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Sample records for vitro atrazine-exposure inhibits

  1. Atrazine exposure decreases the activity of DNMTs, global DNA methylation levels, and dnmt expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirbisky-Hershberger, Sara E; Sanchez, Oscar F; Horzmann, Katharine A; Thanki, Devang; Yuan, Chongli; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide used on agricultural crops is widely applied in the Midwestern United States as well as other areas of the globe. Atrazine frequently contaminates potable water supplies and is a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical. Previous studies have reported morphological, hormonal, and molecular alterations due to developmental and adulthood atrazine exposure; however, studies examining epigenetic alterations are limited. In this study, the effects of atrazine exposure on DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and kinetics were evaluated. Global DNA methylation levels and dnmt expression in zebrafish larvae exposed to 0, 3, or 30 parts per billion (ppb) atrazine throughout embryogenesis was then assessed. Results indicate that atrazine significantly decreased the activity of maintenance DNMTs and that the inhibition mechanism can be described using non-competitive Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Furthermore, results show that an embryonic atrazine exposure decreases global methylation levels and the expression of dnmt4 and dnmt5. These findings indicate that atrazine exposure can decrease the expression and activity of DNMTs, leading to decreased DNA methylation levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Atrazine exposure elicits copy number alterations in the zebrafish genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    Atrazine is an agricultural herbicide used throughout the Midwestern United States that frequently contaminates potable water supplies resulting in human exposure. Using the zebrafish model system, an embryonic atrazine exposure was previously reported to decrease spawning rates with an increase in progesterone and ovarian follicular atresia in adult females. In addition, alterations in genes associated with distinct molecular pathways of the endocrine system were observed in brain and gonad tissue of the adult females and males. Current hypotheses for mechanistic changes in the developmental origins of health and disease include genetic (e.g., copy number alterations) or epigenetic (e.g., DNA methylation) mechanisms. As such, in the current study we investigated whether an atrazine exposure would generate copy number alterations (CNAs) in the zebrafish genome. A zebrafish fibroblast cell line was used to limit detection to CNAs caused by the chemical exposure. First, cells were exposed to a range of atrazine concentrations and a crystal violet assay was completed, showing confluency decreased by ~60% at 46.3μM. Cells were then exposed to 0, 0.463, 4.63, or 46.3μM atrazine and array comparative genomic hybridization completed. Results showed 34, 21, and 44 CNAs in the 0.463, 4.63, and 46.3μM treatments, respectively. Furthermore, CNAs were associated with previously reported gene expression alterations in adult male and female zebrafish. This study demonstrates that atrazine exposure can generate CNAs that are linked to gene expression alterations observed in adult zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis providing a mechanism of the developmental origins of atrazine endocrine disruption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of selenium and atrazine exposure and effects to wildlife at the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge, Scottsbluff, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluated selenium and atrazine exposure and effects to fish and wildlife at North Platte National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in Scotts Bluff County,...

  4. In vitro inhibition of pathogenic Verticillium dahliae , causal agent of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro inhibition of pathogenic Verticillium dahliae, causal agent of potato wilt disease in China by Trichoderma isolates. C Xiaojun, S Wongkaew, Y Jie, Y Xuehui, H Haiyong, W Shiping, T Qigqun, W Lishuang, D Athinuwat, N Buensanteai ...

  5. In vitro inhibition of the paraoxonase from human serum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... The purified PON1 enzyme was stored at 4oCin the presence of 2. mM calcium chloride in order to maintain activity. In vitro inhibition kinetic studies. For the inhibition studies, different concentrations of sulfonamide were added to the each enzyme activity. Paraoxonase and aryle- sterase activities with ...

  6. Glycerol inhibition of ruminal lipolysis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplemental glycerol inhibits rumen lipolysis, a prerequisite for rumen biohydrogenation, which is responsible for the saturation of dietary fatty acids consumed by ruminant animals. Feeding excess glycerol, however, adversely affects dry matter digestibility. To more clearly define the effect of...

  7. Fluconazole inhibits human adrenocortical steroidogenesis in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Pas (Rob); L.J. Hofland (Leo); J. Hofland (Johannes); A.E. Taylor (A.); W. Arlt (Wiebke); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); F.H. de Jong (Frank); R.A. Feelders (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe antifungal agent ketoconazole is often used to suppress cortisol production in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS). However, ketoconazole has serious side effects and is hepatotoxic. Here, the in vitro effects of ketoconazole and fluconazole, which might be less toxic, on human

  8. Ellagic acid inhibits melanoma growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniel Jensen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ellagic is a polyphenolic compound with anti-fibrotic and antioxidant properties as well as exhibits antitumor properties against various cancer cells in vitro. There are few studies, however, which examine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma. In the present study, we observe effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cells in vitro. Three metastatic melanoma cell lines (1205Lu, WM852c and A375 were examined to determine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cell viability, cell-cycle, apoptosis, NF-κβ activity, and IL-1β & IL-8 secretion. Cell viability assays demonstrated that ellagic acid possesses an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation at concentrations between 25 and 100 µM. In addition, ellagic acid promoted G1 cell cycle arrest, increased levels of apoptosis and decreased synthesis of IL-1β and IL-8 in melanoma cells. Ellagic acid also decreased NF-κβ activity, suggesting at least one potential mechanism by which ellagic acid may exert its effects in melanoma cells. Our findings support further investigation into prospective roles for ellagic acid as a therapeutic, adjuvant, or preventive agent for melanoma.

  9. Quercetin inhibits adipogenesis of muscle progenitor cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Funakoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle satellite cells are committed myogenic progenitors capable of contributing to myogenesis to maintain adult muscle mass and function. Several experiments have demonstrated that muscle satellite cells can differentiate into adipocytes in vitro, supporting the mesenchymal differentiation potential of these cells. Moreover, muscle satellite cells may be a source of ectopic muscle adipocytes, explaining the lipid accumulation often observed in aged skeletal muscle (sarcopenia and in muscles of patients` with diabetes. Quercetin, a polyphenol, is one of the most abundant flavonoids distributed in edible plants, such as onions and apples, and possesses antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we examined whether quercetin inhibited the adipogenesis of muscle satellite cells in vitro with primary cells from rat limbs by culture in the presence of quercetin under adipogenic conditions. Morphological observations, Oil Red-O staining results, triglyceride content analysis, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that quercetin was capable of inhibiting the adipogenic induction of muscle satellite cells into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner by suppressing the transcript levels of adipogenic markers, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and fatty acid binding protein 4. Our results suggested that quercetin inhibited the adipogenesis of muscle satellite cells in vitro by suppressing the transcription of adipogenic markers.

  10. Recruitment of Perisomatic Inhibition during Spontaneous Hippocampal Activity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beyeler

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that perisomatic GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs originating from basket and chandelier cells can be recorded as population IPSPs from the hippocampal pyramidal layer using extracellular electrodes (eIPSPs. Taking advantage of this approach, we have investigated the recruitment of perisomatic inhibition during spontaneous hippocampal activity in vitro. Combining intracellular and extracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and interneurons, we confirm that inhibitory signals generated by basket cells can be recorded extracellularly, but our results suggest that, during spontaneous activity, eIPSPs are mostly confined to the CA3 rather than CA1 region. CA3 eIPSPs produced the powerful time-locked inhibition of multi-unit activity expected from perisomatic inhibition. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of spike discharges relative to eIPSPs suggests significant but moderate recruitment of excitatory and inhibitory neurons within the CA3 network on a 10 ms time scale, within which neurons recruit each other through recurrent collaterals and trigger powerful feedback inhibition. Such quantified parameters of neuronal interactions in the hippocampal network may serve as a basis for future characterisation of pathological conditions potentially affecting the interactions between excitation and inhibition in this circuit.

  11. [Isosorbide dinitrate inhibits in vitro platelet aggregation at submicromolar concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachet, C; Guillou, J; Moog, S; Cazenave, J P

    1992-04-01

    Nitrate derivatives have in vivo and in vitro platelet anti-aggregant properties in addition to their vasodilatory effects. The mode of action is related to increased intracytoplasmic cyclic GMP concentrations. It has been shown that isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) has this type of platelet anti-aggregant activity but the reported results about the active concentrations and the inhibited pathways of activation are contradictory. This study was designed to determine whether ISDN has in vitro platelet anti-aggregant activity at low doses and to verify if this effect is selective by aggregation induced by ADP. Finally, a possible potentialisation of the inhibitors due to ISDN was looked for with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors and with agents simulating the effect of adenylate cyclase. The results showed that: 1) ISDN had platelet anti-aggregant activity in vitro at concentrations of about 10-7 M, 2) that this effect was not limited to the aggregation induced by ADP as the aggregation induced by PAF-acether was also inhibited by low dose ISDN, 3) of the cyclic nucleotide modulators tested, only quercetine (flavonoide) potentialised the effects of ISDN.

  12. In vitro inhibition of mumps virus by retinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soye, Kaitlin J; Trottier, Claire; Di Lenardo, Thomas Z; Restori, Katherine H; Reichman, Lee; Miller, Wilson H; Ward, Brian J

    2013-11-14

    Mumps virus (MuV) is a highly infectious paramyxovirus closely related to measles virus (MeV). Despite the availability of a mumps vaccine, outbreaks continue to occur and no treatment options are available. Vitamin A and other naturally occurring retinoids inhibit the replication of MeV in vitro. Anti-viral effects of retinoids were observed in cell culture using the myelomonocytic U937, NB4/R4, and Huh7/7.5 cells. Observations of anti-viral effect were quantified using TCID50 analysis. Molecular properties of the antiviral effect were analysed using quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. The current work demonstrates that retinoids inhibit MuV in vitro due to up-regulation of type I interferon (IFN) and IFN stimulated genes. This effect is mediated by nuclear retinoid receptor signalling and RIG-I is required. The antiviral retinoid-induced state makes cells less permissive to viral replication from subsequent challenge with either MuV or MeV for less than 12 hours. These results demonstrate that retinoids inhibit MuV replication in uninfected bystander cells through a retinoid inducible gene I (RIG-I), retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and IFN dependent manner making them refractory to subsequent rounds of viral replication. These observations raise the possibility that pharmacological doses of retinoids might have clinical benefit in MuV infection.

  13. In vitro JAK kinase activity and inhibition assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babon, Jeffrey J; Murphy, James M

    2013-01-01

    The discovery that a range of myeloproliferative diseases and leukemias are associated with Janus Kinase (JAK) mutations has highlighted the importance of JAK/STAT signalling in disease and sparked a renewed interest in developing JAK inhibitors. In vitro kinase assays are the most direct and quantitative method to assess mutant forms of JAK for altered enzymatic properties as well as verifying and quantifying the affinity and efficacy of potential inhibitors. Here, we describe protocols for heterologous expression and purification of JAK kinases from insect cells, assays to determine the activity of these purified kinases, and finally inhibition assays to determine the effectiveness of potential inhibitors.

  14. Nucleosomes Inhibit Cas9 Endonuclease Activity in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, John M; Laughery, Marian F; Wyrick, John J

    2015-12-08

    During Cas9 genome editing in eukaryotic cells, the bacterial Cas9 enzyme cleaves DNA targets within chromatin. To understand how chromatin affects Cas9 targeting, we characterized Cas9 activity on nucleosome substrates in vitro. We find that Cas9 endonuclease activity is strongly inhibited when its target site is located within the nucleosome core. In contrast, the nucleosome structure does not affect Cas9 activity at a target site within the adjacent linker DNA. Analysis of target sites that partially overlap with the nucleosome edge indicates that the accessibility of the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) is the critical determinant of Cas9 activity on a nucleosome.

  15. Griseofulvin inhibits the growth of adrenocortical cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramann, E L; Willenberg, H S; Hildebrandt, B; Müller-Mattheis, V; Schott, M; Scherbaum, W A; Haase, M

    2013-04-01

    Supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy are associated with a malignant phenotype of tumor cells. Centrosomal clustering is a mechanism used by cancer cells with supernumerary centrosomes to solve the threatening problem of multipolar spindles. Griseofulvin is an antifungal substance that interferes with the microtubule apparatus and inhibits centrosomal clustering. It has also been demonstrated that griseofulvin inhibits the growth of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. However, it is not yet known whether treatment with griseofulvin inhibits growth of adrenocortical tumor cells. We studied the viability and antiproliferative effects of griseofulvin on cultured NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells using Wst-1-, BrdUrd-, and [³H]-thymidine assays. For the detection of apoptosis we used a caspase 3/7 cleavage assay and light microscopy techniques. We observed that incubation with griseofulvin for 24-48 h leads to a decrease in the viability and proliferation of NCI-H295R cells in a dose-dependent manner. Significant effects could be observed after incubation with griseofulvin as measured by Wst-1-, BrdUrd-, and [³H]dT- uptake assays. Apoptosis of NCI-H295R cells was increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 4.5-fold after incubation with griseofulvin 40 μM for 24 h as shown by caspase 3/7 cleavage assay and light microscopy. With regard to new treatment strategies for adrenocortical cancer, griseofulvin, and possibly other agents, which interfere with the microtubule apparatus and inhibit centrosomal clustering, may turn out to be interesting targets for further research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Quercetin inhibits rhinovirus replication in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Shyamala; Faris, Andrea N.; Comstock, Adam T.; Wang, Qiong; Nanua, Suparna; Hershenson, Marc B.; Sajjan, Uma S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Rhinovirus (RV), which is responsible for the majority of common colds, also causes exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. So far, there are no drugs available for treatment of rhinovirus infection. We examined the effect of quercetin, a plant flavanol on RV infection in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of airway epithelial cells with quercetin decreased Akt phosphosphorylation, viral endocytosis and IL-8 responses. Addition of quercetin 6 h after RV infection (after viral endocytosis) reduced viral load, IL-8 and IFN responses in airway epithelial cells. This was associated with decreased levels of negative and positive strand viral RNA, and RV capsid protein, abrogation of RV-induced eIF4GI cleavage and increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. In mice infected with RV, quercetin treatment decreased viral replication as well as expression of chemokines and cytokines. Quercetin treatment also attenuated RV-induced airway cholinergic hyperresponsiveness. Together, our results suggest that quercetin inhibits RV endocytosis and replication in airway epithelial cells at multiple stages of the RV life cycle. Quercetin also decreases expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improves lung function in RV-infected mice. Based on these observations, further studies examining the potential benefits of quercetin in the prevention and treatment of RV infection are warranted. PMID:22465313

  17. Serum amyloid P component inhibits influenza A virus infections: in vitro and in vivo studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, A; Andersen, I; Junker, K

    2001-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds in vitro Ca(2+)-dependently to several ligands including oligosaccharides with terminal mannose and galactose. We have earlier reported that SAP binds to human influenza A virus strains, inhibiting hemagglutinin (HA) activity and virus infectivity in vitro. T...

  18. In vitro screening of soil bacteria for inhibiting phytopathogenic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum could highly inhibit the mycelial growth of five moulds (Botrytis cinerea, Phoma medicaginis, Fusarium verticilloides, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophtora infestans) with a growth inhibition varying between 12.38 and 37.61%. 12 Bacillus strains and five Pseudomonas strains were antagonistic to ...

  19. Statin Drugs Markedly Inhibit Testosterone Production by Rat Leydig Cells In Vitro: Implications for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statin drugs lower blood cholesterol by inhibiting hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. During drug development it was shown that statins inhibit production of cholesterol in the testis. We evaluated testosterone production in vitro, using highly purified rat ...

  20. Chlorpromazine inhibits tumour necrosis factor synthesis and cytotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinetti, M; Galli, G; Demitri, M T; Fantuzzi, G; Minto, M; Ghezzi, P; Alzani, R; Cozzi, E; Fratelli, M

    1995-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) has been previously shown to protect against endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] lethality and inhibit the release of tumour necrosis factor in vivo. We investigated at the cellular level whether this was due to direct inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) synthesis, using LPS-stimulated THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells. We also studied the effect of CPZ on human TNF-alpha action by assessing TNF-alpha cytotoxicity on mouse fibrosarcoma L929 cells. CPZ (1-100 microM) inhibited TNF-alpha production in THP-1 cells in a dose dependent manner by a maximum of 80%. This effect was comparable to that of two well-known inhibitory drugs, dexamethasone and cyclicAMP. Inhibition was also evident at the mRNA level. On the other hand CPZ (10-25 microM) also inhibited TNF-alpha activity: in fact it reduced the cytotoxicity of TNF-alpha on L929 cells (EC50 was increased four times) and could provide protection even as a post-treatment. CPZ inhibited TNF-induced apoptosis in L929 cells, as detected by analysis of nuclear morphology. However, since we showed that apoptosis was very limited, and was not the main mode of cell death in our conditions, this could not explain the overall protection. Since CPZ did not interfere with either the oligomerization state of TNF-alpha or its receptor binding, our data suggest that it reduced cytotoxicity by inhibiting some steps in the TNF-alpha signalling pathways. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8550079

  1. In vitro inhibition of pathogenic Verticillium dahliae, causal agent of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... Trichoderma isolates under a dual culture condition on potato dextrose agar plate. The 33 ... in many countries, like USA, New Zealand, the Pacific .... levels of pathogenicity in potato. Trichoderma isolates were tested in vitro for their highest antagonistic ability over V. dahliae colony in dual culture.

  2. In vitro Inhibition of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Nigerian plants used in traditional medicine to treat tuberculosis and/or some of its symptoms were screened for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Only 3 of the 6 crude methanolic extracts of the 6 plant species exhibited inhibitory activities against ...

  3. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  4. In vitro inhibition of the paraoxonase from human serum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... precipitation and sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-1-napthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Sulfonamide was an ... of interaction of sulfonamide with the purified enzyme indicated a different inhibition pattern for two substrates. ..... Boyd AE (1988). Sulfonylurea receptors, ion channels and fruit flies.

  5. In vitro Erythrocyte Haemolysis Inhibition Properties of Senna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study the antioxidant properties, of this plant using an erythrocyte haemolysis inhibition assay, because one way to justify the traditional anticancer uses can be through the concept of antioxidant effect. Crude extracts from leaves and bark of S. singueana were prepared by maceration with ...

  6. DNase inhibits Gardnerella vaginalis biofilms in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymes, Saul R; Randis, Tara M; Sun, Thomas Yang; Ratner, Adam J

    2013-05-15

    Bacterial vaginosis is a highly prevalent and poorly understood polymicrobial disorder of the vaginal microbiota, with significant adverse sequelae. Gardnerella vaginalis predominates in bacterial vaginosis. Biofilms of G. vaginalis are present in human infections and are implicated in persistent disease, treatment failure, and transmission. Here we demonstrate that G. vaginalis biofilms contain extracellular DNA, which is essential to their structural integrity. Enzymatic disruption of this DNA specifically inhibits biofilms, acting on both newly forming and established biofilms. DNase liberates bacteria from the biofilm to supernatant fractions and potentiates the activity of metronidazole, an antimicrobial agent used in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Using a new murine vaginal colonization model for G. vaginalis, we demonstrate >10-fold inhibition of G. vaginalis colonization by DNase. We conclude that DNase merits investigation as a potential nonantibiotic adjunct to existing bacterial vaginosis therapies in order to decrease the risk of chronic infection, recurrence, and associated morbidities.

  7. PDGF-BB inhibits intervertebral disc cell apoptosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presciutti, Steven M; Paglia, David N; Karukonda, Teja; Soung, Do Yu; Guzzo, Rosa; Drissi, Hicham; Moss, Isaac L

    2014-09-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) results in deterioration of the spinal motion segment and can lead to debilitating back pain. Given the established mitotic and anti-apoptotic effects of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) in a variety of cell types we postulated that rhPDGF-BB might delay disc cell degeneration through inhibition of apoptosis. To address this hypothesis, we treated human IVD cells isolated from five independent patients with rhPDGF-BB in monolayer and 3D pellet cultures. The anti-apoptotic potential, cell proliferative capacity, morphology/pellet differentiation, and gene expression of PDGF-treated IVD cells were evaluated via flow cytometry/immunohistochemistry, MTT assays, histology, and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. We found that rhPDGF-BB treatment significantly inhibited cell apoptosis, increased cell proliferation and matrix production, and maintained mRNA expression of critical extracellular matrix genes. This study suggests two possible mechanisms for the anti-degenerative effects of rhPDGF-BB on human IVD cells. First, PDGF treatment strongly inhibited IVD cell apoptosis in 3D cultures. Second, rhPDGF-BB acts as an anabolic agent, promoting maintenance of IVD cell phenotype in 3D culture, based on the molecular and protein expression analysis. We speculate that rhPDGF-BB may be used as a biologic treatment to target early degenerative IVD disease in the future. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Lactoperoxidase inhibits glucosyltransferases from Streptococcus mutans in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, A; Yu, X; Loimaranta, V; Lenander-Lumikari, M; Vacca-Smith, A; Wunder, D; Bowen, W H; Tenovuo, J

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the possible effect of the antimicrobial peroxidase system on the activity of streptococcal glucosyltransferases B, C and D (GtfB, GtfC and GtfD), either in solution (GtfB and GtfC) or when adsorbed to hydroxyapatite (GtfC and GtfD) at pH 6.5. The lactoperoxidase (LP) system (LP, H(2)O(2), SCN(-)) had no effect on the activity of dissolved GtfC, but the activity of dissolved GtfB was enhanced. The LP system, however, strongly inhibited the activities of both GtfC and GtfD in their adsorbed form. LP enzyme, without its substrates, inhibited all three Gtf enzymes: GtfB and GtfC in concentrations between 10 and 100 microg/ml in liquid phase and adsorbed GtfC and GtfD in concentrations between 25 and 50 microg/ml. This inhibition was in part abolished in liquid phase, but not in solid phase, if the substrates of LP were added. This study shows that the lactoperoxidase system can exert inhibitory activity against streptococcal Gtfs without generating oxidizing agents. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Iron inhibits respiratory burst of peritoneal phagocytes in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfryd, Kamil; Jurek, Aleksandra; Kubit, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study examines the effects of iron ions Fe(3+) on the respiratory burst of phagocytes isolated from peritoneal effluents of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, as an in vitro model of iron overload in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Material and Methods....... Respiratory burst of peritoneal phagocytes was measured by chemiluminescence method. Results. At the highest used concentration of iron ions Fe(3+) (100 µM), free radicals production by peritoneal phagocytes was reduced by 90% compared to control. Conclusions. Iron overload may increase the risk of infectious...

  10. Inhibition of glycation of albumin and hemoglobin by acetylation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, M; Nierenberg, J; Brannan, C; Valentine, J L; Stephen, P M; Dodds, S; Mercer, P; Smith, P K; Walder, J

    1986-10-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA) is known to inhibit glycosylation (glycation) of albumin in vitro. The mechanism has been presumed to be acetylation, but this has never been validated. The new affinity aminophenylboronic acid procedure for determination of glycosylated albumin was used to demonstrate inhibition of glycosylation by aspirin. ASA, but not salicylic acid, inhibited glycation. The inhibition of glycation by equimolar acetic anhydride was greater than that by ASA. Pretreatment of albumin with ASA in the absence of glucose demonstrated that inhibition was extremely rapid, occurring in a matter of minutes. However, the inhibition by ASA could not be prevented by massive acceleration of glycation induced by borohydride reduction. Glycation of hemoglobin was also inhibited by ASA, but the dose requirement was considerably higher. Various analogues of ASA were evaluated for inhibition of glycation. Only acetyl-5-ethylsalicylic acid was more effective than ASA in inhibiting albumin glycation. None of these agents was more potent than ASA in inhibiting glycation of hemoglobin. ASA was fed to diabetic rats in a long-term experiment. Glycohemoglobin and glycoalbumin levels were decreased by ASA administration. We conclude that ASA inhibits glycation by a very rapid acetylation process. This process is apparently quite selective in terms of the protein involved, presumably because of the local environment of affected lysine groups. The phenomenon can be produced in vivo by administration of ASA.

  11. TGFb signalling inhibits DLK1 expression during chondrogenesis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Saamanen, Anna-Marja

    2011-01-01

    the effect of a number of signalling molecules on DLK1 expression during in vitro chondrogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic limb bud mesenchymal micromass cultures and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) pellet cultures. Dlk1 was initially expressed during mesenchymal condensation and chondrocyte...... proliferation, in parallel with expression of Sox9 and Col2a1, and was down-regulated upon expression of Col10a1 by hypertrophic chondrocytes. Among a number of molecules that affected chondrogenesis, TGF-b signalling regulated Dlk1expression. TGF-b1-induced chondrogenesis was associated with decreased Dlk1...... expression and these effects were abolished by the TGF-b signalling inhibitor SB4311542 suggesting an involvement of DLK1/FA1 in mediating the function of TGF-b1 signalling in chondrogenesis. In support of this hypothesis, we found that TGF-b1 enhanced chondrocyte differentiation in dlk1-/- MEF compared...

  12. Strontium Promotes Cementoblasts Differentiation through Inhibiting Sclerostin Expression In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfu Bao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cementogenesis, performed by cementoblasts, is important for the repair of root resorption caused by orthodontic treatment. Based on recent studies, strontium has been applied for osteoporosis treatment due to its positive effect on osteoblasts. Although promising, the effect of strontium on cementoblasts is still unclear. So the aim of this research was to clarify and investigate the effect of strontium on cementogenesis via employing cementoblasts as model. A series of experiments including MTT, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene analysis, alizarin red staining, and western blot were carried out to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblasts. In addition, expression of sclerostin was checked to analyze the possible mechanism. Our results show that strontium inhibits the proliferation of cementoblasts with a dose dependent manner; however, it can promote the differentiation of cementoblasts via downregulating sclerostin expression. Taking together, strontium may facilitate cementogenesis and benefit the treatment of root resorption at a low dose.

  13. Dietary relevant mixtures of phytoestrogens inhibit adipocyte differentiation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Specht, Ina Olmer; Boberg, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Phytoestrogens (PEs) are naturally occurring plant components, with the ability to induce biological responses in vertebrates by mimicking or modulating the action of endogenous hormones.Single isoflavones have been shown to affect adipocyte differentiation, but knowledge on the effect of dietary...... relevant mixtures of PEs, including for instance lignans, is lacking. In the current study dietary relevant mixtures of isoflavones and their metabolites, lignans and their metabolites, coumestrol, and a mixture containing all of them, were examined for effects on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well...... as tested for their PPARγ activating abilities. The results showed that mixtures of isoflavonoid parent compounds and metabolites, respectively, a mixture of lignan metabolites, as well as coumestrol concentration-dependently inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, a mixture of isoflavonoid parent...

  14. Strontium Promotes Cementoblasts Differentiation through Inhibiting Sclerostin Expression In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xingfu; Liu, Xianjun; Zhang, Yi; Cui, Yue; Yao, Jindan

    2014-01-01

    Cementogenesis, performed by cementoblasts, is important for the repair of root resorption caused by orthodontic treatment. Based on recent studies, strontium has been applied for osteoporosis treatment due to its positive effect on osteoblasts. Although promising, the effect of strontium on cementoblasts is still unclear. So the aim of this research was to clarify and investigate the effect of strontium on cementogenesis via employing cementoblasts as model. A series of experiments including MTT, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene analysis, alizarin red staining, and western blot were carried out to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblasts. In addition, expression of sclerostin was checked to analyze the possible mechanism. Our results show that strontium inhibits the proliferation of cementoblasts with a dose dependent manner; however, it can promote the differentiation of cementoblasts via downregulating sclerostin expression. Taking together, strontium may facilitate cementogenesis and benefit the treatment of root resorption at a low dose. PMID:25003114

  15. Alternative products in the "in vitro" inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The white mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a very important disease in tomato crops. The objective of this work was to study the effect of plant extracts, animal residues and industrial by-products extracts on the fungus in vitro growth. Treatments consisted of different concentrations of pyrolignous oil, neem oil, monosodium glutamate, sewage sludge and organic compost [coffee residue (50% coal residue (10%, maize residue (25%, poultry waste (12.5%, poultry meal (2.5%]. Positive control consisted of Petri dishes with PDA medium and negative control treatment consisted of PDA medium with procymidone. Fungus colonies were incubated at 22ºC and light intensity of 260 lux. Variables such as mycelium growth rate, sclerotia production, and viability 7 and 17 days after the transfer of mycelium disc to neon media were assessed. The extract of organic compost at 30% was effective in controlling mycelial growth and sclerotia production. This treatment, as well as neem oil at 0.5% increased soil respiration.

  16. Antitumor and antimicrobial activities and inhibition of in-vitro lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the antitumor and antimicrobial activities as well as the inhibition of in vitro lipid peroxidation evoked by Dendrobium nobile. Antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of flowers and stem of D. nobile against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus, Salmonella typhi and ...

  17. Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    An aqueous extract of Ceylon cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was found to inhibit tau aggregation and filament formation, hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in vitro using brain cells taken from patients who died with AD. The extract also promoted complete disassembly of recombinant tau filaments, and ...

  18. In vitro antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activities of spiced red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spiced chili paste (green or red), locally known as Datta, is a traditional popular spicy paste consumed in Ethiopia. This study investigated the total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), in vitro antioxidant, and α-amylase inhibition activities of water, acetone, petroleum ether, methanol, and 80% methanol ...

  19. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N...

  20. A model of in vitro UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inhibition by bile acids predicts possible metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; He, Rong-Rong; Cao, Yun-Feng; Tanaka, Naoki; Jiang, Changtao; Krausz, Kristopher W; Qi, Yunpeng; Dong, Pei-Pei; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Hong, Mo; Ge, Guang-Bo; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ma, Xiao-Chi; Sun, Hong-Zhi

    2013-12-01

    Increased levels of bile acids (BAs) due to the various hepatic diseases could interfere with the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs, and endobiotics including steroid hormones. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are involved in the conjugation and elimination of many xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The present study sought to investigate the potential for inhibition of UGT enzymes by BAs. The results showed that taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) exhibited the strongest inhibition toward UGTs, followed by lithocholic acid. Structure-UGT inhibition relationships of BAs were examined and in vitro-in vivo extrapolation performed by using in vitro inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki) in combination with calculated in vivo levels of TLCA. Substitution of a hydrogen with a hydroxyl group in the R1, R3, R4, R5 sites of BAs significantly weakens their inhibition ability toward most UGTs. The in vivo inhibition by TLCA toward UGT forms was determined with following orders of potency: UGT1A4 > UGT2B7 > UGT1A3 > UGT1A1 ∼ UGT1A7 ∼ UGT1A10 ∼ UGT2B15. In conclusion, these studies suggest that disrupted homeostasis of BAs, notably taurolithocholic acid, found in various diseases such as cholestasis, could lead to altered metabolism of xenobiotics and endobiotics through inhibition of UGT enzymes.

  1. In vitro inhibition of human cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of marker substrates by natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B C; Vandenhoek, S; Hana, J; Krantis, A; Akhtar, M H; Bryan, M; Budzinski, J W; Ramputh, A; Arnason, J T

    2003-05-01

    Spices, herbal and black teas, and soybean products were analyzed for their capacity to inhibit in vitro metabolism of drug marker substrates by human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoforms. Inhibition of drug metabolism was determined using aliquots or infusions from these products in a fluorescence-detection assay. Aliquots and infusions of all natural product categories inhibited 3A4 metabolism to some extent. Of the 26 aliquots from teas and spices further tested with 2C9, 2C19 and 2D6, many demonstrated significant inhibitory activity on the metabolism mediated by these isoforms. Black teas and herbal tea mixtures were generally more inhibitory than single-entity herbal teas. Spices and single-entity herbal teas showed species-specific isoform inhibition with sage, thyme, cloves, St John's Wort and goldenseal having the highest activity against several isoforms. Seven soybean varieties tested, as well as daidzein and genistein isolated from soybean, were found to inhibit 3A4-mediated metabolism. Genistein was found to inhibit 3A7- but not 3A5-mediated metabolism of the marker substrate. Assessment of the in vitro CYP inhibition potential for these natural products has important implications for predicting the likelihood of natural product-drug interactions if these products are taken concomitantly.

  2. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by ginger extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D Prasanna P; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger because of its antioxidants and cardioprotective properties. The effects of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane solvent extracts of ginger and pure major ginger constituents on Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human LDL in vitro were examined. The LDL oxidation inhibition by ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of ginger was 71%, 76%, 67%, and 67%, respectively, at their optimum extraction conditions. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by water extracts of ginger, which was prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of 52°C for 15 min, was about 43%. Phenolic bioactives of ginger-6-gingerols, 8-gingerols, 10-gingerols, and 6-shogaol-seem to be strong inhibitors of Cu(+2)-induced LDL oxidation. Overall, ginger extracts, including the water extract possess the antioxidant activities to inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro.

  3. Equol inhibits growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of mouse antral follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Sharada; Gao, Liying; Gonnering, Marni; Helferich, William; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-03-15

    Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen metabolite produced by microbial conversion of daidzein, a major soy isoflavone, in the gut of some humans and many animal species. Isoflavones and their metabolites can affect endogenous estradiol production, action, and metabolism, potentially influencing ovarian follicle function. However, no studies have examined the effects of equol on intact ovarian antral follicles, which are responsible for sex steroid synthesis and further development into ovulatory follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that equol inhibits antral follicle growth, increases follicle atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or equol (600 nM, 6 μM, 36 μM, and 100 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Every 24h, follicle diameters were measured to monitor growth. At 48 and 96 h, the culture medium was subjected to measurement of hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis. Additionally, follicles were histologically evaluated for signs of atresia after 96 h of culture. The results indicate that equol (100 μM) inhibited follicle growth, altered the mRNA levels of bcl2-associated X protein and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced follicle atresia. Further, equol decreased the levels of estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone, and it decreased mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, steroid 17-α-hydroxalase, and aromatase. Collectively, these data indicate that equol inhibits growth, increases atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of cultured mouse antral follicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Momilactone B Inhibits Ketosis In Vitro by Regulating the ANGPTL3-LPL Pathway and Inhibiting HMGCS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong Young; S P, Nipin; Darvin, Pramod; Joung, Youn Hee; Byun, Hyo Joo; Do, Chang Hee; Park, Kyung Do; Park, Mi Na; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Yang, Young Mok

    2017-07-03

    Ketogenesis is the production of ketone bodies, which provide energy when the body lacks glucose. Under ketogenic conditions, the body switches from primarily carbohydrate to fat metabolism to maintain energy balance. However, accumulation of high levels of ketone bodies in the blood results in ketosis. Treating ketosis with natural substances is preferable, because they are unlikely to cause side-effects. Momilactone B is an active compound isolated from Korean rice. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that momilactone B could inhibit ketosis. We constructed an in vitro ketosis model by glucose starvation. We used this model to test the anti-ketosis effects of momilactone B. A primary target for treating ketosis is angiopoietin-like-3 (ANGPTL3), which modulates lipoprotein metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a multifunctional enzyme that breaks down stored fat to produce triglycerides. We showed that momilactone B could regulate the ANGPTL3-LPL pathway. However, a strong anti-ketosis candidate drug should also inhibit ketogenesis. Ketogenesis can be suppressed by inhibiting the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase-2 (HMGCS2), a mitochondrial enzyme that converts acetyl-CoA to ketone bodies. We found that momilactone B suppressed the expression of HMGCS2 through the increased expression of STAT5b. We also elucidated the relationship of STAT5b to ANGPTL3 and LPL expression.

  5. ROCK Inhibition Facilitates In Vitro Expansion of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha G Tilson

    Full Text Available Due to their stem-like characteristics and their resistance to existing chemo- and radiation therapies, there is a growing appreciation that cancer stem cells (CSCs are the root cause behind cancer metastasis and recurrence. However, these cells represent a small subpopulation of cancer cells and are difficult to propagate in vitro. Glioblastoma is an extremely deadly form of brain cancer that is hypothesized to have a subpopulation of CSCs called glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs; also called brain tumor initiating cells, BTICs. We propose the use of selective Rho-kinase (ROCK inhibitors, Y-27632 and fasudil, to promote GSC/BTIC-like cell survival and propagation in vitro. ROCK inhibitors have been implicated in suppressing apoptosis, and it was hypothesized that they would increase the number of GSC/BTIC-like cells grown in vitro and improve cloning efficiencies. Indeed, our data demonstrate that transient and continuous supplementation of non-toxic concentrations of Y-27632 and fasudil inhibited apoptosis, enhanced the cells' ability to form spheres, and increased stem cell marker expressing GSC/BTIC-like cell subpopulation. Our data indicated that pharmacological and genetic (siRNA inhibitions of the ROCK pathway facilitates in vitro expansion of GSC/BTIC-like cells. Thus, ROCK pathway inhibition shows promise for future optimization of CSC culture media.

  6. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth and adherence to gastric mucosal cells by Pycnogenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohdewald, Peter; Beil, Winfried

    2008-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains has necessitated the identification of alternative additive therapies for the treatment of this infection. The study tested whether a specific pine bark extract (Pycnogenol is effective in inhibiting the growth and adherence of H. pylori in vitro. Inhibition of H. pylori growth by Pycnogenol was tested in liquid medium as well as in an in vitro model by using sessile bacteria attached to AGS cells. Adherence was determined by co-incubation of gastric cells with Pycnogenol and H. pylori in vitro. Pycnogenol inhibited H. pylori growth in suspension with an MIC(50) of 12.5 microg/mL. Growth of H. pylori in infected cells was reduced to 10% of the control value by 125 microg/mL Pycnogenol. Adherence of H. pylori to gastric cells was reduced by 70% after 3 h incubation with 125 microg/mL Pycnogenol. The results show a significant, yet limited inhibition of growth and adherence of H. pylori to gastric cells by Pycnogenol. In vivo studies have to demonstrate the clinical relevance of these findings.

  7. Phytochemical analysis of Binahong (Anredera Cordifolia) leaves extract to inhibit In Vitro growth of Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, Mohammad; Ginting, Prita Yulianti Anasta Br; Lesmana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) is one of the medicinal plants commonly used to treat the disease of living organisms. The secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves has been shown antibacterial activity. This study aimed to investigate the secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves showing antibacterial and analysis the effectiveness of antibacterial to inhibit the growth of bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. A paper disc soaked in a solution of A. cordifolia leaves extract was used to test in vitro at a concentration of 0% (w/v), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and positive control of antibiotic (oxytetracycline), respectively. The extracts then placed on a tryptone soy agar (TSA) medium containing bacteria A. hydrophila and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. In vitro test showed that A. cordifolia leaves extract inhibited the growth of bacteria A. hydrophila with an inhibition area around the paper disc. The inhibition growth of A. hydrophila increased with the increasing of extract concentration. Bacterial growth was inhibited in the diameter zone of A. hydrophila under different levels of the extracts were 0 mm (0 % negative control), 8.4 mm (0.2 %), 9.4 mm (0.4 %), 10.5 mm (0.6 %), 11.9 mm (0.8 %), 27.5 mm (positive control), respectively. Phytochemical screening of A. cordifolia leaves extract indicated that the extracts contained flavonoid, phenol, saponin, alkaloid, triterpenoid, and β-sitosterol. Our in vitro study demonstrated the inhibition growth of A. hydrophila that caused the disease of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS).

  8. Inhibition of Mycobacterial Growth In Vitro following Primary but Not Secondary Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Helen A.; Tanner, Rachel; Wallis, Robert S.; Meyer, Joel; Manjaly, Zita-Rose; Harris, Stephanie; Satti, Iman; Silver, Richard F.; Hoft, Dan; Kampmann, Beate; Walker, K. Barry; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Fruth, Uli; Barker, Lew; McShane, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine, there are more than 9 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) every year, and there is an urgent need for better TB vaccines. TB vaccine candidates are selected for evaluation based in part on the detection of an antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) response. The measurement of mycobacterial growth in blood specimens obtained from subjects immunized with investigational TB vaccines may be a better in vitro correlate of in vivo vaccine efficacy. We performed a clinical study with 30 United Kingdom adults who were followed for 6 months to evaluate the abilities of both a whole-blood- and a novel peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based mycobacterial growth inhibition assay to measure a response to primary vaccination and revaccination with BCG. Using cryopreserved PBMCs, we observed a significant improvement in mycobacterial growth inhibition following primary vaccination but no improvement in growth inhibition following revaccination with BCG (P BCG vaccination was not correlated with purified protein derivative (PPD) antigen-specific IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) responses. We demonstrate that a mycobacterial growth inhibition assay can detect improved capacity to control growth following primary immunization, but not revaccination, with BCG. This is the first study to demonstrate that an in vitro growth inhibition assay can identify a difference in vaccine responses by comparing both primary and secondary BCG vaccinations, suggesting that in vitro growth inhibition assays may serve as better surrogates of clinical efficacy than the assays currently used for the assessment of candidate TB vaccines. PMID:23986316

  9. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid Birkelund; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie

    2018-01-01

    numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21...... the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large...... impregnation products using the constant flow through set-up of the constrained drop surfactometer to determine if they inhibited LS function or not. The same products were tested in a mouse inhalation bioassay to determine their toxicity in vivo. The sensitivity was 100%, i.e. the in vitro method predicted...

  10. Automated analysis of polyethylene glycol-induced inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugger, Erin D; Cole, Clayton J; Raub, Thomas J; Burton, Philip S; Borchardt, Ronald T

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratories have shown that commonly used polyethoxylated pharmaceutical excipients inhibit P-glycoprotein activity in cell culture models of the intestinal mucosa. The results presented in this technical note show that the TECAN Genesis robotic workstation can be utilized to automate cellular transport studies for evaluating excipient effects on P-glycoprotein activity in vitro and for estimating the permeation of drug-like molecules across cell monolayers. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association

  11. INHIBITION OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALLIZATION IN-VITRO BY VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS (L.) POIT.

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Kumkum; Varma Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit. commonly known as Vilayati tulsi, belongs to the Mint family Lamiaceae. The inhibition of in-vitro calcium-oxalate crystal (a major component of most urinary stones) formation by various extracts of Hyptis was investigated by titrimetric method. The inhibitor potency of alcohol extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit was found to be comparable to that of cystone (a proprietary drug for dissolving kidney stones). Thus alcohol extract could be further analyzed in viv...

  12. Clinically Relevant Concentrations of Ketamine Inhibit Osteoclast Formation In Vitro in Mouse Bone Marrow Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Erxia; McAllister, Patrick; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Xiao, Liping

    2017-04-01

    Ketamine has been used safely in clinics for decades for analgesia and anesthesia. It is increasingly popular in clinical practice due to its new uses and importance for emergency procedures. It is known that ketamine is sequestered in the bone marrow and the major receptors for ketamine, noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), are expressed in osteoclasts (OCs) and osteoblasts. However, the impact of ketamine on OCs or osteoblasts is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of ketamine on osteoclastogenesis and regulation of NMDARs expression in vitro. Bone marrows (BMs) or bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) were cultured in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) with or without ketamine for up to 6 days. OC formation peaked at day 5. On day 5 of culture, ketamine inhibited OC formation from both BM and BMM cultures at clinically relevant concentrations (3-200 µM). Ketamine inhibited RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) in BMM cultures. Inhibition of ketamine on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis is associated with down-regulation of NMDARs. In addition, ketamine significantly inhibited the M-CSF induced migration of BMMs, inhibited cell fusion and significantly increased mature OC apoptosis. We conclude that clinically relevant concentrations of ketamine inhibit OC formation in both BM and BMM cultures in vitro through inhibiting migration and fusion process and enhancing mature OC apoptosis. It is likely that ketamine regulates osteoclastogenesis, at least in part, via its effects on NMDAR expression. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 914-923, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Endostatin inhibits VEGF-A induced osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvesaro Joanna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endostatin is a C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII which is a component of basement membranes with the structural properties of both collagens and proteoglycans. Endostatin has a major role in angiogenesis which is intimately associated with bone development and remodeling. Signaling between the endothelial cells and the bone cells, for example, may have a role in recruitment of osteoclastic precursor cells. Our study aims at exploring a possibility that endostatin, either as a part of basement membrane or as a soluble molecule, may control osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro. Methods Rat pit formation assay was employed in order to examine the effect of endostatin alone or in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A on bone resorption in vitro. Effect of these agents on osteoclast differentiation in vitro was also tested. Osteoclastogenesis and the number of osteoclasts were followed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP staining and resorption was evaluated by measuring the area of excavated pits. Results Endostatin inhibited the VEGF-A stimulated osteoclastic bone resorption, whereas endostatin alone had no effect on the basal resorption level in the absence of VEGF-A. In addition, endostatin could inhibit osteoclast differentiation in vitro independent of VEGF-A. Conclusion Our in vitro data indicate that collagen XVIII/endostatin can suppress VEGF-A induced osteoclastic bone resorption to the basal level. Osteoclastogenesis is also inhibited by endostatin. The regulatory effect of endostatin, however, is not critical since endostatin alone does not modify the basal bone resorption.

  14. Salidroside inhibits the growth of human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Shi, Aiping; Fan, Zhimin; Du, Ye

    2015-05-01

    Salidroside has been identified as one of the most potent compounds isolated from the plant Rhodiola rosea, and was found to have several important biological properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity; however, its anticancer effects are poorly understood. Thus, the present study focused on evaluating the effects of purified salidroside on the growth of human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, and on further investigating its possible molecular mechanisms. The human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, was incubated with various concentrations of salidroside, and cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, migration and invasion were assayed by several in vitro approaches. As a result, it was found that salidroside treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, as well as induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in vitro. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of salidroside on tumor growth in a nude mouse model, and found that salidroside treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo. We also further disclosed that salidroside treatment significantly inhibited the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and MAPK pathway activation, which may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth of breast cancer and reduction of oxidative stress. In conclusion, these findings suggest that salidroside may be a promising candidate target for the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.

  15. Temsirolimus inhibits malignant pleural mesothelioma growth in vitro and in vivo: synergism with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoda, Mir Alireza; Mohamed, Amir; Ghanim, Bahil; Filipits, Martin; Hegedus, Balazs; Tamura, Masaya; Berta, Judit; Kubista, Bernd; Dome, Balazs; Grusch, Michael; Setinek, Ulrike; Micksche, Michael; Klepetko, Walter; Berger, Walter

    2011-05-01

    Human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-related malignancy characterized by frequent resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the feasibility of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition by temsirolimus as an antimesothelioma strategy. Phosphorylation of mTOR (p-mTOR) was assessed by immunohistochemistry in MPM surgical specimens (n = 70). Activation of mTOR and impact of mTOR inhibition by temsirolimus was determined in MPM cell lines in vitro (n = 6) and in vivo as xenografts in severe combined immunodeficiency mice (n = 2) either as single agent or in combination with cisplatin. Strong immunoreactivity for p-mTOR was predominantly detected in epitheloid and biphasic but not sarcomatoid MPM specimens while adjacent normal tissues remained widely unstained. Accordingly, all mesothelioma cell lines harbored activated mTOR, which was further confirmed by hyperphosphorylation of the downstream targets pS6K, S6, and 4EBP1. Temsirolimus potently blocked mTOR-mediated signals and exerted a cytostatic effect on mesothelioma cell lines in vitro cultured both as adherent monolayers and as nonadherent spheroids. Mesothelioma cells with intrinsic or acquired cisplatin resistance exhibited hypersensitivity against temsirolimus. Accordingly, cisplatin and temsirolimus exerted synergistic inhibition of the mTOR downstream signals and enhanced growth inhibition and/or apoptosis induction in mesothelioma cell lines. Finally, temsirolimus was highly active against MPM xenograft models in severe combined immunodeficiency mice both as a single agent and in combination with cisplatin. The mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus is active against mesothelioma in vitro and in vivo and synergizes with chemotherapy. These data suggest mTOR inhibition as a promising novel therapeutic strategy against MPM.

  16. Inhibition of influenza A virus infection in vitro by saliphenylhalamide-loaded porous silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbo, Luis M; Denisova, Oxana V; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; De Brabander, Jef K; Hirvonen, Jouni; Salonen, Jarno; Kakkola, Laura; Kainov, Denis; Santos, Hélder A

    2013-08-27

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause recurrent epidemics in humans, with serious threat of lethal worldwide pandemics. The occurrence of antiviral-resistant virus strains and the emergence of highly pathogenic influenza viruses have triggered an urgent need to develop new anti-IAV treatments. One compound found to inhibit IAV, and other virus infections, is saliphenylhalamide (SaliPhe). SaliPhe targets host vacuolar-ATPase and inhibits acidification of endosomes, a process needed for productive virus infection. The major obstacle for the further development of SaliPhe as antiviral drug has been its poor solubility. Here, we investigated the possibility to increase SaliPhe solubility by loading the compound in thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles. SaliPhe-loaded nanoparticles were further investigated for the ability to inhibit influenza A infection in human retinal pigment epithelium and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, and we show that upon release from THCPSi, SaliPhe inhibited IAV infection in vitro and reduced the amount of progeny virus in IAV-infected cells. Overall, the PSi-based nanosystem exhibited increased dissolution of the investigated anti-IAV drug SaliPhe and displayed excellent in vitro stability, low cytotoxicity, and remarkable reduction of viral load in the absence of organic solvents. This proof-of-principle study indicates that PSi nanoparticles could be used for efficient delivery of antivirals to infected cells.

  17. Amygdalin-mediated inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liyu; Xie, Bo; Wang, Yaguo; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor claiming the highest fatality worldwide for a long period of time. Unfortunately, most of the current treatment methods are still based on the characteristics of cancer cells in the primary lesion and the prognosis is often much poorer in patients with metastatic cancers. Amygdalin, a natural product of glycosides and lots of evidence shows that amygdalin can inhibit the proliferation of some kinds of cancer cells. In this study, we first obtained the highly metastatic NSCLC cell lines H1299/M and PA/M and further treated these cells with amygdalin. We found that the in vitro proliferability of H1299/M and PA/M was inhibited, but such inhibition required higher concentration of amygdalin. When lower concentration of amygdalin was used for the experiments, we observed that the in vitro invasive and migration capacities of H1299/M and PA/M were significantly inhibited. These results strongly suggested that amygdalin was likely to have anti-metastatic NSCLC effect. This study offers information of the role of amygdalin that may be useful as a therapeutic target in lung tumors.

  18. Potassium humate inhibits complement activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Naude, P.J. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-08-15

    The effects of brown coal derived potassium humate on lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and complement activation were investigated in vitro. Potassium humate increased lymphocyte proliferation of phytohaemaglutinin A (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated mononuclear lymphocytes (MNL) in vitro from concentrations of 20 to 80 {mu} g/ml, in a dose dependant manner. On the other hand potassium humate, at 40 {mu} g/ml, significantly inhibited the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PHA stimulated MNL. Regarding complement activation it was found that potassium humate inhibits the activation of both the alternative and classical pathways without affecting the stability of the red blood cell membranes. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory potential of potassium humate could be partially due to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for the initiation of these reactions as well as inhibition of complement activation. The increased lymphocyte proliferation observed, might be due to increased IL-2 production as previously been documented.

  19. Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and In Vitro Tumorigenesis by a New Red Apple Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavano, Giuditta Fiorella; De Santi, Mauro; Brandi, Giorgio; Fanelli, Mirco; Bucchini, Anahi; Giamperi, Laura; Giomaro, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity in breast cancer cells and the inhibition of tumorigenesis in pre-neoplastic cells of a new apple cultivar with reddish pulp, called the Pelingo apple. The antiproliferative activity was evaluated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The inhibition of tumorigenesis was performed in JB6 promotion-sensitive (P+) cells. Results showed that Pelingo apple juice is characterized by a very high polyphenol content and strongly inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation. Its antiproliferative activity was found to be higher than the other five apple juices tested. Pelingo juice induced cell accumulation in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and autophagy through overexpression of p21, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and an increase in lipidated microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 beta (LC3B). Remarkably, Pelingo juice inhibited the 12-o-tetra-decanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumorigenesis of JB6 P+ cells, suppressing colony formation in semi-solid medium and TPA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our data indicate that the Pelingo apple is rich in food components that can markedly inhibit in vitro tumorigenesis and growth of human breast cancer cells and could provide natural bioactive non-nutrient compounds, with potential chemopreventive activity.

  20. [Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by RNA interference in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cai; Fan, Xue-Gong; Li, Ning; Ying, Ruo-Su

    2004-09-01

    To design pSilencer3.1-H1hygro plasmid expressing short interfering RNAs (siRNA) that targets HBV core gene region, and to evaluate inhibitory effect of this siRNA on HBV in vitro. HepG2 2.2.15 was used as target cells. The plasmid and liposome metafectene were cotransfected into the cultured cells, HBV DNA were analyzed by fluorogenic quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR), HBV C-mRNA was detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The plasmid expressing siRNA was successfully constructed. The two constructed siRNAs could effectively inhibit HBV replication, and their inhibitive effect on HBV was dose-dependent. These results showed that siRNA could substantially inhibit HBV replication in the infected cells

  1. Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by the multikinase inhibitor nintedanib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Gong, Lan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of nintedanib, a novel triple angiokinase inhibitor, for inhibiting lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)-induced lymphangiogenesis in vitro and inflammatory corneal lymphangiogenesis in vivo. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, transwell system, and tube-formation assay were used to evaluate the effects of nintedanib on the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of LECs stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), or platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). The murine model of suture-induced corneal neovascularization was used to assess the anti-hemangiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic effects of nintedanib via systemic and topical applications. Corneal flatmounts were stained with lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) and CD31, and the areas of involved blood and lymph vessels were analyzed morphometrically. Corneal cryosections were stained with F4/80 to evaluate inflammatory cell recruitment. We observed a significant enhanced effect of LEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation with the administration of VEGF-C, PDGF-BB, and bFGF, respectively, which was diminished by nintedanib. Both topical and systemic applications of nintedanib inhibited suture-induced hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the murine cornea. A reduction in F4/80+ cell infiltration was observed at day 14 after corneal suture for both systemic and topical applications of nintedanib. In comparison with controls, 61% of F4/80+ cell recruitment was inhibited via the systemic application of nintedanib, while 49% of F4/80+ cell recruitment was inhibited with the topical application of nintedanib. Nintedanib was shown to inhibit in vitro lymphangiogenesis stimulated by VEGF-C, bFGF, and PDGF-BB. Applied topically or systemically, it effectively inhibited corneal hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, accompanied by reduced inflammatory cell recruitment, which

  2. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Growth and Biofilm Formation by Probiotics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Korte, Franziska; Dörfer, Christof E; Kneist, Susanne; Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim; Paris, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    To exert anticaries effects, probiotics are described to inhibit growth and biofilm formation of cariogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans (SM). We screened 8 probiotics and assessed how SM growth or biofilm formation inhibition affects cariogenicity of probiotic-SM mixed-species biofilms in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by cocultivating probiotics and 2 SM strains (ATCC 20532/25175) on agar. Probiotics were either precultured before SM cultivation (exclusion), or SM precultured prior to probiotic cultivation (displacement). Inhibition of SM culture growth was assessed visually. Inhibition of SM biofilm formation on bovine enamel was assessed using a continuous-flow short-term biofilm model, again in exclusion or displacement mode. The cariogenicity of mixed-species biofilms of SM with the most promising growth and biofilm formation inhibiting probiotic strains was assessed using an artificial mouth model, and enamel mineral loss (ΔZ) was measured microradiographically. We found limited differences in SM growth inhibition in exclusion versus displacement mode, and in inhibition of SM 20532 versus 25175. Results were therefore pooled. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 inhibited significantly more SM culture growth than most other probiotics. L. casei LC-11 inhibited SM biofilm formation similarly to other alternatives but showed the highest retention of probiotics in the biofilms (p < 0.05). Mineral loss from SM monospecies biofilms (ΔZ = 9,772, 25th/75th percentiles: 6,277/13,558 vol% × µm) was significantly lower than from mixed-species SM × LA-5 biofilms (ΔZ = 24,578, 25th/75th percentiles: 19,081/28,768 vol% × µm; p < 0.01) but significantly higher than from SM × LC-11 biofilms (ΔZ = 4,835, 25th/75th percentiles: 263/7,865 vol% × µm; p < 0.05). Probiotics inhibiting SM culture growth do not necessarily reduce the cariogenicity of SM-probiotic biofilms. Nevertheless, SM biofilm formation inhibition may be relevant in the reduction of

  3. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin interacts with filamentous haemagglutinin to inhibit biofilm formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Casandra; Eby, Joshua; Gray, Mary; Heath Damron, F; Melvin, Jeffrey; Cotter, Peggy; Hewlett, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, secretes and releases adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), which is a protein bacterial toxin that targets host cells and disarms immune defenses. ACT binds filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), a surface-displayed adhesin, and until now, the consequences of this interaction were unknown. A B. bronchiseptica mutant lacking ACT produced more biofilm than the parental strain; leading Irie et al. to propose the ACT-FHA interaction could be responsible for biofilm inhibition. Here we characterize the physical interaction of ACT with FHA and provide evidence linking that interaction to inhibition of biofilm in vitro. Exogenous ACT inhibits biofilm formation in a concentration-dependent manner and the N-terminal catalytic domain of ACT (AC domain) is necessary and sufficient for this inhibitory effect. AC Domain interacts with the C-terminal segment of FHA with ∼650 nM affinity. ACT does not inhibit biofilm formation by Bordetella lacking the mature C-terminal domain (MCD), suggesting the direct interaction between AC domain and the MCD is required for the inhibitory effect. Additionally, AC domain disrupts preformed biofilm on abiotic surfaces. The demonstrated inhibition of biofilm formation by a host-directed protein bacterial toxin represents a novel regulatory mechanism and identifies an unprecedented role for ACT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro and mice gastric mucosa colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Correia

    Full Text Available H. pylori drug-resistant strains and non-compliance to therapy are the major causes of H. pylori eradication failure. For some bacterial species it has been demonstrated that fatty acids have a growth inhibitory effect. Our main aim was to assess the ability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to inhibit H. pylori growth both in vitro and in a mouse model. The effectiveness of standard therapy (ST in combination with DHA on H. pylori eradication and recurrence prevention success was also investigated. The effects of DHA on H. pylori growth were analyzed in an in vitro dose-response study and n in vivo model. We analized the ability of H. pylori to colonize mice gastric mucosa following DHA, ST or a combination of both treatments. Our data demonstrate that DHA decreases H. pylori growth in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, DHA inhibits H. pylori gastric colonization in vivo as well as decreases mouse gastric mucosa inflammation. Addition of DHA to ST was also associated with lower H. pylori infection recurrence in the mouse model. In conclusion, DHA is an inhibitor of H. pylori growth and its ability to colonize mouse stomach. DHA treatment is also associated with a lower recurrence of H. pylori infection in combination with ST. These observations pave the way to consider DHA as an adjunct agent in H. pylori eradication treatment.

  5. Coptis chinensis and Myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Can Synergistically Inhibit Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enhui Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Coptis chinensis plus myrobalan (CM in vitro and in vivo. Methods. The inflammation in mouse peritoneal macrophages was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Animal models were established by using ear swelling and paw edema of mouse induced by xylene and formaldehyde, respectively. In vitro, cytotoxicity, the phagocytosis of macrophages, the levels of nitric oxide (NO, induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in cell supernatant were detected. In vivo, swelling rate and edema inhibitory rate of ear and paw were observed using CM-treated mice. Results. At 150–18.75 μg·mL−1, CM had no cytotoxicity and could significantly promote the growth and the phagocytosis of macrophages and inhibit the overproduction of NO, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6 in macrophages induced by LPS. In vivo, pretreatment with CM, the ear swelling, and paw edema of mice could be significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the antiedema effect of CM at high dose was better than dexamethasone. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that Coptis chinensis and myrobalan possessed synergistically anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, which indicated that CM had therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-mediated diseases.

  6. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepel, M; Hecker, U; Krege, S; Rübben, H; Michel, M C

    1999-02-15

    We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained from several pharmaceutical companies. They were tested for their ability to inhibit [3H]tamsulosin binding to human prostatic alpha1-adrenoceptors and [3H]prazosin binding to cloned human alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Inhibition of phenylephrine-stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate formation by cloned receptors was also investigated. Up to the highest concentration which could be tested, preparations of beta-sitosterol, stinging nettle, and medicinal pumpkin were without consistent inhibitory effect in all assays. In contrast, all tested saw palmetto extracts inhibited radioligand binding to human alpha1-adrenoceptors and agonist-induced [3H]inositol phosphate formation. Saturation binding experiments in the presence of a single saw palmetto extract concentration indicated a noncompetitive antagonism. The relationship between active concentrations in vitro and recommended therapeutic doses for the saw palmetto extracts was slightly lower than that for several chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Saw palmetto extracts have alpha1-adrenoceptor-inhibitory properties. If bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic properties of these ingredients are similar to those of the chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism might be involved in the therapeutic effects of these extracts in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction.

  7. Cholera toxin inhibits human hepatocarcinoma cell proliferation in vitro via suppressing ATX/LPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qi; Deng, An-mei; Wu, Shan-shan; Zheng, Min

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of cholera toxin (CT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and the mechanisms underlying the effect. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines Hep3B and Huh7, which expressed moderate and high level of autotaxin (ATX), respectively, were used. Cytokine level in the cells was evaluated using ELISA assay, and cell proliferation was investigated using MTT assay. ATX expression was determined using Western blot. ATX/lyso-PLD activity in the conditioned medium was measured using FS-3, a fluorescent lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) analogue, as substrate. Exposure to CT (7.5 and 10 ng/mL) significantly inhibited the cell growth, decreased secretion of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and promoted secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. CT at 10 ng/mL markedly suppressed ATX expression in Hep3B and Huh7 cells. Furthermore, ATX and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) were found to be crucial for growth of the cancer cells. CT could inhibit TNF-α-induced expression and secretion of ATX that led to decreased activity of lysophospholipase D, thus decreasing the conversion of LPC to LPA. CT inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth in vitro via regulating the ATX-LPA pathway.

  8. Cadmium restores in vitro splicing activity inhibited by zinc-depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeong Jin; Ayaki, Hitoshi; Kitamura, Keiko; Nishio, Hisahide [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Kobe (Japan); Goji, Junko [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Hyogo (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    Zinc (Zn)-depletion inhibits the second step of RNA splicing, namely exon-ligation. To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and other metal ions on RNA splicing inhibited by Zn-depletion, we measured in vitro splicing activities in the presence of these metals. Zn-depletion in the splicing reaction mixture was achieved by addition of a Zn-chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline. Cd(II) at 1, 5 and 10 {mu}M restored the splicing activity to 2, 24 and 72% of that in the control reaction mixture, while higher concentrations of Cd(II) decreased the splicing activity, and more than 50 {mu}M Cd(II) showed a complete absence of spliced products. Hg(II) also restored the splicing activity, albeit to a lesser extent, since 5 and 10 {mu}M Hg(II) restored the splicing activity to 3 and 4% of the control value. The other metal ions examined in this study, Co(II), Cu(II), Mg(II) and Mn(II), did not show any restoration of the splicing activity. We concluded that Cd(II) could restore the in vitro splicing activity inhibited by Zn-depletion, although higher concentrations of Cd(II) prevented progress of the RNA splicing reaction. These results suggest that Cd(II) has a bifunctional property regarding RNA splicing, and is stimulatory at low concentrations and inhibitory at high concentrations. (orig.)

  9. Specific Inhibition of SRC Kinase Impairs Malignant Glioma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Stedt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant glioma is a severe cancer with a poor prognosis. Local occurrence and rare metastases of malignant glioma make it a suitable target for gene therapy. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of Src kinase in different cancers. However, these studies have focused mainly on Src-deficient mice or pharmacological inhibitors of Src. In this study we have used Src small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs in a lentiviral backbone to mimic a long-term stable treatment and determined the role of Src in tumor tissues. Efficacy of Src shRNAs was confirmed in vitro demonstrating up to 90% target gene inhibition. In a mouse malignant glioma model, Src shRNA tumors were almost 50-fold smaller in comparison to control tumors and had significantly reduced vascularity. In a syngenic rat intracranial glioma model, Src shRNA-transduced tumors were smaller and these rats had a survival benefit over the control rats. In vivo treatment was enhanced by chemotherapy and histone deacetylase inhibition. Our results emphasise the importance of Src in tumorigenesis and demonstrate that it can be efficiently inhibited in vitro and in vivo in two independent malignant glioma models. In conclusion, Src is a potential target for RNA interference-mediated treatment of malignant glioma.

  10. The HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir inhibits Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Ikoma, Minako; Gachelet, Eliora; Gray, Matthew; Geballe, Adam P; Corey, Lawrence; Casper, Corey; Lagunoff, Michael; Vieira, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated cancer worldwide and is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality in some regions. Antiretroviral (ARV) combination regimens have had mixed results for KS progression and resolution. Anecdotal case reports suggest that protease inhibitors (PIs) may have effects against KS that are independent of their effect on HIV infection. As such, we evaluated whether PIs or other ARVs directly inhibit replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the gammaherpesvirus that causes KS. Among a broad panel of ARVs tested, only the PI nelfinavir consistently displayed potent inhibitory activity against KSHV in vitro as demonstrated by an efficient quantitative assay for infectious KSHV using a recombinant virus, rKSHV.294, which expresses the secreted alkaline phosphatase. This inhibitory activity of nelfinavir against KSHV replication was confirmed using virus derived from a second primary effusion lymphoma cell line. Nelfinavir was similarly found to inhibit in vitro replication of an alphaherpesvirus (herpes simplex virus) and a betaherpesvirus (human cytomegalovirus). No activity was observed with nelfinavir against vaccinia virus or adenovirus. Nelfinavir may provide unique benefits for the prevention or treatment of HIV-associated KS and potentially other human herpesviruses by direct inhibition of replication.

  11. A natural small molecule voacangine inhibits angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonghyo; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Voacangine exhibits potent anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Voacangine inhibits tumor-induced angiogenesis by suppressing HIF-1{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Voacangine could be the basis for the development of novel anti-angiogenic agents. -- Abstract: Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, plays a critical role in normal and pathological phenotypes, including solid tumor growth and metastasis. Accordingly, the development of new anti-angiogenic agents is considered an efficient strategy for the treatment of cancer and other human diseases linked with angiogenesis. We have identified voacangine, isolated from Voacanga africana, as a novel anti-angiogenic agent. Voacangine inhibits the proliferation of HUVECs at an IC{sub 50} of 18 {mu}M with no cytotoxic effects. Voacangine significantly suppressed in vitro angiogenesis, such as VEGF-induced tube formation and chemoinvasion. Moreover, the compound inhibits in vivo angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane at non-toxic doses. In addition, voacangine decreased the expression levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} and its target gene, VEGF, in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that the naturally occurring compound, voacangine, is a novel anti-angiogenic compound.

  12. HMGN2 protein inhibits the growth of infected T24 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Danfeng; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Min; Feng, Yun; Chen, Qianming

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells and cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been implicated as important effectors of antitumor defense. High mobility group nucleosomal-binding domain 2 (HMGN2) may be one of the effector molecules of CTL and NK cells. The antitumor effect and mechanism of HMGN2 was investigated in this study. HMGN2 was isolated and purified from the human monocyte cell line THP-1 and then characterized by Tricine-SDS-PAGE, western blot, and mass spectrum determination. Confluent T24 cells were incubated with Klebsiella pneumoniae for 2 h, after which the extracellular bacteria were killed by the addition of gentamicin. The cells then were treated with a variety of concentrations of HMGN2. The effect of HMGN2 on the proliferation of T24 cells was analyzed with MTT, Hoechst and flow cytometry assays. Cell growth assay results demonstrated that HMGN2 significantly inhibited the growth of T24 bladder cancer cell lines infected by K. pneumoniae. Furthermore, results of the Hoechst and flow cytometry assays indicated that HMGN2 may promote apoptosis in this experimental model. These results suggest HMGN2 could inhibit the growth of the infected human bladder cancer cells in vitro. HMGN2 protein could inhibit the growth of infected T24 cells in vitro, and the anti-tumor action of HMGN2 was due to induce apoptosis.

  13. Tapentadol inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide release from rat brainstem in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Maria Cristina; Lisi, Lucia; Currò, Diego; Navarra, Pierluigi; Tringali, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    We have previously developed an in vitro model of rat brainstem explants. The latter release sizable amounts of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP); basal release can be stimulated by such secretagogues as high KCl concentrations, veratridine or capsaicine. In this paradigm we investigated the activity of the analgesic agent tapentadol; the effects of tapentadol were compared to those of a classical opioid receptor agonist, morphine, and the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine. Morphine inhibited basal CGRP release, with statistical significance from 1 nM onward and maximal (-44%) inhibition at 100 μM. Morphine also inhibited K(+)-stimulated peptide release, with a significant effect from 1 μM and maximal (-39%) decrease at 100 μM, but failed to inhibit release stimulated by 10 μM capsaicin. At variance, reboxetine had no effect on baseline CGRP outflow, but was able to inhibit both K(+)-stimulated [significant inhibition from 1 μM onward and maximal (-37%) decrease at 100 μM], and capsaicin-stimulated release [significant effect from 1 μM and maximal (-31%) decrease at 100 μM]. Likewise, tapentadol had no effect on baseline CGRP release up to 100 μM, but decreased secretion stimulated by 56 mM KCl or capsaicin, with significant effects from 0.1 and 1 μM respectively; maximal inhibition over 56 mM KCl and capsaicin stimuli was -29% and -31%, respectively. Naloxone antagonized the effect of morphine, but not those of reboxetine and tapentadol, on K(+)-stimulated CGRP secretion. In conclusion the present study provides consistent pharmacological evidence that tapentadol acts as a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor agent in this experimental model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by the multikinase inhibitor nintedanib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin T

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tong Lin,1,2 Lan Gong1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University, 2Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of nintedanib, a novel triple angiokinase inhibitor, for inhibiting lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC-induced lymphangiogenesis in vitro and inflammatory corneal lymphangiogenesis in vivo.Materials and methods: Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT test, transwell system, and tube-formation assay were used to evaluate the effects of nintedanib on the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of LECs stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, or platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB. The murine model of suture-induced corneal neovascularization was used to assess the anti-hemangiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic effects of nintedanib via systemic and topical applications. Corneal flatmounts were stained with lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1 and CD31, and the areas of involved blood and lymph vessels were analyzed morphometrically. Corneal cryosections were stained with F4/80 to evaluate inflammatory cell recruitment.Results: We observed a significant enhanced effect of LEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation with the administration of VEGF-C, PDGF-BB, and bFGF, respectively, which was diminished by nintedanib. Both topical and systemic applications of nintedanib inhibited suture-induced hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the murine cornea. A reduction in F4/80+ cell infiltration was observed at day 14 after corneal suture for both systemic and topical applications of nintedanib. In comparison with controls, 61% of F4/80+ cell recruitment was inhibited via the systemic application of nintedanib, while 49% of F4/80+ cell recruitment was inhibited with the topical application of nintedanib.Conclusion: Nintedanib was shown

  15. Co-aggregation and growth inhibition of probiotic lactobacilli and clinical isolates of mutans streptococci: An in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette Kirstine; Hassl F, Pamela; Stecks N-Blicks, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Co-aggregation and growth inhibition abilities of probiotic bacteria may play a key role in their interference with the oral biofilm. The aim was to investigate the in vitro ability of selected commercial probiotic lactobacilli to co-aggregate and inhibit growth of oral mutans...

  16. Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Reisinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control, MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application.

  17. Inhibition of in vitro myogenic differentiation by cellular transcription factor E2F1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, J; Helin, K; Jin, P

    1995-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of cultured myocytes requires withdrawal of the cells from the cell cycle. Constitutive overexpression of several oncogenes in myoblasts can inhibit in vitro myogenesis. Here we studied the role of the cellular transcription factor E2F1 on myogenic differentiation. E2F1...... expression is irreversibly down-regulated during differentiation of C2C12 myocytes. Furthermore, deregulated E2F1 expression in C2C12 cells prevented myogenic differentiation. This inhibition of myogenesis was associated with the repression of myogenin expression and an elevated cyclin D1 expression....... Moreover, E2F1-overexpressing myocytes failed to exit the cell cycle under differentiation conditions. These results are consistent with the notion that E2F1 can function as an oncogene and further suggest that E2F1 down-regulation is required for myogenic differentiation....

  18. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation in vitro by standardized extract of Wendtia calycina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Garcia Mesa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wendtia calycina (Griseb. Griseb., Vivianiaceae, is a Paraguayan herbaceous plant commonly known as burrito. Our previous study indicated that burrito leaves are a very good source of phenylpropanoid glycosides, principally verbascoside. From W. calycina leaves, a standardized, water-soluble extract rich in phenylpropanoid glycosides (WSE has been developed on an industrial scale to be used as a food supplement, cosmetic, phytomedicine, and ingredient of different formulations. In this study, we investigated the effect of the WSE on human platelet aggregation in vitro induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, epinephrine (EPN, collagen (COL or arachidonic acid (AA. WSE, concentration-dependently, inhibited ADP and EP-induced human platelet aggregation (IC50 were 0.82±0.15 mg/mL and 0.41±0.02 mg/mL, respectively. It did not inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thus suggesting a selectivity for the ADP-induced platelet activation pathways.

  19. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation in vitro by standardized extract of Wendtia calycina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Garcia Mesa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wendtia calycina (Griseb. Griseb., Vivianiaceae, is a Paraguayan herbaceous plant commonly known as burrito. Our previous study indicated that burrito leaves are a very good source of phenylpropanoid glycosides, principally verbascoside. From W. calycina leaves, a standardized, water-soluble extract rich in phenylpropanoid glycosides (WSE has been developed on an industrial scale to be used as a food supplement, cosmetic, phytomedicine, and ingredient of different formulations. In this study, we investigated the effect of the WSE on human platelet aggregation in vitro induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, epinephrine (EPN, collagen (COL or arachidonic acid (AA. WSE, concentration-dependently, inhibited ADP and EP-induced human platelet aggregation (IC50 were 0.82±0.15 mg/mL and 0.41±0.02 mg/mL, respectively. It did not inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thus suggesting a selectivity for the ADP-induced platelet activation pathways.

  20. Suppression of local invasion of ameloblastoma by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianguang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ameloblastomas are odontogenic neoplasms characterized by local invasiveness. This study was conducted to address the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in the invasiveness of ameloblastomas. Methods Plasmids containing either MMP-2 siRNA or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2 cDNA were created and subsequently transfected into primary ameloblastoma cells. Zymography, RT-PCR, and Western blots were used to assess MMP-2 activity and expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2, as well as protein levels. Results Primary cultures of ameloblastoma cells expressed cytokeratin (CK 14 and 16, and MMP-2, but only weakly expressed CK18 and vimentin. MMP-2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly inhibited by RNA interference (P in vitro invasiveness of ameloblastoma. Conclusion These results indicate that inhibition of MMP-2 activity suppresses the local invasiveness of ameloblastoma cells. This mechanism may serve as a novel therapeutic target in ameloblastomas pursuant to additional research.

  1. Derivatives of amphotericin inhibit infection with human immunodeficiency virus in vitro by different modes of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Witzke, N M; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Three water-soluble derivatives of amphotericin B were tested for inhibition of HIV infection in vitro. The compounds amphotericin B methyl ester (AME) and N-(N'-(2-(4'-methylmorpholinio)ethyl)N"-cyclohexyl guanyl) amphotericin B methyl ester (MCG) inhibited HIV infection by 50% at 1 microgram....../ml; N-(N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)N"-ethyl guanyl) amphotericin B (DAPEG) did so at 5-11 micrograms/ml. While the virus-inhibitory effect of AME was due to an interaction with target lymphocytes, the effect of MCG was due to a direct anti-viral action. AME increased the potential of infected cells...... to fuse with uninfected cells, but MCG had no significant effect on cell fusion. All compounds had a lower cellular toxicity than amphotericin B and were not toxic at concentrations below 20 micrograms/ml....

  2. In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella sporozoite invasion into host cells by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessenberger, S; Schatzmayr, G; Teichmann, K

    2016-10-15

    The aim was to study the effects of probiotics isolated from the intestinal tract of livestock animals on Eimeria tenella invasion into Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells in vitro. E. tenella sporozoites were purified and labeled with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester before seeding on cell cultures, and invasion was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Two protocols (A and B) were used. In protocol A, Enterococcus faecium # 589 or Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505 were added together with sporozoites to MDBK cell cultures and invasion was evaluated after incubation for approximately 20h. Viable, dead, or spent culture supernatants of probiotics were tested. In protocol B, viable probiotics were incubated with MDBK cells for one hour before sporozoites were added and invasion was evaluated after two more hours of incubation. Parasite invasion of viable, dead, or spent culture supernatant of E. faecium # 589 was assessed. Using protocol A, it was shown that parasite invasion was inhibited by viable (80%) or dead (75%) E. faecium # 589. While inhibition by viable L. salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505 was not valid at the highest concentration and not significant at the other test concentrations, dead cells inhibited parasite invasion up to 45%. Spent culture supernatants of both probiotics had no influence on parasite invasion. Using protocol B, it was shown that viable Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis # 503, E. faecium # 497, E. faecium # 589, L. reuteri # 514, L. salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505, and Bacillus subtilis # 588 inhibited parasite invasion into MDBK cells up to 80%. Anticoccidial activity was strain-specific for E. faecium strains, and the strongest effect was shown by E. faecium # 589. Anticoccidial effects of some of the tested probiotics have already been shown in vivo, which makes them candidates to prevent coccidiosis. These findings have now been confirmed in vitro. The used parasite invasion

  3. Baicalein Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and the Quorum Sensing System In Vitro.

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    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Biofilm formed by Staphylococcus aureus significantly enhances antibiotic resistance by inhibiting the penetration of antibiotics, resulting in an increasingly serious situation. This study aimed to assess whether baicalein can prevent Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and whether it may have synergistic bactericidal effects with antibiotics in vitro. To do this, we used a clinically isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus 17546 (t037 for biofilm formation. Virulence factors were detected following treatment with baicalein, and the molecular mechanism of its antibiofilm activity was studied. Plate counting, crystal violet staining, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that 32 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL baicalein clearly inhibited 3- and 7-day biofilm formation in vitro. Moreover, colony forming unit count, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that vancomycin (VCM and baicalein generally enhanced destruction of biofilms, while VCM alone did not. Western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses (RTQ-PCR confirmed that baicalein treatment reduced staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA and α-hemolysin (hla levels. Most strikingly, real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction data demonstrated that 32 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL baicalein downregulated the quorum-sensing system regulators agrA, RNAIII, and sarA, and gene expression of ica, but 16 μg/mL baicalein had no effect. In summary, baicalein inhibited Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation, destroyed biofilms, increased the permeability of vancomycin, reduced the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A and α-hemolysin, and inhibited the quorum sensing system. These results support baicalein as a novel drug candidate and an effective treatment strategy for Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  4. Misoprostol Inhibits Equine Neutrophil Adhesion, Migration, and Respiratory Burst in an In Vitro Model of Inflammation.

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    Martin, Emily Medlin; Till, Rebecca Louise; Sheats, Mary Katherine; Jones, Samuel L

    2017-01-01

    In many equine inflammatory disease states, neutrophil activities, such as adhesion, migration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production become dysregulated. Dysregulated neutrophil activation causes tissue damage in horses with asthma, colitis, laminitis, and gastric glandular disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not adequately inhibit neutrophil inflammatory functions and can lead to dangerous adverse effects. Therefore, novel therapies that target mechanisms of neutrophil-mediated tissue damage are needed. One potential neutrophil-targeting therapeutic is the PGE1 analog, misoprostol. Misoprostol is a gastroprotectant that induces intracellular formation of the secondary messenger molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP), which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophils. Misoprostol is currently used in horses to treat NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injury; however, its effects on equine neutrophils have not been determined. We hypothesized that treatment of equine neutrophils with misoprostol would inhibit equine neutrophil adhesion, migration, and ROS production, in vitro. We tested this hypothesis using isolated equine peripheral blood neutrophils collected from 12 healthy adult teaching/research horses of mixed breed and gender. The effect of misoprostol treatment on adhesion, migration, and respiratory burst of equine neutrophils was evaluated via fluorescence-based adhesion and chemotaxis assays, and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence, respectively. Neutrophils were pretreated with varying concentrations of misoprostol, vehicle, or appropriate functional inhibitory controls prior to stimulation with LTB4, CXCL8, PAF, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or immune complex (IC). This study revealed that misoprostol pretreatment significantly inhibited LTB4-induced adhesion, LTB4-, CXCL8-, and PAF-induced chemotaxis, and LPS-, IC-, and PMA-induced ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner. This data indicate that misoprostol-targeting of

  5. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro

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    Friedman Herman

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major psychoactive cannabinoid compound of marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, has been shown to modulate immune responses and lymphocyte function. After primary infection the viral DNA genome of gamma herpesviruses persists in lymphoid cell nuclei in a latent episomal circular form. In response to extracellular signals, the latent virus can be activated, which leads to production of infectious virus progeny. Therefore, we evaluated the potential effects of THC on gamma herpesvirus replication. Methods Tissue cultures infected with various gamma herpesviruses were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of THC and the amount of viral DNA or infectious virus yield was compared to those of control cultures. The effect of THC on Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV replication was measured by the Gardella method and replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS of monkeys, murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (MHV 68, and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1 was measured by yield reduction assays. Inhibition of the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter activity was measured by the dual luciferase method. Results Micromolar concentrations of THC inhibit KSHV and EBV reactivation in virus infected/immortalized B cells. THC also strongly inhibits lytic replication of MHV 68 and HVS in vitro. Importantly, concentrations of THC that inhibit virus replication of gamma herpesviruses have no effect on cell growth or HSV-1 replication, indicating selectivity. THC was shown to selectively inhibit the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter of KSHV and MHV 68. Conclusions THC specifically targets viral and/or cellular mechanisms required for replication and possibly shared by these gamma herpesviruses, and the endocannabinoid system is possibly involved in regulating gamma herpesvirus latency and lytic replication. The immediate early gene ORF 50 promoter activity was specifically inhibited by THC

  6. Retinoids inhibit measles virus in vitro via nuclear retinoid receptor signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Claire; Chabot, Sophie; Mann, Koren K; Colombo, Myrian; Chatterjee, Avijit; Miller, Wilson H; Ward, Brian J

    2008-10-01

    Measles virus (MV) infects 30 million children every year, resulting in more than half a million deaths. Vitamin A (retinol) treatment of acute measles can reduce measles-associated mortality by 50-80%. We sought to determine whether or not retinoids can act directly to limit MV output from infected cells. Physiologic concentrations of retinol were found to inhibit MV output in PBMC and a range of cell lines of epithelial and endothelial origin (40-50%). Near complete inhibition of viral output was achieved in some cells/lines treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis RA (9cRA). Important attenuation of the anti-MV effect of retinoids in R4 cells, a subclone of a retinoid-responsive cell line (NB4) deficient in RAR signaling, demonstrates that this effect is mediated at least in part by nuclear retinoid receptor signaling pathways. Inhibition of MV replication could not be fully explained as a result of retinoid effects on cell differentiation, proliferation or viability, particularly at low retinoid concentrations (1-10nM). These data provide the first evidence that retinoids can directly inhibit MV in vitro, and raise the possibility that retinoids may have similar actions in vivo.

  7. Crude Aloe vera Gel Shows Antioxidant Propensities and Inhibits Pancreatic Lipase and Glucose Movement In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taukoorah, Urmeela; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera gel (AVG) is traditionally used in the management of diabetes, obesity, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of AVG against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten (K m) and Lineweaver-Burk equations were used to establish the type of inhibition. The antioxidant capacity of AVG was evaluated for its ferric reducing power, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging ability, nitric oxide scavenging power, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The glucose entrapment ability, antimicrobial activity, and total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and anthocyanin content were also determined. AVG showed a significantly higher percentage inhibition (85.56 ± 0.91) of pancreatic lipase compared to Orlistat. AVG was found to increase the Michaelis-Menten constant and decreased the maximal velocity (V max) of lipase, indicating mixed inhibition. AVG considerably inhibits glucose movement across dialysis tubes and was comparable to Arabic gum. AVG was ineffective against the tested microorganisms. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 66.06 ± 1.14 (GAE)/mg and 60.95 ± 0.97 (RE)/mg, respectively. AVG also showed interesting antioxidant properties. The biological activity observed in this study tends to validate some of the traditional claims of AVG as a functional food. PMID:26880905

  8. The rhizobacterium Arthrobacter agilis produces dimethylhexadecylamine, a compound that inhibits growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Becerra, Crisanto; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes I; López-Bucio, José; Flores-Cortez, Idolina; Santoyo, Gustavo; Hernández-Soberano, Christian; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi affect agricultural production worldwide. Control of these pests can be done by the use of fungicides such as captan, which may have deleterious effects on human health. This study demonstrates that the rhizobacterium Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 produces volatile organic compounds that inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in vitro. A single compound from the volatile blends, namely dimethylhexadecylamine (DMHDA), could inhibit the growth of both B. cinerea and P. cinnamomi when supplied to the growth medium in low concentrations. DMHDA also inhibited the growth of beneficial fungi Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride but at much higher concentrations. DMHDA-related aminolipids containing 4, 8, 10, 12, and 14 carbons in the alkyl chain were tested for their inhibitory effect on the growth of the pathogens. The results show that the most active compound from those tested was dimethyldodecylamine. This effect correlates with a decrease in the number of membrane lipids present in the mycelium of the pathogen including eicosanoic acid, (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, methyl ester, and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester. Strawberry leaflets treated with DMHDA were not injured by the compound. These data indicate that DMHDA and related compounds, which can be produced by microorganisms may effectively inhibit the proliferation of certain plant pathogens.

  9. Hydroxytyrosol inhibits cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth: an in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Han, Zhiyang; Ma, Yong; Song, Ruipeng; Pei, Tiemin; Zheng, Tongsen; Wang, Jiabei; Xu, Dongsheng; Fang, Xiang; Jiang, Hongchi; Liu, Lianxin

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a type of digestive tumor that is associated with a high rate of mortality due to the difficulty of early diagnosis and the resistance of this tumor type to chemotherapy. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), which is derived from virgin olive oil (VOO), has recently been reported to inhibit the proliferation of various types of human cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HT on CCA. The antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of HT on CCA were evaluated in the human CCA cell lines TFK-1 and KMBC and the human gallbladder cancer cell line GBS-SD. We also assessed this effect in vivo. We found that 75 µM HT inhibited the proliferation of the TFK-1, KMBC and GBS-SD cell lines. However, 200 µM HT treatment did not affect the proliferation of the human bile duct cell line HIBEpiC. More importantly, HT (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) markedly inhibited the growth of CCA xenografts in mice. G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were observed using flow cytometry and western blotting, and we also noted a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of phospho-ERK, with no changes in total-ERK, during treatment with HT. The present study showed that HT induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that HT, which possesses excellent biocompatibility and few side-effects, could be developed as a novel agent against CCA.

  10. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro by some citrus fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2012-05-01

    This study sought to characterize the effects of some citrus fruit juices (shaddock [Citrus maxima], grapefruit [Citrus paradisii], lemon [Citrus limoni], orange [Citrus sinensis], and tangerine [Citrus reticulata]) on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. The total phenolic content, radical scavenging abilities, and inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats brain homogenate in vitro were also assessed. Orange had significantly (P<.05) higher phenolic content than the other juices. The juices scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner with orange having the highest scavenging ability. Furthermore, the juices inhibited Fe(2+)-induced MDA production in rat brain homogenate in a dose-dependent manner with shaddock having the highest inhibitory ability. Acetylcholinesterase activity was also inhibited in vitro by the juices in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant properties of the citrus juices could make them a good dietary means for the management of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. The Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Inhibits the Proliferation of Bladder Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Tao Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis of certain malignancies. However, the mechanisms for the anti-cancer effects of metformin remain uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effects of metformin on human bladder cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. Metformin significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of 5637 and T24 cells in vitro; specifically, metformin induced an apparent cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phases, accompanied by a strong decrease of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4, E2F1 and an increase of p21waf-1. Further experiments revealed that metformin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and suppressed mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, the central regulator of protein synthesis and cell growth. Moreover, daily treatment of metformin led to a substantial inhibition of tumor growth in a xenograft model with concomitant decrease in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclin D1 and p-mTOR. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that metformin efficiently suppresses the proliferation of bladder cancer cells and suggest that metformin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer.

  12. Aged black garlic extract induces inhibition of gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Jiao, Fei; Wang, Qin-Wen; Wang, Juan; Yang, Ke; Hu, Rong-Rong; Liu, Han-Chen; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that garlic extracts possess significant anticancer actions. However, no studies have been reported on the effects of aged black garlic extracts (ABGE) on gastric cancer in vitro or in vivo. To examine the potential action of ABGE against gastric cancer, the present study evaluated its effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. Additionally, we performed an in vivo study by inoculating the murine foregastric carcinoma cell line in Kunming mice and treating them with various doses of ABGE (0, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 2 weeks. Dose-dependent apoptosis was detected in ABGE-treated cells in in vitro studies. In tumor-bearing mice, significant antitumor effects of ABGE were observed, such as growth inhibition of inoculated tumors. Further investigation of serum superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-2 and the increased indices of spleen and thymus indicated that the anticancer action of ABGE may be partly due to its antioxidant and immunomodulative effects.

  13. The effective concentration of tranexamic acid for inhibition of fibrinolysis in neonatal plasma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Branden E; Wissler, Richard N; Zanghi, Christine N; Feng, Changyong; Eaton, Michael P

    2013-10-01

    Neonates are at high risk for bleeding complications after cardiovascular surgery. Activation of intravascular fibrinolysis is one of the principal effects of cardiopulmonary bypass that causes poor postoperative hemostasis. Antifibrinolytic medications such as tranexamic acid are often used as prophylaxis against fibrinolysis, but concentration/effect data to guide dosing are sparse for adults and have not been published for neonates. Higher concentrations of tranexamic acid than those necessary for inhibition of fibrinolysis may have adverse effects. Therefore, we investigated the concentration of tranexamic acid necessary to inhibit activated fibrinolysis in neonatal plasma. We conducted an in vitro study using neonatal plasma derived from the placenta/cord units from 20 term, elective cesarean deliveries. Graded concentrations of tranexamic acid were added to aliquots of the pooled plasma before maximally activating fibrinolysis with high-dose tissue-type plasminogen activator. Thromboelastography was then performed with the primary outcome variable being lysis at 30 minutes. These procedures were repeated on pooled adult normal plasma and dilutions of neonatal plasma. The minimum concentrations of tranexamic acid to completely prevent fibrinolysis were 6.54 μg/mL (95% confidence interval, 5.19-7.91) for neonatal plasma and 17.5 μg/mL (95% confidence interval, 14.59-20.41) for adult plasma. Neonatal plasma requires a significantly lower concentration than adult plasma (P fibrinolysis in neonatal plasma in vitro. These data may be useful in designing a dosing scheme for tranexamic acid appropriate for neonates.

  14. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles inhibit the growth of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Dong-Fu; Ma, Yan-Bin; Li, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAPs) have been reported to exhibit antitumor effects on various human cancers, but the effects of nano-HAPs on human glioma cells remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of nano-HAPs on the growth of human glioma U251 and SHG44 cells in vitro and in vivo. Nano-HAPs could inhibit the growth of U251 and SHG44 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, according to methyl thiazoletetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. Treated with 120 mg/L and 240 mg/L nano-HAPs for 48 hours, typical apoptotic morphological changes were noted under Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. The tumor growth of cells was inhibited after the injection in vivo, and the related side effects significantly decreased in the nano-HAP-and-drug combination group. Because of the function of nano-HAPs, the expression of c-Met, SATB1, Ki-67, and bcl-2 protein decreased, and the expression of SLC22A18 and caspase-3 protein decreased noticeably. The findings indicate that nano-HAPs have an evident inhibitory action and induce apoptosis of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. In a drug combination, they can significantly reduce the adverse reaction related to the chemotherapeutic drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). PMID:22888225

  15. Unfractionated Heparin Promotes Osteoclast Formation in Vitro by Inhibiting Osteoprotegerin Activity

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    Binghan Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heparin has been proven to enhance bone resorption and induce bone loss. Since osteoclasts play a pivotal role in bone resorption, the effect of heparin on osteoclastogenesis needs to be clarified. Since osteocytes are the key modulator during osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated heparin’s effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro by co-culturing an osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4 and pre-osteoclasts (RAW264.7. In this co-culture system, heparin enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption while having no influence on the production of RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand, M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and OPG (osteoprotegerin, which are three main regulatory factors derived from osteocytes. According to previous studies, heparin could bind specifically to OPG and inhibit its activity, so we hypothesized that this might be a possible mechanism of heparin activity. To test this hypothesis, osteoclastogenesis was induced using recombinant RANKL or MLO-Y4 supernatant. We found that heparin has no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (contains no OPG. However, after incubation with OPG, the capacity of MLO-Y4 supernatant for supporting osteoclast formation was increased. This effect disappeared after OPG was neutralized and reappeared after OPG was replenished. These results strongly suggest that heparin promotes osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro, at least partially, through inhibiting OPG activity.

  16. Unfractionated Heparin Promotes Osteoclast Formation in Vitro by Inhibiting Osteoprotegerin Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binghan; Lu, Dan; Chen, Yuqing; Zhao, Minghui; Zuo, Li

    2016-04-22

    Heparin has been proven to enhance bone resorption and induce bone loss. Since osteoclasts play a pivotal role in bone resorption, the effect of heparin on osteoclastogenesis needs to be clarified. Since osteocytes are the key modulator during osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated heparin's effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro by co-culturing an osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) and pre-osteoclasts (RAW264.7). In this co-culture system, heparin enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption while having no influence on the production of RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand), M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and OPG (osteoprotegerin), which are three main regulatory factors derived from osteocytes. According to previous studies, heparin could bind specifically to OPG and inhibit its activity, so we hypothesized that this might be a possible mechanism of heparin activity. To test this hypothesis, osteoclastogenesis was induced using recombinant RANKL or MLO-Y4 supernatant. We found that heparin has no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (contains no OPG). However, after incubation with OPG, the capacity of MLO-Y4 supernatant for supporting osteoclast formation was increased. This effect disappeared after OPG was neutralized and reappeared after OPG was replenished. These results strongly suggest that heparin promotes osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro, at least partially, through inhibiting OPG activity.

  17. Linarin Inhibits the Acetylcholinesterase Activity In-vitro and Ex-vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinchi; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Linarin is a flavone glycoside in the plants Flos chrysanthemi indici, Buddleja officinalis, Cirsium setosum, Mentha arvensis and Buddleja davidii, and has been reported to possess analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. In this paper, linarin was investigated for its AChE inhibitory potential both in-vitro and ex-vivo. Ellman’s colorimetric method was used for the determination of AChE inhibitory activity in mouse brain. In-vitro assays revealed that linarin inhibited AChE activity with an IC50 of 3.801 ± 1.149 μM. Ex-vivo study showed that the AChE activity was significantly reduced in both the cortex and hippocampus of mice treated intraperitoneally with various doses of linarin (35, 70 and 140 mg/Kg). The inhibition effects produced by high dose of linarin were the same as that obtained after huperzine A treatment (0.5 mg/Kg). Molecular docking study revealed that both 4’-methoxyl group and 7-O-sugar moiety of linarin played important roles in ligand-receptor binding and thus they are mainly responsible for AChE inhibitory activity. In view of its potent AChE inhibitory activity, linarin may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of some diseases associated with AChE, such as glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, gastric motility and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26330885

  18. In vitro transcription and translation inhibition via DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J; Baptista, P V [Centro de Investigacao em Genetica Molecular Humana (CIGMH), Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); De la Fuente, J M, E-mail: pmvb@fct.unl.pt [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-12-17

    The use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been gaining momentum as vectors for gene silencing strategies, combining the AuNPs' ease of functionalization with DNA and/or siRNA, high loading capacity and fast uptake by target cells. Here, we used AuNP functionalized with thiolated oligonucleotides to specifically inhibit transcription in vitro, demonstrating the synergetic effect between AuNPs and a specific antisense sequence that blocks the T7 promoter region. Also, AuNPs efficiently protect the antisense oligonucleotide against nuclease degradation, which can thus retain its inhibitory potential. In addition, we demonstrate that AuNPs functionalized with a thiolated oligonucleotide complementary to the ribosome binding site and the start codon, effectively shut down in vitro translation. Together, these two approaches can provide for a simple yet robust experimental set up to test for efficient gene silencing of AuNP-DNA conjugates. What is more, these results show that appropriate functionalization of AuNPs can be used as a dual targeting approach to an enhanced control of gene expression-inhibition of both transcription and translation.

  19. In vitro inhibition of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens by commercial probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoster, A; Kokotovic, B; Permin, A; Pedersen, P D; Dal Bello, F; Guardabassi, L

    2013-04-01

    Probiotics have gained importance in human and veterinary medicine to prevent and control clostridial enteric disease. Limited information is available on the ability of different probiotic bacteria used in food products to inhibit Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro inhibitory effects of selected commercial bacterial strains on pathogenic clostridia and their growth characteristics under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The inhibitory effects of 17 commercial strains of Lactobacillus (n = 16) and Bifidobacterium (n = 1) on the reference strains of C. difficile and C. perfringens were assessed by an agar well diffusion assay and by a broth culture inhibition assay using cell-free supernatant harvested at different growth phases, with and without pH neutralization. To study growth characteristics, probiotic strains were cultivated in different acid and bile environments, and growth in the modified media was compared to growth in standard medium. In the agar well diffusion assay, supernatant obtained from two probiotic strains inhibited the growth of both reference and clinical strains of C. perfringens. This effect as seen when supernatant was assessed with and without pH neutralization. Supernatants obtained from 10 probiotic strains inhibited C. difficile only when supernatant was added without pH neutralization. In the broth culture inhibition assay, growth of C. perfringens and C. difficile was inhibited by supernatant without pH neutralization from 5 and 10 probiotic strains, respectively. All potential probiotic strains were able to grow at pH 4.0 and in the presence of 0.15% and 0.3% bile but none were able to grow or survive at pH 2.0. Altogether five probiotic strains [Lactobacillus plantarum (n = 2), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (n = 2), Bifidobacterium animalis lactis (n = 1)] were shown to inhibit all strains of C. difficile and C. perfringens. The inhibitory effect was probiotic

  20. Inhibition of HIV and HSV infection by vaginal lactobacilli in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollahi Rezvan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study The cervico-vaginal mucosa which is populated with microflora (mostly includes lactobacilli is the portal of entry for sexually transmitted pathogens. Methods The in vitro anti-viral effect of vaginal and non-vaginal lactobacillus was evaluated using single cycle HIV-1 replication and HSV-2 plaque reduction assays. The XTT proliferation assay was used to monitor the cellular toxicity. The in vivo anti-HSV-1 activity was evaluated in BALB/c mouse model by monitoring skin lesion and immune response development. Results and major conclusion DMEM culture supernatant of L. Gasseri and L. fermentum (PH 7.3 did not show toxic effect but inhibited 50% of HIV replication at 12 and 31% concentrations, respectively. Co-culture of L. gasseri (1000 CFU/ target cell showed mild cytotoxicity but inhibited 68% of HIV replication. The supernatant of L. crispatus inhibited 50% of HSV replication at 4% and also co-culture of L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus and L. crispatus revokes almost all of the HSV multiplication. Culture supernatants of L. gasseri and L. crispatus had significant virucidal effect against the HIV and HSV and inhibited HSV infection in a stage before viral entry to the target cells. Alive L. gasseri cells showed high potential for inhibiting HSV-1 infection in vivo condition. Current data indicates that lactobacilli supernatant encompasses components with neutralizing activity against HIV and HSV and it would be a determinant factor for viral diseases transmission and promising lead for anti-viral probiotic design.

  1. Inhibition of HIV and HSV infection by vaginal lactobacilli in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Modarressi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study The cervico-vaginal mucosa which is populated with microflora (mostly includes lactobacilli is the portal of entry for sexually transmitted pathogens.MethodsThe in vitro anti-viral effect of vaginal and non-vaginal lactobacillus was evaluated using single cycle HIV-1 replication and HSV-2 plaque reduction assays. The XTT proliferation assay was used to monitor the cellular toxicity. The in vivo anti-HSV-1 activity was evaluated in BALB/c mouse model by monitoring skin lesion and immune response development. Results and major conclusion DMEM culture supernatant of L. Gasseri and L. fermentum (PH 7.3 did not show toxic effect but inhibited 50% of HIV replication at 12 and 31% concentrations, respectively. Coculture of L. gasseri (1000 CFU/ target cell showed mild cytotoxicity but inhibited 68% of HIV replication. The supernatant of L. crispatus inhibited 50% of HSV replication at 4% and also co-culture of L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus and L. crispatus revokes almost all of the HSV multiplication. Culture supernatants of L. gasseri and L. crispatus had significant virucidal effect against the HIV and HSV and inhibited HSV infection in a stage before viral entry to the target cells. Alive L. gasseri cells showed high potential for inhibiting HSV-1 infection in vivo condition. Current data indicates that lactobacilli supernatant encompasses components with neutralizing activity against HIV and HSV and it would be a determinant factor for viral diseases transmission and promising lead for anti-viral probiotic design.

  2. Raddeanin A induces human gastric cancer cells apoptosis and inhibits their invasion in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Department of Oncology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Zou, Xi [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Zhou, Jin-Yong [Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Sun, Wei [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Wu, Jian [Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Xu, Jia-Li [Department of Oncology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Wang, Rui-Ping, E-mail: ruipingwang61@hotmail.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Raddeanin A is a triterpenoid saponin in herb medicine Anemone raddeana Regel. •Raddeanin A can inhibit 3 kinds of gastric cancer cells’ proliferation and invasion. •Caspase-cascades’ activation indicates apoptosis induced by Raddeanin A. •MMPs, RECK, Rhoc and E-cad are involved in Raddeanin A-induced invasion inhibition. -- Abstract: Raddeanin A is one of the triterpenoid saponins in herbal medicine Anemone raddeana Regel which was reported to suppress the growth of liver and lung cancer cells. However, little was known about its effect on gastric cancer (GC) cells. This study aimed to investigate its inhibitory effect on three kinds of different differentiation stage GC cells (BGC-823, SGC-7901 and MKN-28) in vitro and the possible mechanisms. Proliferation assay and flow cytometry demonstrated Raddeanin A’s dose-dependent inhibitory effect and determined its induction of cells apoptosis, respectively. Transwell assay, wounding heal assay and cell matrix adhesion assay showed that Raddeanin A significantly inhibited the abilities of the invasion, migration and adhesion of the BGC-823 cells. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analysis found that Raddeanin A increased Bax expression while reduced Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin expressions and significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, Raddeanin A could also up-regulate the expression of reversion inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), E-cadherin (E-cad) and down-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-14 and Rhoc. In conclusion, Raddeanin A inhibits proliferation of human GC cells, induces their apoptosis and inhibits the abilities of invasion, migration and adhesion, exhibiting potential to become antitumor drug.

  3. Azaspirene analogs inhibit the growth of human uterine carcinosarcoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Makoto; Yano, Kyoko; Choijamts, Batsuren; Sakai, Shinnosuke; Hirasawa, Shun; Wakamori, Shinnosuke; Aizawa, Mamoru; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Tachibana, Katsuro; Kanomata, Nobuhiro

    2015-05-01

    Uterine carcinosarcoma is a highly aggressive gynecological neoplasm that responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies have shown high angiogenic activities of this tumor, hence anti-angiogenic approaches are expected to provide new treatment strategies for this tumor. In previous work, azaspirene was isolated from Neosartorya sp. fungi, and in vitro anti-angiogenic activities were shown. In the present study, the anti-angiogenic effects of azaspirene analogs, synthetic molecules with a shorter ethyl group replacing a hexadienyl side-chain of the natural compound, were assessed in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) co-cultured with FU-MMT-3 human uterine carcinosarcoma cells. The anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of these analogs were also evaluated in vivo using FU-MMT-3 xenografted tumors in nude mice. The azaspirene analogs inhibited the tube formation of HUVECs induced by FU-MMT-3 cells in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo compared to the untreated group (control). A significant reduction of the microvessel density in tumors was observed, in comparison to the control. No apparent toxicity, including body loss, was observed in any mice treated in this study. These azaspirene analogs may be effective against uterine carcinosarcoma, possibly acting via potent anti-angiogenic effects. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Curcumin-induced HDAC inhibition and attenuation of medulloblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson James M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common brain tumor in children, and its prognosis is worse than for many other common pediatric cancers. Survivors undergoing treatment suffer from serious therapy-related side effects. Thus, it is imperative to identify safer, effective treatments for medulloblastoma. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancer potential of curcumin in medulloblastoma by testing its ability to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in vitro and in vivo using established medulloblastoma models. Methods Using cultured medulloblastoma cells, tumor xenografts, and the Smo/Smo transgenic medulloblastoma mouse model, the antitumor effects of curcumin were tested in vitro and in vivo. Results Curcumin induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in medulloblastoma cells. These effects were accompanied by reduced histone deacetylase (HDAC 4 expression and activity and increased tubulin acetylation, ultimately leading to mitotic catastrophe. In in vivo medulloblastoma xenografts, curcumin reduced tumor growth and significantly increased survival in the Smo/Smo transgenic medulloblastoma mouse model. Conclusions The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that curcumin has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for medulloblastoma.

  5. Potential inhibition of demineralization in vitro by fluoride-releasing sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar, David V; García-Godoy, Franklin; Flaitz, Catherine M; Hicks, M John

    2007-04-01

    The incorporation of fluoride into sealants has been viewed as a viable way to prevent pit-and-fissure caries by potential inhibition of demineralization through the release of fluoride to enamel. The authors conducted a study to examine the effect of a recently introduced fluoride-releasing sealant (ProSeal, Reliance Orthodontic Products, Itasca, Ill.) on enamel demineralization in an in vitro artificial caries system. The authors randomly assigned 45 extracted human third molars to three treatment groups receiving either conventional sealant without fluoride (Group 1), fluoride-releasing sealant (Group 2) or glass ionomer sealant with high fluoride release (Group 3). They placed cavity preparations on the buccal surfaces of the molars and filled them with the assigned material. They placed acid-resistant varnish on the specimens' enamel surfaces to within 1 millimeter of the sealant, leaving a 1-mm rim of sound enamel available for in vitro enamel caries formation. They thermocycled the teeth (500 cycles) in artificial saliva. They subjected the teeth to an in vitro artificial caries challenge for six weeks to produce caries-like lesions in enamel adjacent to the sealant materials. The authors took longitudinal sections from each tooth, immersed them in water and examined them via polarized light microscopy to determine wall lesion frequencies. The mean (+/- standard deviation) lesion depths were 232 +/- 17 micrometers for Group 1, 144 +/- 21 mum for Group 2 and 128 +/- 15 mum for Group 3. The wall lesion frequency was 12 percent for Group 1 and 7 percent for both Groups 2 and 3. There was a significant difference (P sealant substantially reduces the amount of enamel demineralization adjacent to the material. ProSeal provided increased demineralization inhibition compared with a conventional sealant containing no fluoride, but less than that shown by a glass ionomer sealant. ProSeal's physical properties and cariostatic effects may allow for applications beyond

  6. In vitro inhibition of monkeypox virus production and spread by Interferon-β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Sara C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orthopoxvirus genus contains numerous virus species that are capable of causing disease in humans, including variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and vaccinia virus (the prototypical member of the genus. Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that is endemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and is characterized by systemic lesion development and prominent lymphadenopathy. Like variola virus, monkeypox virus is a high priority pathogen for therapeutic development due to its potential to cause serious disease with significant health impacts after zoonotic, accidental, or deliberate introduction into a naïve population. Results The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of interferon-β (IFN-β for use against monkeypox virus. We found that treatment with human IFN-β results in a significant decrease in monkeypox virus production and spread in vitro. IFN-β substantially inhibited monkeypox virus when introduced 6-8 h post infection, revealing its potential for use as a therapeutic. IFN-β induced the expression of the antiviral protein MxA in infected cells, and constitutive expression of MxA was shown to inhibit monkeypox virus infection. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the successful inhibition of monkeypox virus using human IFN-β and suggest that IFN-β could potentially serve as a novel safe therapeutic for human monkeypox disease.

  7. AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF PLANTS IN Colletotrichum gloeosporioides INHIBITION IN VITRO AND IN POSTHARVEST GUAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO HENRIQUE ALVES DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant aqueous extracts in the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. & Sacc. the causal agent of guava anthracnose in, was evaluated in vitro with 1, 2 and 3% aqueous ex- tracts of Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, Ocimum gratissimum, Syzygium aromaticum. The experiment was installed in a complete randomized desing in a 3x4 factorial scheme (doses x extracts. For the evaluation, it was calculated the percentage of fungal inhibition. The experiment in vivo was conducted by applying Syzy- gium aromaticum and Azadirachta indica aqueous extract at 2 and 3%, respectively, in three different storage conditions: refrigerated with and without plastic film (PVC, and at ambient conditions. The experiment was installed in a completely randomized design, in a 2x3 factorial scheme (extracts x storage conditions. We evaluated the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. Syzygium aromati- cum extract at 2% provided 100% of fungal mycelial growth inhibition, and Azadirachta indica extract at the highest dosage (3% inhibited 20.22%. In fruits, there was not significant statistical difference between the ef- fect of extracts on the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. In relation to the storage conditions, the ones with plastic film and refrigerated differed from the other conditions obtain- ing better external appearance and less severity of disease, lower loss of weight and higher Brix degrees.

  8. [Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication and expression by RNA interference in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cai; Fan, Xue-gong; Li, Ning; Ying, Ruo-su; Tian, Xue-fei

    2005-09-14

    To design pSilencer3.1-H1hygro plasmid expressing short interfering RNAs (siRNA) that target HBV S gene region, and to evaluate inhibitory effect of this siRNA on HBV in vitro. HepG2.2.15 was used as target cell. The plasmid expressing small interfering RNA was transfected into the cultured cells via liposome metafectene, HBsAg and HBeAg were analyzed by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay, HBV DNA were analyzed by fluorogenic quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR), HBV S-mRNA was detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The plasmid expressing siRNA was successfully constructed. The S region siRNAs could effectively inhibit both antigens secretion and HBV replication compared with controls, HBsAg levels decreased by 75%, 82%, 89%; HBeAg levels decreased by 32%, 38%, 43%; HBV DNA production decreased by 30%, 43%, 49%; The HBV mRNA species was reduced by 30%, 70%, 90% when transfected with 1 microg, 2 microg, 4 microg HBV S-siRNA, respectively. These results demonstrate that RNAi can substantially inhibit HBV replication and the antigens expression in the infected cells. These inhibitive effect of siRNA on HBV was dose-dependent and sequence-specific.

  9. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition by psoralen using molecular docking and enzymatic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauresh Somani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alzheimer′s disease (AD has increased at an alarming rate and is now a worldwide health problem. Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE leading to inhibition of acetylcholine breakdown constitute the main therapeutic strategy for AD. Psoralen was investigated as inhibitor of AChE enzyme in an attempt to explore its potential for the management of AD. Materials and Methods: Psoralen was isolated from powdered Psoralea corylifolia fruits. AChE enzyme inhibitory activity of different concentrations of psoralen was investigated by use of in vitro enzymatic and molecular docking studies. Further, the enzyme kinetics were studied using Lineweaver-Burk plot. Results: Psoralen was found to inhibit AChE enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Kinetic studies showed psoralen inhibits AChE in a competitive manner. Molecular docking study revealed that psoralen binds well within the binding site of the enzyme showing interactions such as π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding with residues present therein. Conclusion: The result of AChE enzyme inhibitory activity of the psoralen in this study is promising. It could be further explored as a potential candidate for further development of new drugs against AD.

  10. The flavonoid component isorhamnetin in vitro inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Eca-109 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gang; Yang, Chunlei; Qu, Yi; Wei, Huaying; Zhang, Tongtong; Zhang, Najuan

    2007-04-25

    Isorhamnetin is one member of flavonoid components which has been used in the treatment of heart disease. Recently the in vitro anti-cancer effect of isorhamnetin on human esophageal squamous carcinoma cell line Eca-109 was investigated in our lab. When Eca-109 cells were in vitro exposed to the graded doses of isorhamnetin (0-80 microg/ml) for 48 h, respectively, isorhamnetin exhibited cytostatic effect on the treated cells, with an IC(50) of 40+/-0.08 microg/ml as estimated by MTT assay. Inhibition on proliferation by isorhamnetin was detected by trypan blue exclusion assay, clone formation test, immunocytochemical assay of PCNA and (3)H-thymidine uptake analysis. Cell cycle distribution was measured by FCM. It was found that the viability of Eca-109 cells was significantly hampered by isorhamnetin. Compared with the negative control group, the treated group which was exposed to isorhamnetin had increased population in G(0)/G(1) phase from 74.6 to 84 while had a significant reduction in G(2)/M phase from 11.9 to 5.8. In addition to its cytostatic effect, isorhamnetin also showed stimulatory effect on apoptosis. Typical apoptotic morphology such as condensation and fragmentation of nuclei and blebbing membrane of the apoptotic cells could be observed through transmission electron microscope. Moreover, the sharp increase in apoptosis rate between the control and treated group were detected by FCM from 6.3 to 16.3. To explore the possible molecular mechanisms that underlie the growth inhibition and apoptosis stimulatory effects of isorhamnetin, the expressions of six proliferation- and death-related genes were detected by FCM. Expressions of bcl-2, c-myc and H-ras were downregulated whereas Bax, c-fos and p53 were upregulated. However, the in vivo experiments were required to further confirm the anti-cancer effects of isorhamnetin. In conclusion, isorhamnetin appears to be a potent drug against esophageal cancer due to its in vitro potential to not only inhibit

  11. Arsenic sulfide inhibits cell migration and invasion of gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lian Zhang,1 Sungkyoung Kim,1 Wenping Ding,1 Yingying Tong,1 Xiuli Zhang,1 Minggui Pan,2 Siyu Chen1 1Department of Oncology, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Santa Clara, CA, USA Background: We previously showed that arsenic sulfide (As4S4 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in several human solid tumor cell lines, including those of gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of As4S4 on the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.Methods: The human gastric cancer cell lines AGS and MGC803 were selected as in vitro models. Wound-healing migration assay and Transwell invasion assay were carried out to determine the effects of As4S4 on cell migration and invasion. The expressions of E-cadherin, β-catenin, Sp1, KLF4, and VEGF were measured by Western blotting analysis. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 in MGC803 cells were demonstrated by zymography assay. A mouse xenograft model was established by inoculation with MGC803 cells, then intraperitoneal injected with As4S4 for 3 weeks and monitored for body weight and tumor changes. Finally, the inhibition rate of tumor growth was calculated, and the expression of proteins and genes associated with tumor invasion and metastasis in tumor tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.Results: As4S4 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cell lines. The expression of E-cadherin and KLF4 was upregulated, while the expressions of β-catenin, VEGF, and Sp1 were downregulated following treatment with As4S4. Moreover, the protease activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were suppressed by As4S4 in MGC803 cells. Meanwhile, As4S4 effectively suppressed the abilities of tumor growth and

  12. Arsenic sulfide inhibits cell migration and invasion of gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian; Kim, Sungkyoung; Ding, Wenping; Tong, Yingying; Zhang, Xiuli; Pan, Minggui; Chen, Siyu

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that arsenic sulfide (As4S4) induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in several human solid tumor cell lines, including those of gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of As4S4 on the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Methods The human gastric cancer cell lines AGS and MGC803 were selected as in vitro models. Wound-healing migration assay and Transwell invasion assay were carried out to determine the effects of As4S4 on cell migration and invasion. The expressions of E-cadherin, β-catenin, Sp1, KLF4, and VEGF were measured by Western blotting analysis. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in MGC803 cells were demonstrated by zymography assay. A mouse xenograft model was established by inoculation with MGC803 cells, then intraperitoneal injected with As4S4 for 3 weeks and monitored for body weight and tumor changes. Finally, the inhibition rate of tumor growth was calculated, and the expression of proteins and genes associated with tumor invasion and metastasis in tumor tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Results As4S4 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cell lines. The expression of E-cadherin and KLF4 was upregulated, while the expressions of β-catenin, VEGF, and Sp1 were downregulated following treatment with As4S4. Moreover, the protease activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were suppressed by As4S4 in MGC803 cells. Meanwhile, As4S4 effectively suppressed the abilities of tumor growth and invasion in the xenograft tumor model. We found that As4S4 upregulated the expression of E-cadherin and downregulated the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, VEGF, and CD34 in mouse tumor tissues, consistent with the results in vitro. Conclusion As4S4 inhibited the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells by blocking tumor cell adhesion, decreasing the ability of

  13. Inhibition of Delta1 promotes differentiation of odontoblasts and inhibits proliferation of human dental pulp stem cell in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; He, Fei; Tan, Yinghui; Tian, Weidong; Qiu, Songbo

    2011-09-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been receiving more attentions recently as an important biomaterial for tissue engineering. Notch signalling plays a key role in regulating self-renewal and differentiation of a variety of cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of Notch-Delta1 RNA interference (RNAi) on the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells in vitro. In the present study, we performed gene knockdown of Notch ligand Delta1 in DPSCs using lentivirus-mediated Delta1-RNAi. Changes of proliferation in DPSCs/Delta1-RNAi were examined by cell cycle analysis, Cell viability assay (CCK-8) and Western blot analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Cells were cultured in odontoblast differentiation-inducing medium, and the differentiation of cells was detected with Alkaline phosphatase ALP activity assay, Alizarin red S staining, calcium concentration measurement, and Western blot analysis of Dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP). Lentivirus-mediated Delta1-RNAi stably knocked-down the expression of Delta1 and Notch signalling, and some of DPSCs/Delta1-RNAi displayed changes in morphology or DSPP expression. The growth rate of Delta1-deficient DPSCs was significantly suppressed as compared with wild type DPSCs and control lentivirus vector transfected DPSCs. Furthermore, the differentiating capability of DPSCs/Delta1-RNAi into odontoblasts is much higher than the two control groups. Notch signalling plays a crucial role in regulating self-renewal and differentiation in DPSCs. The deficient Notch signalling inhibits the self-renewal capacity of DPSCs and tends to induce DPSCs differentiation under odontoblast differentiation-inducing conditions. These findings suggested that DPSCs/Delta1-RNAi might be applicable to stem cell therapies and tooth tissue engineering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid Birkelund; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Private consumers and professionals may experience acute inhalation toxicity after inhaling aerosolized impregnation products. The distinction between toxic and non-toxic products is difficult to make for producers and product users alike, as there is no clearly described relationship between...... the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large...... numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21...

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits the spontaneous release of superoxide radical by alveolar macrophages in vitro in asbestosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rom, W.N.; Harkin, T. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (United States))

    1991-08-01

    Asbestosis is characterized by an alveolar macrophage alveolitis with injury and fibrosis of the lower respiratory tract. Alveolar macrophages recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage spontaneously release exaggerated amounts of oxidants including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide that may mediate alveolar epithelial cell injury. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a normally occurring adrenal androgen that inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the pentose phosphate shunt necessary for NADPH generation and superoxide anion formation. In this regard, the authors hypothesized that DHEA may reduce asbestos-induced oxidant release. DHEA added in vitro to alveolar macrophages lavaged from 11 nonsmoking asbestos workers significantly reduced superoxide anion release. DHEA is an antioxidant and potential anticarcinogenic agent that may have a therapeutic role in reducing the increased oxidant burden in asbestos-induced alveolitis of the lower respiratory tract.

  16. The Acyclic Retinoid Peretinoin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Infectious Virus Release in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakami, Tetsuro; Honda, Masao; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Takabatake, Riuta; Liu, Fanwei; Murai, Kazuhisa; Shiomoto, Takayuki; Funaki, Masaya; Yamane, Daisuke; Murakami, Seishi; Lemon, Stanley M.; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-04-01

    Clinical studies suggest that the oral acyclic retinoid Peretinoin may reduce the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following surgical ablation of primary tumours. Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of HCC, we assessed whether Peretinoin and other retinoids have any effect on HCV infection. For this purpose, we measured the effects of several retinoids on the replication of genotype 1a, 1b, and 2a HCV in vitro. Peretinoin inhibited RNA replication for all genotypes and showed the strongest antiviral effect among the retinoids tested. Furthermore, it reduced infectious virus release by 80-90% without affecting virus assembly. These effects could be due to reduced signalling from lipid droplets, triglyceride abundance, and the expression of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase. These negative effects of Peretinoin on HCV infection may be beneficial in addition to its potential for HCC chemoprevention in HCV-infected patients.

  17. In vitro inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum by substances isolated from Amazonian antimalarial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter F de Andrade-Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a quassinoid, neosergeolide, isolated from the roots and stems of Picrolemma sprucei (Simaroubaceae, the indole alkaloids ellipticine and aspidocarpine, isolated from the bark of Aspidosperma vargasii and A. desmanthum (Apocynaceae, respectively, and 4-nerolidylcatechol, isolated from the roots of Pothomorphe peltata (Piperaceae, all presented significant in vitro inhibition (more active than quinine and chloroquine of the multi-drug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Neosergeolide presented activity in the nanomolar range. This is the first report on the antimalarial activity of these known, natural compounds. This is also the first report on the isolation of aspidocarpine from A. desmanthum. These compounds are good candidates for pre-clinical tests as novel lead structures with the aim of finding new antimalarial prototypes and lend support to the traditional use of the plants from which these compounds are derived.

  18. Inhibition of hepatocellular cancer by EB1089: in vitro and in vive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghous, Zahid; Akhter, Javed; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Morris, David L

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant antiproliferative potential, clinical application of 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2VD3] in the treatment of cancer has been hindered due to the development of hypercalcemia. Various derivatives of 1,25(OH)2VD3 have been synthesized to overcome this side-effect. Seocalcitol (EB1089) is a vitamin D analog that has been extensively studied and shown to have profoundly reduced hypercalcemic effects. Here the effects of EB1089 were evaluated in Hep 3B, SKHEP-1, PLC/PRF/5, HTC and Novikoff hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cell lines. In vitro, cells were treated with different concentrations of EB1089 (1-1000 nM). Analytical tests were then performed including cell count and 3H thymidine assay. For in vivo analysis, SKHEP-1 cells were xenografted into nude male mice. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, mice were randomly assigned to a control group (n=10) or one of the treatment groups (3 groups of 10 mice) receiving 0.02, 0.1 or 0.5 microg/kg/day of EB1089. Control animals received the vehicle (propylene glycol). To minimize the number of intraperitoneal injections, oral and intraperitoneal routes were used on alternate days. Tumor size was measured every third day and the volumes were estimated using the formula 0.5 x length x (width)2. In vitro: Proliferation of Hep 3B, PLC/PRF/5 and SKHEP-1 HCC cells was significantly inhibited at all EB1089 concentrations tested, while HTC cells only responded to 1000 nM concentration of EB1089. Proliferation of Novikoff cells was unaffected by the drug at all concentrations examined. In vivo: EB1089 effectively inhibited SKHEP-1 tumor growth without inducing hypercalcemia (p<0.05). Results of the present study indicate that EB1089 is an effective growth inhibitor of HCC tumors.

  19. Interleukin-34 inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Tao; Tang, Hua; Ren, Ji-Hua; Chen, Xiang; Huang, Ai-Long; Chen, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could activate the immune system and induce extensive inflammatory response. As the most important inflammatory factor, interleukins are critical for anti-viral immunity. Here we investigated whether interleukin-34 (IL-34) play a role in HBV infection. In this study, we first found that both serum IL-34 and IL-34 mRNA in PBMCs in chronic HBV patients was significantly decreased compared to the healthy controls. Furthermore, both IL-34 protein and mRNA levels were declined hepatoma cells expressing HBV. In addition, the clinical parameters analysis found that serum IL-34 was significantly associated with HBV DNA (P = 0.0066), ALT (P = 0.0327), AST (P = 0.0435), TB (P = 0.0406), DB (P = 0.0368) and AFP (P = 0.0225). Correlation analysis also found that serum IL-34 negatively correlated with HBV DNA copies, ALT and AST. In vitro studies found that IL-34 treatment in HepAD38 and HepG2.2.15 cells markedly inhibited HBV DNA, total RNA, 3.5kb mRNA and HBc protein. In vivo studies further demonstrated IL-34 treatment in HBV transgenic mice exhibited greater inhibition on HBV DNA, total RNA, 3.5kb mRNA and HBc protein, suggesting the effect to IL-34 on HBV is likely due to host innate or adaptive immune response. Our study identified a novel interleukin, IL-34, which has anti-viral activity in HBV replication in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest a rationale for the use of IL-34 in the HBV treatment.

  20. Phospholipase-Mediated Inhibition of Spontaneous Oscillatory Uterine Contractions by Lindane in Vitro1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chwen-Ting; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Although regulation of uterine contractility is fundamental for parturition, mechanisms by which toxicants modify uterine muscle contractions remain poorly understood. In a previous cumulative concentration-response study, 10 μM lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) reduced contraction force and 30 μM lindane abolished contractions in Gestation Day 10 rat uterine strips when lindane was added to muscle baths at 10-min intervals. Other studies showed that brief (uterine activity to investigate the hypothesis that activation of a specific phospholipase pathway provides a mechanistic link between inhibition of uterine contraction and inhibition of myometrial gap junctions. Uterine tissue and cells were pretreated with phospholipase pathway inhibitors to evaluate the role of phospholipase pathways in lindane’s actions in the uterus. Concentrations of inhibitors were selected based on previous reports of effective concentrations for the enzyme activity and on pilot toxicity studies of the inhibitors on uterine contraction and gap junction communication. To monitor uterine contractions, longitudinal uterine strips were excised from Gestation Day 10 rats and suspended in isometric muscle baths, consistent with previous experiments. Exposure in vitro for 60 min to 10–50 μM lindane, an effective concentration range for the uterine responses of interest, revealed that 30 μM lindane rapidly abolished contractions. Subsequently, uterine strips were pretreated with phospholipase pathway inhibitors and then challenged with 30 μM lindane, the lindane concentration that elicited maximal inhibition of uterine contraction. Pretreatment with 20–50 μM of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C inhibitor 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylcholine (ET-18-OCH3) reversed lindane-induced inhibition of spontaneous uterine contractions. Gap junction intercellular communication was monitored by injecting the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow into rat myometrial

  1. In vitro crystallization, characterization and growth-inhibition study of urinary type struvite crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihir J.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of urinary stones, known as nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis, is a serious, debilitating problem throughout the world. Struvite—NH4MgPO4·6H2O, ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate, is one of the components of urinary stones (calculi). Struvite crystals with different morphologies were grown by in vitro single diffusion gel growth technique with different growth parameters. The crystals were characterized by powder XRD, FT-IR, thermal analysis and dielectric study. The powder XRD results of struvite confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure. The FT-IR spectrum proved the presence of water of hydration, metal-oxygen bond, N-H bond and P-O bond. For thermal analysis TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. Vickers micro-hardness and related mechanical parameters were also calculated. The in vitro growth inhibition studies of struvite by the juice of Citrus medica Linn as well as the herbal extracts of Commiphora wightii, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn and Rotula aquatica Lour were carried out and found potent inhibitors of struvite.

  2. Citric acid inhibits growth of Helicobacter pylori in vitro: a new strategy for eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazgornik, Jan; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    About 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori. The association of peptic ulcer disease with Helicobacter pylori is well documented. Therefore eradication is obligatory. However, the high costs of multidrug therapy, the resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics as well as the sometimes present drug intolerance are limiting factors. The inhibitory effect of 3% hydrogen peroxide, 8.4% sodium bicarbonate, 2% ascorbic acid, citric acid in combination with sodium citrate, 7% and 14% citric acid solutions, respectively, on nine Helicobacter pylori strains were tested in vitro. Citric acid showed a potent inhibitory activity on growth of Helicobacter pylori strains in vitro. This was observed not only when citric acid was applied alone but also if citric acid was given together with low concentration of sodium citrate. Two percent ascorbic acid inhibited three, sodium bicarbonate two and hydrogen peroxide one of the nine tested Helicobacter pylori strains, respectively. Citric acid is a cheap substance present in many fruits and produced by food industry, and it demonstrated powerful inhibitory effect on the growth of Helicobacter pylori strains. On the basis of our findings citric acid should be further evaluated for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  3. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Jiexia Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Soluble form of canine transferrin receptor inhibits canine parvovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Evaluation of human D-amino acid oxidase inhibition by anti-psychotic drugs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishikura, Miho; Hakariya, Hitomi; Iwasa, Sumiko; Yoshio, Takashi; Ichiba, Hideaki; Yorita, Kazuko; Fukui, Kiyoshi; Fukushima, Takeshi

    2014-06-01

    It is of importance to determine whether antipsychotic drugs currently prescribed for schizophrenia exert D-amino acid oxidase (DAO)-inhibitory effects. We first investigated whether human (h)DAO can metabolize D-kynurenine (D-KYN) to produce the fluorescent compound kynurenic acid (KYNA) by using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, and fluorescence spectrometry. After confirmation of KYNA production from D-KYN by hDAO, 8 first- and second-generation antipsychotic drugs, and 6 drugs often prescribed concomitantly, were assayed for hDAO-inhibitory effects by using in vitro fluorometric methods with D-KYN as the substrate. DAO inhibitors 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid and 4H-thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxylic acid inhibited KYNA production in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the second-generation antipsychotics blonanserin and risperidone were found to possess relatively strong hDAO-inhibitory effects in vitro (5.29 ± 0.47 μM and 4.70 ± 0.17 μM, respectively). With regard to blonanserin and risperidone, DAO-inhibitory effects should be taken into consideration in the context of their in vivo pharmacotherapeutic efficacy.

  6. GBT440 Inhibits Sickling of Sickle Cell Trait Blood Under In Vitro Conditions Mimicking Strenuous Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufu, Kobina; Lehrer-Graiwer, Josh; Ramos, Eleanor; Oksenberg, Donna

    2016-09-28

    In sickle cell trait (SCT), hemoglobin A (HbA) and S (HbS) are co-expressed in each red blood cell (RBC). While homozygous expression of HbS (HbSS) leads to polymerization and sickling of RBCs resulting in sickle cell disease (SCD) characterized by hemolytic anemia, painful vaso-occlusive episodes and shortened life-span, SCT is considered a benign condition usually with minor or no complications related to sickling. However, physical activities that cause increased tissue oxygen demand, dehydration and/or metabolic acidosis leads to increased HbS polymerization and life-threatening complications including death. We report that GBT440, an agent being developed for the treatment of SCD, increases the affinity of oxygen for Hb and inhibits in vitro polymerization of a mixture of HbS and HbA that simulates SCT blood. Moreover, GBT440 prevents sickling of SCT blood under in vitro conditions mimicking strenuous exercise with hypoxia, dehydration and acidosis. Together, our results indicate that GBT440 may have the potential to protect SCT individuals from sickling-related complications during conditions that favor HbS polymerization.

  7. GBT440 inhibits sickling of sickle cell trait blood under in vitro conditions mimicking strenuous exercise

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    Kobina Dufu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In sickle cell trait (SCT, hemoglobin A (HbA and S (HbS are co-expressed in each red blood cell (RBC. While homozygous expression of HbS (HbSS leads to polymerization and sickling of RBCs resulting in sickle cell disease (SCD characterized by hemolytic anemia, painful vaso-occlusive episodes and shortened life-span, SCT is considered a benign condition usually with minor or no complications related to sickling. However, physical activities that cause increased tissue oxygen demand, dehydration and/or metabolic acidosis leads to increased HbS polymerization and life-threatening complications including death. We report that GBT440, an agent being developed for the treatment of SCD, increases the affinity of oxygen for Hb and inhibits in vitro polymerization of a mixture of HbS and HbA that simulates SCT blood. Moreover, GBT440 prevents sickling of SCT blood under in vitro conditions mimicking strenuous exercise with hypoxia, dehydration and acidosis. Together, our results indicate that GBT440 may have the potential to protect SCT individuals from sickling-related complications during conditions that favor HbS polymerization.

  8. In vitro inhibition of bovine enamel demineralization by enamel matrix derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jin Mei; Ieong, Cheng Cheng; Xiang, Chen Yang; Lv, Xue Ping; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Xue Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ling Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) affects the demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro and to assess the agent's anti-caries potential. Bovine enamel blocks were prepared and randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per group), which were treated with distilled water (negative control), NaF (positive control), or Emdogain. All three groups were pH-cycled 12 times over 6 days. The percentage of surface enamel microhardness reduction (%SMHR), calcium demineralization rate (CDR), surface roughness, lesion depth and mineral loss after demineralization were examined. Surface morphology of specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The Emdogain and positive control groups showed similar surface roughness, lesion depths and mineral loss, which were significantly lower than those in the negative control group. In addition, the enamel surfaces of both the Emdogain and NaF groups showed much narrower intercrystalline spaces than the surfaces of the negative control group, which exhibited extensive microfractures along the crystal edges. %SMHR differed significantly among all three groups, with the smallest value in the Emdogain group and the greatest in the negative control group. These results indicate that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) can significantly inhibit demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro, suggesting that it has potential as an anti-caries agent. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Physiological normal levels of androgen inhibit proliferation of prostate cancer cells in vitro

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    Weitao Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than 70 years, it has been believed that a severe reduction of serum androgen levels caused regression of prostate cancer (PCa and that increasing androgen levels enhanced growth of PCa. However, numerous recent studies have questioned this traditional belief. In our study, LNCaP and MDA PCa 2b PCa cells were treated with various levels of androgens for 10 or 20 days, and the cell growth was measured with crystal violet mitogenic assay. The results indicated that the effect of androgens on the proliferation of PCa cells occurs in a biphasic pattern, with the androgen levels promoting optimal cell growth at approximately 0.23 ng ml−1 for LNCaP cells and between 1 and 2 ng ml−1 for MDA PCa 2b cells. Both of the optimal androgen levels are within the adult men's physiological low range (<2.4 ng ml−1 . At lower concentrations than the optimal androgen level, increasing androgen concentration promoted the proliferation of PCa cells. However, at the higher concentrations, increasing androgen concentration resulted in a dose-dependent proliferative inhibition. We conclude that physiologically normal levels of androgen inhibit the proliferation of PCa cells in vitro. However, at very low levels androgens are essential for initial growth of PCa cells.

  10. CIGB-300, a proapoptotic peptide, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Hernán G; Benavent Acero, Fernando; Perera, Yasser; Rodríguez, Arielis; Perea, Silvio E; Castro, Boris Acevedo; Gomez, Roberto; Alonso, Daniel F; Gomez, Daniel E

    2011-07-15

    We have previously demonstrated that a proapoptotic cyclic peptide CIGB-300, formerly known as P15-Tat delivered into the cells by the cell-penetrating peptide Tat, was able to abrogate the CK2-mediated phosphorylation and induce tumor regression when injected directly into solid tumors in mice or by systemic administration. In this work, we studied the role of CIGB-300 on the main events that take place in angiogenesis. At non-cytotoxic doses, CIGB-300 was able to inhibit adhesion, migration, and tubular network formation induced by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) growing upon Matrigel in vitro. Likewise, we evaluated the cellular penetration and localization into the HUVEC cells of CIGB-300. Our results confirmed a quick cellular penetration and a cytoplasmic accumulation in the early minutes of incubation and a translocation into the nuclei beginning at 12h of treatment, with a strong presence in the perinuclear area. A microarray analysis was used to determine the genes affected by the treatment. We observed that CIGB-300 significantly decreased four genes strongly associated with tubulogenesis, growth, and differentiation of endothelial cells. The CIGB-300 was tested in vivo on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes (CAM), and a large number of newly formed blood vessels were significantly regressed. The results suggested that CIGB-300 has a potential as an antiangiogenic treatment. The mechanism of action may be associated with partial inhibition of VEGF and Notch pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of serotonin release by bombesin-like peptides in rat hypothalamus in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saporito, M.S.; Warwick, R.O. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the activity of bombesin (BN), neuromedin-C (NM-C) and neuromedin-B (NM-B) on serotonin (5-HT) release and reuptake in rat hypothalamus (HYP) in vitro. BN and NM-C but not NM-B decreased K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release from superfused HYP slices by 25%. Bacitracin, a nonspecific peptidase inhibitor, reversed the inhibitory effect of BN on K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Phosphoramidon (PAN, 10 /mu/M) an endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, abolished the inhibitory effect of BN, but not NM-C, on K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release. The peptidyl dipeptidase A inhibitor enalaprilat (ENP, 10 /mu/M), enhanced both BN and NM-C inhibition of /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Bestatin (BST, 10 /mu/M) had no effect on BN or NM-C inhibitory activity on /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Neither BN, NM-C nor NM-B affected reuptake of /sup 3/H-5-HT into HYP synaptosomes alone or in combination with any of the peptidase inhibitors, nor did these peptides alter the ability of fluoxetine to inhibit /sup 3/H-5-HT uptake.

  12. Warifteine, an Alkaloid Purified from Cissampelos sympodialis, Inhibits Neutrophil Migration In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Thaline F. A. Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl is a plant from the Northeast and Southeast of Brazil. Its root infusion is popularly used for treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases. We investigated whether warifteine, its main alkaloid, would have anti-inflammatory effect due to a blockage of neutrophil function. In vivo warifteine treatment inhibited casein-induced neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity but did not inhibit neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow. Analysis of the direct effect of warifteine upon neutrophil adherence and migration in vitro demonstrated that the alkaloid decreased cell adhesion to P and E-selectin-transfected cells. In addition, fLMP-induced neutrophil migration in a transwell system was blocked by warifteine; this effect was mimicked by cAMP mimetic/inducing substances, and warifteine increased intracellular cAMP levels in neutrophils. The production of DNA extracellular traps (NETs was also blocked by warifteine but there was no alteration on PMA-induced oxidative burst or LPS-stimulated TNFα secretion. Taken together, our data indicate that the alkaloid warifteine is a potent anti-inflammatory substance and that it has an effect on neutrophil migration through a decrease in both cell adhesion and migration.

  13. A p7 Ion Channel-derived Peptide Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Vitro*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Lang, Yange; Li, Tian; Zeng, Zhengyang; Song, Yu; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection is an early stage of its life cycle and represents a promising target for antiviral drug development. Here we designed and characterized three peptide inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection based on the structural features of the membrane-associated p7 polypeptide of HCV. The three peptides exhibited low toxicity and high stability while potently inhibiting initial HCV infection and suppressed established HCV infection at non-cytotoxic concentrations in vitro. The most efficient peptide (designated H2-3), which is derived from the H2 helical region of HCV p7 ion channel, inhibited HCV infection by inactivating both intracellular and extracellular viral particles. The H2-3 peptide inactivated free HCV with an EC50 (50% effective concentration) of 82.11 nm, which is >1000-fold lower than the CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration) of Huh7.5.1 cells. H2-3 peptide also bound to cell membrane and protected host cells from viral infection. The peptide H2-3 did not alter the normal electrophysiological profile of the p7 ion channel or block viral release from Huh7.5.1 cells. Our work highlights a new anti-viral peptide design strategy based on ion channel, giving the possibility that ion channels are potential resources to generate antiviral peptides. PMID:26251517

  14. Chronic exposure of low dose salinomycin inhibits MSC migration capability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzad, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Froelich, Katrin; Rak, Kristen; Hagen, Rudolf; Taeger, Johannes; Bregenzer, Maximillian; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Salinomycin is a polyether antiprotozoal antibiotic that is used as a food additive, particularly in poultry farming. By consuming animal products, there may be a chronic human exposure to salinomycin. Salinomycin inhibits the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. As human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may differentiate into different mesenchymal cells, it thus appeared worthwhile to investigate whether chronic salinomycin exposure impairs the functional properties of MSC and induces genotoxic effects. Bone marrow MSC were treated with low-dose salinomycin (100 nM) (MSC-Sal) for 4 weeks, while the medium containing salinomycin was changed every other day. Functional changes were evaluated and compared to MSC without salinomycin treatment (MSC-control). MSC-Sal and MSC-control were positive for cluster of differentiation 90 (CD90), CD73 and CD44, and negative for CD34. There were no differences observed in cell morphology or cytoskeletal structures following salinomycin exposure. The differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes was not counteracted by salinomycin, and proliferation capability was not inhibited following salinomycin exposure. The migration of MSC-Sal was attenuated significantly as compared to the MSC-control. There were no genotoxic effects after 4 weeks of salinomycin exposure. The present study shows an altered migration capacity as a sign of functional impairment of MSC induced by chronic salinomycin exposure. Further in vitro toxicological investigations, particularly with primary human cells, are required to understand the impact of chronic salinomycin consumption on human cell systems.

  15. JAK2 and AMP-kinase inhibition in vitro by food extracts, fractions and purified phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Harry; Burgess, Elaine J; Smith, Wendy A; McGhie, Tony K; Cooney, Janine M; Lunken, Rona C M; de Guzman, Erika; Trower, Tania; Perry, Nigel B

    2015-01-01

    We have identified a range of food phytochemicals that inhibit Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and Adenosine Monophosphate Kinase (AMPK). A mutated and dysregulated form of JAK2, a tyrosine kinase, is associated with several diseases including Crohn's disease. Using an in vitro, time-resolved fluorescence (TR-FRET) assay, we tested 49 different types of food extracts, plus 10 concentrated fractions of increasing hydrophobicity from each extract, to find foods containing JAK2 inhibitors. The food extracts tested included grains, meat, fish, shellfish, dairy products, herbs, mushrooms, hops, fruits and vegetables. Several fruits were potent inhibitors of JAK2: blackberry, boysenberry, feijoa, pomegranate, rosehip and strawberry, which all contain ellagitannins, known inhibitors of kinases. These fruits are in the Rosales and Myrtales plant orders. No other foods gave >1% of the maximal JAK2 inhibitory activities of these fruits. AMPK, a sensor and regulator of energy metabolism in cells, is a serine-threonine kinase which is reported to be activated by various flavonoid phytochemicals. Using a TR-FRET assay, we tested various fruit extracts for AMPK activation and inhibition. Ellagitannin containing foods scored highly as AMPK inhibitors. Despite several reports of AMPK activation in whole cells by phytochemicals, no extracts or pure compounds activated AMPK in our assay.

  16. CHLORHEXIDINE INHIBITS L1 CELL ADHESION MOLECULE MEDIATED NEURITE OUTGROWTH IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstone, Aaron M.; Bamford, Penny; Aucott, Susan W.; Tang, Ningfeng; White, Kimberly R.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlorhexidine is a skin disinfectant that reduces skin and mucous membrane bacterial colonization and inhibits organism growth. Despite numerous studies assessing chlorhexidine safety in term infants, residual concerns have limited its use in hospitalized neonates, especially low birth weight preterm infants. The aim of this study was to assess the potential neurotoxicity of chlorhexidine on the developing central nervous system using a well-established in vitro model of neurite outgrowth that includes laminin and L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1) as neurite outgrowth promoting substrates. Methods Cerebellar granule neurons are plated on either poly L-lysine, L1 or laminin. Chlorhexidine, hexachlorophene or their excipients are added to the media. Neurons are grown for 24 h, then fixed and neurite length measured. Results Chlorhexidine significantly reduced the length of neurites grown on L1 but not laminin. Chlorhexidine concentrations as low as 125 ng/ml statistically significantly reduced neurite length on L1. Hexachlorophene did not affect neurite length. Conclusion Chlorhexidine at concentrations detected in the blood following topical applications in preterm infants specifically inhibited L1 mediated neurite outgrowth of cerebellar granule neurons. It is now vital to determine whether the blood brain barrier is permeable to chlorhexidine in preterm infants. PMID:24126818

  17. In vitro toxicity, antiplatelet and acetylcholinesterase inhibition of Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, Janaína Dorneles; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Machado, Michel Mansur; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in impaired memory and behaviour of remarkable socio-economic impact. A decrease in cholinergic activity is a key event in the biochemical of AD. Buddleja thyrsoides is a plant widely distributed in Southern parts of South America. In Brazilian traditional medicine, the infusion of its leaves and flowers is used for the treatment of bronchitis and cough. Crude ethanolic (70%) extract and fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic) were investigated regarding their toxicities in vitro and antiplatelet action. The enzyme acetylcholinesterase inhibition was evaluated to study the crude extract. The crude extract and fractions were evaluated by means of Brine Shrimp Lethality test and they showed low activities with LC(50) values 1698, 2818, 2187 and 3672 µg mL(-1) for dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic fractions and crude extract, respectively. Buddleja thyrsoides presented great antiplatelet action. The IC(50) values obtained for crude extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic fractions were 361.29, 354.23, 368.75 and 344.30, respectively, while the IC(50) for the standard AAS was 257.01 µg mL(-1). The crude extract showed an inhibition of 22.8% of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in 24 h.

  18. In vitro inhibition of choline acetyltransferase by a series of 2-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capacio, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Ten substituted 2-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinones were synthesized and evaluated for their relative potency as in vitro inhibitors of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis was followed radiometrically by the incorporation of labeled acetate originating from {sup 14}C-acetyl-CoA. Woolf-Augustinsson-Hofstee data analysis was used to calculate Vmax, Km, and Ki values. The inhibition was found to be noncompetitive or uncompetitive with respect to choline. Quantitative structure activity relationship correlations demonstrated a primary dependence on {kappa}-{sigma}, as well as steric properties of the substituted benzene ring. Additional radiometric and spectrophotometric were performed with 2-(3{prime}-methyl)-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinone, one of the more potent analogs, to further elucidate the inhibitory mechanism. ChAT-mediated cleavage of ACh was measured spectrophotometrically by following the appearance of NADH at 340 nanometers in an enzyme coupled assay. Lineweaver-Burk analysis indicated mixed or uncompetitive inhibition with respect to both substrates of the forward reaction, suggesting interference with a rate limiting step.

  19. A natural small molecule voacangine inhibits angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghyo; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-01-06

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, plays a critical role in normal and pathological phenotypes, including solid tumor growth and metastasis. Accordingly, the development of new anti-angiogenic agents is considered an efficient strategy for the treatment of cancer and other human diseases linked with angiogenesis. We have identified voacangine, isolated from Voacanga africana, as a novel anti-angiogenic agent. Voacangine inhibits the proliferation of HUVECs at an IC(50) of 18 μM with no cytotoxic effects. Voacangine significantly suppressed in vitro angiogenesis, such as VEGF-induced tube formation and chemoinvasion. Moreover, the compound inhibits in vivo angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane at non-toxic doses. In addition, voacangine decreased the expression levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and its target gene, VEGF, in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that the naturally occurring compound, voacangine, is a novel anti-angiogenic compound. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Candesartan inhibits Toll-like receptor expression and activity both in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasu, Mohan R.; Riosvelasco, Andrea C.; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Toll-like receptors play an important role in the innate immune system and are found to be crucial in severe diseases like sepsis, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. TLR2 and TLR4 expression is upregulated in the inflammatory diseases. Angiotensin II in addition to stimulating vasoconstriction also induces an increase in ROS and a proinflammatory phenotype via AT1R. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker (ARB), widely used as an antihypertensive drug, has been reported to also have anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we investigated whether an ARB exerts anti-inflammatory effects via inhibiting TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Methods and results Monocytes were isolated from healthy human volunteers and treated with the synthetic lipoprotein Pam3CSK4 or LPS in the absence or presence of candesartan. Pretreatment of human monocytes with candesartan significantly decreased Pam3CSK4 or LPS induced TLR2 and TLR4 expression of both mRNA and protein levels (P candesartan treated mice show decreased TLR2 and TLR4 expression compared to vehicle control mice. Conclusion Pam3CSK4 and LPS induced TLR2 and TLR4 expression at mRNA and protein levels are inhibited by candesartan both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we define a novel pathway by which candesartan could induce anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:18495130

  1. Iron Chelation Inhibits Osteoclastic Differentiation In Vitro and in Tg2576 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Jun-Peng Guo

    Full Text Available Patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD frequently have lower bone mineral density and higher rate of hip fracture. Tg2576, a well characterized AD animal model that ubiquitously express Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPswe, displays not only AD-relevant neuropathology, but also age-dependent bone deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. As APP is implicated as a regulator of iron export, and the metal chelation is considered as a potential therapeutic strategy for AD, we examined iron chelation's effect on the osteoporotic deficit in Tg2576 mice. Remarkably, in vivo treatment with iron chelator, clinoquinol (CQ, increased both trabecular and cortical bone-mass, selectively in Tg2576, but not wild type (WT mice. Further in vitro studies showed that low concentrations of CQ as well as deferoxamine (DFO, another iron chelator, selectively inhibited osteoclast (OC differentiation, without an obvious effect on osteoblast (OB differentiation. Intriguingly, both CQ and DFO's inhibitory effect on OC was more potent in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs from Tg2576 mice than that of wild type controls. The reduction of intracellular iron levels in BMMs by CQ was also more dramatic in APPswe-expressing BMMs. Taken together, these results demonstrate a potent inhibition on OC formation and activation in APPswe-expressing BMMs by iron chelation, and reveal a potential therapeutic value of CQ in treating AD-associated osteoporotic deficits.

  2. MEIS1 inhibits clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells proliferation and in vitro invasion or migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Cui, Liang; Xu, Axiang; Yin, Xiaotao; Li, Fanglong; Gao, Jiangping

    2017-03-07

    Myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 (MEIS1) protein plays a synergistic causative role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, MEIS1 has also shown to be a potential tumor suppressor in some other cancers, such as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and prostate cancer. Although multiple roles of MEIS1 in cancer development and progression have been identified, there is an urgent demand to discover more functions of this molecule for further therapeutic design. MEIS1 was overexpressed via adenovirus vector in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells. Western blot and real-time qPCR (quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) was performed to examine the protein and mRNA levels of MEIS1. Cell proliferation, survival, in vitro migration and invasion were tested by MTT, colony formation, soft-agar, transwell (in vitro invasion/migration) assays, and tumor in vivo growthwas measured on nude mice model. In addition, flow-cytometry analysis was used to detect cell cycle arrest or non-apoptotic cell death of ccRCC cells induced by MEIS1. MEIS1 exhibits a decreased expression in ccRCC cell lines than that in non-tumor cell lines. MEIS1 overexpression inhibits ccRCC cells proliferation and induces G1/S arrest concomitant with marked reduction of G1/S transition regulators, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin A. Moreover, MEIS1-1 overexpression also induces non-apoptotic cell death of ccRCC cells via decreasing the levels of pro-survival regulators Survivin and BCL-2. Transwell migration assay (TMA) shows that MEIS1 attenuates in vitro invasion and migration of ccRCC cells with down-regulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Further, in nude mice model, MEIS1 inhibits the in vivo growth of Caki-1 cells. By investigating the role of MEIS1 in ccRCC cells' survival, proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell cycle progress, apoptosis and metastasis, in the present work, we propose that MEIS1 may play an important role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cc

  3. A novel antifungal is active against Candida albicans biofilms and inhibits mutagenic acetaldehyde production in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko T Nieminen

    Full Text Available The ability of C. albicans to form biofilms is a major virulence factor and a challenge for management. This is evident in biofilm-associated chronic oral-oesophageal candidosis, which has been shown to be potentially carcinogenic in vivo. We have previously shown that most Candida spp. can produce significant levels of mutagenic acetaldehyde (ACH. ACH is also an important mediator of candidal biofilm formation. We have also reported that D,L-2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA significantly inhibits planktonic growth of C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HICA on C. albicans biofilm formation and ACH production in vitro. Inhibition of biofilm formation by HICA, analogous control compounds or caspofungin was measured using XTT to measure biofilm metabolic activity and PicoGreen as a marker of biomass. Biofilms were visualised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. ACH levels were measured by gas chromatography. Transcriptional changes in the genes involved in ACH metabolism were measured using RT-qPCR. The mean metabolic activity and biomass of all pre-grown (4, 24, 48 h biofilms were significantly reduced after exposure to HICA (p40 µM of ACH were detected in 24 and 48 h biofilms at both pHs. Interestingly, no ACH production was detected from D-glucose in the presence of HICA at acidic pH (p<0.05. Expression of genes responsible for ACH catabolism was up-regulated by HICA but down-regulated by caspofungin. SEM showed aberrant hyphae and collapsed hyphal structures during incubation with HICA at acidic pH. We conclude that HICA has potential as an antifungal agent with ability to inhibit C. albicans cell growth and biofilm formation. HICA also significantly reduces the mutagenic potential of C. albicans biofilms, which may be important when treating bacterial-fungal biofilm infections.

  4. A novel antifungal is active against Candida albicans biofilms and inhibits mutagenic acetaldehyde production in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Mikko T; Novak-Frazer, Lily; Rautemaa, Wilma; Rajendran, Ranjith; Sorsa, Timo; Ramage, Gordon; Bowyer, Paul; Rautemaa, Riina

    2014-01-01

    The ability of C. albicans to form biofilms is a major virulence factor and a challenge for management. This is evident in biofilm-associated chronic oral-oesophageal candidosis, which has been shown to be potentially carcinogenic in vivo. We have previously shown that most Candida spp. can produce significant levels of mutagenic acetaldehyde (ACH). ACH is also an important mediator of candidal biofilm formation. We have also reported that D,L-2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) significantly inhibits planktonic growth of C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HICA on C. albicans biofilm formation and ACH production in vitro. Inhibition of biofilm formation by HICA, analogous control compounds or caspofungin was measured using XTT to measure biofilm metabolic activity and PicoGreen as a marker of biomass. Biofilms were visualised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ACH levels were measured by gas chromatography. Transcriptional changes in the genes involved in ACH metabolism were measured using RT-qPCR. The mean metabolic activity and biomass of all pre-grown (4, 24, 48 h) biofilms were significantly reduced after exposure to HICA (pMutagenic levels (>40 μM) of ACH were detected in 24 and 48 h biofilms at both pHs. Interestingly, no ACH production was detected from D-glucose in the presence of HICA at acidic pH (pagent with ability to inhibit C. albicans cell growth and biofilm formation. HICA also significantly reduces the mutagenic potential of C. albicans biofilms, which may be important when treating bacterial-fungal biofilm infections.

  5. Indomethacin inhibits the uptake of 22sodium by ovine trophoblastic tissue in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Blastocysts from several species synthesize prostaglandins in vitro, but the exact functions of the prostaglandins are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, would inhibit the uptake of 22sodium ((22Na)) by ovine trophoblastic tissue. To determine the concentration of indomethacin that would inhibit the synthesis of PGF2 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) by blastocysts, blastocysts were collected from ewes 16 days after mating, sliced into pieces approximately 2 mm in length and incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C in 2 ml of medium containing either 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 or 1.6 mM of indomethacin. Concentrations of indomethacin greater than or equal to 0.2 mM reduced (P less than .01) trophoblastic release (ng/micrograms DNA) of PGF2 alpha from 205 +/- 71.2 to less than or equal to 3.3 +/- 0.2, reduced PGFM from 0.7 +/- 0.1 to less than or equal to 0.17 +/- 0.01, and inhibited formation of trophoblastic vesicles. In a second experiment, blastocysts were recovered from ewes 16 days after mating and pieces of trophoblast were incubated with (22Na) and either 0 or 0.4 mM of indomethacin. Indomethacin reduced the uptake of (22Na), which is an indirect measure of the transport of water across epithelia, from 3680 +/- 1118 to 934 +/- 248 cpm/micrograms DNA (P less than .03) and prevented formation of trophoblastic vesicles. Prostaglandins produced by ovine blastocysts might be involved in controlling uptake of water, which is essential for expansion of blastocysts.

  6. Novel triazine JPC-2067-B inhibits Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Ernest J; Schiehser, Guy A; Milhous, Wilbur K; Hsu, Honghue; Roberts, Craig W; Kirisits, Michael; Muench, Stephen; Rice, David; Dubey, J P; Fowble, Joseph W; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Queener, Sherry F; Liu, Susan R; Jacobus, David P; McLeod, Rima

    2008-03-05

    Toxoplasma gondii causes substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs for healthcare in the developed and developing world. Current medicines are not well tolerated and cause hypersensitivity reactions. The dihydrotriazine JPC-2067-B (4, 6-diamino-1, 2-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-1-(3'(2-chloro-, 4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)propyloxy)-1, 3, 5-triazine), which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), is highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and apicomplexans related to T. gondii. JPC-2067-B is the primary metabolite of the orally active biguanide JPC-2056 1-(3'-(2-chloro-4-trifluoromethoxyphenyloxy)propyl oxy)- 5-isopropylbiguanide, which is being advanced to clinical trials for malaria. Efficacy of the prodrug JPC-2056 and the active metabolite JPC-2067-B against T. gondii and T. gondii DHFR as well as toxicity toward mammalian cells were tested. Herein, we found that JPC-2067-B is highly effective against T. gondii. We demonstrate that JPC-2067-B inhibits T. gondii growth in culture (IC50 20 nM), inhibits the purified enzyme (IC50 6.5 nM), is more efficacious than pyrimethamine, and is cidal in vitro. JPC-2067-B administered parenterally and the orally administered pro-drug (JPC-2056) are also effective against T. gondii tachyzoites in vivo. A molecular model of T. gondii DHFR-TS complexed with JPC-2067-B was developed. We found that the three main parasite clonal types and isolates from South and Central America, the United States, Canada, China, and Sri Lanka have the same amino acid sequences preserving key binding sites for the triazine. JPC-2056/JPC-2067-B have potential to be more effective and possibly less toxic treatments for toxoplasmosis than currently available medicines.

  7. Shakuyaku-kanzo-to inhibits smooth muscle contractions of human pregnant uterine tissue in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Shoko; Yasuda, Katsuhiko; Sumi, Genichiro; Cho, Hisayuu; Tsuzuki, Tomoko; Okada, Hidetaka; Kanzaki, Hideharu

    2012-07-01

    Shakuyaku-kanzo-to (SK) is a herbal medicine and is known to possess an antispasmodic effect on skeletal muscle and intestinal smooth muscle. However, it is unclear whether SK is effective in antagonizing uterine smooth muscle contractions. Herein, we investigated the effects of SK on smooth muscle contractions of human pregnant uterine samples. We prepared myometrial strips from uterine tissues of pregnant women who underwent cesarean section for obstetrical indications, and examined the inhibitory effects of SK and its components, shakuyaku (S) and kanzo (K), on agonist-induced and spontaneous contractions in vitro. Oxytocin, prostaglandinF(2α) , and high KCl were utilized as agonists in this study. SK inhibited agonist-induced and spontaneous contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of SK on oxytocin-induced contractions occurred at a concentration of 100 µg/mL and reached maximum effect at a concentration of more than 1000 µg/mL. The half max inhibitory concentration of SK was approximately 440 µg/mL in oxytocin-induced contractions. SK at 1000 µg/mL completely inhibited the oxytocin- and prostaglandinF(2α)-induced contractions but not the high KCl-induced contractions. The inhibitory effects on agonist-induced contractions of K, but not S, matched those of SK. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of SK on smooth muscle contractions is due to K. The mechanism of the inhibitory effects of SK on oxytocin- and prostaglandinF(2α) -induced contractions may differ from that on KCl-induced contractions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Arctigenin inhibits prostate tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwen Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The low bioavailability of most phytochemicals limits their translation to humans. We investigated whether arctigenin, a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, has favorable bioavailability/potency against prostate cancer. The anticarcinogenic activity of arctigenin was investigated both in vitro using the androgen-sensitive LNCaP and LAPC-4 human prostate cancer cells and pre-malignant WPE1-NA22 cells, and in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Arctigenin at lower doses (<2 μM significantly inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells by 30–50% at 48 h compared to control, and inhibited WPE1-NA22 cells by 75%, while did not affect normal prostate epithelial cells. Male severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice were implanted subcutaneously with LAPC-4 cells for in vivo studies. In one experiment, the intervention started one week after tumor implantation. Mice received arctigenin at 50 mg/kg (LD or 100 mg/kg (HD b.w. daily or vehicle control by oral gavage. After 6 weeks, tumor growth was inhibited by 50% (LD and 70% (HD compared to control. A stronger tumor inhibitory effect was observed in a second experiment where arctigenin intervention started two weeks prior to tumor implantation. Arc was detectable in blood and tumors in Arc groups, with a mean value up to 2.0 μM in blood, and 8.3 nmol/g tissue in tumors. Tumor levels of proliferation marker Ki67, total and nuclear androgen receptor, and growth factors including VEGF, EGF, and FGF-β were significantly decreased by Arc, along with an increase in apoptosis marker of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Genes responsive to arctigenin were identified including TIMP3 and ZNF185, and microRNAs including miR-126-5p, and miR-21-5p. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of the strong anticancer activity of arctigenin in prostate cancer. The effective dose of arctigenin in vitro is physiologically achievable in vivo, which provides a high promise in its

  9. INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    Science.gov (United States)

    INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

  10. Growth inhibition of oral mutans streptococci and candida by commercial probiotic lactobacilli--an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasslöf, Pamela; Hedberg, Maria; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are suggested to play a role in the maintenance of oral health. Such health promoting bacteria are added to different commercial probiotic products. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a selection of lactobacilli strains, used in commercially available probio...... probiotic products, to inhibit growth of oral mutans streptococci and C. albicans in vitro....

  11. A model of in vitro UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inhibition by bile acids predicts possible metabolic disorders[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; He, Rong-Rong; Cao, Yun-Feng; Tanaka, Naoki; Jiang, Changtao; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Qi, Yunpeng; Dong, Pei-Pei; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Hong, Mo; Ge, Guang-Bo; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Ma, Xiao-Chi; Sun, Hong-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Increased levels of bile acids (BAs) due to the various hepatic diseases could interfere with the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs, and endobiotics including steroid hormones. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are involved in the conjugation and elimination of many xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The present study sought to investigate the potential for inhibition of UGT enzymes by BAs. The results showed that taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) exhibited the strongest inhibition toward UGTs, followed by lithocholic acid. Structure-UGT inhibition relationships of BAs were examined and in vitro-in vivo extrapolation performed by using in vitro inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki) in combination with calculated in vivo levels of TLCA. Substitution of a hydrogen with a hydroxyl group in the R1, R3, R4, R5 sites of BAs significantly weakens their inhibition ability toward most UGTs. The in vivo inhibition by TLCA toward UGT forms was determined with following orders of potency: UGT1A4 > UGT2B7 > UGT1A3 > UGT1A1 ∼ UGT1A7 ∼ UGT1A10 ∼ UGT2B15. In conclusion, these studies suggest that disrupted homeostasis of BAs, notably taurolithocholic acid, found in various diseases such as cholestasis, could lead to altered metabolism of xenobiotics and endobiotics through inhibition of UGT enzymes. PMID:24115227

  12. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Zhu, Xiao-Xin, E-mail: zhuxx59@163.com [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Kmoníèková, Eva [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Zídek, Zdenìk [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeòská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  13. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucrose–nystatin consentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 10%.Growth inhibition of C. albicans was determined by the inhibition zone of xylitol + nystatin on C. albicans culture media (in vitro Results: The result of study was the inhibitory consentration of xylitol-nystatin to inhibit Candida albicans growth was 3%-10%. Conclusion: The study showed that combination of xylitol and nystation could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans.Latar belakang: Pertumbuhan Candida albicans dapat dikontrol dengan menggunakan antijamur seperti nistatin. Penggunakan antijamur saja tidak cukup untuk mengontrol Candida albicans, namun perlu pula mengontrol asupan gula dengan menggunakan xylitol. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat optimal xylitol-nistatin dalam pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian in vitro menggunakan uji antimikroba pengenceran serial dengan xylitol-nistatin dan nystatin-sukrosa konsentrasi 1%, 3 %, 5 %, 7%, 9%, dan 10%. Daya hambat pertumbuhan C. albicans diukur dari zona hambat xylitol + nistatin pada media kultur C. albicans (in vitro Hasil: Konsentrasi penghambatan xylitol-nistatin untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans adalah 3-10%. Simpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi xylitol dan nystation bisa menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans.

  14. Arctigenin inhibits prostate tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Solorzano, Walter; Diaz, Tanya; Magyar, Clara E; Henning, Susanne M; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2017-06-01

    The low bioavailability of most phytochemicals limits their translation to humans. We investigated whether arctigenin, a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, has favorable bioavailability/potency against prostate cancer. The anticarcinogenic activity of arctigenin was investigated both in vitro using the androgen-sensitive LNCaP and LAPC-4 human prostate cancer cells and pre-malignant WPE1-NA22 cells, and in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Arctigenin at lower doses (arctigenin at 50mg/kg (LD) or 100mg/kg (HD) b.w. daily or vehicle control by oral gavage. After 6 weeks, tumor growth was inhibited by 50% (LD) and 70% (HD) compared to control. A stronger tumor inhibitory effect was observed in a second experiment where arctigenin intervention started two weeks prior to tumor implantation. Arc was detectable in blood and tumors in Arc groups, with a mean value up to 2.0 μM in blood, and 8.3 nmol/g tissue in tumors. Tumor levels of proliferation marker Ki67, total and nuclear androgen receptor, and growth factors including VEGF, EGF, and FGF-β were significantly decreased by Arc, along with an increase in apoptosis marker of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Genes responsive to arctigenin were identified including TIMP3 and ZNF185, and microRNAs including miR-126-5p, and miR-21-5p. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of the strong anticancer activity of arctigenin in prostate cancer. The effective dose of arctigenin in vitro is physiologically achievable in vivo, which provides a high promise in its translation to human application.

  15. Sunlight inhibits growth and induces markers of programmed cell death in Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Dewaldt; Coetzer, Thérèsa Louise

    2015-09-29

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the majority of global malaria deaths. During the pathogenic blood stages of infection, a rapid increase in parasitaemia threatens the survival of the host before transmission of slow-maturing sexual parasites to the mosquito vector to continue the life cycle. Programmed cell death (PCD) may provide the parasite with the means to control its burden on the host and thereby ensure its own survival. Various environmental stress factors encountered during malaria may induce PCD in P. falciparum. This study is the first to characterize parasite cell death in response to natural sunlight. The 3D7 strain of P. falciparum was cultured in vitro in donor erythrocytes. Synchronized and mixed-stage parasitized cultures were exposed to sunlight for 1 h and compared to cultures maintained in the dark, 24 h later. Mixed-stage parasites were also subjected to a second one-hour exposure at 24 h and assessed at 48 h. Parasitaemia was measured daily by flow cytometry. Biochemical markers of cell death were assessed, including DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane polarization and phosphatidylserine externalization. Sunlight inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro. Late-stage parasites were more severely affected than early stages. However, some late-stage parasites survived exposure to sunlight to form new rings 24 h later, as would be expected during PCD whereby only a portion of the population dies. DNA fragmentation was observed at 24 and 48 h and preceded mitochondrial hyperpolarization in mixed-stage parasites at 48 h. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization likely resulted from increased oxidative stress. Although data suggested increased phosphatidylserine externalization in mixed-stage parasites, results were not statistically significant. The combination of biochemical markers and the survival of some parasites, despite exposure to a lethal stimulus, support the occurrence of PCD in P. falciparum.

  16. Endophytic fungi from mangrove inhibit lung cancer cell growth and angiogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Wu, Xin; Ma, Yuefan; Zhang, Wenzhang; Hu, Liang; Feng, Xiaowei; Li, Xiangyong; Tang, Xudong

    2017-03-01

    The secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived endophytic fungi contain multiple substances with novel structures and biological activities. In the present study, three types of mangrove plants, namely Kandelia candel, Rhizophora stylosa and Rhizophoraceae from Zhanjiang region including the leaves, roots and stems were collected, and endophytic fungi were isolated, purified and identified from these mangrove plants. MTT assay was used to observe the effects of the isolated endophytic fungi on the growth of A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. The effect of the endophytic fungi on lung cancer angiogenesis in vitro induced by the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was observed. Our results showed that 28 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, purified and identified from the three types of mangrove plants. Ten strains of endophytic fungi significantly suppressed the growth of A549 and NCI-H460 cells. The average inhibitory rates in the A549 cells were 64.4, 59.5, 81.9, 43.9, 58.3, 56.2, 48.3, 42.4, 93.0 and 49.7%, respectively. The average inhibitory rates in the NCI-H460 cells were 41.2, 49.3, 82.7, 40.7, 53.9, 52.6, 56.8, 64.3, 91.0 and 45.6%, respectively. Particularly, three strains of endophytic fungi markedly inhibited HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein‑induced lung cancer angiogenesis in vitro. These findings contribute to the further screening of potential chemotherapeutic agents from mangrove-derived endophytic fungi.

  17. Conazole fungicides inhibit Leydig cell testosterone secretion and androgen receptor activation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarke J.E. Roelofs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conazole fungicides are widely used in agriculture despite their suspected endocrine disrupting properties. In this study, the potential (anti-androgenic effects of ten conazoles were assessed and mutually compared with existing data. Effects of cyproconazole (CYPRO, fluconazole (FLUC, flusilazole (FLUS, hexaconazole (HEXA, myconazole (MYC, penconazole (PEN, prochloraz (PRO, tebuconazole (TEBU, triadimefon (TRIA, and triticonazole (TRIT were examined using murine Leydig (MA-10 cells and human T47D-ARE cells stably transfected with an androgen responsive element and a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Six conazoles caused a decrease in basal testosterone (T secretion by MA-10 cells varying from 61% up to 12% compared to vehicle-treated control. T secretion was concentration-dependently inhibited after exposure of MA-10 cells to several concentrations of FLUS (IC50 = 12.4 μM or TEBU (IC50 = 2.4 μM in combination with LH. The expression of steroidogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis genes was not changed by conazole exposure. Also, there were no changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS formation that could explain the altered T secretion after exposure to conazoles. Nine conazoles decreased T-induced AR activation (IC50s ranging from 10.7 to 71.5 μM and effect potencies (REPs were calculated relative to the known AR antagonist flutamide (FLUT. FLUC had no effect on AR activation by T. FLUS was the most potent (REP = 3.61 and MYC the least potent (REP = 0.03 AR antagonist. All other conazoles had a comparable REP from 0.12 to 0.38. Our results show distinct in vitro anti-androgenic effects of several conazole fungicides arising from two mechanisms: inhibition of T secretion and AR antagonism, suggesting potential testicular toxic effects. These effects warrant further mechanistic investigation and clearly show the need for accurate exposure data in order to perform proper (human risk assessment of this class of compounds.

  18. Ferrocene-based guanidine derivatives: in vitro antimicrobial, DNA binding and docking supported urease inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Rukhsana; Rauf, Muhammad Khawar; Badshah, Amin; Azam, Syed Sikander; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Khan, Azim

    2014-10-06

    Some novel ferrocenyl guanidines 1-8 were synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and single crystal X-rays diffraction techniques. The crystallographic studies revealed that the existence of the strong non-bonding interactions facilitate these molecules to interact with biological macro-molecules like DNA that described to inherit good biological activities. The DNA interaction studies carried out by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-visible spectroscopy are in close agreement with the binding constants (K) (0.79-5.4) × 10(5) (CV) and (0.72-5.1) × 10(5) (UV-vis). The shift in peak potential, current and absorption maxima of the studied ferrocenyl guanidines in the presence of DNA revealed that CV coupled with UV-vis spectroscopy could provide an opportune to characterize metal-based compounds-DNA interaction mechanism, a prerequisite for the design of new anticancer agents and understanding the molecular basis of their action. The compounds 1-8 have been screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and urease inhibition potency. A concurrent in silico study has also been applied on ferrocene moiety impregnated guanidines 1-8 to identify most active compounds having for inhibiting the activity of urease (pdb id 3LA4). Most of the compounds were found as potent inhibitors of urease and the compound 1 was found to be the most active with an IC50 of 16.83 ± 0.03 μM. The docking scores are in close agreement with the in vitro obtained IC50 values of inhibitors 1-8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A Novel Antifungal Is Active against Candida albicans Biofilms and Inhibits Mutagenic Acetaldehyde Production In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Mikko T.; Novak-Frazer, Lily; Rautemaa, Vilma; Rajendran, Ranjith; Sorsa, Timo; Ramage, Gordon; Bowyer, Paul; Rautemaa, Riina

    2014-01-01

    The ability of C. albicans to form biofilms is a major virulence factor and a challenge for management. This is evident in biofilm-associated chronic oral-oesophageal candidosis, which has been shown to be potentially carcinogenic in vivo. We have previously shown that most Candida spp. can produce significant levels of mutagenic acetaldehyde (ACH). ACH is also an important mediator of candidal biofilm formation. We have also reported that D,L-2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) significantly inhibits planktonic growth of C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HICA on C. albicans biofilm formation and ACH production in vitro. Inhibition of biofilm formation by HICA, analogous control compounds or caspofungin was measured using XTT to measure biofilm metabolic activity and PicoGreen as a marker of biomass. Biofilms were visualised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ACH levels were measured by gas chromatography. Transcriptional changes in the genes involved in ACH metabolism were measured using RT-qPCR. The mean metabolic activity and biomass of all pre-grown (4, 24, 48 h) biofilms were significantly reduced after exposure to HICA (pbiofilms pre-grown for 4 h at neutral pH. Mutagenic levels (>40 µM) of ACH were detected in 24 and 48 h biofilms at both pHs. Interestingly, no ACH production was detected from D-glucose in the presence of HICA at acidic pH (pbiofilm formation. HICA also significantly reduces the mutagenic potential of C. albicans biofilms, which may be important when treating bacterial-fungal biofilm infections. PMID:24867320

  20. Inhibition of influenza A virus infection in vitro by peptides designed in silico.

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    Rogelio López-Martínez

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses are enveloped, segmented negative single-stranded RNA viruses, capable of causing severe human respiratory infections. Currently, only two types of drugs are used to treat influenza A infections, the M2 H(+ ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI (oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant influenza A virus strains has emphasized the need to develop new antiviral agents to complement or replace the existing drugs. Influenza A virus has on the surface a glycoprotein named hemagglutinin (HA which due to its important role in the initial stage of infection: receptor binding and fusion activities of viral and endosomal membranes, is a potential target for new antiviral drugs. In this work we designed nine peptides using several bioinformatics tools. These peptides were derived from the HA1 and HA2 subunits of influenza A HA with the aim to inhibit influenza A virus infection. The peptides were synthetized and their antiviral activity was tested in vitro against several influenza A viral strains: Puerto Rico/916/34 (H1N1, (H1N1pdm09, swine (H1N1 and avian (H5N2. We found these peptides were able to inhibit the influenza A viral strains tested, without showing any cytotoxic effect. By docking studies we found evidence that all the peptides were capable to bind to the viral HA, principally to important regions on the viral HA stalk, thus could prevent the HA conformational changes required to carry out its membranes fusion activity.

  1. Amygdalin inhibits the growth of renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengel, Eva; Thomas, Anita; Rutz, Jochen; Makarevic, Jasmina; Tsaur, Igor; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2016-02-01

    Although amygdalin is used by many cancer patients as an antitumor agent, there is a lack of information on the efficacy and toxicity of this natural compound. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of amygdalin on the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells was examined. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to the RCC cell lines, Caki-1, KTC-26 and A498, for 24 h or 2 weeks. Untreated cells served as controls. Tumor cell growth and proliferation were determined using MTT and BrdU tests, and cell cycle phases were evaluated. Expression of the cell cycle activating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1 and D3 as well as of the cell cycle inhibiting proteins p19 and p27 was examined by western blot analysis. Surface expression of the differentiation markers E- and N-cadherin was also investigated. Functional blockade by siRNA was used to determine the impact of several proteins on tumor cell growth. Amygdalin treatment caused a significant reduction in RCC cell growth and proliferation. This effect was correlated with a reduced percentage of G2/M-phase RCC cells and an increased percentage of cells in the G0/1-phase (Caki-1 and A498) or cell cycle arrest in the S-phase (KTC-26). Furthermore, amygdalin induced a marked decrease in cell cycle activating proteins, in particular cdk1 and cyclin B. Functional blocking of cdk1 and cyclin B resulted in significantly diminished tumor cell growth in all three RCC cell lines. Aside from its inhibitory effects on growth, amygdalin also modulated the differentiation markers, E- and N-cadherin. Hence, exposing RCC cells to amygdalin inhibited cell cycle progression and tumor cell growth by impairing cdk1 and cyclin B expression. Moreover, we noted that amygdalin affected differentiation markers. Thus, we suggest that amygdalin exerted RCC antitumor effects in vitro.

  2. Inhibition of rabbit platelet activation in vitro by antagonists of platelet-activating factor (PAF)

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    Cox, C.P.; Wood, K.L.

    1986-03-05

    The authors used washed, (/sup 3/H)serotonin-labeled rabbit platelets to study the in vitro aggregation and secretion responses induced by graded doses of PAF in the presence or absence of specific antagonists of PAF. These antagonists included CV-3988, L-652,731, triazolam and alprazolam. Platelets were pretreated with either an antagonist or the appropriate diluent for 60 sec prior to the addition of PAF (2 x 10/sup -10/ to 2 x 10/sup -7/ M). Aggregation was monitored continuously and recorded as the height of the aggregation tracing at 60 sec post-PAF. Secretion of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin was measured in a sample of the platelets removed at 60 sec post-PAF. When 2 x 10/sup -10/ M PAF was used as the stimulus, the concentration of antagonist needed for 50% inhibition (IC/sub 50/) of secretion was obtained at 0.05 ..mu..M, 0.15 ..mu..M, 0.6 ..mu..M and 2.5 ..mu..M, respectively, for L-652,731, CV-3988, triazolam and alprazolam. The corresponding IC/sub 50/ for aggregation was obtained at 0.2 ..mu..M, 0.1 ..mu..M, 1.5 ..mu..M and 6.5 ..mu..M, respectively. The inhibitory effects of these antagonists could be overcome by increasing the dose of PAF used. Although all of the antagonists were capable of completely inhibiting platelet aggregation and secretion, L-652,731 was the most potent PAF antagonist on a molar basis.

  3. Potent in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein by Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellum, Bent H; Tosse, Anita; Hoybakk, Kathrine; Thomsen, Mette; Rohloff, Jens; Georg Nilsen, Odd

    2010-03-01

    Six clones of RHODIOLA ROSEA, obtained from plants originating from widely different areas in Norway, were investigated for their IN VITRO inhibitory potential on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-gp efflux transport activity. Presumed active constituents in the ethanol extracts of the different clones were quantified. C-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4 and Caco-2 cells were used for inhibitory assays, and as positive control inhibitors ketoconazole and verapamil were applied, respectively. A validated HPLC methodology was used to quantify the formation of 6-beta-OH-testosterone and scintillation counting was used to quantify the transport of (3)H-digoxin in Caco-2 cells. All clones showed potent inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp activities, with IC (50) values ranging from 1.7 to 3.1 microg/mL and from 16.7 to 51.7 microg/mL, respectively, being below that reported for other herbs and some known classic drug inhibitors, such as St. John's wort and fluoxetine. RHODIOLA ROSEA might thus be a candidate for clinically relevant drug interactions. The concentration of presumed biologically active constituents in the different clones varied considerably, but this variation was not related to the clones' inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 or P-gp activities. Other constituents might thus be responsible for the observed inhibitory properties. The place of origin seemed to be of minor importance for CYP3A4 or P-gp inhibition. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  4. In Vitro Cysteine Reactivates Organophosphate Insecticide Dichlorvos-Inhibited Human Cholinesterases

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    Hamidreza Mohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Organophosphate (OP pesticides inhibit both red blood cell (RBC and plasma cholinesterases (ChEs. Oximes, especially pralidoxime (2-PAM, are widely used as antidotes to treat OP poisoning. In addition, N-acetylcysteine (NAC is sometimes used as an adjuvant antidote. The current study aimed to assess the feasibility of using NAC as a single therapeutic agent for OP poisoning in comparison to in vitro 2-PAM. Methods:This study was carried out at the Razi Drug Research Center of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between April and September 2014. A total of 22 healthy human subjects were recruited and 8 mL citrated blood samples were drawn from each subject. Dichlorvos-inhibited blood samples were separately exposed to low and high doses (final concentrations of 300 and 600 μmol.L-1, respectively of 2-PAM, NAC and cysteine. Plasma and RBCs were then separated by centrifugation and their ChE activity was measured using spectrophotometry. Results: Although cysteine—and not NAC—increased the ChE activity of both plasma and RBCs over those of dichlorvos, it did not increase them over those of a high dose of 2-PAM. Conclusion:These results suggest that the direct reactions of 2-PAM and cysteine with dichlorvos and the reactivation of phosphorylated ChEs occurr via an associative stepwise addition-elimination process. High therapeutic blood concentrations of cysteine are needed for the elevation of ChE activity in plasma and RBCs; however, both this agent and NAC may still be effective in the reactivation of plasma and RBC ChEs.

  5. z-Guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

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    Xiao, Dong; Singh, Shivendra V

    2008-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that z-guggulsterone, a constituent of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells by causing apoptosis. We now report a novel response to z-guggulsterone involving the inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The z-guggulsterone treatment inhibited capillary-like tube formation (in vitro neovascularization) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and migration by HUVEC and DU145 human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The z- and E-isomers of guggulsterone seemed equipotent as inhibitors of HUVEC tube formation. The z-guggulsterone-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro correlated with the suppression of secretion of proangiogenic growth factors [e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor], down-regulation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) protein level, and inactivation of Akt. The z-guggulsterone-mediated suppression of DU145 cell migration was increased by knockdown of VEGF-R2 protein level. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt in DU145 cells conferred protection against z-guggulsterone-mediated inhibition of cell migration. Oral gavage of 1 mg z-guggulsterone/d (five times/wk) to male nude mice inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in DU145-Matrigel plug assay as evidenced by a statistically significant decrease in tumor burden, microvessel area (staining for angiogenic markers factor VIII and CD31), and VEGF-R2 protein expression. In conclusion, the present study reveals that z-guggulsterone inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing the VEGF-VEGF-R2-Akt signaling axis. Together, our results provide compelling rationale for further preclinical and clinical investigation of z-guggulsterone for its efficacy against prostate cancer.

  6. In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P-450 activities and quantification of constituents in a selection of commercial Rhodiola rosea products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Ole Kristian; Nilsen, Odd Georg; Hellum, Bent

    2016-12-01

    Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) products are popular natural remedies with a worldwide distribution. Recent studies have revealed potent CYP inhibition by R. rosea extracts both in vitro and in vivo, but information on in vitro CYP inhibition by commercial products are lacking. Variations in commercial R. rosea product quality have also been published. This study evaluates the variation of in vitro CYP inhibition potential and product quality of six commercially available R. rosea products. Human CYPs isolated from baculovirus-infected cell system were incubated with testosterone (CYP3A4), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6) or phenacetin (CYP1A2). Positive CYP inhibitors ketoconazole (CYP3A4), quinidine (CYP2D6) and β-naphtoflavone (CYP1A2) were used as controls. Quantification of rosavin, rosarin, rosin, tyrosol and salidroside were used to evaluate R. rosea content. IC50 values ranged from 7.2-106.6 μg/mL for CYP3A4, 13.0-186.1 μg/mL for 2D6 and 10.7-116.0 μg/mL for 1A2. The tincture formulation of R. rosea was the strongest inhibitor giving the lowest IC50 values of 7.2 ± 0.7, 13 ± 1.7 and 10.7 ± 5.6 μg/mL, respectively. CYP3A4 was significantly more inhibited by the different products than CYP1A2 (p rosea product. Constituent concentrations were not linked to enzyme inhibition. The present results show a large variation in inhibitory potential between the products. Several of the products demonstrate similar inhibition levels as the product Arctic Root already proven to inhibit CYP enzyme activity in man.

  7. Red wine and component flavonoids inhibit UGT2B17 in vitro

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    Jenkinson Carl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolism and excretion of the anabolic steroid testosterone occurs by glucuronidation to the conjugate testosterone glucuronide which is then excreted in urine. Alterations in UGT glucuronidation enzyme activity could alter the rate of testosterone excretion and thus its bioavailability. The aim of this study is to investigate if red wine, a common dietary substance, has an inhibitory effect on UGT2B17. Methods Testosterone glucuronidation was assayed using human UGT2B17 supersomes with quantification of unglucuronidated testosterone over time using HPLC with DAD detection. The selected red wine was analyzed using HPLC; and the inhibitory effects of the wine and phenolic components were tested independently in a screening assay. Further analyses were conducted for the strongest inhibitors at physiologically relevant concentrations. Control experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the ethanol on UGT2B17. Results Over the concentration range of 2 to 8%, the red wine sample inhibited the glucuronidation of testosterone by up to 70% over 2 hours. The ethanol content had no significant effect. Three red wine phenolics, identified by HPLC analyses, also inhibited the enzyme by varying amounts in the order of quercetin (72%, caffeic acid (22% and gallic acid (9%; using a ratio of phenolic:testosterone of 1:2.5. In contrast p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid had no effect on the UGT2B17. The most active phenolic was selected for a detailed study at physiologically relevant concentrations, and quercetin maintained inhibitory activity of 20% at 2 μM despite a ten-fold excess of testosterone. Conclusion This study reports that in an in vitro supersome-based assay, the key steroid-metabolizing enzyme UGT2B17 is inhibited by a number of phenolic dietary substances and therefore may reduce the rate of testosterone glucuronidation in vivo. These results highlight the potential interactions of a number of common

  8. The Organophosphate Paraoxon and Its Antidote Obidoxime Inhibit Thrombin Activity and Affect Coagulation In Vitro.

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    Valery Golderman

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests. Both paraoxon and obidoxime but not atropine significantly inhibited thrombin activity, and prolonged prothrombin time, thrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. When paraoxon and obidoxime were combined, a significant synergistic effect was found on both thrombin activity and coagulation tests. In conclusion, paraoxon and obidoxime affect thrombin activity and consequently alter the function of the coagulation system. Similar interactions may be clinically relevant for coagulation pathways in the blood and possibly in the brain.

  9. Fluoxetine Induces Proliferation and Inhibits Differentiation of Hypothalamic Neuroprogenitor Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Ferreira, Lígia; Aveleira, Célia; Botelho, Mariana; Álvaro, Ana Rita; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    A significant number of children undergo maternal exposure to antidepressants and they often present low birth weight. Therefore, it is important to understand how selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect the development of the hypothalamus, the key center for metabolism regulation. In this study we investigated the proliferative actions of fluoxetine in fetal hypothalamic neuroprogenitor cells and demonstrate that fluoxetine induces the proliferation of these cells, as shown by increased neurospheres size and number of proliferative cells (Ki-67+ cells). Moreover, fluoxetine inhibits the differentiation of hypothalamic neuroprogenitor cells, as demonstrated by decreased number of mature neurons (Neu-N+ cells) and increased number of undifferentiated cells (SOX-2+ cells). Additionally, fluoxetine-induced proliferation and maintenance of hypothalamic neuroprogenitor cells leads to changes in the mRNA levels of appetite regulator neuropeptides, including Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Cocaine-and-Amphetamine-Regulated-Transcript (CART). This study provides the first evidence that SSRIs affect the development of hypothalamic neuroprogenitor cells in vitro with consequent alterations on appetite neuropeptides. PMID:24598761

  10. Salinomycin inhibits canine mammary carcinoma in vitro by targeting cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongchao; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Yipeng; Zhang, Di; Lin, Degui

    2017-07-01

    Salinomycin (SAL), a polyether ionophore antibiotic, has been demonstrated to selectively kill cancer stem cells (CSCs) in various types of human tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of SAL on canine mammary CSCs. CSCs in canine mammary carcinoma cell lines (CMT7364 and CIPp) were identified using a sphere formation assay and flow cytometry. The chemoresistance, invasive potential and expression of stem cell-associated proteins of these spheres was then analyzed. This demonstrated that the spheres exhibited characteristics of CSCs, including a cluster of differentiation (CD)44+/CD24-/low phenotype, upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway-associated proteins and chemoresistance. The viability of the spheres was decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner following treatment with SAL, and the spheres did not exhibit increased resistance to SAL compared with their parental cells. In addition, exposure to SAL inhibited sphere-formation and invasive potential in canine mammary CSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SAL decreased the CD44+/CD24-/low population and downregulated the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling-associated proteins (β-catenin, Cyclin D1 and octamer-binding transcription factor 4) in the spheres. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that SAL is an effective inhibitor of canine mammary CSCs in vitro, indicating that SAL is a promising chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of canine mammary carcinoma.

  11. Plant polyphenols alter a pathway of energy metabolism by inhibiting fecal Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bin; Xie, Jinli; Huang, Jiachen; Chen, Long; Gao, Lijuan; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2016-03-01

    The function of plant polyphenols in controlling body weight has been in focus for a long time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant polyphenols on fecal microbiota utilizing oligosaccharides. Three plant polyphenols, quercetin, catechin and puerarin, were added into liquid media for fermenting for 24 h. The pH values, OD600 of the cultures and the content of carbohydrates at 0, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h were determined. The abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in each culture was quantified with qPCR after 10 h of fermentation, and the bacterial composition was analyzed using the software Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology. The results revealed that all three plant polyphenols could significantly inhibit the growth of Bacteroidetes (P polyphenols, catechin presented the most intense inhibitory activity towards the growth of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and quercetin was the second. Only the samples with catechin had a significantly lower energy metabolism (P polyphenols can change the pathway of degrading FOS or even energy metabolism in vivo by altering gut microbiota composition. It may be one of the mechanisms in which plant polyphenols can lead to body weight loss. It's the first report to study in vitro gastrointestinal microbiota fermenting dietary fibers under the intervention of plant polyphenols.

  12. The Organophosphate Paraoxon and Its Antidote Obidoxime Inhibit Thrombin Activity and Affect Coagulation In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golderman, Valery; Shavit-Stein, Efrat; Tamarin, Ilia; Rosman, Yossi; Shrot, Shai; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests. Both paraoxon and obidoxime but not atropine significantly inhibited thrombin activity, and prolonged prothrombin time, thrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. When paraoxon and obidoxime were combined, a significant synergistic effect was found on both thrombin activity and coagulation tests. In conclusion, paraoxon and obidoxime affect thrombin activity and consequently alter the function of the coagulation system. Similar interactions may be clinically relevant for coagulation pathways in the blood and possibly in the brain. PMID:27689805

  13. Monoclonal Antibodies Inhibit in vitro Fibrillar Aggregation of the Alzheimer β -Amyloid Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Beka; Koppel, Rela; Hanan, Eilat; Katzav, Tamar

    1996-01-01

    The β -amyloid peptide, the hallmark of Alzheimer disease, forms fibrillar toxic aggregates in brain tissue that can be dissolved only by strong denaturing agents. To study β -amyloid formation and its inhibition, we prepared immune complexes with two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), AMY-33 and 6F/3D, raised against β -amyloid fragments spanning amino acid residues 1-28 and 8-17 of the β -amyloid peptide chain, respectively. In vitro aggregation of β -amyloid peptide was induced by incubation for 3 h at 37 degrees C and monitored by ELISA, negative staining electron microscopy, and fluorimetric studies. We found that the mAbs prevent the aggregation of β -amyloid peptide and that the inhibitory effect appears to be related to the localization of the antibody-binding sites and the nature of the aggregating agents. Preparation of mAbs against ``aggregating epitopes,'' defined as sequences related to the sites where protein aggregation is initiated, may lead to the understanding and prevention of protein aggregation. The results of this study may provide a foundation for using mAbs in vivo to prevent the β -amyloid peptide aggregation that is associated with Alzheimer disease.

  14. The isoflavone genistein inhibits copper and peroxyl radical mediated low density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, N; Abbey, M

    1998-10-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis and dietary antioxidants may provide a useful therapy in the prevention of LDL oxidation and atheroma development. The aim of these experiments was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the soybean isoflavone, genistein, in in vitro models of LDL oxidation. Genistein inhibited copper-mediated oxidation of LDL in a concentration-dependent manner by lengthening the time for conjugated diene formation (54.1 +/- 5.1 min in control LDL and 107.1 +/- 1.8 min with 5 micromol/l genistein, Pgenistein, Pgenistein as indicated by: (i) increase in the time required for malondialdehyde (MDA) formation (7 h incubation compared to 3 h incubation with control LDL), (ii) 32, 44 and 46% decreases in MDA concentration compared to control samples following 3, 4 and 5 h incubation, respectively and (iii) decrease in relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of LDL. Incorporation of genistein into LDL and its resultant antioxidant activity was also investigated. LDL was isolated from plasma which had been pre-incubated with 25. 50 or 100 micromol/l genistein at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Approximately 3-4% of genistein present in plasma was incorporated into LDL, however copper-mediated oxidation of control LDL and LDL isolated from plasma pre-incubated with genistein was not significantly different.

  15. Boric acid inhibits germination and colonization of Saprolegnia spores in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shimaa E; Thoen, Even; Evensen, Øystein; Skaar, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Saprolegnia infections cause severe economic losses among freshwater fish and their eggs. The banning of malachite green increased the demand for finding effective alternative treatments to control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the ability of boric acid to control saprolegniosis in salmon eggs and yolk sac fry. Under in vitro conditions, boric acid was able to decrease Saprolegnia spore activity and mycelial growth in all tested concentrations above 0.2 g/L, while complete inhibition of germination and growth was observed at a concentration of 0.8 g/L. In in vivo experiments using Atlantic salmon eyed eggs, saprolegniosis was controlled by boric acid at concentrations ranging from 0.2-1.4 g/L during continuous exposure, and at 1.0-4.0 g/L during intermittent exposure. The same effect was observed on salmon yolk sac fry exposed continuously to 0.5 g/L boric acid during the natural outbreak of saprolegniosis. During the experiments no negative impact with regard to hatchability and viability was observed in either eggs or fry, which indicate safety of use at all tested concentrations. The high hatchability and survival rates recorded following the in vivo testing suggest that boric acid is a candidate for prophylaxis and control of saprolegniosis.

  16. Pomegranate ellagitannins inhibit α-glucosidase activity in vitro and reduce starch digestibility under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesia, Andrea; Verzelloni, Elena; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate extract was tested for its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Pomegranate extract strongly inhibited rat intestinal α-glucosidase in vitro whereas it was a weak inhibitor of porcine α-amylase. The inhibitory activity was recovered in an ellagitannins-enriched fraction and punicalagin, punicalin, and ellagic acid were identified as α-glucosidase inhibitors (IC(50) of 140.2, 191.4, and 380.9 μmol/L, respectively). Kinetic analysis suggested that the pomegranate extract and ellagitannins inhibited α-glucosidase activity in a mixed mode. The inhibitory activity was demonstrated using an in vitro digestion system, mimicking the physiological gastro-intestinal condition, and potatoes as food rich in starch. Pre-incubation between ellagitannins and α-glucosidase increased the inhibitory activity, suggesting that they acted by binding to α-glucosidase. During digestion punicalin and punicalagin concentration decreased. Despite this loss, the pomegranate extract retained high inhibitory activity. This study suggests that pomegranate ellagitannins may inhibit α-glucosidase activity in vitro possibly affecting in vivo starch digestion.

  17. Reactivation of Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibited by Leptophos-Oxon with Different Oxime Reactivators in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Daniel; Musilova, Lucie; Pohanka, Miroslav; Jung, Young-Sik; Bostik, Pavel; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    We have evaluated in vitro the potency of 23 oximes to reactivate human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibited by racemic leptophos-oxon (O-[4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl]-O-methyl phenyl-phosphonate), a toxic metabolite of the pesticide leptophos. Compounds were assayed in concentrations of 10 and 100 μM. In case of leptophos-oxon inhibited AChE, the best reactivation potency was achieved with methoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime and oxime K027. The most potent reactivators of inhibited BChE were K033, obidoxime, K117, bis-3-PA, K075, K074 and K127. The reactivation efficacy of tested oximes was lower in case of leptophos-oxon inhibited BChE. PMID:21152278

  18. Noncompetitive inhibition of human CYP2C9 in vitro by a commercial Rhodiola rosea product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Ole Kristian Forstrønen; Spigset, Olav; Hellum, Bent

    2017-08-01

    A commercial Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) product has previously demonstrated CYP2C9 inhibition in humans. The purpose of this study was to provide in vitro inhibitory data for this particular interaction and to classify the mechanism of the interaction. Another aim was to examine the in vitro influence of ethanol on the CYP2C9 activity. Human CYP2C9 (wild type) isolated from a baculovirus-infected cell system was incubated with 0.8 μmol/L losartan for 20 min. Sulfaphenazole was used as a positive control. The commercial R. rosea product "Arctic Root" was used as test inhibitor. Formation of the CYP2C9-produced losartan metabolite EXP-3174 was determined by validated LC-MS/MS methodology. Possible mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition was evaluated using time- and NADPH-dependent inhibition assays. Kinetic constants (Km , Vmax , and Ki ) were calculated from a Lineweaver-Burk plot. Mode of inhibition was determined. CYP2C9 was inhibited by "Arctic Root" with an IC50 (extract concentration yielding 50% reduction in enzyme activity) of 19.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. Inhibitor concentrations of 20 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL yielded Ki values of 16.37 μg/mL and 5.59 μg/mL, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed noncompetitive inhibition mode. No time- or NADPH-dependent inhibition was observed. The presence of ethanol inhibited CYP2C9 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the commercial R. rosea product "Arctic Root" demonstrated noncompetitive inhibition of CYP2C9 in vitro. Further work identifying the constituents responsible for this inhibition is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Characterization of SIV in the Oral Cavity and in Vitro Inhibition of SIV by Rhesus Macaque Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jessica S.; Lacour, Nedra; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are rarely acquired via an oral route in adults. Previous studies have shown that human whole saliva inhibits HIV infection in vitro, and multiple factors present in human saliva have been shown to contribute to this antiviral activity. Despite the widespread use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques as models for HIV pathogenesis and transmission, few studies have monitored SIV in the oral cavity of infected rhesus macaques and evaluated the viral inhibitory capacity of macaque saliva. Utilizing a cohort of rhesus macaques infected with SIVMac251, we monitored virus levels and genotypic diversity in the saliva throughout the course of the disease; findings were similar to previous observations in HIV-infected humans. An in vitro infectivity assay was utilized to measure inhibition of HIV/SIV infection by normal human and rhesus macaque whole saliva. Both human and macaque saliva were capable of inhibiting HIV and SIV infection. The inhibitory capacity of saliva samples collected from a cohort of animals postinfection with SIV increased over the course of disease, coincident with the development of SIV-specific antibodies in the saliva. These findings suggest that both innate and adaptive factors contribute to inhibition of SIV by whole macaque saliva. This work also demonstrates that SIV-infected rhesus macaques provide a relevant model to examine the innate and adaptive immune responses that inhibit HIV/SIV in the oral cavity. PMID:20672998

  20. LegC3, an Effector Protein from Legionella pneumophila, Inhibits Homotypic Yeast Vacuole Fusion In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Terry L.; Kraft, Shannon M.; Reaves, Barbara J.; Mima, Joji; O’Brien, Kevin M.; Starai, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    During infection, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila causes an extensive remodeling of host membrane trafficking pathways, both in the construction of a replication-competent vacuole comprised of ER-derived vesicles and plasma membrane components, and in the inhibition of normal phagosome:endosome/lysosome fusion pathways. Here, we identify the LegC3 secreted effector protein from L. pneumophila as able to inhibit a SNARE- and Rab GTPase-dependent membrane fusion pathway in vitro, the homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles (lysosomes). This vacuole fusion inhibition appeared to be specific, as similar secreted coiled-coiled domain containing proteins from L. pneumophila, LegC7/YlfA and LegC2/YlfB, did not inhibit vacuole fusion. The LegC3-mediated fusion inhibition was reversible by a yeast cytosolic extract, as well as by a purified soluble SNARE, Vam7p. LegC3 blocked the formation of trans-SNARE complexes during vacuole fusion, although we did not detect a direct interaction of LegC3 with the vacuolar SNARE protein complexes required for fusion. Additionally, LegC3 was incapable of inhibiting a defined synthetic model of vacuolar SNARE-driven membrane fusion, further suggesting that LegC3 does not directly inhibit the activity of vacuolar SNAREs, HOPS complex, or Sec17p/18p during membrane fusion. LegC3 is likely utilized by Legionella to modulate eukaryotic membrane fusion events during pathogenesis. PMID:23437241

  1. Glass ionomer cement inhibits secondary caries in an in vitro biofilm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Norbert; Schmidt, Miriam; Lücker, Susanne; Domann, Eugen; Frankenberger, Roland

    2017-07-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different glass ionomer cements on secondary caries inhibition in a fully automated in vitro biofilm model. One hundred and twenty-four extracted third molars received class V cavities and were filled with one conventional (Ketac Molar/KM), and two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Photac Fil/PF, Ketac N100/KN, 3M Espe). A bonded resin composite (Single Bond Plus/Filtek Supreme XTE) served as control. After 14 days water storage at 37 °C, specimens were thermocycled (10,000 × 5/55 °C). Over a period of 10 days, specimens were subjected to cariogenic challenge for 3/4/6 h/day. Demineralization was caused by Streptococcus mutans (DSM 20523) alternatingly being rinsed over specimens using artificial saliva. After biological loading, teeth were cut longitudinally and demineralization depths were evaluated at the margins and at a distance of 0.5 mm from the margins using fluorescence microscopy. Marginal quality was investigated under a SEM at ×200 magnification. Four-hour demineralization depths were for enamel margins (EM), enamel (E), dentin margin (DM), and dentin (D) (μm ± SD): KM: EM 12 ± 8, E 33 ± 7, DM 56 ± 11, D 79 ± 6; PF: EM 19 ± 13, E 34 ± 13, DM 53 ± 10, D 77 ± 12; and KN: EM 26 ± 5, E 38 ± 6, DM 57 ± 11, D 71 ± 7. For all glass ionomer cements (GICs), demineralization depth at the margins was less compared to 0.5 mm distance, with demineralization depth having been correlated to duration of cariogenic challenge (ANOVA [mod. LSD, p Glass ionomer cements have a higher secondary caries inhibiting effect than resin composites.

  2. Development of an in vitro cytochrome P450 cocktail inhibition assay for assessing the inhibition risk of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Julia; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-10-01

    Drugs of abuse are not tested for cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition potential before distribution. Therefore, a cocktail assay should be developed for testing the inhibition potential for all relevant CYPs. The following CYP test substrates and selective inhibitors were incubated in pooled human liver microsomes: phenacetin (alpha-naphthoflavone for CYP1A2), coumarin (tranylcypromine, CYP2A6), bupropion (sertraline, CYP2B6), amodiaquine (trimethoprim, CYP2C8), diclofenac (sulfaphenazole, CYP2C9), omeprazole (fluconazole, CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (quinidine, CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (clomethiazole, CYP2E1), testosterone (verapamil, CYP3A). Samples were analyzed after protein precipitation using a Thermo Fisher Q-Exactive LC-high-resolution-MS/MS. The IC50 values were calculated by plotting the concentration of the formed metabolite, relative to the control sample, over the logarithm of the inhibitor concentration. They were determined either for single substrate or the cocktail incubation. Unfortunately, the cocktail assay had to be split because of interferences during incubation caused by substrates or metabolites, but the mixture of both incubates could be analyzed in one analytical run. The IC50 values determined in the single substrate or both cocktail incubations were comparable among themselves and with published data. In conclusion, the new inhibition cocktail assay was reproducible and applicable for testing the inhibition potential of drugs of abuse as exemplified for 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amfetamine (DOI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of calcification of bovine pericardium after treatment with biopolymers, E-beam irradiation and in vitro endothelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polak, Roberta [Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, USP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodas, Andrea C.D. [Biotechnology Center, Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chicoma, Dennis L.; Giudici, Reinaldo [Department of Chemical Engineering of Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Beppu, Marisa M. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Higa, Olga Z. [Biotechnology Center, Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M., E-mail: pitombo@usp.br [Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, USP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    This work has investigated the in vitro calcification of bovine pericardium (BP) treated with chitosan (C), silk fibroin (SF) and electron beam irradiation after its endothelization in vitro. For this purpose, freeze-dried BP membranes treated with mixtures of C and SF (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) and then irradiated by electron beam irradiation were seeded with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. After 3 weeks of cultivation these membranes were submitted to in vitro calcification tests using simulated body fluid as the calcifying agent. Control membranes were also studied (without endothelial cells exposure). The results have shown that the membrane compatibility with HUVECs in vitro prevent such biomaterial from calcifying, showing a potential application in biomaterial area, such as cardiac valves and repair patches. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bovine pericardium tissue treated with biopolymers followed by electron beam irradiation could be endothelized in vitro Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcification was inhibited after endothelization, demonstrating a new anti calcifying treatment for BP membranes Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This membranes could be used as cardiac valves and repair patches.

  4. Silencing of ghrelin receptor expression inhibits endometrial cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Jenny N T; Jeffery, Penny L; Lee, John D; Seim, Inge; Roche, Deborah; Obermair, Andreas; Chopin, Lisa K; Chen, Chen

    2013-07-15

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide hormone produced predominantly in the stomach but also in a range of normal cell types and tumors, where it has endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine roles. Previously, we have demonstrated that ghrelin has proliferative and antiapoptotic effects in endometrial cancer cell lines, suggesting a potential role in promoting tumor growth. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ghrelin receptor, GHSR, and gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and characterized ghrelin and GHSR1a protein expression in human endometrial tumors. GHSR gene silencing was achieved in the Ishikawa and KLE endometrial cancer cell lines, using a lentiviral short-hairpin RNA targeting GHSR. The effects of GHSR1a knockdown were further analyzed in vivo using the Ishikawa cell line in a NOD/SCID xenograft model. Cell proliferation was reduced in cultured GHSR1a knockdown Ishikawa and KLE cells compared with scrambled controls in the absence of exogenously applied ghrelin and in response to exogenous ghrelin (1,000 nM). The tumor volumes were reduced significantly in GHSR1a knockdown Ishikawa mouse xenograft tumors compared with scrambled control tumours. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that ghrelin and GHSR1a are expressed in benign and cancerous glands in human endometrial tissue specimens, although there was no correlation between the intensity of staining and cancer grade. These data indicate that downregulation of GHSR expression significantly inhibits endometrial cancer cell line and mouse xenograft tumour growth. This is the first preclinical evidence that downregulation of GHSR may be therapeutic in endometrial cancer.

  5. Inhibition of the angiogenesis and growth of Aloin in human colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qin; Pan, Hongming; Lou, Haizhou; Xu, Yinghua; Tian, Lu

    2013-07-12

    Angiogenesis has been an attractive target for drug therapy. Aloin (AL), an natural compound derived from Aloe barbadensis Miller leaves, has been shown to possess anti-cancer potential activities. However, its roles in tumor angiogenesis and the involved molecular mechanism are unknown. To evaluate the antiangiogenic and anticancer activities of AL, endothelial cell scratch, modified Boyden chamber inserts and tube formation assays were done in HUVECs, and MTT and Live-Dead assays were used to determine the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The inhibition effects of AL were further confirmed by a mouse xenograft model in vivo. The expression levels of STAT3 signaling pathway and that mediated-target genes were measured in HUVECs and SW620 cells by Western blots. Here, we demonstrated that AL significantly inhibited HUVECs proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro. Western blotting showed that AL suppressed activation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 2 and STAT3 phosphorylation in endothelial cells. In addition, the constitutively activated STAT3 protein, and the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-xL), proliferative (c-Myc), and angiogenic (VEGF) proteins were also down-regulated in response to AL in human SW620 cancer cells. Consistent with the above findings, AL inhibited tumor cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in vitro, and substantially reduced tumor volumes and weight in vivo mouse xenografts, without obviously toxicity. Our studies provided the first evidence that AL may inhibit tumor angiogenesis and growth via blocking STAT3 activation, with the potential of a drug candidate for cancer therapy.

  6. ROS accumulation and IGF-IR inhibition contribute to fenofibrate/PPARα -mediated inhibition of Glioma cell motility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Valle Luis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastomas are characterized by rapid cell growth, aggressive CNS infiltration, and are resistant to all known anticancer regimens. Recent studies indicate that fibrates and statins possess anticancer potential. Fenofibrate is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα that can switch energy metabolism from glycolysis to fatty acid β-oxidation, and has low systemic toxicity. Fenofibrate also attenuates IGF-I-mediated cellular responses, which could be relevant in the process of glioblastoma cell dispersal. Methods The effects of fenofibrate on Glioma cell motility, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling, PPARα activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, mitochondrial potential, and ATP production were analyzed in human glioma cell lines. Results Fenofibrate treatment attenuated IGF-I signaling responses and repressed cell motility of LN-229 and T98G Glioma cell lines. In the absence of fenofibrate, specific inhibition of the IGF-IR had only modest effects on Glioma cell motility. Further experiments revealed that PPARα-dependent accumulation of ROS is a strong contributing factor in Glioma cell lines responses to fenofibrate. The ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, restored cell motility, improved mitochondrial potential, and increased ATP levels in fenofibrate treated Glioma cell lines. Conclusions Our results indicate that although fenofibrate-mediated inhibition of the IGF-IR may not be sufficient in counteracting Glioma cell dispersal, PPARα-dependent metabolic switch and the resulting ROS accumulation strongly contribute to the inhibition of these devastating brain tumor cells.

  7. AAV-Mediated angiotensin 1-7 overexpression inhibits tumor growth of lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinglu; Chen, Sansan; Pei, Nana; Mao, Yingying; Wang, Shengyao; Yan, Renhe; Bai, Na; Li, Andrew; Zhang, Yanling; Du, Hongyan; Chen, Baihong; Sumners, Colin; Li, Jinlong; Li, Hongwei

    2017-01-03

    Ang-(1-7) inhibits lung cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of action is unclear and also the rapid degradation of Ang-(1-7) in vivo limits its clinical application. Here, we have demonstrated that Ang- (1-7) inhibits lung cancer cell growth by interrupting pre-replicative complex assembly and restrains epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Cdc6 inhibition. Furthermore, we constructed a mutant adeno-associated viral vector AAV8 (Y733F) that produced stable and high efficient Ang-(1-7) expression in a xenograft tumor model. The results show that AAV8-mediated Ang-(1-7) over-expression can remarkably suppress tumor growth in vivo by down-regulating Cdc6 and anti-angiogenesis. Ang-(1-7) over-expression via the AAV8 method may be a promising strategy for lung cancer treatment.

  8. PENGHAMBATAN CAJUPUTS CANDY TERHADAP VIABILITAS KHAMIR Candida albicans SECARA IN VITRO [Inhibition of Cajuputs Candy Toward the Viability of Candida albicans by using In Vitro Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hanny Wijaya1*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of cajuput essential oil as a flavor in candy may produce a physiological active added value. Some compounds of cajuput plant (Melaleuca cajuputi L have been reported for their anti-microbial activities. Candida albicans is a normal commensal organism in human mouth. However, it may become virulent and responsible for oral diseases known as oral candidiasis. This study aimed to determine the effect of cajuput and peppermint oil in cajuputs candy in inhibiting the C. albicans biofilms formation by using in vitro biofilm assay and viability assay. Furthermore, the influence of concentration of cajuput oil on the anti-microbial activities had been analyzed. All the tested concentration of cajuput oil in cajuputs candy was effective to inhibit the viability of C. albicans. The provision of flavor components of cajuput and peppermint oil could produce synergistic effects compared to a single flavor component. The addition of cajuput oil at 0.6% was able to inhibit the viability of C. albicans. The activities of the cajuput oil showed positive correlation to the concentration. The variable of plus and minus 0.1% addition of the cajuput oil concentration, however, produced no significant difference to inhibit the growth of C. albicans in biofilm. Sensory test, hedonic test, was conducted to evaluate the flavor, aroma, and overall attributes, resulting in no significant difference between 0.6 to 0.8% additions of cajuput oil upon the sensory acceptance.

  9. In-Vitro dual inhibition of protein glycation, and oxidation by some Arabian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Rasheed, Saima; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Al-Said, Mansour S; Musarrat, Javed; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2016-08-05

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of epidemic proportion, projected to become the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world in future. Despite extensive research in understanding this disease at molecular level, and the discovery of new drugs, diabetes and its complications remain largely untreated. Many of the late diabetic complications are associated with the glycation of proteins in the body. Natural flora has long been a rich source for therapeutic agents, especially against diabetes. The present study deals with the anti-glycation properties of some medicinally important plants of Arabian region. Twenty-six medicinal plants, commonly found in different regions of Arabian Peninsula, were evaluated for their protein anti-glycation activity by using BSA-MG glycation assay in-vitro. The extracts were incubated with BSA and MG at 37 °C for 9 days, each sample was then examined for the presence of fluorescence (λex 330 nm, and λem 420 nm), which represent the extent of protein glycation. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), iron chelation, and superoxide radical scavenging asaays. The data revealed that out of 26 medicinal plants, five plants viz. Sida cordifolia, Plumbago zeylanica, Tribulus terrestris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Rosa indica were active against the in-vitro protein glycation with IC50 values between 0.408- 1.690 mg/mL. Among the active plants, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. was found to be the most potent (IC50 = 0.408 ± 0.027 mg/mL), followed by Rosa indica (IC50 = 0.596 ± 0.0179 mg/mL), and Sida cordifolia L. (IC50 = 0.63 ± 0.009 mg/mL). The antioxidant potential of these plant extracts were also determined by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), iron chelation, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. Among five plants, Sida cordifolia exhibited a potent anti-oxidant activity in both DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays (IC50

  10. Targeted in vitro and in vivo gene transfer into T Lymphocytes: potential of direct inhibition of allo-immune activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Mandeep R

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful inhibition of alloimmune activation in organ transplantation remains one of the key events in achieving a long-term graft survival. Since T lymphocytes are largely responsible for alloimmune activation, targeted gene transfer of gene of cyclin kinase inhibitor p21 into T cells might inhibit their aberrant proliferation. A number of strategies using either adenoviral or lentiviral vectors linked to mono or bispecific antibodies directed against T cell surface markers/cytokines did not yield the desired results. Therefore, this study was designed to test if a CD3promoter-p21 chimeric construct would in vitro and in vivo transfer p21 gene to T lymphocytes and result in inhibition of proliferation. CD3 promoter-p21 chimeric constructs were prepared with p21 in the sense and antisense orientation. For in vitro studies EL4-IL-2 thyoma cells were used and for in vivo studies CD3p21 sense and antisense plasmid DNA was injected intramuscularly in mice. Lymphocyte proliferation was quantified by 3H-thymidine uptake assay; IL-2 mRNA expression was studied by RT-PCR and using Real Time PCR assay, we monitored the CD3, p21, TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA expression. Results Transfection of CD3p21 sense and antisense in mouse thyoma cell line (EL4-IL-2 resulted in modulation of mitogen-induced proliferation. The intramuscular injection of CD3p21 sense and antisense plasmid DNA into mice also modulated lymphocyte proliferation and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion These results demonstrate a novel strategy of in vitro and in vivo transfer of p21 gene to T cells using CD3-promoter to achieve targeted inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and immune activation.

  11. Asiatic acid inhibits liver fibrosis by blocking TGF-beta/Smad signaling in vivo and in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-xia Tang

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis is a major cause of liver failure, but treatment remains ineffective. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms and anti-hepatofibrotic activities of asiatic acid (AA in a rat model of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4 and in vitro in TGF-beta1-stimulated rat hepatic stellate cell line (HSC-T6. Treatment with AA significantly attenuated CCl(4-induced liver fibrosis and functional impairment in a dosage-dependent manner, including blockade of the activation of HSC as determined by inhibiting de novo alpha smooth muscle actin (a-SMA and collagen matrix expression, and an increase in ALT and AST (all p<0.01. The hepatoprotective effects of AA on fibrosis were associated with upregulation of hepatic Smad7, an inhibitor of TGF-beta signaling, thereby blocking upregulation of TGF-beta1 and CTGF and the activation of TGF-beta/Smad signaling. The anti-fibrosis activity and mechanisms of AA were further detected in vitro in HSC-T6. Addition of AA significantly induced Smad7 expression by HSC-T6 cells, thereby inhibiting TGF-beta1-induced Smad2/3 activation, myofibroblast transformation, and collagen matrix expression in a dosage-dependent manner. In contrast, knockdown of Smad7 in HSC-T6 cells prevented AA-induced inhibition of HSC-T6 cell activation and fibrosis in response to TGF-beta1, revealing an essential role for Smad7 in AA-induced anti-fibrotic activities during liver fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, AA may be a novel therapeutic agent for liver fibrosis. Induction of Smad7-dependent inhibition of TGF-beta/Smad-mediated fibrogenesis may be a central mechanism by which AA protects liver from injury.

  12. Inhibition of somatotroph growth and growth hormone biosynthesis by activin in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; González-Manchón, C; Potter, E

    1990-01-01

    ]methionine-labeled cells, could be observed after 24 h of activin treatment, and maximal (70%) inhibition of GH biosynthesis was observed after 3 days. Activin inhibited basal as well as GH-releasing factor (GRF)-, glucocorticoid-, and thyroid hormone-stimulated GH biosynthesis. Inhibin, which is known to reverse...... was observed. These data demonstrate that activin, in addition to its stimulatory effect on FSH secretion, is able to inhibit both expression of GH and growth of somatotropic cells....

  13. Salinomycin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Danxin; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Jie; Fan, Zirong; Shi, Fengrong; Wang, Senming, E-mail: wsenming@126.com

    2014-01-10

    Highlight: •We first evaluated the effect of salinomycin on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). •Salinomycin could inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling and induce apoptosis in NPC. •So salinomycin may be a good potential candidate for the chemotherapy of NPC. -- Abstract: Salinomycin (Sal) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to induce cell death in various human cancer cells. However, whether salinomycin plays a functional role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been determined to date. The present study investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of salinomycin and its molecular mechanisms of action in NPC cells. Salinomycin efficiently inhibited proliferation and invasion of 3 NPC cell lines (CNE-1, CNE-2, and CNE-2/DDP) and activated a extensive apoptotic process that is accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Meanwhile, the protein expression level of the Wnt coreceptor lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (LRP6) and β-catenin was down-regulated, which showed that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling was involved in salinomycin-induced apoptosis of NPC cells. In a nude mouse NPC xenograft model, the anti-tumor effect of salinomycin was associated with the downregulation of β-catenin expression. The present study demonstrated that salinomycin can effectively inhibit proliferation and invasion, and induce apoptosis of NPC cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo, probably via the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, suggesting salinomycin as a potential candidate for the chemotherapy of NPC.

  14. In vitro growth of multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates is inhibited by ETX0914, a novel spiropyrimidinetrione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, John R; Lawrence, Kenneth; Sharpe, Samera; Mueller, John; Kirkcaldy, Robert D

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has severely limited the number of treatment options, and the emergence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance threatens the effectiveness of the last remaining recommended treatment regimen. This study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ETX0914, a novel spiropyrimidinetrione that inhibits DNA biosynthesis. In vitro activity was determined by agar dilution against 100 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from men presenting with urethritis in the USA during 2012-2013 through the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) that inhibited growth in 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90) of isolates was calculated for each antimicrobial agent. ETX0914 demonstrated a high level of antimicrobial activity against N. gonorrhoeae, including isolates with decreased susceptibility or resistance to currently available agents. The ability of ETX0914 to inhibit the growth of N. gonorrhoeae was similar to ceftriaxone, which is currently recommended in combination with azithromycin to treat gonorrhoea. The data presented in this study strongly suggest that ETX0914 should be evaluated in a clinical trial for the treatment of N. gonorrhoeae. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Aqueous extracts of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) varieties inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of two varieties (red and white) of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) calyces on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), with the aim of providing the possible mechanism for their antidiabetes properties. Aqueous extracts were prepared (1:100 w/v) and the supernatant used for the analysis. The extracts caused inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in vitro.The IC(50) revealed that the red variety (25.2 μg/mL) exhibited higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the white variety (47.4 μg/mL), while the white variety (90.5 μg/mL) exhibited higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the red variety (187.9 μg/mL). However, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of both calyces were higher than that of their α-amylase. In addition, the red variety possessed higher antioxidant capacity as exemplified by the (•)OH scavenging abilities, Fe(2+) chelating ability, and inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced pancreatic lipid peroxidation in vitro. The enzyme inhibitory activities and antioxidant properties of the roselle extracts agreed with their phenolic content. Hence, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, coupled with strong antioxidant properties could be the possible underlying mechanism for the antidiabetes properties of H. sabdariffa calyces; however, the red variety appeared to be more potent.

  16. Inhibition of Autophagy Potentiates Atorvastatin-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Bladder Cancer Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyong Kang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Statins are cholesterol reduction agents that exhibit anti-cancer activity in several human cancers. Because autophagy is a crucial survival mechanism for cancer cells under stress conditions, cooperative inhibition of autophagy acts synergistically with other anti-cancer drugs. Thus, this study investigates whether combined treatment of atorvastatin and autophagy inhibitors results in enhancing the cytotoxic effects of atorvastatin, upon human bladder cancer cells, T24 and J82, in vitro. To measure cell viability, we performed the EZ-Cytox cell viability assay. We examined apoptosis by flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI and western blot using procaspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP antibodies. To examine autophagy activation, we evaluated the co-localization of LC3 and LysoTracker by immunocytochemistry, as well as the expression of LC3 and p62/sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1 by western blot. In addition, we assessed the survival and proliferation of T24 and J82 cells by a clonogenic assay. We found that atorvastatin reduced the cell viability of T24 and J82 cells via apoptotic cell death and induced autophagy activation, shown by the co-localization of LC3 and LysoTracker. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy significantly enhanced atorvastatin-induced apoptosis in T24 and J82 cells. In sum, inhibition of autophagy potentiates atorvastatin-induced apoptotic cell death in human bladder cancer cells in vitro, providing a potential therapeutic approach to treat bladder cancer.

  17. Comparison of in vitro and ex vivo thyroid hormone synthesis inhibition results and in vivo outcomes for a series of benzothiazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing how in vitro data may be used to predict adverse effects in vivo is critical as efforts are advanced to incorporate in vitro assays into a risk assessment framework. Within the context of a thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis inhibition adverse outcome pathway (AOP), in vitr...

  18. Ribosome-inhibiting proteins from in vitro cultures of Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S.; Hansen, Harald S.; Nyman, U.

    1991-01-01

    Phytolacca dodecandra (L'Herit) grown in cell cultures was investigated for content of ribosome-inhibiting proteins, which was evaluated hy measuring inhibition of protein synthesis in a cell-free rat liver extract. Calli initiated from leaf, cotyledon, radicle, and hypocotyl and suspension cells...

  19. In vitro mechanism of inhibition of bacterial cell growth by allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldberg, R S; Chang, S C; Kotik, A N; Nadler, M; Neuwirth, Z; Sundstrom, D C; Thompson, N H

    1988-01-01

    Diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin) is the agent found in garlic which is responsible for the antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts of this plant. The effect of bacteriostatic concentrations of allicin (0.2 to 0.5 mM) on the growth of Salmonella typhimurium revealed a pattern of inhibition characterized by: (i) a lag of approximately 15 min between addition of allicin and onset of inhibition, (ii) a transitory inhibition phase whose duration was proportional to allicin concentration and inversely proportional to culture density, (iii) a resumed growth phase which showed a lower rate of growth than in uninhibited controls, and (iv) an entry into stationary phase at a lower culture density. Whereas DNA and protein syntheses showed a delayed and partial inhibition by allicin, inhibition of RNA synthesis was immediate and total, suggesting that this is the primary target of allicin action. PMID:2469386

  20. In vitro inhibition of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens by commercial probiotic strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, A.; Kokotovic, Branko; Permin, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics have gained importance in human and veterinary medicine to prevent and control clostridial enteric disease. Limited information is available on the ability of different probiotic bacteria used in food products to inhibit Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens. The objective......) on the reference strains of C. difficile and C. perfringens were assessed by an agar well diffusion assay and by a broth culture inhibition assay using cell-free supernatant harvested at different growth phases, with and without pH neutralization. To study growth characteristics, probiotic strains were cultivated...... supernatant was assessed with and without pH neutralization. Supernatants obtained from 10 probiotic strains inhibited C. difficile only when supernatant was added without pH neutralization. In the broth culture inhibition assay, growth of C. perfringens and C. difficile was inhibited by supernatant without p...

  1. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity by in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Differential phosphorylation of NDP kinases in HeLa cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, R M; Engel, M; Sauane, M

    1996-01-01

    that in vitro protein kinase CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation of human NDPK A inhibits its enzymatic activity by inhibiting the first step of its ping-pong mechanism of catalysis: its autophosphorylation. Upon in vivo 32P labeling of HeLa cells, we observed that both human NDPKs, A and B, were autophosphorylated...

  2. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Grown on Germinated Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  3. An extensive cocktail approach for rapid risk assessment of in vitro CYP450 direct reversible inhibition by xenobiotic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaggiari, Dany; Daali, Youssef; Rudaz, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Acute exposure to environmental factors strongly affects the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 (P450). As a consequence, the risk of interaction could be increased, modifying the clinical outcomes of a medication. Because toxic agents cannot be administered to humans for ethical reasons, in vitro approaches are therefore essential to evaluate their impact on P450 activities. In this work, an extensive cocktail mixture was developed and validated for in vitro P450 inhibition studies using human liver microsomes (HLM). The cocktail comprised eleven P450-specific probe substrates to simultaneously assess the activities of the following isoforms: 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2J2 and subfamily 3A. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the developed UHPLC-MS/MS method were critical for the success of this methodology, whose main advantages are: (i) the use of eleven probe substrates with minimized interactions, (ii) a low HLM concentration, (iii) fast incubation (5min) and (iv) the use of metabolic ratios as microsomal P450 activities markers. This cocktail approach was successfully validated by comparing the obtained IC50 values for model inhibitors with those generated with the conventional single probe methods. Accordingly, reliable inhibition values could be generated 10-fold faster using a 10-fold smaller amount of HLM compared to individual assays. This approach was applied to assess the P450 inhibition potential of widespread insecticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, methylparathion and profenofos. In all cases, P450 2B6 was the most affected with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. For the first time, mixtures of these four insecticides incubated at low concentrations showed a cumulative inhibitory in vitro effect on P450 2B6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholera toxin inhibits signal transduction by several mitogens and the in vitro growth of human small-cell lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Viallet, J.; Sharoni, Y; Frucht, H; Jensen, R. T.; Minna, J D; Sausville, E A

    1990-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) inhibited the in vitro growth of three of four human small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell lines with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 27-242 ng/ml. Loss of surface membrane ruffling and the capacity of [Tyr4]-bombesin, vasopressin, and fetal calf serum to stimulate increases in intracellular free calcium clearly preceded effects on cellular metabolic activity and cell growth. 125I-[Tyr4]-bombesin binding was unaffected by CT treatment but [Tyr4]-bombesin stimulated phosph...

  5. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND α-AMYLASE INHIBITION ACTIVITIES OF PANCHSAKAR CHURNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar B.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panchsakar Churna is the composition of Cassia angustifolia, Terminalia chebula, Zingiber officinale, Foeniculum vulgare and Saindhava lavana. Aqueous extract of churna was used to investigate antioxidant activity by ferrous ion chelating assay and ferric reducing power and alpha amylase inhibition activity by dinitrosalicylic acid method (DNSA. Aqueous extract of churna showed maximum ferrous chelating activity - 42.01 and ferric reducing power - 1.5 and 83.33 % of inhibition protein denaturation at 1000 µg/ml. Panchsakar churna showed significant antioxidant and alpha amylase inhibition activities.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition by erlotinib prevents vascular smooth muscle cell and monocyte-macrophage function in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savikko, Johanna; Rintala, Jukka M; Rintala, Sini; Koskinen, Petri

    2015-06-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and monocyte-macrophages play a central role during the development of chronic allograft injury, which still remains an important challenge in organ transplantation. Inflammation, fibrosis and accelerated arteriosclerosis are typical features for chronic allograft injury. Growth factors participate in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration in this pathological process. Here we studied the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in VSMC and monocyte-macrophage function in vitro. EGFR inhibition by erlotinib, a selective EGF tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was studied in VSMC proliferation and migration as well as monocyte-macrophage proliferation and differentiation. Rat coronary artery SMCs were used for VSMC studies. As a model for monocyte-macrophage proliferation and differentiation human monocytic cell line U937 was used. Phorbol ester TPA was used to induce these cells to differentiate into macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B, a known VSMC inducer, caused 2.1-fold stimulation in VSMC proliferation compared to non-stimulated VSMC. Erlotinib prevented this VSMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, p < 0.001 in all groups compared to controls. PDGF-B stimulation increased VSMC migration to 2.5-fold when compared with non-stimulated cells. Erlotinib decreased VSMC migration dose-dependently and this effect was significant with all doses, p < 0.05. Erlotinib inhibited dose-dependently the proliferation of U937 monocytic cells, p < 0.001. Erlotinib prevented also TPA-induced macrophage differentiation in a dose-dependent way, p < 0.05. Erlotinib significantly prevents VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro. Erlotinib inhibited also significantly both monocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our data suggest that EGFR inhibition in VSMC and monocyte function has beneficial effects on chronic allograft injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Daniel; Musilova, Lucie; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6) to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE), inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos). We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic” bioscavenger in combination with this enzyme. Such a combination could allow an increase of prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of the administered enzyme. According to our results, the best broad-spectrum AChE reactivators were trimedoxime and obidoxime in the case of paraoxon, leptophos-oxon, and methamidophos-inhibited AChE. Methamidophos and leptophos-oxon were quite easily reactivatable by all tested reactivators. In the case of methamidophos-inhibited AChE, the lower oxime concentration (10−5 M) had higher reactivation ability than the 10−4 M concentration. Therefore, we evaluated the reactivation ability of obidoxime in a concentration range of 10−3–10−7 M. The reactivation of methamidophos-inhibited AChE with different obidoxime concentrations resulted in a bell shaped curve with maximum reactivation at 10−5 M. In the case of BChE, no reactivator exceeded 15% reactivation ability and therefore none of the oximes can be recommended as a candidate for “pseudocatalytic” bioscavengers with BChE. PMID:21673941

  8. In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Musilek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6 to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE, inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos. We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic” bioscavenger in combination with this enzyme. Such a combination could allow an increase of prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of the administered enzyme. According to our results, the best broad-spectrum AChE reactivators were trimedoxime and obidoxime in the case of paraoxon, leptophos-oxon, and methamidophos-inhibited AChE. Methamidophos and leptophos-oxon were quite easily reactivatable by all tested reactivators. In the case of methamidophos-inhibited AChE, the lower oxime concentration (10−5 M had higher reactivation ability than the 10−4 M concentration. Therefore, we evaluated the reactivation ability of obidoxime in a concentration range of 10−3–10−7 M. The reactivation of methamidophos-inhibited AChE with different obidoxime concentrations resulted in a bell shaped curve with maximum reactivation at 10−5 M. In the case of BChE, no reactivator exceeded 15% reactivation ability and therefore none of the oximes can be recommended as a candidate for “pseudocatalytic” bioscavengers with BChE.

  9. Identification, In Vitro Testing and Molecular Docking Studies of Microginins’ Mechanism of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. R. Paiva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are able to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites, including toxins and protease inhibitors, with diverse biological activities. Microginins are small linear peptides biosynthesized by cyanobacteria species that act against proteases. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify microginins produced by the LTPNA08 strain of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as to verify their potential to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; EC. 3.4.15.1 using in vitro and in silico methods. The fractionation of cyanobacterial extracts was performed by liquid chromatography and the presence of microginins was monitored by both LC-MS and an ACE inhibition assay. Enzyme inhibition was assayed by ACE with hippuryl-histidyl-leucine as the substrate; monitoring of hippuric acid was performed by HPLC-DAD. Isolated microginins were confirmed by mass spectrometry and were used to carry out the enzymatic assay. Molecular docking was used to evaluate microginin 770 (MG 770 and captopril (positive control, in order to predict similar binding interactions and determine the inhibitory action of ACE. The enzyme assay confirmed that MG 770 can efficiently inhibit ACE, with an IC50 equivalent to other microginins. MG 770 presented with comparable interactions with ACE, having features in common with commercial inhibitors such as captopril and enalaprilate, which are frequently used in the treatment of hypertension in humans.

  10. Metabolic interactions between acetaminophen (paracetamol) and two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, through in-vitro inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Kwara, Awewura; Greenblatt, David J

    2017-12-01

    Excessive exposure to acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) can cause liver injury through formation of a reactive metabolite that depletes hepatic glutathione and causes hepatocellular oxidative stress and damage. Generation of this metabolite is mediated by Cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoforms, mainly CYP2E1. A number of naturally occurring flavonoids can mitigate APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Our objective was to determine the mechanism of these protective effects and to evaluate possible human applicability. Two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, were evaluated as potential inhibitors of eight human CYP isoforms, of six UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms and of APAP glucuronidation and sulfation. The experimental model was based on in-vitro metabolism by human liver microsomes, using isoform-specific substrates. Luteolin and quercetin inhibited human CYP isoforms to varying degrees, with greatest potency towards CYP1A2 and CYP2C8. However, 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 values) were generally in the micromolar range. UGT isoforms were minimally inhibited. Both luteolin and quercetin inhibited APAP sulfation but not glucuronidation. Inhibition of human CYP activity by luteolin and quercetin occurred with IC 50 values exceeding customary in-vivo human exposure with tolerable supplemental doses of these compounds. The findings indicate that luteolin and quercetin are not likely to be of clinical value for preventing or treating APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Ribosome-inhibiting proteins from in vitro cultures of Phytolacca dodecandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, S; Hansen, H S; Nyman, U

    1991-06-01

    Phytolacca dodecandra (L'Herit) grown in cell cultures was investigated for content of ribosome-inhibiting proteins, which was evaluated by measuring inhibition of protein synthesis in a cell-free rat liver extract. Calli initiated from leaf, cotyledon, radicle, and hypocotyl and suspension cells initiated from leaf and cotyledon exhibited protein synthesis-inhibiting activity. Ribosome-inhibiting proteins were purified at least 14 times from suspension cells of P. dodecandra. The purified protein fraction contained two proteins as seen by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative molecular masses were 30,000 and 31,000 and they showed a pI greater than 9.3. These new RIP's were shown to be different from dodecandrin with respect to molecular mass.

  12. Inhibition of HIV-1 in vitro by C-5 propyne phosphorothioate antisense to rev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1995-01-01

    A 15-mer C-5 propyne modified phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to rev was approximately 5-fold more effective in providing viral inhibition compared to a 28-mer unmodified phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to the same sequence and previously shown to inhibit HIV-1...... in a sequence-dependent manner. The antiviral effect was obtained by lipofection or simple addition of 0.2-1 microM modified oligodeoxynucleotide to the culture medium of H9 cells chronically infected with the HIV-1LAI isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. We conclude that C-5 propyne...... oligodeoxynucleotides in accordance with previous findings by others are superior to unmodified phosphorothioates in providing inhibition of HIV-1 in a sequence-dependent manner and that this inhibition can be conferred by oligodeoxynucleotides in free solution....

  13. Clitocine targets Mcl-1 to induce drug-resistant human cancer cell apoptosis in vitro and tumor growth inhibition in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Guo; Li, Hua; Li, Xia; Zeng, Xueli; Wu, Ping; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Liu, Fei-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Drug resistance is a major reason for therapy failure in cancer. Clitocine is a natural amino nucleoside isolated from mushroom and has been shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation in vitro. In this study, we observed that clitocine can effectively induce drug-resistant human cancer cell apoptosis in vitro and inhibit tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Clitocine treatment inhibited drug-resistant human cancer cell growth in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Biochemical analysis revealed that clitocine-induced tumor growth inhibition is associated with activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9, PARP cleavage, cytochrome c release and Bax, Bak activation, suggesting that clitocine inhibits drug-resistant cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis. Analysis of apoptosis regulatory genes indicated that Mcl-1 level was dramatically decreased after clitocine treatment. Over-expression of Mcl-1 reversed the activation of Bax and attenuated clitocine-induced apoptosis, suggesting that clitocine-induced apoptosis was at least partially by inducing Mcl-1 degradation to release Bax and Bak. Consistent with induction of apoptosis in vitro, clitocine significantly suppressed the drug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft growth in vivo by inducing apoptosis as well as inhibiting cell proliferation. Taken together, our data demonstrated that clitocine is a potent Mcl-1 inhibitor that can effectively induce apoptosis to suppress drug-resistant human cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, and thus holds great promise for further development as potentially a novel therapeutic agent to overcome drug resistance in cancer therapy.

  14. Beta-lactam antibiotic-induced platelet dysfunction: Evidence for irreversible inhibition of platelet activation in vitro and in vivo after prolonged exposure to penicillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burroughs, S.F.; Johnson, G.J. (Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (USA))

    1990-04-01

    beta-Lactam antibiotics cause platelet dysfunction with bleeding complications. Previous in vitro studies documented reversible inhibition of agonist-receptor interaction. This mechanism is inadequate to explain the effect of beta-lactam antibiotics in vivo. Platelet function does not return to normal immediately after drug treatment, implying irreversible inhibition of platelet function. We report here evidence of irreversible platelet functional and biochemical abnormalities after in vitro and in vivo exposure to beta-lactam antibiotics. Irreversible binding of (14C)-penicillin (Pen) occurred in vitro. After 24 hours' in vitro incubation with 10 to 20 mmol/L Pen, or ex vivo after antibiotic treatment, irreversible functional impairment occurred; but no irreversible inhibition of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, measured with (3H)-yohimbine, or high-affinity thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptors, measured with agonist (3H)-U46619 and antagonist (3H)-SQ29548, occurred. However, low-affinity platelet TXA2/PGH2 receptors were decreased 40% after Pen exposure in vitro or in vivo, indicating irreversible membrane alteration. Two postreceptor biochemical events were irreversibly inhibited in platelets incubated with Pen for 24 hours in vitro or ex vivo after antibiotic treatment. Thromboxane synthesis was inhibited 28.3% to 81.7%. Agonist-induced rises in cytosolic calcium ((Ca2+)i) were inhibited 40.1% to 67.5% in vitro and 26.6% to 52.2% ex vivo. Therefore, Pen binds to platelets after prolonged exposure, resulting in irreversible dysfunction attributable to inhibition of TXA2 synthesis and impairment of the rise in (Ca2+)i. The loss of low-affinity TXA2/PGH2 receptors suggests that the primary site of action of these drugs is on the platelet membrane.

  15. Visna virus as an in vitro model for human immunodeficiency virus and inhibition by ribavirin, phosphonoformate, and 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K B; McKernan, P A; Smith, R A; Smee, D F

    1987-09-01

    Inhibition of visna virus replication in vitro by several compounds previously reported to inhibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was examined. Ribavirin concentrations as high as 1 mM reduced virus production by less than 50% relative to controls. The concentration of phosphonoformate reducing virus replication by 50% was 80 microM. 2',3'-Dideoxynucleosides were potent inhibitors of visna virus replication. The 50% inhibitory concentrations for dideoxyguanosine, dideoxyadenosine, and dideoxycytidine were 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 microM, respectively. In contrast, weak inhibition was produced by 100 microM dideoxythymidine. These results are consistent with the reported susceptibility of HIV replication to inhibition by these compounds in vitro. The interaction of visna virus reverse transcriptase with several inhibitors was also examined. Reverse transcriptase was inhibited by phosphonoformate, ribavirin 5'-triphosphate, ddATP, ddCTP, ddGTP, and ddTTP. The last four compounds inhibited incorporation of homologous 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates into polynucleotides by a competitive mechanism. In view of the biological similarities between visna virus and HIV and the similar in vitro susceptibility of visna virus replication to known inhibitors of HIV, visna virus may provide a good model for studying the inhibition of HIV replication in vitro. Because visna virus is not pathogenic to humans, this model may facilitate the identification of compounds for further investigation into the treatment of HIV-induced disease.

  16. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling enables human corneal endothelial cell expansion in vitro for use in regenerative medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Okumura

    Full Text Available Corneal endothelial dysfunctions occurring in patients with Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, corneal endotheliitis, and surgically induced corneal endothelial damage cause blindness due to the loss of endothelial function that maintains corneal transparency. Transplantation of cultivated corneal endothelial cells (CECs has been researched to repair endothelial dysfunction in animal models, though the in vitro expansion of human CECs (HCECs is a pivotal practical issue. In this study we established an optimum condition for the cultivation of HCECs. When exposed to culture conditions, both primate and human CECs showed two distinct phenotypes: contact-inhibited polygonal monolayer and fibroblastic phenotypes. The use of SB431542, a selective inhibitor of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β receptor, counteracted the fibroblastic phenotypes to the normal contact-inhibited monolayer, and these polygonal cells maintained endothelial physiological functions. Expression of ZO-1 and Na(+/K(+-ATPase maintained their subcellular localization at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, expression of type I collagen and fibronectin was greatly reduced. This present study may prove to be the substantial protocol to provide the efficient in vitro expansion of HCECs with an inhibitor to the TGF-β receptor, and may ultimately provide clinicians with a new therapeutic modality in regenerative medicine for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunctions.

  17. Broad HIV-1 inhibition in vitro by vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells in African adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudensia Mutua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing a pan-clade HIV-1 T-cell vaccine HIVconsv, which could complement Env vaccines for prophylaxis and be a key to HIV cure. Our strategy focuses vaccine-elicited effector T-cells on functionally and structurally conserved regions (not full-length proteins and not only epitopes of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most global variants and which, if mutated, cause a replicative fitness loss. Our first clinical trial in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Oxford demonstrated the principle that naturally mostly subdominant epitopes, when taken out of the context of full-length proteins/virus and delivered by potent regimens involving combinations of simian adenovirus and poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara, can induce robust CD8+ T cells of broad specificities and functions capable of inhibiting in vitro HIV-1 replication. Here and for the first time, we tested this strategy in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Africa. We showed that the vaccines were well tolerated and induced high frequencies of broadly HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional T cells, which inhibited in vitro viruses from four major clades A, B, C, and D. Because sub-Saharan Africa is globally the region most affected by HIV-1/AIDS, trial HIV-CORE 004 represents an important stage in the path toward efficacy evaluation of this highly rational and promising vaccine strategy.

  18. Duloxetine inhibits effects of MDMA ("ecstasy" in vitro and in humans in a randomized placebo-controlled laboratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric M Hysek

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of the serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine (NE transporter inhibitor duloxetine on the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy in vitro and in 16 healthy subjects. The clinical study used a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, four-session, crossover design. In vitro, duloxetine blocked the release of both 5-HT and NE by MDMA or by its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine from transmitter-loaded human cells expressing the 5-HT or NE transporter. In humans, duloxetine inhibited the effects of MDMA including elevations in circulating NE, increases in blood pressure and heart rate, and the subjective drug effects. Duloxetine inhibited the pharmacodynamic response to MDMA despite an increase in duloxetine-associated elevations in plasma MDMA levels. The findings confirm the important role of MDMA-induced 5-HT and NE release in the psychotropic effects of MDMA. Duloxetine may be useful in the treatment of psychostimulant dependence.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00990067.

  19. COX-2 inhibition is neither necessary nor sufficient for celecoxib to suppress tumor cell proliferation and focus formation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petasis Nicos A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of reports is challenging the notion that the antitumor potential of the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex® is mediated primarily via the inhibition of COX-2. We have investigated this issue by applying two different analogs of celecoxib that differentially display COX-2-inhibitory activity: the first analog, called unmethylated celecoxib (UMC, inhibits COX-2 slightly more potently than its parental compound, whereas the second analog, 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC, has lost the ability to inhibit COX-2. Results With the use of glioblastoma and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, we comparatively analyzed the effects of celecoxib, UMC, and DMC in various short-term (≤48 hours cellular and molecular studies, as well as in long-term (≤3 months focus formation assays. We found that DMC exhibited the most potent antitumor activity; celecoxib was somewhat less effective, and UMC clearly displayed the overall weakest antitumor potential in all aspects. The differential growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-stimulatory potency of these compounds in short-term assays did not at all correlate with their capacity to inhibit COX-2, but was closely aligned with their ability to trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS, as indicated by the induction of the ERS marker CHOP/GADD153 and activation of the ERS-associated caspase 7. In addition, we found that these compounds were able to restore contact inhibition and block focus formation during long-term, chronic drug exposure of tumor cells, and this was achieved at sub-toxic concentrations in the absence of ERS or inhibition of COX-2. Conclusion The antitumor activity of celecoxib in vitro did not involve the inhibition of COX-2. Rather, the drug's ability to trigger ERS, a known effector of cell death, might provide an alternative explanation for its acute cytotoxicity. In addition, the newly discovered ability of this drug to restore contact inhibition and

  20. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goepel, M.; Hecker, U.; Krege, S.; Rübben, H.; Michel, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. METHODS: Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained

  1. In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella invasion of epithelial cells by phytochemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140114432; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, M.H.G.; Jongerius-Gortemaker, B.G.M.; Vervelde, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/134923391; Vernooij, J.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340304596

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to coccidiostats and possible future restrictions on their use raise the need for alternative methods of reducing coccidiosis in poultry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selected phytochemicals on Eimeria tenella sporozoite invasion in vitro. Four phytochemicals were

  2. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, M.V.; Annema, W.; Salvati, A.; Lesniak, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Barnes, C.; McKerr, G.; Howard, C.; Lynch, I.; Dawson, K.; Piersma, A.H.; de Jong, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining

  3. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory activity and melanogenesis inhibition of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeva Nayak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. belongs to Moraceae family and is endemic to Western Ghats and Kerala in India. This species is found to be effective in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer diarrhea and pimples. However extensive biological evaluation on each component of this specific species rarely appears in the literature which restricts its applicability as medicinal herb. The leaf bark and wood of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. were separately extracted with hot ethanol. The wood extract was further fractionated to isolate major active molecule whose structure was determined from its NMR spectra and LCMS analysis. All the extracts of A. hirsutus Lam. were then studied in vitro to evaluate their potential on tyrosinase inhibition free radical scavenging activity by 11-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl DPPH method and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC. Furthermore their effects on melanogenesis inhibition were also evaluated by using murine melanoma cells. Activity guided fractionation of wood extract yielded a pure molecule that was characterized as oxyresveratrol. It was observed that antioxidant activity was higher in wood extract compared to the leaf and bark extracts. Isolated pure oxyresveratrol exhibited a significant antioxidant potential with ORAC value of 366532570 mol Trolox equivalentg and having an IC50 of 4.3 gmL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This molecule was found to be effective for the tyrosinase inhibition with an IC50 of 0.1 gmL and melanogenesis inhibition in cultured melanoma cells by 44.62 at 0.2 gmL. Oxyresveratrol also exhibited significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharide LPS induced tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF-amp945 secretion from J774A1 murine macrophage cell lines. This study provides substantial evidence for the presence of oxyresveratrol in the wood of A. hirsutus Lam. with promising anti-inflammatory antioxidant and skin lightening property.

  4. In vitro growth inhibition of intra root canal pathogenic microorganisms by Lactic Acid Bacteria, an Antibiosis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nakhjavani F.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Elimination of microorganisms and their byproducts from root canal system is one of important aims of root canal therapy. This object is gained by using of many chemomechanical techniques but with noncertain success. A new method is used of nonpathogenic bacteria for growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, Antibiosis, in root canal therapy.The aim of this study was in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial effect of probiotics, such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB on the infected root canal bacteria. "nMaterials and Methods: Isolated bacteria from infected root canal were grown and then scattered onto the muller Hinton agar plates which contain wells, LAB, extracted from dairy products, were added into these wells, Inhibition effected of LAB was determined. Furthermore the sample taken from the inhibition zone and possible resistant monoclonal bacteria also were identified, then 6 sensitive and 14 resistant samples were selected and E. faecalis species were added to them; Then antimicrobial effects of LAB on these samples was reevaluated. "nResults: The results showed that 66.7% of the samples were sensitive at least to one type of LAB, and 33% were resistant to all kind of LAB. Meanwhile the outgrowing anaerobic bacteria inside the inhibition zone were from the low frequency oral bacterial flora. Furthermore, adding E. faecalis to the samples caused more sensitivity of them to LAB. Mc-Neamar test recognized the difference significant. "nConclusion: This study showed that the LAB inhibit growth of the pathogenic root canal bacteriae. Furthermore, presence of E. faecalis reinforces the antimicrobial effect of LAB. It seemed that LAB maybe have potential to use in endodontic practice for elimination of root canal infections.

  5. Mdivi-1 Protects Epileptic Hippocampal Neurons from Apoptosis via Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nanchang; Wang, Cui; Wu, Chuanjie; Cheng, Xuan; Gao, Yanlun; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yi; Lian, Yajun

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1), a selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1, has been proposed to have a neuroprotective effect on hippocampal neurons in animal models of epilepsy. However, the effect of mdivi-1 on epileptic neuronal death in vitro remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mdivi-1 and the underlying mechanisms in the hippocampal neuronal culture (HNC) model of acquired epilepsy (AE) in vitro. We found that mitochondrial fission was increased in the HNC model of AE and inhibition of mitochondrial fission by mdivi-1 significantly decreased neuronal apoptosis induced by AE. In addition, mdivi-1 pretreatment significantly attenuated oxidative stress induced by AE characterized by decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde level and by increase of superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, mdivi-1 pretreatment significantly decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein expression and caspase-3 activation. Altogether, our findings suggest that mdivi-1 protected against AE-induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in vitro via decreasing ROS-mediated oxidative stress and ER stress.

  6. Rb deficiency accelerates progression of carcinoma of the urinary bladder in vivo and in vitro through inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Jiang-Ping; Jiao, Yong; Zhang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is known as a common cancer diagnosed across the world and results in significant mortality and morbidity rates among patients. The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, as a main tumor suppressor, controls cellular responses to potentially oncogenic stimulation. Rb phosphorylation could disrupt E2F complex formation, resulting in diverse transcription factor dysfunction. In our study, we investigated how Rb is involved in controlling urinary bladder cancer progression. The results indicate that Rb expression is reduced in mice with urinary bladder tumor, and its suppression leads to urinary bladder cancer progression in vivo and in vitro. Rb mutation directly results in tumor size with lower survival rate in vivo. Rb knockdown in vitro promoted bladder tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Interestingly, Rb knockout and knockdown result in autophagy and apoptosis inhibition via suppressing p53 and caspase-3 signaling pathways, enhancing bladder cancer development in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal that Rb deficiency accelerated urinary bladder cancer progression, exposing an important role of Rb in suppressing urinary bladder cancer for treatment in the future.

  7. Inhibition of apoptosis by caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK improves cryotolerance of in vitro derived bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pero, Maria Elena; Zullo, Gianluigi; Esposito, Luigi; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Lombardi, Pietro; De Canditiis, Carolina; Neglia, Gianluca; Gasparrini, Bianca

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-FMK) during cryopreservation and post-warming in vitro culture improves cryotolerance of bovine in vitro produced (IVP) embryos. Abattoir derived bovine oocytes were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured according to standard procedure. On Day 7, embryo yields were assessed and blastocysts randomly divided in 2 groups: vitrification and post-warming culture in the absence (n = 184) or presence (n = 156) of 20 μM Z-VAD-FMK. Resistance to cryopreservation was evaluated post-warming culture by assessing the survival rate and hatching rate. Differential staining combined with in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) technique was performed to evaluate total cells number, cell allocation into inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) lineages, as well as the DNA fragmentation rate of vitrified blastocysts, while immunohystochemical staining was used to assess the level of cleaved-caspase 3. It was demonstrated that inhibition of caspase activity by Z-VAD-FMK increases embryo cryotolerance, as indicated by higher survival (76.1 vs 51.1%; P vitrification/warming and post-warming culture partially inhibits cryopreservation-induced apoptosis by reducing the level of active caspase 3, suggesting a potential use as an additive to ameliorate the efficiency of embryo cryopreservation in cattle, critical for a further diffusion of IVEP technology in the field. Further studies are though needed to evaluate the effect of Z-VAD-FMK on post-transfer embryo development before considering a commercial application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. High-power helium-neon laser irradiation inhibits the growth of traumatic scars in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bin; Ni, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Lian-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ping; Jiang, Wan-Ling; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the inhibitory effect of the high-power helium-neon (He-Ne) laser on the growth of scars post trauma. For the in vitro study, human wound fibroblasts were exposed to the high-power He-Ne laser for 30 min, once per day with different power densities (10, 50, 100, and 150 mW/cm(2)). After 3 days of repeated irradiation with the He-Ne laser, fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis were evaluated. For in vivo evaluation, a wounded animal model of hypertrophic scar formation was established. At postoperative day 21, the high-power He-Ne laser irradiation (output power 120 mW, 6 mm in diameter, 30 min each session, every other day) was performed on 20 scars. At postoperative day 35, the hydroxyproline content, apoptosis rate, PCNA protein expression and FADD mRNA level were assessed. The in vitro study showed that the irradiation group that received the power densities of 100 and 150 mW/cm(2) showed decreases in the cell proliferation index, increases in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase, and decreases in collagen synthesis and type I procollagen gene expression. In the in vivo animal studies, regions exposed to He-Ne irradiation showed a significant decrease in scar thickness as well as decreases in hydroxyproline levels and PCNA protein expression. Results from the in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that repeated irradiation with a He-Ne laser at certain power densities inhibits fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis, thereby inhibits the growth of hypertrophic scars.

  9. Inhibition of HIV-1 in vitro by C-5 propyne phosphorothioate antisense to rev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1995-01-01

    A 15-mer C-5 propyne modified phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to rev was approximately 5-fold more effective in providing viral inhibition compared to a 28-mer unmodified phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to the same sequence and previously shown to inhibit HIV-1...... in a sequence-dependent manner. The antiviral effect was obtained by lipofection or simple addition of 0.2-1 microM modified oligodeoxynucleotide to the culture medium of H9 cells chronically infected with the HIV-1LAI isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. We conclude that C-5 propyne...

  10. Naringin attenuates diabetic retinopathy by inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress and NF-κB activation in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Naringin, an essential flavonoid, inhibits inflammatory response and oxidative stress in diabetes. However, whether naringin has beneficial effects on diabetic retinopathy (DR remains unknown. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected into male rats (8 weeks old weighting 200-250 g to establish diabetic model, then naringin (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg/day was intraperitoneally injected into the diabetic rats for twelve weeks. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP level, thickness of ganglion cell layer (GCL and ganglion cell counts were assessed in diabetic retina in vivo. Naringin (50 μM that significantly inhibited high glucose (HG, 25 mM-induced cell proliferation was used to treat rat Muller cell line (rMC1 in vitro. Inflammatory response, oxidative stress and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65 were evaluated in retina in vivo and in rMC1 cells in vitro. Results: Naringin alleviated DR symptoms as evidenced by the increased retinal ganglion cells and decreased GFAP level in rat retina. Naringin exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects as confirmed by the down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the up-regulated antioxidants, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in DR rats. Moreover, we found that naringin inhibited HG-induced proliferation, abnormal inflammatory response and oxidative stress in rMC1 cells. In addition, the enhanced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in diabetic rat retina and HG-induced rMC1 cells was suppressed by naringin. Conclusion: Naringin attenuates inflammatory response, oxidative stress and NF-κB activation in experimental models of DR.

  11. In vitro characterization and inhibition of the CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine axis in human uveal melanoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antecka Emilia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine axis may play a critical role in guiding CXCR4+ circulating malignant cells to organ specific locations that actively secrete its ligand CXCL12 (SDF-1 such as bone, brain, liver, and lungs. We sought to characterize the presence of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in five uveal melanoma (UM cell lines in vitro. The ability of TN14003, a synthetic peptide inhibitor that targets the CXCR4 receptor complex, to inhibit this axis was also assessed. Methods Immunocytochemistry was performed against CXCR4 to confirm expression of this chemokine receptor in all five UM cell lines. Flow cytometry was preformed to evaluate CXCR4 cell surface expression on all five UM cell lines. A proliferation assay was also used to test effects TN14003 would have on cellular proliferation. Inhibition of cellular migration by specifically inhibiting the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis with TN14003 was also investigated. The binding efficacy of TN14003 to the CXCR4 receptor was assessed through flow cytometric methods. Results The CXCR4 receptor was present on all five UM cell lines. All five cell lines expressed different relative levels of surface CXCR4. TN14003 did not affect the proliferation of the five cell lines (p > 0.05. All cell lines migrated towards the chemokine CXCL12 at a level greater than the negative control (p Conclusion Interfering with the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, using TN14003 was shown to effectively down regulate UM cell migration in vitro. Knowing that UM expresses the CXCR4 receptor, these CXCR4+ cells may be less likely to colonize distant organs that secrete the CXCL12 ligand, if treated with an inhibitor that binds CXCR4. Further studies should be pursued in order to test TN14003 efficacy in vivo.

  12. Oral Multiple Sclerosis Drugs Inhibit theIn vitroGrowth of Epsilon Toxin Producing Gut Bacterium,Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumah, Kareem R; Vartanian, Timothy K; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2017-01-01

    There are currently three oral medications approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Two of these medications, Fingolimod, and Teriflunomide, are considered to be anti-inflammatory agents, while dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is thought to trigger a robust antioxidant response, protecting vulnerable cells during an MS attack. We previously proposed that epsilon toxin from the gut bacterium, Clostridium perfringens , may initiate newly forming MS lesions due to its tropism for blood-brain barrier (BBB) vasculature and central nervous system myelin. Because gut microbiota will be exposed to these oral therapies prior to systemic absorption, we sought to determine if these compounds affect C. perfringens growth in vitro . Here we show that Fingolimod, Teriflunomide, and DMF indeed inhibit C. perfringens growth. Furthermore, several compounds similar to DMF in chemical structure, namely α, β unsaturated carbonyls, also known as Michael acceptors, inhibit C. perfringens . Sphingosine, a Fingolimod homolog with known antibacterial properties, proved to be a potent C. perfringens inhibitor with a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration similar to that of Fingolimod. These findings suggest that currently approved oral MS therapies and structurally related compounds possess antibacterial properties that may alter the gut microbiota. Moreover, inhibition of C. perfringens growth and resulting blockade of epsilon toxin production may contribute to the clinical efficacy of these disease-modifying drugs.

  13. Oral Multiple Sclerosis Drugs Inhibit the In vitro Growth of Epsilon Toxin Producing Gut Bacterium, Clostridium perfringens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumah, Kareem R.; Vartanian, Timothy K.; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2017-01-01

    There are currently three oral medications approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Two of these medications, Fingolimod, and Teriflunomide, are considered to be anti-inflammatory agents, while dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is thought to trigger a robust antioxidant response, protecting vulnerable cells during an MS attack. We previously proposed that epsilon toxin from the gut bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, may initiate newly forming MS lesions due to its tropism for blood-brain barrier (BBB) vasculature and central nervous system myelin. Because gut microbiota will be exposed to these oral therapies prior to systemic absorption, we sought to determine if these compounds affect C. perfringens growth in vitro. Here we show that Fingolimod, Teriflunomide, and DMF indeed inhibit C. perfringens growth. Furthermore, several compounds similar to DMF in chemical structure, namely α, β unsaturated carbonyls, also known as Michael acceptors, inhibit C. perfringens. Sphingosine, a Fingolimod homolog with known antibacterial properties, proved to be a potent C. perfringens inhibitor with a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration similar to that of Fingolimod. These findings suggest that currently approved oral MS therapies and structurally related compounds possess antibacterial properties that may alter the gut microbiota. Moreover, inhibition of C. perfringens growth and resulting blockade of epsilon toxin production may contribute to the clinical efficacy of these disease-modifying drugs. PMID:28180112

  14. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina V A; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie; Caraballo, Luis; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williams, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance of key enzyme functions may be a potential mode of action. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are essential for parasite detoxification and have been investigated as drug and vaccine targets. Here, we show that purified PAC strongly inhibit the activity of both recombinant and native GSTs from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) were significantly increased in the presence of PAC purified from pine bark (4.6-fold and 3.2-fold reduction in IC50 value for LEV and IVM, respectively). Synergy analysis revealed that the relationship between PAC and LEV appeared to be synergistic in nature, suggesting a specific enhancement of LEV activity, whilst the relationship between PAC and IVM was additive rather than synergistic, suggesting independent actions. Our results demonstrate that these common dietary compounds may increase the efficacy of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in vitro, and also suggest one possible mechanism for their well-known anti-parasitic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species of Sweet Potato Leaf Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongnan Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant activity and inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS of the total and individual phenolic compounds from Yuzi No. 7 sweet potato leaves were investigated in this study. Sweet potato leaf polyphenols possessed significantly higher antioxidant activity than ascorbic acid, tea polyphenols, and grape seed polyphenols. Among the individual phenolic compounds, caffeic acid showed the highest antioxidant activity, followed by monocaffeoylquinic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acids, while 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid showed the lowest value. Sweet potato leaf polyphenols could significantly decrease the level of intracellular ROS in a dose-dependent manner. The order of the inhibiting effect of individual phenolic compounds on the intracellular ROS level was not in accordance with that of antioxidant activity, suggesting that there was no direct relationship between antioxidant activity and intracellular ROS-inhibiting effect. Sweet potato leaves could be a good source of biologically active polyphenols with multiple applications in the development of foods, health products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.

  16. Inhibition of "spontaneous," notochord-induced, and collagen-induced in vitro somite chondrogenesis by the calcium lonophore, A23187.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, R A

    1978-02-01

    The present study represents a first step in investigating the possible involvement of calcium (Ca2+) in the stimulation of somite chondrogenesis elicited by extracellular matrix components produced by the embryonic notochord. The ionophore, A23187, a drug that facilitates Ca2+ uptake leading to elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels, at concentrations of 0.25-1.0 microgram/ml severely impairs "spontaneous" somite chondrogenesis, i.e., inhibits the formation of the small amount of cartilaginous matrix normally formed by embryonic somites in vitro in the absence of inducing tissues. This inhibition is reflected in a considerable reduction in sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation by A23187-treated somite explants. Furthermore, A23187 inhibits the striking stimulation of cartilaginous matrix formation and sulfated GAG accumulation normally elicited by the embryonic notochord and collagen substrates. In fact, 1.0 microgram/ml of A23187 reduces sulfated GAG accumulation by somites cultured in association with notochord or on collagen to a level even below that accumulated by somites cultured in the absence of these inductive agents. Although these results must be interpreted with caution, they provide incentive for considering a possible regulatory role for Ca2+ in the chondrogenic response of somites to extracellular matrix components produced by the embryonic notochord.

  17. Inhibition of in vitro CO2 production and lipid synthesis by 2-hydroxybutyric acid in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Silva

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available 2-Hydroxybutyric acid appears at high concentrations in situations related to deficient energy metabolism (e.g., birth asphyxia and also in inherited metabolic diseases affecting the central nervous system during neonatal development, such as "cerebral" lactic acidosis, glutaric aciduria type II, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3 deficiency, and propionic acidemia. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of 2-hydroxybutyric acid at various concentrations (1-10 mM on CO2 production and lipid synthesis from labeled substrates in cerebral cortex of 30-day-old Wistar rats in vitro. CO2 production was significantly inhibited (30-70% by 2-hydroxybutyric acid in cerebral cortex prisms, in total homogenates and in the mitochondrial fraction. We also demonstrated a significant inhibition of lipid synthesis (20-45% in cerebral cortex prisms and total homogenates in the presence of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. However, no inhibition of lipid synthesis occurred in homogenates free of nuclei and mitochondria. The results indicate an impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism caused by 2-hydroxybutyric acid, a fact that may secondarily lead to reduction of lipid synthesis. It is possible that these findings may be associated with the neuropathophysiology of the situations where 2-hydroxybutyric acid is accumulated.

  18. Comparison of continuous versus pulsed photodynamic antimicrobial therapy for inhibition of fungal keratitis isolates in vitro (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Nicholas; Durkee, Heather A.; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Arboleda, Alejandro; Relhan, Nidhi; Martinez, Anna; Rowaan, Cornelis; Gonzalez, Alex; Alawa, Karam A.; Amescua, Guillermo; Flynn, Harry W.; Miller, Darlene; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2017-02-01

    Fungal keratitis can lead to pain and impaired vision. Current treatment options include antifungal agents and therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. An emerging option for the management of keratitis is photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PDAT) which uses a photosensitizer rose bengal activated with green light. Utilizing a pulsed irradiation, rather than the standard continuous irradiation may have a similar antimicrobial effect with less total energy. This study is to compare pulsed and continuous rose bengal mediated PDAT for inhibition of six fungal isolates on agar plates: Fusarium solani, Fusarium keratoplasticum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Paecilomyces variotti, and Pseudoallescheria boydii. Isolates were mixed with 0.1% rose bengal and exposed to three irradiation conditions: (1) 30-minute continuous (10.8J/cm2), (2) 15-minute continuous (5.4J/cm2), (3) 30-minute pulsed (5.4J/cm2). Plates were photographed at 72 hours and analyzed with custom software. At 72 hours, 30-minute continuous rose bengal mediated PDAT inhibited all six fungal species. Fungal inhibition was analogous between 30-minute continuous and 30-minute pulsed test groups, with the exception of A. fumigatus. The 15-minute continuous irradiation was less effective when compared to both 30-minute continuous and 30-minute pulsed groups. These in vitro results demonstrate the potential strength of pulsed rose bengal mediated PDAT as an adjunct treatment modality for fungal keratitis.

  19. Small interfering RNA-induced silencing of galectin-3 inhibits the malignant phenotypes of osteosarcoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pengfei; He, Hongbo; Hu, Yihe; Liao, Zhan

    2015-10-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant tumor of bone. It has recently been demonstrated that galectin-3, a multifunctional β-galactoside-binding, is significantly upregulated in OS tissues, and is correlated with its progression and metastasis. However, the detailed role of galectin‑3 in the regulation of cellular biological processes in OS cells has remained to be elucidated. The present study reported that the mRNA and protein levels of galectin‑3 were significantly increased in OS tissues compared to those in their matched normal adjacent tissues. Furthermore, galectin‑3 was upregulated in three OS cell lines, Saos‑2, MG63 and U2OS, when compared with that in the human osteoblast cell line hFOB1.19. Knockdown of galectin‑3 by galectin‑3‑specific small interfering RNA markedly inhibited OS‑cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, silencing of galectin‑3 expression significantly inhibited OS cell migration and invasion, accompanied with a marked decrease in the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and ‑9. Mechanistic investigation suggested that the mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal‑regulated protein kinase signaling pathway may be involved in the galectin‑3‑mediated OS cell invasion. In conclusion, the present study was the first to report that silencing of galectin‑3 inhibited the malignant phenotypes of osteosarcoma in vitro. Therefore, galectin-3 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for OS.

  20. In vitro inhibition of rat and human glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes by disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploemen, J.P.H.T.M.; van Iersel, M.; Wormhoudt, L.W.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; van Bladeren, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The drug disulfiram (DSF, Antabuse®) has been used in the therapy of alcohol abuse. It is a potent inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Its reduced form, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), and further metabolites show similar activities. DSF and DDTC have also been widely used to inhibit mixed-function

  1. In vitro inhibition of rat and human glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes by disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploemen, J.-P.H.T.M.; Iersel, M.L.P.S. van; Wormhoudt, L.W.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Bladeren, P.J. van

    1996-01-01

    The drug disulfiram (DSF, Antabuse®) has been used in the therapy of alcohol abuse. It is a potent inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Its reduced form, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), and further metabolites show similar activities. DSF and DDTC have also been widely used to inhibit mixed-function

  2. Cyclooxgenase-2 inhibiting perfluoropoly (ethylene glycol ether theranostic nanoemulsions-in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kumar Patel

    Full Text Available Cylcooxgenase-2 (COX-2 expressing macrophages, constituting a major portion of tumor mass, are involved in several pro-tumorigenic mechanisms. In addition, macrophages are actively recruited by the tumor and represent a viable target for anticancer therapy. COX-2 specific inhibitor, celecoxib, apart from its anticancer properties was shown to switch macrophage phenotype from tumor promoting to tumor suppressing. Celecoxib has low aqueous solubility, which may limit its tumor inhibiting effect. As opposed to oral administration, we propose that maximum anticancer effect may be achieved by nanoemulsion mediated intravenous delivery. Here we report multifunctional celecoxib nanoemulsions that can be imaged by both near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF and (19F magnetic resonance. Celecoxib loaded nanoemulsions showed a dose dependent uptake in mouse macrophages as measured by (19F NMR and NIRF signal intensities of labeled cells. Dramatic inhibition of intracellular COX-2 enzyme was observed in activated macrophages upon nanoemulsion uptake. COX-2 enzyme inhibition was statistically equivalent between free drug and drug loaded nanoemulsion. However, nanoemulsion mediated drug delivery may be advantageous, helping to avoid systemic exposure to celecoxib and related side effects. Dual molecular imaging signatures of the presented nanoemulsions allow for future in vivo monitoring of the labeled macrophages and may help in examining the role of macrophage COX-2 inhibition in inflammation-cancer interactions. These features strongly support the future use of the presented nanoemulsions as anti-COX-2 theranostic nanomedicine with possible anticancer applications.

  3. Cyclooxgenase-2 inhibiting perfluoropoly (ethylene glycol) ether theranostic nanoemulsions-in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sravan Kumar; Zhang, Yang; Pollock, John A; Janjic, Jelena M

    2013-01-01

    Cylcooxgenase-2 (COX-2) expressing macrophages, constituting a major portion of tumor mass, are involved in several pro-tumorigenic mechanisms. In addition, macrophages are actively recruited by the tumor and represent a viable target for anticancer therapy. COX-2 specific inhibitor, celecoxib, apart from its anticancer properties was shown to switch macrophage phenotype from tumor promoting to tumor suppressing. Celecoxib has low aqueous solubility, which may limit its tumor inhibiting effect. As opposed to oral administration, we propose that maximum anticancer effect may be achieved by nanoemulsion mediated intravenous delivery. Here we report multifunctional celecoxib nanoemulsions that can be imaged by both near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and (19)F magnetic resonance. Celecoxib loaded nanoemulsions showed a dose dependent uptake in mouse macrophages as measured by (19)F NMR and NIRF signal intensities of labeled cells. Dramatic inhibition of intracellular COX-2 enzyme was observed in activated macrophages upon nanoemulsion uptake. COX-2 enzyme inhibition was statistically equivalent between free drug and drug loaded nanoemulsion. However, nanoemulsion mediated drug delivery may be advantageous, helping to avoid systemic exposure to celecoxib and related side effects. Dual molecular imaging signatures of the presented nanoemulsions allow for future in vivo monitoring of the labeled macrophages and may help in examining the role of macrophage COX-2 inhibition in inflammation-cancer interactions. These features strongly support the future use of the presented nanoemulsions as anti-COX-2 theranostic nanomedicine with possible anticancer applications.

  4. Spirogyra neglecta inhibits the absorption and synthesis of cholesterol in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharaporn Duangjai

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: These observations suggested that inhibitory cholesterol absorption effects of SN could be mediated through the modulation of size and solubility of cholesterol micelles, resulting in interference of cholesterol uptake. In addition, SN inhibited the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis. This study provides supporting evidence for the potential usage of SN as a cholesterol lowering agent.

  5. Cyclooxgenase-2 Inhibiting Perfluoropoly (Ethylene Glycol) Ether Theranostic Nanoemulsions—In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sravan Kumar; Zhang, Yang; Pollock, John A.; Janjic, Jelena M.

    2013-01-01

    Cylcooxgenase-2 (COX-2) expressing macrophages, constituting a major portion of tumor mass, are involved in several pro-tumorigenic mechanisms. In addition, macrophages are actively recruited by the tumor and represent a viable target for anticancer therapy. COX-2 specific inhibitor, celecoxib, apart from its anticancer properties was shown to switch macrophage phenotype from tumor promoting to tumor suppressing. Celecoxib has low aqueous solubility, which may limit its tumor inhibiting effect. As opposed to oral administration, we propose that maximum anticancer effect may be achieved by nanoemulsion mediated intravenous delivery. Here we report multifunctional celecoxib nanoemulsions that can be imaged by both near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and 19F magnetic resonance. Celecoxib loaded nanoemulsions showed a dose dependent uptake in mouse macrophages as measured by 19F NMR and NIRF signal intensities of labeled cells. Dramatic inhibition of intracellular COX-2 enzyme was observed in activated macrophages upon nanoemulsion uptake. COX-2 enzyme inhibition was statistically equivalent between free drug and drug loaded nanoemulsion. However, nanoemulsion mediated drug delivery may be advantageous, helping to avoid systemic exposure to celecoxib and related side effects. Dual molecular imaging signatures of the presented nanoemulsions allow for future in vivo monitoring of the labeled macrophages and may help in examining the role of macrophage COX-2 inhibition in inflammation-cancer interactions. These features strongly support the future use of the presented nanoemulsions as anti-COX-2 theranostic nanomedicine with possible anticancer applications. PMID:23409048

  6. In vitro Studies on the Inhibition of α-Amylase and α- Glucosidase by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and reducing sugars. Conclusion: The observed inhibitions of α-amylase and α-glucosidase suggest that the leaf extracts of P. nitida may be useful in the management of diabetes mellitus. This buttresses ...

  7. In Vitro Screening of α-Amylase Inhibition by Selected Terpenes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    from 0.39 – 5.50 µmol cm-3. Commercial sera (with normal-N and high-H enzyme activity) were used as a source of α-amylase. α-Amylase activity was determined by standard methods using an automated analyzer. Results: All the selected terpenes at their maximal concentrations inhibited α-amylase in N-sera in the.

  8. Peretinoin, an Acyclic Retinoid, Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Suppressing Sphingosine Metabolic Pathway In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Murai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC frequently develops from hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. We previously reported that peretinoin, an acyclic retinoid, inhibits HCV replication. This study aimed to examine the influence of peretinoin on the HBV lifecycle. HBV-DNA and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA were evaluated by a qPCR method in HepG2.2.15 cells. Peretinoin significantly reduced the levels of intracellular HBV-DNA, nuclear cccDNA, and HBV transcript at a concentration that did not induce cytotoxicity. Conversely, other retinoids, such as 9-cis, 13-cis retinoic acid (RA, and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, had no effect or rather increased HBV replication. Mechanistically, although peretinoin increased the expression of HBV-related transcription factors, as observed for other retinoids, peretinoin enhanced the binding of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 to cccDNA in the nucleus and negatively regulated HBV transcription. Moreover, peretinoin significantly inhibited the expression of SPHK1, a potential inhibitor of HDAC activity, and might be involved in hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, and HCC. SPHK1 overexpression in cells cancelled the inhibition of HBV replication induced by peretinoin. This indicates that peretinoin activates HDAC1 and thereby suppresses HBV replication by inhibiting the sphingosine metabolic pathway. Therefore, peretinoin may be a novel therapeutic agent for HBV replication and chemoprevention against HCC.

  9. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, inhibits colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methylselenol is hypothesized to be a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity. Submicromolar methylselenol exposure inhibited cell growth and led to an increase in the G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase, and an induction of apoptosis in cancerous colon HCT11...

  10. Inhibition of protein synthesis in vitro by a lectin from Momordica charantia and by other haemagglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, L; Lorenzoni, E; Stirpe, F

    1979-08-15

    Protein synthesis by a rabbit reticulocyte lysate is inhibited by the haemagglutinating lectins from Momordica charantia and Crotalaria juncea seeds and from the roe of Rutilus rutilus, and by a commercial preparation of the mitogenic lectin from Phytolacca americana. The haemagglutinins from the seeds of Ricinus communis and of Vicia cracca acquired inhibitory activity after their reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol.

  11. Clotrimazole and econazole inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm and virulence in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Ren, Biao; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Qiong; Zhou, Xuedong; Li, Yuqing

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of eight antifungal drugs on S. mutans growth, biofilm formation and virulence factors. The actions of antifungal drugs on S. mutans were determined by recovery plates and survival kinetic curves. Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the viable cells were recovered on BHI plates, meanwhile biofilms were stained by BacLight live/dead kit to investigate the biofilm viability. Bacteria/extracellular polysaccharides staining assays were performed to determine the EPS production of S. mutans biofilms. Acidogenicity and acidurity of S. mutans were determined using pH drop and acid tolerance assays, and the expression of ldh gene was evaluated using qPCR. We found that clotrimazole (CTR) and econazole (ECO) showed antibacterial activities on S. mutans UA159 and S. mutans clinical isolates at 12.5 and 25mg/L, respectively. CTR and ECO could also inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation and reduce the viability of preformed biofilm. CTR and ECO affected the live/dead ratio and the EPS/bacteria ratio of S. mutans biofilms. CTR and ECO also inhibited the pH drop, lactate acid production, and acid tolerance. The abilities of CTR and ECO to inhibit S. mutans ldh expression were also confirmed. We found that two antifungal azoles, CTR and ECO, had the abilities to inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans and more importantly, they could also inhibit the virulence factors of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. G-protein ligands inhibit in vitro reactions of vacuole inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    During budding in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, maternal vacuole material is delivered into the growing daughter cell via tubular or vesicular structures. One of the late steps in vacuole inheritance is the fusion in the bud of vesicles derived from the maternal vacuole. This process has been reconstituted in vitro and requires isolated vacuoles, a physiological temperature, cytosolic factors, and ATP (Conradt, B., J. Shaw, T. Vida, S. Emr, and W. Wickner. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 119:1469- 1479). We ...

  13. Zoledronic acid inhibits vasculogenic mimicry in murine osteosarcoma cell line in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Tao; Xu Weihua; Yang Shuhua; He Xianfeng; Fu Dehao; Feng Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To study the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the vasculogenic mimicry of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Methods A Three-dimensional culture of LM8 osteosarcoma cells on a type I collagen matrix was used to investigate whether osteosarcoma cells can develop vasculogenic mimicry, and to determine the effects of ZA on this process. In addition, the cellular ultrastructural changes were observed using scanning electron microscopy and laser confocal microscopy. The effects of ...

  14. Dexamethasone diffusion across contact lenses is inhibited by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kimberly M.; Nau, Amy C.; Romanowski, Eric G.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to measure the impact of bacterial biofilms on diffusion of an ocular therapeutic through silicone hydrogel bandage lenses in vitro. Methods An assay was designed to study the passage of a commonly used steroid dexamethasone through the silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Diffused dexamethasone was measured using a spectrophotometer over a period of 18 hours and quantified using a standard curve. This assay was performed with control and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm-coated contact lenses composed of lotrafilcon A and methafilcon. Biofilms were formed in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with D-glucose. Results The presented data validate a simple in vitro model that can be used to measure penetration of a topical therapeutic through silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Using this model we measured a reduction of dexamethasone diffusion by up to 88% through S. epidermidis biofilm-coated silicon hydrogel lenses compared to control lenses. Conclusions The results of this in vitro study demonstrate that bacterial biofilms impede dexamethasone diffusion through silicon hydrogel contact lenses, and warrant future studies regarding the clinical benefit of using ocular therapeutics in the setting of bandage contact lens use for corneal epithelial defects. PMID:25090165

  15. Dexamethasone diffusion across contact lenses is inhibited by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kimberly M; Nau, Amy C; Romanowski, Eric G; Shanks, Robert M Q

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to measure the impact of bacterial biofilms on diffusion of an ocular therapeutic through silicone hydrogel bandage lenses in vitro. An assay was designed to study the passage of a commonly used steroid, dexamethasone, through silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Diffused dexamethasone was measured using a spectrophotometer over a period of 18 hours and quantified using a standard curve. This assay was performed with control and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm-coated contact lenses comprised of lotrafilcon A and methafilcon. Biofilms were formed in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with D-glucose. The presented data validate a simple in vitro model that can be used to measure the penetration of a topical therapeutic through silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Using this model, we measured a reduction in dexamethasone diffusion up to 88% through S. epidermidis biofilm-coated silicone hydrogel lenses compared with control lenses. The results of this in vitro study demonstrate that bacterial biofilms impede dexamethasone diffusion through silicone hydrogel contact lenses and warrant future studies regarding the clinical benefit of using ocular therapeutics in the setting of bandage contact lens use for corneal epithelial defects.

  16. Cryptoporus volvatus extract inhibits influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, posing a serious health threat worldwide. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of Cryptoporus volvatus extract on influenza virus infection. Our results demonstrated that the Cryptoporus volvatus extract inhibited different influenza virus strain replication in MDCK cells. Time course analysis indicated that the extract exerted its inhibition at earlier and late stages in the replication cycle of influenza virus. Subsequently, we confirmed that the extract suppressed virus internalization into and released from cells. Moreover, the extract significantly reduced H1N1/09 influenza virus load in lungs and dramatically decreased lung lesions in mice. And most importantly, the extract protected mice from lethal challenge with H1N1/09 influenza virus. Our results suggest that the Cryptoporus volvatus extract could be a potential candidate for the development of a new anti-influenza virus therapy.

  17. Cryptoporus volvatus Extract Inhibits Influenza Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianyong; Liu, Jinhua; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Cao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, posing a serious health threat worldwide. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of Cryptoporus volvatus extract on influenza virus infection. Our results demonstrated that the Cryptoporus volvatus extract inhibited different influenza virus strain replication in MDCK cells. Time course analysis indicated that the extract exerted its inhibition at earlier and late stages in the replication cycle of influenza virus. Subsequently, we confirmed that the extract suppressed virus internalization into and released from cells. Moreover, the extract significantly reduced H1N1/09 influenza virus load in lungs and dramatically decreased lung lesions in mice. And most importantly, the extract protected mice from lethal challenge with H1N1/09 influenza virus. Our results suggest that the Cryptoporus volvatus extract could be a potential candidate for the development of a new anti-influenza virus therapy. PMID:25437846

  18. Astaxanthin Attenuates Homocysteine-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun-dong Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine (Hcy as an independent risk factor contributes to the occurrence and development of human cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis was commonly accepted as the major mechanism in Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity. Astaxanthin (ATX as one of the most powerful antioxidants exhibits novel cardioprotective potential against Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. However, the protective effect and mechanism of ATX against Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes have not been elucidated yet. Herein, H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes and Hcy-injured animal model were employed in the present study. The MTT, flow cytometry analysis (FCM, TUNEL-DAPI and western blotting results all demonstrated that ATX significantly alleviated Hcy-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells through inhibition of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The JC-1 and Mito-tracker staining both revealed that ATX pre-treatment blocked Hcy-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating Bcl-2 family expression. Moreover, DCFH-DA and Mito-SOX staining showed that ATX effectively attenuated Hcy-induced oxidative damage via scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Importantly, the ELISA and immunohistochemical results indicated that Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo was also significantly inhibited by ATX through inhibition of oxidative damage and apoptosis, and improvement of the angiogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ATX suppressed Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. Our findings validated the strategy of using ATX may be a highly efficient way to combat Hcy-mediated human CVD.

  19. Curcumin inhibits glial scar formation by suppressing astrocyte-induced inflammation and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jichao; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Haitao; Chen, Yaxing; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Lan; Chu, Weihua; Wen, Zexian; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai

    2017-01-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to glial scar formation by astrocytes, which severely hinders neural regeneration. Curcumin (cur) can inhibit glial scar formation, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using both in vivo and in vitro experiments, the current study investigated the phenotypic transformation of astrocytes following cur and siRNA intervention during the processes of inflammation and fibrosis and determined details of the relationship between cur treatment and the glial scar components GFAP and CSPG. We found that cur and NF-κb p65 siRNA could inhibit astrocyte activation through suppressing NF-κb signaling pathway, which led to down-regulate the expression of chemokines MCP-1, RANTES and CXCL10 released by astrocytes and decreased macrophage and T-cell infiltration, thus reducing the inflammation in the glial scar. In addition, silencing SOX-9 may reduce the deposition of extracellular matrix CSPG; whereas its over-expression could increase the CSPG expression. Cur suppressedSOX-9-inducedCSPG deposition, reduced α-SMA (an important symbol of fibrosis) expression in astrocytes, altered astrocyte phenotype, and inhibited glial scar formation by regulating fibrosis. This study confirmed that cur could regulate both the NF-κb and SOX9 signaling pathways and reduce the expression of intracellular and extracellular glial scar components through dual-target regulating both inflammation and fibrosis after SCI in the rat. This study provides an important hypothesis centered on the dual inhibition of intracellular and extracellular glial scar components as a treatment strategy for SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photodynamic inhibition of Trichophyton rubrum: in vitro activity and the role of oxidative and nitrosative bursts in fungal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Ludmila de Matos; Soares, Betânia Maria; Carneiro, Hellem Cristina Silva; Avila, Thiago Vinícius; Gouveia, Ludmila Ferreira; Souza, Danielle G; Ferreira, Marcus Vinícius Lucas; Pinotti, Marcos; Santos, Daniel de Assis; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva

    2013-02-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inhibition (aPI) is based on the use of a light source and a photosensitizer to kill pathogens. Little is known about aPI of dermatophytic fungi and its mechanism of action. We aimed to evaluate aPI of Trichophyton rubrum. We performed tests using toluidine blue (TBO) as a photosensitizer and a 630 nm light-emitting diode (LED) as a source of light to target 12 T. rubrum isolates. Susceptibility testing with cyclopiroxolamine, time-kill curves and quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), peroxynitrite (ONOO·) and nitric oxide (NO·) were performed. The optimal conditions for in vitro aPI were 10 mg/L for TBO and 48 J/cm(2) for LED; these conditions were fungicidal or inhibited >98% of fungal growth depending on the strain tested. LED or TBO treatment alone did not inhibit growth. The MICs of cyclopiroxolamine were 2.0 mg/L for 90% of the strains. Analysis of time-kill curves revealed that pathogen death occurred 24 h post-treatment. Quantification of ROS, ONOO· and NO· revealed improvement after aPI. Photodynamic inhibition was more efficient in promoting cell death than the antifungal cyclopiroxolamine against T. rubrum. ROS, ONOO· and NO· were important in the fungicidal activity of aPI. A suggested mechanism for this activity is that TBO is excited by LED light (630 nm), reacts with biomolecules and increases the availability of transition electrons and substrates for nitric oxide synthase, thereby increasing the oxidative and nitrosative bursts in the fungal cell.

  1. Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) inhibits the cell migration and invasion in human glioma cell lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xuhui; Chang, Liang; Ye, Wei; Jiang, Chuanlu; Zhang, Zhiren

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects and the potential mechanisms of RKIP on cell migration, invasion and proliferation in human glioma cell lines in vitro. The RKIP over-expressing and RKIP knockdown human U87 glioma cells were used to reveal the effects of RKIP on human glioma cells migration, invasion and proliferation. After the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.0-RKIP or RKIP-shRNA was transfected into the cell lines U87 by the means of liposome assay, the cells migration, invasion and proliferation were detected by wound healing, Transwell and MTT assay. Then, the levels of RKIP, MMP-3, MMP-9 and HMGA2 mRNA transcription were measured by means of RT-qPCR and levels of proteins expressions were determined using Western blot. The results of MTT assay suggested that the PKIP have little inhibitive effects on glioma cells proliferation (P>0.05). The present paper showed that the migration distances in the group of RKIP-shRNA were markedly increased compared to the pcDNA3.0-RKIP and control. Similarly, the results showed that the numbers of invasion cells in RKIP-shRNA were remarkably increased than the pcDNA3.0-RKIP group and control group. Western blot and RT-qPCR suggested that over-expressions of RKIP lessened the MMP-2, MMP-9 and HMGA2 expression, however, turning down the RKIP expression showed the inverse effects. RKIP inhibits the cells migrations and invasions. Meanwhile, RKIP might inhibit the glioma cells through inhibiting MMPs and HMAG2 expression. Therefore, we demonstrated that RKIP is an underlying target for the treatment of glioma.

  2. Amygdalin-mediated inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Liyu; Xie, Bo; Wang, Yaguo; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor claiming the highest fatality worldwide for a long period of time. Unfortunately, most of the current treatment methods are still based on the characteristics of cancer cells in the primary lesion and the prognosis is often much poorer in patients with metastatic cancers. Amygdalin, a natural product of glycosides and lots of evidence shows that amygdalin can inhibit the proliferation of some kinds of cancer cells. In this study, we first obtained the h...

  3. In vitro inhibition of Clostridium difficile by commercial probiotics: A microcalorimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredua-Agyeman, Mansa; Stapleton, Paul; Basit, Abdul W; Beezer, Anthony E; Gaisford, Simon

    2017-01-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of some commercial probiotics on the growth of Clostridium difficile using isothermal microcalorimetry, a technique which can monitor the real time growth of bacteria. Commercial probiotic strains and products, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5(®), Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12(®), Probio 7(®) and Symprove™ were co-cultured with C. difficile in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth supplemented with 0.1% (w/v) l-cysteine hydrochloride and 0.1% (w/v) sodium taurocholate and monitored in the microcalorimeter. Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIMB 8628 was also co-cultured with C. difficile and studied. The results indicated inhibition of C. difficile by the probiotics. The inhibition of C. difficile was shown to be pH-dependent using neutralized and unmodified cell free supernatant (CFS) produced by the probiotic strains. However, concentrated CFS of the probiotics also inhibited the intestinal pathogen in a non pH-dependent manner, likely due to specific antimicrobial substances produced. The results also indicated that C. difficile growth was greatly influenced by the presence of sodium taurocholate and by the pH of the medium. A medium pH of between 6.45 and 6.9 demonstrated maximum growth of the organism in the microcalorimeter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Different IVIG glycoforms affect in vitro inhibition of anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated complement deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sudo

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is the first line treatment for Guillain-Barré syndrome and multifocal motor neuropathy, which are caused by anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. IVIG has many potential mechanisms of action, and sialylation of the IgG Fc portion reportedly has an anti-inflammatory effect in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity models. We investigated the effects of different IVIG glycoforms on the inhibition of antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Deglycosylated, degalactosylated, galactosylated and sialylated IgG were prepared from IVIG following treatment with glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. Sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome and multifocal motor neuropathy associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies were used. Inhibition of complement deposition subsequent to IgG or IgM autoantibody binding to ganglioside, GM1 or GQ1b was assessed on microtiter plates. Sialylated and galactosylated IVIGs more effectively inhibited C3 deposition than original IVIG or enzyme-treated IVIGs (agalactosylated and deglycosylated IVIGs. Therefore, sialylated and galactosylated IVIGs may be more effective than conventional IVIG in the treatment of complement-dependent autoimmune diseases.

  5. Allicin from garlic inhibits the biofilm formation and urease activity of Proteus mirabilis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Omid, Mahsa; Arzanlou, Mohsen; Amani, Mojtaba; Shokri Al-Hashem, Seyyedeh Khadijeh; Amir Mozafari, Nour; Peeri Doghaheh, Hadi

    2015-05-01

    Several virulence factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis. This study determined the inhibitory effects of allicin on urease, hemolysin and biofilm of P. mirabilis ATCC 12453 and its antimicrobial activity against 20 clinical isolates of P. mirabilis. Allicin did not inhibit hemolysin, whereas it did inhibit relative urease activity in both pre-lysed (half-maximum inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 4.15 μg) and intact cells (IC50 = 21 μg) in a concentration-dependent manner. Allicin at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (2-32 μg mL(-1)) showed no significant effects on the growth of the bacteria (P > 0.05), but it reduced biofilm development in a concentration-dependent manner (P allicin was needed to inhibit the established biofilms. Using the microdilution technique, the MIC90 and MBC90 values of allicin against P. mirabilis isolates were determined to be 128 and 512 μg mL(-1), respectively. The results suggest that allicin could have clinical applications in controlling P. mirabilis infections. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Rapamycin inhibits ox-LDL-induced inflammation in human endothelial cells in vitro by inhibiting the mTORC2/PKC/c-Fos pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan-Juan; Yin, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Hui-Hui; Du, Wen-Xiu; Shi, Lu-Yao; Huang, Ya-Bo; Wang, Fen; Liu, Chun-Feng; Cao, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-10-26

    Rapamycin and its derivative possess anti-atherosclerosis activity, but its effects on adhesion molecule expression and macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells during atherosclerosis remain unclear. In this study we explored the effects of rapamycin on ox-LDL-induced adhesion molecule expression and macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Ox-LDL (6-48 μg/mL) dose-dependently increased the protein levels of two adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), whereas pretreatment with rapamycin (1-10 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited ox-LDL-induced increase in the adhesion molecule expression and macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells. Knockdown of mTOR or rictor, rather than raptor, mimicked the effects of rapamycin. Ox-LDL (100 μg/mL) time-dependently increased PKC phosphorylation in HUVECs, which was abolished by rapamycin or rictor siRNA. Pretreatment with PKC inhibitor staurospo¬rine significantly reduced ox-LDL-stimulated adhesion molecule expression and macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells, whereas pretreatment with PKC activator PMA/TPA attenuated the inhibitory effect of rapamycin on adhesion molecule expression. Ox-LDL (100 μg/mL) time-dependently increased c-Fos levels in HUVECs, and pretreatment with rapamycin or rictor siRNA significantly decreased expression of c-Fos. Knockdown of c-Fos antagonized ox-LDL-induced adhesion molecule expression and macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells. Our results demonstrate that rapamycin reduces ox-LDL-stimulated adhesion molecule expression and macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells by inhibiting mTORC2, but not mTORC1, and mTORC2 acts through the PKC/c-Fos signaling pathway.

  7. In vitro extinction learning in Hermissenda: involvement of conditioned inhibition molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S Cavallo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extinction of a conditioned association is typically viewed as the establishment of new learning rather than the erasure of the original memory. However, recent research in the nudibranch, Hermissenda crassicornis (H.c. demonstrated that extinction training (using repeated light-alone presentations given 15 min, but not 23 hr, after memory acquisition reversed both the cellular correlates of learning (enhanced Type B cell excitability and the behavioral changes (reduced phototaxis produced by associative conditioning (pairings of light, CS, and rotation, US. Here, we investigated the putative molecular signaling pathways that underlie this extinction in H.c. by using a novel in vitro protocol combined with pharmacological manipulations. After intact H.c. received either light-rotation pairings (Paired, or no stimulation (Untrained, B cells from isolated CNSs were recorded from during exposure to extinction training consisting of two series of 15 consecutive light-steps (LSs. When in vitro extinction was administered shortly (2 hr, but not 24 hr after paired training, B cells from Paired animals showed progressive and robust declines in spike frequency by the 30th LS, while Untrained cells did not. We found that several molecules implicated in H.c. conditioned inhibitory (CI learning, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 and arachidonic acid (AA/12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX metabolites, also contributed to the spike frequency decreases produced by in vitro extinction. Protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B also appeared to play a role. Calyculin A (PP1 inhibitor, cyclosporin A (PP2B inhibitor, and baicalein (a 12-LOX inhibitor all blocked the spike frequency declines in Paired B cells produced by 30 LSs. Conversely, injection of catalytically-active PP1 (caPP1 or PP2B (caPP2B into Untrained B cells partially mimicked the spike frequency declines observed in Paired cells, as did bath-applied AA, and occluded additional LS-produced reductions in spiking in Paired cells.

  8. Arctigenin inhibits prostate tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Piwen Wang; Walter Solorzano; Tanya Diaz; Clara E. Magyar; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2017-01-01

    The low bioavailability of most phytochemicals limits their translation to humans. We investigated whether arctigenin, a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, has favorable bioavailability/potency against prostate cancer. The anticarcinogenic activity of arctigenin was investigated both in vitro using the androgen-sensitive LNCaP and LAPC-4 human prostate cancer cells and pre-malignant WPE1-NA22 cells, and in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Arctigenin at lower dos...

  9. The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocyst-endometrial interacttions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A; tin-Ley, U; Ravn, V

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the anti-P Org 31710 on human blastocyst attachment to cultured endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Eleven fertile endometrial donors. INTERVENTION(S): Timed endometrial biopsy for cell...... cultures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Blastocyst attachment rate on endometrial cell cultures; secretion of glycodelin and leukemia inhibitory factor into the culture medium measured by RIA and ELISA techniques; and expression of progesterone receptors, interleukin-1 receptor type-1, and integrin subunit beta...

  10. Screening of selected pesticides for inhibition of CYP19 aromatase activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Hnida, C.; Breinholt, V.

    2000-01-01

    Many pesticides are able to block or activate the steroid hormone receptors and/or to affect the levels of sex hormones, thereby potentially affecting the development or expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. This emphasizes the relevance of screening pesticides for a wide......, and triadimenol were identified as weak aromatase inhibitors. In conclusion, seven out of 22 tested pesticides turned out to be weak to moderate aromatase inhibitors in vitro, indicating the relevance of elucidating the endocrine effects in vivo of these compounds....

  11. Sweet potato leaf extract inhibits the simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of native starch

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng, Toong Long; Chiang, Yi Chen; Lai, Chia Chi; Liao, Ting Chen; Lin, Su Yue; Lin, Tzu Che; Sung, Jih Min

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported the therapeutic use of caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives in the management of hyperglycemia. This study used a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model to assess the inhibitory effects of CQA derivatives-rich sweet potato leaf extract (SPLE) and a commercially produced green coffee bean extract (GCBE), each with total polyphenols contents of 452 mg g−1 and 278 mg g−1, respectively, against starch digestion. The changes in the amounts of total polyp...

  12. Untersuchungen zur Anwendbarkeit und Validität von In-vitro-Methoden bezüglich der Inhibition von Cytochrom-P450-Enzymen durch Arzneipflanzenextrakte

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Um Arzneimittelwechselwirkungen von Arzneistoffen sowie neuen Arzneistoffkandidaten zu vermeiden, werden zur Abschätzung des Interaktionsrisikos so genannte In-vitro-Interaktionsstudien durchgeführt. Hierfür werden vor allem Mikrotiterplatten-basierte Fluoreszenz- und LC/MS-Methoden verwendet. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Untersuchung der Anwendbarkeit und Validität dieser In-vitro-Methoden bezüglich der Inhibition von CYP-Enzymen durch Arzneipflanzenextrakte. Die in dieser Arbeit erhaltene...

  13. Tissue-engineered endothelial cell layers on surface-modified Ti for inhibiting in vitro platelet adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiupeng Wang, Fupo He, Xia Li, Atsuo Ito, Yu Sogo, Osamu Maruyama, Ryo Kosaka and Jiandong Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tissue-engineered endothelial layer was prepared by culturing endothelial cells on a fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2–l-ascorbic acid phosphate magnesium salt n-hydrate (AsMg–apatite (Ap coated titanium plate. The FGF-2–AsMg–Ap coated Ti plate was prepared by immersing a Ti plate in supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions supplemented with FGF-2 and AsMg. The FGF-2–AsMg–Ap layer on the Ti plate accelerated proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and showed slightly higher, but not statistically significant, nitric oxide release from HUVECs than on as-prepared Ti. The endothelial layer maintained proper function of the endothelial cells and markedly inhibited in vitro platelet adhesion. The tissue-engineered endothelial layer formed on the FGF-2–AsMg–Ap layer is promising for ameliorating platelet activation and thrombus formation on cardiovascular implants.

  14. Inhibition of grey mould in vitro and in vivo with essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane MOHAMMADI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal effects of the fennel essential oil against fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea the causal agent of grey mould disease of tomato fruit under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Treatments consisted of five concentrations (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 lL-1.The fennel oil had a remarkable effect on spore germination of grey mould. The growth of grey mould was completely inhibited by fennel oil at 600 and 800 lL-1.The results in vivo showed that fennel oil increased the shelf life and decreased decay rate of tomato fruits. Also, fennel essential oil positively affected on postharvest quality factors. Treated fruits with fennel oil had significantly higher titrable acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and lycopene and -carotene content comparison to control. Thus, these results showed that fennel essential oil has impact on postharvest decay and fruit quality of tomato.

  15. A traditional Chinese medicine formula extracts stimulate proliferation and inhibit mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Feng, Wenzhou; Cao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula extract, named as ZD-I, on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: When hMSCs cultivated in the basal medium with ZD-I, cell......-cytotoxic. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of hMSCs was 200 microg/ml. ZD-I (0.78-50 microg/ml) stimulated the proliferation of hMSCs. ZD-I did not change ALP activity of hMSCs cultivated in osteogenic medium in the early stage (4 and 7 days), but ZD-I inhibited the mineralization of hMSCs through down...

  16. COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition in horse blood by phenylbutazone, flunixin, carprofen and meloxicam: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, C; Garavaglia, G; Cavalli, M

    2005-10-01

    We report on the inhibitory activity of the NSAIDs meloxicam, carprofen, phenylbutazone and flunixin, on blood cyclooxygenases in the horse using in vitro enzyme-linked assays. As expected, comparison of IC50 indicated that meloxicam and carprofen are more selective inhibitors of COX-2 than phenylbutazone and flunixin; meloxicam was the most advantageous for horses of four NSAIDs examined. However at IC80, phenylbutazone (+134.4%) and flunixin (+29.7%) had greater COX-2 selectivity than at IC50, and meloxicam (-41.2%) and carprofen (-12.9%) had lower COX-2 selectivity than at IC50. We therefore propose that the selectivity of NSAIDs should be assessed at the 80% as well as 50% inhibition level.

  17. The inhibition of myometrial contractions by chlorinated herbicides (atrazine and linuron), and their disruptive effect on the secretory functions of uterine and ovarian cells in cow, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Michał H; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw

    2017-10-01

    The effect of atrazine and linuron, the popular and widely used chlorinated herbicides, on both myometrial contractions and secretory functions of bovine uterus and ovaries in vitro, was investigated. The pesticides inhibited (Pcontractions, as well as the effect of OT on secretion of prostaglandins (PGs: PGF2α and PGE2) from endometrium. But only linuron inhibits the effect of OT on myometrial contractions. Neither of herbicides affected PGs secretion from myometrium and PGF2α from endometrium. Only the lowest dose of both tested compounds decreased PGE2 secretion from endometrium. The pesticides increased (Pcontractions in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Frondoside A from sea cucumber and nymphaeols from Okinawa propolis: Natural anti-cancer agents that selectively inhibit PAK1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Tawata, Shinkichi; Maruta, Hiroshi

    2017-05-30

    A sulfated saponin called "Frondoside A" (FRA) from sea cucumber and ingredients from Okinawa propolis (OP) have been previously shown to suppress the PAK1-dependent growth of A549 lung cancer as well as pancreatic cancer cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying their anti-cancer action still remains to be clarified. In this study, for the first time, we found that both FRA and OP directly inhibit PAK1 in vitro in a selective manner (far more effectively than two other oncogenic kinases, LIMK and AKT). Furthermore, at least two major anti-cancer ingredients of OP, nymphaeols A and C, also directly inhibit PAK1 in vitro in a selective manner. To the best of our knowledge, FRA is the first marine compound that selectively inhibits PAK1. Likewise, these nymphaeols are the first propolis ingredients that selectively inhibit PAK1.

  19. Prednisolone inhibits cytokine-induced adhesive and cytotoxic interactions between endothelial cells and neutrophils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbürger, M; Lärfars, G; Bratt, J

    2000-03-01

    We assessed whether prednisolone influenced the ability of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to adhere to and cause lysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro (as measured by the release of 51Cr). Pretreatment of the endothelium with IL-1beta or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) caused prominent endothelial E-selectin expression and endothelial hyperadhesiveness for neutrophils, as well as PMN-mediated cytotoxicity. All these processes were dose-dependently reduced when prednisolone was added to the assay system. This protective effect remained when HUVEC alone were pretreated with the drug prior to washing and cytokine activation. Likewise, when HUVEC cytotoxicity was induced by the nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), prednisolone reduced cell injury significantly. In contrast, prednisolone did not interfere with signalling systems between TNF-alpha-stimulated HUVEC and quiescent PMN such as IL-8 generation and release of cytosolic Ca2 + in the PMN. Thus, in this in vitro model of vasculitis, prednisolone dose-dependently reduced cytokine-induced E-selectin expression and HUVEC hyperadhesiveness for neutrophils, as well as reducing neutrophil-dependent cytotoxicity against HUVEC via NO-dependent steps.

  20. Octreotide and pasireotide (dis)similarly inhibit pituitary tumor cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Vázquez-Borrego, Mari C; Gahete, Manuel D; Jiménez-Reina, Luis; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; de la Riva, Andrés; Arráez, Miguel Ángel; González-Molero, Inmaculada; Schmid, Herbert A; Maraver-Selfa, Silvia; Gavilán-Villarejo, Inmaculada; García-Arnés, Juan Antonio; Japón, Miguel A; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Gálvez, María A; Luque, Raúl M; Castaño, Justo P

    2016-11-01

    Somatostatin analogs (SSA) are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for pituitary adenomas. However, some patients escape from therapy with octreotide, a somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2)-preferring SSA, and pasireotide, a novel multi-sst-preferring SSA, may help to overcome this problem. It has been proposed that correspondence between sst1-sst5 expression pattern and SSA-binding profile could predict patient's response. To explore the cellular/molecular features associated with octreotide/pasireotide response, we performed a parallel comparison of their in vitro effects, evaluating sst1-sst5 expression, intracellular Ca 2+ signaling ([Ca 2+ ] i ), hormone secretion and cell viability, in a series of 85 pituitary samples. Somatotropinomas expressed sst5>sst2, yet octreotide reduced [Ca 2+ ] i more efficiently than pasireotide, while both SSA similarly decreased growth hormone release/expression and viability. Corticotropinomas predominantly expressed sst5, but displayed limited response to pasireotide, while octreotide reduced functional endpoints. Non-functioning adenomas preferentially expressed sst3 but, surprisingly, both SSA increased cell viability. Prolactinomas mainly expressed sst1 but were virtually unresponsive to SSA. Finally, both SSA decreased [Ca 2+ ] i in normal pituitaries. In conclusion, both SSA act in vitro on pituitary adenomas exerting both similar and distinct effects; however, no evident correspondence was found with the sst1-sst5 profile. Thus, it seems plausible that additional factors, besides the simple abundance of a given sst, critically influence the SSA response. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Gene-silencing antisense oligomers inhibit acinetobacter growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Bruce L; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly; Schnell, Frederick J; McKnight, Mattie M; Iversen, Patrick L; Greenberg, David E

    2013-11-15

    Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) are synthetic DNA/RNA analogues that silence expression of specific genes. We studied whether PPMOs targeted to essential genes in Acinetobacter lwoffii and Acinetobacter baumannii are active in vitro and in vivo. PPMOs were evaluated in vitro using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and viability assays, and in vivo using murine pulmonary infection models with intranasal PPMO treatment. MICs of PPMOs ranged from 0.1 to 64 µM (approximately 0.6-38 µg/mL). The most effective PPMO tested was (RXR)4-AcpP, which is targeted to acpP. (RXR)4-AcpP reduced viability of A. lwoffii and A. baumannii by >10(3) colony-forming units/mL at 5-8 times MIC. Mice treated with ≥0.25 mg/kg of (RXR)4-AcpP survived longer and had less inflammation and bacterial lung burden than mice treated with a scrambled-sequence PPMO or phosphate-buffered saline. Treatment could be delayed after infection and still increase survival. PPMOs targeted to essential genes of A. lwoffii and A. baumannii were bactericidal and had MICs in a clinically relevant range. (RXR)4-AcpP increased survival of mice infected with A. lwoffii or A. baumannii, even when initial treatment was delayed after infection. PPMOs could be a viable therapeutic approach in dealing with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species.

  2. [Salidroside inhibits hypoxia-induced phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Lü, Bo-Dong; Chen, Shi-Tao; Zhang, Shi-Geng; Yang, Ke-Bing

    2013-08-01

    To explore the effects of salidroside on the phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMC) in hypoxic SD rats. CCSMCs were cultured in vitro and identified by immunohistochemistry. The cells were divided into six groups: normal control (21% O2), hypoxia (1% O2), hypoxia + salidroside 1 mg/L, hypoxia + salidroside 3 mg/L, hypoxia + salidroside 5 mg/L and hypoxia + PGE1 0.4 microg/L, and then cultured for 48 hours. The relative expressions of alpha-actin and osteopontin (OPN) in each group were determined by RT-PCR. The in vitro cultured CCSMCs grew well, with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin monoclonal antibodies immunohistochemically positive. The relative expression of alpha-actin was markedly decreased while that of OPN remarkably increased in the hypoxia group as compared with the normal control group (P salidroside 5 mg/L group showed a significantly higher expression of alpha-actin and lower expression of OPN than the hypoxia group (P 0.05). Hypoxia can reduce the relative expression level of alpha-actin and increase that of OPN in the CCSMCs of SD rats, namely, induce their phenotypic modulation from the contraction to the non-contraction type. Salidroside can restrain hypoxia-induced phenotypic modulation of CCSMCs, and its inhibitory effect at 5 mg/L is similar to that of PGE1.

  3. L-carnitine is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor selectively inhibiting cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbiao Huang

    Full Text Available L-carnitine (LC is generally believed to transport long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for ATP generation via the citric acid cycle. Based on Warburg's theory that most cancer cells mainly depend on glycolysis for ATP generation, we hypothesize that, LC treatment would lead to disturbance of cellular metabolism and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. In this study, Human hepatoma HepG2, SMMC-7721 cell lines, primary cultured thymocytes and mice bearing HepG2 tumor were used. ATP content was detected by HPLC assay. Cell cycle, cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein level were detected by gene microarray, Real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. HDAC activities and histone acetylation were detected both in test tube and in cultured cells. A molecular docking study was carried out with CDOCKER protocol of Discovery Studio 2.0 to predict the molecular interaction between L-carnitine and HDAC. Here we found that (1 LC treatment selectively inhibited cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro; (2 LC treatment selectively induces the expression of p21(cip1 gene, mRNA and protein in cancer cells but not p27(kip1; (4 LC increases histone acetylation and induces accumulation of acetylated histones both in normal thymocytes and cancer cells; (5 LC directly inhibits HDAC I/II activities via binding to the active sites of HDAC and induces histone acetylation and lysine-acetylation accumulation in vitro; (6 LC treatment induces accumulation of acetylated histones in chromatin associated with the p21(cip1 gene but not p27(kip1 detected by ChIP assay. These data support that LC, besides transporting acyl group, works as an endogenous HDAC inhibitor in the cell, which would be of physiological and pathological importance.

  4. Curcumin-loaded apotransferrin nanoparticles provide efficient cellular uptake and effectively inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendhar Gandapu

    Full Text Available Curcumin (diferuloylmethane shows significant activity across a wide spectrum of conditions, but its usefulness is rather limited because of its low bioavailability. Use of nanoparticle formulations to enhance curcumin bioavailability is an emerging area of research.In the present study, curcumin-loaded apotransferrin nanoparticles (nano-curcumin prepared by sol-oil chemistry and were characterized by electron and atomic force microscopy. Confocal studies and fluorimetric analysis revealed that these particles enter T cells through transferrin-mediated endocytosis. Nano-curcumin releases significant quantities of drug gradually over a fairly long period, ∼50% of curcumin still remaining at 6 h of time. In contrast, intracellular soluble curcumin (sol-curcumin reaches a maximum at 2 h followed by its complete elimination by 4 h. While sol-curcumin (GI(50 = 15.6 µM is twice more toxic than nano-curcumin (GI(50 = 32.5 µM, nano-curcumin (IC(50<1.75 µM shows a higher anti-HIV activity compared to sol-curcumin (IC(50 = 5.1 µM. Studies in vitro showed that nano-curcumin prominently inhibited the HIV-1 induced expression of Topo II α, IL-1β and COX-2, an effect not seen with sol-curcumin. Nano-curcumin did not affect the expression of Topoisomerase II β and TNF α. This point out that nano-curcumin affects the HIV-1 induced inflammatory responses through pathways downstream or independent of TNF α. Furthermore, nano-curcumin completely blocks the synthesis of viral cDNA in the gag region suggesting that the nano-curcumin mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication is targeted to viral cDNA synthesis.Curcumin-loaded apotransferrin nanoparticles are highly efficacious inhibitors of HIV-1 replication in vitro and promise a high potential for clinical usefulness.

  5. Incorporation of Allium sativum in yogurt: In vitro study on inhibition of diabetes- and hypertension-associated enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabboo Amirdivani Amirdivani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inclusion of Allium sativum on yogurt formation and subsequent storage (4°C, up to 28 days on proteolysis, microbial activity, the inhibition of a-amylase, a-glucosidase and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE-1 in vitro were investigated. A. sativum-yogurt showed higher rates of pH reduction and increment of TA than plain-yogurt during incubation at 41°C. Highest proteolysis,  on day 7 showed in A. sativum-yogurt (62.7±0.80 mg/mL, which was 2-flod higher than plain yogurt (31.0±0.96 mg/mL. Bacterial counts in A.sativum-yogurt were higher for Lactobacillus spp. but lower for S. thermophillus (p<0.05 compared to those in plain yogurt throughout refrigerated storage. Highest inhibitory activities for α-amylase were recorded on day 14 of storage for A. sativum- and plain-yogurts (IC50= 13.7±1.99and 26.3±2.15mg respectively; p<0.05 and on day 7 for α-glucosidase (IC50= 120.7±22.71 and 192.3±33.24mg respectively; p<0.05. The highest anti-ACE-I activity was observed on day 7 of refrigerated storage with A. sativum-yogurt (IC50=6.9±0.23mg being more potent than plain-yogurt (IC50=9.7±0.12mg; p<0.05. A. sativum-yogurt was not favoured for overall aroma, sourness and bitterness in the sensory evaluations but recorded the same overall preference as plain yogurt. A. sativum enhanced the fermentation of yogurt in favour of the population of Lactobacillus spp, stimulated proteolysis of milk proteins and increased the in vitro inhibition of key enzymes associated with diabetes and hypertension.

  6. Screening Brazilian plant species for in vitro inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F C; Wagner, H; Lombardi, J A; de Oliveira, A B

    2000-01-01

    Plants from the Brazilian flora were evaluated for the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. The species were selected based on their traditional use and on a chemosystematic approach. In total, 19 species belonging to 13 families have been investigated. Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig (Zingiberaceae), Xylopia frutescens Aubl. (Annonaceae) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae) presented a high 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Some hypothesis about the nature of the active compounds are discussed, based on reports of the chemical constitution of these species or other species from the same botanical family.

  7. Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibiting Activity of Several Aqueous Tea Infusions in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja Katalinić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of antioxidant activity and acetylcholineste ase (AChE inhibitory activity of aqueous tea infusions prepared from walnut (Juglans regia L., peppermint (Mentha×piperita L., strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa L., lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., and immortelle (Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench. is presented here. Chemical composition of selected aqueous tea infusions was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array method (HPLC-PDA, and the following phenolic compounds were identified as dominant: rosmarinic acid, gallic acid (not identified in walnut and sage, caffeic acid (in sage and peppermint, neochlorogenic acid, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid and quercetin 3-galactoside (in walnut and luteolin 7-O-glucoside (in sage. Antioxidant activity of the selected aqueous tea infusions was measured using low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation method, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging test, β-carotene bleaching method, and Rancimat method (induction period of lard oxidation. Strawberry and lemon balm aqueous infusions completely inhibited LDL oxidation at the concentration of 0.005 g/L in the reacting system. Very long prolongation of the lag phase was achieved with peppermint and sage aqueous infusions. All tested infusions in the concentration range of 0.05–2.85 g/L showed very pronounced effect of DPPH scavenging activity (90–100 % as well as the inhibition of β-carotene bleaching (89–100 %. In pure lipid medium, used in Rancimat method, sage and immortelle at the concentration of 0.16 % (by mass had the highest ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation process. Screening of the AChE inhibitory activity by Ellman´s method showed that the strongest inhibition was obtained with walnut and strawberry aqueous infusions at the concentration of 1.36 g/L in the reacting system. The presented results suggest that natural antioxidants could be useful and merit further

  8. Imatinib inhibits vascular smooth muscle proteoglycan synthesis and reduces LDL binding in vitro and aortic lipid deposition in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Mandy L; Osman, Narin; Hashimura, Kazuhiko; de Haan, Judy B; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin; Allen, Terri; Tannock, Lisa R; Rutledge, John C; Little, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The ‘response to retention’ hypothesis of atherogenesis proposes that proteoglycans bind and retain low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the vessel wall. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is strongly implicated in atherosclerosis and stimulates proteoglycan synthesis. Here we investigated the action of the PDGF receptor inhibitor imatinib on PDGF-mediated proteoglycan biosynthesis in vitro, lipid deposition in the aortic wall in vivo and the carotid artery ex vivo. In human vSMCs, imatinib inhibited PDGF mediated 35S-SO4 incorporation into proteoglycans by 31% (P proteoglycans from PDGF stimulated cells in the presence of imatinib was approximately 2.5-fold higher than for PDGF treatment alone. In high fat fed ApoE−/– mice, imatinib reduced total lipid staining area by ∼31% (P proteoglycans and reduces LDL binding in vitro and in vivo and this effect is mediated via the PDGF receptor. These findings validate a novel mechanism to prevent cardiac disease. PMID:19754668

  9. Anti-inflammatory drug, leflunomide and its metabolite teriflunomide inhibit NSCLC proliferation in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liyang; Zhang, Weili; Li, Wei; Ling, Chunhua; Jiang, Min

    2018-01-05

    Lung cancer causes more than 150000 deaths annually in the United States alone, of which non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80%. Our studies demonstrated that NSCLC cells were sensitive to leflunomide and its metabolite teriflunomide, a FDA approved drug, which was a well-known immunomodulatory drug for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present studies, we found first time that they displayed anti-tumor activity of NSCLC in vitro and in vivo. Potent anti-cancer effects in NSCLC in vitro, including inhibiting NSCLC cells viability, arresting cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, inducing cell apoptosis, delaying and suppressing NSCLC cells colony-forming ability and cell motility, could be achieved with this agent. Meanwhile, we provided evidence that these effects were applicable in vivo by using H460 cells xenograft model in nude mice. In addition, to comprehensively clarify the mechanisms of teriflunomide in NSCLC, we explored a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, and found that teriflunomide was involved in multiple signaling pathways and cellular processes, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, MAPK and p53 signaling pathway. Taken together, the results of our studies provided insights into a novel anti-cancer effect of leflunomide and teriflunomide on NSCLC and might open new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro extinction learning in Hermissenda: involvement of conditioned inhibition molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Joel S.; Hamilton, Brittany N.; Farley, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Extinction of a conditioned association is typically viewed as the establishment of new learning rather than the erasure of the original memory. However, recent research in the nudibranch, Hermissenda crassicornis (H.c.) demonstrated that extinction training (using repeated light-alone presentations) given 15 min, but not 23 h, after memory acquisition reversed both the cellular correlates of learning (enhanced Type B cell excitability) and the behavioral changes (reduced phototaxis) produced by associative conditioning (pairings of light, CS, and rotation, US). Here, we investigated the putative molecular signaling pathways that underlie this extinction in H.c. by using a novel in vitro protocol combined with pharmacological manipulations. After intact H.c. received either light-rotation pairings (Paired), random presentations of light and rotation (Random), or no stimulation (Untrained), B cells from isolated CNSs were recorded from during exposure to extinction training consisting of two series of 15 consecutive light-steps (LSs). When in vitro extinction was administered shortly (2 h, but not 24 h) after paired training, B cells from Paired animals showed progressive and robust declines in spike frequency by the 30th LS, while control cells (Random and Untrained) did not. We found that several molecules implicated in H.c. conditioned inhibitory (CI) learning, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and arachidonic acid (AA)/12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) metabolites, also contributed to the spike frequency decreases produced by in vitro extinction. Protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) also appeared to play a role. Calyculin A (PP1 inhibitor), cyclosporin A (PP2B inhibitor), and baicalein (a 12-LOX inhibitor) all blocked the spike frequency declines in Paired B cells produced by 30 LSs. Conversely, injection of catalytically-active PP1 (caPP1) or PP2B (caPP2B) into Untrained B cells partially mimicked the spike frequency declines observed in Paired cells, as did bath-applied AA, and

  11. A BMP7 Variant Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Direct Modulation of Endothelial Cell Biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M Tate

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, members of the TGF-β superfamily, have numerous biological activities including control of growth, differentiation, and vascular development. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, we investigated the role of a BMP7 variant (BMP7v in VEGF, bFGF, and tumor-driven angiogenesis. BMP7v treatment led to disruption of neo-endothelial cord formation and regression of existing VEGF and bFGF cords in vitro. Using a series of tumor cell models capable of driving angiogenesis in vitro, BMP7v treatment completely blocked cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with BMP7v significantly reduced their cord forming ability, indicating a direct effect on endothelial cell function. BMP7v activated the canonical SMAD signaling pathway in endothelial cells but targeted gene knockdown using shRNA directed against SMAD4 suggests this pathway is not required to mediate the anti-angiogenic effect. In contrast to SMAD activation, BMP7v selectively decreased ERK and AKT activation, significantly decreased endothelial cell migration and down-regulated expression of critical RTKs involved in VEGF and FGF angiogenic signaling, VEGFR2 and FGFR1 respectively. Importantly, in an in vivo angiogenic plug assay that serves as a measurement of angiogenesis, BMP7v significantly decreased hemoglobin content indicating inhibition of neoangiogenesis. In addition, BMP7v significantly decreased angiogenesis in glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSLC Matrigel plugs and significantly impaired in vivo growth of a GSLC xenograft with a concomitant reduction in microvessel density. These data support BMP7v as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule that is effective in the context of tumor angiogenesis.

  12. FOXJ1 Prevents Cilia Growth Inhibition by Cigarette Smoke in Human Airway Epithelium In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekman, Angelika; Walters, Matthew S.; Tilley, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Airway epithelium ciliated cells play a central role in clearing the lung of inhaled pathogens and xenobiotics, and cilia length and coordinated beating are important for airway clearance. Based on in vivo studies showing that the airway epithelium of healthy smokers has shorter cilia than that of healthy nonsmokers, we investigated the mechanisms involved in cigarette smoke–mediated inhibition of ciliogenesis by assessing normal human airway basal cell differentiation in air–liquid interface (ALI) cultures in the presence of nontoxic concentrations of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Measurements of cilia length from Day 28 ALI cultures demonstrated that CSE exposure was associated with shorter cilia (P cilia length observed in vivo. This phenotype correlated with a broad CSE-mediated suppression of genes involved in cilia-related transcriptional regulation, intraflagellar transport, cilia motility, structural integrity, and basal body development but not of control genes or epithelial barrier integrity. The CSE-mediated inhibition of cilia growth could be prevented by lentivirus-mediated overexpression of FOXJ1, the major cilia-related transcription factor, which led to partial reversal of expression of cilia-related genes suppressed by CSE. Together, the data suggest that components of cigarette smoke are responsible for a broad suppression of genes involved in cilia growth, but, by stimulating ciliogenesis with the transcription factor FOXJ1, it may be possible to maintain close to normal cilia length despite the stress of cigarette smoking. PMID:24828273

  13. In vitro inhibition of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shu-na; Malik, Waqas; Hua, Shui-jin; Bibi, Noreen; Wang, Xue-de

    2012-06-01

    Colored cotton has naturally pigmented fibers. The mechanism of pigmentation in cotton fiber is not well documented. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of respiratory chain inhibitors, i.e., rotenone and thiourea, on pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton. After 1 d post-anthesis, ovaries were harvested and developing ovules were cultured on the liquid medium containing different concentrations of rotenone and thiourea for 30 d. The results demonstrate that both respiratory inhibitors reduced fiber length and ovule development under ovule culture conditions, and the inhibition efficiency of rotenone was much higher than that of thiourea. Rotenone and thiourea also showed significant effects on fiber pigment (color) development in colored cotton. In green cotton fiber, rotenone advanced fiber pigment development by 7 d at 200 μmol/L, while thiourea inhibited fiber pigmentation at all treatment levels (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 2000 μmol/L). Both respiratory inhibitors, however, had no significant effects on pigmentation of brown cotton fibers. The activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) decreased significantly with increasing levels of both respiratory inhibitors. It is suggested that both respiratory inhibitors have important roles in deciphering the mechanism of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.

  14. Ketoconazole inhibits Malassezia furfur morphogenesis in vitro under filamentation optimized conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngchim, Sirida; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Chongkae, Siriporn; Vanittanokom, Nongnuch

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia furfur, a constituent of the normal human skin flora, is an etiological agent of pityriasis versicolor, which represents one of the most common human skin diseases. Under certain conditions, both exogenous and endogenous, the fungus can transition from a yeast form to a pathogenic mycelial form. To develop a standardized medium for reproducible production of the mycelial form of M. furfur to develop and optimize susceptibility testing for this pathogen, we examined and characterized variables, including kojic acid and glycine concentration, agar percentage, and pH, to generate a chemically defined minimal medium on which specific inoculums of M. furfur generated the most robust filamentation. Next, we examined the capacity of ketoconazole to inhibit the formation of M. furfur mycelial form. Both low and high, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 µg/ml concentrations of ketoconazole significantly inhibited filamentation at 11.9, 54.5 and 86.7%, respectively. Although ketoconazole can have a direct antifungal effect on both M. furfur yeast and mycelial cells, ketoconazole also has a dramatic impact on suppressing morphogenesis. Since mycelia typified the pathogenic form of Malassezia infection, the capacity of ketoconazole to block morphogenesis may represent an additional important effect of the antifungal.

  15. Mechanisms of inhibition of elemene on human lens epithelial cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-Hong; Huang, Xiu-Rong; Qi, Ming-Xin; Hou, Bu-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effects of elemene (Ele) on proliferation and cell cycle of human lens epithelial cells B3 (HLE-B3) and the mechanisms of its signal transduction. Recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) was used to induce proliferation of HLE-B3 cells, which were incubated with 80mg/L Ele for 24 hours. The inhibitory effects of Ele on the proliferation of HLE-B3 cells were evaluated by MTT method. The effect of Ele on HLE-B3 cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM). The expressions of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase G (PKG) of HLE-B3 were also analyzed by FCM. Ele altered the cell cycle of HLE-B3 and effectively inhibited HLE-B3 cell proliferation induced by rhbFGF. Ele up-regulated PKA and down-regulated the expression of PKG in HLE-B3 cell. Ele inhibits HLE-B3 proliferation, making it an attractive potential agent in regimens to treat after-cataracts.

  16. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease with non and semi fermented Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoae Hassani A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent in duodenal and peptic ulcers. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel compounds, especially from natural sources. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Camellia sinensis extracts on the urease enzyme that is a major colonization factor for H. pylori. Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations of nonfermented and semifermented C. sinensis methanol: water extracts were assessed by broth dilution method. Examination of the urease function was performed by Mc Laren method, and urease production was detected on 12% SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from whole cell and membrane bound proteins. Results: Both extracts had inhibitory effects against H. pylori and urease production. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml of nonfermented extract and 3.5 mg/ml of semifermented extract the production of Ure A and Ure B subunits of the urease enzyme were inhibited completely. A concentration of 4 mg/ml of nonfermented and 5.5 mg/ml of semifermented extract were bactericidal for H. pylori. Conclusions: C. sinensis extracts, especially the nonfermented, could reduce H. pylori population and inhibit urease production at lower concentrations. The superior effect of nonfermented extract is due to its rich polyphenolic compounds and catechin contents.

  17. In vitro inflammation inhibition model based on semi-continuous toll-like receptor biosensing.

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    Jin-Woo Jeon

    Full Text Available A chemical inhibition model of inflammation is proposed by semi-continuous monitoring the density of toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 expressed on mammalian cells following bacterial infection to investigate an in vivo-mimicked drug screening system. The inflammation was induced by adding bacterial lysate (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa to a mammalian cell culture (e.g., A549 cell line. The TLR1 density on the same cells was immunochemically monitored up to three cycles under optimized cyclic bacterial stimulation-and-restoration conditions. The assay was carried out by adopting a cell-compatible immunoanalytical procedure and signal generation method. Signal intensity relative to the background control obtained without stimulation was employed to plot the standard curve for inflammation. To suppress the inflammatory response, sodium salicylate, which inhibits nuclear factor-κB activity, was used to prepare the standard curve for anti-inflammation. Such measurement of differential TLR densities was used as a biosensing approach discriminating the anti-inflammatory substance from the non-effector, which was simulated by using caffeic acid phenethyl ester and acetaminophen as the two components, respectively. As the same cells exposed to repetitive bacterial stimulation were semi-continuously monitored, the efficacy and toxicity of the inhibitors may further be determined regarding persistency against time. Therefore, this semi-continuous biosensing model could be appropriate as a substitute for animal-based experimentation during drug screening prior to pre-clinical tests.

  18. Scutellarein inhibits cancer cell metastasis in vitro and attenuates the development of fibrosarcoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiujuan; Chen, Guangfeng; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Qiu, Yu; Yang, Shuzhang; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Xuexun; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosarcoma is an aggressive and highly metastatic cancer of the connective tissue, for which effective therapeutic methods are limited. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in small molecular compounds from natural products in the treatment of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the compound, scutellarein, extracted from the perennial herb Scutellaria lateriflora, and it was found to possess anticancer potential. Cell proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis revealed that the proliferation rate of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells was significantly suppressed by treatment with scutellarein through the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, an in vivo experiment using Balb/c nude mice revealed that the volume and weight of the tumors were markedly reduced following treatment with scutellarein. We also analyzed the effects of scutellarein on the markers of metastasis, using the HT1080 cells. The results indicated that scutellarein potently inhibited cell migration, invasion and the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9 and -14. Furthermore, MMP activation and cell survival were suppressed due to the scutellarein-mediated downregulation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation. In conclusion, our data suggest that scutellarein has the ability to attenuate the development of fibrosarcoma and inhibit cancer cell metastasis.

  19. Inhibition of GPR137 suppresses proliferation of medulloblastoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengfeng; Liang, Qinchuan; Chen, Guangming; Jing, Junjie; Wang, Shousen

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor in children. GPR137 is a ubiquitously expressed gene in the central nervous system. It has been reported that GPR137 modulates malignant proliferation of glioma cells. However, the relationship between GPR137 and medulloblastoma is still unknown. In this study, we knocked down GPR137 in the medulloblastoma cell line Daoy via a lentivirus-based RNA interference system to explore its role in medulloblastoma. Functional analyses showed that cell proliferation and colony formation were obviously restrained in Daoy cells after GPR137 knockdown. Furthermore, knockdown of GPR137 in Daoy cells led to a significant increase in cell percentage in the G0/G1 phase but a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, the cell population in the sub-G1 phase, which represents apoptotic cells, was remarkably increased in GPR137 knockdown cells. GPR137 inhibition induced a strong proapoptotic effect in Daoy cells, as confirmed by annexin V-APC/7-AAD double staining. In conclusion, GPR137 knockdown inhibited growth of Daoy medulloblastoma cells via disturbing cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis. Our investigation suggested that GPR137 could be a potential oncogene in medulloblastoma cells and might serve as a target for the treatment of medulloblastoma. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Propolis Extracted from the Stingless Bee Trigona sirindhornae Inhibited S. mutans Activity In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utispan, Kusumawadee; Chitkul, Bordin; Monthanapisut, Paopanga; Meesuk, Ladda; Pugdee, Kamolparn; Koontongkaew, Sittichai

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of propolis extracted from an endemic species of stingless bee, T. sirindhornae, on the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Dichloromethane extracts (DME) of propolis (DMEP) were prepared and analysed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antibacterial growth and antibiofilm formation effects of DMEP on S. mutans were compared with those of apigenin, a commercial propolis product. The effects of DMEP and apigenin on glucosyltransferase (gtf) B expression in S. mutans were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Chlorhexidine (CHX) was used as a positive control in the experiments. Apigenin, pinocembrin, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were not detected in the propolis extracts. DMEP and apigenin significantly inhibited S. mutans growth (IC50 = 43.5 and 17.36 mg/ml, respectively). DMEP and apigenin also exhibited antiadherence effects on S. mutans as shown by reduced biofilm formation. Furthermore, a significant inhibition in gtfB expression was observed in DMEP and apigenin treated S. mutans. Propolis produced by T. sirindhornae demonstrated antibacterial and antibiofilm effects, and reduced gtfB expression in S. mutans. The antibacterial activities of propolis observed were not due to apigenin, pinocembrin, p-coumaric acid, or caffeic acid.

  1. Xiaoyaosan Decoction, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Inhibits Oxidative-Stress-Induced Hippocampus Neuron Apoptosis In Vitro

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    Zhen-zhi Meng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyaosan (XYS decoction is a famous prescription for the treatment of mental disorders in China. In this experiment, we explored the way in which XYS decoction-reverse hippocampus neuron apoptosis in vitro. We used XYS decoction-containing serum to treat oxidative-stress-induced hippocampus neuron apoptosis and used immunofluorescence to determine the concentration of free calcium, mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptotic rate of neuron. Results showed that 3-hour oxidative stress decrease mitochondrial membrane potential, increase the concentration of free calcium and apoptotic rate of neuron via triggering pathological changes of nucleus such as karyorrhexis, karyopyknosis. Low, medium, high dose of XYS-decoction-containing serum could reverse these phenomenon, and the effect of low-dose XYS-decoction-containing serum was significant in improving mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic rate of neuron. These findings suggest that XYS decoction may be helpful in reducing oxidative-stress-induced hippocampus neuron apoptosis.

  2. The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocyst-endometrial interactions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Astrid; Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Ravn, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the anti-P Org 31710 on human blastocyst attachment to cultured endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Eleven fertile endometrial donors. INTERVENTION(S): Timed endometrial biopsy for cell......(3) on endometrial epithelial cells examined by immunohistochemistry. Endometrial pinopodes visualized by scanning electron microscopy. RESULT(S): Eleven of 16 human blastocysts attached to control cultures, whereas none of 10 blastocysts attached when Org 31710 was added to the culture medium (P...... statistical significance. The presence of swollen microvilli, precursors of endometrial pinopodes, was significantly reduced on cultures with Org 31710 (P=.03). CONCLUSION(S): The study presents a model for human blastocyst-endometrial interactions responding to an anti-P drug. The exact mechanism...

  3. The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocyst-endometrial interacttions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A; Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Ravn, V

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the anti-P Org 31710 on human blastocyst attachment to cultured endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Eleven fertile endometrial donors. INTERVENTION(S): Timed endometrial biopsy for cell......(3) on endometrial epithelial cells examined by immunohistochemistry. Endometrial pinopodes visualized by scanning electron microscopy. RESULT(S): Eleven of 16 human blastocysts attached to control cultures, whereas none of 10 blastocysts attached when Org 31710 was added to the culture medium (P...... statistical significance. The presence of swollen microvilli, precursors of endometrial pinopodes, was significantly reduced on cultures with Org 31710 (P=.03). CONCLUSION(S): The study presents a model for human blastocyst-endometrial interactions responding to an anti-P drug. The exact mechanism...

  4. Inhibition of proliferative and invasive capacities of breast cancer cells by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanhua; Meng, Li; Wang, Hui; Chen, Rui; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xiangyi; Xu, Gang; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Shixuan; Lu, Yunping; Ma, Ding

    2006-01-01

    The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence was selected by using phage-display peptides to target tumors, focusing on targeting alpha(v) integrins in tumor blood vessels. Recent studies suggest that peptides containing the RGD sequence can bind to tumor cells, as well as tumor endothelial cells. To investigate whether the RGD peptide has other effects on tumor cells expressing alpha(v) integrins, besides its tumor targeting capability, we designed and synthesized a 10-amino peptide that contained the RGD sequence in a cyclic conformation with a disulfide bond, which specifically bound to breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. We found that this RGD peptide, GCGGRGDGGC, inhibited tumor cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and also induced apoptosis and G1-phase cell cycle arrest in both of the cell lines that bound and internalized the peptide. Normal ovarian epithelial cells, which did not bind the RGD peptide, were unaffected. RGD peptide treatment also reduced cell invasiveness in both cell lines in vitro. This study suggests that the RGD peptide not only possesses tumor targeting capacity, but also has direct tumor cytotoxic and invasiveness inhibition effects dependent on the blockage of alpha(v) integrin activity, which would make it more efficient in tumor targeting therapy.

  5. Inhibition of Angiogenic Factor Production from Murine Mast Cells by an Antiallergic Agent (Epinastine Hydrochloride In Vitro

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    K. Asano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is an important event both in the development of allergic inflammatory responses and in the pathophysiology of tissue remodeling in allergic diseases. In the present study, therefore, we examined the influence of antihistamines on angiogenesis through the choice of epinastine hydrochloride (EP and murine mast cells in vitro. Mast cells (5×105 cells/mL presensitized with murine IgE specific for ovalbumin (OVA were stimulated with 10 ng/mL OVA in the presence of various concentrations of EP for 4 hours. The levels of angiogenesis factors, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in culture supernatants, were examined by ELISA. We also examined mRNA expression for the angiogenesis factors by RT-PCR. EP significantly inhibited the production of KC, TNF, and VEGF induced by IgE-dependent mechanism at more than 25 ng/mL. Semiquantitative analysis using RT-PCR showed that EP also significantly reduced mRNA expressions for KC, TNF, and VEGF. These results strongly suggest that EP suppresses angiogenesis factor production through the inhibition of mRNA expression in mast cells and results in favorable modification of clinical conditions of allergic diseases.

  6. Inhibition of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins from defatted Canarium odontophyllum pericarp and peel using in vitro bioassays.

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    Hock Eng Khoo

    Full Text Available Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD(+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection.

  7. Net expression inhibits the growth of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell PL45 in vitro and in vivo.

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    Baiwen Li

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. Thus, it is important to better understand its molecular mechanisms and to develop more effective treatments for the disease. The ternary complex factor Net, which exerts its strong inhibitory function on transcription of proto-oncogene gene c-fos by forming ternary complexes with a second transcription factor, has been suspected of being involved in pancreatic cancer and other tumors biology. In this study, we found that the majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines had weak or no expression of Net, whereas significantly high level of Net expression occurred in paired adjacent normal tissues we studied. Furthermore, using in vitro and in vivo model systems, we found that overexpression of Net inhibited cell growth and survival and induced cell apoptosis in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell PL45; the mechanisms by which Net inhibited the cell cycle progression were mainly through P21-Cyclin D1/CDK4 Pathway. Our data thus suggested that Net might play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, possibly by acting as a tumor suppressor gene.

  8. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by doxycycline ameliorates RANK ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Gilson C.N. [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Pharmacology, FOP/UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Kajiya, Mikihito [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Nakanishi, Tadashi [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Rosalen, Pedro L.; Groppo, Francisco C. [Department of Pharmacology, FOP/UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ernst, Cory W.O.; Boyesen, Janie L. [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Bartlett, John D.; Stashenko, Philip [Department of Cytokine Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Taubman, Martin A. [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kawai, Toshihisa, E-mail: tkawai@forsyth.org [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Tetracycline antibiotics, including doxycycli/e (DOX), have been used to treat bone resorptive diseases, partially because of their activity to suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, their precise inhibitory mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of Dox on osteoclastogenesis signaling induced by RANKL, both in vitro and in vivo. Although Dox inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and down-modulated the mRNA expression of functional osteoclast markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K, Dox neither affected RANKL-induced MAPKs phosphorylation nor NFATc1 gene expression in RAW264.7 murine monocytic cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blot analyses showed that Dox down-regulated the enzyme activity of RANKL-induced MMP-9, but without affecting its protein expression. Furthermore, MMP-9 enzyme inhibitor also attenuated both RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and up-regulation of TRAP and cathepsin K mRNA expression, indicating that MMP-9 enzyme action is engaged in the promotion of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Finally, Dox treatment abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and TRAP activity in mouse calvaria along with the suppression of MMP9 enzyme activity, again without affecting the expression of MMP9 protein. These findings suggested that Dox inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by its inhibitory effect on MMP-9 enzyme activity independent of the MAPK-NFATc1 signaling cascade.

  9. In vitro adhesion and invasion inhibition of Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei clinical strains by human milk proteins

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    Giugliano Loreny

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigella is the etiological agent of shigellosis, a disease responsible for more than 500,000 deaths of children per year, in developing countries. These pathogens colonize the intestinal colon, invade, spreading to the other enterocytes. Breastfeeding plays a very important role in protecting infants from intestinal infections. Amongst milk compounds, glycosylated proteins prevent the adhesion of many enteropathogens in vitro. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of human milk proteins on the colonization potential of Shigella dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. sonnei. To fulfill this purpose, pooled milk samples from five donors, were fractionated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography. Using tissue culture, the milk fractions obtained were tested in Shigella adhesion and invasion assays. Results Our revealed showed that both adhesion and invasion of Shigella species were inhibited by low concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin and free secretory component. This work also showed that, these proteins bind to superficial and whole-cell Shigella proteins. Conclusions Our findings suggest that human milk may act inhibiting adhesion and, consequently, invasion of Shigella, thereafter preventing shigellosis in infants.

  10. The fungal natural product azaphilone-9 binds to HuR and inhibits HuR-RNA interaction in vitro.

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    Kawaljit Kaur

    Full Text Available The RNA-binding protein Hu antigen R (HuR binds to AU-rich elements (ARE in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR of target mRNAs. The HuR-ARE interactions stabilize many oncogenic mRNAs that play important roles in tumorigenesis. Thus, small molecules that interfere with the HuR-ARE interaction could potentially inhibit cancer cell growth and progression. Using a fluorescence polarization (FP competition assay, we identified the compound azaphilone-9 (AZA-9 derived from the fungal natural product asperbenzaldehyde, binds to HuR and inhibits HuR-ARE interaction (IC50 ~1.2 μM. Results from surface plasmon resonance (SPR verified the direct binding of AZA-9 to HuR. NMR methods mapped the RNA-binding interface of HuR and identified the involvement of critical RNA-binding residues in binding of AZA-9. Computational docking was then used to propose a likely binding site for AZA-9 in the RNA-binding cleft of HuR. Our results show that AZA-9 blocks key RNA-binding residues of HuR and disrupts HuR-RNA interactions in vitro. This knowledge is needed in developing more potent AZA-9 derivatives that could lead to new cancer therapy.

  11. Inhibition of boar sperm hyaluronidase activity by tannic acid reduces polyspermy during in vitro fertilization of porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatemoto, Hideki; Tokeshi, Isao; Nakamura, Satoshi; Muto, Norio; Nakada, Tadashi

    2006-11-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of three polyphenols (tannic acid, apigenin and quercetin) on hyaluronidase activity and in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters. Among them, tannic acid showed by far the strongest potency for blocking hyaluronidase activity extracted from preincubated boar sperm, causing a dose-dependent inhibition over the range of 2-10 microg/ml. When cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes were inseminated in IVF medium containing tannic acid, the penetration and the polyspermy rates were significantly decreased in the presence of 10 microg/ml tannic acid compared with those in the absence of tannic acid, and the addition of 5 microg/ml tannic acid significantly reduced the polyspermy rate (p polyspermy. Interestingly, the incidence of polyspermy was significantly reduced in oocytes inseminated with sperm pretreated with 5 microg/ml tannic acid (p polyspermy after insemination with untreated sperm. Treatment with tannic acid caused neither a protective proteolytic modification of the zona pellucida matrix before fertilization, nor a reduction of the proteolytic activity of acrosomal contents or the number of zona-bound spermatozoa. These data suggest that an appropriate concentration of tannic acid prevents polyspermy through the inhibition of sperm hyaluronidase activity during IVF of porcine oocytes.

  12. Inhibition of p21 activated kinase (PAK reduces airway responsiveness in vivo and in vitro in murine and human airways.

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    Wyn C Hoover

    Full Text Available The p21-activated protein kinases (Paks have been implicated in the regulation of smooth muscle contractility, but the physiologic effects of Pak activation on airway reactivity in vivo are unknown. A mouse model with a genetic deletion of Pak1 (Pak1(-/- was used to determine the role of Pak in the response of the airways in vivo to challenge with inhaled or intravenous acetylcholine (ACh. Pulmonary resistance was measured in anesthetized mechanically ventilated Pak1(-/- and wild type mice. Pak1(-/- mice exhibited lower airway reactivity to ACh compared with wild type mice. Tracheal segments dissected from Pak1(-/- mice and studied in vitro also exhibited reduced responsiveness to ACh compared with tracheas from wild type mice. Morphometric assessment and pulmonary function analysis revealed no differences in the structure of the airways or lung parenchyma, suggesting that that the reduced airway responsiveness did not result from structural abnormalities in the lungs or airways due to Pak1 deletion. Inhalation of the small molecule synthetic Pak1 inhibitor, IPA3, also significantly reduced in vivo airway responsiveness to ACh and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-Ht in wild type mice. IPA3 inhibited the contractility of isolated human bronchial tissues to ACh, confirming that this inhibitor is also effective in human airway smooth muscle tissue. The results demonstrate that Pak is a critical component of the contractile activation process in airway smooth muscle, and suggest that Pak inhibition could provide a novel strategy for reducing airway hyperresponsiveness.

  13. Dual roles of palladin protein in in vitro myogenesis: inhibition of early induction but promotion of myotube maturation.

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    Ngoc-Uyen-Nhi Nguyen

    Full Text Available Palladin is a microfilament-associated phosphoprotein whose function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Therefore, we investigate whether myogenesis is influenced by the depletion of palladin expression known to interfere with the actin cytoskeleton dynamic required for skeletal muscle differentiation. The inhibition of palladin in C2C12 myoblasts leads to precocious myogenic differentiation with a concomitant reduction in cell apoptosis. This premature myogenesis is caused, in part, by an accelerated induction of p21, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin acts as a negative regulator in early differentiation phases. Paradoxically, palladin-knockdown myoblasts are unable to differentiate terminally, despite their ability to perform some initial steps of differentiation. Cells with attenuated palladin expression form thinner myotubes with fewer myonuclei compared to those of the control. It is noteworthy that a negative regulator of myogenesis, myostatin, is activated in palladin-deficient myotubes, suggesting the palladin-mediated impairment of late-stage myogenesis. Additionally, overexpression of 140-kDa palladin inhibits myoblast differentiation while 200-kDa and 90-kDa palladin-overexpressed cells display an enhanced differentiation rate. Together, our data suggest that palladin might have both positive and negative roles in maintaining the proper skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro.

  14. [Regulatory T cells inhibit proliferation of mouse lymphoma cell line EL4 in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Kong, Yan; Guo, Jun; Ying, Zhi-Tao; Yuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Yun-Tao; Zheng, Wen; Song, Yu-Qin; Li, Ping-Ping; Zhu, Jun

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells on the T cell lymphoma EL4 cells and its mechanism in vitro. C57BL/6 mouse Treg cells were isolated by magnetic cell sorting (MACS). The purity of Treg cells and their expression of Foxp3 were identified by flow cytometry (FCM) and PT-PCR respectively. The suppression of Treg cells on EL4 cells was detected by 3H-TdR method. At the same time, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the secretion of cytokine TGF-β1 and IL-10. The results showed that CD4+CD25+ T cells could be successfully isolated by MACS with the purity reaching 94.52% and the expression of Foxp3 reaching 84.72%. After sorting, the expression of Foxp3 mRNA could be detected by RT-PCR. 3H-TdR assay confirmed that regulatory T cells could suppress the proliferation of EL4 cells with or without antigen presenting cells (APC) or dendritic cells (DC), APC or DC might effectively enhance the suppression. In addition, DC alone also suppressed the proliferation. TGF-β1 and IL-10 could be detected in the supernatant by ELISA. It is concluded that the Treg cells can obviously suppress the proliferation of T cell lymphoma cells in vitro, APC or DC can enhance this suppressive effect, while the DC alone also can suppress the proliferation of EL4 cells, the TGF-β1 and IL-10 cytokine pathway may be one of the mechanisms of suppression.

  15. Gene-Silencing Antisense Oligomers Inhibit Acinetobacter Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Bruce L.; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly; Schnell, Frederick J.; McKnight, Mattie M.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Greenberg, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) are synthetic DNA/RNA analogues that silence expression of specific genes. We studied whether PPMOs targeted to essential genes in Acinetobacter lwoffii and Acinetobacter baumannii are active in vitro and in vivo. Methods. PPMOs were evaluated in vitro using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and viability assays, and in vivo using murine pulmonary infection models with intranasal PPMO treatment. Results. MICs of PPMOs ranged from 0.1 to 64 µM (approximately 0.6–38 µg/mL). The most effective PPMO tested was (RXR)4-AcpP, which is targeted to acpP. (RXR)4-AcpP reduced viability of A. lwoffii and A. baumannii by >103 colony-forming units/mL at 5–8 times MIC. Mice treated with ≥0.25 mg/kg of (RXR)4-AcpP survived longer and had less inflammation and bacterial lung burden than mice treated with a scrambled-sequence PPMO or phosphate-buffered saline. Treatment could be delayed after infection and still increase survival. Conclusions. PPMOs targeted to essential genes of A. lwoffii and A. baumannii were bactericidal and had MICs in a clinically relevant range. (RXR)4-AcpP increased survival of mice infected with A. lwoffii or A. baumannii, even when initial treatment was delayed after infection. PPMOs could be a viable therapeutic approach in dealing with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species. PMID:24130069

  16. Donepezil inhibits the amyloid-beta oligomer-induced microglial activation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Moon, Minho; Choi, Jin Gyu; Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Ae-Jung; Hur, Jinyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid-beta (Aβ oligomer, AβO) that are directly associated with AD-related pathologies, such as cognitive decline, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation. Donepezil is a well-known anti-dementia agent that increases acetylcholine levels through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, a growing body of experimental and clinical studies indicates that donepezil may also provide neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects in AD. Additionally, donepezil has recently been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects against lipopolysaccharides and tau pathology. However, it remains unknown whether donepezil has anti-inflammatory effects against AβO in cultured microglial cells and the brain in animals. Further, the effects of donepezil against AβO-mediated neuronal death, astrogliosis, and memory impairment have also not yet been investigated. Thus, in the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of donepezil against AβO and its neuroinflammatory mechanisms. Donepezil significantly attenuated the release of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide) from microglia. Donepezil also decreased AβO-induced up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as well as translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B. We next showed that donepezil suppresses activated microglia-mediated toxicity in primary hippocampal cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In intrahippocampal AβO-injected mice, donepezil significantly inhibited microgliosis and astrogliosis. Furthermore, behavioral tests revealed that donepezil (2 mg/kg/day, 5 days, p.o.) significantly ameliorated AβO-induced memory impairment. These results suggest that donepezil directly inhibits microglial activation

  17. Retinoids irreversibly inhibit in vitro growth of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomponi, F; Cariati, R; Zancai, P; De Paoli, P; Rizzo, S; Tedeschi, R M; Pivetta, B; De Vita, S; Boiocchi, M; Dolcetti, R

    1996-10-15

    Natural and synthetic retinoids have proved to be effective in the treatment and prevention of various human cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effect of retinoids on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), since these cells closely resemble those that give rise to EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders in the immunosuppressed host. All six compounds tested inhibited LCL proliferation with no significant direct cytotoxicity, but 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), 13-cis-RA, and all-trans-RA (ATRA) were markedly more efficacious than Ro40-8757, Ro13-6298, and etretinate. The antiproliferative action of the three most effective compounds was confirmed in a large panel of LCLs, thus appearing as a generalized phenomenon in these cells. LCL growth was irreversibly inhibited even after 2 days of treatment at drug concentrations corresponding to therapeutically achievable plasma levels. Retinoid-treated cells showed a marked downregulation of CD71 and a decreased S-phase compartment with a parallel accumulation in Gzero/ G1 phases. These cell cycle perturbations were associated with the upregulation of p27 Kip1, a nuclear protein that controls entrance and progression through the cell cycle by inhibiting several cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Unlike what is observed in other systems, the antiproliferative effect exerted by retinoids on LCLs was not due to the acquisition of a terminally differentiated status. In fact, retinoid-induced modifications of cell morphology, phenotype (downregulation of CD19, HLA-DR, and s-Ig, and increased expression of CD38 and c-Ig), and IgM production were late events, highly heterogeneous, and often slightly relevant, being therefore only partially indicative of a drug-related differentiative process. Moreover, EBV-encoded EBV nuclear antigen-2 and latent membrane protein-1 proteins were inconstantly downregulated by retinoids, indicating that their growth-inhibitory effect is not mediated

  18. CP-31398 inhibits the growth of p53-mutated liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Nan; Yan, Jun-Wei; Yan, Jing-Jun; Wu, Qian; Song, Yu-Hu

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies demonstrated that CP-31398 restored the native conformation of mutant p53 and trans-activated p53 downstream genes in tumor cells. However, the research on the application of CP-31398 to liver cancer has not been reported. Here, we investigated the effects of CP-31398 on the phenotype of HCC cells carrying p53 mutation. The effects of CP-31398 on the characteristic of p53-mutated HCC cells were evaluated through analyzing cell cycle, cell apoptosis, cell proliferation, and the expression of p53 downstream genes. In tumor xenografts developed by PLC/PRF/5 cells, the inhibition of tumor growth by CP-31398 was analyzed through gross morphology, growth curve, and the expression of p53-related genes. Firstly, we demonstrated that CP-31398 inhibited the growth of p53-mutated liver cancer cells in a dose-dependent and p53-dependent manner. Then, further study showed that CP-31398 re-activated wild-type p53 function in p53-mutated HCC cells, which resulted in inhibitive response of cell proliferation and an induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Finally, in vivo data confirmed that CP-31398 blocked the growth of xenografts tumors through transactivation of p53-responsive downstream molecules. Our results demonstrated that CP-31398 induced desired phenotypic change of p53-mutated HCC cells in vitro and in vivo, which revealed that CP-31398 would be developed as a therapeutic candidate for HCC carrying p53 mutation.

  19. Thiazolidinediones inhibit airway smooth muscle release of the chemokine CXCL10: in vitro comparison with current asthma therapies

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    Seidel Petra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated mast cells are present within airway smooth muscle (ASM bundles in eosinophilic asthma. ASM production of the chemokine CXCL10 plays a role in their recruitment. Thus the effects of glucocorticoids (fluticasone, budesonide, long-acting β2-agonists (salmeterol, formoterol and thiazolidinediones (ciglitazone, rosiglitazone on CXCL10 production by ASM cells (ASMC from people with and without asthma were investigated in vitro. Methods Confluent serum-deprived cells were treated with the agents before and during cytokine stimulation for 0-24 h. CXCL10 protein/mRNA, IκB-α levels and p65 activity were measured using ELISA, RT PCR, immunoblotting and p65 activity assays respectively. Data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Fisher’s post-hoc test. Results Fluticasone and/or salmeterol at 1 and 100 nM inhibited CXCL10 release induced by IL-1β and TNF-α, but not IFNγ or all three cytokines (cytomix. The latter was also not affected by budesonide and formoterol. In asthmatic ASMC low salmeterol, but not formoterol, concentrations increased cytomix-induced CXCL10 release and at 0.01 nM enhanced NF-κB activity. Salmeterol 0.1nM together with fluticasone 0.1 and 10 nM still increased CXCL10 release. The thiazolidinediones ciglitazone and rosiglitazone (at 25 and 100 μM inhibited cytomix-induced CXCL10 release but these inhibitory effects were not prevented by the PPAR-g antagonist GW9662. Ciglitazone did not affect early NF-κB activity and CXCL10 mRNA production. Conclusions Thus the thiazolidinediones inhibited asthmatic ASMC CXCL10 release under conditions when common asthma therapies were ineffective or enhanced it. They may provide an alternative strategy to reduce mast cell-ASM interactions and restore normal airway physiology in asthma.

  20. Probenecid and N-Acetylcysteine Prevent Loss of Intracellular Glutathione and Inhibit Neuronal Death after Mechanical Stretch Injury In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Empey, Philip E; Ji, Jing; Chao, Honglu; Kochanek, Patrick M; Bayır, Hülya; Clark, Robert S B

    2016-10-15

    Probenecid and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can preserve intracellular levels of the vital antioxidant glutathione (GSH) via two distinct biochemical pathways. Probenecid inhibits transporter-mediated GSH efflux and NAC serves as a cysteine donor for GSH synthesis. We hypothesized that probenecid and NAC alone would maintain intracellular GSH concentrations and inhibit neuronal death after traumatic stretch injury, and that the drugs in combination would produce additive effects. Sex-segregated rat primary cortical neurons were treated with probenecid (100 μM) and NAC (50 μM), alone and in combination (Pro-NAC), then subjected to mechanical stretch (10s -1 strain rate, 50% membrane deformation). At 24 h, both probenecid and NAC inhibited trauma-induced intracellular GSH depletion, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and propidium iodide (PI) uptake in both XY- and XX-neurons. Combined Pro-NAC treatment was superior to probenecid or NAC alone in maintenance of intracellular GSH and neuronal death assessed by PI uptake. Interestingly, caspase 3 activity 24 h after mechanical trauma was more prominent in XX-neurons, and treatment effects (probenecid, NAC, and Pro-NAC) were observed in XX- but not XY-neurons; however, XY-neurons were ultimately more vulnerable to mechanical stretch-induced injury than their XX counterparts, as was evidenced by more neuronal death detected by LDH release and PI uptake. In addition, after stretch injury in HT22 hippocampal cells, both NAC and probenecid were highly effective at reducing oxidative stress detected by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. These in vitro data support further testing of this drug combination in models of traumatic neuronal injury in vivo.

  1. Thiazolidinediones inhibit airway smooth muscle release of the chemokine CXCL10: in vitro comparison with current asthma therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Petra; Alkhouri, Hatem; Lalor, Daniel J; Burgess, Janette K; Armour, Carol L; Hughes, J Margaret

    2012-10-04

    Activated mast cells are present within airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles in eosinophilic asthma. ASM production of the chemokine CXCL10 plays a role in their recruitment. Thus the effects of glucocorticoids (fluticasone, budesonide), long-acting β2-agonists (salmeterol, formoterol) and thiazolidinediones (ciglitazone, rosiglitazone) on CXCL10 production by ASM cells (ASMC) from people with and without asthma were investigated in vitro. Confluent serum-deprived cells were treated with the agents before and during cytokine stimulation for 0-24 h. CXCL10 protein/mRNA, IκB-α levels and p65 activity were measured using ELISA, RT PCR, immunoblotting and p65 activity assays respectively. Data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Fisher's post-hoc test. Fluticasone and/or salmeterol at 1 and 100 nM inhibited CXCL10 release induced by IL-1β and TNF-α, but not IFNγ or all three cytokines (cytomix). The latter was also not affected by budesonide and formoterol. In asthmatic ASMC low salmeterol, but not formoterol, concentrations increased cytomix-induced CXCL10 release and at 0.01 nM enhanced NF-κB activity. Salmeterol 0.1 nM together with fluticasone 0.1 and 10 nM still increased CXCL10 release. The thiazolidinediones ciglitazone and rosiglitazone (at 25 and 100 μM) inhibited cytomix-induced CXCL10 release but these inhibitory effects were not prevented by the PPAR-g antagonist GW9662. Ciglitazone did not affect early NF-κB activity and CXCL10 mRNA production. Thus the thiazolidinediones inhibited asthmatic ASMC CXCL10 release under conditions when common asthma therapies were ineffective or enhanced it. They may provide an alternative strategy to reduce mast cell-ASM interactions and restore normal airway physiology in asthma.

  2. Taurine chloramine, a product of activated neutrophils, inhibits in vitro the generation of nitric oxide and other macrophage inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, J; Grabowska, A; Bereta, J; Stelmaszynska, T

    1995-12-01

    Taurine (Tau) is an exceptionally abundant free amino acid in the cytosol of inflammatory cells and especially in neutrophils. Taurine protects cells from self-destruction during processes that generate oxidants. The major function of Tau in leukocytes is to trap chlorinated oxidants (HOCl). Taurine reacts with HOCl to produce the long-lived compound taurine chloramine (TauCl). Previously, we have shown that other products of the neutrophil chlorinating system are able to modify functions of macrophages. In this study, we investigated in vitro the influence of TauCl on the generation of inflammatory mediators by activated macrophages. We have found that TauCl inhibited the generation of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6, but TauCl slightly enhanced the release of IL-1 alpha. The formation of nitrites by interferon-gamma-activated macrophages was inhibited by TauCl in a dose-dependent manner. Taurine chloramine also reduced the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in macrophages, in a similar concentration-dependent manner. Although our experiments do not exclude a direct effect of TauCl on enzymatic activity of iNOS, the inhibition of iNOS expression seems to be the major mechanism responsible for suppression of NO formation. Finally, we discuss the biological role of TauCl in vivo. We suggest that at the site of inflammation TauCl works as a specific signaling molecule of activated neutrophils that coordinates the generation of inflammatory mediators in macrophages.

  3. Anti-caries DNA vaccine-induced secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies inhibit formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Xu, Qing-an; Liu, Chang; Fan, Ming-wen; Li, Yu-hong

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the effects of anti-caries DNA vaccine-induced salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adherence and biofilms formation in vitro. Adult female Wistar rats were intranasally immunized with the anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX. Their saliva samples were collected at different times after the immunization, and S-IgA antibody level in the saliva and its inhibition on S. mutans adherence were examined. The effects of S-IgA in the saliva with the strongest inhibitory effects were examined at 3 different stages, ie acquired pellicles, biofilm formation and production of mature biofilms. The number of viable bacteria and depth of the biofilm at 16 h in each stage were determined using counting colony forming units and using a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The participation of S-IgA in acquired pellicles and its aggregation with S. mutans were also observed under CLSM. The S-IgA titer in saliva reached its peak and exhibited the strongest inhibition on S. mutans adhesion at 10 weeks after the immunization. The colonies and depth of the biofilm in the saliva-pretreated group were 41.79% and 41.02%, respectively, less than the control group. The colonies and depth of the biofilm in the co-culture group were 27.4% and 22.81% less than the control group. The assembly of S. mutans and S-IgA was observed under CLSM after co-cultivation. In the mature-stage biofilm, no differences were observed between the different groups. These results demonstrate that the anti-caries DNA vaccine induces the production of specific S-IgA antibodies that may prevent dental caries by inhibiting the initial adherence of S. mutans onto tooth surfaces, thereby reducing the accumulation of S. mutans on the acquired pellicles.

  4. Anti-caries DNA vaccine-induced secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies inhibit formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Xu, Qing-an; Liu, Chang; Fan, Ming-wen; Li, Yu-hong

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of anti-caries DNA vaccine-induced salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adherence and biofilms formation in vitro. Methods: Adult female Wistar rats were intranasally immunized with the anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX. Their saliva samples were collected at different times after the immunization, and S-IgA antibody level in the saliva and its inhibition on S. mutans adherence were examined. The effects of S-IgA in the saliva with the strongest inhibitory effects were examined at 3 different stages, ie acquired pellicles, biofilm formation and production of mature biofilms. The number of viable bacteria and depth of the biofilm at 16 h in each stage were determined using counting colony forming units and using a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The participation of S-IgA in acquired pellicles and its aggregation with S. mutans were also observed under CLSM. Results: The S-IgA titer in saliva reached its peak and exhibited the strongest inhibition on S. mutans adhesion at 10 weeks after the immunization. The colonies and depth of the biofilm in the saliva-pretreated group were 41.79% and 41.02%, respectively, less than the control group. The colonies and depth of the biofilm in the co-culture group were 27.4% and 22.81% less than the control group. The assembly of S. mutans and S-IgA was observed under CLSM after co-cultivation. In the mature-stage biofilm, no differences were observed between the different groups. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the anti-caries DNA vaccine induces the production of specific S-IgA antibodies that may prevent dental caries by inhibiting the initial adherence of S. mutans onto tooth surfaces, thereby reducing the accumulation of S. mutans on the acquired pellicles. PMID:23274411

  5. An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis.The most active compound, (4-{[(β-D-galactopyranosyloxy]methyl}furan-3-ylmethyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF, inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin.In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(β-D-galactopyranosyloxy]methyl}furan (BGF nor methyl β-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin αvβ3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site.These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis

  6. Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer's disease in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dylan W; George, Roshni C; Scaramozzino, Francesca; LaPointe, Nichole E; Anderson, Richard A; Graves, Donald J; Lew, John

    2009-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Ceylon cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) is found to inhibit tau aggregation and filament formation, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The extract can also promote complete disassembly of recombinant tau filaments and cause substantial alteration of the morphology of paired-helical filaments isolated from AD brain. Cinnamon extract (CE) was not deleterious to the normal cellular function of tau, namely the assembly of free tubulin into microtubules. An A-linked proanthocyanidin trimer molecule was purified from the extract and shown to contain a significant proportion of the inhibitory activity. Treatment with polyvinylpyrolidone effectively depleted all proanthocyanidins from the extract solution and removed the majority, but not all, of the inhibitory activity. The remainder inhibitory activity could be attributed to cinnamaldehyde. This work shows that compounds endogenous to cinnamon may be beneficial to AD themselves or may guide the discovery of other potential therapeutics if their mechanisms of action can be discerned.

  7. Effects of carbohydrase-inhibiting compounds on in vitro rumen fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Marchesini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Batch culture fermentations with ruminal content were conducted to determine the effects of plant-derived [bilberry extract (BBE, phaseolamin, white mulberry (WMB, common flax] carbohydrase-inhibiting compounds on microbial fermentation. The cultures with these compounds, at two different doses (15 and 150 mg, were compared with both acarbose (ACB and batch cultures without the addition of any enzyme-inhibiting compounds (Control. Incubations were conducted in triplicate and replicated. The pH, volatile fatty acids, ammonia N, apparent dry matter (DMD and starch disappearance were measured after 5 and 24 h of incubation. Treatment with ACB, after 5 h, significantly reduced maize meal fermentation, resulting in the highest pH levels (P<0.01, the lowest total VFA concentration (P=0.01 and the lowest DMD (P<0.01. On the opposite, BBE and WMB caused the highest drop in pH, due to the rapid fermentation of their sugar content. Treatment with BBE resulted in an increase in propionate and in an apparently low ammonia N concentration, whilst ACB (150 mg led to the highest values of acetate (P<0.05 and to a relative high concentration of ammonia N. After 24 h the differences in the fermentation pattern among supplements remained similar to those found after 5 h. In addition, BBE showed an activity against starch degradation, although this effect was concealed by the fermentation of sugars present in that supplement. These results show that some compounds modify the fermentation pattern of the substrate, but further studies are needed to clarify their impact on the complex rumen microbial community.

  8. In vitro inhibition of human neutrophil histotoxicity by ambroxol: evidence for a multistep mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottonello, Luciano; Arduino, Nicoletta; Bertolotto, Maria; Dapino, Patrizia; Mancini, Marina; Dallegri, Franco

    2003-01-01

    Neutrophils are major culprits for the protease/antiprotease imbalance during various lung diseases, that is, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Thus, these cells are presently considered an ideal target for the pharmacologic control of tissue injury during these diseases. This study was planned in order to investigate if ambroxol and its precursor bromhexine are actually capable of preventing alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) inactivation by stimulated neutrophils and possibly to look into the mechanisms underlying this event. Ambroxol inhibited the production of superoxide anion by activated neutrophils, whereas bromhexine had no inhibitory effect. Ambroxol decreased the production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from activated neutrophils with high efficiency, whereas bromhexine had a modest activity. Ambroxol and bromhexine were capable of limiting the chlorination of monochlorodimedon by HOCl, displaying the capacity of directly scavenging the oxidant. Ambroxol decreased the release of elastase and myeloperoxidase from activated neutrophils, whereas bromhexine was ineffective. Ambroxol prevented the A1AT inactivation by neutrophils, whereas bromhexine was completely ineffective. Among drugs currently available for in vivo use in humans, ambroxol is unique by virtue of its ability to prevent neutrophil-mediated A1AT inactivation via inhibition of HOCl production as well as HOCl scavenging. Also taking into account its capacity for curbing elastase release, the drug displays the potential to lessen the burden of oxidants/proteases and to increase the antiprotease shield at the site of inflammation. Thus, ambroxol appears to be a good candidate for raising attempts to develop new therapeutic histoprotective approaches to inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases. PMID:14534155

  9. Calhex₂₃₁ Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting Cellular Autophagy in Vivo and in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Chao; Sun, Dianjun; Jiang, Shuangquan; Li, Hong; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Yajun; Xi, Yuhui; Shi, Sa; Lu, Fanghao; Tian, Ye; Xu, Changqing; Wang, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) homeostasis, an initial factor of cardiac hypertrophy, is regulated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and is associated with the formation of autolysosomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Calhex231, a CaSR inhibitor, on the hypertrophic response via autophagy modulation. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in 40 male Wistar rats, while 10 rats underwent a sham operation and served as controls. Cardiac function was monitored by transthoracic echocardiography, and the hypertrophy index was calculated. Cardiac tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or Masson’s trichrome reagent and examined by transmission electron microscopy. An angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model was established and used to test the involvement of active molecules. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined by the introduction of Fluo-4/AM dye followed by confocal microscopy. The expression of various active proteins was analyzed by western blot. The rats with TAC-induced hypertrophy had an increased heart size, ratio of heart weight to body weight, myocardial fibrosis, and CaSR and autophagy levels, which were suppressed by Calhex231. Experimental results using Ang II-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes confirmed that Calhex231 suppressed CaSR expression and downregulated autophagy by inhibiting the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent-protein kinase-kinase-β (CaMKKβ)– AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to ameliorate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Calhex231 ameliorates myocardial hypertrophy induced by pressure-overload or Ang II via inhibiting CaSR expression and autophagy. Our results may support the notion that Calhex231 can become a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Screening of Nepalese crude drugs traditionally used to treat hyperpigmentation: in vitro tyrosinase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, A; Devkota, H P; Takano, A; Masuda, K; Nakane, T; Basnet, P; Skalko-Basnet, N

    2008-10-01

    South-East Asian population is daily exposed to strong sunlight. As a result, the majority of population will have darker, ethnic skin. Moreover, many people suffer from dark spots, hyperpigmentation, which is considered to be a skin disorder and causes psychological disturbance. To treat dark spots, most of the population will still rely on traditionally used crude drugs, knowledge about which is transferred from generation to generation. Fifty-two crude drugs were selected based on the survey performed among local healers and beauticians of different ethnic origin. These crude drugs were screened for mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity, as tyrosinase inhibitors are becoming increasingly important as cosmetic and medicinal products, primarily to control hyperpigmentation. Among the tested crude drugs, methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Morus alba, Syzygium aromaticum, Citrus aurantifolia, Cypreae moneta, Punica granatum and Citrus aurantium, at the final concentration of 50 microg mL(-1), showed mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity of 78.9%, 71.0%, 69.4%, 59.0%, 56.0%, 53.4 and 51.9%, respectively, with 91.4% inhibitory activity of kojic acid taken as positive control. To our knowledge, this is the first report that extracts of Cypreae moneta shell and Syzygium aromaticum flowering bud have tyrosinase inhibitory activity. These potent extracts were further evaluated at different concentration. The final concentration of the extracts in reaction mixtures was 50, 25 and 5 microg mL(-1) for the initial concentration of 1000, 500 and 100 microg mL(-1), respectively. They showed concentration-dependent inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase. Those extracts expressing relatively weak tyrosinase inhibitory activity may act through different inhibition pathway which is not based on tyrosinase activity. Further evaluation of the most potent tyrosinase inhibitors in in vivo conditions would be recommended.

  11. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48 h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8 ± 7.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8 ± 2.3 µg/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2 ± 34.7 µg/mL), spring (IC50 102.5 ± 15.3 µg/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0 ± 3.1 µg/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL (222.1 ± 3.2 µM)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7 ± 20.7 µg/mL (461.8 ± 76.3 µM)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6 ± 24.8 µg/mL (494.9 ± 82.2 µM)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4 ± 26.0 µg/mL (680.6 ± 101.7 µM)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the

  12. Malva sylvestris Inhibits Inflammatory Response in Oral Human Cells. An In Vitro Infection Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Benso

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Malva sylvestris extract (MSE and fractions in a co-culture model of cells infected by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In addition, we evaluated the phytochemical content in the extract and fractions of M. sylvestris and demonstrated that polyphenols were the most frequent group in all samples studied. An in vitro dual-chamber model to mimic the periodontal structure was developed using a monolayer of epithelial keratinocytes (OBA-9 and a subepithelial layer of fibroblasts (HGF-1. The invasive periodontopathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans (D7S-1 was applied to migrate through the cell layers and induce the synthesis of immune factors and cytokines in the host cells. In an attempt to analyze the antimicrobial properties of MSE and fractions, a susceptibility test was carried out. The extract (MIC 175 μg/mL, MBC 500μg/mL and chloroform fraction (MIC 150 μg/mL, MBC 250 μg/mL were found to have inhibitory activity. The extract and all fractions were assessed using a cytotoxicity test and results showed that concentrations under 100 μg/mL did not significantly reduce cell viability compared to the control group (p > 0.05, viability > 90%. In order to analyze the inflammatory response, transcriptional factors and cytokines were quantified in the supernatant released from the cells. The chloroform fraction was the most effective in reducing the bacterial colonization (p< 0.05 and controlling inflammatory mediators, and promoted the down-regulation of genes including IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, CD14, PTGS, MMP-1 and FOS as well as the reduction of the IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF protein levels (p< 0.05. Malva sylvestris and its chloroform fraction minimized the A. actinomycetemcomitans infection and inflammation processes in oral human cells by a putative pathway that involves important cytokines and receptors. Therefore, this natural product may be considered

  13. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies: peripheral glycosylation of HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 may be a target for virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N......- and O-linked carbohydrate epitopes (LeY, A1, and sialyl-Tn) were able to block infection by cell-free virus as well as inhibit syncytium formation. Inhibition of virus infectivity was independent of virus strain (HTLVIIIB or patient isolate SSI-002), the cell line used for virus propagation (H9 or MT4...

  14. Developmental Lead Exposure Alters Synaptogenesis through Inhibiting Canonical Wnt Pathway In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fan; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Ge, Meng-Meng; Ruan, Di-Yun; Wang, Hui-Li

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure has been implicated in the impairment of synaptic plasticity in the developing hippocampus, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether developmental lead exposure affects the dendritic spine formation through Wnt signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to lead throughout the lactation period and Golgi-Cox staining method was used to examine the spine density of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area of rats. We found that lead exposure significantly decreased the spine density in both 14 and 21 days-old pups, accompanied by a significant age-dependent decline of the Wnt7a expression and stability of its downstream protein (β-catenin). Furthermore, in cultured hippocampal neurons, lead (0.1 and 1 µM lead acetate) significantly decreased the spine density in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous Wnt7a application attenuated the decrease of spine density and increased the stability of the downstream molecules in Wnt signaling pathway. Together, our results suggest that lead has a negative impact on spine outgrowth in the developing hippocampus through altering the canonical Wnt pathway. PMID:24999626

  15. Alternative products in the 'in vitro' inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, A.F.S.; Lourenco, S.D.; Amorim, L.

    2005-04-01

    The white mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorlum, is a very important disease in tomato crops. The objective of this work was to study the effect of plant extracts, animal residues and industrial by-products extracts on the fungus in vitro growth. Treatments consisted of different concentrations of pyrolignous oil, neem oil, monosodium glutamate, sewage sludge and organic compost (coffee residue (50%) coal residue (10%), maize residue (25%), poultry waste (12.5%), poultry meal (2.5%)). Positive control consisted of Petri dishes with PDA medium and negative control treatment consisted of PDA medium with procymidone. Fungus colonies were incubated at 22 C and light intensity of 260 lux. Variables such as mycelium growth rate, sclerotia production, and viability 7 and 17 days after the transfer of mycelium disc to neon media were assessed. The extract of organic compost at 30% was effective in controlling mycelial growth and sclerotia production. This treatment, as well as neem oil at 0.5% increased soil respiration.

  16. (+-Dehydroabietic Acid, an Abietane-Type Diterpene, Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Vuorela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Potent drugs are desperately needed to counteract bacterial biofilm infections, especially those caused by gram-positive organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, anti-biofilm compounds/agents that can be used as chemical tools are also needed for basic in vitro or in vivo studies aimed at exploring biofilms behavior and functionability. In this contribution, a collection of naturally-occurring abietane-type diterpenes and their derivatives was tested against S. aureus biofilms using a platform consisting of two phenotypic assays that have been previously published by our group. Three active compounds were identified: nordehydroabietylamine (1, (+-dehydroabietic acid (2 and (+-dehydroabietylamine (3 that prevented biofilm formation in the low micromolar range, and unlike typical antibiotics, only 2 to 4-fold higher concentrations were needed to significantly reduce viability and biomass of existing biofilms. Compound 2, (+-dehydroabietic acid, was the most selective towards biofilm bacteria, achieving high killing efficacy (based on log Reduction values and it was best tolerated by three different mammalian cell lines. Since (+-dehydroabietic acid is an easily available compound, it holds great potential to be used as a molecular probe in biofilms-related studies as well as to serve as inspirational chemical model for the development of potent drug candidates.

  17. The cutaneous bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum inhibits the growth of Trichophyton rubrum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jeremy P; Mercurio, Albert; Holland, Jessica A; Harris, Reid N; Minbiole, Kevin P C

    2015-02-01

    Tinea pedis (athlete's foot) is a fungal infection that is both widespread and challenging to treat. Standard treatments consist of topical and systemic therapies of antifungal agents, such as miconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine. The extended nature of topical therapy and the toxicity of long-term systemic therapy limit the utility of current treatments. An alternate approach relies on an understanding of bacterial-fungal interactions. Specifically, a probiotic antifungal bacterium such as Janthinobacterium lividum can counter infection; Janthinobacterium is a major constituent of the human skin microbiota. Janthinobacterium lividum has been shown to ameliorate the effects of the cutaneous fungal disease chytridiomycosis in a vertebrate species (Rana muscosa). Dual-culture plate challenge assays were performed using J. lividum and Trichophyton rubrum, the leading cause of athlete's foot. In all cases, T. rubrum colonies grew significantly smaller when co-cultured with J. lividum. These in vitro results suggest that J. lividum merits further investigation as a human cutaneous probiotic. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Inhibition of Low-Grade Inflammation by Anthocyanins after Microbial Fermentation in Vitro

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    Sabine Kuntz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins (ACNs on vascular functions are discussed controversially because of their low bioavailability. This study was performed to determine whether microorganism (MO-fermented ACNs influence vascular inflammation in vitro. Therefore, MO growth media were supplemented with an ACN-rich grape/berry extract and growth responses of Escherichia coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei, as well as ACN fermentation were observed. MO supernatants were used for measuring the anti-inflammatory effect of MO-fermented ACNs in an epithelial-endothelial co-culture transwell system. After basolateral enrichment (240 min, endothelial cells were stimulated immediately or after 20 h with TNF-α. Afterwards, leukocyte adhesion, expression of adhesion molecules and cytokine release were measured. Results indicate that E. coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei utilized ACNs differentially concomitant with different anti-inflammatory effects. Whereas E. coli utilized ACNs completely, no anti-inflammatory effects of fermented ACNs were observed on activated endothelial cells. In contrast, ACN metabolites generated by E. faecalis and H. alvei significantly attenuated low-grade stimulated leukocyte adhesion, the expression of adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and IL-6, as well as NF-κB mRNA expression with a more pronounced effect of E. faecalis than H. alvei. Thus, MO-fermented ACNs have the potential to reduce inflammation.

  19. Inhibition of Low-Grade Inflammation by Anthocyanins after Microbial Fermentation in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Sabine; Kunz, Clemens; Domann, Eugen; Würdemann, Nora; Unger, Franziska; Römpp, Andreas; Rudloff, Silvia

    2016-07-02

    The anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins (ACNs) on vascular functions are discussed controversially because of their low bioavailability. This study was performed to determine whether microorganism (MO)-fermented ACNs influence vascular inflammation in vitro. Therefore, MO growth media were supplemented with an ACN-rich grape/berry extract and growth responses of Escherichia coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei, as well as ACN fermentation were observed. MO supernatants were used for measuring the anti-inflammatory effect of MO-fermented ACNs in an epithelial-endothelial co-culture transwell system. After basolateral enrichment (240 min), endothelial cells were stimulated immediately or after 20 h with TNF-α. Afterwards, leukocyte adhesion, expression of adhesion molecules and cytokine release were measured. Results indicate that E. coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei utilized ACNs differentially concomitant with different anti-inflammatory effects. Whereas E. coli utilized ACNs completely, no anti-inflammatory effects of fermented ACNs were observed on activated endothelial cells. In contrast, ACN metabolites generated by E. faecalis and H. alvei significantly attenuated low-grade stimulated leukocyte adhesion, the expression of adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and IL-6), as well as NF-κB mRNA expression with a more pronounced effect of E. faecalis than H. alvei. Thus, MO-fermented ACNs have the potential to reduce inflammation.

  20. In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis causing bacteria by phenolics and metal chelators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, B.P.; Tjoelker, L.W.; Tanaka, T.S.

    1985-11-01

    Antimicrobial activities of three phenolic compounds and four metal chelators were tested at 0, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm in vitro against four major mastitis-causing bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, and Escherichia coli. Overall, butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinone showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. These phenolics were bactericidal at 250 to 500 ppm against all four bacteria tested. The butylated hydroxytoluene was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but was ineffective against the coliforms. At 250 ppm, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but much less effective against the gram-negatives. However, diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid was more growth inhibitory than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid against the gram-negative bacteria and especially against Escherichia coli. All other compounds were generally much less effective or ineffective against all four microorganisms. Therefore, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid may have practical implications in the prevention or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits liver cancer proliferation and metastasis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Bo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the inhibitory effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ on the development, progression, invasion, and metastasis of liver cancer cells. MethodsHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC MHCC97L cells were randomly assigned to be transfected with Ad-PPARγ or Ad-LacZ (control. The cells were also exposed to PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasive ability were evaluated using MTS assay, flow cytometry, wound healing test, and transwell invasion assay. Multiple comparisons of means between groups were conducted using one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction; the means of two groups were compared using the t test. ResultsAd-PPARγ transfection resulted in higher expression of PPARγ protein in HCC cells compared with control cells, which suppressed cell proliferation (P<0.01, induced cell apoptosis (P<0.01, and suppressed cell migration and invasion. Moreover, the invasiveness of HCC cells transfected with Ad-PPARγ was reduced by 20%~60%. Rosiglitazone enhanced the inhibitory effect of Ad-PPARγ on the growth and migration of HCC cells. ConclusionPPARγ exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferative, invasive, and metastatic potential of HCC cells in vitro. This study sheds new light on the search for potential markers and gene therapies for liver cancer.

  2. In vitro inhibition activity of essential oils from some Lamiaceae species against phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Mathela, C S; Tewari, A K; Bisht, K S

    2014-09-01

    Natural products have been in focus as alternative, effective and safe materials against the phytopathogens. Investigations show Nepeta oils as effective in controlling the food crops decay. The inhibitory effects of essential oils derived from Nepeta leucophylla, Nepeta ciliaris, Nepeta clarkei and Calamintha umbrosa against five phytopthogenic fungi have been determined. In vitro antifungal activity varied with their constituents and target species. More active being the oils containing oxygenated terpenoids. Helminthosporium maydis was sensitive to the all oils, IC50 values have 43.6-109.3 μg mL(-1). The N. leucophylla oil possessing oxygenated iridoids was more effective against H. maydis (IC50 value of 43.6 μg mL(-1)) while N. ciliaris was more active against Fusarium oxysporum (IC50 value of 219.2 μg mL(-1)). The oils were effective against the spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ribavirin inhibits in vitro hepatitis E virus replication through depletion of cellular GTP pools and is moderately synergistic with alpha interferon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Debing (Yannick); B. Emerson; Y. Wang (Yijin); Q. Pan (Qiuwei); J. Balzarini; K. Dallmeier (Kai); J. Neyts

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute hepatitis that results in high mortality in pregnant women and may establish chronic infections in immunocompromised patients. We demonstrate for the first time that alpha interferon (IFN-α) and ribavirin inhibit in vitro HEV replication

  4. Selective growth inhibition of a human malignant melanoma cell line by sesame oil in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D E; Salerno, J W

    1992-06-01

    Ayurveda, an ancient and comprehensive system of natural medicine, recommends regular topical application to the skin of sesame oil, above all other oils, as a health-promoting procedure. We examined the effect of sesame oil and several other vegetable oils and their major component fatty acids on the proliferation rate of human normal and malignant melanocytes growing at similar rates in serum-free media. We found that sesame and safflower oils, both of which contain large amounts of linoleate in triglyceride form, selectively inhibited malignant melanoma growth over normal melanocytes whereas coconut, olive and mineral oils, which contain little or no linoleate as triglyceride, did not. These oils were tested at a range of 10-300 micrograms/ml. We found that of the fatty acids tested, only linoleic acid was selectively inhibitory while palmitic and oleic were not. These fatty acids were tested in the range of 3-100 micrograms/ml. These results suggest that certain vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid, such as the sesame oil, recommended for topical use by Ayurveda, may contain selective antineoplastic properties which are similar to those demonstrated for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites. This suggests that whole vegetable oils may have potential clinical usefulness.

  5. [Protein kinase inhibitor flavopiridol inhibits the replication of influenza virus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixiong; Zhang, Junjie; Ye, Xin

    2012-09-04

    To investigate the antiviral effect of the flavonoid compound flavopiridol on influenza A virus and explore its antiviral mechanism. The A549 or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were infected with influenza A virus A/WSN/33 and treated with flavopiridol. The viral proteins were determined by immunolotting and immunofluorescence. The virus titer was measured by plaque assay. To verify whether the activity of host RNA polymerase II was affected by flavopiridol, the phosphorylation status of RNA polymerase II CTD domain was analyzed by immunoblotting with phosphor-specific antibody. The amount of viral mRNA, vRNA and cRNA was measured by reverse transcription and PCR. The amount of viral proteins was significantly decreased and the titer of virus was greatly reduced in cells treated with flavopiridol. Further analysis showed that the phosphorylation of Ser-2 in the heptad repeat of the CTD domain in RNA polymerase II was decreased in falvopiridol treated cell. This result indicated that the transcription elongation activity of RNA pol II was impaired upon treatment with flavopiridol. Then we found that the amount of viral vRNA was significantly decreased in flavopiridol treated cells while only moderate decrease of mRNA was observed and almost no reduction of cRNA was detected. Flavopiridol can greatly suppress the replication of influenza virus. We propose that the inhibition of the transcription elongation activity of host RNA polymerase II would cause the decrease of viral mRNA transcription.

  6. In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition Potentials and Antioxidant Activity of Synthetic Flavone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoaib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals are produced by an important chemical process known as oxidation that in turn initiates chain reactions to damage the cells and originate oxidative stress. Flavones have got special position in research field of natural and synthetic organic chemistry due to their biological capabilities as antioxidant. The antioxidants are known to possess extensive biological effects that include antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and vasodilatory activities. The simple flavone (F1 and substituted flavone derivatives (F2–F5 have been synthesized from o-hydroxyacetophenone and benzaldehyde derivatives in good yield. The structures have been established by different spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. Antioxidant profile of these compounds was established using DPPH and H2O2 free radical scavenging assay. The findings showed that halogenated flavones showed more enzyme inhibitions and antioxidant activities than simple flavones and are potential candidates for the treatment of wide range of diseases.

  7. Effective inhibition of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus by RNA interference in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haiyan; Zhang, Chunhong; Guo, Pengju; Liu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2015-10-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a member of the coronaviridae family, which can cause acute and highly contagious enteric disease of swine characterized by severe entero-pathogenic diarrhea in piglets. Currently, the vaccines of PEDV are only partially effective and there is no specific drug available for treatment of PEDV infection. To exploit the possibility of using RNA interference (RNAi) as a strategy against PEDV infection, five shRNA-expressing plasmids targeting the N, M, and S genes of PEDV were constructed and transfected into Vero cells. The cytopathic effect and MTS assays demonstrated that two shRNAs (pSilencer4.1-M1 and pSilencer4.1-N) were capable of protecting cells against PEDV invasion with very high specificity and efficiency. The two shRNA expression plasmids were also able to inhibit the PEDV replication significantly, as shown by detection of virus titers (TCID50/mL). A real-time quantitative RT-PCR further confirmed that the amounts of viral RNAs in cell cultures pre-transfected with these two plasmids were reduced by 95.0 %. Our results suggest that RNAi might be a promising new strategy against PEDV infection.

  8. Inhibition of Angiogenesis In Vitro by Chebulagic Acid: A COX-LOX Dual Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Athira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a crucial step in the growth of cancer and its metastasis. It is regulated by several endogenous factors which may stimulate or inhibit the new blood vessel growth. Besides these endogenous factors, several exogenous factors including some natural compounds are known to modulate angiogenesis. Angiogenesis being a potential target for drugs against a number of pathological conditions, search for compounds from natural sources that can affect angiogenesis is of great interest. The objective of our present study was to understand the effect of chebulagic acid, a COX-LOX dual inhibitor isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., on angiogenesis. The model systems used were rat aortic rings and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results showed that chebulagic acid exerts an antiangiogenic effect. This was evidenced from decreased sprouting in rat aortic rings and decrease in biochemical markers in endothelial cells treated with chebulagic acid. It downregulated the production of CD31, E-selectin, and vascular endothelial growth factor in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC. Further studies to understand the molecular mechanism of action of chebulagic acid revealed that CA exerts its anti angiogenic effect by modulating VE cadherin-β catenin signalling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  9. New elements in the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway inhibiting swine in vitro oocyte meiotic resumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiquet, Nicolas; Papillon-Dion, Emilie; Djender, Nadjib; Guillemette, Christine; Richard, François J

    2014-07-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its cognate receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR) B, have been shown to promote cGMP production in granulosa/cumulus cells. Once transferred to the oocyte through the gap junctions, the cGMP inhibits oocyte meiotic resumption. CNP has been shown to bind another natriuretic receptor, NPR-C. NPR-C is known to interact with and degrade bound CNP, and has been reported to possess signaling functions. Therefore, NPR-C could participate in the control of oocyte maturation during swine in vitro maturation (IVM). Here, we examine the effect of CNP signaling on meiotic resumption, the amount of cGMP and gap junctional communication (GJC) regulation during swine IVM. The results show an inhibitory effect of CNP in inhibiting oocyte meiotic resumption in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated IVM. We also found that an NPR-C-specific agonist (cANP([4-23])) is likely to play a role in maintaining meiotic arrest during porcine IVM when in the presence of a suboptimal dose of CNP. Moreover, we show that, even if CNP can increase intracellular concentration of cGMP in cumulus-oocyte complexes, cANP((4-23)) had no impact on cGMP concentration, suggesting a potential cGMP-independent signaling pathway related to NPR-C activation. These data support a potential involvement of cANP((4-23)) through NPR-C in inhibiting oocyte meiotic resumption while in the presence of a suboptimal dose of CNP. The regulation of GJC was not altered by CNP, cANP((4-23)), or the combination of CNP and cANP((4-23)), supporting their potential contribution in sending signals to the oocytes. These findings offer promising insights in to new elements of the signaling pathways that may be involved in inhibiting resumption of meiosis during FSH-stimulated swine IVM. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  10. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of rabies virus replication by RNA interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Durymanova Ono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a zoonotic disease that affects all mammals and leads to more than 55,000 human deaths every year, caused by rabies virus (RABV (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae: Lyssavirus. Currently, human rabies treatment is based on the Milwaukee Protocol which consists on the induction of coma and massive antiviral therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the decrease in the titer of rabies virus both in vitro and in vivo using short-interfering RNAs. To this end, three siRNAs were used with antisense strands complementary to rabies virus nucleoprotein (N mRNA. BHK-21 cells monolayers were infected with 1000 to 0.1 TCID50 of PV and after 2 hours the cells were transfected with each of tree RNAs in separate using Lipofectamine-2000. All three siRNAs reduced the titer of PV strain in a least 0.72 logTCID50/mL and no cytotoxic effect was observed in the monolayers treated with Lipofectamine-2000. Swiss albino mice infected with 10.000 to 1 LD of PV strain by the intracerebral route were also transfected after two hours of infection with a pool 3 siRNAs with Lipofectamine-2000 by the intracerebral route, resulting in a survival rate of 30% in mice inoculated with 100 LD50, while the same dose led to 100% mortality in untreated animals. Lipofectamine-2000 showed no toxic effect in control mice. These results suggest that intracerebral administration of siRNAs might be an effective antiviral strategy for rabies.

  11. In vitro inhibition of field isolates of feline calicivirus with short interfering RNAs (siRNAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Phillip; Sheehy, Paul A; Fawcett, Anne; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-05-15

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common infection of domestic cats. Most infections are mild and self-limiting; however more severe disease manifestations, such as FCV-associated virulent systemic disease, may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is currently a lack of effective antiviral treatments for these disease manifestations. In this study, a panel of eight siRNAs were designed to target four conserved regions of the FCV genome. siRNAs were screened for in vitro antiviral efficacy against the reference strain FCV F9 by determination of extracellular virus titres and morphological assessment of protection from cytopathic effect. Three of the siRNA (FCV3.7, FCV4.1, and FCV4.2) demonstrated a marked antiviral effect with a greater than 99% reduction in extracellular viral titre. Titration of these effective siRNAs demonstrated a clear concentration-response relationship, with IC50 values of approximately 1 nM, and combination treatment with multiple siRNAs demonstrated additive or synergistic effects. To assess the potential usefulness of the compounds in a clinical setting, siRNAs were screened against a panel of six recent Australian FCV isolates from cats with FCV-related disease. The siRNAs shown to be effective against the reference strain FCV F9 were active against the majority of the isolates tested, although some variability was noted. Taken together these data suggest potential therapeutic application of antiviral RNAi for treating FCV-associated disease in cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of rabies virus replication by RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durymanova Ono, Ekaterina A; Iamamoto, Keila; Castilho, Juliana G; Carnieli, Pedro; de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Achkar, Samira M; Carrieri, Maria L; Kotait, Ivanete; Brandão, Paulo E

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic disease that affects all mammals and leads to more than 55,000 human deaths every year, caused by rabies virus (RABV) (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae: Lyssavirus). Currently, human rabies treatment is based on the Milwaukee Protocol which consists on the induction of coma and massive antiviral therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the decrease in the titer of rabies virus both in vitro and in vivo using short-interfering RNAs. To this end, three siRNAs were used with antisense strands complementary to rabies virus nucleoprotein (N) mRNA. BHK-21 cells monolayers were infected with 1000 to 0.1 TCID50 of PV and after 2 hours the cells were transfected with each of tree RNAs in separate using Lipofectamine-2000. All three siRNAs reduced the titer of PV strain in a least 0.72 logTCID50/mL and no cytotoxic effect was observed in the monolayers treated with Lipofectamine-2000. Swiss albino mice infected with 10.000 to 1 LD of PV strain by the intracerebral route were also transfected after two hours of infection with a pool 3 siRNAs with Lipofectamine-2000 by the intracerebral route, resulting in a survival rate of 30% in mice inoculated with 100 LD50, while the same dose led to 100% mortality in untreated animals. Lipofectamine-2000 showed no toxic effect in control mice. These results suggest that intracerebral administration of siRNAs might be an effective antiviral strategy for rabies.

  13. Caffeine inhibits the growth of glioblastomas through activating the caspase-3 signaling pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J-D; Song, L-J; Yan, D-J; Feng, Y-Y; Zang, Y-G; Yang, Y

    2015-08-01

    To study the effects and associated mechanisms of caffeine on cell viability, cycle dynamics, proliferation and apoptosis both in glioblastoma C6 and U87MG cells. Cell livability in presence or absence of caffeine was detected by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. Flow cytometric analysis was conducted to investigate the cell cycle dynamics and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to further study the proliferation of C6 and U87MG glioblastoma cells after treated with caffeine or DMSO. To study the influence of caffeine on apoptosis of glioblastoma C6 and U87MG cells, the value of apoptosis ratio (AR) was calculated by flow cytometry detection. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related factors, including Caspase-3, Cyt-C, Bax and Bcl-2. Caffeine at 1 mM reduced the cell viability of the both rat C6 and human U87MG glioblastoma cells to less than 70%. Flow cytometry detection found that caffeine remarkably arrested the C6 and U87MG cells in G0/G1 phase (C6, U87MG: pcells in S phase obviously decreased in the caffeine-treated group, when comparing to that of the normal control (C6, U87MG: pcells were observed in caffeine treatment group, when comparing to that of the normal control (C6, U87MG: pcaffeine induced much higher apoptosis of glioblastoma cells, compared with the normal control (C6, U87MG: pcaffeine markedly reduced the expression of Bcl-2 (C6, U87MG: pCaffeine inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of C6 and U87MG cells, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of proliferation and apoptosis. The apoptosis might be promoted by the motivation of the caspase-3 signaling pathway, which is induced by the release of Cyt-C as well as the elevated rate of Bax/Bcl-2.

  14. Amantadine inhibits cellular proliferation and induces the apoptosis of hepatocellular cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Zengmei; Chong, Zhaoyang; Liu, Cong; Feng, Danyang; Fang, Dihai; Zang, Weijin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies worldwide, and its incidence associated with viral infection has increased in recent years. Amantadine is a tricyclic symmetric amine that can effectively protect against the hepatitis C virus. However, its antitumor properties remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of amantadine on tumor cell viability, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis were investigated. The growth of HepG2 and SMMC‑7721 cells (HCC cell lines) was detected by an MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to investigate cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were also performed to examine the expression of cell cycle‑ and apoptosis‑related genes and proteins, including cyclin E, cyclin D1, cyclin‑dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bax. Our results demonstrated that amantadine markedly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC‑7721 cells in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner and arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. The levels of the cell cycle‑related genes and proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK2) were reduced by amantadine, and apoptosis was significantly induced. Amantadine treatment also reduced Bcl‑2 and increased the Bax protein and mRNA levels. Additionally, Bcl‑2/Bax ratios were lower in the two HCC cell lines following amantadine treatment. Collectively, these results emphasize the role of amantadine in suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in HCC cells, advocating its use as a novel tumor-suppressive therapeutic candidate.

  15. Allicin inhibits tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation under high glucose conditionsin vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong; Zheng, Fenping; Dong, Xuehong; Wu, Fang; Wu, Tianfeng; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important event in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which is a clinical characteristic of diabetic nephropathy. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of allicin, the major biological active component of garlic, on the EMT of a human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2) cultured under high glucose concentrations. HK-2 cells were exposed for 48 h to 5.5 or 25 mmol/l D-glucose, 25 mmol/l D-glucose plus allicin (2.5, 5, 10 or 20 µg/ml) or 25 mmol/l D-glucose plus 20 µmol/l PD98059, a selective inhibitor of the mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. The EMT of HK-2 cells was assessed by analyzing the protein expression of E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and collagen I via immunocytochemistry. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and phosphorylated (p)-ERK1/2. Marked morphological changes were observed in HK-2 cells cultured under high glucose conditions, and these changes were abrogated by simultaneous incubation with allicin and PD98059. The expression levels of α-SMA, vimentin and collagen I were significantly increased in HK-2 cells cultured under high glucose conditions, as compared with those cultured under normal glucose conditions (PAllicin partially reversed the high-glucose-induced increase in α-SMA, vimentin and collagen I expression (Pallicin was able to inhibit the EMT, potentially via regulation of the ERK1/2-TGF-β1 signaling pathway.

  16. A Scorpion Defensin BmKDfsin4 Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyang Zeng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major worldwide health problem which can cause acute and chronic hepatitis and can significantly increase the risk of liver cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Nowadays, clinical therapies of HBV infection still mainly rely on nucleotide analogs and interferons, the usage of which is limited by drug-resistant mutation or side effects. Defensins had been reported to effectively inhibit the proliferation of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Here, we screened the anti-HBV activity of 25 scorpion-derived peptides most recently characterized by our group. Through evaluating anti-HBV activity and cytotoxicity, we found that BmKDfsin4, a scorpion defensin with antibacterial and Kv1.3-blocking activities, has a comparable high inhibitory rate of both HBeAg and HBsAg in HepG2.2.15 culture medium and low cytotoxicity to HepG2.2.15. Then, our experimental results further showed that BmKDfsin4 can dose-dependently decrease the production of HBV DNA and HBV viral proteins in both culture medium and cell lysate. Interestingly, BmKDfsin4 exerted high serum stability. Together, this study indicates that the scorpion defensin BmKDfsin4 also has inhibitory activity against HBV replication along with its antibacterial and potassium ion channel Kv1.3-blocking activities, which shows that BmKDfsin4 is a uniquely multifunctional defensin molecule. Our work also provides a good molecule material which will be used to investigate the link or relationship of its antiviral, antibacterial and ion channel–modulating activities in the future.

  17. Bisphenol A inhibits voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels in vitro: mechanisms and structural requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, André; Hans, Michael; Meyer, Rainer; Häberlein, Hanns; Swandulla, Dieter

    2013-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a high volume production chemical compound attracts growing attention as a health-relevant xenobiotic in humans. It can directly bind to hormone receptors, enzymes, and ion channels to become biologically active. In this study we show that BPA acts as a potent blocker of voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. We determined the mechanisms of block and the structural elements of BPA essential for its action. Macroscopic Ba(2+) / Ca(2+) currents through native L-, N-, P/Q-, T-type Ca(2+) channels in rat endocrine GH(3) cells, mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons or cardiac myocytes, and recombinant human R-type Ca(2+) channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were rapidly and reversibly inhibited by BPA with similar potency (EC(50) values: 26-35 μM). Pharmacological and biophysical analysis of R-type Ca(2+) channels revealed that BPA interacts with the extracellular part of the channel protein. Its action does not require intracellular signaling pathways, is neither voltage- nor use-dependent, and does not affect channel gating. This indicates that BPA interacts with the channel in its resting state by directly binding to an external site outside the pore-forming region. Structure-effect analyses of various phenolic and bisphenolic compounds revealed that 1) a double-alkylated (R-C(CH(3))(2)-R, R-C(CH(3))(CH(2)CH(3))-R), or double-trifluoromethylated sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom between the two aromatic rings and 2) the two aromatic moieties in angulated orientation are optimal for BPA's effectiveness. Since BPA highly pollutes the environment and is incorporated into the human organism, our data may provide a basis for future studies relevant for human health and development.

  18. In vitro oxime reactivation of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase inhibited by methyl-paraoxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroianu, G A; Arafat, K; Nurulain, S M; Kuca, K; Kassa, J

    2007-01-01

    Oximes are cholinesterase reactivators of use in poisoning with organophosphorus ester enzyme inhibitors. Pralidoxime (PRX) is the oxime used in the United States. Clinical experience with pralidoxime (and other oximes) is disappointing and the routine use has been questioned. Furthermore oximes are not equally effective against all existent enzyme inhibitors. There is a clear demand for 'broad spectrum' cholinesterase reactivators with a higher efficacy than those clinically available. To meet this need over the years new reactivators of cholinesterase of potential clinical utility have been developed. The purpose of the study was to quantify 'in vitro' the extent of protection conferred by available (pralidoxime and methoxime) and experimental (K-27, K-33 and K-48) oximes, using methyl-paraoxon (methyl-POX) as an esterase inhibitor and to compare the results with those previously obtained using paraoxon (POX) as an inhibitor. Red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in whole blood were measured photometrically in the presence of different methyl-POX concentrations and IC(50) values calculated. Determinations were repeated in the presence of increasing oxime concentrations. The IC(50) of methyl-POX (59 nm) increased with the oxime concentration in a linear manner. The calculated IC(50) values were plotted against the oxime concentrations to obtain an IC(50) shift curve. The slope of the shift curve (tg alpha) was used to quantify the magnitude of the protective effect (nm IC(50) increase per microm reactivator). Based on our determinations the new K-series of reactivators is superior to pralidoxime (tg alpha = 1.9) and methoxime (tg alpha = 0.7), K-27 and K-48 being the outstanding compounds with a tg alpha value of 10 (nm IC(50) increase per microm reactivator), which is approximately five times the reactivator ability of PRX. The tg alpha value determined for K-33 was 6.3. The ranking of reactivator potencies of the examined oximes determined

  19. IKKβ inhibition prevents fat-induced beta cell dysfunction in vitro and in vivo in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivovic, Aleksandar; Oprescu, Andrei I; Koulajian, Khajag; Mori, Yusaku; Eversley, Judith A; Zhang, Liling; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Lewis, Gary F; Donath, Marc Y; Karin, Michael; Wheeler, Michael B; Ehses, Jan; Volchuk, Allen; Chan, Catherine B; Giacca, Adria

    2017-10-01

    We have previously shown that oxidative stress plays a causal role in beta cell dysfunction induced by fat. Here, we address whether the proinflammatory kinase inhibitor of (nuclear factor) κB kinase β (IKKβ), which is activated by oxidative stress, is also implicated. Fat (oleate or olive oil) was infused intravenously in Wistar rats for 48 h with or without the IKKβ inhibitor salicylate. Thereafter, beta cell function was evaluated in vivo using hyperglycaemic clamps or ex vivo in islets isolated from fat-treated rats. We also exposed rat islets to oleate in culture, with or without salicylate and 4(2'-aminoethyl)amino-1,8-dimethylimidazo(1,2-a)quinoxaline; BMS-345541 (BMS, another inhibitor of IKKβ) and evaluated beta cell function in vitro. Furthermore, oleate was infused in mice treated with BMS and in beta cell-specific Ikkb-null mice. 48 h infusion of fat impaired beta-cell function in vivo, assessed using the disposition index (DI), in rats (saline: 1.41 ± 0.13; oleate: 0.95 ± 0.11; olive oil [OLO]: 0.87 ± 0.15; p vivo (i.e., insulin secretion, units are pmol insulin islet-1 h-1) in rat islets (saline: 1.51 ± 0.13; oleate: 1.03 ± 0.10; OLO: 0.91 ± 0.13; p vivo and by salicylate in rat islets ex vivo (oleate + salicylate: 1.74 ± 0.31; OLO + salicylate: 1.54 ± 0.29). In cultured islets, 48 h exposure to oleate impaired beta-cell function ([in pmol insulin islet-1 h-1] control: 0.66 ± 0.12; oleate: 0.23 ± 0.03; p vivo ([in pmol insulin islet-1 h-1] control saline: 0.16 ± 0.02; control oleate: 0.10 ± 0.02; knockout oleate: 0.17 ± 0.04; p vivo (DI: control saline: 3.86 ± 0.40; control oleate: 1.95 ± 0.29; knockout oleate: 2.96 ± 0.24; p vivo and in vivo.

  20. Acetazolamide Inhibits the Level of Tyrosinase and Melanin: An Enzyme Kinetic, In Vitro, In Vivo, and In Silico Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qamar; Raza, Hussain; Hassan, Mubashir; Phull, Abdul Rehman; Kim, Song Ja; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-09-01

    Melanin is the major factor that determines skin color and protects from ultraviolet radiation. In present study we evaluated the anti-melanogenesis effect of acetazolamide (ACZ) using four different approaches: enzyme kinetic, in vitro, in vivo and in silico. ACZ demonstrated significant inhibitory activity (IC 50 7.895 ± 0.24 μm) against tyrosinase as compared to the standard drug kojic acid (IC 50 16.84 ± 0.64 μm) and kinetic analyses showed that ACZ is a non-competitive inhibitor without cytotoxic effect. In in vitro experiments, A375 human melanoma cells were treated with 20 or 40 μm of ACZ with or without 50 μm of l-DOPA. Western blot results showed that ACZ significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the expression level of tyrosinase at 40 μm. Zebrafish embryos were treated with 10, 20 or 40 μm of ACZ and of positive control kojic acid. At 72 h of treatment with ACZ and kojic acid, ACZ significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the embryos pigmentation to 40.8% of untreated embryos at the dose of 40 μm of ACZ while kojic acid decreased only 25.0% of pigmentation at the same dose of kojic acid. In silico docking were performed against tyrosinase using PyRx tool. Docking studies suggested that His244, Asn260 and His85 are the major interacting residues in the binding site of the protein. In conclusion, our results suggest that ACZ is a good candidate for the inhibition of melanin and it could be used as a lead for developing the drugs for hyperpigmentary disorders and skin whitening. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Plant-Derived MINA-05 Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Proliferation In Vitro and Lymph Node Spread In Vivo

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    Kate Vandyke

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Few treatment options exist for metastatic prostate cancer (PC that becomes hormone refractory (HRPC. In vitro, plant-derived MINA-05 caused dose-dependent decreases in cell numbers in HRPC cell lines LNCaPC4-2B and PC-3, and in androgen-sensitive LNCaP-FGC, DuCaP, and LAPC-4, by WST-1 assay. MINA-05 pretreatment significantly decreased clonogenic survival in agar and on plastic at 1 × and 2 × IC50 for PC-3 (P < .05 and P < .001, respectively, and at 1/2 ×, 1 ×, and 2 × IC50 for LNCaP-FGC cells (P < .001. MINA-05 also induced G2M arrest of LNCaP-FGC and PC-3 cells (by flow cytometry and caused some apoptosis in LNCaPFGC (sub-G1, peak on flow, expression of activated caspase-3 but not in PC-3 cells. Western blotting indicated that these cell cycle changes were associated with decreased levels of regulatory proteins cyclin B1 and cdc25C. MINA-05 given daily by gavage for 39 days did not diminish primary orthotopic PC-3 growth in nude mice, but decreased the extent of lymph node invasion at higher doses. We conclude that MINA-05 induces G2M arrest, inhibits cell growth, reduces PC cell re-growth in vitro, and reduces lymph node invasion after orthotopic PC-3 cell implantation in vivo. It has potential as an adjuvant treatment for patients with PC.

  2. Cangrelor inhibits the binding of the active metabolites of clopidogrel and prasugrel to P2Y12 receptors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Heather M; Buckland, Robert J; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Storey, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Cangrelor is a rapid-acting, direct-binding, and reversible P2Y12 antagonist which has been studied for use during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with or without pretreatment with an oral P2Y12 antagonist. As cangrelor is administered intravenously, it is necessary to switch to an oral P2Y12 antagonist following PCI, such as the thienopyridines clopidogrel, and prasugrel or the non-pyridine ticagrelor. Previous studies have suggested a negative pharmacodynamic interaction between cangrelor and thienopyridines. This in vitro study evaluated the receptor-level interaction between cangrelor and the active metabolite (AM) of clopidogrel or prasugrel by assessing functional P2Y12 receptor number using a (33)P-2MeSADP binding assay. All P2Y12 antagonists studied resulted in strong P2Y12 receptor blockade (cangrelor: 93.6%; clopidogrel AM: 93.0%; prasugrel AM: 97.9%). Adding a thienopyridine AM in the presence of cangrelor strongly reduces P2Y12 receptor blockade by the AM (clopidogrel AM: 7%, prasugrel AM: 3.2%). The thienopyridine AMs had limited ability to compete with cangrelor for binding to P2Y12 (% P2Y12 receptor blockade after co-incubation with cangrelor 1000 nmol/L: 11.7% for clopidogrel AM 3 µmol/L; 34.1% for prasugrel AM 3 µmol/L). In conclusion, in vitro cangrelor strongly inhibits the binding of clopidogrel and prasugrel AMs to the P2Y12 receptor, consistent with the previous observation of a negative pharmacodynamic interaction. Care may need to be taken to not overlap exposure to thienopyridine AMs and cangrelor in order to reduce the risk of thrombotic complications following PCI.

  3. Apoptosis in toremifene-induced growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wärri, A M; Huovinen, R L; Laine, A M; Martikainen, P M; Härkönen, P L

    1993-09-01

    Antiestrogens inhibit the stimulative effects of estrogens on breast cancer growth, but the mechanism(s) by which they trigger tumor regression are not completely understood. Growth retardation and tumor regression can be achieved by enhanced cell death and/or arrested cell proliferation. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a new antiestrogen, toremifene, on human breast cancer cells grown either in culture or as tumors in nude mice. The growth and morphology of in vitro cultured cells of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were monitored by time-lapse video. MCF-7 cells and ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells were grown as tumors in nude mice and subsequently examined by electron microscopy. The integrity of DNA isolated from these cells was determined by standard gel electrophoretic techniques. Northern blot hybridization analysis was used to determine the steady-state levels of the mRNAs for testosterone-repressed prostatic message-2 (TRPM-2), tumor growth factor beta-1 (TGF beta 1), and pS2 (a small, cysteine-rich protein of unknown function). Time-lapse video microscopy of the cell cultures indicated that treatment with 7.5 microM toremifene for 3 days caused approximately 60% of the cells to exhibit morphologic characteristics typical of cells undergoing programmed death, or apoptosis. The number of mitoses gradually decreased to zero over a 3- to 4-day period. Estrogen withdrawal for the same length of time resulted in an approximately equal number of apoptoses and mitoses. These changes were not associated with the pattern of DNA fragmentation, detectable as ladders in agarose gels, that is characteristic of the DNA of cells undergoing apoptosis. Elevated levels of TRPM-2 and TGF beta 1 mRNAs were observed in in vitro or in vivo grown tumor cells treated with 5-10 microM toremifene. Elevated levels of TRPM-2, but not TGF beta 1, mRNA were observed in the tumor cells after estrogen withdrawal. The steady-state level of pS2 mRNA in the tumor cells

  4. Inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cell line DU-145 in vitro and in vivo using Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Kang Sup; Syn Ha, U; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Kim, Sae Woong

    2017-03-23

    To investigate the antiproliferative activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. (SM) on the castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell line DU-145, in vitro and in vivo. Prostate cancer cell line (DU-145) and normal prostate cell line (RWPE-1) were treated with SM at different concentrations (3.125, 12.5, 25 and 50 μg/mL) to investigate the antiproliferative effects. DNA laddering analysis was performed to investigate the apoptosis of DU-145 cells. Molecular mechanism was investigated by Western blot analysis of p53, Bcl-2, prostate specific antigen (PSA), and androgen receptor (AR). Six-week-old male BALB/c nude mice were randomly divided into normal control group (n=101) and treated group (n=101) which administered 500 mg/kg SM for 2 weeks. Tumor volumes were measured. Treatment with SM resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell number of DU-145 cells in comparison with RWPE-1. DNA laddering analysis indicated the apoptosis of DU-145 cells. Treatment with SM increased the expression of p53 and reduced the expression of Bcl-2 proteins. The levels of PSA were considerably reduced in SM-treated group compared to the controls, and a decrease in AR expression was observed when cells were treated with SM in the same pattern as a reduction in PSA. In the tumour xenograft study, SM given once a day for 2 weeks significantly inhibited tumour growth. SM might contribute to the anticancer actions such as induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cells.

  5. Effect of Celastrol on Growth Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Cells through the Regulation of hERG Channel In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the antiprostate cancer effects of Celastrol on prostate cancer cells’ proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution, as well as the correlation to the regulation of hERG. Methods. DU145 cells were treated with various concentrations of Celastrol (0.25–16.0 μmol/L for 0–72 hours. MTT assay was used to evaluate the inhibition effect of Celastrol on the growth of DU145 cells. Cell apoptosis was detected through both Annexin-V FITC/PI double-labeled cytometry and Hoechst 33258. Cell cycle regulation was examined by a propidium iodide method. Western blot and RT-PCR technologies were applied to assess the expression level of hERG in DU145 cells. Results. Celastrol presented striking growth inhibition and apoptosis induction potency on DU145 cells in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value of Celastrol for 24 hours was 2.349 ± 0.213 μmol/L. Moreover, Celastrol induced DU145 cell apoptosis in a cell cycle-dependent manner, which means Celastrol could arrest DU145 cells in G0/G1 phase; accordingly, cells in S phase decreased gradually and no obvious changes were found in G2/M phase cells. Through transmission electron microscope, apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments were found in Celastrol-treated DU145 cells. Overexpression of hERG channel was found in DU145 cells, while Celastrol could downregulate it at both protein and mRNA level in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01. Conclusions. Celastrol exhibits its antiprostate cancer effects partially through the downregulation of the expression level of hERG channel in DU145 cells, suggesting that Celastrol may be a potential agent against prostate cancer with a mechanism of blocking the hERG channel.

  6. CO2 laser and fluoride on the inhibition of root caries—an in vitro microbial model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Oliveira, C.; Rodrigues, L. K. A.; Parisotto, T. M.; Sousa E Silva, C. M.; Hara, A. T.; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M.

    2010-09-01

    An increase in the dental caries prevalence on root surfaces has been observed mainly in elderly. This research assessed, in vitro, the effectiveness of a pulsed CO2 (λ = 10.6 μm) laser associated or not with fluoride, in reducing human root dentine demineralization in conditions that mimic an oral high cariogenic challenge. After sterilization, root dentine specimens were randomly assigned into 6 groups ( n = 30), in triplicate. The groups were Control (C), Streptococcus mutans (SM), Fluoride (F), Laser (L), Fluoride + laser (FL), and Laser + fluoride (LF). Except for the control group, all the specimens were inoculated with SM and immersed 3 times a day in a 40% sucrose bath. After a 7-day cariogenic challenge, the mineral loss and lesion depth were evaluated by transverse microradiography and fluoride in the biofilm was determined using an ion-selective electrode. Results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance, at 5% of significance level. For groups C, SM, F, L, FL and LF, the means (standard-deviation) of mineral loss were 816.3 (552.5)a, 3291.5 (1476.2)c, 2508.5 (1240.5)bc, 2916.2 (1323.7)c, 1839.7 (815.2)b and 1955.0 (1001.4)b, respectively; while lesion depths were 39.6 (22.8)a, 103.1 (38.9)c, 90.3 (44.6)bc, 91.7 (27.0)bc, 73.3 (26.6)b, 75.1 (35.2)b, respectively (different superscript letters indicate significant differences among groups). In conclusion, irradiation of root dentine with a pulsed CO2 laser at fluency of 12.0 J/cm2 was able to inhibit root surface demineralization only when associated with fluoride. No synergy effect on the inhibition of root dentine mineral loss was provided by the combination of fluoride application and laser irradiation.

  7. Inhibition of 19S proteasomal regulatory complex subunit PSMD8 increases polyspermy during porcine fertilization in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young-Joo; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Sutovsky, Miriam; Jonáková, Vera; Park, Chang-Sik; Sutovsky, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The 26S proteoasome is a multi-subunit protease specific to ubiquitinated substrate proteins. It is composed of a 20S proteasomal core with substrate degradation activity, and a 19S regulatory complex that acts in substrate recognition, deubiquitination, priming and transport to the 20S core. Inhibition of proteolytic activities associated with the sperm acrosome-borne 20S core prevents fertilization in mammals, ascidians and echinoderms. Less is known about the function of the proteasomal 19S complex during fertilization. The present study examined the role of PSMD8, an essential non-ATPase subunit of the 19S complex, in sperm-ZP penetration during porcine fertilization in vitro (IVF). Immunofluorescence localized PSMD8 to the outer acrosomal membrane, acrosomal matrix and the inner acrosomal membrane. Colloidal gold transmission electron microscopy detected PSMD8 on the surface of vesicles in the acrosomal shroud, formed as a result of zona pellucida-induced acrosomal exocytosis. Contrary to the inhibition of fertilization by blocking of the 20S core activities, fertilization and polyspermy rates were increased by adding anti-PSMD8 antibody to fertilization medium. This observation is consistent with a possible role of PSMD8 in substrate deubiquitination, a process which when blocked, may actually accelerate substrate proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. Subunit PSMD8 co-immunoprecipitated with acrosomal surface-associated spermadhesin AQN1. This association indicates that the sperm acrosome-borne proteasomes become exposed onto the sperm surface following the acrosomal exocytosis. Since immunological blocking of subunit PSMD8 increases the rate of polyspermy during porcine fertilization, the activity of the 19S complex may be a rate-limiting factor contributing to anti-polyspermy defense during porcine fertilization. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Immune responses elicited against rotavirus middle layer protein VP6 inhibit viral replication in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Suvi; Pastor, Ana Ruth; Tamminen, Kirsi; López-Guerrero, Vanessa; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Palomares, Laura A; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is a common cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in children worldwide. Live oral RV vaccines protect against severe RVGE, but the immune correlates of protection are not yet clearly defined. Inner capsid VP6 protein is a highly conserved, abundant, and immunogenic RV protein, and VP6-specific mucosal antibodies, especially IgA, have been implicated to protect against viral challenge in mice. In the present study systemic and mucosal IgG and IgA responses were induced by immunizing BALB/c mice intranasally with a combination of recombinant RV VP6 protein (subgroup II [SGII]) and norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) used in a candidate vaccine. Following immunization mice were challenged orally with murine RV strain EDIMwt (SG non-I-non-II, G3P10[16]). In order to determine neutralizing activity of fecal samples, sera, and vaginal washes (VW) against human Wa RV (SGII, G1P1A[8]) and rhesus RV (SGI, G3P5B[3]), the RV antigen production was measured with an ELISA-based antigen reduction neutralization assay. Only VWs of immunized mice inhibited replication of both RVs, indicating heterotypic protection of induced antibodies. IgA antibody depletion and blocking experiments using recombinant VP6 confirmed that neutralization was mediated by anti-VP6 IgA antibodies. Most importantly, after the RV challenge significant reduction in viral shedding was observed in feces of immunized mice. These results suggest a significant role for mucosal RV VP6-specific IgA for the inhibition of RV replication in vitro and in vivo. In addition, these results underline the importance of non-serotype-specific immunity induced by the conserved subgroup-specific RV antigen VP6 in clearance of RV infection. PMID:25424814

  9. Paclitaxel, Carboplatin and 1,25-D3 Inhibit Proliferation of Endometrial Cancer CellsIn Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuittinen, Tea; Rovio, Päivi; Staff, Synnöve; Luukkaala, Tiina; Kallioniemi, Anne; Grénman, Seija; Laurila, Marita; Mäenpää, Johanna

    2017-12-01

    Endometrial cancer cells are known to be sensitive to carboplatin and paclitaxel. Furthermore, vitamin D (1,25-D3) has been reported to inhibit endometrial cancer cell growth both as a single agent and combined with carboplatin. However, there are no studies comparing the effect of paclitaxel and carboplatin as single agents vs. in combination in endometrial cancer cell lines. Neither has the effect of 1,25-D3 been studied with paclitaxel. The present study investigated the effect of paclitaxel, carboplatin and 1,25-D3 on the growth of endometrial cancer cells in vitro. Two endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines (UT-EC-1 and UT-EC-3) were cultured with different doses of paclitaxel, carboplatin and 1,25-D3. The cellular VDR (vitamin D receptor) mRNA levels were measured and the expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors by the cells was determined. In the UT-EC-1 cell line the growth inhibition was 72% with paclitaxel, 54% with carboplatin and 73% with the combination of these compounds. The corresponding numbers in UT-EC-3 were 70%, 33% and 65%, respectively. 1,25-D3 suppressed cell growth 88% with paclitaxel, 63% with carboplatin and 87% with their combination in the UT-EC-1 cell line. In both cell lines, single-agent paclitaxel was as effective as the combination of the compounds and more effective than single carboplatin. 1,25-D3 may further contribute to the cytotoxic effect of these agents. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovitha, Sundar; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-07-18

    α-amylase and α-glucosidase digest the carbohydrates and increase the postprandial glucose level in diabetic patients. Inhibiting the activity of these two enzymes can control postprandial hyperglycemia, and reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Bitter gourd or balsam pear is one of the important medicinal plants used for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. However, there is limited information available on the presence of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds. In the current study, the protein extracts from the fruits of M. charantia var. charantia (MCC) and M. charantia var. muricata (MCM) were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities in vitro, and glucose lowering activity after oral administration in vivo. The protein extract from both MCC and MCM inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase through competitive inhibition, which was on par with Acarbose as indicated by in vitro percentage of inhibition (66 to 69 %) and IC50 (0.26 to 0.29 mg/ml). Both the protein extracts significantly reduced peak blood glucose and area under the curve in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, which were orally challenged with starch and sucrose. Protein extracts from the fruits of the two varieties of bitter gourd inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro and lowered the blood glucose level in vivo on par with Acarbose when orally administrated to Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Further studies on mechanism of action and methods of safe and biologically active delivery will help to develop an anti-diabetic oral protein drug from these plants.

  11. Tanshinone IIA Promotes Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis in Vitro by Inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway

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    Minggang Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tanshinone IIA inhibits the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs, but the potential mechanisms of its effects on PASMCs apoptosis remain unclear. Methods: Rat were subjected to hypoxia for 9 days with or without Tanshinone IIA treatment. PASMCs were exposed to the conditions of 2% O2 and 93% N2 for 24 h in vitro. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining was used to evaluate vascular remodeling. The Cell viability was determined using cell fluorescence staining and MTT assays, and apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry. Protein expression was quantified by Western blotting. Results: Our results showed that Tanshinone IIA treatment reduced pulmonary artery media thickening in hypoxic rats. Tanshinone IIA reduced PASMC viability in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Tanshinone IIA promoted PASMC apoptosis, lowered Hsp60 levels, and upregulated caspase-3 expressions under hypoxic conditions. This pro-apoptotic effect of Tanshinone IIA might be due to the reduction of the phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling markers and the increase in the levels of the downstream target, Cx43 in PASMCs. Conclusion: These data suggest that Tanshinone IIA promotes PASMC apoptosis during hypoxia and reverses vascular remodeling. This effect is mediated by modulating the expression of Hsp60, caspase-3, and Cx43 via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. These results might provide a new therapeutic target to explore a novel strategy for hypoxia-induced vessel remodeling.

  12. Morin inhibits biofilm production and reduces the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes - An in vitro and in vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaranjani, Murugesan; Gowrishankar, Shanmugaraj; Kamaladevi, Arumugam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Balamurugan, Kirshnaswamy; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2016-11-21

    The current study explores the in vitro and in vivo antibiofilm efficacy of morin against a leading foodborne pathogen-Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of morin against LM strains was found to be 100μg/ml. The non-antibacterial effect of morin at its sub-MICs (6.25, 12.5 and 25μg/ml) was determined through growth curve and XTT assay. Morin at its sub-MICs demonstrated a significant dose dependent inhibitory efficacy against LM biofilm formation which was also evidenced through light, confocal and scanning electron microscopic analyses. However, morin failed to disperse the mature biofilm of LM even at its MIC. Our data also revealed the anti-virulence efficacy of morin, as it significantly inhibited the production of hemolysin and motility of LM. Concentration-dependent susceptibility of morin treated LM cells to normal human serum was observed. In vivo studies revealed that morin extended the lifespan of LM infected Caenorhabditis elegans by about 85%. Furthermore, the non-toxic nature and in vivo anti-adherence efficacy of morin were also ascertained through C. elegans-LM infection model. Overall, the data of the current study identifies morin as a promising antibiofilm agent and its suitability to formulate protective strategies against biofilm associated infections caused by LM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In Silico and In Vitro Study of the Bromelain-Phytochemical Complex Inhibition of Phospholipase A2 (Pla2

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    Fatahiya Mohamed Tap

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A2 (Pla2 is an enzyme that induces inflammation, making Pla2 activity an effective approach to reduce inflammation. Therefore, investigating natural compounds for this Pla2 inhibitory activity has important therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential in bromelain-phytochemical complex inhibitors via a combination of in silico and in vitro methods. Bromelain-amenthoflavone displays antagonistic effects on Pla2. Bromelian-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin displayed synergistic effects at high concentrations of the combined compounds, with inhibition percentages of more than 70% and 90%, respectively, and antagonistic effects at low concentrations. The synergistic effect of the bromelain-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin combinations represents a new application in treating inflammation. These findings not only provide significant quantitative data, but also provide an insight on valuable implications for the combined use of bromelain with asiaticoside and diosgenin in treating inflammation, and may help researchers develop more natural bioactive compounds in daily foods as anti-inflammatory agent.

  14. α–SNAP inhibits AMPK signaling to reduce mitochondrial biogenesis and dephosphorylates Thr172 in AMPKα in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifu; Brautigan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates metabolism in normal and pathological conditions and responds to nutrients, hormones, anti-diabetic drugs and physical exercise. AMPK is activated by kinase LKB1 and inactivated by phosphatases whose identities remain uncertain. Here we show that AMPK associates with α-SNAP, an adapter that enables disassembly of cis-SNARE complexes formed during membrane fusion. Knockdown of α-SNAP activates AMPK to phosphorylate its endogenous substrates ACC and Raptor and provokes mitochondrial biogenesis. AMPK phosphorylation is rescued from α-SNAP RNAi by LKB1 knockdown or expression of wild type but not mutated α-SNAP. Recombinant wild type but not mutated α-SNAP dephosphorylates pThr172 in AMPKα in vitro. Over-expression of wild-type but not mutated α-SNAP prevents AMPK activation in cells treated with agents to elevate AMP concentration. The mouse α-SNAP mutant hyh (hydrocephalus with hop gait) shows enhanced binding and inhibition of AMPK. By negatively controlling AMPK, α-SNAP therefore potentially coordinates membrane trafficking and metabolism. PMID:23463002

  15. A 4-deoxy analogue of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine inhibits heparan sulphate expression and growth factor binding in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijk, Xander M.R. van; Oosterhof, Arie [Department of Biochemistry, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Broek, Sebastiaan A.M.W. van den [Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Griffioen, Arjan W. [Angiogenesis Laboratory, Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Centre, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dam, Gerdy B. ten [Department of Biochemistry, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rutjes, Floris P.J.T.; Delft, Floris L. van [Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kuppevelt, Toin H. van, E-mail: A.vankuppevelt@ncmls.ru.nl [Department of Biochemistry, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-10

    Heparan sulphate (HS) is a long, linear polysaccharide, which has a basic backbone of -{beta}1-4GlcA-{alpha}1-4GlcNAc- units. The involvement of HS in many steps of tumourigenesis, including growth and angiogenesis, makes it an appealing target for cancer therapy. To target the biosynthesis of HS by interfering with its chain elongation, a 4-deoxy analogue of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (4-deoxy-GlcNAc) was synthesized. Using immunocytochemistry and agarose gel electrophoresis it was shown that incubation with the 4-deoxysugar resulted in a dose dependent reduction of HS expression of MV3 melanoma cells, 1 mM resulting in an almost nullified HS expression. The parent sugar GlcNAc had no effect. 4-deoxysugar treated cells were viable and proliferated at the same rate as control cells. Other glycan structures appeared to be only mildly affected, as staining by various lectins was generally not or only modestly inhibited. At 1 mM of the 4-deoxysugar, the capacity of cells to bind the HS-dependent pro-angiogenic growth factors FGF-2 and VEGF was greatly compromised. Using an in vitro angiogenesis assay, 4-deoxysugar treated endothelial cells showed a sharp reduction of FGF-2-induced sprout formation. Combined, these data indicate that an inexpensive, easily synthesized, water-soluble monosaccharide analogue can interfere with HS expression and pro-angiogenic growth factor binding.

  16. Baicalein decreases side population proportion via inhibition of ABCG2 in multiple myeloma cell line RPMI 8226 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yue-Yu; Liu, Li-Ping; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yuling; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Zhi; Tang, Jing-Zhong; Mo, Sui-Lin

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of baicalein on side population in human multiple myeloma cell line RPMI 8226 and the underlying molecular mechanisms in vitro and in silico. MTT assay was applied to detect the anti-proliferation effect of baicalein. The detection of side population cells is based on the Hoechst 33342 exclusion assay technique and flow cytometric analysis. Western blotting assay was used to explore the expression of ABCG2 protein. Homology modeling and molecular docking were performed with Discovery Studio 2.1. Baicalein decreased both cell viability with IC50=168.5 μM and the proportion of SP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Correspondingly, it significantly decreased the expression level of ABCG2 protein. Baicalein also shared similar binding sites and modes with fumitremorgin C to the protein. Baicalein possessed novel anticancer properties, such as anti-proliferation and drug efflux inhibition in side population cells, which suggested its potential feature of targeting cancer stem cells of multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A numerical method for analysis of in vitro time-dependent inhibition data. Part 1. Theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Swati; Jones, Jeffrey P; Korzekwa, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Inhibition of cytochromes P450 by time-dependent inhibitors (TDI) is a major cause of clinical drug-drug interactions. It is often difficult to predict in vivo drug interactions based on in vitro TDI data. In part 1 of these manuscripts, we describe a numerical method that can directly estimate TDI parameters for a number of kinetic schemes. Datasets were simulated for Michaelis-Menten (MM) and several atypical kinetic schemes. Ordinary differential equations were solved directly to parameterize kinetic constants. For MM kinetics, much better estimates of KI can be obtained with the numerical method, and even IC50 shift data can provide meaningful estimates of TDI kinetic parameters. The standard replot method can be modified to fit non-MM data, but normal experimental error precludes this approach. Non-MM kinetic schemes can be easily incorporated into the numerical method, and the numerical method consistently predicts the correct model at errors of 10% or less. Quasi-irreversible inactivation and partial inactivation can be modeled easily with the numerical method. The utility of the numerical method for the analyses of experimental TDI data is provided in our companion manuscript in this issue of Drug Metabolism and Disposition (Korzekwa et al., 2014b). Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Citreoviridin induces triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes through inhibiting PPAR-α in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chang; Li, Dandan; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Xiaofang; Li, Qiujuan; Geng, Chengyan; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Guang; Yao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Min

    2017-08-01

    Citreoviridin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by Penicillum citreonigrum, Aspergillus terreus and Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum. CIT occurs naturally in moldy rice and corn. CIT is associated with the development of atherosclerosis in the general population. Alteration in hepatic lipid metabolism is a pathogenic factor in atherosclerosis. However the effect and the underlying mechanism of CIT on hepatic lipid metabolism are largely unknown. In this study, we reported that CIT induced triglyceride accumulation in mice liver and human liver HepG2 cells as shown in oil red O staining. CIT (0.1 mg/kg-0.3 mg/kg) for 6 weeks elevated liver triglyceride contents in mice. CIT inhibited the transactivation activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) in hepatocyte in vivo and in vitro, as shown by the reduced mRNA levels of PPAR-α target genes which play key roles in lipid metabolism in various aspects. PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate attenuated CIT-induced triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, CIT increased serum total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In summary, we reported that CIT induced PPAR-α-dependent hepatic triglyceride accumulation and dyslipidemia. Our data will provide new mechanistic insights into CIT-induced lipid alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In Silico and In Vitro Study of the Bromelain-Phytochemical Complex Inhibition of Phospholipase A2 (Pla2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Tap, Fatahiya; Abd Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Ismail, Hassan Fahmi; Wong, Tet Soon; Shameli, Kamyar; Miyake, Mikio; Ahmad Khairudin, Nurul Bahiyah

    2018-01-19

    Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is an enzyme that induces inflammation, making Pla2 activity an effective approach to reduce inflammation. Therefore, investigating natural compounds for this Pla2 inhibitory activity has important therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential in bromelain-phytochemical complex inhibitors via a combination of in silico and in vitro methods. Bromelain-amenthoflavone displays antagonistic effects on Pla2. Bromelian-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin displayed synergistic effects at high concentrations of the combined compounds, with inhibition percentages of more than 70% and 90%, respectively, and antagonistic effects at low concentrations. The synergistic effect of the bromelain-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin combinations represents a new application in treating inflammation. These findings not only provide significant quantitative data, but also provide an insight on valuable implications for the combined use of bromelain with asiaticoside and diosgenin in treating inflammation, and may help researchers develop more natural bioactive compounds in daily foods as anti-inflammatory agent.

  20. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  1. Paroxysm serum from a case of Plasmodium vivax malaria inhibits the maturation of P. falciparum schizonts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Y; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, P; Noedl, H; Thongrungkiat, S; Krudsood, S; Sukthana, Y; Nacher, M; Wilairatana, P; Looareesuwan, S

    2003-09-01

    In concurrent infections in vivo, the blood stages of Plasmodium vivax suppress those of Plasmodium falciparum. To see if the paroxysm (i.e. the periodic febrile episode) of P. vivax infection contributes to this suppression, sera from a P. vivax-infected volunteer were added to cultures of whole blood taken from cases of P. falciparum malaria. The crude 'rate' of schizont generation from the ring forms, measured as the percentage of all asexual parasites that were schizonts after incubation for 24 h, was similar whether the cultures contained serum samples collected during paroxysms or those collected, from the same volunteer, at other times (19.1% v. 18.9%; P=0.842). After a random-effect linear regression was used to adjust for disparities between the P. falciparum isolates, however, the degree of schizont maturation, measured as the mean number of nuclei per schizont, was significantly lower for the cultures with 'paroxysm serum' than for those with 'non-paroxysm serum' (4.8 v. 5.3; P=0.002). The proportion of schizonts considered mature was also significantly lower when 'paroxysm serum' was used (3.7% v. 6.3%: P=0.03). This appears to be the first in-vitro study in which sera collected during a paroxysm of P. vivax have been shown to inhibit the maturation of P. falciparum schizonts. The role of this mechanism in intra- and inter-specific competition is discussed.

  2. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies: peripheral glycosylation of HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 may be a target for virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N......- and O-linked carbohydrate epitopes (LeY, A1, and sialyl-Tn) were able to block infection by cell-free virus as well as inhibit syncytium formation. Inhibition of virus infectivity was independent of virus strain (HTLVIIIB or patient isolate SSI-002), the cell line used for virus propagation (H9 or MT4......), and the cell type used as the infection target (MT4, PMC, or selected T4 lymphocytes). Inhibition was observed when viruses were preincubated with MAbs but not when cells were preincubated with MAbs before inoculation, and the MAbs were shown to precipitate 125I-labeled gp120. The MAbs therefore define...

  3. A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha-reduction and growth of prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap-FGC by natural astaxanthin and Saw Palmetto lipid extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark L

    2005-01-01

    Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase has been reported to decrease the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and possibly inhibit or help treat prostate cancer. Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract (SPLE) is reported to inhibit 5alpha-reductase and decrease the clinical symptoms of BPH. Epidemiologic studies report that carotenoids such as lycopene may inhibit prostate cancer. In this investigation the effect of the carotenoid astaxanthin, and SPLE were examined for their effect on 5alpha-reductase inhibition as well as the growth of prostatic carcinoma cells in vitro. These studies support patent #6,277,417 B1. The results show astaxanthin demonstrated 98% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase at 300 microg/mL in vitro. Alphastat, the combination of astaxanthin and SPLE, showed a 20% greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than SPLE alone n vitro. A nine day treatment of prostatic carcinoma cells with astaxanthin in vitro produced a 24% decrease in growth at 0.1 mcg/mL and a 38% decrease at 0.01 mcg/mL. SPLE showed a 34% decrease at 0.1 mcg/mL. Low levels of carotenoid astaxanthin inhibit 5alpha-reductase and decrease the growth of human prostatic cancer cells in vitro. Astaxanthin added to SPLE shows greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than SPLE alone in vitro.

  4. Two Lactobacillus Species Inhibit the Growth and α-Toxin Production of Clostridium perfringens and Induced Proinflammatory Factors in Chicken Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Zhui; Li, Yehan; Ding, Binying; Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is the causative pathogen of avian necrotic enteritis. Lactobacillus spp. are well-characterized probiotics with anti-microbial and immune-modulatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. acidophilus and L. fermentum on the growth, α-toxin production and inflammatory responses of C. perfringens. In in vitro culture experiments, both lactobacilli inhibited the growth of C. perfringens (P perfringens during 24 h of incubation (P perfringens (P perfringens to cells (P perfringens-challenged chicken intestinal epithelial cells (P perfringens in vitro conditions. PMID:29118744

  5. TwoLactobacillusSpecies Inhibit the Growth and α-Toxin Production ofClostridium perfringensand Induced Proinflammatory Factors in Chicken Intestinal Epithelial Cellsin Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Zhui; Li, Yehan; Ding, Binying; Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is the causative pathogen of avian necrotic enteritis. Lactobacillus spp. are well-characterized probiotics with anti-microbial and immune-modulatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. acidophilus and L. fermentum on the growth, α-toxin production and inflammatory responses of C. perfringens . In in vitro culture experiments, both lactobacilli inhibited the growth of C. perfringens ( P growth of C. perfringens during 24 h of incubation ( P perfringens ( P perfringens to cells ( P perfringens -challenged chicken intestinal epithelial cells ( P perfringens in vitro conditions.

  6. Viral cross-class serpin inhibits vascular inflammation and T lymphocyte fratricide; a study in rodent models in vivo and human cell lines in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    Full Text Available Poxviruses express highly active inhibitors, including serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins, designed to target host immune defense pathways. Recent work has demonstrated clinical efficacy for a secreted, myxomaviral serpin, Serp-1, which targets the thrombotic and thrombolytic proteases, suggesting that other viral serpins may have therapeutic application. Serp-2 and CrmA are intracellular cross-class poxviral serpins, with entirely distinct functions from the Serp-1 protein. Serp-2 and CrmA block the serine protease granzyme B (GzmB and cysteine proteases, caspases 1 and 8, in apoptotic pathways, but have not been examined for extracellular anti-inflammatory activity. We examined the ability of these cross-class serpins to inhibit plaque growth after arterial damage or transplant and to reduce leukocyte apoptosis. We observed that purified Serp-2, but not CrmA, given as a systemic infusion after angioplasty, transplant, or cuff-compression injury markedly reduced plaque growth in mouse and rat models in vivo. Plaque growth was inhibited both locally at sites of surgical trauma, angioplasty or transplant, and systemically at non-injured sites in ApoE-deficient hyperlipidemic mice. With analysis in vitro of human cells in culture, Serp-2 selectively inhibited T cell caspase activity and blocked cytotoxic T cell (CTL mediated killing of T lymphocytes (termed fratricide. Conversely, both Serp-2 and CrmA inhibited monocyte apoptosis. Serp-2 inhibitory activity was significantly compromised either in vitro with GzmB antibody or in vivo in ApoE/GzmB double knockout mice. Conclusions The viral cross-class serpin, Serp-2, that targets both apoptotic and inflammatory pathways, reduces vascular inflammation in a GzmB-dependent fashion in vivo, and inhibits human T cell apoptosis in vitro. These findings indicate that therapies targeting Granzyme B and/or T cell apoptosis may be used to inhibit T lymphocyte apoptosis and inflammation in response to

  7. Development of a specific affinity-matured exosite inhibitor to MT1-MMP that efficiently inhibits tumor cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botkjaer, Kenneth A; Kwok, Hang Fai; Terp, Mikkel G

    2016-01-01

    -fold with the ability to interfere with cell-surface MT1-MMP functions, displaying IC50 values down to 5 nM. Importantly, the new inhibitors were able to inhibit collagen invasion by tumor-cells in vitro and in vivo primary tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells in a mouse orthotopic xenograft...... therapeutic target. Here, we report the identification of antibody fragments to MT1-MMP that potently and specifically inhibit its cell surface functions. Lead antibody clones displayed inhibitory activity towards pro-MMP-2 activation, collagen-film degradation and gelatin-film degradation, and were shown...

  8. Application of Wnt Pathway Inhibitor Delivering Scaffold for Inhibiting Fibrosis in Urethra Strictures: In Vitro and in Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaile Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the mechanical property and biocompatibility of the Wnt pathway inhibitor (ICG-001 delivering collagen/poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone (P(LLA-CL scaffold for urethroplasty, and also the feasibility of inhibiting the extracellular matrix (ECM expression in vitro and in vivo. Methods: ICG-001 (1 mg (2 mM was loaded into a (P(LLA-CL scaffold with the co-axial electrospinning technique. The characteristics of the mechanical property and drug release fashion of scaffolds were tested with a mechanical testing machine (Instron and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Rabbit bladder epithelial cells and the dermal fibroblasts were isolated by enzymatic digestion method. (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to evaluate the viability and proliferation of the cells on the scaffolds. Fibrolasts treated with TGF-β1 and ICG-001 released medium from scaffolds were used to evaluate the anti-fibrosis effect through immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot. Urethrography and histology were used to evaluate the efficacy of urethral implantation. Results: The scaffold delivering ICG-001 was fabricated, the fiber diameter and mechanical strength of scaffolds with inhibitor were comparable with the non-drug scaffold. The SEM and MTT assay showed no toxic effect of ICG-001 to the proliferation of epithelial cells on the collagen/P(LLA-CL scaffold with ICG-001. After treatment with culture medium released from the drug-delivering scaffold, the expression of Collagen type 1, 3 and fibronectin of fibroblasts could be inhibited significantly at the mRNA and protein levels. In the results of urethrography, urethral strictures and fistulas were found in the rabbits treated with non-ICG-001 delivering scaffolds, but all the rabbits treated with ICG-001-delivering scaffolds showed wide caliber in urethras. Histology results showed less collagen but more

  9. Adeno-associated viruses serotype 2-mediated RNA interference efficiently inhibits rabies virus replication in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Hua-Lei; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Yu-Jiao; Ma, Jin-Zhu; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Gao, Yu-Wei; Zhao, Yong-Kun; Yang, Song-Tao; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the potential of adeno-associated viruses serotype 2 (AAV2)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) as an antiviral agent against rabies, recombinant AAV2 vectors expressing siRNA targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus (RABV) (rAAV-N796) were constructed and evaluated. When NA cells pretreated with rAAV-N796 were challenged with RABV, there was a 37.8 ± 3.4% to 55.1 ± 5.3% reduction in RABV virus titer. When cells pre-challenged with RABV were treated with rAAV-N796, there was a 4.4 ± 1.4 to 28.8 ± 3.2% reduction in RABV virus titer. Relative quantification of RABV transcripts using real-time PCR and Western blot revealed that the knockdown of RABV-N gene transcripts was based on the rAAV-N796 inoculation titer. When any NA cells were treated with rAAV-N796 before or after challenged with RABV, significant reduction in virus titer was observed in both administrations. Mice treated intracerebrally with rAAV-N796 exhibited 50 ± 5.3 and 62.5 ± 4.7% protection when challenged intracerebrally or intramuscally, respectively, with lethal RABV. When mice treated intramuscularly with rAAV-N796 were challenged intramuscularly with lethal RABV, they exhibited 37.5 ± 3.7% protection. When mice were intracerebrally and intramuscularly with rAAV-N796 24 hr after exposure to RABV infection, they exhibited 25 ± 4.1% protection The N gene mRNA levels in the brains of challenged mice with three different administrations were reduced (55, 68, 32 and 25%, respectively). These results indicated that AAV2 vector-mediated siRNA delivery in vitro in NA cells inhibited RABV multiplication, inhibited RABV multiplication in vivo in the mice brain and imparted partial protection against lethal rabies. So, it may have a potential to be used as an alternative antiviral approach against rabies.

  10. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  11. Efficient in vitro inhibition of HIV-1 gag reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) at minimal ratios of PNA/RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Zachar, Vladimir; Nielsen, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    ) was investigated. We found that a bis-PNA (parallel antisense 10mer linked to antiparallel antisense 10mer) was superior to both the parallel antisense 10mer and antiparallel antisense 10mer in inhibiting reverse transcription of the gene, thus indicating triplex formation at the target sequence. A complete arrest......We have tested the inhibitory potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) on in vitro reverse transcription of the HIV-1 gag gene. PNA was designed to target different regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and the effect on reverse transcription by HIV-1, MMLV and AMV reverse transcriptases (RTs...... of reverse transcription was obtained at approximately 6-fold molar excess of the bis-PNA with respect to the gag RNA. At this molar ratio we found no effect on in vitro translation of gag RNA. A 15mer duplex-forming PNA was also found to inhibit reverse transcription at very low molar ratios of PNA/ gag RNA...

  12. Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro by inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Soo A; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Intra-articular injection of local anesthetics (LAs) is a common procedure for therapeutic purposes. However, LAs have been found toxic to articular cartilage, and hyaluronan may attenuate this toxicity. In this study we investigated whether hyaluronan attenuated lidocaine-induced chondrotoxicity, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and newly isolated murine chondrocytes were incubated in culture medium containing hyaluronan and/or lidocaine for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with DAPI staining, caspase 3/7 activity assay and flow cytometry. Cell cycle distributions, ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined using flow cytometry. The expression of p53 and p53-regulated gene products was measured with Western blotting. Results: Lidocaine (0.005%−0.03%) dose-dependently decreased the viability of SW1353 cells. This local anesthetic (0.015%, 0.025%) induced apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest and loss of ΔΨm, and markedly increased ROS production in SW1353 cells. Hyaluronan (50−800 μg/mL) alone did not affect the cell viability, but co-treatment with hyaluronan (200 μg/mL) significantly attenuated lidocaine-induced apoptosis and other abnormalities in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment with lidocaine and hyaluronan significantly decreased the levels of p53 and its transcription targets Bax and p21 in SW1353 cells, although treatment with lidocaine alone did not significantly change these proteins. Similar results were obtained in ex vivo cultured murine chondrocytes. Conclusion: Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro through inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27041463

  13. Rosiglitazone Suppresses In Vitro Seizures in Hippocampal Slice by Inhibiting Presynaptic Glutamate Release in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bing Wong

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor whose agonist, rosiglitazone has a neuroprotective effect to hippocampal neurons in pilocarpine-induced seizures. Hippocampal slice preparations treated in Mg2+ free medium can induce ictal and interictal-like epileptiform discharges, which is regarded as an in vitro model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. We applied rosiglitazone in hippocampal slices treated in Mg2+ free medium. The effects of rosiglitazone on hippocampal CA1-Schaffer collateral synaptic transmission were tested. We also examined the neuroprotective effect of rosiglitazone toward NMDA excitotoxicity on cultured hippocampal slices. Application of 10 μM rosiglitazone significantly suppressed amplitude and frequency of epileptiform discharges in CA1 neurons. Pretreatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not block the effect of rosiglitazone on suppressing discharge frequency, but reverse the effect on suppressing discharge amplitude. Application of rosiglitazone suppressed synaptic transmission in the CA1-Schaffer collateral pathway. By miniature excitatory-potential synaptic current (mEPSC analysis, rosiglitazone significantly suppressed presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This phenomenon can be reversed by pretreating PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Also, rosiglitazone protected cultured hippocampal slices from NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. The protective effect of 10 μM rosiglitazone was partially antagonized by concomitant high dose GW9662 treatment, indicating that this effect is partially mediated by PPARγ receptors. In conclusion, rosiglitazone suppressed NMDA receptor-mediated epileptiform discharges by inhibition of presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Rosiglitazone protected hippocampal slice from NMDA excitotoxicity partially by PPARγ activation. We suggest that rosiglitazone could be a potential agent to treat patients with TLE.

  14. CD4+ Regulatory T Cells Generated in Vitro with IFN-γ and Allogeneic APC Inhibit Transplant Arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Gregor; Feng, Gang; Goto, Ryoichi; Nadig, Satish N.; Francis, Ross; Wood, Kathryn J.; Bushell, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a method to generate alloreactive regulatory T cells in vitro in the presence of interferon (IFN)-γ and donor antigen presenting cells (APCs). We hypothesized that these IFN-γ–conditioned T cells (Tcon) would reduce transplantation-associated arteriosclerosis. Tcon were generated from mouse (CBA.Ca, H-2k) CD4+ T cells cultured in the presence of IFN-γ for 14 days. These cultures were pulsed with bone marrow–derived B6 (H-2b) APC. 1 × 105 CD25−CD4+ effector T cells from naive H-2k mice were then cotransferred with 4 × 105 Tcon into CBA-rag−/− mice. One day later, these mice received a fully allogenic B6 CD31−/− abdominal aorta transplant. Transfer of CD25−CD4+ effectors resulted in 29.7 ± 14.5% luminal occlusion of allogeneic aortic grafts after 30 days. Cotransfer of Tcon reduced this occlusion to 11.7 ± 13.1%; P < 0.05. In addition, the CD31− donor endothelium was fully repopulated by CD31+ recipient endothelial cells in the absence of Tcon, but not in the presence of Tcon. In some experiments, we cotransplanted B6 skin with aortic grafts to ensure enhanced reactivation of the regulatory cells, which led to an additional reduction in vasculopathy (1.9 ± 3.0% luminal occlusion). In the presence of Tcon, CD4+ T cell infiltration into grafts was markedly reduced by a regulatory mechanism that included reduced priming and proliferation of CD25−CD4+ effectors. These data illustrate the potential of ex vivo generated regulatory T cells for the inhibition of transplant-associated vasculopathy. PMID:20472892

  15. Traditional Uighur Medicine Karapxa decoction, inhibits liver xanthine oxidase and reduces serum uric acid concentrations in hyperuricemic mice and scavenges free radicals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Nurmuhammat; Umar, Anwar; Hoxur, Parida; Anaydulla, Mihrigul; Imam, Guzalnur; Aziz, Ranagul; Upur, Halmurat; Kijjoa, Anake; Moore, Nicholas

    2015-04-25

    Karapxa decoction (KD) is a Traditional Uighur Medicine used for hepatitis, cholecystitis, gastralgia, oedema, gout and arthralgia. Because of its purported effect in gout, its effects were tested in hyperuricemic mice models induced by yeast extract paste or potassium oxonate, as well as its capacity to scavenge free radicals in vitro. Hyperuricemia was induced in mice by yeast extract paste or potassium oxonate. KD was given orally for 14 days at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day, with Allopurinol 10 mg/kg/day as positive control. Serum uric acid (UA), and liver xanthine oxidase activity (XO) were measured. Scavenging activity of KD on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPP•), nitric oxide (•NO), superoxide (O2•-), efficiency against lipid peroxidation, and XO inhibition were determined in vitro. KD inhibited liver XO activity and reduced serum uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. KD also showed noticeable antioxidant activity, scavenging free radicals (DPP•, •NO and O2•-). It was effective against lipid peroxidation and inhibited XO in vitro. This study supports the traditional use of Karapxa decoction to treat hyperuricemia and gout.

  16. Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of in vitro prolactin secretion from the rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L.W. Picanço-Diniz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we demonstrated biphasic purinergic effects on prolactin (PRL secretion stimulated by an adenosine A2 agonist. In the present study, we investigated the role of the activation of adenosine A1 receptors by (R-N6-(2-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA at the pituitary level in in vitro PRL secretion. Hemipituitaries (one per cuvette in five replicates from adult male rats were incubated. Administration of R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 µM induced a reduction of PRL secretion into the medium in a U-shaped dose-response curve. The maximal reduction was obtained with 0.1 µM R-PIA (mean ± SEM, 36.01 ± 5.53 ng/mg tissue weight (t.w. treatment compared to control (264.56 ± 15.46 ng/mg t.w.. R-PIA inhibition (0.01 µM = 141.97 ± 15.79 vs control = 244.77 ± 13.79 ng/mg t.w. of PRL release was blocked by 1 µM cyclopentyltheophylline, a specific A1 receptor antagonist (1 µM = 212.360 ± 26.560 ng/mg t.w., whereas cyclopentyltheophylline alone (0.01, 0.1, 1 µM had no effect. R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 µM produced inhibition of PRL secretion stimulated by both phospholipase C (0.5 IU/mL; 977.44 ± 76.17 ng/mg t.w. and dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM; 415.93 ± 37.66 ng/mg t.w. with nadir established at the dose of 0.1 µM (225.55 ± 71.42 and 201.9 ± 19.08 ng/mg t.w., respectively. Similarly, R-PIA (0.01 µM decreased (242.00 ± 24.00 ng/mg t.w. the PRL secretion stimulated by cholera toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 1050.00 ± 70.00 ng/mg t.w.. In contrast, R-PIA had no effect (468.00 ± 34.00 ng/mg t.w. on PRL secretion stimulation by pertussis toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 430.00 ± 26.00 ng/mg t.w.. These results suggest that inhibition of PRL secretion after A1 receptor activation by R-PIA is mediated by a Gi protein-dependent mechanism.

  17. Inhibition of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene expression and replication by the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of Elaeocarpus sylvestris in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sohee; Kang, Se Chan; Song, Yoon-Jae

    2017-08-29

    In immunocompromised patients, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can lead to severe, life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonitis, hepatitis, gastrointestinal tract disease, and retinitis. We previously reported that a 70% ethanol extract of Elaeocarpus sylvestris leaves (ESE) inhibits human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication in vitro. In the present study, we determined the solvent fraction of ESE that inhibits HCMV replication using activity-guided fractionation. Activity-guided fractionation of ESE was performed to determine the solvent fraction that inhibits HCMV replication. Effects of solvent fractions on HCMV lytic gene expression and major immediate-early (MIE) enhancer/promoter activity were further investigated. Among the solvent fractions tested, the EtOAc fraction of ESE markedly reduced HCMV lytic gene expression and viral replication in vitro without exerting significant cytotoxic effects against human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF). Furthermore, the EtOAc fraction negatively affected HCMV MIE enhancer/promoter activity. Our data collectively indicate that the EtOAc fraction of ESE contains active constituents that inhibit HCMV MIE enhancer/promoter activity and viral replication. The EtOAc fraction of ESE is a good source of novel drug candidates for treatment of HCMV-associated diseases.

  18. A human papillomavirus (HPV) in vitro neutralization assay that recapitulates the in vitro process of infection provides a sensitive measure of HPV L2 infection-inhibiting antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Patricia M; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Kines, Rhonda C; Thompson, Cynthia D; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T

    2012-07-01

    Papillomavirus L2-based vaccines have generally induced low-level or undetectable neutralizing antibodies in standard in vitro assays yet typically protect well against in vivo experimental challenge in animal models. Herein we document that mice vaccinated with an L2 vaccine comprising a fusion protein of the L2 amino acids 11 to 88 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), HPV18, HPV1, HPV5, and HPV6 were uniformly protected from cervicovaginal challenge with HPV16 pseudovirus, but neutralizing antibodies against HPV16, -31, -33, -45, or -58 were rarely detected in their sera using a standard in vitro neutralization assay. To address this discrepancy, we developed a neutralization assay based on an in vitro infectivity mechanism that more closely mimics the in vivo infectious process, specifically by spaciotemporally separating primary and secondary receptor engagement and correspondingly by altering the timing of exposure of the dominant L2 cross-neutralizing epitopes to the antibodies. With the new assay, titers in the 100 to 10,000 range were measured for most sera, whereas undetectable neutralizing activities were observed with the standard assay. In vitro neutralizing titers measured in the serum of mice after passive transfer of rabbit L2 immune serum correlated with protection from cervicovaginal challenge of the mice. This "L2-based" in vitro neutralization assay should prove useful in critically evaluating the immunogenicity of L2 vaccine candidates in preclinical studies and future clinical trials.

  19. Biosynthesized Platinum Nanoparticles Inhibit the Proliferation of Human Lung-Cancer Cells in vitro and Delay the Growth of a Human Lung-Tumor Xenograft in vivo -In vitro and in vivo Anticancer Activity of bio-Pt NPs-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendale Yogesh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lung cancer remains a deadly disease with unsatisfactory overall survival. Cisplatin, a standard platinum (Pt-based chemotherapeutic agent, has the potential to inhibit the growth of lung cancer. Its use, however, is occasionally limited by severe organ toxicity. However, until now, no systematic study has been conducted to verify its efficacy with proper experimental support in vivo. Therefore, we examined whether biosynthesized Pt nanoparticles (NPs inhibited human lung cancer in vitro and in vivo to validate their use in alternative and complementary medicine. Methods: We evaluated the in vitro and the in vivo anticancer efficiencies of biosynthesized Pt NPs in a subcutaneous xenograft model with A549 cells. Severe combined immune deficient mice (SCID were divided into four groups: group 1 being the vehicle control group and groups 2, 3 and 4 being the experimental groups. Once the tumor volume had reached 70 ─ 75 mm3, the progression profile of the tumor growth kinetics and the body weights of the mice were measured every week for 6 weeks after oral administration of Pt NPs. Doses of Pt NPs of 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg of body weight were administered to the experimental groups and a dose of honey was administered to the vehicle control group. The efficacy was quantified by using the delay in tumor growth following the administration of Pt NPs of A549 human-lung-cancer xenografts growing in SCID mice. Results: The in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation indicated that Pt NPs, in a dose-dependent manner, inhibited the growth of A549 cells, and the in vivo evaluation showed that Pt NPs at the mid and high doses effectively inhibited and delayed the growth of lung cancer in SCID mice. Conclusion: These findings confirm the antitumor properties of biosynthesized Pt NPs and suggest that they may be a cost-effective alternative for the treatment of patients with lung cancer.

  20. In vitro investigation of anticancer and ACE-inhibiting activity, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, and antioxidant activity of camel milk fermented with camel milk probiotic: A comparative study with fermented bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyash, Mutamed; Al-Nuaimi, Amna K; Al-Mahadin, Suheir; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2018-01-15

    This study aimed to investigate in vitro the health-promoting benefits (anticancer activity, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibition, antioxidant and proteolytic activity) of camel milk fermented with indigenous probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp., compared with fermented bovine milk. The three camel milk probiotic strains Lb. reuteri-KX881777, Lb. plantarum-KX881772, Lb. plantarum-KX881779 and a control strain Lb. plantarum DSM2468 were employed to ferment camel and bovine milks separately. The proteolytic and antioxidant activity of water soluble extracts (WSEs) from all fermented camel milks were higher than those of fermented bovine milk. α-Amylase inhibition of WSEs were >34% in both milk types fermented with all strains during storage periods, except the WSE of camel milk fermented by Lp.K772. The highest ACE-inhibition of the WSE from camel milk fermented by Lr.K777 was >80%. The proliferations of Caco-2, MCF-7 and HELA cells were more inhibited when treated with the WSE of fermented camel milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo drug interaction potential of BST204, a purified dry extract of ginseng, and its four bioactive ginsenosides through cytochrome P450 inhibition/induction and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu Fen; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Choi, Eu Jin; Park, Jung Bae; Kim, Sun Ok; Jang, Min Jung; Park, Gyu Hwan; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Oh, Euichaul; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the potential of BST204, a purified dry extract of ginseng, to inhibit or induce human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in vitro to assess its safety. In vitro drug interactions of four bioactive ginsenosides of BST204, S-Rg3, R-Rg3, S-Rh2, and R-Rh2, were also evaluated. We demonstrated that BST204 slightly inhibited CYP2C8, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2B6 activities with IC50 values of 17.4, 26.8, 31.5, and 49.7μg/mL, respectively. BST204 also weakly inhibited UGT1A1, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 activities with IC50 values of 14.5, 26.6, and 31.5μg/mL, respectively. The potential inhibition by BST204 of the three UGT activities might be attributable to S-Rg3, at least in part, as its inhibitory pattern was similar to that of BST204. However, BST204 showed no time-dependent inactivation of the nine CYPs studied. In addition, BST204 did not induce CYP1A2, 2B6, or 3A4/5. On the basis of an in vivo interaction studies, our data strongly suggest that BST204 is unlikely to cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions mediated via inhibition or induction of most CYPs or UGTs involved in drug metabolism in vivo. Our findings offer a clearer understanding and possibility to predict drug-drug interactions for the safe use of BST204 in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Morin ameliorates chemically induced liver fibrosis in vivo and inhibits stellate cell proliferation in vitro by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MadanKumar, Perumal; NaveenKumar, Perumal; Manikandan, Samidurai [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Devaraj, Halagowder [Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); NiranjaliDevaraj, Sivasithamparam, E-mail: niranjali@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-06-01

    The anti-fibrotic effect of morin was examined in LX-2 cells (culture-activated human hepatic stellate cells) and in diethylnitrosamine induced rat model of liver fibrosis. The in vitro study was designed to determine whether morin affects the survival of cultured LX-2 cells, while the in vivo study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-fibrotic efficacy of morin on diethylnitrosamine induced liver fibrosis in male albino Wistar rat. The activities of liver function enzymes in serum, liver lipid peroxide levels, activities of serum antioxidant enzymes and liver architecture were monitored to cast light on the antioxidant and hepatoprotective nature of morin. To establish the anti-fibrotic effects of morin, the levels of key Wnt signaling molecules which are strongly associated with the signal transduction pathway of HSC activation were measured. Overall, from the in vitro results, it was observed that morin at 50 μM concentration inhibited the proliferation of cultured LX-2 cells, inhibited Wnt signaling and induced G1 cell cycle arrest. The in vivo results further confirmed that morin by downregulating the expressions of GSK-3β, β-catenin and cyclin D1 ameliorated DEN-induced liver fibrosis. Hence morin could be employed as a promising chemopreventive natural supplement for liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • In vivo and in vitro results revealed the active participation of Wnt signaling. • Morin at 50 μM inhibited LX-2 cell proliferation by suppressing Wnt signaling. • Morin exhibited hepatoprotective effects against DEN induced liver fibrosis. • Morin inhibited HSC activation in vivo by downregulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  3. MiR-181b targets Six2 and inhibits the proliferation of metanephric mesenchymal cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Zhongshi; Mao, Zhaomin; Wang, Honglian; Fang, Yin; Chen, Tielin [The Division of Molecular Nephrology and the Creative Training Center for Undergraduates, The M.O.E. Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, The College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wan, Qianya [The Undergraduates Class of 2011 entry, The College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Ming; Wang, Nian; Xiao, Jiangming; Wei, Hongyuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Yi [The Division of Molecular Nephrology and the Creative Training Center for Undergraduates, The M.O.E. Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, The College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhou, Qin, E-mail: zhouqin@cqmu.edu.cn [The Division of Molecular Nephrology and the Creative Training Center for Undergraduates, The M.O.E. Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, The College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We do bio-informatics websites to analysis of Six2 3′UTR. •MiR181b is a putative miRNA which can targets Six2 3′UTR. •MiR-181b binding site in the 3′UTR of Six2 is functional. •MiR-181b suppresses MK3 cells cell proliferation by targeting Six2. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by binding to target mRNA for cleavage or translational repression, and play important regulatory roles in renal development. Despite increasing genes have been predicted to be miRNA targets by bioinformatic analysis during kidney development, few of them have been verified by experiment. The objective of our study is to identify the miRNAs targeting Six2, a critical transcription factor that maintains the mesenchymal progenitor pool via self-renewal (proliferation) during renal development. We initially analyzed the 3′UTR of Six2 and found 37 binding sites targeted by 50 putative miRNAs in the 3′UTR of Six2. Among the 50 miRNAs, miR-181b is the miRNAs predicted by the three used websites. In our study, the results of luciferase reporter assay, realtime-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that miR-181b directly targeted on the 3′UTR of Six2 and down-regulate the expression of Six2 at mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, EdU proliferation assay along with the Six2 rescue strategy showed that miR-181b suppresses the proliferation of metanephric mesenchymal by targeting Six2 in part. In our research, we concluded that by targeting the transcription factor gene Six2, miR-181b inhibits the proliferation of metanephric mesenchymal cells in vitro and might play an important role in the formation of nephrons.

  4. Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine inhibit proliferation and survival of gastrointestinal cancer cells in vitro: significance of combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Morris, David Lawson

    2014-11-12

    Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine are two natural, sulfhydryl-containing compounds with good safety profiles which have been investigated for their benefits and application in health and disease for more than fifty years. As such, the potential values of these agents in cancer therapy have been variably reported in the literature. In the present study, the efficacy of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine in single agent and combination treatment of human gastrointestinal carcinoma cells was evaluated in vitro and the underlying mechanisms of effect were explored. The growth-inhibitory effects of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine, on their own and in combination, on a panel of human gastrointestinal carcinoma cell lines, including MKN45, KATO-III, HT29-5F12, HT29-5M21 and LS174T, were assessed by sulforhodamine B assay. Moreover, the influence of the treatment on the expression of a range of proteins involved in the regulation of cell cycle and survival was investigated by Western blot. The presence of apoptosis was also examined by TUNEL assay. Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine significantly inhibited cell proliferation, more potently in combination therapy. Drug-drug interaction in combination therapy was found to be predominantly synergistic or additive. Mechanistically, apoptotic bodies were detected in treated cells by TUNEL assay. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed diminution of cyclins A, B and D, the emergence of immunoreactive subunits of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8 and cleaved PARP, withering or cleavage of procaspase-9, overexpression of cytochrome c, reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-survival phospho-Akt, the emergence of the autophagosomal marker LC3-II and deregulation of other autophagy-related proteins, including Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12 and Beclin 1. These results were more prominent in combination therapy. We report for the first time to our knowledge the growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine, in

  5. Caries inhibition with a CO2 9.3 μm laser: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Rechmann, Beate M T; Groves, William H; Le, Charles Q; Rapozo-Hilo, Marcia L; Kinsel, Richard; Featherstone, John D B

    2016-07-01

    The caries preventive effects of different laser wavelengths have been studied in the laboratory as well as in pilot clinical trials. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether irradiation with a new 9.3 μm microsecond short-pulsed CO2 -laser could enhance enamel caries resistance with and without additional fluoride applications. One hundred and one human tooth enamel samples were divided into seven groups. Each group was treated with different laser parameters (CO2 -laser, wavelength 9.3 μm, 43 Hz pulse-repetition rate, pulse duration between 3 µs at 1.5 mJ/pulse to 7 µs at 2.9 mJ/pulse). A laboratory pH-cycling model followed by cross-sectional microhardness testing determined the mean relative mineral loss delta Z (ΔZ) for each group to assess caries inhibition in tooth enamel by the CO2 9.3 µm short-pulsed laser irradiation. The pH-cycling was performed with or without additional fluoride. The non-laser control groups with additional fluoride had a relative mineral loss (ΔZ, vol% × µm) that ranged between 646 ± 215 and 773 ± 223 (mean ± SD). The laser irradiated and fluoride treated samples had a mean ΔZ ranging between 209 ± 133 and 403 ± 245 for an average 55% ± 9% reduction in mineral loss (ANOVA test, P laser treated controls without additional fluoride. In contrast, the laser treated groups without additional fluoride showed a ΔZ between 470 ± 240 and 669 ± 209 (ANOVA test, P laser energy renders enamel caries resistant with and without additional fluoride use. The observed enhanced acid resistance occurred with the laser irradiation parameters used without obvious melting of the enamel surface as well as after irradiation with energies causing cutting of the enamel. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:546-554, 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the

  6. In vitro assessment of CYP1A2 and 2C9 inhibition potential of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica in human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savai, Jay; Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2015-06-01

    Several herbal drugs and allopathic medicines when co-administered can lead to severe herb-drug interactions. Hence, this study was undertaken in order to assess the in vitro inhibition potential of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and 2C9 enzyme using human liver microsomes. Inhibitory potential of crude extracts of both the medicinal plants along with their principal phytoconstituents were investigated using selective probe substrate technique. IC50, Ki values and mode of inhibition were determined. The results of the study revealed that W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both the isoforms of CYP. However, ethanolic extract of C. asiatica significantly inhibited both CYP1A2 (IC50 value - 42.23±3.65 μg/mL/Ki value - 14.93±4.59 μg/mL) and 2C9 enzyme (IC50 value - 48.41±4.64 μg/mL/Ki value - 23.89±3.14 μg/mL) in a competitive manner. The flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol showed potent (IC50 values less than 10 μM) inhibition of CYP1A2 activity with no significant inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme. Thus, these findings of the study might be helpful for safe and effective use of C. asiatica in clinical practice. However, its in vivo interaction study in humans is still warranted.

  7. Combined silencing of K-ras and Akt2 oncogenes achieves synergistic effects in inhibiting pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X H; Liang, Z Y; Ren, X Y; Liu, T H

    2009-03-01

    Cancer is a complex disease involving multiple oncogenes with diverse actions. Inhibiting only one oncogene is unlikely to eliminate the malignancy of cancer cells. The goal of this study was to investigate whether synergistic effects can be achieved by combined silencing of two oncogenes, K-ras and Akt2, which are key players in the Ras/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. The pancreatic cancer cell line, Panc-1, was selected for these studies as it has elevated expression of K-ras and Akt2. Compared with inhibiting each oncogene alone, simultaneously silencing the two oncogenes with RNA interference (RNAi) more effectively inhibited Panc-1 cell proliferation and colony formation, induced a significantly higher percentage of apoptosis and resulted in greater inhibition of c-myc expression in vitro. Furthermore, when delivered by polyethyleneimine into Panc-1 tumors in nude mice, RNAi simultaneously targeting K-ras and Akt2 inhibited tumor growth more efficiently than RNAi targeting the individual oncogenes. Therefore, RNAi simultaneously silencing the oncogenes K-ras and Akt2 may offer potential opportunities for pancreatic cancer gene therapy.

  8. Tolvaptan inhibits ERK-dependent cell proliferation, Cl− secretion, and in vitro cyst growth of human ADPKD cells stimulated by vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Gail A.; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Nivens, Emily; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Pinto, Cibele S.

    2011-01-01

    In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), arginine vasopressin (AVP) accelerates cyst growth by stimulating cAMP-dependent ERK activity and epithelial cell proliferation and by promoting Cl−-dependent fluid secretion. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, inhibits the renal effects of AVP and slows cyst growth in PKD animals. Here, we determined the effect of graded concentrations of tolvaptan on intracellular cAMP, ERK activity, cell proliferation, and transcellular Cl− secretion using human ADPKD cyst epithelial cells. Incubation of ADPKD cells with 10−9 M AVP increased intracellular cAMP and stimulated ERK and cell proliferation. Tolvaptan caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of AVP-induced cAMP production with an apparent IC50 of ∼10−10 M. Correspondingly, tolvaptan inhibited AVP-induced ERK signaling and cell proliferation. Basolateral application of AVP to ADPKD cell monolayers grown on permeable supports caused a sustained increase in short-circuit current that was completely blocked by the Cl− channel blocker CFTRinh-172, consistent with AVP-induced transepithelial Cl− secretion. Tolvaptan inhibited AVP-induced Cl− secretion and decreased in vitro cyst growth of ADPKD cells cultured within a three-dimensional collagen matrix. These data demonstrate that relatively low concentrations of tolvaptan inhibit AVP-stimulated cell proliferation and Cl−-dependent fluid secretion by human ADPKD cystic cells. PMID:21816754

  9. Serum amyloid P component binds to influenza A virus haemagglutinin and inhibits the virus infection in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Vilsgaard Ravn, K; Juul Sørensen, I

    1997-01-01

    that SAP can bind to influenza A virus and inhibit agglutination of erythrocytes mediated by the virus subtypes H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2. SAP also inhibits the production of haemagglutinin (HA) an the cytopathogenic effect of influenza A virus in MDCK cells. The binding of SAP to the virus requires...... to the mass of the HA1 peptide. Of several monosaccharides tested only D-mannose interfered with SAP's inhibition of both HA and infectivity. The glycosaminoglycans heparan sulfate and heparin, which bind SAP, reduced SAPs binding to the virus. The results indicate that the inhibition by SAP is due to steric...

  10. GHGKHKNK Octapeptide (P-5m Inhibits Metastasis of HCCLM3 Cell Lines via Regulation of MMP-2 Expression in in Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available P-5m, an octapeptide derived from domain 5 of HKa, was initially found to inhibit the invasion and migration of melanoma cells. The high metastatic potential of melanoma cells was prevented by the HGK motif in the P-5m peptide in vitro and in an experimental lung metastasis model, suggesting that P-5m may play an important role in the regulation of tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of P-5m on tumor metastasis of human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HCCLM3 in vitro and in vivo in a nude mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and detect the mechanisms involved in P-5m-induced anti-metastasis. By gelatin zymography, matrix metallo-proteinases 2 (MMP-2 activity in HCCLM3 was dramatically diminished by P-5m peptide. In addition, the migration and metastasis of HCCLM3 cells was also inhibited by the peptide in vitro. In an orthotopic model of HCC in nude mice, P-5m treatment effectively reduced the lung metastasis as well as the expression of MMP-2 in the tumor tissues. Overall, these observations indicate an important role for P-5m peptide in HCC invasion and metastasis, at least partially through modulation MMP-2 expression. These data suggests that P-5m may have therapeutic potential in metastatic human hepatocarcinoma.

  11. RNA interference of caveolin-1 via lentiviral vector inhibits growth of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma FaDu cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuening; Ma, Chao; Cai, Xiaolan; Lei, Dapeng; Liu, Dayu; Xu, Fenglei; Jin, Tong; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xinliang

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of caveolin-1 (CAV1) on the growth of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) FaDu cells in vitro and in vivo. A CAV1-RNAi-lentivirus construct was transfected into FaDu cells and expression of caveolin-1 was tested by RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by transferase-medisated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Tumor inhibition effects were investigated by injecting rCAV1-RNAi-lentivirus construct into tumors created with FaDu cells in the HSCC mouse model, with the empty-vector lentivirus as a control. CAV1 expression in xenografts was tested by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated successful construction of the CAV1-RNAi-lentivirus construct producing small hairpin RNA. The average weights and volumes of tumor in mice treated with CAV1-RNAi-lentivirus were lower than in mice with control treatment (P < 0.05). RT-PCR revealed weak positive expression of CAV1 in CAV1-construct-treated xenografts and immunohistochemistry confirmed lower CAV1 expression than in controls.(P < 0.05). In addition, downregulation of CAV1 increased cell apoptosis in vitro. The growth of HSCCs could be inhibited by recombinant CAV1-RNAi-lentivirus in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside Present in Lettuce Extracts Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Production and Viral Replication by Human Hepatoma Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xian Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in Asia and chronic hepatitis B (CHB is a major public health issue worldwide. Current treatment strategies for CHB are not satisfactory as they induce a low rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg loss. Extracts were prepared from lettuce hydroponically cultivated in solutions containing glycine or nitrate as nitrogen sources. The lettuce extracts exerted potent anti-HBV effects in HepG2 cell lines in vitro, including significant HBsAg inhibition, HBV replication and transcription inhibition, without exerting cytotoxic effects. When used in combination interferon-alpha 2b (IFNα-2b or lamivudine (3TC, the lettuce extracts synergistically inhibited HBsAg expression and HBV replication. By using differential metabolomics analysis, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified and confirmed as a functional component of the lettuce extracts and exhibited similar anti-HBV activity as the lettuce extracts in vitro. The inhibition rate on HBsAg was up to 77.4%. Moreover, both the lettuce extracts and luteolin-7-O-glucoside functioned as organic antioxidants and, significantly attenuated HBV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside also normalized ROS-induced mitochondrial membrane potential damage, which suggests luteolin-7-O-glucoside inhibits HBsAg and HBV replication via a mechanism involving the mitochondria. Our findings suggest luteolin-7-O-glucoside may have potential value for clinical application in CHB and may enhance HBsAg and HBV clearance when used as a combination therapy.

  13. In vitro selective inhibition of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A4 by finasteride, and prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Jung Bae; Kim, Doyun; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Chin, Young-Won; Oh, Euichaul; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2015-01-22

    In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potentials of finasteride for the major human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15) in vitro using LC-MS/MS by specific marker reactions in human liver microsomes (except for UGT2B15) or recombinant supersomes (UGT2B15). Of the seven tested UGTs, finasteride potently, selectively, and competitively inhibited UGT1A4-mediated trifluoperazine-N-glucuronidation in human liver microsomes with an IC₅₀ value of 11.5 ± 1.78 μM and Ki value of 6.03 ± 0.291 μM. This inhibitory potency was similar to that of hecogenin, a well-known inhibitor of UGT1A4. However, finasteride did not seem to inhibit any of the other six UGTs: UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, or UGT2B15. Similarly, finasteride markedly inhibited UGT1A4 activity in recombinant human UGT1A4 supersomes, with a Ki value of 6.05 ± 0.410 μM. In addition, finasteride strongly inhibited UGT1A4-catalyzed imipramine-N-β-D-glucuronidation. However, on the basis of an in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, our data strongly suggested that finasteride is unlikely to cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of the hepatic UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) inhibits key events of cancer metastasis: I. In vitro studies of adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantivejkul, Kwanchanit; Vucenik, Ivana; Shamsuddin, Abulkalam M

    2003-01-01

    The anti-cancer agent inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is an abundant intrinsic component of both plant and mammalian cells. In addition to inducing differentiation and inhibiting growth of numerous cancer cell lines in vitro, IP6 has been demonstrated to prevent and abrogate both primary tumor and metastasis in vivo. Using MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cells, we studied the potential of IP6 to inhibit cell adhesion, migration and invasion, the key steps in cancer metastasis, utilizing the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, a culture wounding assay, modified Boyden chambers, immunocytochemistry and zymography. IP6 treatment caused a 65% reduction of cell adhesion to fibronection (p = 0.002) and a 37% reduction to collagen (p = 0.005). To determine whether a decrease in cell adhesion leads to a decrease in cell motility, migration assays were performed; IP6 decreased both the number of migrating cells and the distance of cell migration into the denuded area by 72% (p < 0.001). Haptotatic cell migration in a modified Boyden chambers was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. While cell migration on fibronectin was inhibited by 65% (p < 0.001), migration on collagen and laminin was decreased by 32% (p < 0.01) and 13% (p < 0.05), respectively. Immunocytochemistry revealed the absence of lamellipodia structure in IP6-treated cells as compared to untreated cells, corresponding to a diminished ability of cancer cells to form cellular network as determined by Matrigel outgrowth assay. Likewise, cell invasion also was decreased (by 72% after IP6 treatment, p = 0.001) in a dose-dependent fashion. Additionally, IP6 significantly (p = 0.006) inhibited the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 as assessed by zymography. The results of this study show that IP6 inhibits the metastasis of human breast cancer cells in vitro through effects on cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion.

  15. Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor Selectively Inhibits the Endothelium-Driven Transmigration of Eosinophils In Vitro and Airway Eosinophilia in OVA-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schnyder-Candrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion molecules are involved in cell recruitment in an allergic airway response and therefore provide a target for pharmaceutical intervention. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF, derived from canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, binds selectively and competes with the A-domain of CD11b for binding to ICAM-1. The effect of recombinant NIF was investigated. Intranasal administration of rNIF reduced pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and Th2 cytokine production in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro, transendothelial migration of human blood eosinophils across IL-4-activated umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers was inhibited by rNIF (IC50: 4.6±2.6 nM; mean ± SEM, but not across TNF or IL-1-activated HUVEC monolayers. Treatment of eosinophils with rNIF together with mAb 60.1 directed against CD11b or mAb 107 directed against the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS of the CD11b A-domain resulted in no further inhibition of transendothelial migration suggesting shared functional epitopes. In contrast, rNIF increased the inhibitory effect of blocking mAbs against CD18, CD11a, and VLA-4. Together, we show that rNIF, a selective antagonist of the A-domain of CD11b, has a prominent inhibitory effect on eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro, which is congruent to the in vivo inhibition of OVA-induced allergic lung inflammation.

  16. Serum amyloid P component binds to influenza A virus haemagglutinin and inhibits the virus infection in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Vilsgaard Ravn, K; Juul Sørensen, I

    1997-01-01

    that SAP can bind to influenza A virus and inhibit agglutination of erythrocytes mediated by the virus subtypes H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2. SAP also inhibits the production of haemagglutinin (HA) an the cytopathogenic effect of influenza A virus in MDCK cells. The binding of SAP to the virus requires...

  17. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV...

  18. Physiological Mg(2+) Conditions Significantly Alter the Inhibition of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Reverse Transcriptases by Nucleoside and Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuthan, Vasudevan; Singh, Kamlendra; DeStefano, Jeffrey J

    2017-01-10

    Reverse transcriptases (RTs) are typically assayed in vitro with 5-10 mM Mg(2+), whereas the free Mg(2+) concentration in cells is much lower. Artificially high Mg(2+) concentrations used in vitro can misrepresent different properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RT, including fidelity, catalysis, pausing, and RNase H activity. Here, we analyzed nucleoside (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) in primer extension assays at different concentrations of free Mg(2+). At low concentrations of Mg(2+), NRTIs and dideoxynucleotides (AZTTP, ddCTP, ddGTP, and 3TCTP) inhibited HIV-1 and HIV-2 RT synthesis less efficiently than they did with large amounts of Mg(2+), whereas inhibition by the "translocation-defective RT inhibitor" EFdA (4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine) was unaffected by Mg(2+) concentrations. Steady-state kinetic analyses revealed that the reduced level of inhibition at low Mg(2+) concentrations resulted from a 3-9-fold (depending on the particular nucleotide and inhibitor) less efficient incorporation (based on kcat/Km) of these NRTIs under this condition compared to incorporation of natural dNTPs. In contrast, EFdATP was incorporated with an efficiency similar to that of its analogue dATP at low Mg(2+) concentrations. Unlike NRTIs, NNRTIs (nevirapine, efavirenz, and rilviripine), were approximately 4-fold (based on IC50 values) more effective at low than at high Mg(2+) concentrations. Drug-resistant HIV-1 RT mutants also displayed the Mg(2+)-dependent difference in susceptibility to NRTIs and NNRTIs. In summary, analyzing the efficiency of inhibitors under more physiologically relevant low-Mg(2+) conditions yielded results dramatically different from those from measurements using commonly employed high-Mg(2+) in vitro conditions. These results also emphasize differences in Mg(2+) sensitivity between the translocation inhibitor EFdATP and other NRTIs.

  19. Confrontation of fibroblasts with cancer cells in vitro: gene network analysis of transcriptome changes and differential capacity to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeyenko, Andrey; Alkasalias, Twana; Pavlova, Tatiana; Szekely, Laszlo; Kashuba, Vladimir; Rundqvist, Helene; Wiklund, Peter; Egevad, Lars; Csermely, Peter; Korcsmaros, Tamas; Guven, Hayrettin; Klein, George

    2015-06-18

    There is growing evidence that emerging malignancies in solid tissues might be kept under control by physical intercellular contacts with normal fibroblasts. Here we characterize transcriptional landscapes of fibroblasts that confronted cancer cells. We studied four pairs of in vitro and ex vivo fibroblast lines which, within each pair, differed in their capacity to inhibit cancer cells. The natural process was modeled in vitro by confronting the fibroblasts with PC-3 cancer cells. Fibroblast transcriptomes were recorded by Affymetrix microarrays and then investigated using network analysis. The network enrichment analysis allowed us to separate confrontation- and inhibition-specific components of the fibroblast transcriptional response. Confrontation-specific differences were stronger and were characterized by changes in a number of pathways, including Rho, the YAP/TAZ cascade, NF-kB, and TGF-beta signaling, as well as the transcription factor RELA. Inhibition-specific differences were more subtle and characterized by involvement of Rho signaling at the pathway level and by potential individual regulators such as IL6, MAPK8, MAP2K4, PRKCA, JUN, STAT3, and STAT5A. We investigated the interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts in order to shed light on the potential mechanisms and explain the differential inhibitory capacity of the latter, which enabled both a holistic view on the process and details at the gene/protein level. The combination of our methods pointed to proteins, such as members of the Rho pathway, pro-inflammatory signature and the YAP1/TAZ cascade, that warrant further investigation via tools of experimental perturbation. We also demonstrated functional congruence between the in vitro and ex vivo models. The microarray data are made available via the Gene Expression Omnibus as GSE57199.

  20. Efficient in vitro inhibition of HIV-1 gag reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) at minimal ratios of PNA/RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Zachar, Vladimir; Nielsen, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    of reverse transcription was obtained at approximately 6-fold molar excess of the bis-PNA with respect to the gag RNA. At this molar ratio we found no effect on in vitro translation of gag RNA. A 15mer duplex-forming PNA was also found to inhibit reverse transcription at very low molar ratios of PNA/ gag RNA...... that would indicate PNA-mediated RNase H activation of the tested RTs. In conclusion, PNA appears to have a potential to become a specific and efficient inhibitor of reverse transcription in vivo , provided sufficient intracellular levels are achievable....

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of hetero- and homodimers of ribosome-targeting antibiotics: antimicrobial activity, in vitro inhibition of translation, and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkov-Zrihen, Yifat; Green, Keith D; Labby, Kristin J; Feldman, Mark; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Fridman, Micha

    2013-07-11

    In this study, we describe the synthesis of a full set of homo- and heterodimers of three intact structures of different ribosome-targeting antibiotics: tobramycin, clindamycin, and chloramphenicol. Several aspects of the biological activity of the dimeric structures were evaluated including antimicrobial activity, inhibition of in vitro bacterial protein translation, and the effect of dimerization on the action of several bacterial resistance mechanisms that deactivate tobramycin and chloramphenicol. This study demonstrates that covalently linking two identical or different ribosome-targeting antibiotics may lead to (i) a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity, (ii) improved inhibition of bacterial translation properties compared to that of the parent antibiotics, and (iii) reduction in the efficacy of some drug-modifying enzymes that confer high levels of resistance to the parent antibiotics from which the dimers were derived.

  2. Structural basis for the in vitro known acyl-depsipeptide 2 (ADEP2) inhibition to Clp 2 protease from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Natasha; Singh, Snehal; Shukla, Ruchi; Tirumalaraju, Sridevi; Bandaru, Srinivas; Banerjee, Tushar; Nayarisseri, Anuraj

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clp 2 protease has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for treatment. Acyldepsipeptides (ADEPs) is known as an inhibitor for Clp 2 protease. Therefore, it is of interest to document its affinity, enzyme activity and ADME profiles. We report the predicted binding affinity of all known Clp 2 inhibitors like IDR-10001 and IDR-10011 against Clp2 protease using MolDock algorithm aided molecular docking. The predicted activity (using Molinspiration server) and ADMET properties (AdmetSAR server) were estimated for these compounds. This data suggest ADEP2 having improved binding features with Mtb Clp 2 having acceptable ADMET properties. This is in agreement with known in vitro data for ADEP2 inhibition with Mtb Clp 2 protease.

  3. Inhibition of Tanshinone IIA, Salvianolic Acid A and Salvianolic Acid B on Areca Nut Extract-Induced Oral Submucous Fibrosis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping Dai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge has been reported to possess excellent antifibrotic activity. In this study, we have investigated the effect and mechanism of tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA, salvianolic acid A (Sal-A and salvianolic acid B (Sal-B, the important active compounds of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, on areca nut extract (ANE-induced oral submucous fibrosis (OSF in vitro. Through human procollagen gene promoter luciferase reporter plasmid assay, hydroxyproline assay, gelatin zymography assay, qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot assay, the influence of these three compounds on ANE-stimulated cell viability, collagen accumulation, procollagen gene transcription, MMP-2/-9 activity, MMP-1/-13 and TIMP-1/-2 expression, cytokine secretion and the activation of PI3K/AKT, ERK/JNK/p38 MAPK and TGF-β/Smads pathways were detected. The results showed that Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B could significantly inhibit the ANE-stimulated abnormal viability and collagen accumulation of mice oral mucosal fibroblasts (MOMFs, inhibit the transcription of procollagen gene COL1A1 and COL3A1, increase MMP-2/-9 activity, decrease TIMP-1/-2 expression and inhibit the transcription and release of CTGF, TGF-β1, IL-6 and TNF-α; Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B also inhibited the ANE-induced activation of AKT and ERK MAPK pathways in MOMFs and the activation of TGF-β/Smads pathway in HaCaT cells. In conclusion, Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B possess excellent antifibrotic activity in vitro and can possibly be used to promote the rehabilitation of OSF patients.

  4. Zn(2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aartjan J W te Velthuis

    Full Text Available Increasing the intracellular Zn(2+ concentration with zinc-ionophores like pyrithione (PT can efficiently impair the replication of a variety of RNA viruses, including poliovirus and influenza virus. For some viruses this effect has been attributed to interference with viral polyprotein processing. In this study we demonstrate that the combination of Zn(2+ and PT at low concentrations (2 µM Zn(2+ and 2 µM PT inhibits the replication of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and equine arteritis virus (EAV in cell culture. The RNA synthesis of these two distantly related nidoviruses is catalyzed by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, which is the core enzyme of their multiprotein replication and transcription complex (RTC. Using an activity assay for RTCs isolated from cells infected with SARS-CoV or EAV--thus eliminating the need for PT to transport Zn(2+ across the plasma membrane--we show that Zn(2+ efficiently inhibits the RNA-synthesizing activity of the RTCs of both viruses. Enzymatic studies using recombinant RdRps (SARS-CoV nsp12 and EAV nsp9 purified from E. coli subsequently revealed that Zn(2+ directly inhibited the in vitro activity of both nidovirus polymerases. More specifically, Zn(2+ was found to block the initiation step of EAV RNA synthesis, whereas in the case of the SARS-CoV RdRp elongation was inhibited and template binding reduced. By chelating Zn(2+ with MgEDTA, the inhibitory effect of the divalent cation could be reversed, which provides a novel experimental tool for in vitro studies of the molecular details of nidovirus replication and transcription.

  5. Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velthuis, Aartjan J W; van den Worm, Sjoerd H E; Sims, Amy C; Baric, Ralph S; Snijder, Eric J; van Hemert, Martijn J

    2010-11-04

    Increasing the intracellular Zn(2+) concentration with zinc-ionophores like pyrithione (PT) can efficiently impair the replication of a variety of RNA viruses, including poliovirus and influenza virus. For some viruses this effect has been attributed to interference with viral polyprotein processing. In this study we demonstrate that the combination of Zn(2+) and PT at low concentrations (2 µM Zn(2+) and 2 µM PT) inhibits the replication of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) in cell culture. The RNA synthesis of these two distantly related nidoviruses is catalyzed by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is the core enzyme of their multiprotein replication and transcription complex (RTC). Using an activity assay for RTCs isolated from cells infected with SARS-CoV or EAV--thus eliminating the need for PT to transport Zn(2+) across the plasma membrane--we show that Zn(2+) efficiently inhibits the RNA-synthesizing activity of the RTCs of both viruses. Enzymatic studies using recombinant RdRps (SARS-CoV nsp12 and EAV nsp9) purified from E. coli subsequently revealed that Zn(2+) directly inhibited the in vitro activity of both nidovirus polymerases. More specifically, Zn(2+) was found to block the initiation step of EAV RNA synthesis, whereas in the case of the SARS-CoV RdRp elongation was inhibited and template binding reduced. By chelating Zn(2+) with MgEDTA, the inhibitory effect of the divalent cation could be reversed, which provides a novel experimental tool for in vitro studies of the molecular details of nidovirus replication and transcription.

  6. Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velthuis, Aartjan J. W.; van den Worm, Sjoerd H. E.; Sims, Amy C.; Baric, Ralph S.; Snijder, Eric J.; van Hemert, Martijn J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the intracellular Zn2+ concentration with zinc-ionophores like pyrithione (PT) can efficiently impair the replication of a variety of RNA viruses, including poliovirus and influenza virus. For some viruses this effect has been attributed to interference with viral polyprotein processing. In this study we demonstrate that the combination of Zn2+ and PT at low concentrations (2 µM Zn2+ and 2 µM PT) inhibits the replication of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) in cell culture. The RNA synthesis of these two distantly related nidoviruses is catalyzed by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is the core enzyme of their multiprotein replication and transcription complex (RTC). Using an activity assay for RTCs isolated from cells infected with SARS-CoV or EAV—thus eliminating the need for PT to transport Zn2+ across the plasma membrane—we show that Zn2+ efficiently inhibits the RNA-synthesizing activity of the RTCs of both viruses. Enzymatic studies using recombinant RdRps (SARS-CoV nsp12 and EAV nsp9) purified from E. coli subsequently revealed that Zn2+ directly inhibited the in vitro activity of both nidovirus polymerases. More specifically, Zn2+ was found to block the initiation step of EAV RNA synthesis, whereas in the case of the SARS-CoV RdRp elongation was inhibited and template binding reduced. By chelating Zn2+ with MgEDTA, the inhibitory effect of the divalent cation could be reversed, which provides a novel experimental tool for in vitro studies of the molecular details of nidovirus replication and transcription. PMID:21079686

  7. Activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase blocks cumulus cell expansion through inhibition of protein synthesis during in vitro maturation in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiquet, Nicolas; Sasseville, Maxime; Laforest, Martin; Guillemette, Christine; Gilchrist, Robert B; Richard, François J

    2014-08-01

    The serine/threonine kinase 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric protein known as a metabolic switch, is involved in oocyte nuclear maturation in mice, cattle, and swine. The present study analyzed AMPK activation in cumulus cell expansion during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) is a well-known activator of AMPK. It inhibited oocyte meiotic resumption in COC. Moreover, cumulus cell expansion did not occur in the presence of AICAR, demonstrating its marked impact on cumulus cells. Activation of AMPK was supported by AICAR-mediated phosphorylation of alpha AMPK subunits. Furthermore, the presence of AICAR increased glucose uptake, a classical response to activation of this metabolic switch in response to depleted cellular energy levels. Neither nuclear maturation nor cumulus expansion was reversed by glucosamine, an alternative substrate in hyaluronic acid synthesis, through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which ruled out possible depletion of substrates. Both increased gap junction communication and phosphodiesterase activity in COC are dependent on protein synthesis during the initial hours of IVM; however, both were inhibited in the presence of AICAR, which supports the finding that activation of AMPK by AICAR mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. Moreover, this protein synthesis inhibition was equivalent to that of the well-known protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, as observed on cumulus expansion and protein concentration. Finally, the phosphorylation level of selected kinases was investigated. The pattern of raptor phosphorylation is supportive of activation of AMPK-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. In conclusion, AICAR-mediated AMPK activation in porcine COC inhibited cumulus cell expansion and protein synthesis. These results bring new considerations to the importance of this kinase in ovarian

  8. In vitro screening of reversible and time-dependent inhibition on CYP3A by TM208 and TM209 in rat liver microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaoran Ning

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available TM208 and TM209, dithiocarbamate derivatives with potential anti-cancer effects, were evaluated in reversible and time-dependent cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A inhibition assays in rat liver microsomes using testosterone as probe substrate. Both compounds were found to be weak reversible inhibitors and moderate mechanism-based inhibitors of rat CYP3A. For reversible inhibition on rat CYP3A, the Ki values of competitive inhibition model were 12.10±1.75 and 13.94±1.31 μM, respectively. For time-dependent inhibition, the inactivation constants (Kl were 31.93±12.64 and 32.91±15.58 μM, respectively, and the maximum inactivation rates (kinact were 0.03497±0.0069 and 0.07259±0.0172 min−1 respectively. These findings would provide useful in vitro information for future in vivo DDI studies on TM208 or TM209.

  9. Tetracycline and Glutathione Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity: An In Vitro Study Using Culture Supernatants of L929 and Dalton Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan Kendre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracycline and glutathione inhibited the protease activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressed by mouse fibrosarcoma cells (L929 and Dalton lymphoma cells, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the tetracycline may be due to its ability to chelate metal ions such as calcium and zinc. Gelatin-zymography technique was used to demonstrate the inhibitory activity of both tetracycline and glutathione. The intensity of the bands corresponding to metalloproteinase activity in zymography gel was reduced in the presence of 50–100 μg/mL of tetracycline. The presence of 10–100 μg/mL of tetracycline in the medium increased the adherence of L929 cancer cells. These results clearly indicate the antimetastatic property of tetracycline. Reduced glutathione, a compound which is produced endogenously by the cells to maintain the redox status, was shown to inhibit the matrix metalloproteinase activity (in vitro. Therefore, it is assumed that decreased glutathione levels in synovial fluids or plasma might increase the activity of MMP. Reduced glutathione at 100 μg/mL inhibited the metalloproteinase activity in gelatin-zymographic gel. As both tetracycline and glutathione exhibited an inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinase activity, it was of great interest to check their clinical effects on various MMP associated pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis and arthritis. Here we report that tetracycline and reduced glutathione inhibited the activity of MMP2 completely and activity of MMP9 partly.

  10. Cannabinoids Inhibit T-cells via Cannabinoid Receptor 2 in an in vitro Assay for Graft Rejection, the Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebecca Hartzell; Meissler, Joseph J.; Breslow-Deckman, Jessica M.; Gaughan, John; Adler, Martin W.; Eisenstein, Toby K.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids are known to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed mainly on leukocytes and is the receptor implicated in mediating many of the effects of cannabinoids on immune processes. This study tested the capacity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and of two CB2-selective agonists to inhibit the murine Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR), an in vitro correlate of graft rejection following skin and organ transplantation. Both CB2-selective agonists and Δ9-THC significantly suppressed the MLR in a dose dependent fashion. The inhibition was via CB2, as suppression could be blocked by pretreatment with a CB2-selective antagonist, but not by a CB1 antagonist, and none of the compounds suppressed the MLR when splenocytes from CB2 deficient mice were used. The CB2 agonists were shown to act directly on T-cells, as exposure of CD3+ cells to these compounds completely inhibited their action in a reconstituted MLR. Further, the CB2-selective agonists completely inhibited proliferation of purified T-cells activated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. T-cell function was decreased by the CB2 agonists, as an ELISA of MLR culture supernatants revealed IL-2 release was significantly decreased in the cannabinoid treated cells. Together, these data support the potential of this class of compounds as useful therapies to prolong graft survival in transplant patients. PMID:23824763

  11. Cold-water extracts of Grifola frondosa and its purified active fraction inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Ching-Yao; Lee, Kuan-Rong; Lin, Hui-Ju; Lin, Wu-Chou; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Mushrooms are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Grifola frondosa (GF) is an edible mushroom indigenous to many Asian countries with a large fruiting body characterized by overlapping caps. In particular, GF is known for its anti-tumor activity, which has been targeted by scientific and clinical research. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the cold-water extract of GF (GFW) and its active fraction (GFW-GF) on autophagy and apoptosis, and the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo Our results revealed that GFW and GFW-GF inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and stimulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, thereby inducing autophagy. We also demonstrated that GFW and GFW-GF inhibited proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in Hep3B hepatoma cells. GFW and GFW-GF markedly arrested cells in S phase and promoted cleavage of caspase-3 and -9. In addition, GFW and GFW-GF decreased the expression levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. We also found that GFW significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice implanted with Hep3B cells. Our work demonstrates that GF and its active fraction inhibit hepatoma growth by inducing autophagy and apoptosis. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  12. Cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan inhibits adhesion of neutrophils to stimulated endothelium in vitro by affecting both neutrophils and endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, Pauline M.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Wolbers, Floor; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Coenjaerts, Frank E. J.

    2002-01-01

    Cryptococcal infections are often characterized by a paucity of leukocytes in the infected tissues. Previous research has shown that the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) inhibits leukocyte migration. In this study we investigated whether the capsular polysaccharide GXM affects the

  13. In-vitro growth characteristics of commercial probiotic strains and their potential for inhibition of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, A.; Kokotovic, Branko; Permin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics have gained importance in human and veterinary medicine to prevent enteric disease. Little information is available on commercial probiotic strains regarding their growth characteristics and inhibition of equine enteric pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens...

  14. Antimalarial activity of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn.-an in vitro Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibition assay

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Sethiya; Priyadarshan Keluskar; Sanjay Ingle; Shrihari Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of standardized methanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn. (E. alsinoids) on Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) enzyme inhibition. Methods: To carry out enzyme inhibition studies, lactate dehydrogenase was cloned from Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain using expression vector pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Protein purification was carried out by Ni-affinity chromatography. This protein was ...

  15. In vitro antibacterial, alpha-amylase inhibition potential of three nudibranchs extracts from South East coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giji Sadhasivam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial and antiamylase properties of methanol and acetone extracts of nudibranchs including Bursatella leachii (B. leachii, Kalinga ornata (K. ornata, Aplysia sp. Methods: Crude methanol and acetone extracts of sea slugs were tested for inhibition of fish bacterial pathogens' growth through disc diffusion method. The activity was measured based on the formation of inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with crude extracts. The α-amylase inhibitory effect was also measured calorimetrically. The chemical fingerprinting of the extract was recorded with HPTLC and GC-MS. Results: The solvent extracts of all the three sea slugs showed antibacterial property. The maximum zone of inhibition (>15-20 mm was recorded for methanol and acetone extracts of K. ornata. The methanol extract of Aplysia sp. exhibited 93% inhibition against α-amylase, following by B. leachii (methanol 70.6% and K. ornata (methanol 49.03% inhibition respectively. The acetone extracts didn' t show any notable inhibition. The presence of free amino acids like lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine etc., terpenoids and pigents were confirmed through HPTLC analysis. The presence of siloxanes and propanoic acid were also revealed through GC-MS. Conclusions: This study suggests that further scrutinisation of the B. leachii, K. ornata and Aplysia sp. will pave the way for development of antibacterial and α-amylase inhibitory agent for therapeutic application.

  16. An evaluation of the effect of various gloves on polymerization inhibition of elastomeric impression materials: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuta Hiremath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Latex protective barriers such as gloves and rubber dam material have been used widely in restorative procedures for crown and bridge. However, the chemical used during latex glove fabrication is thought to inhibit the polymerization of elastomeric impression materials used for impression making which has a detrimental effect on the dimensional accuracy and surface definition of resultant casts used for restorative procedures. The objectives of the study were to examine the surface of different elastomeric impressions on contact with various gloves. Materials and Methods: This clinical study included a total of eighty specimens of two types of the putty elastomeric impression material were hand manipulated by wearing three different gloves materials and is placed on a marked area of a clean and alcohol-treated glass slab at room temperature. The specimens examined for any signs of polymerization inhibition. The specimen will be rated as being “inhibited” if any residue remains on the glass slab and absence of the above will result as “no inhibition.” Results: The results showed no interference with the polymerization inhibition of the selected elastomers followed by the nitrile glove. The latex gloves showed inhibited set of the elastomeric impression material but set after sometime confirming time-dependent inhibition of the impression material. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of latex and sometime nitrile gloves during crown and bridge procedures should be contraindicated and the use of vinyl gloves should be stressed when working with elastomeric impression materials.

  17. Design, characterization, and in vitro cellular inhibition and uptake of optimized genistein-loaded NLC for the prevention of posterior capsular opacification using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenji; Li, Xuedong; Ye, Tiantian; Chen, Fen; Sun, Xiao; Kong, Jun; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan; Li, Sanming

    2013-09-15

    This study was to design an innovative nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) for drug delivery of genistein applied after cataract surgery for the prevention of posterior capsular opacification. NLC loaded with genistein (GEN-NLC) was produced with Compritol 888 ATO, Gelucire 44/14 and Miglyol 812N, stabilized by Solutol(®) HS15 by melt emulsification method. A 2(4) central composite design of 4 independent variables was performed for optimization. Effects of drug concentration, Gelucire 44/14 concentration in total solid lipid, liquid lipid concentration, and surfactant concentration on the mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency were investigated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test was used to assess the optimization. The optimized GEN-NLC showed a homogeneous particle size of 90.16 nm (with PI=0.33) of negatively charged surface (-25.08 mv) and high encapsulation efficiency (91.14%). Particle morphology assessed by TEM revealed a spherical shape. DSC analyses confirmed that GEN was mostly entrapped in amorphous state. In vitro release experiments indicated a prolonged and controlled genistein release for 72 h. In vitro growth inhibition assay showed an effective growth inhibition of GEN-NLCs on human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). Preliminary cellular uptake test proved a enhanced penetration of genistein into HLECs when delivered in NLC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Two Lactobacillus Species Inhibit the Growth and α-Toxin Production of Clostridium perfringens and Induced Proinflammatory Factors in Chicken Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Vitro

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    Shuangshuang Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is the causative pathogen of avian necrotic enteritis. Lactobacillus spp. are well-characterized probiotics with anti-microbial and immune-modulatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. acidophilus and L. fermentum on the growth, α-toxin production and inflammatory responses of C. perfringens. In in vitro culture experiments, both lactobacilli inhibited the growth of C. perfringens (P < 0.01, accompanied with a decrease in pH (P < 0.01. Supernatants from lactobacilli cultures also suppressed the growth of C. perfringens during 24 h of incubation (P < 0.01, but this inhibitory effect disappeared after 48 h. Both lactobacilli decreased the α-toxin production of C. perfringens (P < 0.01 without influencing its biomass, and even degraded the established α-toxin (P < 0.01. Lower environmental pH reduced the α-toxin production as well (P < 0.01. Preincubation with L. acidophilus decreased the attachment of C. perfringens to cells (P < 0.01 with the cell cytotoxicity being unaffected. Both lactobacilli pretreatment reduced the up-regulation of proinflammatory factors, peptidoglycan (PGN receptors and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65 in C. perfringens-challenged chicken intestinal epithelial cells (P < 0.05. In conclusion, L. acidophilus and L. fermentum inhibited the pathological effects of C. perfringens in vitro conditions.

  19. Screening of the anthocyanin profile and in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibition by anthocyanin-containing extracts of fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabroni, Simona; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Amenta, Margherita; Romeo, Flora V; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    The phytotherapic treatment of overweight and/or moderate obesity is growing widely, thus there is a great interest towards the phenolic compounds of fruits and vegetables which may inhibit pancreatic lipase enzyme. In this study, we report the chemical composition and in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of 13 freeze-dried anthocyanin-containing extracts of different Mediterranean plants: fruits (blood orange, pomegranate, blackberry, mulberry and sumac), citrus by-products (blood orange peel), citrus vegetative tissues (young lemon shoots); vegetables (red cabbage and violet cauliflower), legume seeds (black bean), cereals (black rice), and cereal processing by-products (black rice hull). Total phenols and anthocyanins were determined. Individual anthocyanins were identified by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn . Results revealed a wide variation in the distribution of anthocyanin compounds. Blood orange and pomegranate juice extracts had the highest total anthocyanin content and exhibited the strongest inhibition of pancreatic lipase in vitro. Inhibitory activity was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. In appropriate formulations, anthocyanin-containing extracts could find a use as anti-obesity agents. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. High-Throughput and Rapid Screening of Novel ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Sericin Source and Inhibition Mechanism by Using in Silico and in Vitro Prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huaju; Chang, Qing; Liu, Long; Chai, Kungang; Lin, Guangyan; Huo, Qingling; Zhao, Zhenxia; Zhao, Zhongxing

    2017-11-22

    Several novel peptides with high ACE-I inhibitory activity were successfully screened from sericin hydrolysate (SH) by coupling in silico and in vitro approaches for the first time. Most screening processes for ACE-I inhibitory peptides were achieved through high-throughput in silico simulation followed by in vitro verification. QSAR model based predicted results indicated that the ACE-I inhibitory activity of these SH peptides and six chosen peptides exhibited moderate high ACE-I inhibitory activities (log IC50 values: 1.63-2.34). Moreover, two tripeptides among the chosen six peptides were selected for ACE-I inhibition mechanism analysis which based on Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated that they behave as competitive ACE-I inhibitors. The C-terminal residues of short-chain peptides that contain more H-bond acceptor groups could easily form hydrogen bonds with ACE-I and have higher ACE-I inhibitory activity. Overall, sericin protein as a strong ACE-I inhibition source could be deemed a promising agent for antihypertension applications.

  1. Symbiotic Plant Peptides Eliminate Candida albicans Both In Vitro and in an Epithelial Infection Model and Inhibit the Proliferation of Immortalized Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Ördögh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of multidrug-resistant microbes now emerging necessitates the identification of novel antimicrobial agents. Plants produce a great variety of antimicrobial peptides including hundreds of small, nodule-specific cysteine-rich NCR peptides that, in the legume Medicago truncatula, govern the differentiation of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria and, in vitro, can display potent antibacterial activities. In this study, the potential candidacidal activity of 19 NCR peptides was investigated. Cationic NCR peptides having an isoelectric point above 9 were efficient in killing Candida albicans, one of the most common fungal pathogens of humans. None of the tested NCR peptides were toxic for immortalized human epithelial cells at concentrations that effectively killed the fungus; however, at higher concentrations, some of them inhibited the division of the cells. Furthermore, the cationic peptides successfully inhibited C. albicans induced human epithelial cell death in an in vitro coculture model. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cationic NCR peptides in the treatment of candidiasis.

  2. Antimalarial activity of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn.-an in vitro Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibition assay

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    Neeraj Sethiya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of standardized methanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn. (E. alsinoids on Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH enzyme inhibition. Methods: To carry out enzyme inhibition studies, lactate dehydrogenase was cloned from Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain using expression vector pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. Protein purification was carried out by Ni-affinity chromatography. This protein was used for the inhibition study. Methanol extract of E. alsinoids was standardized by high performance thin layer chromatography described by previous literature and screened for PfLDH enzyme inhibitory activity and compared with gossypol (a known PfLDH enzyme inhibitor. Results: It was found that E. alsinoids possesses a compond scopoletin and potentially inhibits PfLDH [(25.04依0.51%]. Conclusions: Methanol extract of E. alsinoids showed significant PfLDH inhibition as evidenced from the experiments performed. The activity may be attributed to the presence of various polyphenolic and flavanoids compounds.

  3. Plant-derived protease inhibitors LC-pi (Lavatera cashmeriana) inhibit human lung cancer cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakashanda, Syed; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Majeed, Rabiya; Andrabi, Syed Mubashir; Hamid, Abid; Sharma, P R; Amin, Shajrul

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to check the anticancer activity of purified protease inhibitors of Lavatera cashmeriana viz LC-pi I, II, III, and IV (Lavatera cashmeriana protease inhibitors) on A549 (lung) cell. It was found that LC-pi I and II significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells with IC₅₀ value of 54 μg/ml and 38 μg/ml, respectively, whereas inhibition by LC-pi III and IV was negligible. LC-pi I and II were further found to inhibit formation of colonies in a dose-dependent manner. Also, both inhibitors were found to induce apoptosis causing chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, without loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cell cycle revealed a significant increase of subG₀/G₁ phase cells that are apoptotic cells. We also demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in migration of A549 cells on cell migration assay by both inhibitors. Taken together, we demonstrate that LC-pi I and II inhibited proliferation through arresting cells before apoptosis, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell migration in human lung cancer cells, but the study warrants further investigation. Our results support the notion that plant protease inhibitors may have the potential to advance as chemopreventive agents.

  4. In Vitro Gender-Dependent Inhibition of Porcine Cytochrome P450 Activity by Selected Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids

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    Bo Ekstrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated gender-related differences in the ability of selected flavonoids and phenolic compounds to modify porcine hepatic CYP450-dependent activity. Using pools of microsomes from male and female pigs, the inhibition of the CYP families 1A, 2A, 2E1, and 3A was determined. The specific CYP activities were measured in the presence of the following selected compounds: rutin, myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and caffeic acid. We determined that myricetin and isorhamnetin competitively inhibited porcine CYP1A activity in the microsomes from both male and female pigs but did not affect the CYP2A and CYP2E1. Additionally, isorhamnetin competitively inhibited CYP3A in both genders. Noncompetitive inhibition of CYP3A activity by myricetin was observed only in the microsomes from male pigs, whereas CYP3A in female pigs was not affected. Quercetin competitively inhibited CYP2E1 and CYP1A activity in the microsomes from male pigs and irreversibly CY3A in female pigs. No effect of quercetin on CYP2E1 was observed in the microsomes from female pigs. Neither phenolic acids nor rutin affected CYP450 activities. Taken together, our results suggest that the flavonoids myricetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin may affect the activities of porcine CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 in a gender-dependent manner.

  5. Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibits Candida albicans virulence factors in vitro and modulates immune system in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F C; de Barros, P P; Rossoni, R D; Junqueira, J C; Jorge, A O C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anti-Candida effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 on Candida albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. The in vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. rhamnosus on C. albicans's biofilm formation by CFU count and metabolic activity, filamentation capacity, and adhesion (ALS3 and HWP1) and transcriptional regulatory gene (BCR1 and CPH1) expression. The in vitro results showed that both the L. rhamnosus cells and supernatant reduced C. albicans biofilm formation, filamentation and gene expression. In the in vivo study, the treatment with L. rhamnosus supernatant increased 80% the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans. Furthermore, the supernatant of L. rhamnosus recruited haemocytes into the haemolymph (2·1-fold increase). Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduced the biofilm formation and filamentation of C. albicans in vitro by negatively regulating all studied C. albicans genes. Lactobacillus rhamnosus protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo. This study is the first study to report the anti-Candida properties of L. rhamnosus ATCC 9595. The supernatant of this strain has immunomodulatory effects on the G. mellonella model and protects the larvae against pathogens. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Lactic acid bacteria: inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anders; Rattray, Fergal; Nilsson, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A total of 26 strains of wild-type lactic acid bacteria, mainly belonging to Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus , were assayed in vitro for their ability to produce a milk fermentate with inhibitory activity towards angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). It was clear that the test stra...

  7. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Meulen, van der J.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wikselaar, van P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to

  8. Inhibition of Transcription of the Histidine Operon In Vitro by the First Enzyme of the Histidine Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Bruni, Carmelo B.; Avitabile, Alessandra; Deeley, Roger G.; Goldberger, Robert F.; Meyers, Marilyn M.

    1973-01-01

    An in vitro system was developed for transcription of the histidine operon of Esherichia coli carried in the genome of a defective ϕ80 transducing phage. The messenger RNA (mRNA) of the histidine operon synthesized in the in vitro system was detected by hybridization to single strands of both ϕ80 and ϕ80dhis DNA, and by competition of this hybridization with unlabeled histidine mRNA that had been synthesized in vivo (RNA extracted from cells in which the histidine operon had been derepressed). Under the conditions used, RNA complementary to the histidine operon was about 15% of the total RNA that was synthesized in vitro from the ϕ80dhis DNA template. The RNA complementary to the histidine operon was synthesized on the “sense” strand (the R strand) of ϕ80dhis in the form of a polycistronic message with a sedimentation coefficient (about 38 S) very close to that observed for the histidine mRNA synthesized in vivo. Synthesis of the histidine operon RNA appears to be subject to control in vitro. Addition of the first enzyme of the pathway for histidine biosynthesis blocked transcription of the histidine operon specifically, strongly suggesting that this enzyme acts as a regulatory protein for the histidine operon. PMID:4582195

  9. Therapeutic metabolic inhibition: hydrogen sulfide significantly mitigates skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, Peter W.; Singh, Sunil P.; Weinstein, Andrew L.; Nagineni, Vijay; Rafii, Daniel C.; Kadouch, Daniel; Krijgh, David D.; Spector, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Recent evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide is capable of mitigating the degree of cellular damage associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is protective in skeletal muscle. METHODS:: This study used both in vitro (cultured

  10. 15, 16-Dihydrotanshinone I Inhibits Hemangiomas through Inducing Pro-apoptotic and Anti-angiogenic Mechanisms in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Yihong Cai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infantile hemangioma (IH is a common and benign vascular neoplasms, which has a high incidence in children. Although IH is benign, some patients experience complications such as pain, functional impairment, and permanent disfigurement. Treatment options for IH include corticosteroids, surgery, vincristine, interferon or cyclophosphamide. However, none of these modalities are ideal due to restrictions or potential serious side effects. There is thus a great need to explore novel treatments for IH with less side effects. Angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and tumorigenesis are the main features of IH. Tanshen is mostly used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat hematological abnormalities. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate anti-proliferation and anti-angiogenesis effects on hemangiomas cells by extracted Tanshen compounds compared with propranolol, the first-line treatment for IH currently, both in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability, apoptosis, protein expression and anti-angiogenesis were analyzed by CCK8, Annexin V staining, Western blot and tube formation, respectively. The anti-tumor activity in vivo was evaluated using a mouse xenograft model. Fourteen major compounds extracting from Tanshen were screened for their ability to inhibit hemangiomas cells. Of the 14 compounds investigated, 15,16-Dihydrotanshinone I (DHTS was the most potent modulator of EOMA cell biology. DHTS could significantly decrease EOMA cells proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis, which is much more efficient than propranolol in vitro. DHTS increased the expression of several apoptosis-related proteins, including caspase9, caspase3, PARP, AIF, BAX, cytochrome c, caspase8 and FADD and significantly inhibited angiogenesis, as indicated by reduced tube formation and diminished expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. In nude mice xenograft experiment, DHTS (10 mg/kg could significantly inhibit the tumor

  11. Isorhapontigenin (ISO) Inhibits Invasive Bladder Cancer Formation In Vivo and Human Bladder Cancer Invasion In Vitro by Targeting STAT1/FOXO1 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guosong; Wu, Amy D; Huang, Chao; Gu, Jiayan; Zhang, Liping; Huang, Haishan; Liao, Xin; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Zeng, Xingruo; Jin, Honglei; Huang, Haojie; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-07-01

    Although our most recent studies have identified Isorhapontigenin (ISO), a novel derivative of stilbene that isolated from a Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum, for its inhibition of human bladder cancer growth, nothing is known whether ISO possesses an inhibitory effect on bladder cancer invasion. Thus, we addressed this important question in current study and discovered that ISO treatment could inhibit mouse-invasive bladder cancer development following bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) exposure in vivo We also found that ISO suppressed human bladder cancer cell invasion accompanied by upregulation of the forkhead box class O 1 (FOXO1) mRNA transcription in vitro Accordingly, FOXO1 was profoundly downregulated in human bladder cancer tissues and was negatively correlated with bladder cancer invasion. Forced expression of FOXO1 specifically suppressed high-grade human bladder cancer cell invasion, whereas knockdown of FOXO1 promoted noninvasive bladder cancer cells becoming invasive bladder cancer cells. Moreover, knockout of FOXO1 significantly increased bladder cancer cell invasion and abolished the ISO inhibition of invasion in human bladder cancer cells. Further studies showed that the inhibition of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation at Tyr701 was crucial for ISO upregulation of FOXO1 transcription. Furthermore, this study revealed that metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was a FOXO1 downstream effector, which was also supported by data obtained from mouse model of ISO inhibition BBN-induced mouse-invasive bladder cancer formation. These findings not only provide a novel insight into the understanding of mechanism of bladder cancer's propensity to invasion, but also identify a new role and mechanisms underlying the natural compound ISO that specifically suppresses such bladder cancer invasion through targeting the STAT1-FOXO1-MMP-2 axis. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 567-80. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American

  12. Pigment epithelium derived factor inhibits the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Sun

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the formation and development of endometriosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF is a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated a reduction of PEDF in the peritoneal fluid, serum and endometriotic lesions from women with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis. Here, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of PEDF on human endometriotic cells in vivo and in vitro. We found that PEDF markedly inhibited the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro by up-regulating PEDF expression and down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. Moreover, apoptotic index was significantly increased in endometriotic lesions in vivo and endometriotic stromal cells in vitro when treated with PEDF. In mice treated with PEDF, decreased microvessel density labeled by Von Willebrand factor but not by α-Smooth Muscle Actin was observed in endometriotic lesions. And it showed no increase in PEDF expression of the ovary and uterus tissues. These findings suggest that PEDF gene therapy may be a new treatment for endometriosis.

  13. Dengue virus infection of SK Hep1 cells: inhibition of in vitro angiogenesis and altered cytomorphology by expressed viral envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Atanu; Jain, Preksha; Sarkar, Payel; Gangodkar, Shobha; Deshpande, Divija; Ganti, Ketaki; Shetty, Shrimati; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2011-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection of human endothelial cells has been implicated in the pathobiology of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. However, the mechanisms by which DENV infections alter the functional physiology of endothelial cells remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we examined the susceptibility of a human liver sinusoidal endothelial cell line SK Hep1 to all four serotypes of DENV and studied the effect of the virus on in vitro angiogenesis. All four serotypes of DENV could infect the SK Hep1 cells, but showed variable cytopathic effects, the most pronounced being that of DENV-2. Electron microscopy of the infected cells showed significant ultrastructural changes. In vitro angiogenesis assays on DENV-2 exposed SK Hep1 cells in the matrigel system showed inhibition compared with the controls. Importantly, transfection and transient expression of the DENV-2 envelope glycoprotein (E) in these cells showed drastic alterations in cell shapes and the E protein could be localized by fluorescence microscopy in terminal knob-like structures. Therefore, SK Hep1, a human hepatic sinusoid-derived endothelial cell line, may constitute a potential model to study DENV-endothelial cell interactions in vitro, especially towards understanding the possible virus-induced changes in hepatic endothelium and its role in disease pathogenesis. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pigment epithelium derived factor inhibits the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanmei; Che, Xuan; Zhu, Libo; Zhao, Mengdan; Fu, Guofang; Huang, Xiufeng; Xu, Hong; Hu, Fuqiang; Zhang, Xinmei

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the formation and development of endometriosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated a reduction of PEDF in the peritoneal fluid, serum and endometriotic lesions from women with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis. Here, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of PEDF on human endometriotic cells in vivo and in vitro. We found that PEDF markedly inhibited the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro by up-regulating PEDF expression and down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Moreover, apoptotic index was significantly increased in endometriotic lesions in vivo and endometriotic stromal cells in vitro when treated with PEDF. In mice treated with PEDF, decreased microvessel density labeled by Von Willebrand factor but not by α-Smooth Muscle Actin was observed in endometriotic lesions. And it showed no increase in PEDF expression of the ovary and uterus tissues. These findings suggest that PEDF gene therapy may be a new treatment for endometriosis.

  15. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of Dermatophilus congolensis by coagulase-negative antibiotic-producing staphylococci from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaria, L T

    1991-03-01

    When tested on solid media the growth of 19 Dermatophilus congolensis strains was inhibited by antibiotic-producing staphylococci isolated from pigs. Two strains, D congolensis D11 and D15, which were very sensitive to the producers and caused lesions of dermatophilosis in a mouse model, were further used to investigate the ability of the producers to inhibit lesion formation by the strains of D congolensis. The simultaneous application of the antibiotic-producing staphylococci and D congolensis suppressed formation of the lesions in the mouse.

  16. In vitro oxidative metabolism of cajaninstilbene Acid by human liver microsomes and hepatocytes: involvement of cytochrome p450 reaction phenotyping, inhibition, and induction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xin; Peng, Xiao; Tan, Shengnan; Li, Chunying; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Smyth, Hugh

    2014-10-29

    Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid), an active constituent of pigeonpea leaves, an important tropical crop, is known for its clinical effects in the treatment of diabetes, hepatitis, and measles and its potential antitumor effect. In this study, the effect of the cytochrome P450 isozymes on the activity of CSA was investigated. Two hydroxylation metabolites were identified in the study. The reaction phenotype study showed that CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2 were the major cytochrome P450 isozymes in the metabolism of CSA. The metabolic food-drug interaction potential was also evaluated in vitro. The effect of CSA inhibition/induction of enzymatic activities of seven drug-metabolizing CYP450 isozymes in vitro was estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical techniques. CSA showed different inhibitory effects on different isozymes. CSA reversibly inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activities in human liver microsomes with IC50 values of 28.3 and 31.3 μM, respectively, but exhibited no inhibition activities to CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1. CSA showed a weak effect on CYP450 enzymes in a time-dependent manner. CSA did not substantially induce CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4 at concentrations up to 30 μM in primary human hepatocytes. The results of our experiments may be helpful to predict clinically significant food-drug interactions when other drugs are administered in combination with CSA.

  17. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein expression and function by anti-diabetic drugs gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone in vitro and in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a trans-membrane drug efflux pump. Several drugs are P-gp substrates. Some drugs may affect the activity of P-gp by inhibiting its function, resulting in significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). It is critical to understand which drugs are inhibitors of P-gp so that adverse DDIs can be minimized or avoided. This study investigated the effects of gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone on the function and expression of P-gp. Rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) efflux assays in Caco-2 cells and western blot testing were used to study in vitro the effect of the drugs on P-gp function and expression. The in situ rat single-pass intestinal permeability model was developed to study the effect of the drugs on P-gp function. Digoxin and verapamil were used as a known substrate and inhibitor of P-gp, respectively. Digoxin levels in intestinal perfusion samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Intestinal effective permeability (Peff) of digoxin in the presence of 0.1, 10, and 500 μM gliclazide, 100 and 7000 μM metformin, and 50 and 300 μM pioglitazone was significantly increased relative to the digoxin treated cells (P metformin and pioglitazone. Intracellular accumulation of Rh 123 by the drugs increased, but the differences were not significant relative to the control cells (P > 0.05). It was found that gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone inhibited P-gp efflux activity in situ and down-regulated P-gp expression in vitro. Further investigations are necessary to confirm the obtained results and to define the mechanism underlying P-gp inhibition by the drugs.

  18. Inhibition of the β-Lactamase BlaMab by Avibactam Improves the In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Imipenem against Mycobacterium abscessus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Anne-Laure; Le Moigne, Vincent; Bernut, Audrey; Veckerlé, Carole; Compain, Fabrice; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Kremer, Laurent; Arthur, Michel; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infections are treated with a macrolide (clarithromycin or azithromycin), an aminoglycoside (amikacin), and a β-lactam (cefoxitin or imipenem). The triple combination is used without any β-lactamase inhibitor, even though Mabscessus produces the broad-spectrum β-lactamase BlaMab We determine whether inhibition of BlaMab by avibactam improves the activity of imipenem against M. abscessus The bactericidal activity of drug combinations was assayed in broth and in human macrophages. The in vivo efficacy of the drugs was tested by monitoring the survival of infected zebrafish embryos. The level of BlaMab production in broth and in macrophages was compared by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. The triple combination of imipenem (8 or 32 μg/ml), amikacin (32 μg/ml), and avibactam (4 μg/ml) was bactericidal in broth (<0.1% survival), with 3.2- and 4.3-log10 reductions in the number of CFU being achieved at 72 h when imipenem was used at 8 and 32 μg/ml, respectively. The triple combination achieved significant intracellular killing, with the bacterial survival rates being 54% and 7% with the low (8 μg/ml) and high (32 μg/ml) dosages of imipenem, respectively. In vivo inhibition of BlaMab by avibactam improved the survival of zebrafish embryos treated with imipenem. Expression of the gene encoding BlaMab was induced (20-fold) in the infected macrophages. Inhibition of BlaMab by avibactam improved the efficacy of imipenem against M. abscessusin vitro, in macrophages, and in zebrafish embryos, indicating that this β-lactamase inhibitor should be clinically evaluated. The in vitro evaluation of imipenem may underestimate the impact of BlaMab, since the production of the β-lactamase is inducible in macrophages. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Platelet aggregation unchanged by lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ inhibition: results from an in vitro study and two randomized phase I trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie C Shaddinger

    Full Text Available We explored the theorized upregulation of platelet-activating factor (PAF- mediated biologic responses following lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 inhibition using human platelet aggregation studies in an in vitro experiment and in 2 clinical trials.Full platelet aggregation concentration response curves were generated in vitro to several platelet agonists in human plasma samples pretreated with rilapladib (selective Lp-PLA2 inhibitor or vehicle. This was followed by a randomized, double-blind crossover study in healthy adult men (n = 26 employing a single-agonist dose assay of platelet aggregation, after treatment of subjects with 250 mg oral rilapladib or placebo once daily for 14 days. This study was followed by a second randomized, double-blind parallel-group trial in healthy adult men (n = 58 also treated with 250 mg oral rilapladib or placebo once daily for 14 days using a full range of 10 collagen concentrations (0-10 µg/ml for characterizing EC50 values for platelet aggregation for each subject. Both clinical studies were conducted at the GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Unit in the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia. EC50 values derived from multiple agonist concentrations were compared and no pro-aggregant signals were observed during exposure to rilapladib in any of these platelet studies, despite Lp-PLA2 inhibition exceeding 90%. An increase in collagen-mediated aggregation was observed 3 weeks post drug termination in the crossover study (15.4% vs baseline; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9-27.0, which was not observed during the treatment phase and was not observed in the parallel-group study employing a more robust EC50 examination.Lp-PLA2 inhibition does not enhance platelet aggregation.1 Study 1: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01745458 2 Study 2: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00387257.

  20. Targeting Natural Killer cells to Acute Myeloid Leukemia in vitro with a CD16x33 bispecific killer cell engager (BiKE) and ADAM17 inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernik, Andres; Foley, Bree; Zhang, Bin; Verneris, Michael R.; Warlick, Erica; Gleason, Michelle K.; Ross, Julie A.; Luo, Xianghua; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Walcheck, Bruce; Vallera, Daniel A; Miller, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect by Natural Killer (NK) cells prevents relapse following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We determined whether a novel bi-specific killer cell engager (BiKE) signaling through CD16 and targeting CD33 could activate NK cells at high potency against AML targets. Experimental Design We investigated the ability of our fully humanized CD16x33 BiKE to trigger in vitro NK cell activation against HL60 (CD33+), RAJI (CD33−), and primary AML targets (de novo, refractory and post transplant) to determine whether treatment with CD16x33 BiKE in combination with an ADAM17 inhibitor could prevent CD16 shedding (a novel inhibitory mechanism induced by NK cell activation) and overcome inhibition of class I MHC recognizing inhibitory receptors. Results NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine release were specifically triggered by the CD16x33 BiKE when cells were cultured with HL60 targets, CD33+ de novo and refractory AML targets. Combination treatment with CD16x33 BiKE and ADAM17 inhibitor resulted in inhibition of CD16 shedding in NK cells, and enhanced NK cell activation. Treatment of NK cells from double umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) recipients with the CD16x33 BiKE resulted in activation, especially in those recipients with CMV reactivation. Conclusion CD16x33 BiKE can overcome self inhibitory signals and effectively elicit NK cell effector activity against AML. These in vitro studies highlight the potential of CD16x33 BiKE ± ADAM17 inhibition to enhance NK cell activation and specificity against CD33+ AML, which optimally could be applied in patients with relapsed AML or for adjuvant anti-leukemic therapy post-transplantation. PMID:23690482

  1. Phospho-aspirin-2 (MDC-22 inhibits estrogen receptor positive breast cancer growth both in vitro and in vivo by a redox-dependent effect.

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    Liqun Huang

    Full Text Available Phospho-aspirin (PA-2 is a novel aspirin derivative that exhibits promising anticancer properties and is considerably safer than conventional aspirin. In this study, we investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of PA-2 in preclinical models of estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer and elucidated its mechanism of action. PA-2 inhibited the growth of ER+ cells more potently than aspirin in vitro, and exerted a triple cytokinetic effect that includes induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as the inhibition of cell proliferation. PA-2 is highly efficacious in vivo, as treatment of established MCF7 xenografts with PA-2 induced tumor stasis (98.2% inhibition, p<0.01. PA-2 triggered the activation of p53-dependent apoptosis via two distinct mechanisms: 1 acetylation of p53 (at K373, which disrupts its interaction with its transcription repressor MDM2, and 2 translocation of p53 to the mitochondria leading to the dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ(m. Consistent with these observations, both the RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 and forced deactylation via HDAC1 over-expression attenuated the anticancer effect of PA-2 in MCF7 cells. An upstream mediator of the signaling effects of PA-2 is RONS. PA-2 induced oxidative stress in vitro and in mice bearing MCF7 xenografts; its induction effect appears to be tumor-specific. Crucially, administration of N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, abrogated the effect of PA-2 on p53 acetylation and mitochondria translocation, thus identifying RONS as proximal molecules mediating the anticancer effect of PA-2. In summary, our findings demonstrate that PA-2 is a promising antineoplastic compound against ER+ breast cancer, warranting further evaluation as an anticancer agent.

  2. Phospho-aspirin-2 (MDC-22) inhibits estrogen receptor positive breast cancer growth both in vitro and in vivo by a redox-dependent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqun; Wong, Chi C; Cheng, Ka W; Rigas, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Phospho-aspirin (PA-2) is a novel aspirin derivative that exhibits promising anticancer properties and is considerably safer than conventional aspirin. In this study, we investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of PA-2 in preclinical models of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer and elucidated its mechanism of action. PA-2 inhibited the growth of ER+ cells more potently than aspirin in vitro, and exerted a triple cytokinetic effect that includes induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as the inhibition of cell proliferation. PA-2 is highly efficacious in vivo, as treatment of established MCF7 xenografts with PA-2 induced tumor stasis (98.2% inhibition, pmechanisms: 1) acetylation of p53 (at K373), which disrupts its interaction with its transcription repressor MDM2, and 2) translocation of p53 to the mitochondria leading to the dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ(m)). Consistent with these observations, both the RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 and forced deactylation via HDAC1 over-expression attenuated the anticancer effect of PA-2 in MCF7 cells. An upstream mediator of the signaling effects of PA-2 is RONS. PA-2 induced oxidative stress in vitro and in mice bearing MCF7 xenografts; its induction effect appears to be tumor-specific. Crucially, administration of N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, abrogated the effect of PA-2 on p53 acetylation and mitochondria translocation, thus identifying RONS as proximal molecules mediating the anticancer effect of PA-2. In summary, our findings demonstrate that PA-2 is a promising antineoplastic compound against ER+ breast cancer, warranting further evaluation as an anticancer agent.

  3. Graviola: A Novel Promising Natural-Derived Drug That Inhibits Tumorigenicity and Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo Through Altering Cell Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, María P.; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Purohit, Vinee; Pandey, Poomy; Joshi, Suhasini; Moore, Erik D.; Johansson, Sonny L.; Singh, Pankaj K.; Ganti, Apar K.; Batra, Surinder K.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are resistant to conventional chemotherapies. The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential of a novel plant-derived product as a therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer (PC). The effects of an extract from the tropical tree Annona Muricata, commonly known as Graviola, was evaluated for cytotoxicity, cell metabolism, cancer-associated protein/gene expression, tumorigenicity, and metastatic properties of PC cells. Our experiments revealed that Graviola induced necrosis of PC cells by inhibiting cellular metabolism. The expression of molecules related to hypoxia and glycolysis in PC cells (i.e. HIF-1α, NF-κB, GLUT1, GLUT4, HKII, and LDHA) were downregulated in the presence of the extract. In vitro functional assays further confirmed the inhibition of tumorigenic properties of PC cells. Overall, the compounds that are naturally present in a Graviola extract inhibited multiple signaling pathways that regulate metabolism, cell cycle, survival, and metastatic properties in PC cells. Collectively, alterations in these parameters led to a decrease in tumorigenicity and metastasis of orthotopically implanted pancreatic tumors, indicating promising characteristics of the natural product against this lethal disease. PMID:22475682

  4. Standardization of hyphal growth inhibition rate as a means of evaluating Microsporum spp. in vitro susceptibility to terbinafine, griseofulvin, and ciclopiroxolamine.