developing follicles (48.33%) than those of the fresh control (22.22%) and the cultured treatments (p culture, IGF-1 30 ng/ml presented a higher follicular diameter when compared to the control and other concentrations of IGF-1 tested. Ultrastructurally, the non-cultured control and IGF-1 30 ng/ml, after 7 days of culture, showed conserved oocytes, nuclei and organelles. Hence, it is concluded that IGF-1 30 ng/ml was the most efficient concentration for the development of bovine preantral follicles cultured in vitro. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. In vitro and in vivo effects of ulipristal acetate on fertilization and early embryo development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Elías, Matías D; Munuce, María J; Bahamondes, Luis; Cuasnicú, Patricia S; Cohen, Débora J

    2016-01-01

    Does ulipristal acetate (UPA), a selective progesterone receptor modulator used for emergency contraception (EC), interfere with fertilization or early embryo development in vitro and in vivo? At doses similar to those used for EC, UPA does not affect mouse gamete transport, fertilization or embryo development. UPA acts as an emergency contraceptive mainly by inhibiting or delaying ovulation. However, there is little information regarding its effects on post-ovulatory events preceding implantation. This was an in vitro and in vivo experimental study involving the use of mouse gametes and embryos from at least three animals in each set of experiments. For in vitro fertilization experiments, mouse epididymal spermatozoa capacitated in the presence of different concentrations of UPA (0-1000 ng/ml) were used to inseminate cumulus-intact or cumulus-free eggs in the presence or absence of UPA during gamete co-incubation, and the percentage of fertilized eggs was determined. For in vivo fertilization experiments, superovulated females caged with proven fertile males were injected with UPA (40 mg/kg) or vehicle just before or just after mating and the percentage of fertilized eggs recovered from the ampulla was determined. To investigate the effect of UPA on embryo development, zygotes were recovered from mated females, cultured in the presence of UPA (1000 ng/ml) for 4 days and the progression of embryo development was monitored daily. In vitro studies revealed that the presence of UPA during capacitation and/or gamete co-incubation does not affect fertilization. Whereas the in vivo administration of UPA at the same time as hCG injection produced a decrease in the number of eggs ovulated compared with controls (vehicle injected animals, P < 0.05), no effects on fertilization were observed when UPA was administered shortly before or after mating. No differences were observed in either the percentage of cleaved embryos or the cleavage speed when UPA was present during in

  17. Microtubule assembly and in vitro development of bovine oocytes with increased intracellular glutathione level prior to vitrification and in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Yamane, I; Noto, I; Kagawa, N; Kuwayama, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2014-11-01

    Although vitrification is a useful technique for preservation of bovine oocytes, the yield of blastocysts derived from the vitrified oocytes is still low. We have recently reported a new type of cryoinjury, multiple aster formation, by which pronuclear migration and development of vitrified-warmed and in vitro-fertilized bovine oocytes are impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glutathione (GSH) content of vitrified bovine oocytes on multiple aster formation and subsequent in vitro development. Treatment of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes with β-mercaptoethanol (βME) and L-cysteine (Cys) during in vitro maturation resulted in 2.5-fold higher GSH content not only in fresh control but also in vitrified-warmed oocytes. The percentage of normally fertilized zygotes exhibiting sperm aster(s) was >95% in all four groups (with or without βME/Cys × fresh control or vitrified). The frequency of multiple aster formation in vitrified oocytes (three-fold higher than that in fresh control oocytes) was not affected by the increased level of intracellular GSH with βME/Cys. Consequently, the migration and development of pronuclei as well as the yield of blastocysts from vitrified-warmed oocytes (17 versus 41%) were not improved. In addition, there was no effect of increased GSH level on the yield of blastocysts in fresh control groups.

  18. A biolistic process for in vitro gene transfer into chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Ribeiro

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken embryos kept in culture medium were bombarded using a high helium gas pressure biolistic device. To optimize the factors that affect transformation efficiency, the lacZ gene under control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter was used as a reporter gene. There was an inverse relationship between survival rate and transformation efficiency. The best conditions obtained for high embryo survival and high transformation efficiency were achieved with 800 psi helium gas pressure, 500 mmHg vacuum, gold particles, an 8 cm DNA-coated microparticle flying distance to the embryo and embryo placement 0.5 cm from the center of the particle dispersion cone. Under these conditions, transformation efficiency was 100%, survival rate 25% and the number of expression units in the embryo body cells ranged from 100 to 1,000. Expression of green fluorescent protein was also detected in embryos bombarded under optimal conditions. Based on the results obtained, the biolistic process can be considered an efficient method for the transformation of chicken embryos and therefore can be used as a model system to study transient gene expression and tissue-specific promoters.

  19. The association between polycystic ovary syndrome and ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wei, Yongyue; Diao, Feiyang; Cui, Yugui; Mao, Yundong; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jiayin

    2013-08-01

    We sought to assess the association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (ET). In this retrospective cohort study, we included 5339 women who had clinical pregnancies after in vitro fertilization treatment (PCOS, 205 women; non-PCOS, 5134 women) at Nanjing Medical University (China) between 2007 and 2011. Fresh and cryo-thawed ET cycles were analyzed respectively. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for important confounders. In fresh ET cycles of women who were undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH; n = 3303), women with PCOS had 3.06 times higher risk of ectopic pregnancy compared with those without PCOS (7.0% vs 2.4%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-6.96). In the stratified analysis, for women without PCOS, the high estradiol group (>4085 pg/mL) had higher ectopic pregnancy rates compared with the low estradiol group (≤4085 pg/mL; 3.4% vs 2.0%; aOR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.19-3.35); however, for women with PCOS, both high and low estradiol groups had high ectopic pregnancy rates (5.6% vs 7.7%; aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.15-5.67). In cryo-thawed ET cycles without COH (n = 2036), the ectopic rates between women with and without PCOS were similar (2.2% vs 2.0%; aOR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.22-4.07). PCOS was associated with an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy after COH in fresh ET cycles, but not in cryo-thawed ET cycles. A possible explanation is that, compared with women without PCOS, women with PCOS appear to hold a lower threshold of hyperphysiologic estradiol level that triggers the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy after COH. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Technique of the `in vitro` fertilization and the culture of mouse embryos at preimplantation; Tecnica de fertilizacao `in vitro` e cultura de embrioes de camundongo durante a pre-implantacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yamada, Takeshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1993-03-01

    The mammal embryo is an intensive cellular proliferating system, very radiosensitive and therefore adequate to the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The technique of the in vitro fertilization and the culture of mouse embryos at preimplantation period, modified by Yamada et al (1982) to improve the efficiency of more than 95% of blastocyst formation is described. (author) 2 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Abdominal ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and single embryo transfer: a case report and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Nicole; Tal, Reshef; Martin, J Ryan

    2016-10-19

    Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality during the first trimester and the incidence increases dramatically with assisted-reproductive technology (ART), occurring in approximately 1.5-2.1 % of patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Abdominal ectopic pregnancy is a rare yet clinically significant form of ectopic pregnancy due to potentially high maternal morbidity. While risk factors for ectopic pregnancy after IVF have been studied, very little is known about risk factors specific for abdominal ectopic pregnancy. We present a case of a 30 year-old woman who had an abdominal ectopic pregnancy following IVF and elective single embryo transfer, which was diagnosed and managed by laparoscopy. We performed a systematic literature search to identify case reports of abdominal or heterotopic abdominal ectopic pregnancies after IVF. A total of 28 cases were identified. Patients' ages ranged from 23 to 38 (Mean 33.2, S.D. = 3.2). Infertility causes included tubal factor (46 %), endometriosis (14 %), male factor (14 %), pelvic adhesive disease (7 %), structural/DES exposure (7 %), and unexplained infertility (14 %). A history of ectopic pregnancy was identified in 39 % of cases. A history of tubal surgery was identified in 50 % of cases, 32 % cases having had bilateral salpingectomy. Transfer of two embryos or more (79 %) and fresh embryo transfer (71 %) were reported in the majority of cases. Heterotopic abdominal pregnancy occurred in 46 % of cases while 54 % were abdominal ectopic pregnancies. Our systematic review has revealed several trends in reported cases of abdominal ectopic pregnancy after IVF including tubal factor infertility, history of tubal ectopic and tubal surgery, higher number of embryos transferred, and fresh embryo transfers. These are consistent with known risk factors for ectopic pregnancy following IVF. Further research focusing on more homogenous population may help in better characterizing

  2. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.

  3. Spectroscopic analysis of embryo culture media for predicting reproductive potential in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştu, Ercan; Parlatan, Uğur; Başar, Günay; Yumru, Harika; Bavili, Nima; Sağ, Fatih; Bulgurcuoğlu, Sibel; Buyru, Faruk

    2017-09-01

    To predict the reproductive potential of embryos via Raman spectroscopy evaluation of the spent culture media as well as with a conventional morphologic evaluation. Women of reproductive age (n=31) who were treated for unexplained infertility and scheduled for single embryo transfer were invited to participate in this prospective study. After the embryos were removed from the culture, the spent culture media were stored at -80 °C after snap-freezing in liquid nitrogen. Fifteen patients were clinically pregnant, and 16 patients were clinically non-pregnant. Clinical pregnancy was predicted using Raman spectroscopy in 93% (14/15) of clinically pregnant patients, and in 62.5% (10 out of 16) of clinically non-pregnant patients. The sensitivity of the Raman spectroscopic analysis was 93% and the specificity was 62.5%. Metabolomic evaluation of spent embryo culture media is an emerging technique with promising objective results. However, there is clearly room for improvement.

  4. Development of an in vitro model of the early-stage bovine tuberculous granuloma using Mycobacterium bovis-BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Cuartero, Laura; McCarthy, Elaine; Brady, Joseph; Cassidy, Joseph; Hamilton, Clare; Sekiya, Mary; NcNair, Jim; Mulcahy, Grace

    2015-12-15

    Mycobacterium bovis causes 3.1% of human tuberculosis cases, as described by the World Health Organisation. In cattle, this organism causes bovine tuberculosis (BTB) which can have a prevalence of up to 39.5% in some developing countries. In developed countries, although the prevalence of BTB has been reduced through eradication programmes, complete eradication has in some cases proved elusive, with prevalences in cattle of 0.5% in the Republic of Ireland and of 4.3% in the UK. As the tuberculous granuloma is the fundamental lesion that reflects the pathogenesis, immune control and progression of BTB, we aimed to develop an in vitro model of the early-stage bovine tuberculous granuloma, in order to model the early stages of BTB, while also reducing the use of experimentally infected animals. In vitro models of human and ovine mycobacterial granulomas have previously been developed; however, so far, there is no model for the BTB granuloma. As the disease in cattle differs in a number of ways from that in other species, we consider this to be a significant gap in the tools available to study the pathogenesis of BTB. By combining bovine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with M. bovis-BCG and autologous lymphocytes we have developed an early-stage tuberculous bovine granuloma model. In the model, 3D cell aggregations formed a spherical-shape that grew for up to 11 days post-infection. This bovine tuberculous granuloma model can aid in the study of such lesion development, and in comparative studies of pathogenesis, such as, for example, the question of mycobacterial latency in bovine tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. "Naturalization" of Routine Assisted Reproductive Technologies by In Vitro Culture of Embryos with Microvibration: Sex Ratio, Body Length, and Weight of 2,456 Live-Birth Deliveries after Transfer of 9,624 Embryos In Vitro Cultured in Static System and with Microvibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Sterzik, Karl; Isachenko, Evgenia; Maettner, Robert; Todorov, Plamen; Rahimi, Gohar; Mallmann, Peter; Strehler, Erwin; Pereligin, Igor; Alabart, José Luis; Merzenich, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Aim was to determine whether there is any difference in the