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Sample records for vitro antioxidant capacity

  1. Phytochemical evaluation and in vitro antioxidant and photo-protective capacity of Calendula officinalis L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C.K.N. DEUSCHLE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The plant Calendula officinalis L. is widely applied due to its medicinal properties, which are mainly dermatological and ornamental. The goal of this study is to assess the phytochemical components in a hydroethanolic extract (HECO from the leaves of Calendula officinalis L. using UV-VIS spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography (TLC, as well as to identify and quantify the components related to its antioxidant capacity employing high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC. The antioxidant capacity evaluation was performed using the DPPH method for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The photo-protective capacity was evaluated by UVspectrophotometry in order to determine the in vitro Sun Protection Factor(SPF. The results show the plant’s strong antioxidant activity (DPPH and hydroxyl methods, which we believe to be related to the presence of flavonoids (24.67 mg/g, polyphenols (33.90 mg/g, condensed tannins (27.30 mg/g, and the amount of rutin (37.25 mg/g, and quercetin (6.09 mg/g found during the study. The HECO presented a good antioxidant capacity, most likely due to the polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in its contents. However, the obtained SPF of 1.89 ± 0.05 does not allow the plant to be classified as a stand-alone sunscreen, and more studies are needed in order to test its ability to enhance sunscreens in existing cosmetic formulations.

  2. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and in vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of Fruit Wines

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    Ana Ljevar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit wines contain a wide range of phenolic compounds with biological effects, but their composition and potential benefits to human health have been studied to the much lesser extent compared to grape wines. The aim of this research is to study the phenolic profile of different types of fruit wines and to evaluate their antioxidant and biological potential. Commercially available fruit wines from blackberry, cherry, raspberry, blackcurrant, strawberry and apple produced in Croatia were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first comprehensive screening of Croatian fruit wines. The phenolic characterization was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-PDA/MS analysis. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ABTS and FRAP assays, while in vitro biological activity was analyzed by the cytotoxicity assay on human breast (MCF-7, colon (CaCo-2 and cervical (HeLa cancer cell lines. Among the studied fruit wines, blackberry, cherry and blackcurrant wines contained the highest amount of total phenolics, while the last two also contained the highest amount of total anthocyanins. The analysis of individual phenolic compounds showed distinctive phenolic composition of each type of fruit wine, notably as regards anthocyanins. Blackberry, followed by cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines also had a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than strawberry and apple wines. Fruit wines inhibited the growth of human cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner with differing susceptibility among tested cancer cells. Blackberry, cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines in the volume ratio of 10 and 20 % showed to be the most effective anti-proliferative agents, with higher susceptibility in HeLa and MCF-7 cells than CaCo-2 cells.

  3. In vitro capacity and in vivo antioxidant potency of sedimental extract of Tinospora cordifolia in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetes

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    Ramachandran Kannadhasan

    2012-12-01

    Results: Chemical analysis with SETc in vitro for its IC50 proves a key evident for its total antioxidant capacity of around 2046 times, in 1000 mg/kg of fixed dose per oral for in vivo analysis. In contrast to the above, the lipid peroxide levels and in vivo enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant levels were found to possess most significant difference (p

  4. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of. Southern Sonora ... plant extracts. Phenolic compounds determination was carried out by high ... Determination of antioxidant capacity ..... In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities ...

  5. Comparing antioxidant capacity of purine alkaloids: a new, efficient trio for screening and discovering potential antioxidants in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Bun; Yi, Ruo-Nan; Cao, Ling-Fang; Li, Shan-Bing; Tan, Rui-Rong; Chen, Min; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chen; Li, Yi-Fang; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The most commonly applied strategies for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity are the chemical- or cell-based approaches. However, the results obtained from these methods might not reflect the antioxidant ability of test samples within organisms. In this study, we propose a combination of experiments, including oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), and the chick embryo model, as an efficient trio to evaluate antioxidant capacity of food components. Taking purine alkaloids as example, results demonstrate that chemical and cellular method might misinterpret their true ability on antioxidation. In chick embryo model, caffeine and theacrine can significantly improve vessel density on chorioallantoic membrane and myocardial apoptosis. The mechanism can be involving multiple targets within the organism. We believe that the trio proposed can be widely utilized in screening massive number of antioxidant in a cost-effective way. It will also help discovering new antioxidants that are easily being omitted due to their relatively poor in vitro activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytoconstituents and in vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacities of Cotula Cinerea (Morocco Methanol Extracts

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    Farid Khallouki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available T he purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical content of Cotula cinerea to establish principal components which may consolidate its use as a medicinal plant in the southeast of Morocco. The amount of total phenolic compounds as determined by analytical HPLC in methanol extracts was 79.23 ± 2.5 mg/g dry matter. The major phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-ESI-MS were neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and luteolin-4´-O-glucoside. All compounds displayed very strong antioxidant capacities in the DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays . The data indicates that methanol extracts of C. cinerea via their antioxidant capacities, may be effective disease prevention potions in traditional African medicine which is probably related to the significant content of echinoids and flavonoids.

  7. Phytochemical evaluation and in vitro antioxidant and photo-protective capacity of Calendula officinalis L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    DEUSCHLE,V.C.K.N.; DEUSCHLE,R.A.N.; PIANA,M.; BOLIGON,A.A.; BORTOLUZZI,M.R.B.; DAL PRÁ,V.; DOLWISCH,C.B.; LIMA,F.O.; CARVALHO,L.M.; ATHAYDE,M.L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plant Calendula officinalis L. is widely applied due to its medicinal properties, which are mainly dermatological and ornamental. The goal of this study is to assess the phytochemical components in a hydroethanolic extract (HECO) from the leaves of Calendula officinalis L. using UV-VIS spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography (TLC), as well as to identify and quantify the components related to its antioxidant capacity employing high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC...

  8. In vitro antioxidant capacity of tea of Echinodorus grandiforus, “leather hat,” in Wistar rat liver

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    RAFAELA F. LUNARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the factors responsible for hepatic diseases, which sometimes require new ways of treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the tea of Echinodorus grandiforus (“leather hat” plant in rat liver. Different preparations of tea were evaluated for phenolic composition, antioxidant activity by DPPH assay and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by copper sulfate. The antioxidant activity was assessed in liver tissue treated with sodium azide in the presence or absence of tea by assays for lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl and the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD. The results show that different preparations of tea are important sources of polyphenols and contain theobromine, catechin and vitexin. Furthermore, the results indicate that this tea exhibits an antioxidant activity by its ability to scavenge DPPH radical. Different preparations of tea prevented damage to lipids and proteins induced by sodium azide, as well as assisting in restoring CAT and SOD activities. Thus, it can be seen that E. grandiforus tea had antioxidant activity in serum and liver being able to prevent oxidative damages generated by sodium azide.

  9. Benfotiamine exhibits direct antioxidative capacity and prevents induction of DNA damage in vitro.

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    Schmid, Ursula; Stopper, Helga; Heidland, August; Schupp, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Complications in diabetes mellitus are partially mediated by enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species. Among the factors involved in reactive oxygen species formation, advanced glycation end products play a key role. Owing to a reduced activity of the enzyme transketolase, which requires diphosphorylated thiamine (vitamin B(1)) as cofactor, an accumulation of those deleterious glucose metabolites especially in diabetic patients can be observed. Benfotiamine, a lipophilic thiamine diphosphate prodrug, prevented early renal and retinal changes in animal studies, and reduced neuropathic pain in clinical studies. Several mechanisms for these activities have been described. We investigated for the first time direct antioxidant abilities of benfotiamine. Additionally, a potential DNA protective effect of benfotiamine was analysed. Oxidative stress was detected by flow cytometry, antioxidative capacity was measured with the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, two endpoints for genomic damage were assessed: the comet assay and the micronucleus test, and the expression and activity of transketolase was quantified. Benfotiamine prevented oxidative stress induced by the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO), the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate, and the peptide hormone angiotensin II in three different kidney cell lines. Cell-free experiments showed a direct antioxidant effect of benfotiamine, which might account for the protective effect. Oxidative DNA damage, induced by angiotensin II, was completely prevented by benfotiamine. Incubation with benfotiamine increased transketolase expression and activity in the cells. Benfotiamine shows a direct antioxidant action. This effect of benfotiamine may be involved in the improvement of diabetic late complications, including peripheral neuropathy.

  10. Morphological Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Solanum crispum (Natre) In Vitro Assayed on Human Erythrocytes.

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    Suwalsky, Mario; Ramírez, Patricia; Avello, Marcia; Villena, Fernando; Gallardo, María José; Barriga, Andrés; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of the antioxidant properties of Solanum crispum, aqueous extracts of its leaves were assayed on human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane. Phenolics and alkaloids were detected by HPLC-MS. Scanning electron and defocusing microscopy showed that S. crispum changed erythrocytes from the normal shape to echinocytes. These results imply that molecules present in the aqueous extracts were located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were chosen as representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. X-ray diffraction showed that S. crispum preferentially interacted with DMPC bilayers. Experiments regarding its antioxidant properties showed that S. crispum neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPE bilayers; defocusing microscopy and hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of S. crispum against the oxidant effects of HClO on human erythrocytes.

  11. Toxicity Test on Malondialdehyde Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Irradiation Sterilization Rendang : In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah Irawati; Kamalita Pertiwi; Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria

    2010-01-01

    The safety of irradiated ethnic ready to eat food at high doses raises many questions, and recognized as one of great obstacles in the development of commercialization of food irradiation globally. People are still worried that food treated with irradiation would have induced radioactivity because free radical and its complex derivatives are formed in the irradiation process. Therefore, this study is needed to help understanding the effect of irradiated food on biological system in order to understand the possible effect to human body. The aimed of this research work was to secure the safety of irradiated food at high dose by conducting a toxicity assay using lymphocytes and erythrocytes human blood, and to determine antioxidant capacity of gamma - sterilized rendang at 45 kGy.The methods used were extraction and preparation of rending samples, culture medium preparation, lymphocytes isolation, the assays on lymphocytes proliferation, erythrocytes hemolysis,, antioxidant capacity, and malonaldehyde, respectively. The tested samples were irradiated at PATIR BATAN on 11 th November 2006 (sample A), on 14 th June 2007 (sample B), and “No Label” on 14 th June 2007 (sample C), respectively and non irradiated rending as control was also prepared. The results of proliferation assay showed that irradiated samples did neither inhibit nor induce proliferation significantly. Obviously, hemolysis rate of all samples showed increasing rate with increasing concentration or inversely correlated with dilution neither caused an increase in erythrocytes hemolysis rate nor inhibition in erythrocytes hemolysis significantly. Antioxidant capacity assay in irradiated samples showed higher value than in non-irradiated sample while irradiation treatment did not influence malonaldehyde content in rendang. (author)

  12. IN VITRO MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF CRATAEGUS MACRACANTHA LODD LEAVES.

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    Miftode, Alina Monica; Stefanache, Alina; Spac, A F; Miftode, R F; Miron, Anca; Dorneanu, V

    2016-01-01

    Crataegus macracantha Lodd, family Rosaceae, is a very rare species in Europe, and unlike Crataegus monogyna is less investigated for pharmacologic activity. To analyze the ability of the lyophilisate of extract obtained from leaves of Crataegus macracantha Lodd (single plant at the Iaşi Botanical Garden) to capture free radicals in vitro. The lyophilisate obtained in Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iaşi. The decreased absorbance of chromophore chlorpromazine radical cation in the presence of the lyophilized solutions was studied spectrophotometrically. The indicator radical cation, obtained by oxidation of chlorpromazine by potassium persulfate, has the maximum absorbance at 525 nm. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard antioxidant. The absorbance of radical solution was determined after the addition of a certain amount of lyophilisate at different time intervals. The antioxidant activity was calculated using the calibration curve obtained by plotting the variation in radical solution absorbance depending on ascorbic acid concentration. For each ascorbic acid concentration the area under the curve was calculated from plotting the percentage inhibition of the absorbance at two pre-established time intervals. The results confirm the antioxidant activity of the leaves of Crataegus Macracantha Lodd and by optimizing the proposed analytical methods the antiradical activity can be quickly evaluated with minimal reagent consumption.

  13. Sonodegradation of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside: degradation kinetic analysis and its impact on antioxidant capacity in vitro.

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    Sun, Jianxia; Li, Xinghua; Lin, Xinyu; Mei, Zhouxiong; Li, Yitao; Ding, Lijun; Bai, Weibin

    2017-03-01

    As an alternative preservation method for thermal treatment, ultrasound comprises a novel non-thermal processing technology that can significantly avoid undesirable nutritional changes. However, the recent literature indicates that anthocyanin degradation occurs when ultrasound is applied in juice at high amplitude parameters. Such work has mainly focussed on the effect of ultrasound on stability, the antioxidant capacity of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside (Cy-3-glc-rut) and the correlation between anthocyanin degradation and ·OH generation in a simulated system. The spectral intensities of Cy-3-glc-rut at 518 and 282 nm decreased with increasing ultrasound power and treatment time. The degradation of Cy-3-glc-rut was consistent with first-order reaction kinetics (r 2  > 0.9000) and there was a good linear correlation between anthocyanin degradation and hydroxyl radical formation induced by ultrasound (r 2  = 0.9258). Moreover, a decrease in the antioxidant activity of Cy-3-glc-rut after ultrasound evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods was observed. Overall, the results of the present study show that ultrasound will accelerate the degradation of Cy-3-glc-rut with the growth of power over time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of geographical origin, variety and farming system on the chemical markers and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Brazilian purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margraf, Tiago; Santos, Érica Neulyana Taborda; Andrade, de Eriel Forville; Ruth, van Saskia M.; Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of farming system, geographical origin, and grape variety on the in vitro antioxidant capacity, some physicochemical properties and chemical composition were investigated. Major and minor phenolic compounds, reducing and antioxidant assays using chemical and biological systems were

  15. Free radical scavenging actions of three Trifolium species in the protection of blood plasma antioxidant capacity in vitro.

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    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Three clover [Trifolium L. (Leguminosae)] species were selected on the basis of data from traditional medicine, phytochemical profiles, and agricultural significance. The in vitro evaluations of free radical scavenging properties, ferric reducing abilities, and antioxidant effects of extracts from T. pratense L. (crude extract and phenolic fraction), T. pallidum L., and T. scabrum L. (phenolic fractions) were performed. Activities of the Trifolium extracts were determined at their final concentrations of 1.5-50 µg/ml. Free radical scavenging properties of methanol extract solutions were estimated by the reduction of DPPH(•) and ABTS(•) radicals. Measurements of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were carried out to assess the antioxidant activities of the extracts in human blood plasma under conditions of oxidative stress, induced by 200 μM peroxynitrite. The phenolic fraction of T. pratense displayed the strongest ABTS(•) and DPPH(•) radical scavenging effects (EC50 value of 21.69 and 12.27 µg/ml, respectively). The EC50 value for T. pallidum extract attained 29.77 and 30.06 µg/ml. The two remaining extracts were less potent scavengers (EC50 value higher than 50 µg/ml). Similar differences were obtained during evaluation of the ferric reducing abilities. Analysis of antioxidant properties of the extracts in blood plasma did not provide such evident differences in their actions, however, it indicated that the T. pratense phenolic fraction displayed the strongest effect. The examined Trifolium extracts partly protected blood plasma and enhanced its non-enzymatic antioxidant defense against harmful action of peroxynitrite in vitro.

  16. Antioxidant capacity of Ugni molinae fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

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    Suwalsky, Mario; Avello, Marcia

    2014-08-01

    Ugni molinae is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used as a medicinal plant in Southern Chile-Argentina. Total phenol concentration from its fruit extract was 10.64 ± 0.04 mM gallic acid equivalents. Analysis by means of HPLC/MS indicated the presence of the anthocyanins cyanidin and peonidin, and the flavonol quercitin, all in glycosylated forms. Its antioxidant properties were assessed in human erythrocytes in vitro exposed to HClO oxidative stress. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HClO induced an alteration in erythrocytes from a normal shape to echinocytes; however, this change was highly attenuated in samples containing U. molinae extracts. It also had a tendency in order to reduce the hemolytic effect of HClO. In addition, X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayers, classes of lipids preferentially located in the outer and inner monolayers, respectively, of the human erythrocyte membrane. It was observed that U. molinae only interacted with DMPC. Results by fluorescence spectroscopy on DMPC large unilamellar vesicles and isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes also showed that it interacted with the erythrocyte membrane and DMPC. It is possible that the location of U. molinae components into the membrane outer monolayer might hinder the diffusion of HClO and of free radicals into cell membranes and the consequent decrease of the kinetics of free radical reactions.

  17. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

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    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  18. In vitro antioxidant capacity and free radical scavenging evaluation of active metabolite constituents of Newbouldia laevis ethanolic leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habu, Josiah Bitrus; Ibeh, Bartholomew Okechukwu

    2015-03-14

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of bioactive metabolites present in Newbouldia laevis leaf extract. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods were used in the study and modified where necessary in the study. Bioactivity of the extract was determined at 10 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml and 400 μg/ml concentrations expressed in % inhibition. The yield of the ethanolic leaf extract of N.laevis was 30.3 g (9.93%). Evaluation of bioactive metabolic constituents gave high levels of ascorbic acid (515.53 ± 12 IU/100 g [25.7 mg/100 g]), vitamin E (26.46 ± 1.08 IU/100 g), saponins (6.2 ± 0.10), alkaloids (2.20 ± 0.03), cardiac glycosides(1.48 ± 0.22), amino acids and steroids (8.01 ± 0.04) measured in mg/100 g dry weight; moderate levels of vitamin A (188.28 ± 6.19 IU/100 g), tannins (0.09 ± 0.30), terpenoids (3.42 ± 0.67); low level of flavonoids (1.01 ± 0.34 mg/100 g) and absence of cyanogenic glycosides, carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones. The extracts percentage inhibition of DPPH, hydroxyl radical (OH.), superoxide anion (O2 .-), iron chelating, nitric oxide radical (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), singlet oxygen (1O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and FRAP showed a concentration-dependent antioxidant activity with no significant difference with the controls. Though, IC50 of the extract showed significant difference only in singlet oxygen (1O2) and iron chelating activity when compared with the controls. The extract is a potential source of antioxidants/free radical scavengers having important metabolites which maybe linked to its ethno-medicinal use.

  19. Effect of In Vitro Digestion on the Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of 3 Species of Oregano (Hedeoma patens, Lippia graveolens, Lippia palmeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Erick Paul; Angulo-Escalante, Miguel Angel; León-Félix, Josefina; Heredia, J Basilio

    2017-12-01

    Oregano phenolic compounds have been studied for their anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, after ingestion, the gastrointestinal environment can affect their antioxidant stability and thus their bioactive properties. To evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion on the phenolic compounds of 3 species of oregano (Hedeoma patens, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia palmeri), the total reducing capacity, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated before and after in vitro GI digestion. In addition, the phenolic compounds of the 3 oregano species were identified and quantified by UPLC-PDA before and after in vitro GI digestion. It was shown that the reducing capacity, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity were affected by the GI digestion process. Moreover, the phenolic compounds identified were apigenin-7-glucoside, scutellarein, luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, and their levels were affected by the in vitro GI process. Our results showed that the phenolic compounds from these 3 species of oregano are affected by the in vitro digestion process, and this effect is largely attributable to pH changes. These changes can modify the bioavailability and further anti-inflammatory activity of oregano phenolics, and thus, further research is needed. Oregano is a rich source of polyphenols that have shown bioactive properties like anti-inflammatory potential. However, little is known of the gastrointestinal fate of oregano polyphenols which is imperative to fully understand its bioaccessibility. Our results are important to develop new administration strategies which could help protect the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential and bioaccessibility of such compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Determination of in vitro total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of Echium amoenum L.

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    Fathi H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In traditional and modern medicine, active ingredients of medicinal plants have many applications in food, pharmaceutical, medical and industry. Antioxidants are compounds that prevent the oxidation process in the cell. Echium amoenum L. is a plant which grows in the mountainous regions of Mazandaran. This plant has different biological effects such as sedation, anti-inflammation, antidepressant and cancer preventive properties in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of E.amoenum plant. Methods:In this experimental laboratory study the content of total phenolic Using the folin-siokalatio reactive at 760 nm wavelength and flavonoid With the use of aluminum chloride reagent at 420nm of E.amoenum extract were measured and antioxidant capacities of different concentrations of the extract were evaluated. Results: The results showed that total phenolic content of the extract was 429±2μg gallic acid equivalent/ml and flavonoid content was 148.56±1.52μg quercetin equivalent/ml, respectively. The radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl hydrate (DPPH,inhibitory concentration of 50%(IC50,was determined 178.11 μg/ml. Assessment of the reducing ability of extract showed that the extract had more activity than vitamin C. The percent nitric oxide trap inhibition of the extract was 57.89% and power iron chelating properties was 51.74%,that showed statistically significant difference in comparison with vitamin C and Quercetin (P=0.0473 and (P=0.0096 respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, E.amoenum extract had remarkable antioxidant capacity and can be proposed as an antioxidant compound used in the manufacture of food and pharmaceutical products.

  1. Effect of in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Phenolic Compounds of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Pulp Extracts and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydjedd, Siham; Bouriche, Sihem; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Sánchez-Moya, Teresa; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Rezgui, Farouk; Louaileche, Hayette; Kati, Djamel-Edine

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the release and antioxidant capacity of encapsulated and nonencapsulated phenolics carob pulp extracts, unripe and ripe carob pulp extracts were microencapsulated with polycaprolactone via double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. Microcapsules' characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Total phenolics and flavonoids content and antioxidant activities (ORAC, DPPH, and FRAP) were evaluated after each digestion step. The release of phenolic acids and flavonoids was measured along the digestion process by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The most important phenolics and flavonoids content as well as antioxidant activities were observed after gastric and intestinal phases for nonencapsulated and encapsulated extracts, respectively. The microencapsulation of carob polyphenols showed a protective effect against pH changes and enzymatic activities along digestion, thereby promoting a controlled release and targeted delivery of the encapsulated compound, which contributed to an increase in its bioaccessibility in the gut.

  2. [Evaluation for extraction process of Shenqi Tongmai Yizhi particles based on antioxidant capacity in vitro and its spectrum-effect relation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Li; Liu, Yu-Ling; Fan, Li-Jiao; Wang, Yue-Liang; Chen, Kai; Li, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Based on DPPH method, the antioxidant activities of Shenqi Tongmai Yizhi particles with different extraction processes were compared. The contribution to the anti-oxidant capacity in vitro was explored by means of grey relational analysis on different chemical compositions in the fingerprint. The results showed that the IC₅₀ concentration values of water extract, water extract from alcohol precipitation, alcohol extract, and alcohol and water extract were 0.801 4, 0.859 1, 0.796 1, 0.918 0 g•L⁻¹; and the alcohol extract is the best method to extract antioxidative components, with the highest antioxidant activity and lowest IC₅₀. When the mass concentration of the herbs reached a certain degree, its free radical clearance rate was similar to that of vitamin C control group. The order of different chemical contributions of constituents to the antioxidant activity in the fingerprint was 4>3>33>53>9>10>11>34>15>59>8>61>52>20>42>18>29. The preliminary exploration for the spectrum efficiency relations provides reference for studying traditional Chinese medicine compound processing method and the pharmacodyamic material basis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Cultivar evaluation and effect of fermentation on antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corombosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle H; Lucius, Anita; Meyer, Tessa; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2011-08-24

    The berry fruits of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) contain bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. The objective was to evaluate blueberries grown in southern Illinois as well as the effect of fermentation, at two different temperatures, on chemical and physical parameters. Fruits from fifteen blueberry cultivars were analyzed. Fruit diameter ranged from 12.8 mm to 18.7 mm, pH from 2.6 to 3.7, reducing sugars from 6.4% to 15.2%, total sugars from 13.9% to 21.6%, total polyphenols from 0.39 to 1.00 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g blueberry and antioxidant capacity from 5.8 to 10.9 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g. In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory capacity relative to the positive control acarbose, a known anti-diabetic drug, showed a range from 91.8 to 103.3% for α-amylase and from 103.2% to 190.8% for α-glucosidase. Wines prepared from several of these blueberry cultivars were analyzed throughout fermentation and compared at room temperature and cold temperature fermentation for pH (3.5 to 6.3), °Brix (13.6 to 29.7), total polyphenols (375.4 to 657.1 μg GAE/mL wine), and antioxidant capacity (4.5 to 25.1 mM TE). The wines were also tested for their in vitro capacity to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase and maintained similar inhibitory action as the berries. Highbush blueberry cultivars and their fermented beverages are good natural sources of antioxidants and starch-degrading enzyme inhibitors important for type 2 diabetes management.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  5. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  6. An in vitro study on the antioxidant capacity of usnic acid on human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, M; Jemiola-Rzeminska, M; Astudillo, C; Gallardo, M J; Staforelli, J P; Villena, F; Strzalka, K

    2015-11-01

    Usnic acid (UA) has been associated with chronic diseases through its antioxidant action. Its main target is the cell membrane; however, its effect on that of human erythrocytes has been scarcely investigated. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between UA and cell membranes human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane have been utilized. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were chosen as representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. Results by X-ray diffraction showed that UA produced structural perturbations on DMPC and DMPE bilayers. DSC studies have indicated that thermotropic behavior of DMPE was most strongly distorted by UA than DMPC, whereas the latter is mainly affected on the pretransition. Scanning electron (SEM) and defocusing microscopy (DM) showed that UA induced alterations to erythrocytes from the normal discoid shape to echinocytes. These results imply that UA molecules were located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Results of its antioxidant properties showed that UA neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPC and DMPE bilayers; SEM, DM and hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of UA against the deleterious oxidant effects of HClO upon human erythrocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro digestion of purified β-casein variants A(1), A(2), B, and I: effects on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrat-Melin, B; Andersen, P; Rasmussen, J T; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Young, J F

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of bovine milk proteins affect the protein profile of the milk and, hence, certain technological properties, such as casein (CN) number and cheese yield. However, reports show that such polymorphisms may also affect the health-related properties of milk. Therefore, to gain insight into their digestion pattern and bioactive potential, β-CN was purified from bovine milk originating from cows homozygous for the variants A(1), A(2), B, and I by a combination of cold storage, ultracentrifugation, and acid precipitation. The purity of the isolated β-CN was determined by HPLC, variants were verified by mass spectrometry, and molar extinction coefficients at λ=280nm were determined. β-Casein from each of the variants was subjected to in vitro digestion using pepsin and pancreatic enzymes. Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of the hydrolysates were assessed at 3 stages of digestion and related to that of the undigested samples. Neither molar extinction coefficients nor overall digestibility varied significantly between these 4 variants; however, clear differences in digestion pattern were indicated by gel electrophoresis. In particular, after 60min of pepsin followed by 5min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, one ≈4kDa peptide with the N-terminal sequence (106)H-K-E-M-P-F-P-K- was absent from β-CN variant B. This is likely a result of the (122)Ser to (122)Arg substitution in variant B introducing a novel trypsin cleavage site, leading to the changed digestion pattern. All investigated β-CN variants exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant capacity upon digestion, as measured by the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. After 60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, the accumulated increase in antioxidant capacity was ≈1.7-fold for the 4 β-CN variants. The ACE inhibitory capacity was also significantly increased by digestion, with the B variant reaching the highest inhibitory

  8. Short communication: Effect of casein haplotype on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (αS1, β, and κ) on antioxidative and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes. The antioxidant capacity was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, whereas ACE inhibition was determined by ACE-inhibitory assay. The ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein increased during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Casein haplotype significantly influenced the antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory capacities of digested casein. In particular, BB-A(2)A(1)-AA casein and BB-A(1)A(1)-AA casein showed the highest ACE-inhibitory capacity, BB-A(2)A(2)-AA casein showed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB casein showed the lowest biological capacity. To date, few studies have been done on the effect of casein haplotype on biological capacity of milk casein, thus the present study sets the basis for a new knowledge that could lead to the production of milk with better nutraceutical properties. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An integrated approach to evaluate food antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2007-11-01

    Many methods are available for determining food antioxidant capacity, which is an important topic in food and nutrition research and marketing. However, the results and inferences from different methods may vary substantially because each complex chemical reaction generates unique values. To get a complete and dynamic picture of the ranking of food antioxidant capacity, relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI), a hypothetical concept, is created from the perspective of statistics by integrating the antioxidant capacity values generated from different in vitro methods. RACI is the mean value of standard scores transformed from the initial data generated with different methods for each food item. By comparing the antioxidant capacity of 20 commonly consumed vegetables in the U.S. market that were measured with 7 chemical methods, we demonstrated that the RACI correlated strongly with each method. The significant correlation of RACI with an independent data set further confirmed that RACI is a valid tool to assess food antioxidant capacity. The key advantage of this integrated approach is that RACI is in a numerical scale with no units and has consistent agreement with chemical methods. Although it is a relative index and may not represent a specific antioxidant property of different food items, RACI provides a reasonably accurate rank of antioxidant capacity among foods. Therefore, it can be used as an integrated approach to evaluate food antioxidant capacity.

  10. Bioinspired near-infrared-excited sensing platform for in vitro antioxidant capacity assay based on upconversion nanoparticles and a dopamine-melanin hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Chuan; Ke, Xuebin; Kang, Ning; Shen, Yuqing; Liu, Yongliang; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Hongjun; Chen, Changqing; Ren, Lei

    2015-02-11

    A novel core-shell structure based on upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) and dopamine-melanin has been developed for evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of biological fluids. In this approach, dopamine-melanin nanoshells facilely formed on the surface of UCNPs act as ultraefficient quenchers for upconversion fluorescence, contributing to a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism. This spontaneous oxidative polymerization of the dopamine-induced quenching effect could be effectively prevented by the presence of various antioxidants (typically biothiols, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), and Trolox). The chemical response of the UCNPs@dopamine-melanin hybrid system exhibited great selectivity and sensitivity toward antioxidants relative to other compounds at 100-fold higher concentration. A satisfactory correlation was established between the ratio of the "anti-quenching" fluorescence intensity and the concentration of antioxidants. Besides the response of the upconversion fluorescence signal, a specific evaluation process for antioxidants could be visualized by the color change from colorless to dark gray accompanied by the spontaneous oxidation of dopamine. The near-infrared (NIR)-excited UCNP-based antioxidant capacity assay platform was further used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of cell extracts and human plasma, and satisfactory sensitivity, repeatability, and recovery rate were obtained. This approach features easy preparation, fluorescence/visual dual mode detection, high specificity to antioxidants, and enhanced sensitivity with NIR excitation, showing great potential for screening and quantitative evaluation of antioxidants in biological systems.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging effect of polyphenol rich Mallotus philippenensis fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B; Goel, R K; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines.

  12. Fenólicos totais e capacidade antioxidante in vitro de resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais Total phenolics and in vitro antioxidant capacity of tropical fruit pulp wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Séfora Bezerra Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a concentração dos compostos fenólicos dos resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais acerola (Malpighia glabra L., goiaba (Psidium Guayaba L., abacaxi (Ananas comosus L., cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, bacuri (Platonia insignis e graviola (Annona muricata L., bem como avaliar a sua capacidade antioxidante in vitro, pelos métodos de captura de radicais DPPH• e ABTS+. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram elevados teores de fenólicos totais para o resíduo da polpa de acerola, com 247,62 ± 2,08 mg.100 g-1 de fenólicos totais para o extrato aquoso e 279,99 ± 3,5 mg.100 g-1 para o extrato hidroalcoólico (p The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compound contents and evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the following extracts from tropical fruit pulp wastes: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., guava (Psidium Guayaba L., pineapple (Ananas comosus L., cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, bacury (Platonia insignis, and cherimoya (Annona muricata L. using the DPPH and ABTS+ radical capture methodologies. The results showed high levels of phenolic compounds in the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the acerola pulp wastes, of 247.62 ± 2.08 mg.100 g-1 and 279.99 ± 3.5 mg.100 g-1, respectively (p < 0.05. The antioxidant activity, when measured by the DPPH method, showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the guava wastes presented the highest values with an EC50 of 142.89 μg.mL-1, followed by the hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of the acerola wastes, with EC50 values of 308.07 and 386.46 μg.mL-1, respectively. When the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS method, the acerola pulp wastes showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with TEAC values of 0.518 ± 0.103 and 0.743 ± 0.127 mM.g-1 of residue for the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts, respectively (p < 0.05. Thus, the fruit pulp wastes studied in this work, especially acerola and guava, represented

  13. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Shang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin. The in vitro assays demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of inulin, including the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, were weak and significantly lower than those of Vitamin C (P < 0.05. The influence of dietary supplementation with inulin on the antioxidant status of laying hens was evaluated with in vivo antioxidant assays. The results indicated that inulin supplementation quadratically improved the egg production rate of the laying hens (P < 0.01. The antioxidant enzyme activities in the serum, including SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, and the total antioxidant capacity increased quadratically as inulin levels increased (P < 0.001. The levels of MDA in the serum decreased quadratically as inulin levels increased (P < 0.001. These findings suggest that inulin has the potential to improve the antioxidant status of laying hens.

  14. Phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity of insoluble dietary fiber powders from citrus (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) pomace as affected by ultrafine grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Bingbing; Ye, Fayin; Li, Hang; Hu, Qiang; Xue, Shan; Zhao, Guohua

    2014-07-23

    The effects of mechanical and jet grindings on the proximate composition, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of insoluble antioxidant dietary fiber powder from citrus pomace (IADFP-CP) were investigated in comparison with ordinary grinding. IADFP-CP from jet grinding showed higher levels of crude fat, total sugar, and free phenolics and lower levels of crude protein and bound phenolics than that from ordinary grinding. Totally, 14 phenolics (9 free, 1 bound, and 4 free/bound) in IADFP-CP were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Hesperidin accounted for >57% of total phenolics in IADFP-CP. Among IADFP-CPs, the jet-ground presented the highest free phenolics but the lowest bound phenolics. The IADFP-CP from jet grinding presented the highest antioxidant capacity of free phenolics (by DPPH and FRAP assays), followed by the ones from mechanical and then ordinary grinding. The present study suggests that jet grinding could improve the extraction of phenolic compounds from IADFP-CP and increase the antioxidant capacities of free phenolics and the resultant powder.

  15. Detection and measurement of antioxidant capacity in human sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, G.; Koeteles, G.J.; Otos, M.

    1998-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of human sera was measured by the Randox TAS assay and an average value of 1.55 mmol/L was found from 87 healthy adult persons. Exogenous antioxidant added to the blood could be measured additively. Upon X-irradiation of whole blood samples, the antioxidant value decreased down to 1 Gy linearly. Further decrease after higher doses, however, could not be detected. Reductions of radiation-induced human lymphocyte micronucleus frequency as a cytogenetic end-point were observed upon increasing the exogenous antioxidant level in serum with a water-soluble form of alpha-tocopherol, or a plant extract from Sylibum marianum L. in vitro. (author)

  16. Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2010-04-12

    The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of

  17. Evaluation of the Stability of the Total Antioxidant Capacity, Polyphenol Contents, and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activities of Kombucha Teas Using an In Vitro Model of Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindani I. Watawana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activity of three different types of Kombucha beverages prepared by three pellicles with different microbial compositions. The fermentation process was carried out for 7 days and the assessments of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities as well as tea phenolic compounds were carried out. These parameters were also evaluated after subjecting the final fermented samples to gastric and duodenal digestion in an in vitro digestion model. The pH had a statistically significant decrease during the period of fermentation. The total phenolics content and antioxidant activities had increased during the fermentation process as well as when subjected to digestion. The starch hydrolase inhibitory activities also increased in a similar manner during the different phases. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities showed statistically significant increases (P<0.05 as the fermentation progressed, while an increase was observed after being subjected to pancreatic and duodenal digestion as well. All three types of tea showed a higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

  18. Antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins from acerola genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão De Lima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins from 12 acerola genotypes cultivated at the Active Germplasm Bank at Federal Rural University of Pernambuco were isolated for antioxidant potential evaluation. The antioxidant activity and radical scavenging capacity of the anthocyanin isolates were measured according to the β-carotene bleaching method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, respectively. The antioxidant activity varied from 25.58 to 47.04% at 0.2 mg.mL-1, and it was measured using the β-carotene bleaching method. The free radical scavenging capacity increased according to the increase in concentration and reaction time by the DPPH assay. At 16.7 μg.mL-1 concentration and after 5 minutes and 2 hours reaction time, the percentage of scavenged radicals varied from 36.97 to 63.92% and 73.27 to 94.54%, respectively. Therefore, the antioxidant capacity of acerola anthocyanins varied amongst acerola genotypes and methods used. The anthocyanins present in this fruit may supply substantial dietary source of antioxidant which may promote health and produce disease prevention effects.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of Southern Sonora, Mexico. EF Moran-Palacio, LA Zamora-Álvarez, NA Stephens-Camacho, GA Yáñez- Farías, A Virgen-Ortiz, O Martínez-Cruz, JA Rosas-Rodríguez ...

  20. Heritability of polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALL

    They can increase the antioxidant capacity ... cytokines, while increasing the production of anti- inflammatory ...... Evaluation of bitterness and astringency of ... phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine. J. Agric.

  1. A two-step synthetic strategy to obtain a water-soluble derivative of curcumin with improved antioxidant capacity and in vitro cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeros, José M; Belmont-Bernal, Fernando; Pérez-González, Alma Teresa; Pérez-Padrón, Mario Israel; Guevara-Salazar, Patricia; González-Herrera, Irma Gabriela; Guadarrama, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    A novel water-soluble derivative of curcumin (Cur-[G-2]-OH) was designed and synthesized from accessible raw materials in only two steps with an overall yield of 80%. The modification of curcumin phenol groups with second-generation polyester dendrons (dendronization) as a strategy to achieve an optimal hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance allows the complete water solubilization of the new curcumin derivative (5mg/ml) at room temperature. The therapeutic potential of Cur-[G-2]-OH was investigated in terms of antioxidant capacity, intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity in both rat glioblastoma cells and normal human dermal fibroblasts. Although the phenolic groups of curcumin were locked by dendronization, Cur-[G-2]-OH exhibited antioxidant capacity in water that was even higher than curcumin in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This compound showed a steady cellular uptake contrasted with curcumin, which has a saturation capture at high concentrations. Combined with improved stability, this property seems to allow the intracellular accumulation of Cur-[G-2]-OH. Furthermore, the new compound exhibited increased cytotoxicity in rat C6 glioma cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas in normal human fibroblasts, its IC 50 value was >600μM versus the IC 50 of curcumin found between 100 and 200μM. Surprisingly, Cur-[G-2]-OH drives cell death of C6 cells by a different mechanism of apoptosis triggered by curcumin. Together, these results suggest that curcumin dendronization could promote molecular and cellular mechanisms that are different from those induced by curcumin, presumably due to structural factors and not only for improved water solubility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant activity of wine assessed by different in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that a diet rich in antioxidant compounds could help in counteracting the effects of reactive oxygen species, reducing the risk factors for chronic diseases. The moderate consumption of wine, especially red wine, has been associated with the reduction in mortalities from cardiovascular diseases. One of the possible reasons for the protective effect of wine can be identified in the high content of polyphenols (mainly flavonoids, which have significant antioxidant activity. Even though several in vitro tests have been developed for the measure of the antioxidant property, no method has showed a satisfactory correlation with the in vivo situation. On these bases, the aim of this study was the application and comparison of different in vitro methods to assess the antioxidant activity of red, rosé and white wines. The methods were: 1 Folin-Cocalteau's assay for the quantification of total polyphenol content; 2 the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl spectrophotometric assay and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC spectrophotometric assay for measuring the antioxidant activity of samples; 3 High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography for separation of phenolic substances and assessment of the associated antioxidant activity; 4 electrochemical detection by using a biosensor. Although all the approaches show some limitations, this battery of tests offers a more reliable body of data on the antioxidant activity of vine derivatives.

  3. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Ramírez-de León, José A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-04-01

    Plant infusions are consumed due to their beneficial effects on health, which is attributed to their bioactive compounds content. However, these compounds are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity of roselle beverages during storage. The optimum extraction conditions of roselle polyphenolic compounds was of 95 °C/60 min, which was obtained by a second order experimental design. The incorporation of stevia increased the stability of colour and some polyphenols, such as quercetin, gallic acid and rosmarinic acid, during storage. In addition, stevia decreased the loss of ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory capacity, whereas the incorporation of citric acid showed no effect. These results may contribute to the improvement of technological processes for the elaboration of hypocaloric and functional beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant Capacity of Flavonoids in Hepatic Microsomes Is not Reflected by Antioxidant Effects In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Duthie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with potential antioxidant activity via multiple reduction capacities. Oxidation of cellular lipids has been implicated in many diseases. Consequently, this study has assessed the ability of several dietary flavonoid aglycones to suppress lipid peroxidation of hepatic microsomes derived from rats deficient in the major lipid soluble antioxidant, dα-tocopherol. Antioxidant effectiveness was galangin > quercetin > kaempferol > fisetin > myricetin > morin > catechin > apigenin. However, none of the flavonoids were as effective as dα-tocopherol, particularly at the lowest concentrations used. In addition, there appears to be an important distinction between the in vitro antioxidant effectiveness of flavonoids and their ability to suppress indices of oxidation in vivo. Compared with dα-tocopherol, repletion of vitamin E deficient rats with quercetin, kaempferol, or myricetin did not significantly affect indices of lipid peroxidation and tissue damage. Direct antioxidant effect of flavonoids in vivo was not apparent probably due to low bioavailability although indirect redox effects through stimulation of the antioxidant response element cannot be excluded.

  5. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Rodrigo; Köhler, Hans; Pizarro, Marisol; Zúiga, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH?) scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP) and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (H...

  6. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  7. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-30

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities.

  8. Structure dependent antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic Fucus vesiculosus by UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermund, Ditte B; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Jónsdóttir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2018-02-01

    Brown algae are rich in polyphenolic compounds, phlorotannins, which have been found to possess high in vitro antioxidant capacity, especially DPPH radical scavenging activity, due to the high number of hydroxyl groups. Whereas, the overall antioxidant capacity of brown algae extracts has been widely studied, the antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins has been rarely explored. The aim of this study was to determine the structure dependant antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus. The antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins was determined by an on-line method using liquid chromatography and an electrochemical detector followed by quadrupole Time of Flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS). Tentative structural elucidation of 13 phlorotannin isomers from EAF was obtained by LC-DAD-QTOFMS, ranging from 374 to 870Da. On-line determination of antioxidant capacity of the individual phlorotannins generally showed that low molecular phlorotannins exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and that the capacity decreased with polymerisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  10. Determination of antioxidant capacity and a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils from citronella grass and lemongrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of and in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils extracted from citronella grass and lemongrass. The chemical composition of the extracted essential oils was determined by GC-MS. The antioxidant capacity ...

  11. Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Cordia retusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amudha, Murugesan; Rani, Shanmugam

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential, total flavonoid and phenolic content in extracts of aerial parts of Cordia retua (Vahl.) Masam. The samples such as ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were tested using six in vitro models such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical, iron chelating, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of C. retusa by spectrophotometrically. Total flavonoid and phenolic content in samples were estimated using aluminum chloride colorimetric and Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were analyzed statistically by the regression method. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the ethanol extract was found to be 596 μg/ml for DPPH, 597 μg/ml for nitric oxide radical, 554 μg/ml for iron chelating, 580 μg/ml for hydroxyl radical, 562 μg/ml for superoxide radical and 566 μg/ml for total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the total flavonoid content and total phenolic content of the ethanol extract were found to be 2.71 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and 1.86 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract, respectively. In all the testing, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrated that C. retusa possess potent antioxidant activity, high flavonoid and phenolic content. The antioxidant property may be related to the polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract. These results clearly indicated that C. retusa is effective against free radical mediated diseases as a natural antioxidant.

  12. Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Cordia retusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amudha, Murugesan; Rani, Shanmugam

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential, total flavonoid and phenolic content in extracts of aerial parts of Cordia retua (Vahl.) Masam. The samples such as ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were tested using six in vitro models such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical, iron chelating, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of C. retusa by spectrophotometrically. Total flavonoid and phenolic content in samples were estimated using aluminum chloride colorimetric and Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were analyzed statistically by the regression method. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the ethanol extract was found to be 596 μg/ml for DPPH, 597 μg/ml for nitric oxide radical, 554 μg/ml for iron chelating, 580 μg/ml for hydroxyl radical, 562 μg/ml for superoxide radical and 566 μg/ml for total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the total flavonoid content and total phenolic content of the ethanol extract were found to be 2.71 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and 1.86 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract, respectively. In all the testing, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrated that C. retusa possess potent antioxidant activity, high flavonoid and phenolic content. The antioxidant property may be related to the polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract. These results clearly indicated that C. retusa is effective against free radical mediated diseases as a natural antioxidant. PMID:27168685

  13. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, A.; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaves, and flowers of Eichornia crassipes; (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl [DPPH] radical...... and in the antioxidant activities of extracts from the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analyzed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts of gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of a varied number of phenolic acids...... oil. Our results demonstrate that E. crassipes, an underutilized aquatic weed, could be a potential natural antioxidant source for food, feed, and pharmaceutical applications. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC....

  14. The predictive value of the antioxidant capacity of structurally related flavonoids using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, R. van den; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, H. van den; Vijgh, W. van der; Bast, A.

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of a series of structurally related flavonoids is quantified by the amount of ABTS [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)] radical anions (ABTS(.)-) that is able to react with the flavonoid and expressed as the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). To

  15. Antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) - comparison between permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity and other antioxidant methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Boris M; Stajner, Dubravka; Slavko, Kevrešan; Sandra, Bijelić

    2012-09-15

    Ethanol extracts (80% in water) of 10 cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes were studied for antioxidant properties, using methods including DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-) and ()OH antiradical powers, FRAP, total phenolic and anthocyanin content (TPC and ACC) and also one relatively new, permanganate method (permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity-PRAC). Lipid peroxidation (LP) was also determined as an indicator of oxidative stress. The data from different procedures were compared and analysed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). Significant positive correlations were obtained between TPC, ACC and DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-), and ()OH antiradical powers, and also between PRAC and TPC, ACC and FRAP. PCA found two major clusters of cornelian cherry, based on antiradical power, FRAP and PRAC and also on chemical composition. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between PRAC method and FRAP and ACC. There was a huge variation between C. mas genotypes in terms of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of selected watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld) cultivars grown in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagal, Shweta; Kaur, Charanjit; Choudhary, Harshawardhan; Singh, Jashbir; Bhushan Singh, Braj; Singh, K N

    2012-12-01

    The present investigation reports variability in lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of 12 watermelon cultivars grown in India. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using four in vitro assays, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl. Among watermelon cultivars, significant differences (p watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. Results indicate that watermelon is a good source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that can be exploited to produce high-quality cultivars.

  17. Research on an antioxidant capacity of honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Hołderna-Kędzia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human organism is exposed to harmful action of free radicals which are produced as well endogenically as egzogenically. The oxidation activity of free radicals can lead to the conversion of systemic biomolecules. As a consequence, there is a threat of, many severe diseases. Antioxidative agents which occur in natural products (also in honey raise a possibility of protection against the harmful action of above mentioned radicals. Polyphenolic compounds - flavonoids, phenolic acids and ascorbic acid - are the most important antioxidative agents. The research of many authors proves that honey, given orally, shows an antioxidative activity. The level of antioxidative agents in serum after the consumption of honey is high and surpasses the antioxidative activity of tea. Dark honeys (honeydew and heather have considerably higher antioxidative activity in comparison to light ones (acacia, lime, polyfloral.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity of Beetroot: Traditional vs Novel Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Celia; Rey, Raquel; Hendrickx, Marc; Del Mar Cavia, María; Alonso-Torre, Sara

    2017-09-01

    Red beetroot has been ranked among the 10 most potent antioxidant vegetables, although only extraction-based methods have been used to evaluate its total antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the present study aims at comparing the traditional extraction-based method with two more recent approaches (QUENCHER -QUick, Easy, New, CHEap and Reproducible- and GAR -global antioxidant response method), in order to establish their suitability in the case of beetroot. Our results indicate that the total antioxidant capacity of beetroot would be underestimated when using extraction-based procedures, since both QUENCHER and GAR methods resulted in a higher total antioxidant capacity. The effect of a thermal treatment on the total antioxidant capacity of beetroot varies among the methods evaluated and our findings suggest different compounds responsible for the total antioxidant capacity detected in each pre-processing method. Remarkably, the present study demonstrates that the traditional extraction-based method seems useful to screen for (changes in) the "bioavailable" antioxidant potential of the root.

  19. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Hai-Zhu; Yang, Jun-Yan; Li, Ran; Song, Hui; Wu, Hong-Xin

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin. The in vitro assays demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of inulin, including the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, were weak and significantly lower than those of Vitamin C (P < 0.05). The influence of dietary supplementation with inulin on the antioxidant status of laying hens was evaluated with in vivo antioxidant assays. The results ...

  20. Total antioxidant capacity in children with acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, M; Boleken, M E; Kanmaz, T; Erel, O; Yucesan, S

    2006-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate antioxidant capacity by using a novel automated method in children with acute appendicitis. Blood samples were obtained from consecutive patients with acute appendicitis (appendicitis group, n = 12) and acute abdominal pain due to non surgical disease (non-appendicitis group, n = 11), and from patients with inguinal hernia (healthy group, n = 12) as the control group. At admission, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of plasma were evaluated in all patients by a method recently developed by Erel. Four other major individual plasma antioxidant components, the levels of total protein, albumin, uric acid and bilirubin, were also evaluated. Total antioxidant capacity in patients with acute appendicitis was statistically compared with the two other groups. While the TAC level in the appendicitis group was significantly greater than in the non-appendicitis group, no significant difference was found in healthy groups (p 0.05, 1.94 +/- 0.38, 1.40 +/- 0.36, and 1.99 +/- 0.35 respectively). Individual components of total antioxidant capacity, i.e. total protein, albumin, uric acid and bilirubin concentrations, were also higher in the patients with acute appendicitis than those of the other two control groups. Our data show that children with acute appendicitis do not have deficient blood plasma antioxidant capacity. These results provide evidence that acute appendicitis results in more induction of antioxidative response than non-surgical diseases.

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and membrane stabilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the leaf and root of C. adenocaulis were extracted with 70% ethanol to yield the ... ELE and ERE were able to protect red blood cell (RBC) membrane against ... antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, lipid peroxidation, membrane stabilization.

  2. Modified Folin-Ciocalteu antioxidant capacity assay for measuring lipophilic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Kadriye Isil; Ozdemir Olgun, F Ayca; Ozyurt, Dilek; Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat

    2013-05-22

    The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method of performing a total phenolics assay, originally developed for protein determination, has recently evolved as a total antioxidant capacity assay but was found to be incapable of measuring lipophilic antioxidants due to the high affinity of the FC chromophore, that is, multivalent-charged phospho-tungsto-molybdate(V), toward water. Thus, the FC method was modified and standardized so as to enable simultaneous measurement of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in NaOH-added isobutanol-water medium. Optimal conditions were as follows: dilution ratio of aqueous FC reagent with iso-BuOH (1:2, v/v), final NaOH concentration of 3.5 × 10(-2) M, reaction time of 20 min, and maximum absorption wavelength of 665 nm. The modified procedure was successfully applied to the total antioxidant capacity assay of trolox, quercetin, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, glutathione, and cysteine, as well as of lipophilic antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E), butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butylhydroquinone, lauryl gallate, and β-carotene. The modified FC method reliably quantified ascorbic acid, whereas the conventional method could not. The modified method was reproducible and additive in terms of total antioxidant capacity values of constituents of complex mixtures such as olive oil extract and herbal tea infusion. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of the tested antioxidant compounds correlated well with those found by the Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity reference method.

  3. Structure dependent antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic Fucus vesiculosus by UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    Brown algae are rich in polyphenolic compounds, phlorotannins, which have been found to possess high in vitro antioxidant capacity, especially DPPH radical scavenging activity, due to the high number of hydroxyl groups. Whereas, the overall antioxidant capacity of brown algae extracts has been...... was determined by an on-line method using liquid chromatography and an electrochemical detector followed by quadrupole Time of Flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS). Tentative structural elucidation of 13 phlorotannin isomers from EAF was obtained by LC-DAD-QTOFMS, ranging from 374 to 870 Da. On...

  4. Effect of drying method to antioxidants capacity of Limnophila aromatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tran Thi Ngoc; Vu, Nguyen Hoang

    2017-09-01

    Limnophila aromatica is widely used in South East Asian countries to make spices in food and medicine in traditional medicine. The use value of vegetables is known because some of the lesser constituents in plants are called antioxidants. These active ingredients have not been fully researched and their pharmacological effects are underestimated. In this study, the drying temperature at 40 °C was showed that the antioxidant activity decreased the most. The drying temperature of 50 °C is suitable for convection drying method and drying temperature of 60 °C suitable for vacuum drying, as it retains the most antioxidant properties. Regarding the drying method, freeze drying proved to be effective when retaining high antioxidant capacity. Using The convection drying at 50 °C and the vacuum drying at 60 °C, the antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica was not different. Over 6 weeks of preservation, the dried product has deterioration in antioxidant properties.

  5. In Vitro Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oxalis Corniculata Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vitro Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oxalis Corniculata Linn. Fractions in Various Solvents. D Ahmed, S Zara, H Baig. Abstract. As part of our search for natural antioxidants, this work presents an evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and its sub-fractions in hexane, chloroform, ...

  6. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Hai-Zhu; Yang, Jun-Yan; Li, Ran; Song, Hui; Wu, Hong-Xin

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin. The in vitro assays demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of inulin, including the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, were weak and significantly lower than those of Vitamin C (P inulin on the antioxidant status of laying hens was evaluated with in vivo antioxidant assays. The results indicated that inulin supplementation quadratically improved the egg production rate of the laying hens (P inulin levels increased (P inulin levels increased (P inulin has the potential to improve the antioxidant status of laying hens.

  7. Antioxidant capacity and oxygen radical diseases in the preterm newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S; Witz, G; Anwar, M; Hiatt, M; Hegyi, T

    2000-06-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity may be different manifestations of oxygen radical diseases of prematurity (ORDP). To test the hypothesis that the antioxidant capacity of cord blood serum will predict risk of ORDP. An inception cohort of premature neonates was followed up from birth until discharge or death to determine if outcome was related to cord blood serum antioxidant capacity, as determined by a manual assay measuring the relative inhibition of oxidation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS). Possible correlations between antioxidant capacity and various perinatal factors were also tested. Level 3 newborn intensive care unit. All inborn very low-birth-weight neonates from whom cord blood was available and for whom maternal consent was obtained were included. Newborns who died in the first week of life or who had major congenital malformations were excluded. A convenience sample of newborns weighing more than 1500 g was used to perfect assay and explore confounders. Significant ORDP was defined as the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage greater than grade 2, retinopathy of prematurity greater than stage 1, bronchopulmonary dysplasia at the postconceptional age of 36 weeks, or necrotizing enterocolitis with the hypothesis that neonates with ORDP will have lower antioxidant capacity in cord blood serum. Serum antioxidant capacity at birth correlated with gestational age for the entire sample of 41 neonates and for the 26 neonates born before 32 weeks' gestation. After correction for gestational age, cord serum antioxidant capacity did not correlate with maternal smoking, preeclampsia, chorioamnionitis, cord pH Apgar scores, or any of the ORDP studied. Cord serum antioxidant capacity correlates with gestational age but does not predict ORDP risk.

  8. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Sudarshana Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerakoon Achchige Selvi Saroja Weerakoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudarshana powder (SP is one of the most effective Ayurveda powder preparations for paediatric febrile conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of SP. The in vitro antioxidant effects were evaluated using ABTS radical cation decolourization assay where the TROLOX equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC was determined. The in vivo antioxidant activity of SP was determined in Wistar rats using the Lipid Peroxidation (LPO assay in serum. The in vitro assay was referred to as the TROLOX equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay. For the in vivo assay, animals were dosed for 21 consecutive days and blood was drawn to evaluate the MDA level. The in vitro antioxidant activity of 0.5 μg of SP was equivalent to 14.45 μg of standard TROLOX. The percentage inhibition against the radical formation was 50.93±0.53%. The SP showed a statistically significant (p<0.01 decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance in the test rats when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the SP possesses potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported bioactivities.

  9. Uric acid contributes greatly to hepatic antioxidant capacity besides protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, T; Sorimachi, M

    2017-12-20

    Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism and an increase in uric acid concentration in the body results in hyperuricemia, ultimately leading to gout. However, uric acid is a potent antioxidant and interacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be non-enzymatically converted to allantoin. Uric acid accounts for approximately 60 % of antioxidant capacity in the plasma; however, its contribution to tissue antioxidant capacity is unknown. In this study, the contribution of uric acid to tissue antioxidant capacity and its conversion to allantoin by scavenging ROS in tissue were examined. The results showed that a decrease in hepatic uric acid content via allopurinol administration significantly reduced hepatic total-radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) content in protein-free cytosol. Additionally, treating protein-free cytosol with uricase led to a further reduction of hepatic TRAP content. Allantoin was also detected in the solution containing protein-free cytosol that reacted with ROS. These findings suggest that in the absence of protein, uric acid contributes greatly to antioxidant capacity in the liver, where uric acid is converted to allantoin by scavenging ROS.

  10. Antioxidant properties and neuroprotective capacity of strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Cláudia N

    2010-02-01

    Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a "health promoting food". The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model.

  11. Antioxidant Properties and Neuroprotective Capacity of Strawberry Tree Fruit (Arbutus unedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Ferreira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a “health promoting food”. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus, a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Chinese five-spice ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinyan; Soong, Yean Yean; Lim, Siang Wee; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds in spices were reportedly found to possess high antioxidant capacities (AOCs), which may prevent or reduce risk of human diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. The potential AOC of Chinese five-spice powder (consist of Szechuan pepper, fennel seed, cinnamon, star anise and clove) with varying proportion of individual spice ingredients was investigated through four standard methods. Our results suggest that clove is the major contributor to the AOC of the five-spice powder whereas the other four ingredients contribute to the flavour. For example, the total phenolic content as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values increased linearly with the clove percentage in five-spice powder. This observation opens the door to use clove in other spice mixtures to increase their AOC and flavour. Moreover, linear relationships were also observed between AOC and the total phenolic content of the 32 tested spice samples.

  13. Antioxidant Capacity of a Turkish Traditional Alcoholic Drink, Raki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Gorkem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raki is an aniseed flavoured traditional Turkish alcoholic drink. Antioxidant capacity of raki samples from different commercial brands were evaluated by CUPRAC, DPPH, TEAC and ORAC assays and correlations between these assays and total phenolic content were also investigated. Additionally, the one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were performed to compare differences between values of the samples. Results indicated that different raki samples exhibited different antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. The mean antioxidant capacity values of samples were in the order of: ORAC>TEAC>CUPRAC>DPPH. The correlations of total phenolic content of samples with their CUPRAC, TEAC and ORAC results were found statistically significant, while DPPH assay showed no significant correlation.

  14. Composición y capacidad antioxidante in-vitro de aceites esenciales ricos en Timol, Carvacrol, trans-Anetol o Estragol Composition and in-vitro antioxidant capacity of essential oils rich in Thymol, Carvacrol, trans-Anethole or Estragole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amner Muñoz-Acevedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS la composición química de aceites esenciales (AE, aislados por hidrodestilación asistida por la radiación de microondas (MWHD, de las especies vegetales aromáticas Artemisia dracunculus, Foeniculum vulgare, Illicium verum, Lippia micromera, Lippia origanoides, Ocimum spp., Plectranthus amboinicus, Tagetes filifolia, Tagetes lucida y Thymus vulgaris. Los valores de capacidades antioxidantes in vitro de estos aceites esenciales, se obtuvieron usando los ensayos de decoloración del catión-radical ABTS+• (metodologías convencional y con dilución en microplacas y la oxidación del ácido linoleico, inducida por O2 y Fe+2. El potencial inhibitorio de ABTS+• fue más alto para los aceites esenciales que contienen fenoles (carvacrol y timol, que para los aceites esenciales ricos en éteres (trans-anetol y estragol. La actividad antioxidante mediante el ensayo ABTS+• modificado en orden decreciente fue: AE Plectranthus amboinicus ≥ AE Lippia origanoides >> AE Thymus vulgaris > AE Lippia micromera >>> AE Tagetes lucida (flores > AE Ocimum sp. > AE Tagetes lucida (hojas > AE Illicium verum > AE Tagetes filifolia (Cenivam > AE Foeniculum vulgare. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 287-294Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used to determine the chemical composition of essential oils (EO isolated by microwave-radiation-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD of Artemisia dracunculus, Foeniculum vulgare, Illicium verum, Lippia micromera, Lippia origanoides, Ocimum sp., Plectranthus amboinicus, Tagetes filifolia, Tagetes lucida and Thymus vulgaris. in vitro antioxidant capacity values using ABTS+• discoloration assays (traditional and microplate methods and the linoleic acid oxidation (with O2 and Fe+2 of these essential oils were obtained. Essential oils with phenols (carvacrol and thymol high content showed higher total antioxidant capacity values than

  15. Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Kong, Kin Weng; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sun, Jian; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Romli, Zulfiki Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits) were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU) exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5 mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1 RE/g), and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78 ± 1.2% and 85 ± 2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550 ± 123), when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729 ± 172). Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23710209

  16. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants.

  18. Riboflavin Phototransformation on the Changes of Antioxidant Capacities in Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhee; Seol, Nam Gyu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2016-08-01

    Eight phenolic compounds including: p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, trolox, quercetin, curcumin, and resveratrol were treated with riboflavin (RF) photosensitization and in vitro antioxidant capacities of the mixtures were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2' azino bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Mixtures containing p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid under RF photosensitization showed increases in ferric ion reducing ability and radical scavenging activity of DPPH, whereas mixtures of other compounds had decreases in both radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Hydroxycoumaric acid and conjugated hydroxycoumaric and coumaric acids were tentatively identified from RF photosensitized p-coumaric acid, whereas dimmers of vanillic acid were tentatively identified from RF photosensitized vanillic acid. RF photosensitization may be a useful method to enhance antioxidant properties like ferric ion reducing abilities of some selected phenolic compounds. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Effects of boiling and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawalagedera, S M M R; Ou, Zong-Quan; McDowell, Arlene; Gould, Kevin S

    2016-03-01

    Leaves of Sonchus oleraceus L. are especially rich in phenolic compounds and have potent extractable antioxidants. However, it is not known how their antioxidant activity changes after cooking and gastrointestinal digestion. We recorded the profile of phenolics and their associated antioxidant activity in both raw and boiled S. oleraceus leaf extracts after in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion, and quantified their antioxidant potentials using Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Boiling significantly diminished the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and concentrations of ascorbate and chicoric acid in the soluble fractions. In contrast, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and concentrations of caftaric and chlorogenic acids were unaffected. Phenolics in the soluble fraction were absorbed into cultured human cells and exerted antioxidant activity. Only chlorogenic acid content remained stable during gastrointestinal digestion. S. oleraceus appears to be an excellent dietary source of phenolic antioxidants.

  20. Comparison of the antioxidant potential of antiparkinsonian drugs in different in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Coneglian de Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Furthermore, oxidative stress plays a role in PD, causing or contributing to the neurodegenerative process. Currently PD has only symptomatic treatment and still nothing can be done to stop the degenerative process of the disease. This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the antioxidant capacity of pramipexole, selegeline and amantadine in different in vitrostudies and to offer possible explanations on the molecular antioxidant mechanisms of these drugs. In vitro, the antioxidant capacity of the drugs was assessed by the ability of antiparkinsonian drugs to decrease or scavenge ROS in the neutrophil respiratory burst, ability of antiparkinsonian drugs to donate hydrogen and stabilize the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•, to scavenge 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+ and evaluation of the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. This study demonstrated that both pramipexole and selegiline, but not amantadine, have antioxidant effects in vitro by scavenging superoxide anion on the respiratory burst, donating electron in the ABTS+ assay and presenting ferric reduction antioxidant power. This chemical structure-related antioxidant capacity suggests a possible neuroprotective mechanism of these drugs beyond their already recognized mechanism of action.

  1. Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Satoshi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee products (including propolis, royal jelly, and bee pollen are popular, traditional health foods. We compared antioxidant effects among water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis (WEP or EEP, its main constituents, water-soluble royal jelly (RJ, and an ethanol extract of bee pollen. Methods The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-, superoxide anion (O2·--, and hydroxyl radical (HO·- scavenging capacities of bee products were measured using antioxidant capacity assays that employed the reactive oxygen species (ROS-sensitive probe 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA or aminophenyl fluorescein (APF. Results The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA had any effects. Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects. The scavenging effects of caffeic acid were as powerful as those of trolox, but stronger than those of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC or vitamin C. Conclusion On the basis of the present assays, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee product examined, and its effect may be partly due to the various caffeic acids it contains. Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

  2. Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yoshimi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Mishima, Satoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2009-02-26

    Bee products (including propolis, royal jelly, and bee pollen) are popular, traditional health foods. We compared antioxidant effects among water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis (WEP or EEP), its main constituents, water-soluble royal jelly (RJ), and an ethanol extract of bee pollen. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-, superoxide anion (O2.-)-, and hydroxyl radical (HO.)- scavenging capacities of bee products were measured using antioxidant capacity assays that employed the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA) or aminophenyl fluorescein (APF). The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects. Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects. The scavenging effects of caffeic acid were as powerful as those of trolox, but stronger than those of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or vitamin C. On the basis of the present assays, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee product examined, and its effect may be partly due to the various caffeic acids it contains. Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

  3. Serum total antioxidant capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžović-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is characterized by loss of myelin, the fatty tissue that surrounds and protects nerve fibres allowing them to conduct electrical impulses. Recent data indicate that oxidative stress (OS plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to estimate level of serum total antioxidative capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our cross-sectional study included 33 patients with MS and 24 age and sex matched control subjects. All our patients had a Poser criteria for definite diagnostic categories of multiple sclerosis. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC was measured by quantitative colorimetric determination, using Total antioxidant Capacity-QuantiCromAntioxidant Assay Kit (BioAssay systems, USA; DTAC-100. Mean serum TAC in multiple sclerosis group of patients was 119.2 mM Trolox equivalents and was significantly lower (p<0.001 compared to the control group of subjects (167.1 mM Trolox equivalents. Our results showed that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. This finding, also, suggests the importance of antioxidants in diet and therapy of MS patients.

  4. Influence of rye flour enzymatic biotransformation on the antioxidant capacity and transepithelial transport of phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Fabíola Aliaga; Martins, Isabela Mateus; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Joana; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2018-03-01

    Phenolic acids have been reported to play a role on the antioxidant activity and other important biological activities. However, as most polyphenolics in food products are either bound to cellular matrices or present as free polymeric forms, the way they are absorbed has not been totally clear until now. Hydrolytic enzymes may act to increase functionalities in polyphenolic-rich foods, enhancing the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and minerals from whole grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of tannin acyl hydrolase (tannase) on the total phenols, phenolic acid profile, antioxidant capacity and in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids found in whole rye flour (RF). Besides increasing total phenols and the antioxidant capacity, tannase treatment increased the amounts of ferulic, sinapic and vanillic acids identified in RF, evidencing a new type of feruloyl esterase catalytic action of tannase. Vanillic and sinapic acids in tannase-treated whole rye flour (RFT) were higher than RF after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and higher amounts of transported vanillic acid through the Caco-2 monolayer were detected in RFT. However, the bioaccessibility and the transport efficiency of RF phenolic acids were higher than RFT. Underutilized crops like rye and rye-derived products may be an important source of phenolic acids. The tannase biotransformation, even influencing the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of RF, did not increase the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids under the experimental conditions of this study.

  5. A comparative study on the in vitro antioxidant potentials of three edible fruits: cornelian cherry, Japanese persimmon and cherry laurel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Engin; Aydın, Ahmet; Yesilada, Erdem

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed in order to investigate in vitro antioxidant potentials of 80% methanolic extracts prepared from three edible fruits, Cornus mas L., Diospyros kaki L., Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. For this purpose, 8 different tests were performed including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging tests, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), metal-chelating capacity, determination of total antioxidant capacity, β-carotene bleaching test in a linoleic acid emulsion system and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, for evaluating the phenolic profile, total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents were measured spectrophotometrically. Among the three fruits analyzed, Diospyros kaki L. showed the highest activity in all tests, except β-carotene bleaching test. Whereas, neither of three fruits showed metal-chelating activity. Also, a good correlation was found between the phenolic content and antioxidant parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decrease of total antioxidant capacity during coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunt, Alper Sami; Selek, Sahbettin; Celik, Hakim; Demir, Deniz; Erel, Ozcan; Andac, Mehmet Halit

    2006-09-01

    Cardiac surgery induces an oxidative stress, which may lead to impairment of cardiac function. In this study, we aimed to measure the changes of oxidative and antioxidative status of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). We studied 79 patients who underwent CABG with and without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Of the 79 patients, 39 had CPB and 40 did not. Blood samples were drawn before, during, and after the surgery. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative status was evaluated by measuring total peroxide (TP) levels and oxidative stress index (OSI). TP and OSI levels increased, while TAC decreased progressively after the beginning of surgery, for all patients. There were negative correlations between TAC levels and aortic cross-clamping period and anastomosis time ( r = -0.553, p antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E may be beneficial for patients undergoing CABG.

  7. Antioxidant Capacity and Antimutagenic Potential of Murraya koenigii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zahin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the intake of antioxidants with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and medicinal herbs contributes towards reduced risk of certain diseases including cancers. This study aims to evaluate the broad-spectrum antioxidant and antimutagenic activities as well as to elucidate phytochemical profile of an Indian medicinal plant Murraya koenigii (curry leaves. Leaves of the plant were successively fractionated in various organic solvents. Benzene fraction demonstrated the highest phenolic content followed by petroleum ether. The benzene fraction showed maximum antioxidant activity in all tested assays, namely, phosphomolybdenum, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC assays. Based on the promising broad-spectrum antioxidant activity, benzene fraction was further evaluated for antimutagenic activity and showed a dose-dependent antimutagenic response in Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay. It inhibited 72–86% mutagenicity induced by sodium azide, methyl methanesulfonate, benzo(apyrene, and 2-aminoflourene at the maximum tested concentration (100 μg/mL in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains. At least 21 compounds were detected by GC/MS. The findings clearly demonstrated that phenolic-rich benzene fraction has promising broad-spectrum antioxidant and antimutagenic property and needs further evaluation to exploit its therapeutic potential.

  8. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 m...

  9. South African dietary total antioxidant capacity based on secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In this exploratory study, the average adult South African dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was estimated using secondary data and was evaluated against that determined for dietary intake recommendations. Design: The average adult South African dietary TAC was estimated using a report published by ...

  10. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  11. Role of paramagnetic polyconjugated clusters in lignin antioxidant activity (in vitro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizhbite, T; Ponomarenko, J; Andersone, A; Dobele, G; Lauberts, M; Krasilnikova, J; Telysheva, G; Mironova-Ulmane, N

    2012-01-01

    Using physico-chemical methods (EPR, SEC, Py-GC/MS and UV/VIS spectroscopy) and wet chemical analysis, the characteristics of 6 hardwood lignins in terms of functionality, molecular weight and composition of lignin substructures were determined and considered together with the results of DPPH., ABTS. + and O 2 . − antioxidant assays with the aim to understand the relationships governing antioxidant properties of lignin. The strong positive linear correlation between lignin antioxidant capacity in the three assays used and the extent of conjugation of paramagnetic polyconjugated clusters in lignin macromolecules was found. The biological activity of the most active alkaline lignins was assessed by in vitro experiment with human blood.

  12. Developing SyrinOX total antioxidant capacity assay for measuring antioxidants in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Endry N; Knes, Otto; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Guebitz, Georg M

    2013-02-01

    Accurate monitoring of the antioxidant status or of oxidative stress in patients is still a big challenge in clinical laboratories. This study investigates the possibility of applying a newly developed total antioxidant capacity assay method based on laccase or peroxidase oxidized syringaldazine [Tetramethoxy azobismethylene quinone (TMAMQ)] which is referred to here as SyrinOX, as a diagnostic tool for monitoring both oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients. Attempts to adapt the Randox total antioxidant procedure [simultaneous incubation of the radical generating system (metmyoglobin and H(2) O(2) ) and antioxidant sample] for SyrinOX were abandoned after it was discovered that the H(2) O(2) reacted with enzymatically generated TMAMQ and ABTS radicals at a rate of 6.4 × 10(-2) /μM/s and 5.7 × 10(-3) /μM/s respectively. Thus this study for the first time demonstrates the negative effects of H(2) O(2) in the Randox system. This leads to erroneous results because the total antioxidant values obtained are the sum of radicals reduced by antioxidants plus those reacting with the radical generating system. Therefore they should be avoided not only for this particular method but also when using other similar methods. Consequently, SyrinOX is best applied using a three-step approach involving, production of TMAMQ, recovery and purification (free from enzyme and other impurities) and then using TMAMQ for measuring the total antioxidant capacity of samples. Using this approach, the reaction conditions for application of SyrinOX when measuring the total antioxidant capacity of plasma sample were determined to be 50% (v/v) ethanol/50 mM sodium succinate buffer pH 5.5, between 20 and 25 °C for at least 1 h. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  13. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidative stability of coconut meat protein hydrolysates (CMPHs) in the gastrointestinal tract, and evaluate the changes in antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution of CMPHs during gastrointestinal (GI )digestion. Methods: A two-stage in vitro digestion ...

  14. Antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts subjected to gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Joanna; Olejnik, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Myszka, Kamila; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2015-07-01

    Broccoli is a common vegetable recognized as a rich source of antioxidants. To date, research on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, predominantly conducted on extracts, has not considered the lesions of composition and this activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Here the stability of antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated in conjunction with the protective effects of broccoli sprouts (BS) against oxidative stress in human colon cells. The obtained data suggest that, among the biocompounds identified in BS, glucosinolates were mainly degraded under gastrointestinal digestion, while phenolics, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, were the most resistant constituents. The antioxidant capacity of BS extract subjected to gastrointestinal digestion was similar to or higher than that determined for non-digested BS. Gastrointestinal digested BS extract exhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inhibitory capacity in NCM460 human colon cells, with 1 mg mL(-1) showing an ROS clearance of 76.59%. A 57.33% reduction in oxidative DNA damage in NCM460 cells due to treatment with digested BS extract was observed. The results lend support to the possible application of BS as a rich source of antioxidants to improve the defensive system against oxidative stress in the human colon mucosa. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Applicability of an improved Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay for evaluation of antioxidant capacity measurements of mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, R. van den; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, H. van den; Bast, A.

    1999-01-01

    The TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay is based on scavenging of 2,2'-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical anions (ABTS(.-)). In this report we describe a modification based on pre-generation of the ABTS radical anions with a thermolabile azo compound, 2,2'-azobis-

  16. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Rodrigo A; Köhler, Hans; Pizarro, Marisol; Zúiga, Gustavo E

    2015-04-09

    The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH•) scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP) and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ)). All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds.

  17. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Contreras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH• scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ. All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Plant Extracts and Their Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the screening of some selected aromatic plants very popular in Greece, with respect to their total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, reducing activity, and oxidative stability. All plants were extracted with the conventional method, reflux with methanol. The essential oils of the plants were also analyzed for their antioxidant properties. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method using gallic acid as the standard, while the phenolic substances were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC coupled with a multi-wavelength ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis detector. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extracts was measured by their ability to scavenge free radicals such as (a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and, (b ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiaziline-6- sulfonate. The Folin-Ciocalteu method proved the existence of antioxidants in the aromatic plant extracts. Taking into account the results of the DPPH and ABTS methods, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. Eventually, all plants exhibited low but noticeable protection levels against lipid oxidation, as determined by the Rancimat test.

  19. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaf and flowers of Eichornia crassipes, (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating...... the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analysed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and phydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of varied number of phenolic acids. Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained...... the highest total phenolic content, were found to have high DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Ethanolic extracts of leaf were found to have high Fe2+ chelating activity and inhibited lipid peroxidation in liposomes and fish oil. Our results demonstrate that E. crassipes, an underutilized...

  20. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  1. In vitro study of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Chrysanthemum balsamita varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedec, Daniela; Filip, Lorena; Vlase, Laurian; Bele, Constantin; Sevastre, Bogdan; Raita, Oana; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Hanganu, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the phenolic substances of two varieties of Chrysanthemum balsamita (balsamita and tanacetoides) and to measure the overall antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC. The evaluation of the polyphenolic content was performed by colorimetric analysis. The antioxidant activity was measured by three in vitro assay models: the DPPH, the silver nanoparticles antioxidant capacity (SNPAC) and EPR radical detection. Using HPLC-MS analysis, phenolic acids, flavonoids and flavonoid aglycone were detected. The highest antioxidant activity was showed by Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita, while the lowest for the Chrysanthemum balsamita var. tanacetoides extract, in accord with the polyphenolic content. The results show that Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita might be a source of antioxidant flavonoids, especially rutin and isoquercitrin.

  2. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for antioxidants in human serum and for hydroxyl radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Tests measuring the combined antioxidant effect of the nonenzymatic defenses in biological fluids may be useful in providing an index of the organism's capability to counteract reactive species known as pro-oxidants, resist oxidative damage, and combat oxidative stress-related diseases. The selected chromogenic redox reagent for the assay of human serum should be easily accessible, stable, selective, and respond to all types of biologically important antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid, and bilirubin, regardless of chemical type or hydrophilicity. Our recently developed cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) spectrophotometric method for a number of polyphenols and flavonoids using the copper(II)-neocuproine reagent in ammonium acetate buffer is now applied to a complete series of plasma antioxidants for the assay of total antioxidant capacity of serum, and the resulting absorbance at 450 nm is recorded either directly (e.g., for ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and glutathione) or after incubation at 50 degrees C for 20 min (e.g., for uric acid, bilirubin, and albumin), quantitation being made by means of a calibration curve. The lipophilic antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, are assayed in dichloromethane. Lipophilic antioxidants of serum are extracted with n-hexane from an ethanolic solution of serum subjected to centrifugation. Hydrophilic antioxidants of serum are assayed in the centrifugate after perchloric acid precipitation of proteins. The CUPRAC molar absorptivities, linear ranges, and TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) coefficients of the serum antioxidants are established, and the results are evaluated in comparison with the findings of the ABTS/TEAC reference method. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) are 0.7 and 1.5%, respectively, for serum. The CUPRAC assay proved to be efficient for glutathione and thiol-type antioxidants

  3. Processing black mulberry into jam: effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-08-01

    Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialised scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurisation. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, % polymeric colour, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples. Jam processing led to a significant reduction in total phenolics (88%), total flavonoids (89%), anthocyanins (97%), and antioxidant capacity (88-93%) (P < 0.05). Individual anthocyanin contents, determined using HPLC analysis, also showed a significant decrease (∼99% loss). In contrast, % recovery of bioaccessible total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS assay) increased after jam processing (16%, 12%, and 37%, respectively). Fruit processing resulted in losses of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of black mulberry jam. Optimisation of food processing could help to protect the phenolic compounds in fruits which might be helpful for the food industry to minimise the antioxidant loss and improve the final product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Natural phenolic antioxidants in human fluids: analytical approaches and antioxidant capacity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K.; Zuo, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are the most abundant natural antioxidants in our diet. Epidemiological studies have shown the possible prevention effects of consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in phenolic compounds on degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, there is a serious lack of fundamental knowledge on the uptake and metabolism of phenolic compounds in humans. It is clear that phenolic molecules, only absorbed by humans, can exert biological effects. This review presents a current knowledge on the analytical methods, antioxidant capacity measurements, as well as research strategies related to natural phenolic antioxidants on human health. Both GC-MS and LC-MS have proved to be very useful analytical techniques that can be employed to identify and quantitate targeted phenolic antioxidants and their metabolites in biofluids. Free radical quenching tests provide a direct measurement of antioxidant capacity but lack specificity and may oversimplify the in vivo human physiological environment. Research strategies are diverse and mainly focused on positive health effect of antioxidants. In the future studies, multiple potential bioactivities, both positive and negative, should be considered. (author)

  5. Analytical profiling of selected antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity of goji (Lycium spp.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Michele; Gualandi, Isacco; Mandrioli, Roberto; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica; Mercolini, Laura

    2017-09-05

    Goji berries and derived products represent a relevant source of micronutrients, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of these fruits. Three brands of dried goji berries have been analysed by a multidisciplinary approach to get an insight into both their content of selected antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The former goal has been achieved by developing a liquid chromatographic method coupled to mass spectrometry and combined to a fast solid phase extraction. Several significant representative antioxidant compounds belonging to the following classes: flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, amino acids and derivatives, and carotenoids have been taken into account. Quercetin and rutin were found to be the predominant flavonoids, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid. The AC of the goji berries has been evaluated by four analytical methods in order to estimate the contributions of different reactions involved in radicals scavenging. In particular, AC has been determined using 3 standardised methods (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC) and a recently proposed electrochemical method, which measures the scavenging activity of antioxidants towards OH radicals generated both by hydrogen peroxide photolysis and the Fenton reaction. The results obtained from chemical composition and antioxidant capacity assays confirm the high nutritional and commercial value of goji berries and highlight that the three brands do not exhibit significant differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular mechanisms and in vitro antioxidant effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Xing, Zhuqing; Li, Chao; Wang, Jinju; Wang, Yanping

    2017-04-15

    Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 was isolated from Chinese traditional Tibetan kefir grains. The antioxidant activities in vitro of this strain were evaluated extensively. The results showed that L. plantarum MA2 can tolerate hydrogen peroxide up to 2.0mM, and its fermentate (fermented supernatant, intact cell and cell-free extract) had strong reducing capacities, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacities, Fe 2+ -chelating abilities, as well as various free radical scavenging capacities. Additionally, both the fermented supernatant and cell homogenate exhibited glutathione peroxidase activity and superoxide dismutase activity. In order to investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L. plantarum MA2 at the molecular level, eight antioxidant-related genes were identified, and further analyzed. Three groups of genes cat, gshR and npx, were found up-regulated under H 2 O 2 challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An efficient protocol for in vitro organogenesis and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total flavonoids and phenolic content in leaves of in vitro Melia dubia was 0.56 ± 0.8 mg quercitin equivalent (QE) and 2.97 ± 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) respectively. The antioxidant property was further assed through measurement of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The in-vitro regeneration protocol can be ...

  8. In vitro Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of a Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract and protein fraction of Atlantia monophylla Linn (Rutaceae) leaf. Methods: Ammonium sulphate (0 – 80 %) precipitation method was used to extract protein from the leaves of A. monophylla Linn (Rutaceae). In vitro antifungal ...

  9. Comparison of antioxidant capacity of cow and ewe milk kefirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Ersan, Lutfiye; Ozcan, Tulay; Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Sahin, Saliha

    2018-05-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of using either grain or commercial starter culture on the antioxidative capacity of cow and ewe milk kefirs. The antioxidant capacity of kefir samples during fermentation and 21 d of storage was assessed by using 3 assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation decolorization; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH • ) radical scavenging activity assay; and Fe +3 -reducing power (ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, FRAP). Vitamin E and β-carotene contents were also quantified. All kefir samples exhibited varying values for DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays depending on the starter culture and milk type. Vitamin E and β-carotene contents were similar in all kefir samples during storage. The results of this study suggest that milk type (cow or ewe) and culture type (kefir grains or commercial starter) were the significant parameters for the antioxidative activity of kefir. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds of four Brazilian native fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. Denardin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from araçá (Psidium cattleianum, butiá (Butia eriospatha, and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora fruits with different flesh colors (i.e., purple, red, and orange, and blackberries (Rubus sp.; cv. Xavante and Cherokee collected in the southern region of Brazil. The content of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and phenolics were determined. The profile of the phenolic compounds was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH assay, total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay, and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR assay. The Xavante blackberry and purple-fleshed pitanga showed the highest total phenolic content [816.50 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100g and 799.80 mg GAE/100g, respectively]. The araçá and red-fleshed pitanga showed the highest carotenoid content (6.27 ug β-carotene/g and 5.86 ug β-carotene/g, respectively. The fruits contained several phenolic compounds such as quercetin derivatives, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and cyanidin derivatives, which may contribute differentially to the antioxidant capacity. The highest scavenging activity in the DPPH assay was found for purple-fleshed pitanga (IC50 36.78 mg/L, blackberries [IC50 44.70 (Xavante and IC50 78.25 mg/L (Cherokee], and araçá (IC50 48.05 mg/L, which also showed the highest FRAP, followed by orange- and red-fleshed pitanga. Our results revealed that some fruits grown in southern Brazil such as purple-fleshed pitanga, blackberries, and araçá are rich sources of phenolic compounds and have great antioxidant activity.

  12. Total and corrected antioxidant capacity in hemodialyzed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margioris Andrew N

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress may play a critical role in the vascular disease of end stage renal failure and hemodialysis patients. Studies, analyzing either discrete analytes and antioxidant substances, or the integrated total antioxidant activity of human plasma during hemodialysis, give contradictory results. Methods Recently, we have introduced a new automated method for the determination of Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC of human plasma. We have serially measured TAC and corrected TAC (cTAC: after subtraction of the interactions due to endogenous uric acid, bilirubin and albumin in 10 patients before the onset of the dialysis session, 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h into the procedure and after completion of the session. Results Our results indicate that TAC decreases, reaching minimum levels at 2 h. However, corrected TAC increases with t1/2 of about 30 min. We then repeated the measurements in 65 patients undergoing dialysis with different filters (36 patients with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer resin filter -Eval-, 23 patients with two polysulfone filters -10 with F6 and 13 with PSN140-, and 6 patients with hemophan filters. Three specimens were collected (0, 30, 240 min. The results of this second group confirm our initial results, while no significant difference was observed using either filter. Conclusions Our results are discussed under the point of view of possible mechanisms of modification of endogenous antioxidants, and the interaction of lipid- and water-soluble antioxidants.

  13. Study of antioxidant capacity of different parts of two south Algerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the antioxidant capacity of ethanolic EE and water WE extracts from different parts (calyx, peel, and pulp) of eggplant (Solanum melongena L) were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The antioxidant capacity of different parts of eggplant was measured using ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity assays ...

  14. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflmmatory activities of Ximenia americana extracts

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    Arun Kashivishwanath Shettar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Ximenia americana extracts. Methods: Herbal extraction was done by Soxhlet extraction method with increasing polarity of solvents viz., chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and water. Phytochemical analysis was done using different biochemical tests. Antioxidant potential of plant extracts were analyzed by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, phosphomolybdenum and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, and anti-inflammatory activity by using protein denaturation in vitro bioassay. Total phenolic content of each extract was also determined to assess their corresponding effect on antioxidant capacity of plant. Results: Phytochemical analysis showed that each solvent extract contained broad spectrum of secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides, whereas compared to other solvent extracts, chloroform extract showed negative result for phenolic compounds whereas aqueous extract exhibited the highest phenolic content and the significant antioxidant capacity based on the test performed. Out of all extracts, methanol extract showed high anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusions: The present study revealed that different solvent extracts of Ximenia americana leaves contain broad spectrum of bioactive compounds. Results confirm that aqueous extract exhibited high antioxidant activity and methanol extract exhibited high antiinflammatory activity. Further study requires purification, characterization and structural elucidation of phenolic compounds in both extracts that may help in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals.

  15. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  16. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of the pulp of Jatobá-do-cerrado

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    Daniela Granja ARAKAKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxygen metabolism in cells causes the production of free radicals, which produce damage, including changes in cell structure and function. Antioxidants are substances that, at low concentrations, slow down or prevent oxidation. Fruits and vegetables contribute to the dietary supply of these compounds. The flora of the Cerrado in Brazil has shown to have high levels of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant activity of the pulp of jatobá-do-cerrado in vitro and in vivo.In vitro antioxidant activity of the aqueous, ethanol and aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by the DPPH method. We determined total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins by the Folin-Denis method.In vivo antioxidant potential of the aqueous acetone extract was evaluated by the TBARS technique. The aqueous acetone extract had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the aqueous and ethanol extracts. The same pattern occurred in the extraction of phenols and in the extraction of tannins. In vivo administration of the aqueous acetone extract inhibited lipid peroxidation compared to the control group. The inhibition of peroxidation has increased by elevating the dosage concentration of the extracts, demonstrating a significant antioxidant potential in vivo as well as in vitro.

  18. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Ruta graveolens L. In Vitro Culture Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Diwan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L. is a medicinal plant used in traditional systems of medicine for treatment of psoriasis, vitiligo, leucoderma, and lymphomas with well-known anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Therefore antioxidant potential of R. graveolens (in planta and in vitro was investigated. As antioxidants present in plant extracts are multifunctional, their activity and mechanism depends on the composition and conditions of the test system. Therefore, the total antioxidant capacity was evaluated using assays that detect different antioxidants: free radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS, transition metal ion reduction (phosphomolybdenum assay, reducing power, and nitric oxide reduction. Content of furanocoumarin-bergapten in the extracts showed good corelation with free radical scavenging, transition metal reduction and reducing power, while total phenolic content showed good corelation with nitric oxide reduction potential. Antioxidant activity of in vitro cultures was significantly higher compared to in vivo plant material. The present study is the first report on comprehensive study of antioxidant activity of R. graveolens and its in vitro cultures.

  19. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in obese Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S H; Fan, S H; Say, Y H

    2012-12-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the complex biochemical pathways that lead to the pathogenesis of obesity. Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity have been identified to be associated with obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of Malaysian subjects and to evaluate its potential association with obesity and related anthropometric measurements. Plasma TAC of 362 multi-ethnic Malaysian subjects from the Kampar Health Clinic (138 males, 224 females; 124 ethnic Malays, 152 Chinese, 86 Indians; 192 non-obese, 170 obese) was measured using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) 96-well plate assay. Plasma TAC was significantly lower in obese subjects (M +/- SE = 292 +/- 10.4 micromol/L) compared to non-obese subjects (397 +/- 8.58 micromol/L), whereas it was significantly higher in males and those in the 21-30 age group. Those with salty food preference and practising a strict vegetarian diet also had significantly higher plasma TAC. However, no association was found for other dietary habits (coffee intake) and lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking). Plasma TAC was also significantly negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, waist and hip circumferences, weight, body mass index, total body fat, % subcutaneous fat, visceral fat level, resting metabolism and % skeletal muscle. Plasma TAC was found to be associated with obesity, strict vegetarian practice, salty food preference and all obesity anthropometric indicators, except systolic blood pressure and pulse rate. Obese people have decreased plasma TAC indicating a compromised systemic antioxidant defence and increased oxidative stress.

  20. Carotenoids from Mangifera Pajang and Their Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nagendra Prasad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study provides new data on the various carotenoids found in bambangan (Mangifera pajang Kosterm. peel and pulp extracts, such as all-trans-α- and β-carotene, cis-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and cryptoxanthin. Chemical and biological antioxidant assays were determined to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of bambangan peel and pulp extracts. Bambangan pulp had higher α- and β-carotene contents (7.96 ± 1.53 and 20.04 ± 1.01 mg/100 g than its peel (4.2 ± 0.14 and 13.09 ± 0.28 mg/100 g; the cryptoxanthin contents of bambangan peel and pulp were 0.60 and 1.18 mg/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activity results determined by chemical assay using the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method showed that bambangan peel extract had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than its pulp. In the biological assays bambangan peel and pulp had protective effects against hemoglobin and LDL oxidation at an extract concentration of 1 ppm. Bambangan peel is a therefore a potential source of natural antioxidants and could be utilized as a functional ingredient.

  1. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant capacity of Melochia corchorifolia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B Ganga; Rao, Y Venkateswara; Rao, T Mallikarjuna

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate hepato protective and antioxidant capacity of Melochia corchorifolia (M. corchorifolia) aerial part extracts. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using three free radicals (Superoxide, Hydroxyl and DPPH) and hepatoprotective activity was assessed against CCl4 induced liver intoxication in rats. The extracts produced concentration dependent percentage protection in decrease of serum enzymes and percentage inhibition on free radicals. Among all extracts methanol extract showed better activity with percentage protection of SGOT (78.98%), SGPT (79.65%), ALP (82.48%) and total bilirubin (80.0%) levels against CCl4 liver intoxication and also methanolic extract showed better activity with IC50 values on superoxide, hydroxyl and DPPH radicals were 127 μ g, 240 μ g and 179 μ g. From the results obtained during the study it could be concluded that M. corchorifolia aerial part extracts have antioxidant and hepatoprotective components. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules which are responsible for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant Capacity: Experimental Determination by EPR Spectroscopy and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Chorążewski, Mirosław

    2015-07-22

    A new method of determining antioxidant capacity based on a mathematical model is presented in this paper. The model was fitted to 1000 data points of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy measurements of various food product samples such as tea, wine, juice, and herbs with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values from 20 to 2000 μmol TE/100 mL. The proposed mathematical equation allows for a determination of TEAC of food products based on a single EPR spectroscopy measurement. The model was tested on the basis of 80 EPR spectroscopy measurements of herbs, tea, coffee, and juice samples. The proposed model works for both strong and weak antioxidants (TEAC values from 21 to 2347 μmol TE/100 mL). The determination coefficient between TEAC values obtained experimentally and TEAC values calculated with proposed mathematical equation was found to be R(2) = 0.98. Therefore, the proposed new method of TEAC determination based on a mathematical model is a good alternative to the standard EPR method due to its being fast, accurate, inexpensive, and simple to perform.

  3. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY FROM FIVE TYPES OF SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Maria Copaciu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After germination process, the green seedlings accumulate important quantities of bioactive compounds such as: enzymes, vitamins, minerals, chlorophylls and nutrients. The current study presents a comparison between different bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity, after the seedling germination and growth of five seeds (arugula, lentil, wheat, beans and mustard both on soil, in a pot (natural system, and directly on cotton wool soaked, in water (artificial system. In this study the carotenoids content and the antioxidant capacity were analysed. The data of the present study showed that the highest amount of zeaxanthin and β - carotene was found in cultivars of wheat grown in natural system, while the highest antioxidant activity was found in cultivars of wheat, lentils and beans, though in this case with no statistical differences between the systems. The results show statistical differences between the values of bioactive compounds in the five types of seedlings but also in the values obtained for the same seedlings in different systems. The best cultivars for improving the nutritional quality for human consumption are wheat seedlings followed by lentil ones.

  4. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of Cordia dichotoma seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of air-dried Cordia dichotoma seeds. Total polyphenolic content was analyzed via the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total triterpenoid content and amino acids was analyzed colorimetrically. The rosmarinic acid content was examined using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The ethanolic extracts contained polyphenolic compounds (1.0%), triterpenoids (0.075%), amino acids (1.39%), and rosmarinic acid (0.0028%). The results from this study indicate that C. dichotoma seeds are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds and amino acids, which can be used for quality assessment. The ethanolic extract of C. dichotoma seeds has good antioxidant capacity.

  5. In Vitro Antidiabetic Effects and Antioxidant Potential of Cassia nemophila Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauhar Rehman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Cassia nemophila pod (EECNP was evaluated by three in vitro assays, including yeast glucose uptake assay, glucose adsorption assay, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The result revealed that the extracts have enhanced the uptake of glucose through the plasma membrane of yeast cells. A linear increase in glucose uptake by yeast cells was noticed with gradual increase in the concentration of the test samples. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of the EECNP was directly proportional to the molar concentration of glucose. Also, the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of the extract was increased to a maximum value of 43.3% at 80 μg/ml, which was then decreased to 41.9% at 100 μg/ml. From the results, it was concluded that EECNP possess good antidiabetic and antioxidant properties as shown by in vitro assays.

  6. Chromatographic characterisation, in vitro antioxidant and free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic fractionation and spectroscopic analysis of the ME4 fraction revealed the presence of four compounds namely garcinia biflavonoids GB1 and GB2, garcinal and garcinoic acid. These findings show that these four compounds are partly responsible for the great antioxidant potential of G. kola seeds.

  7. Flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity: comparison between commercial green tea preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Harumi Kodama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential health benefits attributed to green tea and its catechins such as antioxidant effects, cancer chemoprevention, and weight loss have led to a huge increase of green tea products in the food market. The objectives of this work were to analyze and compare these products in terms of phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant capacity including tea bags, dehydrated leaves, and ready-to-drink preparations after standardization of the infusion preparation procedure. Total phenolics content in 1 cup of the different teas varied from 90 to 341 mg of catechin equivalents, and the highest and the lowest values were both those of the ready-to-drink products. Infusions prepared from tea bags had contents varying from 96 to 201 mg.200 mL-1, and there were no significant differences among batches. The DPPH radical scavenging and the Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacities (ORAC varied largely among the different tea preparations, from 23 to 131 mmoles of Trolox Equivalents (TE.200 mL-1 (DPPH, and from 1.2 to 5.1 mmoles of TE.200 mL-1 (ORAC, but again there were no differences among infusions or ready-to-drink commercial preparations. However, the antioxidant capacity of ready-to-drink products was partially due to the presence of other non-phenolic compounds such as ascorbic acid

  8. A novel procedure to measure the antioxidant capacity of Yerba maté extracts

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    Vanessa Graciela Hartwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yerba maté extracts have in vitro antioxidant capacity attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives. DPPH is one of the most used assays to measure the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and plant extracts. It is difficult to compare the results between studies because this assay is applied in too many different conditions by the different research groups. Thus, in order to assess the antioxidant capacity of yerba maté extracts, the following procedure is proposed: 100 µL of an aqueous dilution of the extracts is mixed in duplicate with 3.0 mL of a DPPH 'work solution in absolute methanol (100 µM.L-1, with an incubation time of 120 minutes in darkness at 37 ± 1 °C, and then absorbance is read at 517 nm against absolute methanol. The results should be expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents or Trolox equivalents in mass percentage (g% dm, dry matter in order to facilitate comparisons. The AOC of the ethanolic extracts ranged between 12.8 and 23.1 g TE % dm and from 9.1 to 16.4 g AAE % dm. The AOC determined by the DPPH assay proposed in the present study can be related to the total polyphenolic content determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds of four Brazilian native fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Cristiane C; Hirsch, Gabriela E; da Rocha, Ricardo F; Vizzotto, Márcia; Henriques, Amélia T; Moreira, José C F; Guma, Fátima T C R; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from araçá (Psidium cattleianum), butiá (Butia eriospatha), and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) fruits with different flesh colors (i.e., purple, red, and orange), and blackberries (Rubus sp.; cv. Xavante and Cherokee) collected in the southern region of Brazil. The content of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and phenolics were determined. The profile of the phenolic compounds was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The antioxidant activity was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay, total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) assay, and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) assay. The Xavante blackberry and purple-fleshed pitanga showed the highest total phenolic content [816.50 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g and 799.80 mg GAE/100g, respectively]. The araçá and red-fleshed pitanga showed the highest carotenoid content (6.27 ug β-carotene/g and 5.86 ug β-carotene/g, respectively). The fruits contained several phenolic compounds such as quercetin derivatives, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and cyanidin derivatives, which may contribute differentially to the antioxidant capacity. The highest scavenging activity in the DPPH assay was found for purple-fleshed pitanga (IC 50 36.78 mg/L), blackberries [IC 50 44.70 (Xavante) and IC 50 78.25 mg/L (Cherokee)], and araçá (IC 50 48.05 mg/L), which also showed the highest FRAP, followed by orange- and red-fleshed pitanga. Our results revealed that some fruits grown in southern Brazil such as purple-fleshed pitanga, blackberries, and araçá are rich sources of phenolic compounds and have great antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effect of freezing and processing technologies on the antioxidant capacity of fruit pulp and jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Maso Jeusti Bof

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of freezing and processing technology on the antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, strawberry (Fragaria x Anassa, pear (Pyrus communis L., guava (Psidium guajava L., and fig (Ficus carica L. was evaluated for 90 days. Under a storage temperature of -15 º C, there was no significant difference in the antioxidant capacity of grape and fig pulp, and a higher antioxidant capacity was found for guava pulp (27 µmol/g. While the technological processing did not affect the antioxidant capacity of pear and apple jellies, all other jellies studied showed a reduced antioxidant capacity. The processing reduced the antioxidant capacity of grapes in 45%. Among the fruit products, the highest antioxidant activities were found for guava pulp and jelly (27 and 25 µmol/g, respectively, followed by grape pulp (22 µmol/g.

  11. Bioactive screening and in vitro antioxidant assessment of Nauclea latifolia leaf decoction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheagwam, Franklyn Nonso; Nsedu, Emmanuel Israel; Kayode, Kazeem Oyindamola; Emiloju, Opeyemi Christianah; Ogunlana, Olubanke Olujoke; Chinedu, Shalom Nwodo

    2018-04-01

    The phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of Nauclea latifolia leaf decoction were investigated. Dried leaves were extracted in ethanol. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis was determined spectrometrically. The antioxidant activities were examined in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, total antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, anthocyanins, betacyanins, phenols, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and quinones. The total lycopene, β-carotene, phenolics, flavonoid and alkaloid content were found to be 0.038 ± 0.01 mg CAE/g, 0.120 ± 0.04 mg CAE/g, 58.08 ± 0.58 mg GAE/g, 10.75 ± 0.17 mg RE/g and 0.32 ± 0.08% respectively. N. latifolia ethanol leaf extract demonstrated effective antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl with an IC50 of 2.58 ± 0.08 mg/mL compared to 0.86 ± 0.02 mg/mL and < 0.01 ± 0.01 mg/mL for butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid respectively. Total antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power of the extract were 73.81 ± 2.27 and 1314.45 ± 197.64 mg AAE/g respectively. Excellent positive correlations between the phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the extract were observed. The leaf of N. latifolia is of therapeutic value and may be exploited for its rich antioxidant components.

  12. Distribution of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in apples tissues during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Aline; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Couto, Marcelo; Judacewski, Priscila; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The effect of variety and ripening stage on the distribution of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Gala, Fuji Suprema and Eva apples were evaluated. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, flavanols, flavonols, dihydrochalcones and antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) were assessed in the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp of three varieties at three ripening stages (unripe, ripe and senescent). The Fuji Suprema variety distinguished by its content of flavonols at senescent stage, while Eva variety distinguished by its content of dihydrochalcones (unripe stage) and anthocyanins (ripe stage). In general, phenolic acids and flavonoids decreased with ripening in the epicarp and endocarp. However, in the mesocarp, the effect of ripening was related with the apple variety. Hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the influence of ripening in the apple tissue. The evolution of these compounds during ripening occurred irregularly and it was influenced by the variety.

  13. Solvent effects on the antioxidant capacity of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants measured by CUPRAC, ABTS/persulphate and FRAP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Saliha Esin; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2010-06-15

    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules (e.g., fats, lipids, proteins, and DNA) from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Solvent effect is a crucial parameter on the chemical behaviour of antioxidant compounds but there has been limited information regarding its role on antioxidant capacity and its assays. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of some certain lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, measured in different solvent media such as ethanol (EtOH) (100%), methanol (MeOH) (100%), methanol/water (4:1, v/v), methanol/water (1:1, v/v), dichloromethane (DCM)/EtOH (9:1, v/v). The cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) values of selected antioxidants were experimentally reported in this work as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and compared to those found by reference TAC assays, i.e., 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)/persulphate (ABTS/persulphate) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The TAC values of synthetic mixtures of antioxidants were experimentally measured as trolox equivalents and compared to those theoretically found by making use of the principle of additivity of absorbances assuming no chemical interaction between the mixture constituents. Possible synergistic (e.g., BHT and BHA in DCM/EtOH) or antagonistic behaviours of these synthetic mixtures were investigated in relation to solvent selection.

  14. In vitro antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of D. edulis and F. capensis leaves were evaluated. Each plant leaves were extracted in methanol using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of the resulting extracts showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, ...

  15. In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

  16. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V. zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant ...

  17. In Vitro Screening of Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Clinacanthus nutans extracts and semi-fractions. Method: The plant was subjected to cold solvent extraction to produce petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol crude extracts, followed by isolation using bioassay-guided fractionation.

  18. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-Ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-He; Yang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Li-Shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

  19. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-he; Yang, Hai-ying; Chen, Li-shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. PMID:27921399

  20. Antioxidant polyphenols of Madeira sorrel (Rumex maderensis): How do they survive to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Vítor; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio J; Castilho, Paula C

    2018-09-01

    In this work, we report the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of different morphological parts of Rumex maderensis Lowe (Polygonaceae), a wild leafy-vegetable growing in Madeira Island (Portugal). Methanol extracts from leaves, flowers, and stems were submitted to high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection to obtain the phytochemical profile, which allowed the identification of 86 polyphenols (about 70% C- and O-flavonoids) and 9 non-phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant activities were measured against ABTS, DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide free radicals. Then, the samples were subjected to an in vitro digestion, observing a decrease of about 50% in both the content of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. However, relevant antioxidant capacity was still observed after the simulated digestion. Therefore, this study supports the consumption of R. maderensis as an interesting foodstuff and a dietary source of antioxidant phytochemicals that survive the gastrointestinal digestion process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation with and without in vitro zinc supplementation in infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajina, T; Sallem, A; Haouas, Z; Mehdi, M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in infertile men with asthenozoospermia and asthenoteratozoospermia compared to fertile donors, and to examine the effect of zinc on sperm lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in infertile and fertile men. Semen samples provided by infertile men (n = 38) and fertile donors (controls; n = 12) were exposed to 6 mmol/L of zinc for 2 hr at 37°C. After semen analysis, lipid peroxidation was detected by MDA assay and seminal TAC was assessed by colorimetric method using TAS (total antioxidant status) Kit. TAC was significantly lower in infertile group compared to controls (p = .037). However, lipid peroxidation did not alter in infertile patients compared to controls (p > .05). After in vitro incubation of samples with zinc, a significant increase in TAC level was found only in infertile men (p zinc had no effect on sperm lipid peroxidation in both fertile and infertile men (p > .05). Our data indicate that antioxidant treatment based on zinc in vitro supplementation may be helpful to enhance the rate of seminal antioxidant status in infertile men; however, it does not prevent sperm lipid peroxidation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Antioxidant capacity of hesperidin from citrus peel using electron spin resonance and cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashaal, Hanan A; El-Sheltawy, Shakinaz T

    2011-03-01

    Hesperidin is a flavonoid that has various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. The aim of the study is the isolation of hesperidin from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. (Rutaceae), and the evaluation of its antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity against different human carcinoma cell lines. In the present work, hesperidin is identified and confirmed using chromatographic and spectral analysis. To correlate between hesperidin concentration and antioxidant capacity of peel extracts, extraction was carried out using 1% HCl-MeOH, MeOH, alkaline solution, the concentration of hesperidin determined qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, in vitro antioxidant capacity of hesperidin and the extracts against free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) performed using an electron spin resonance spectrophotometer (ESR). Cytotoxic assay against larynx, cervix, breast and liver carcinoma cell lines was performed. Hesperidin was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent; its capacity reached 36%. In addition, the results revealed that hesperidin exhibited pronounced anticancer activity against the selected cell lines. IC₅₀ were 1.67, 3.33, 4.17, 4.58 µg/mL, respectively. Orange peels are considered to be a cheap source for hesperidin which may be used in the pharmaceutical industry as a natural chemopreventive agent. Hesperidin and orange peel extract could possess antioxidant properties with a wide range of therapeutic applications.

  3. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Hernández-Ceruelos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS. The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP, in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg, a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg, and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE. The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment.

  4. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  5. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  6. Ferulic acid modification enhances the anti-oxidation activity of natural Hb in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Donglai; Li, Qian; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiang

    2018-03-13

    During the development of artificial red blood cell (RBC) substitutes, oxidation side reaction is one of the major factors that hinder the application of haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). In order to avoid oxidation toxicity, we designed and prepared natural Hb conjugated with ferulic acid (FA) via simple chemical modification. In addition, the thiol groups on Hb surface were increased via the reaction of Hb with 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) and then modified with FA for the study of anti-oxidant ability. It was showed that Hb modified with FA (FA-Hb) had similar oxygen-binding capacity to natural Hb. Moreover, the anti-oxidant ability of FA-Hb in vitro in different systems was superior to natural Hb and in proportion to the degree of modification of FA. The results indicate that FA-Hb might have the potential to serve as a novel oxygen carrier with the capacity to reduce oxidative side reaction.

  7. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of 56 Wild Fruits from South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify wild fruits possessing high nutraceutical potential, the antioxidant activities of 56 wild fruits from South China were systematically evaluated. The fat-soluble components were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, and the water-soluble ones were extracted with a 50:3.7:46.3 (v/v methanol-acetic acid-water mixture. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Most of these wild fruits were analyzed for the first time for their antioxidant activities. Generally, these fruits had high antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents. A significant correlation between the FRAP value and the TEAC value suggested that antioxidant components in these wild fruits were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. A high correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be the main contributors to the measured antioxidant activity. The results showed that fruits of Eucalyptus robusta, Eurya nitida, Melastoma sanguineum, Melaleuca leucadendron, Lagerstroemia indica, Caryota mitis, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Gordonia axillaris possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents among those tested, and could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants and functional foods. The results obtained are very helpful for the full utilization of these wild fruits.

  8. In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, G.P.; Ashok, Purnima

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. for in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark and root of B. variegata Linn. were prepared and assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity by various methods namely total reducing power, scavenging of various free radicals such as 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide. The percentage scavenging of various free radicals were compared with standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA). The extracts were also evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton WR-1339 (iso-octyl polyoxyethylene phenol)-induced hyperlipidemic albino rats by estimating serum triglyceride, very low density lipids (VLDL), cholesterol, low-density lipids (LDL), and high-density lipid (HDL) levels. Result: Significant antioxidant activity was observed in all the methods, (P < 0.01) for reducing power and (P < 0.001) for scavenging DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals. The extracts showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in cholesterol at 6 and 24 h and (P < 0.05) at 48 h. There was significant reduction (P < 0.01) in triglyceride level at 6, 24, and 48 h. The VLDL level was also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced from 24 h and maximum reduction (P < 0.01) was seen at 48 h. There was significant increase (P < 0.01) in HDL at 6, 24, and 48 h. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of B. variegata Linn. can effectively decrease plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and VLDL and increase plasma HDL levels. In addition, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts have shown significant antioxidant activity. By the virtue of its antioxidant activity, B. variegata Linn. may show antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:20177495

  9. Antioxidative Effects of Phenolic Compounds of Mushroom Mycelia in Simulated Regions of the Human Colon, In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamanu Emanuel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds in mushrooms are biologically active; however, the in vivo actions of their metabolites are poorly understood. An in vitro system, GIS1, was used to simulate the fermentation action of microbiota in each colon region. We used MycoPo, a natural product obtained from the lyophilized mycelia of different Pleurotus ostreatus species to determine the biological effects in human-colon regions. Controls (Lentinula edodes mycelia; dried basidia of Agaricus brunnescens were chosen to confirm the biological activity of P. ostreatus mycelia in vitro. We measured total antioxidant capacity and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP in simulated colon regions to identify antioxidant compounds, and undertook in vitro gastrointestinal simulation and microbiological analyses. The highest FRAP was found for the ascending colon, and the antioxidant effect was higher when MycoPo was administered. A. brunnescens consumption resulted in low total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol content was correlated with the antioxidant status and microbial composition of microbiota. Total polyphenolic content was higher after A. brunnescens consumption, and four types of polyphenols were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Major phenolic acids were gentisic acid, homogentisic acid, and small amounts of caffeic acid. The Enterobacteriaceae species populations varied greatly across the three parts of the colon. We noted a significant (p0.85. These data suggest a direct relationship between favorable bacterial strains and availability of bioactive compounds, with specificity for each colon region.

  10. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Seed and Shell Essential Oils Extracted from Abrus precatorius (L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Okoh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from plants have been proven safe as natural antioxidants, and few are already marketed as digestive enhancers as well as in prevention of several degenerative diseases. This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of seed and shell essential oils of Abrus precatorius (L, a herb used for ethno-medicinal practices in Nigeria. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The ability of the oils to act as hydrogen/electrons donor or scavenger of radicals were determined by in-vitro antioxidant assays using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH. scavenging; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging; lipid peroxide and nitric oxide radicals scavenging assays. The IC50 of the seed and shell oils (2.10 mg/mL and 1.20 mg/mL respectively showed that antioxidant activity is higher than that for the standard drugs (3.20 mg/mL and 3.40 mg/mL for the nitric oxide scavenging assay. The lipid peroxidation radical activity of the oils were similar to vitamin C, weak DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were discovered in comparison to vitamin C and rutin. Generally, in the four antioxidant assays, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the oils and percentage inhibition of free radicals and lipid peroxidation. The composition of A. precatorius essential oils reported earlier may account for their antioxidant capacity.

  11. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Selected 4-Hydroxy-chromene-2-one Derivatives—SAR, QSAR and DFT Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Solujić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The series of fifteen synthesized 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives was subjected to antioxidant activity evaluation in vitro, through total antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxide scavenging and chelating activity. The highest activity was detected during the radicals scavenging, with 2b, 6b, 2c, and 4c noticed as the most active. The antioxidant activity was further quantified by the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR studies. For this purpose, the structures were optimized using Paramethric Method 6 (PM6 semi-empirical and Density Functional Theory (DFT B3LYP methods. Bond dissociation enthalpies of coumarin 4-OH, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO gained hybridization of the oxygen, acidity of the hydrogen atom and various molecular descriptors obtained, were correlated with biological activity, after which we designed 20 new antioxidant structures, using the most favorable structural motifs, with much improved predicted activity in vitro.

  12. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialvera, Theodora-Eirini; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Richter, Dimitris J; Yfanti, Georgia; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Micha, Renata; Goumas, Giorgos; Diamantopoulos, Emmanouil; Zampelas, Antonis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have observed decreased levels of lipophilic antioxidants after supplementation with phytosterols and stanols. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of phytosterol supplementation on plasma total antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome. In a parallel arm, randomized placebo-controlled design, 108 patients with metabolic syndrome were assigned to consume yogurt beverage which provided 4 g of phytosterols per day or yogurt beverage without phytosterols. The duration of the study was 2 months and the patients in both groups followed their habitual westernized type diet. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 2 months, and the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. After 2 months of intervention, plasma total antioxidant capacity did not differ between and within the intervention and the control groups. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant status.

  13. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce: Effects on phenolics, flavonoids and in vitro bioaccessibility of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-04-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity (∼1.2-fold higher) compared to tomato fruit whereas home processing of tomato fruit into sauce led to a decrease in these values. Untargeted LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed 31 compounds in tomato that changed upon processing, of which 18 could be putatively identified. Naringenin chalcone is only detectable in the fruit, while naringenin is strongly increased in the sauces. Rutin content increased by 36% in the industrial processed sauce whereas decreased by 26% in the home processed sauce when compared to fruit. According to the results of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, industrial processing may lead to enhanced bioaccessibility of antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Ambar K.; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated co...

  15. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  16. Relationship between vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity in elderly adults

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    Miriam Lucia Ojeda Arredondo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of foods high in natural antioxidants, like fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasma antioxidant capacity in adults over fifty and their intake of vitamin A, C, and E. We evaluated 118 24-hour recalls of intake of foods. The intake of vitamin A, C, and E was quantified using food composition tables. We quantified plasma phenols using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was determined using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC and Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC methods. Correlation analyses were performed between the studied variables and a positive correlation was found in most cases. However, none of the correlations was statistically significant. In all cases p-value was >0.05. The quantification of nutrient intake is not an adequate predictor of plasma antioxidant capacity in individuals over fifty

  17. Electrochemical study of the increased antioxidant capacity of flavonoids through complexation with iron(II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfírio, Demóstenes Amorim; Ferreira, Rafael de Queiroz; Malagutti, Andréa Renata; Valle, Eliana Maíra Agostini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal-Flavonoid complexes exhibit greater antioxidant capacity than the free flavonoid;. • Voltammetric profile is an additional information for determining antioxidant capacity;. • Pyrogallol group is a stronger complex-forming group than the catechol;. • Morin, quercetin and fisetin increased their antioxidant capacity in 15%, 32% and 28%, respectively. - Abstract: Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants in the human body through various mechanisms, with an emphasis on suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by inhibiting enzymes, the direct capture of ROS, and the regulation/protection of antioxidant defenses. Additionally, flavonoids can coordinate with transition metals to catalyze electron transport and promote free radical capture. Recently, metal ion chelation mechanisms have generated considerable interest, as experimental data show that flavonoids in metal complexes exhibit greater antioxidant activity than free flavonoids. However, few studies have correlated the complexing properties of flavonoids with their antioxidant capacity. Thus, the aim of this study was to use the CRAC (Ceric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) electrochemical assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of five free flavonoids and Fe 2+ -flavonoid complexes. In addition, the interactions between the flavonoids and Fe 2+ were analyzed based on the oxidation peaks formed in their cyclic voltammograms

  18. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of curcumin loaded in Pluronic micelles

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    Cvetelina Gorinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenolic substance with attractive pharmacological activities (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer. Incorporation of curcumin in polymeric micelles could overcome the problems associated with its instability and low aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to load curcumin in polymeric micelles based on Pluronic® P 123 or Pluronic® F 127 triblock copolymers and evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects after micellization. The micelles were prepared and loaded with curcumin by applying the dissolution method. Higher encapsulation efficiency was observed in the micelles formulated with Pluronic® P 123. These micelles were characterized with small size and narrow size distribution. The effects of micellar curcumin were investigated in two in vitro models. First, the capacity of micellar curcumin to inhibit iron/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes was evaluated. Micellar curcumin and free drug showed similar inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Second, micellar curcumin and free curcumin showed protective potential in a model of 6-hydroxydopamine induced neurotoxicity in rat brain synaptosomes. The results from both methods indicated preservation of antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of curcumin in micelles. The small micellar size, high loading capacity and preservation of antioxidant activity of curcumin into Pluronic micelles, suggested their further evaluation as a curcumin delivery system.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants

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    Sandra C. Gouveia-Figueira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL−1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples.

  20. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gouveia, Carla A; Carvalho, Maria J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Nording, Malin L; Castilho, Paula C

    2014-10-31

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS(•+), FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL(-1). Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis-PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples.

  1. Antinociceptive and Antioxidant Activities of Phytol In Vivo and In Vitro Models

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    Camila Carolina de Menezes Patrício Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of phytol using chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice and to assess its antioxidant effects in vitro. Phytol was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. to mice at doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, phytol significantly reduced the number of contortions compared to the control group (P<0.001. In the formalin test, phytol reduced significantly the amount of time spent in paw licking in both phases (the neurogenic and inflammatory phases, this effect being more pronounced in the second phase (P<0.001. Phytol also provoked a significant increase in latency in the hot plate test. These antinociceptive effects did not impaire the motor performance, as shown in the rotarod test. Phytol demonstrated a strong antioxidant effect in vitro in its capacity to remove hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide as well as to prevent the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. Taken as a whole, these results show the pronounced antinociceptive effects of phytol in the nociception models used, both through its central and peripheral actions, but also its antioxidant properties demonstrated in the in vitro methods used.

  2. The association of total antioxidant capacity with sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbag, Recep; Yilmaz, Remzi; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-07-01

    Although sex hormones have potential cardioprotective effects, their effects on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) are not very well known. The aim of the study was to evaluate TAC in men who have decreased and normal testosterone levels and in women in menopausal and premenopausal period. Ninety-seven subjects with similar age intervals, men aged <45 years and female aged <50 years, were divided into four groups: 1) 10 men with normal testosterone levels, as control, 2) 36 men with decreased testosterone, 3) 19 women in menopause, surgically induced, and 4) 32 women in premenopausal period. Testosterone and estrogen levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay and TAC were measured by using a more recently developed automated measurement method. The TAC was significantly lower in Group 2 and Group 3 than those of Group 1 and Group 4 (ANOVA, p<0.001). A strong correlation between TAC, and testosterone and estrogen were found (r=0.807, p<0.001; r=0.685, p<0.001, testosterone and estrogen respectively). The observed relationship between sex hormones and TAC may have a role in mechanism of their cardioprotective effect.

  3. Plasma phospholipase, γ-CEHC and antioxidant capacity in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Antonella; Cacace, Enrico; Atzori, Luigi; Era, Benedetta; Ruggiero, Valeria

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested a possible role of high levels of plasma lysophosphocholines (lysoPCs) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of plasma phospholipases (e.g., Platelet Activating Factor Acetyl Hydrolase [PAF-AH], secretory Phospholipase A 2 [sPLA 2 ], Total Antioxidant Capacity [TAOC] and 2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(2-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxy chroman [γ-CEHC]) in FMS patients and their association with clinical status and quality of life. Thirty-six females meeting the 2011 American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification of FMS and thirty-four healthy females were enrolled for the study. Plasma enzyme levels were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA). In order to assess the disease severity and the functional status of patients, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnarie (FIQ) was used. Higher levels of sPLA 2 and lower PAF-AH and γ-CEHC were observed in the plasma of FMS patients compared to the controls. A decrease in PAF-AH and TAOC levels were found in severe FMS (S-FMS) compared to mild/slight (MS-FMS) forms. The results of the study indicate a possible involvement of phospholipases and γ-CEHC in fibromyalgia syndrome. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Antioxidant activities of saponins extracted from Radix Trichosanthis: an in vivo and in vitro evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Radix Trichosanthis (RT), the dry root tuber of Trichosanthis kirilowii Maxim (Cucurbitaceae), is a traditional Chinese medicine. Although a wide range of saponin pharmacological properties has been identified, to our knowledge, this may be the first report to investigate the crude saponins from RT. The purpose of this study was to delineate the antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo by using ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and the mixture of n-butanol and EtOAc fractions. Methods In vitro antioxidant activity was detected by using DPPH free radical, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and reducing power assays. After pretreatment with different fractions saponins at 2 mg/kg/d and 3 mg/kg/d of crude drug, respectively, an established CCl4 induced acute cytotoxicity model was used to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant potential by detection of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels. Results The in vitro assay showed that the antioxidant activity of all the three fractions was promising. The reducing power of the EtOAc and the mixture of n-butanol and EtOAc extracts increased in a dose dependent manner. However, both the n-butanol and the mixture of n-butanol and EtOAc fractions in low dose exhibited in a time dependent manner with prolonged reaction time. As for hydrogen peroxide scavenging capability, the n-butanol fraction mainly demonstrated a time dependent manner, whereas EtOAc fraction showed a dose dependent manner. However, in case of in vivo assay, an increase of SOD and T-AOC and decrease of MDA and LDH levels were only observed in n-butanol (2 mg/kg/d of crude drug) extracts pretreatment group. Conclusions RT saponins in n-butanol fraction might be a potential antioxidant candidate, as CCl4-induced oxidative stress has been found to be alleviated, which may be associated with the time dependent manner of n-butanol saponins in a low dose. Further studies

  5. Traditional Small-Size Citrus from Taiwan: Essential Oils, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity

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    Min-Hung Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The calamondin (Citrus microcarpa Bunge and the kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle are two small-size citrus fruits that have traditionally been consumed in Taiwan; however, there has been a lack of scientific research regarding the active compounds and functionalities of these fruits. Methods: Analysis of volatile composition of essential oil and phytosterol was carried out using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Flavonoid and limonoid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, antioxidant capacity from their essential oils and extracts were assessed in vitro. Results: The compositions of the essential oils of both fruits were identified, with the results showing that the calamondin and kumquat contain identified 43 and 44 volatile compounds, respectively. In addition, oxygenated compounds of volatiles accounted for 4.25% and 2.04%, respectively, consistent with the fact that oxygenated compounds are generally found in high content in citrus fruits. In terms of flavonoids, the calamondin exhibited higher content than the kumquat, with disomin-based flavonoids being predominant; on the other hand, phytosterol content of kumquat was higher than that of calamondin, with amyrin being the dominant phytosterol. Both of them contain high amounts of limonoids. The ethanol extracts and essential oils of small-sized citrus fruits have been shown to have antioxidant effects, with those effects being closely related to the flavonoid content of the fruit in question. Conclusions: The present study also reviewed antioxidant activity in terms of specific bioactive compounds in order to find the underlying biological activity of both fruits. The calamondin and kumquat have antioxidant effects, which are in turn very important for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  6. Enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity of a nutritionally important cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Usha; Pandey, J

    2008-07-01

    A diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus was evaluated for enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity. N. lobatus showed potentially high antioxidant capacity (46.12 microM AEAC) with significant improvement under immobilized cell cultures (87.05 microM AEAC). When a mixture of P and Fe was supplemented, biomass, pigments, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity increased substantially at pH 7.8. When considered separately, P appeared to be a better supplement than Fe for the production of biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoids. However, for phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity, Fe appeared more effective than P. Our study indicates N. lobatus to be a promising bioresource for enhanced production of nutritionally rich biomass, pigments and antioxidants. The study also suggests that P and Fe are potentially effective supplements for scale-up production for commercial application.

  7. Evolution of antioxidant capacity during storage of selected fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevers, Claire; Falkowski, Michael; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques; Pincemail, Joël

    2007-10-17

    Interest in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is, to a large extent, due to its content of bioactive nutrients and their importance as dietary antioxidants. Among all of the selected fruits and vegetables, strawberries and black grapes have relatively high antioxidant capacities associated with high contents of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and flavonols. More interesting, the results of this study indicated that in most fruits and vegetables storage did not affect negatively the antioxidant capacity. Better, in some cases, an increase of the antioxidant capacity was observed in the days following their purchase, accompanied by an increase in phenolic compounds. In general, fruits and vegetables visually spoil before any significant antioxidant capacity loss occurs except in banana and broccoli. When ascorbic acid or flavonoids (aglycons of flavonols and anthocyanins) were concerned, the conclusions were similar. Their content was generally stable during storage.

  8. Influence of Laccase and Tyrosinase on the Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Phenolic Compounds on Human Cell Lines

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    Matthias Riebel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenolic compounds affect the color, odor and taste of numerous food products of plant origin. In addition to the visual and gustatory properties, they serve as radical scavengers and have antioxidant effects. Polyphenols, especially resveratrol in red wine, have gained increasing scientific and public interest due to their presumptive beneficial impact on human health. Enzymatic oxidation of phenolic compounds takes place under the influence of polyphenol oxidases (PPO, including tyrosinase and laccase. Several studies have demonstrated the radical scavenger effect of plants, food products and individual polyphenols in vitro, but, apart from resveratrol, such impact has not been proved in physiological test systems. Furthermore, only a few data exist on the antioxidant capacities of the enzymatic oxidation products of phenolic compounds generated by PPO. We report here first results about the antioxidant effects of phenolic substances, before and after oxidation by fungal model tyrosinase and laccase. In general, the common chemical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the biological tests using two different types of cell cultures (monocytes and endothelial cells delivered similar results. The phenols tested showed significant differences with respect to their antioxidant activity in all test systems. Their antioxidant capacities after enzymatic conversion decreased or increased depending on the individual PPO used.

  9. Appraisal of Total Phenol, Flavonoid Contents, and Antioxidant Potential of Folkloric Lannea coromandelica Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

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    Tekeshwar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impending antioxidant properties of different extracts of crude methanolic extract (CME of leaves of Lannea coromandelica (L. coromandelica and its two ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous (AqF subfractions by employing various established in vitro systems and estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The results showed that extract and fractions possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro and among them, EAF had the strongest antioxidant activity. EAF was confirmed for its highest phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, and total antioxidant capacity. The EAF was found to show remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH (EC50 63.9 ± 0.64 µg/mL, superoxide radical (EC50 8.2 ± 0.12 mg/mL, and Fe2+ chelating activity (EC50 6.2 ± 0.09 mg/mL. Based on our in vitro results, EAF was investigated for in vivo antioxidant assay. Intragastric administration of the EAF can significantly increase levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px levels, and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA content in the liver and kidney of CCl4-intoxicated rats. These new evidences show that L. coromandelica bared antioxidant activity.

  10. Antioxidant activity of camel milk casein before and after in vitro simulated enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb Jrad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a successive in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin on the free radical scavenging activity of camel milk casein was investigated in order to assess the effect of gastro-intestinal digestion. Hydrolysis of camel casein was controlled by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS method. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values of camel casein and its hydrolysate were 1.6±0.12 μmol TE/mg protein and 0.25 μmol TE/μmol eq. NH2, respectively. After digestion, the scavenging activity of the casein peptides was more efficient than those reported in the literature regarding digestive hydrolysates of camel milk, colostrum and whey proteins.

  11. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of a fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Xu, Jinnan; Xie, Zhuohong; Slavin, Margaret; Gao, Xiangdong

    2014-04-01

    To explore new antioxidant resource from food, a water-soluble polysaccharide (ALP1) was extracted and purified from the roots of Arctium lappa L. (A. lappa L.) through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The antioxidant activity of ALP1 was then evaluated in vitro and in vivo. ALP1 was characterized as a fructan composed of fructose and glucose in the ratio of 13.0:1.0, with an average molecular weight of 4600 Da. The linkages in ALP1 were →1)-Fruf-(2→, Fruf-(2→ and Glcp-(1→. In vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated that ALP1 possessed moderate ABTS(+) scavenging activity, strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and strong ferrous ion chelating activity. In in vivo antioxidant assays, ALP1 administration significantly enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity, as well as decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in both the serum and liver of aging mice. These results suggest that ALP1 has potential as a novel natural antioxidant in food industry and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Free radical-scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Pouzolzia zeylanica

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    PEIYUAN LI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pouzolzia zeylanica was extracted with different solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether, using different protocols (cold-extraction and Soxhlet extraction. To evaluate the antiradical and antioxidant abilities of the extracts, four in vitro test systems were employed, i.e., DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays and a reducing power assay. All extracts exhibited outstanding antioxidant activities that were superior to that of butylated hydroxytoluene. The ethyl acetate extracts exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities, and cold-extraction under stirring seemed to be the more efficacious method for acquiring the predominant antioxidants. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic (TP content of different extracts followed the same order, i.e., there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP content. The results showed that these extracts, especially the ethyl acetate extracts, could be considered as natural antioxidants and may be useful for curing diseases arising from oxidative deterioration.

  13. Antioxidant capacity contributes to protection of ketone bodies against oxidative damage induced during hypoglycemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haces, María L; Hernández-Fonseca, Karla; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Montiel, Teresa; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Massieu, Lourdes

    2008-05-01

    Ketone bodies play a key role in mammalian energy metabolism during the suckling period. Normally ketone bodies' blood concentration during adulthood is very low, although it can rise during starvation, an exogenous infusion or a ketogenic diet. Whenever ketone bodies' levels increase, their oxidation in the brain rises. For this reason they have been used as protective molecules against refractory epilepsy and in experimental models of ischemia and excitotoxicity. The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of these compounds are not completely understood. Here, we studied a possible antioxidant capacity of ketone bodies and whether it contributes to the protection against oxidative damage induced during hypoglycemia. We report for the first time the scavenging capacity of the ketone bodies, acetoacetate (AcAc) and both the physiological and non-physiological isomers of beta-hydroxybutyrate (D- and L-BHB, respectively), for diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxyl radicals (.OH) were effectively scavenged by D- and L-BHB. In addition, the three ketone bodies were able to reduce cell death and ROS production induced by the glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate (IOA), while only D-BHB and AcAc prevented neuronal ATP decline. Finally, in an in vivo model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia, the administration of D- or L-BHB, but not of AcAc, was able to prevent the hypoglycemia-induced increase in lipid peroxidation in the rat hippocampus. Our data suggest that the antioxidant capacity contributes to protection of ketone bodies against oxidative damage in in vitro and in vivo models associated with free radical production and energy impairment.

  14. The total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of selected plant leaves commonly consumed in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watu, Aswani; Metussin, Nurzaidah; Yasin, Hartini M.; Usman, Anwar

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of several selected plants, namely Centella asiatica, Aidia borneensis and Anacardium occidentale, which are grown and traditionally consumed in Brunei Darussalam. The total antioxidant capacities of aqueous-methanolic infusions of their leaves were measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and microscopic fluorescence images were measured to identify the fluorescent substances bound in the leaves. We found that the total antioxidant capacity of their infusions is estimated to be 150, 25, 15 folds, respectively, lower compared with that of the standard gallic acid. Accordingly, we demonstrated that the relative antioxidant activity of young and matured leaves agrees with the intensity of red light emission of their fresh leaves upon UV excitation. Thus, this non-invasive spectroscopic method can be potentially utilized to indicate the antioxidants in plant leaves qualitatively.

  15. Antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of the polysaccharides from different varieties of Auricularia auricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Siqi; Zhang, Yongjun; Jiang, Kan

    2016-09-14

    In this study, five different kinds of polysaccharides (AAP1, AAP2, AAP3, AAP4, and AAP5) were extracted from different varieties of Auricularia auricula through an alkali extraction process. Furthermore, the crude polysaccharides were deproteinized by the Sevag method. Auricularia auricula produced in the Shanxi province had the highest content of polysaccharide, 53.02%. The monosaccharide composition was determined by the GC method. Their antioxidant capacities in vitro were assessed by radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals), metal chelating ability and reducing-power methods. In addition, the evaluation of their antioxidant effects in vivo was performed using the C. elegans model. The yield of crude polysaccharides, monosaccharide composition and antioxidant activity of Auricularia auricula polysaccharides (AAPs) were different among samples from various sources. Among them, the strongest antioxidant activity was shown for AAP1, consisting of arabinose, xylose, 2-deoxy-d-glucose, mannose, glucose, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine with the molar ratio of 1 : 0.44 : 0.33 : 1.67 : 1 : 0.17. It could scavenge free radicals, up-regulate stress-resistance-related enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 70.04 ± 8.75% and CAT by 117.32 ± 8.06% and reduce the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C. elegans under oxidative stress. The present results suggested that variety was an important factor that affects the antioxidant activity of A. auricula polysaccharides.

  16. Management of Surface Drying Temperature to Increase Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme Leaf Extracts (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUEZ CORTINA, JADER; Melo, E.C.; Mulet Pons, Antonio; Bon Corbín, José

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Thyme leaves are an important source of essential oils with antioxidant activity; these compounds are located in trichomes on the leaf surface. The drying conditions affect not only the drying time but also the antioxidant activity. In the literature, a drying temperature of 70 ºC appears to be the best for drying thyme leaves according to their antioxidant capacity. Considering drying periods at different temperature also could be quality beneficial. From these considerations, the goal ...

  17. Antioxidant activity and bioactive compound contents before and after in vitro digestion of new tomato hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Speranza, Giovanna; De Prisco, Rocco; Iodice, Carmine; Crudele, Egle; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    The antioxidant properties and bioactive compound contents of fresh new tomato hybrids before and after in vitro digestion were investigated. To this aim, the antioxidant activities of lipophilic, hydrophilic and polyphenolic extracts of tomato hybrids were determined by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), DMPD (N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods respectively, while the bioactive compound contents were estimated via Folin-Ciocalteu (polyphenols), pH differential (anthocyanins) and high-performance liquid chromatography (lycopene and β-carotene) methods. After the digestion process, a marked loss (ranging from 37 to 77%) of antioxidant capacity linked to the hydrophilic fraction was observed. In contrast, the lipophilic and methanolic fractions showed an increase in antioxidant activity (ranging from 9 to 40%) after gastric digestion, and a rapid decrease was observed after total digestion. Moreover, the presence of anthocyanins and carotenoids after simulated digestion was a notable result. The bioavailability of bioactive metabolites from nutraceutical food and their healthful properties in humans are strictly dependent on the digestion process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Determination of total antioxidant capacity by a new spectrophotometric method based on Ce(IV) reducing capacity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Dilek; Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat

    2007-02-28

    Dietary antioxidants widely found in fruits and vegetables may serve the task of reducing oxidative damage in humans induced by free radicals and reactive oxygen species under 'oxidative stress' conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a simple, low-cost, sensitive, and diversely applicable indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of total antioxidant capacity of several plants. The method is based on the oxidation of antioxidants with cerium(IV) sulfate in dilute sulfuric acid at room temperature. The Ce(IV) reducing capacity of the sample is measured under carefully adjusted conditions of oxidant concentration and pH such that only antioxidants and not other organic compounds would be oxidized. The spectrophotometric determination of the remaining Ce(IV) was performed after completion of reaction with antioxidants. Quercetin and gallic acid were used as standards for flavonoids and phenolic acids, respectively, and results of antioxidant measurements were reported as trolox equivalents. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the assay of total antioxidant capacity due to simple compounds such as trolox, quercetin, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin, naringin, naringenin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, and due to phenolic acids and flavonoids in the arieal parts of nettle (Urtica Dioica L.). Blank correction of significantly absorbing plant extracts at 320nm could be made with the aid of spectrophotometric titration. Plant selection was made in respect to high antioxidant content, and extraction was made with water. The proposed method was reproducible, and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC coefficients) of the tested antioxidant compounds were correlated to those found by reference methods such as ABTS and CUPRAC. Since the TEAC coefficients found with the proposed method of naringin-naringenin and rutin-catechin pairs were close to each other, this Ce(IV)-based assay

  19. Release of Antioxidant Capacity from Five Plant Foods during a Multistep Enzymatic Digestion Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papillo, V.A.; Vitaglione, P.; Graziani, G.; Gokmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both

  20. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Aidia borneensis leaf infusion, an endemic plant in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metussin, N.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the total antioxidant capacity of Aidia borneensis leaf infusion, a Bornean endemic plant, which is traditionally consumed as a home-remedy beverage in Brunei Darussalam. The antioxidant capacity of the infusion of A. borneensis leaves was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging ability. We found that the infusion shows a relatively high antioxidant capacity, and it was attributed to its high phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents which were evaluated by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, colorimetric assay, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method, respectively. By comparing its total antioxidant capacity, we estimated that the infusion of A. borneensis leaves is in the middle rank among twelve different commercially available Camellia sinensis teas. Our findings would have significant implications on A. borneensis products from Brunei Darussalam and on the feasibility of establishing this new beverage among the commercially available conventional C. sinensis and herbal teas.

  2. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  3. Activity-Guided Identification of in Vitro Antioxidants in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, Stefan; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-01-24

    In order to locate the key antioxidants contributing to oxidative stability of beer, activity-guided fractionation in combination with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging (HPS) assay, and linoleic acid (LA) assay was applied to a pilsner-type beer. LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments led to the identification of a total of 31 antioxidants, among which 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (tachioside), 4-(2-formylpyrrol-1-yl)butyric acid, 4-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrol-1-yl]butyric acid, n-multifidol-3-O-β-d-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-(6″-malonyl)-glucoside, 4-feruloylquinic acid, syringaresinol, saponarin, and hordatines A-C have been isolated from beer for the first time. On a molar comparison, the hordatines A-C, saponarin, and quercetin-3-O-β-d-(6″-malonyl)glucoside were evaluated with the highest antioxidant activities of all identified beer constituents, reaching values of 10-17.5 (ORAC), 2.0-4.1 (HPS), and 1.1-6.1 μmol TE/μmol (LA) for hordatines A-C.

  4. Total anti-oxidant capacity of saliva in chronic periodontitis patients before and after periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzaiy, M; Ansari, S M; Dehghan, J H; Ghaeni, S H

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease is among the most common inflammatory conditions which is associated with many different factors. One of the contributing factors to the pathogenesis of this condition may compromise the defensive mechanism of antioxidants. The present study evaluates the antioxidant capacity of saliva in periodontal patients before and after periodontal treatment. In this cross sectional study, 31 patients systemically healthy non smokers with chronic periodontitis were recruited. The antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured before the initial phase of periodontal therapy and after completion of the treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19 software. Paired T-Test, Independent sample T-test and ANOVA tests were used as appropriated. The mean and standard deviation antioxidant capacity of the saliva after the treatment.(0.962± 0.287µM)was significantly higher than before the treatment (0.655 ± 0.281 µM ,pperiodontal treatment was higher among men than among women; however, the difference was not significant (P=0.07). The mean difference of salivary antioxidant capacity was not significantly differed among different ages (P=0.772). The antioxidant capacity of saliva was higher after periodontal therapy among patients with periodontal disease, however the change was not varied across the ages and gender. Therefore, the alterations in the defensive mechanism of antioxidants could be the key factors contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.

  5. Fractionation and determination of total antioxidant capacity, total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEYAKS PLC

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... the treatment of stomach and rheumatic pains, inflamma- tory disorders ... reagent and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Exactly. 0.25 ml .... anthocyanins and antioxidant activity following simulated gastro- intestinal ...

  6. The correlation between total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... water, air-dried and stored and protected from light analysis. After a ... Nitrate was detected after reduction to nitrite .... membranes and 2) the relative weakness of the antioxidant .... cyclic GMP in signal transduction. Med. Sci.

  7. Comparison of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... Thirty samples of sorghum beers “dolo” were selected from traditionally fermented household manufacturers .... anti-diarrhoeic properties (Awika and Rooney, 2004; ... investigation on levels of phenolic content and antioxidant.

  8. Antioxidant capacity of chewing stick miswak Salvadora persica

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Khan, Jalaluddin A

    2013-01-01

    Background Chewing stick (miswak Salvadora persica L.) is an effective tool for oral hygiene. It possessed various biological properties including significant antibacterial and anti-fungal effects. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant compounds in miswak. Method Miswak root was extracted with 80% methanol. Methanol extract as antioxidant was evaluated by using DPPH, ABTS and phosphomolybdenum complex assays and analysis by GC-MS. Peroxidase, catalase and polyphenoloxidase assays...

  9. In vitro antioxidant activities of the fractions of Coccinia grandis l. leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the various fractions of the hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Coccinia grandis L. Voigt. (Cucurbitaceae). The antioxidant activities of the fractions have been evaluated by using nine in vitro assays and were compared to standard antioxidants ...

  10. Effect of water cooking on antioxidant capacity of carotenoid-rich vegetables in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Fuh-Juin Kao; Yu-Shan Chiu; Wen-Dee Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoid-rich green leafy vegetables including cilantro, Thai basil leaves, sweet potato leaves, and choy sum were selected to evaluate the effects of water cooking or boiling on their total carotenoid content (TCC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The percentage inhibition of peroxidation (%IP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and metal-chelating effect were used to evaluate TAC. The results indicated that TCC reached the maximum after boi...

  11. Comparative evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Silviya S. Georgieva; Valentina L. Christova-Bagdassarian; Maria S. Atanassova

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare total phenolics and total flavonoides, and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea ethanol extracts. Methods: Propolis and dried Echinacea purpurea extracts were obtained by extraction methods. The extracts were tested for total phenol and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: The content of total phenolics and total flavon...

  12. Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content in different apple varieties cultivated in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral, Vilma; Sepulveda, Marcela; Schwartz, Marco; Kern, Werther

    2014-01-01

    Three apple varieties cultivated in Chile were studied in total polyphenol content by Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant capacity by FRAP method: Granny Smith, Royal Gala and Fuji (whole and peeled apples). The total polyphenol content in whole and peeled apples do not show significant differences. The antioxidant capacity of the Granny Smith variety is significantly higher than Royal Gala and Fuji. Apple dehydration at 60 oC for 4 hours to obtain flakes keeps polyphenol content high. The...

  13. Effects of ozonated autohemotherapy on the antioxidant capacity of Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Nao; Endo, Yoshiro; Kikkawa, Lisa; Korosue, Kenji; Kaneko, Yasuyuki; Kitauchi, Akira; Katamoto, Hiromu; Hidaka, Yuichi; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi; Torisu, Shidow

    2016-01-01

    The performance of horses undergoing regular intense exercise is adversely affected by oxidative stress. Thus, it is important to increase antioxidant production in horses in order to reduce oxidative stress. Ozonated autohemotherapy (OAHT) reportedly promotes antioxidant production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of OAHT on antioxidant capacity. Ten Thoroughbred horses were used in this study. After the OAHT, we collected serum samples and measured biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We found that BAP began to increase after the OAHT and was significantly higher in the OAHT group than at 3 (Phorses.

  14. Antioxidant capacity of chewing stick miswak Salvadora persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Khan, Jalaluddin A

    2013-02-21

    Chewing stick (miswak Salvadora persica L.) is an effective tool for oral hygiene. It possessed various biological properties including significant antibacterial and anti-fungal effects. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant compounds in miswak. Miswak root was extracted with 80% methanol. Methanol extract as antioxidant was evaluated by using DPPH, ABTS and phosphomolybdenum complex assays and analysis by GC-MS. Peroxidase, catalase and polyphenoloxidase assays were performed for crude extract of miswak root. The methanol extract of miswak contained the highest amount of crude extract among the various solvent extracts. The methanol extract showed a concentration dependent scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC50 values 4.8 and 1.6 μg crude extract, respectively. The total antioxidant activities, based on the reduction of molybdenum (VI) to molybdenum (V), increased with increasing crude extract content. The correlation coefficients (R2) between total crude extract and DPPH, ABTS scavenging activities and the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex were 0.97, 0.99 and 0.95, respectively. The GC-MS analysis showed that the methanol extract doesn't contain phenolic and flavonoid compounds or under detected limit. After silylation of methanol extract, three compounds namely 2-furancarboxaldehyde-5-(hydroxymethyl), furan-2-carboxylic acid-3-methyl- trimethylsilyl ester and D-erythro-pentofuranose-2-deoxy-1,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl) were identified by GC-MS analysis. These furan derivatives as they contain hydroxyl groups could be possessed antioxidant activities. The antioxidant enzymes were also detected in the miswak extract with high level of peroxidase and low level of catalase and polyphenoloxidase. The synergistic actions of antioxidant compounds and antioxidant enzymes make miswak is a good chewing stick for oral hygiene and food purposes.

  15. Effect of dry salting on flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of Algerian olive cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufi, O.; Romero, C.; Motilva, M.J.; Borras Gaya, X.; Louaileche, H.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the changes in the flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of five olive cultivars after dry salting. The antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that the effects of dry salting on the analyzed parameters were significant (P<0.05). It caused a decrease in total flavonoids with a loss rate of 55%. The HPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of four flavonoids: rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Among the studied cultivars, Azeradj was characterized by high levels of flavonoids. Concerning the antioxidant activity, diverging results were obtained using different antioxidant assays. Overall, the dry salting induced a reduction in the antioxidant activity with variable values depending on the cultivar. Among the used methods, high correlations were found between flavonoid contents and the FRAP assay. (Author)

  16. Effect of dry salting on flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of Algerian olive cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soufi, O.; Romero, C.; Motilva, M.J.; Borras Gaya, X.; Louaileche, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in the flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of five olive cultivars after dry salting. The antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that the effects of dry salting on the analyzed parameters were significant (P<0.05). It caused a decrease in total flavonoids with a loss rate of 55%. The HPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of four flavonoids: rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Among the studied cultivars, Azeradj was characterized by high levels of flavonoids. Concerning the antioxidant activity, diverging results were obtained using different antioxidant assays. Overall, the dry salting induced a reduction in the antioxidant activity with variable values depending on the cultivar. Among the used methods, high correlations were found between flavonoid contents and the FRAP assay. (Author)

  17. Enhanced photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant potential mediate brassinosteriod-induced phenanthrene stress tolerance in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Li, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis, the basal manufacturing process in the earth is habitually restricted by airborne micropollutants such as phenanthrene (PHE). Here, we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive plant steroid is able to keep higher photosynthetic capacity consistently for a long period under a shoot-imposed PHE stress in tomato. EBR-promoted photosynthetic capacity and efficiency eventually resulted in a 37.5% increase of biomass under PHE stress. As primary response, transcripts of antioxidant genes were remarkably induced by EBR in PHE-treated plants. Activities of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes were also enhanced by EBR. Notably, EBR-induced higher antioxidant potential was associated with reduced levels of H 2 O 2 and O 2 · — , resulting in a 32.7% decrease of content of malondialdehyde in the end of experiment and relatively healthy chloroplast ultrastructure in EBR + PHE treatment compared with PHE alone. These results indicate that EBR alleviates shoot-imposed PHE phytotoxicity by maintaining a consistently higher photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant potential in tomato. - Highlights: • PHE mist spray gradually inhibits photosynthesis and eventually reduces biomass. • EBR maintains a consistently higher photosynthesis even under PHE stress. • EBR upregulates expression of antioxidant genes as initial response to PHE stress. • EBR reduces oxidative stress by constantly activating strong antioxidant potential. • EBR-induced efficient neutralization of ROS protects chloroplast ultrastructure. - 24-epibrassinolide protects tomato plants from airborne phenanthrene-induced damages by maintaining a consistently higher photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant potential

  18. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavon...

  19. Cooking does not decrease hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of wild blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rebecca Ree; Renfroe, Michael H; Brevard, Patricia Bowling; Lee, Robert E; Gloeckner, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of domestic cooking methods on the hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA) of wild blueberries. Baked, microwaved, simmered, and pan-fried frozen wild blueberries, and a thawed uncooked control, were analyzed for HAA using an ABTS/H(2)O(2)/HRP decoloration method. All cooking treatments were derived from recipes using wild blueberries, and were performed in triplicate. A randomized block design was used to determine whether there were statistical differences in antioxidant content after cooking and between each of the trials. There were no statistically significant decreases after cooking the thawed berries. On both a fresh weight and a dry weight basis, pan-fried blueberries had significantly higher HAA than baked, simmered, and control blueberries (Pcooked berries retained significant HAA. Cooked wild blueberries can be recommended as a good source of dietary antioxidants.

  20. In vitro evaluation of Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Ganem Longhi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens (L. Dc is a plant of the Fabaceae family, commonly known as velvet bean, itchy bean, chiporro bean, mucuna, among others. This plant has several medicinal properties, including its potential to treat Parkinson's disease (PD. International studies have shown that this plant surpasses the benefits of the substance levodopa in the treatment of PD. Taking into account that nerve cells are highly sensitive to oxidative substances, this study evaluated the antioxidant activity of mucuna and compared it to that of levodopa. The plant seeds' phenolic concentration was quantified by using the Folin-Denis reagent and the antioxidant activity assays were performed by using three different methods: the reduction of the phosphomolybdenium complex, the reduction of radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• and the formation of radical monocation ABTS•+, from the acid [2-2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate]. Results showed that M. pruriens presents high antioxidant capacity, although not superior to isolated levodopa antioxidant capacity. Therefore, further studies should be performed to elucidate the activity of this plant in humans.A Mucuna pruriens (L. Dc é uma planta da família Fabaceae, conhecida popularmente como feijão-veludo, fava-coceira, feijão chiporro, mucuna, entre outros. Possui diversas propriedades medicinais, entre elas, o tratamento da doença de Parkinson (DP. Estudos internacionais vêm demonstrando que essa planta possui atividade superior à do fármaco levodopa para o tratamento da DP. O presente estudo avaliou a possibilidade da atividade antioxidante dessa planta auxiliar nesses resultados, uma vez que as células nervosas são altamente sensíveis às substâncias oxidativas. Para isto foi quantificada a concentração fenólica da semente da mucuna e os testes empregados para a avaliação da atividade antioxidante foram o teste de redução do complexo fosfomolibdênio, redução do radical 1

  1. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Radish as Influenced by the Variety and Vegetative Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of the variety and vegetative stage on the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of radish. Samples of seeds, sprouts (day-3, day-5 and day-7 and roots of three varieties (red, white and black of radish (Raphanussativus were collected and tested for the above-mentioned parameters. Determination of total phenolic content was performed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. The total phenolic content ranged between 4.75 and 19.44 mg GAE/g DW and the antioxidant capacity between 12 and 75%. The highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in radish sprouts and the lowest in radish roots, and among samples in the black radish variety. 

  2. Content of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits of Apricot Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Skutkova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. In this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV cultivated on Department of Fruit Growing of Mendel University in Brno. Fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Powermethods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964 was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed. In addition, we optimized high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem electrochemical and spectrometric detection and determined phenolic profile consisting of the following fifteen phenolic compounds: gallic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, procatechin, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, the flavonols quercetin and quercitrin, the flavonol glycoside rutin, resveratrol, vanillin, and the isomers epicatechin, (–- and (+- catechin.

  3. In vitro Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Leaf and Root Extracts of Taraxacum Officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén García-Carrasco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue dysfunction constitutes a primary defect in obesity and might link this disease to severe chronic health problems. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of three extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion as well as their effects on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes concerning intracellular lipid accumulation and cytotoxicity, this would give indications regarding therapeutic interest of dandelion as potential anti-obesity candidate. Antioxidant activities of extracts from dandelion roots and leaves were evaluated in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP methods at the concentration range used in cellular assays (300–600 µg/mL. The influence of the extracts on mature 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Lipid content was determined by Oil-red-O staining. The extracts showed effective antioxidant activity correlating with total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. However, the functionality level was weakly associated with the antioxidant activity. Further, our data demonstrated that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced in size and number when incubated with the extracts, which suggests a significant increase in lipolysis activity. Particularly, leaf extract and crude powdered root of dandelion reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes to a greater extent that the extract from the root. Our study shows anti-lipogenic effects of dandelion extracts on adipocytes as well as radical scavenging and reducing activity. Importantly, along with previous results indicating that cell populations cultivated in the presence of the dandelion extracts decrease in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis capacity, these results suggests that these extracts might represent a treatment option for obesity-related diseases by affecting different processes during the adipocyte life cycle.

  4. Studies on antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin extract from purple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... The radical scavenging effects by α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ... also displayed potent antioxidant effects against the DPPH radical and .... method described by Giannopolites and Ries (1977), with some .... The IC50 values of anthocyanins and L-AA were low, .... effects of ionizing radiation.

  5. Effects of organic acid supplementation on antioxidant capacity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four commercial organic acids and a reference antibiotic, Neoxyval, were administered to commercial broilers to evaluate the efficacy of these products during pre- and post-challenge with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) on selected indicators of their antioxidant status and immune ...

  6. Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest that the beverages possess significant radical scavenging ability that may be ... prepared and 1 ml of it was mixed with 1 ml, 0.4 ... 734nm to 0.700 with ethanol. .... cocoa fermentation, polyphenols are subjected to .... Variability in antioxidant activity in ... tea, coffee and wine. .... The kinetics of polyphenol.

  7. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity of Salvia verticcilata and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antioxidants are of great importance for preventing oxidative stress that may cause several degenerative diseases. Studies have indicated phytochemicals have high free-radical scavenging activity, which helps to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The aim of the present study is the determination of ...

  8. Antioxidant capacity of some plants foods and beverages consumed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today plant foods and beverages are receiving more scientific attention because of their potential to curb the effect of free radicals in the human system. The present study reports on the antioxidant potentials of some plants foods and beverages consumed in the Eastern Region of Nigeria. The study made use of the ferric ...

  9. Antioxidant capacity of different types of tea products | Karori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, twelve different types of commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography using a binary gradient system was used for the identification and quantification of individual catechins. Subsequently ...

  10. Antioxidant properties, selected enzyme inhibition capacities, and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, H2O2 scavenging assay, ABTS), antityrosinase, anti 5-lipoxygenase, antihyaluronidase and anti α-glucosidase were determined. Cosmetic creams containing 0, 1, 2 and 3 % of MSKE were prepared and evaluated for physical stability. The most stable formulation was subjected to the ...

  11. Simple and fast PO-CL method for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargoosh, Kiomars; Ghayeb, Yousef; Azmoon, Behnaz; Qandalee, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    A simple and fast procedure is described for evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds by using the peroxyoxalate-chemiluminescence (PO-CL) reaction of Bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of di(tert-butyl)2-(tert-butylamino)-5-[(E)-2-phenyl-1-ethenyl]3,4-furandicarboxylate as a highly fluorescent fluorophore. The IC50 values of the well-known antioxidants were calculated and the results were expressed as gallic equivalent antioxidant capacity (GEAC). It was found that the proposed method is free of physical quenching and oxidant interference, for this reason, proposed method is able to determine the accurate scavenging activity of the antioxidants to the free radicals. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the evaluation of antioxidant activity of complex real samples such as soybean oil and sunflower oil (as hydrophobic samples) and honey (as hydrophilic sample). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that total antioxidant activity can be determined directly in soybean oil, sunflower oil and honey (not in their extracts) using PO-CL reactions.

  12. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Vanja; Putnik, Predrag; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Jukić, Marijana; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2017-06-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays). The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70% aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol), extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min) and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences at a 95% confidence level (p≤0.05). The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols) than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70% aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50% aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval) has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  13. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Suchita; Kumar, Ritesh; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Chanda, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance. PMID:22216055

  15. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaib Luqman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance.

  16. In vitro antioxidant evaluation and total phenolics of methanolic leaf extracts of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J Savarimuthu; Kalirajan, A; Padmalatha, C; Singh, A J A Ranjit

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the methanolic leaf extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (NA). The sample was tested using five in vitro antioxidant methods (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (-OH), nitric oxide scavenging activity (NO), superoxide radical-scavenging activity, and total antioxidant activity) to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of NA and the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu method). The extract showed good free radical scavenging property which was calculated as an IC50 value. IC50 (Half maximal inhibitory concentration) of the methanolic extract was found to be 57.93 μg·mL(-1) for DPPH, 98.61 μg·mL(-1) for -OH, 91.74 μg·mL(-1) for NO, and 196.07 μg·mL(-1) for superoxide radical scavenging activity. Total antioxidant capacity of the extract was found to be (1198 ± 24.05) mg ascorbic acid for the methanolic extract. Free radical scavenging activity observed in the extracts of NA showed a concentration-dependent reaction. The in vitro scavenging tested for free radicals was reported to be due to high phenolic content in the leaf extract. The leaf extract of NA showed the highest total phenolic content with a value of 78.48 ± 4.2 equivalent mg TAE/g (tannic acid equivalent). N. arbor-tristis leaf extract exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity. The finding suggests that N. arbor-tristis leaves could be a potential source of natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant Capacity Determination in Plants and Plant-Derived Products: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Aneta; Cimpeanu, Carmen; Predoi, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the analytical methods applied to antioxidant and antioxidant capacity assessment in plant-derived products. Aspects related to oxidative stress, reactive oxidative species' influence on key biomolecules, and antioxidant benefits and modalities of action are discussed. Also, the oxidant-antioxidant balance is critically discussed. The conventional and nonconventional extraction procedures applied prior to analysis are also presented, as the extraction step is of pivotal importance for isolation and concentration of the compound(s) of interest before analysis. Then, the chromatographic, spectrometric, and electrochemical methods for antioxidant and antioxidant capacity determination in plant-derived products are detailed with respect to their principles, characteristics, and specific applications. Peculiarities related to the matrix characteristics and other factors influencing the method's performances are discussed. Health benefits of plants and derived products are described, as indicated in the original source. Finally, critical and conclusive aspects are given when it comes to the choice of a particular extraction procedure and detection method, which should consider the nature of the sample, prevalent antioxidant/antioxidant class, and the mechanism underlying each technique. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for each method. PMID:28044094

  18. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5–15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies. PMID:28051097

  19. Antioxidant Capacity and Metal Content of Physalis Peruviana L. Fruit Sold in Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Eken

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The dietary intake of medicinal food with antioxidant activity and required amounts of trace elements is important to pursue good healthy life. In our study, we aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity and metal content of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L. fruit sold in markets in Kayseri. Material and Method: The antioxidant capacity of P. peruviana fruit was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The DPPH radical scavenger capacity of the methanol extract of fruit was compared with known antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT as references. The metal content of P. peruviana fruit was measured by using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. Results: The fruit of P. peruviana was found to possess DPPH free radical scavenging activity but the antioxidant capacity was lower than the standard substances. Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50 values of P. peruviana, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and BHT were determined as 32 mg/ml, 3.8 mg/ml, 3.51 mg/ml, and 1.21 mg/ml, respectively. As a result of the analysis by AAS, it was observed that P. peruviana fruit contented plentiful trace elements and the content of heavy metal was small amount or not detected. Discussion: These observations suggest that the fruit of P. peruviana has a potential source of antioxidant and trace elements of natural origin.

  20. Blooming reduces the antioxidant capacity of dark chocolate in rats without lowering its capacity to improve lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwell, Naomi; Villalobos, Fatima; Kern, Mark; Hong, Mee Young

    2013-05-01

    Dark chocolate contains high levels of antioxidants which are linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate blooming occurs after exposure to high temperatures. Although bloomed chocolate is safe for human consumption, it is not known whether or not the biological function of bloomed chocolate is affected. We hypothesized that bloomed chocolate would reduce the antioxidant potential and lipid-lowering properties of chocolate through altered expression of related genes. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and fed either the control (CON), regular dark chocolate (RDC), or bloomed dark chocolate (BDC) diet. After 3 weeks, serum lipid levels and antioxidant capacity were measured. Hepatic expression of key genes was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sensory characteristics of bloomed versus regular chocolate were assessed in 28 semi-trained panelists. Rats fed RDC exhibited greater serum antioxidant capacities compared to the CON (P chocolate compared to bloomed chocolate (P chocolate, these results suggest that bloomed dark chocolate yields similarly beneficial effects on most blood lipid parameters or biomarkers. However, regular dark chocolate may be more beneficial for the improvement of antioxidant status and modulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and promoted greater sensory ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant capacities of ten edible North American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz; Atha, Daniel E; Ma, Jun; Nee, Michael H; Kennelly, Edward J

    2002-02-01

    The EtOAc extract obtained from ten edible North American plants, Acorus calamus, Clintonia borealis, Gaultheria shallon, Juniperus osteosperma, Opuntia polyacantha, Prunus americana, Prunus virginiana, Sambucus cerulea, Sorbus americana and Vaccinium parvifolium, were tested in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. High antioxidant activity was obtained from the extracts of three fruits, Gaultheria shallon, Sambucus cerulea and Prunus americana and one extracted rhizome, Acorus calamus. Catechin and epicatechin, potent polyphenolic antioxidants, were identified in the EtOAc extracts of Gaultheria shallon and Sambucus cerulea by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  3. Effects of exogenous melatonin on antioxidant capacity in Actinidia seedlings under salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Ni, Zhiyou; Pan, Dongming

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the alleviation of exogenous melatonin (MT) in Actinidia seedlings under 100 mM NaCl stress, one-year-old Actinidia deliciosa seedlings were treated with 0.1, 0.5 and 1μM of exogenous melatonin solution, respectively. The results showed that the antioxidant substance (ASA, TPC, TFC and TFAC) contents and antioxidative capacity (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP) of Actinidia seedlings under salt stress were significantly increased compared with the CK. At the same time, the antioxidant substance contents of Actinidia seedlings with MT pretreatment were significantly higher than those of CK and S, then the antioxidative capacity was improved, and the damage of Actinidia seedlings under salt stress was alleviated. And the treatment with 0.1μM MT solution was the most significant.

  4. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity of Salvia verticcilata and effect on multidrug resistant bacteria by flow-cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, Yener; Karpuz, Esra; Danahaliloglu, Hatice; Bucak, Serbay; Guzel, Yelda; Erdmann, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are of great importance for preventing oxidative stress that may cause several degenerative diseases. Studies have indicated phytochemicals have high free-radical scavenging activity, which helps to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The aim of the present study is the determination of antioxidant properties, polyphenolic content and multidrug resistant bacteria of Salvia verticcilata L. Methanol was used as the extraction solvent. The total phenolic content was calculated using Folin-Ciocalteau method and phenolic composition was determined by HPLC. The radical scavenging activity of plant was evaluated in vitro based on the reduction of the stable DPPH free radical. The reducing capacity was identified by using the FRAP method. The ability of Salvia verticcilata L. to increase the permeability of multidrug resistant bacterial cells was conducted by flow cytometric assay on Listeria innocua and E-coli. The amount of total phenolics was found to be 347.5 mg GA/g extract. The IC50 value and FRAP assay are 0.61, and 0.944 respectively, Free radical scavenging effect and FRAP values are less than synthetic antioxidant compounds (BHA and BHT). Eight phenolic compounds were found in Salvia verticcilata L. Intense concentration of S. verticcilata L. has destroyed 97 % of living cells for Listeria innocua and 94.86% for E-coli. This study shows that methanolic extracts of Salvia verticcilata L. is a potential source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agent and can form the basis for pharmacological studies.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant capacity of Myrathius arboreus (Cecropiaceae) in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Ologe, Olufunmilayo; Alabi, Akinyinka; Tunde Yusuf, Ganiyu; Umukoro, Solomon

    2017-11-27

    Inflammation is involved in various diseases; search for safe treatments is warranted. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Myrathius arboreus (EEMa) were studied in carrageenan-induced model, formaldehyde sub-acute-induced model, and in 48 h lipopolysaccharide-induced air pouch model of inflammation. EEMa membrane-stabilizing activities and anti-oxidant capacity were determined in vitro. In the carrageenan model EEMa (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), or vehicle 3 mL/kg was administered orally in rats (n=5). After 1 h, 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan was injected into the right hind paw of rats. Change in edema sizes was measured for 3 h with plethysmometer. One-tenth milliliter (0.1 mL) of 2.5% formaldehyde was injected into the rat paw on the first day and the third day to induce sub-acute inflammation; changes in the edema sizes were determined, and percentages of inhibitions were calculated. Anti-inflammatory effects of EEMa were further examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced air-pouch based on leukocytes count, volume of exudates, levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxides, and tumor necrosis factor released into the inflammatory fluids. EEMa-free radicals scavenging activities were studied in DPPH and reducing power tests. Membrane-stabilizing activities of EEMa were evaluated in the red blood cell lysis induced by thermal and hypotonic solution. EEMa (250, 500 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001; p<0.05) inhibition of inflammation when compared with vehicle. Also, EEMa (250, 500, or 1000 μg/mL) significantly stabilized membrane and produced free radical scavenging activities. M. arboreus possesses anti-inflammatory and the anti-oxidant properties that might benefit translational medicine.

  6. Influence of drying treatments on antioxidant capacity of forage legume leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Saw Yei; Jamharee, Fazrina; Prasad, K Nagendra; Azlan, Azrina; Maliki, Nurzillah

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant capacities of four common forage legume leaves namely, Arachis pintoi (Pintoi), Calapogonium mucunoides (Calapo), Centrosema pubescens (Centro), and Stylosanthes guanensis (Stylo). Two different drying methods (oven-drying and freeze-drying) were employed and antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching assays. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Freeze-dried extract showed the highest antioxidant activities by DPPH (EC50 values 1.17-2.13 mg/ml), FRAP (147.08-246.42 μM of Fe(2+)/g), and β-carotene bleaching (57.11-78.60%) compared to oven drying. Hence, freeze drying treatment could be considered useful in retention of antioxidant activity and phenolic content.

  7. Antioxidant capacity of cinnamon extract for palm oil stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad Zia; Saima, Hafiza; Yasmin, Adeela; Nadeem, Muhammad Tahir; Imran, Muhammad; Afzaal, Muhammad

    2018-05-16

    Spices and their bioactive components are more promising attractions for their inclusion in diet-based regimes to improve human health. These are sources of natural antioxidants and play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases and aging. The aim of the current study was to explore the antioxidant potential of cinnamon; a widely used spice throughout the world. The current research was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of cinnamon extract. For the purpose, cinnamon sticks were procured from local super market, while palm oil was obtained from local oil industry. The resultant extract was analyzed for its antioxidant activity through total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay), and total antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) test. The shelf life of palm oil was checked by adding cinnamon extract in oil at different levels i.e. , 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25%, to compare the antioxidant potential of the extract whereas, T o acted as control and T BHA @ 0.1% was used as synthetic antioxidant in the oil samples. The oil samples were analyzed for rancidity check during storage (after every seven days for a storage period of four weeks). The results indicated that total phenolic contents (TPC); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values of cinnamon extract were as 355.01 ± 8.34 gallic acid equivalent per gram (mg GAE/g), 90.18 ± 2.12 (%) and 132.82 ± 3.12 (μmol/g), respectively. The oxidative parameters for treatments i.e., T o , T BHA , T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 were recorded as peroxide value (2.61 ± 0.07, 2.42 ± 0.08, 2.57 ± 0.05, 2.56 ± 0.03, 2.54 ± 0.02, 2.54 ± 0.01, 2.46 ± 0.06 meq/kg, respectively), free fatty acids (0.601 ± 0.05, 0.522 ± 0.02, 0.580 ± 0.07, 0.572 ± 0.03, 0.56 ± 00.07, 0.552 ± 0.03, 0.536 ± 0.05%, respectively), TBA

  8. A comparison of antioxidant capacity and some lipoprotein values in swimmers and sedentary subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, İsmail; Aktaş, Yakup; Arikan, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Increased oxygen consumption as a result of the exercise also increases the free radical production. These free radicals are neutralized by a defence mechanism consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Training can have positive or negative effects on oxidative stress depending on the load and type of the training or the status of the individual prior to it. The purpose of this study is to search the capacity of lipoproteins, total oxidant and antioxidant in swimmers and sedenta...

  9. Evaluation of oxidative stress status and antioxidant capacity in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Aldemir, Mustafa; Karaguzel, Ersagun; Okulu, Emrah; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Ener, Kemal; Ozayar, Asim; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated and compared the serum oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the control group. Material and methods The prospective study consisted of 97 patients with RCC (Group 1) and 80 age and sex matched healthy volunteers (Group 2). Group 1 and 2 were compared concerning serum mean total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), arylesterase, total thiol, catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (M...

  10. Lifestyle predictors of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity in healthy women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Amjad A; Zhang, Yali; Zhao, Hua; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and modifiable lifestyle factors that may be related to endogenous oxidant and antioxidant activity measured in blood specimens from putatively healthy women recruited at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, USA). Total glutathione (TGSH), catalase (CAT), CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in 124 healthy women, and associations with epidemiological factors were tested using general linear models. There were significant differences in oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities according to lifestyle factors, after adjusting for duration of blood storage and season of blood draw. Compared to women who consumed ≤2.8 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, those consuming >5.3 servings had on average 31 % lower MPO activity (p-trend = 0.02), as a marker of oxidative stress, 16 % higher antioxidant GPx activity (p-trend = 0.08), and 9 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.05). Obese women (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in contrast showed 17 % lower antioxidant GPx activity, 44 % higher MPO activity (p-trend = 0.03), and 10 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.03) compared to women with normal BMI lifestyle factors and, therefore, may be potentially modifiable, with implications for risk reduction of chronic conditions related to oxidative stress.

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Bapat, V A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant capacity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Fam. Moracae) fruit pulp (JFP) obtained from Western Ghats India was determined by evaluating the scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power assays and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical cation decolorization assay. JFP was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). The ethanol and water are the best solvents for the extracting phenols and flavonoids from the JFP. The antioxidant activities of JFP extracts were correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. The results indicated that the jackfruit pulp is one natural source of antioxidant compounds.

  12. Synthesis of novel octyl sinapate to enhance antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Rabiej, Dobrochna; Krzemiński, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Lipophilisation allows the formation of new functionalised antioxidants having beneficial properties compared to natural hydrophilic phenolic acids. Therefore, this work focused on the synthesis of lipophilic antioxidants, such as a new octyl sinapate, octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate using the modified Fischer esterification of selected hydroxycinnamic acids with 1-octanol. The lipophilic octyl sinapate was obtained for the first time with satisfactory yield (83%) after purification by column chromatography. The identity of the synthesised phenolipids was confirmed by chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. Antioxidant capacity of phenolipids was determined by DPPH (IC 50  = 35.87-52.24 μg mL -1 ) and ABTS (IC 50  = 39.45-48.72 μg mL -1 ) methods and compared with IC 50 values (7.37-35.30 μg mL -1 and 7.55-41.67 μg mL -1 , respectively) for well known antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil enriched with the purified esters was about two to 30 times higher in comparison with a non-supplemented oil. The novel octyl sinapate as well as octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate have antioxidant properties and lipophilic character, therefore they may be added to vegetable oils as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare, dill (Anethum graveolens and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis . (Sreemoyee Ch. et. al., 2012 The main objective of the study was the comparative assessment of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from dill, rosemary and fennel methanolic extracts correlated with their  antioxidant activity. Both total phenolic content and flavonoids content of the seeds samples were measured spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH, respectively.. Antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-DPPH method. Results strongly showed that Rosmarinus officinalis extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens were less active. The total phenolic content was within 773,14 and 3367,24mg GAE/ 100g while the concentration in flavonoids was between 231,84 and 1325,53 QEg/100g dry seeds.  

  14. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro antioxidant properties of sulfated polysaccharide from brown marine algae Sargassum tenerrimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijayabaskar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study the physico chemical characteristics, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, reducing power and the free radical scavenging potentials (DPPH radical, ABTS, H2O2 radical of sulfated polysaccharide from marine brown algae Sargassum tenerrimum was investigated. Methods: The Sargassum tenerrimum seaweed, which have wide pharmaceutical application, were collected from the coastal region of Mandapam (Lat 09 ° 17 ’N, Long 79 ° 07 ’E, Tamil Nadu, India and evaluated for In vitro antioxidant properties. Results: The extract showed higher percentage of carbohydrate (8.20暲1.23% followed by sulphate (6.6暲1.42% and protein (0.86暲0.42%. The free radical scavenging potential was found to be higher in ABTS (70.33暲 2.33% followed by DPPH (64.66暲2.08% and H2O2 (61.56暲2.05%. the TAC was found to be 62.55暲 1.40%. The characterization of sulfated polysaccharide by FT-IR spectrum showed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfate groups. The structure of mobility was assed by agarose gel electrophoresis which showed highest mobility at higher pH values especially in buffer carbonate -bicarbonate (pH 10. The molecular weight of the sulfated polysaccharide was determined by gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which was found to be 40 kDa. Finally, GCMS analysis of sulfated polysaccharide from S. tenerrimum exhibited peaks corresponding to Benzenamine (31.67% and Aminocarb (21.45%. The overall results have established that the sulfated polysaccharide from S. tenerrimum could be used as a promising antioxidant agent. Conclusion: Physico-chemical analysis and elemental analysis of crude seaweed polysaccharide from Sargassum tenerrimum a brown algae elicited the antioxidant activity

  16. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of white, green, black, and herbal teas: a kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon, E.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis teas, and tisanes derived from herbs or fruit, are rich in polyphenolic, antioxidant compounds. This study compared the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, and caffeine content of teas (black, green, white, chamomile, and mixed berry/hibiscus over a range of infusion times (0.5–10 mins at 90°C. Green, followed by black tea, respectively, had the greatest TPC (557.58 and 499.19μg GAE/g, TFC (367.84 and 325.18μg QE/g, FRAP (887.38 and 209.38μg TE/g, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity (1233.03 and 866.39μg AAE/g. Caffeine content per cup (200mL in black, green, and white tea was 63, 51, and 49mg respectively. Changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of teas were modelled using zero, first, and fractional-conversion-first-order (FCFO kinetic models. Results fitted a FCFO kinetic model, providing useful data for maximum phytochemical preservation in the optimisation of industrial and domestic processing. As a dietary comparison, green, black, and white tea were found to have a greater phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than fresh orange and apple juice. It can be concluded that green and black teas are significant sources of dietary phenolic antioxidants.

  17. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant capacity of pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bagetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain more information about the physicochemical properties, composition, and antioxidant activity of pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L., particularly fruits from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Pitanga with different flesh colors (purple, red, and orange from tree selections cultivated at Embrapa Clima Temperado (RS-Brazil were analyzed. Only slight differences were observed in the quality parameters and in the proximate and fatty acid compositions among the fruits studied. The extracts from purple-fleshed pitanga had the highest total phenolic and anthocyanin contents along with the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP assays of methanolic pitanga extracts was highly correlated with the total phenolic content, but in ethanolic extracts, the anthocyanin content was correlated only with the FRAP antioxidant capacity. Orange fleshed pitanga had higher β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene levels than those of the red fruit, which had higher lycopene content. The results indicate that the purple-fleshed pitanga, cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul, is a rich source of phenolic compounds and has high antioxidant capacity. The red and orange-fleshed pitanga, on the other hand, are rich sources of carotenoids.

  18. Antioxidant capacity of trans-resveratrol dietary supplements alone or combined with the mycotoxin beauvericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallebrera, Beatriz; Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV) is a polyphenol with multiples biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and antiplatelet. It occurs naturally in grapes and derivate, peanuts and berries. Beauvericin (BEA) is a mycotoxin present in cereals that produces cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The general objective of this research was to evaluate whether trans-RSV could be used as a good polyphenol against damages produced by BEA. Because trans-RSV can be ingested through dietary supplements, to reach this goal, the following specific objectives were proposed: to determine a) the trans-RSV content in different polyphenol dietary supplements by capillary electrophoresis, b) the antioxidant capacity of the trans-RSV in polyphenol supplements, and c) the influence of BEA in the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV when they are in combination by photochemioluminiscence assay. The results obtained in this study showed that all polyphenol dietary supplements present higher RSV content that the content of the label. The polyphenol supplements present antioxidant capacity. And the combination of trans-RSV and BEA did not affect the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV. Thus, RSV could contribute to decrease oxidant effects produced by BEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Pwatermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (Pwatermelon was consumed (Pwatermelon group without DSS (Pwatermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: CMPHs are high value-added antioxidants and possess a potential ..... side chain groups were expected to be exposed, ..... enzymatic digestion on antioxidant activity of coffee ... yam bean seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) protein.

  1. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. ..... H., Sahu, A. & Bora, U. (2008) Indian medicinal herbs as sources of antioxidants. ... analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Journal of Ethnopharmacology ...

  2. Ultrasound treatment on phenolic metabolism and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Wei Keat; Ali, Asgar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound treatment at different power output (0, 25 and 29W) and exposure time (10 and 15min) was used to investigate its effect on the phenolic metabolism enzymes, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple. Following ultrasound treatment at 25 and 29W, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was increased significantly (Ppineapple was significantly (Ppineapple. Results suggest that hormetic dosage of ultrasound treatment can enhance the activity of PAL and total phenolic content and hence the total antioxidant capacity to encounter with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran Taj; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ellahi, Muhammad Yaqoob; Khalique, Anjum

    2017-08-24

    Antioxidant capacity of milk is largely due to vitamins A, E, carotenoids, zinc, selenium, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and enzyme systems. Cow milk has antioxidant capacity while the antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk has been studied in a limited way. The information regarding the effect of pasteurization and boiling on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk is also scared. Cow and buffalo milk was exposed to two different heat treatments i.e. 65 °C for 30 min and boiling for 1 min. After heat treatments, milk samples were cooled down to 4 °C packaged in transparent 250 ml polyethylene PET bottles and stored at 4 °C for 6 days. Milk composition, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid, vitamin C, A, E, selenium, Zinc, fatty acid profile, peroxide value and sensory characteristics were studied in raw, pasteurized and boiled cow and buffalo milk at 0, 3 and 6 days of storage period. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (42.1, 41.3 and 40.7%) and buffalo (58.4, 57.6 and 56.5%) samples was found, respectively. Reducing power (RP) of raw cow and buffalo milk was 6.74 and 13.7 while pasteurization and boiling did not showed significant effect on RP of both cow and buffalo milk. DPPH activity of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (24.3, 23.8 and 23.6%) and buffalo (31.8, 31.5 and 30.4%) samples was noted, respectively. Storage period up to 3 days was non-significant while DPPH assay after 6 days of storage period indicated significant decline in antioxidant activity of milk samples. Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid (AALA) of buffalo and cow milk were recorded 11.7 and 17.4%, respectively. Pasteurization and boiling did not showed any impact on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk. The Loss of vitamin C in pasteurization (40 and 42%) and boiling (82 and 61%) of

  4. Dietary antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes in the large prospective E3N-EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Affret, Aurélie; Dow, Courtney; Balkau, Beverley; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2018-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The diet, and especially fruit and vegetables, contains a variety of compounds with antioxidant activity, which may have cumulative/synergistic antioxidant effects. The total antioxidant capacity, an index derived from dietary intake, is a single estimate of antioxidant capacity from all dietary antioxidants. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes. Among 64,223 women (mean age 52 ± 7 years) from the French E3N-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, 1751 women had validated type 2 diabetes during 15 years of follow-up. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated with the ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for the associations between total antioxidant capacity and type 2 diabetes risk, adjusted for potential confounders. In multivariable models, higher levels of total antioxidant capacity were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Compared with women in the lowest quintile, women in the third, fourth and fifth quintiles for total antioxidant capacity had HRs of 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.86), 0.70 (95% CI 0.59, 0.83) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.60, 0.89), respectively. The inverse association between total antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes was linear up to values of 15 mmol/day, after which the effect reached a plateau. Our findings suggest that the total antioxidant capacity may play an important role in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women. More studies are warranted to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying this inverse association.

  5. Antioxidant capacity of Typha angustifolia extracts and two active flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peidong; Cao, Yudan; Bao, Beihua; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2017-12-01

    The pollen of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for improving the microcirculation and promoting wound healing. Flavonoids are the main constituent in the plant, but little is known about the antioxidant activity of the principal constituent of the pollen in detail. To assess the antioxidant activities of ethanol and water extracts and two constituents of the pollen. Plant material (1 g) was extracted by 95% ethanol and water (10 mL × 2, 1 h each), respectively. The extracted activities (0.8-2.6 mg/mL) were measured by DPPH and the reducing activity of ferric chloride (1.7-2.6 mg/mL). Typhaneoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside (I3ON) (2.8-70 μmol/L) were investigated on the relationship between NO, MDA and SOD in HUVECs treated with 100 μg/mL of LPS for 24 h. Nine compounds were identified by UPLC-MS. Ethanol extract showed IC 50 values in DPPH (39.51 ± 0.72) and Fe 3+ reducing activity (82.76 ± 13.38), higher than the water extract (50.85 ± 0.74) and (106.33 ± 6.35), respectively. Typhaneoside and I3ON promoted cell proliferation at the respective concentration range of 2.8 to 70 μmol/L (p concentration of 70 μmol/L compared with LPS group. The constituents from Typha angustifolia could be a novel therapeutic strategy for LPS-induced inflammation.

  6. Antioxidant Components of Cichorium intybus in Vitro and in Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Jin Kyu; Yang, Deok Cho

    2005-01-01

    Cichorium intybus is a perennial herb of the Compositae Family, native of Europe, west and central Asia, north of Africa and South America. The plant grows to a height of about 50-150 cm. The flowering time of it is from July to September. The flower is lingulate and blue. The basal leaves and the stems of the C. intybus, when they are very tender, are edible. The root, dry and toasted, can be used as a substitute of coffee. Its tuberous roots store inulin as a reserve carbohydrate, which consists of a chain of fructose molecules with a termonal glucose molecule. It may be classified as a fructoligosaccharide, and can be found in more than 30,000 vegetal products. Amongst these vegetables, the chicory roots are outlined for the production of inulin on an industrial scale due to the root's stability in the production of long chains of GFn and constant growth, even in moderate climates. Its use in products with low calories and reduced fat levels, in Europe, the United States and Canada, is already quite widespread. The present experiment was carried out to indicate that C. intybus contains both prooxidant and antioxidant compounds which can act in vitro and in vivo

  7. Antioxidant Components of Cichorium intybus in Vitro and in Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Deok Cho [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Cichorium intybus is a perennial herb of the Compositae Family, native of Europe, west and central Asia, north of Africa and South America. The plant grows to a height of about 50-150 cm. The flowering time of it is from July to September. The flower is lingulate and blue. The basal leaves and the stems of the C. intybus, when they are very tender, are edible. The root, dry and toasted, can be used as a substitute of coffee. Its tuberous roots store inulin as a reserve carbohydrate, which consists of a chain of fructose molecules with a termonal glucose molecule. It may be classified as a fructoligosaccharide, and can be found in more than 30,000 vegetal products. Amongst these vegetables, the chicory roots are outlined for the production of inulin on an industrial scale due to the root's stability in the production of long chains of GFn and constant growth, even in moderate climates. Its use in products with low calories and reduced fat levels, in Europe, the United States and Canada, is already quite widespread. The present experiment was carried out to indicate that C. intybus contains both prooxidant and antioxidant compounds which can act in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Mass Proportion, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Carrot Peel as Affected by Various Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tang Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the mass proportion of carrot root and the effects of four various solvents (methanol, water, ethanol and hexane on the contents of total phenolics and saponins as well as antioxidant capacity of carrot peel to identify an optimal solvent for effective extraction of bioactive compounds from carrot peel for further investigation. The results showed that carrot root consisted of body, heads and peel with their mass proportion of 83.19%, 5.01% and 14.19% by fresh weight, respectively. Among four solvents tested, methanol obtained the highest levels of extraction yield (54.02% by dry weight, total phenolic content (9.02 mg GAE/g dry weight and antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical scavenging capacity, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power from carrot peel, while water extracted the highest content of saponins (272.9 mg EE/g dry weight and possessed the maximum ABTS radical scavenging capacity. Therefore, methanol and water are considered for effective extraction of phenolics and saponins from carrot peel, respectively. The phenolic/saponin-enriched extracts are potential sources for further applications in the healthy food and/or pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piljac-Zegarac, J; Belscak, A; Piljac, A

    2009-06-01

    Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of leaf infusions prepared from six highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), one wild lowbush blueberry cultivar (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and one commercially available mix of genotypes were determined. In order to simulate household tea preparation conditions, infusions were prepared in water heated to 95 degrees C. The dynamics of extraction of polyphenolic antioxidants were monitored over the course of 30 minutes. Extraction efficiency, quantified in terms of the total phenol (TP) content, and antioxidant capacity of infusions, evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays, were compared with cultivar type and extraction time. The 30-minute infusions exhibited the highest TP content and antioxidant capacity according to all three assays. Wild blueberry infusion had the highest TP content (1,879 mg/L gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) and FRAP values (20,050 microM). The range of TP values for 30-minute infusions was 394-1,879 mg/L GAE with a mean of 986 mg/L GAE across cultivars; FRAP values fell between 3,015 and 20,050 microM with a mean of 11,234 microM across cultivars. All 30-minute infusions exhibited significant scavenging capacity for DPPH(*) and ABTS(*+) radicals, comparable to different concentrations of catechin, gallic acid, and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid. Overall, tested infusions showed significant reducing capacity as well as radical scavenging potential, which places blueberry leaf tea high on the list of dietary sources of antioxidants.

  11. Wound healing and antioxidant capacity of Musa paradisiaca Linn. peel extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Musa paradisiaca has several biological activities within them wound healing, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, among others. However, these properties in peel have been poorly explored. Aims: Evaluate the wound healing activity induced by an incision wound model using methanolic, hexanoic and chloroformic extracts from M. paradisiaca peel. Methods: Dehydrated M. paradisíaca peel was mixed with methanol, hexane, and chloroform. The presence of bioactive substances of the M. paradisiaca peel extracts was carried out by the Trease and Evans methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Acute toxicity was realized according to up and down OECD procedure in BALB/c mice. Wound healing activity was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses of tissues were made by microscopy using staining methods of hematoxylin and eosin and Masson-trichrome. Results: Treated groups with methanolic and hexanoic extracts of M. paradisiaca peel showed better wound healing activity in comparison with the group treated with chloroformic extract, with an inhibition of DPPH radical bleaching of 89-90%. It may be due to the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenols as principal constituents by conferring antioxidant capacity. The extract did not induce any toxicity. Conclusions: The findings showed the wound healing and antioxidant capacity of M. paradisiaca peel extract. It was observed that depending on the extraction solvent; there is a variation in the antioxidant capacity that also affects the effectiveness of the restoration of tissue, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity could play a major role in the process of wound healing.

  12. Investigation of Antioxidant Capacity and Some Bioactive Compounds of Iranian Pistachio (Pistachio vera L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Edible nuts have an increasing role in human diet. Pistachio is a popular but less known kind of edible nut nevertheless it is rich in health benefiting nutrients, minerals, antioxidants and vitamins. Therefore, this study attempts to determine the antioxidants capacity, total phenolics and amount of some major elements (nitrogen, potassium, calcium and phosphorus, present in the most important Iranian pistachio nut, to enhance the health benefits, and use in breeding programs. For this reason eleven pistachio cultivars (‘Akbary’, ‘Ahmad Aghaii’, ‘Daneshmandi’, ‘Kalle Ghoochi 1’, ‘Kalle Ghoochi 2’, ‘Garmeh’, ‘Ohadi 1’, ‘Ohadi 2’, ‘Sefid’, ‘Momtaz’, and chance seedling tree ("None-grafted" as control which are grown in commercial orchards of Fayzabad (Khorasan-e-Razavi were analyzed for determination of some major elements, antioxidants capacity and total phenolics contents. The results showed that the amounts of the nutrients in 100 g kernel were within the following ranges: N 2.5-4.1 g, P 355.9-546.6 mg, K 573.6-994.9 mg and Ca 61.5-134.5 mg. Total phenolics content varied from 5.3-9.9 mg gallic acid equivalents in g fresh weight. The results also showed that the capacity of antioxidant ranged from 1.6-3.7 (mg ascorbic acid equivalents in g fresh weight. Weak correlation was observed between total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity (r2=0.3824. The result demonstrates that there is adequate variation in major elements, antioxidants capacity and total phenolics contents within pistachio cultivars and hence there is potential for improvement towards enhancing these health-promoting photochemical in this nuts.

  13. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-02-23

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  14. Decreased total antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress in passive smoker infants and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    Smoking has many adverse health effects in infants and adults. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on oxidative and antioxidative status of plasma in passive smoker infants and their mothers and to compare with those of non-smokers. Subjects were randomly chosen from infants aged 8-26 weeks and their mothers aged 20-34 years. Passive smoker infants (n = 29) and their mothers (n = 29) were defined as having other family members who smoked six or more cigarettes per day continually for at least 8 weeks. Non-smokers were defined as infants (n = 30) and their mothers (n = 24) who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma were perused by measuring the total antioxidant capacity. Oxidative status was evaluated by predicating total peroxide level, oxidative stress index, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in passive smoker infants and their mothers than non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. However, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress index were remarkably higher in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. There were significant correlations between the oxidative and antioxidative parameters of the passive smoker infants and their mothers. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-smokers. Passive smoker infants and their mothers are exposed to potent oxidative stress.

  15. LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termentzi, Aikaterini; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    In this study, various fractions isolated from the petals of Crocus sativus were assessed at first for their phenolic content both qualitatively and quantitatively and secondly for their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) whereas the antioxidant potential was evaluated by applying two methodologies, the DPPH. radical scavenging activity test and the Co(II)-induced luminol chemiluminescence procedure. According to data obtained from these antioxidant tests, the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions demonstrated the strongest antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the major constituents identified in these fractions correspond to kaempferol, quercetin, naringenin and some flavanone and flavanol derivatives glycosylated and esterified with phenylpropanoic acids. In addition, the presence of some nitrogen-containing substances, as well as other phenolics and phenylpropanoic derivatives was also traced. The identification and structural elucidation of all substances isolated in this study was achieved by both comparing available literature data and by proposed fragmentation mechanisms based on evaluating the LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) experimental data. The quantitative analysis data obtained thus far have shown that Crocus sativus petals are a rich source of flavonoids. Such a fact suggests that the good antioxidant capacity detected in the various fractions of Crocus sativus petals could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, since it is already known that these molecules exert antioxidant capability. The latter, along with the use of Crocus sativus in food and pharmaceutical industry is discussed.

  16. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  17. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  18. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Daneshvar, Bahram; Pulido, Raquel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2003-08-27

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. The antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) scavenging, (b) ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and (c) inhibition of copper(II)-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In addition, the present study was performed to investigate the ability of the edible portion of artichoke to alter in vivo antioxidative defense in male rats using selected biomarkers of antioxidant status. One gram (dry matter) had a DPPH(*) activity and a FRAP value in vitro equivalent to those of 29.2 and 62.6 mg of vitamin C and to those of 77.9 and 159 mg of vitamin E, respectively. Artichoke extracts showed good efficiency in the inhibition in vitro of LDL oxidation. Neither ferric-reducing ability nor 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity was modified in the plasma of the artichoke group with respect to the control group. Among different antioxidant enzymes measured (superoxide dismutase, gluthatione peroxidase, gluthatione reductase, and catalase) in erythrocytes, only gluthatione peroxidase activity was elevated in the artichoke group compared to the control group. 2-Aminoadipic semialdehyde, a protein oxidation biomarker, was decreased in plasma proteins and hemoglobin in the artichoke-fed group versus the control group. In conclusion, the in vitro protective activity of artichoke was confirmed in a rat model.

  19. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lovrić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70 % aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol, extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to evaluate the differences at a 95 % confidence level (p≤0.05. The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70 % aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50 % aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  20. Tannins and extracts of fruit byproducts: antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widsten, Petri; Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C; Pajak, Marta A; McGhie, Tony K

    2014-11-19

    The shelf life of fresh fish and meat transported over long distances could be extended by using plant-based extracts to control spoilage bacteria. The goals of the present study were to identify plant-based extracts that effectively suppress the main spoilage bacteria of chilled fish and lamb and to assess their antioxidant capacity. The phenolic compounds in wood-based tannins and extracts isolated from byproducts of the fruit processing industry were identified and/or quantified. The total phenol content, but not the flavonoid to total phenol ratio, was strongly associated with higher antibacterial activity against several fish and lamb spoilage bacteria in zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration assays as well as greater antioxidant capacity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay. The most promising compounds in both cases, and thus good candidates for antibacterial packaging or antioxidant dietary supplements, were mango seed extract and tannic acid containing mostly polygalloyl glucose type phenols.

  1. Drying affects artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid, artemisinic acid, and the antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Luthria, Devanand L

    2010-02-10

    There is limited information on how postharvest drying of Artemisia annua affects artemisinin (ART) biosynthesis and A. annua antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants may boost the bioactivity of ART and the crop commercial value. We evaluated the effect of freeze, oven, shade, and sun drying, time of drying, and light intensity on the leaf concentration of ART, dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA), artemisinic acid (AA), and on the leaf antioxidant capacity. Freeze-dried samples had the lowest ART concentrations as compared to the other drying methods. However, the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that freeze- and oven-dried samples had similarly high antioxidant activities, which declined significantly after plants were shade- and sun-dried. Shade drying for 1, 2, and 3 weeks, under ambient or low light, did not change the ART content but significantly decreased the leaf antioxidant activity, mainly if sun-dried. A significant decrease (82% average) in DHAA was observed for all drying procedures as compared to freeze drying, with a simultaneous, significant increase in ART (33% average). The average bioconversion of DHAA to ART was 43% for oven- and shade-dried plants and 94% for sun-dried plants, reiterating the hypothesis that DHAA, not AA, is the main biosynthetic precursor of ART and suggesting that sun drying improves the bioconversion from DHAA to ART. Data also indicate that oven drying for 24 h at 45 degrees C can provide good levels of both ART and antioxidants in leaves. These findings are valuable for the commercial production of ART and of bioactive antioxidants that might synergize with the antimalarial and anticancer effects of ART when combined in traditional preparations to improve human and animal health.

  2. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity in diverse small fruits: vaccinium, rubus, and ribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Richard A; Hummer, Kim E; Finn, Chad E; Frei, Balz; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2002-01-30

    Fruits from 107 genotypes of Vaccinium L., Rubus L., and Ribes L., were analyzed for total anthocyanins (ACY), total phenolics (TPH), and antioxidant capacities as determined by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Fruit size was highly correlated (r = 0.84) with ACY within Vaccinium corymbosum L., but was not correlated to ACY across eight other Vaccinium species, or within 27 blackberry hybrids. Certain Vaccinium and Ribes fruits with pigmented flesh were lower in ACY, TPH, ORAC, and FRAP compared to those values in berries with nonpigmented flesh. ORAC values ranged from 19 to 131 micromol Trolox equivalents/g in Vaccinium, from 13 to 146 in Rubus, and from 17 to 116 in Ribes. Though ACY may indicate TPH, the range observed in ACY/TPH ratios precludes prediction of ACY from TPH and vice versa for a single genotype. In general, TPH was more highly correlated to antioxidant capacity than ACY was. This study demonstrates the wide diversity of phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacities within and across three genera of small fruit.

  3. Uncommonly high levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and antioxidant capacity in the leaf sheaths of dye sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Berghofer, E.; Siebenhandl-Ehn, S.

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from leaf sheaths of farmers varieties of dye sorghum cultivated and used in Benin as a source of biocolorings were analyzed for their anthocyanidin and phenolic contents, as well as their antioxidant capacity. The aim was to identify and quantify the types of anthocyanin and phenolic

  4. Peel and pulp of baru (Dipteryx Alata Vog. provide high fiber, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Lima SANTIAGO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is a native fruit of the Brazilian Savannah that can be used in the food industry and may contribute to the economy of the Brazilian Midwest. The proximate composition, the phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of the peel, pulp and raw and roasted baru almond were examined and compared. Peel showed higher concentrations of dietary fibers (24.1 g/100 g followed by pulp and roasted almond (18 g/100 g and 16 g/100 g, respectively, and raw almond (12.0 g/100 g. However, the almonds presented the highest lipid and protein concentrations compared to baru peel and pulp. In addition, raw almond showed the highest total phenolic contents (1,107.0 mg GAE/100 g and antioxidant capacity, but the roasted almond, and baru peel with its pulp, also presented high phenolic contents. The correlation coefficients between phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (via ABTS and FRAP were strong and significant. The chemical composition of baru peel has not previously been reported. The results showed promising prospects for the consumption of baru pulp with its peel, the fruit component richest in fiber, whose phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are comparable to those of the baru almond.

  5. The Effect of Pasteurization Time on Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Two Apple Cultivars Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile LASLO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize two varieties of apple (Florina and Liberty grown in the North-West of Romania, with a focus on their volatile compounds, bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. The content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity was also tracked during pasteurization at different times (15, 20 and 25 minutes. Among bioactive compounds, the total phenol content was determined, as well as the total flavonoid and vitamin C content. The antioxidant capacity of fruits and pasteurized juice was evaluated by three different methods (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Of the 2 apple cultivars, Florina showed a remarkably higher content of total phenolic compounds (657.97 mg GAE/kg fw, flavonoids (122.07 mg QE/kg fw and vitamin C (94.62 mg/kg, compared to the Liberty cultivar. Following pasteurization, the vitamin C contents decreased significantly relative to pasteurization time. However, in the case of total phenols content, only insignificant decreases were registered, compared to unpasteurized juice. The content of total flavonoids increased significantly after 15 minutes of pasteurization in apple cultivars juices. The apple varieties investigated are rich in bioactive compounds, and pasteurization treatment does not lead to drastic decreases in these compounds and in the antioxidant capacity of apple juices.

  6. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF TOMATOES FERTIGATED WITH DIFFERENT NITROGEN RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS FILGUEIRAS JORGE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds of organic cherry tomatoes grown under fertigation with organic dairy cattle wastewater (DCW with different nitrogen rates. Tomato plants, grown in an agroecological farm in Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were subjected to four different nitrogen rates (T1=0, T2=50, T3=100 and T4=150% of N. The moisture, lipids, ashes, protein and total fiber contents, soluble solids (ºBrix, reducing and total sugars (%, pH and total titratable acidity (mg NaOH per 100 g were evaluated. The total phenolic content (TPC and the antioxidant capacity was determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods. The different nitrogen rates (%N affected the pH, protein and soluble solids contents. The increase in %N increased the antioxidant capacities, according to the DPPH assay, and TPC. On the other hand, the tomatoes under fertigation with the highest %N presented lower antioxidant capacities according to the FRAP assay. The fertigation did not affect the microbiological characteristics of the tomatoes, which presented fecal coliforms count <3 NMP g-1 and absence of Salmonella in 25 g.

  7. Antioxidant capacities of extracts in relation to toasting oak and acacia wood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Híc, P.; Soural, I.; Balík, J.; Kulichová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 129-137 ISSN 1336-8672 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : oak * acacia * toasting wood * barrique extract * antioxidant capacity * weight loss Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2016

  8. A comparison of chemical systems for luminometric determination of antioxidant capacity towards individual reactive oxygen species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komrsková, Daniela; Lojek, Antonín; Hrbáč, J.; Číž, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2006), s. 239-244 ISSN 1522-7235 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/01/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : antioxidant capacity * luminometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.874, year: 2006

  9. In Vitro Antioxidant, Antihemolytic, and Anticancer Activity of the Carotenoids from Halophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jing; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2018-03-01

    Halophilic archaea represent a promising natural source of carotenoids. However, little information is available about the biological effects of carotenoids from halophilic archaea. In this study, the carotenoids produced by seven halophilic archaeal strains Halogeometricum rufum, Halogeometricum limi, Haladaptatus litoreus, Haloplanus vescus, Halopelagius inordinatus, Halogranum rubrum, and Haloferax volcanii were identified by ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The C 50 carotenoids bacterioruberin and its derivatives monoanhydrobacterioruberin and bisanhydrobacterioruberin were found to be the predominant carotenoids. The antioxidant capacities of the carotenoids from these strains were significantly higher than β-carotene as determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The antihemolytic activities of these carotenoid extracts against H 2 O 2 -induced hemolysis in mouse erythrocytes were 3.9-6.3 times higher than β-carotene. A dose-dependent in vitro antiproliferative activity against HepG2 cells was observed for the extract from Hgm. limi, while that from Hpn. vescus exhibited a relatively high activity in a dose-independent manner. These results suggested that halophilic archaea could be considered as an alternative source of natural carotenoids with high antioxidant, antihemolytic, and anticancer activity.

  10. Nanoencapsulation of dietary flavonoid fisetin: Formulation and in vitro antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Mario; Syed, Deeba N; Pala, Nicolino; Mariani, Alberto; Marceddu, Salvatore; Brunetti, Antonio; Mukhtar, Hasan; Sanna, Vanna

    2016-11-01

    The bioactive flavonoid fisetin (FS) is a diet-derived antioxidant that is being increasingly investigated for its health-promoting effects. Unfortunately, the poor physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties affect and limit the clinical application. In this study, novel polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), based on Poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PLGA-PEG-COOH, encapsulating FS were formulated as suitable oral controlled release systems. Results showed NPs having a mean diameter of 140-200nm, and a percent loading of FS ranging from 70 to 82%. In vitro release studies revealed that NPs are able to protect and preserve the release of FS in gastric simulated conditions, also controlling the release in the intestinal medium. Moreover, the DPPH and ABTS scavenging capacity of FS, as well as α-glucosidase inhibition activity, that resulted about 20-fold higher than commercial Acarbose, were retained during nanoencapsulation process. In summary, our developed NPs can be proposed as an attractive delivery system to control the release of antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic FS for nutraceutical and/or therapeutic application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Crude Aloe vera Gel Shows Antioxidant Propensities and Inhibits Pancreatic Lipase and Glucose Movement In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taukoorah, Urmeela; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera gel (AVG) is traditionally used in the management of diabetes, obesity, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of AVG against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten (K m) and Lineweaver-Burk equations were used to establish the type of inhibition. The antioxidant capacity of AVG was evaluated for its ferric reducing power, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging ability, nitric oxide scavenging power, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The glucose entrapment ability, antimicrobial activity, and total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and anthocyanin content were also determined. AVG showed a significantly higher percentage inhibition (85.56 ± 0.91) of pancreatic lipase compared to Orlistat. AVG was found to increase the Michaelis-Menten constant and decreased the maximal velocity (V max) of lipase, indicating mixed inhibition. AVG considerably inhibits glucose movement across dialysis tubes and was comparable to Arabic gum. AVG was ineffective against the tested microorganisms. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 66.06 ± 1.14 (GAE)/mg and 60.95 ± 0.97 (RE)/mg, respectively. AVG also showed interesting antioxidant properties. The biological activity observed in this study tends to validate some of the traditional claims of AVG as a functional food. PMID:26880905

  12. Accumulation of phenolic compounds in in vitro cultures and wild plants of Lavandula viridis L'Hér and their antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Romano, Anabela

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the phenolic profile, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase potential of different extracts from wild plants and in vitro cultures of Lavandula viridis L'Hér. The HPLC-DAD analysis allowed the identification and quantification of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids, and luteolin and pinocembrin. Water/ethanol extract from in vitro cultures contained the highest amount of the identified phenolic compounds (51652.92 mg/kg). To investigate the antioxidant activity we used Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, Fe(2+) chelation activity and the inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates (in vitro). Overall, all the extracts from both wild plants and in vitro cultures exhibited ability to scavenge free radicals, to chelate Fe(2+) and to protect against lipid peroxidation. In addition, the extracts from L. viridis were active in inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (Ellman's method). Our findings suggest that L. viridis in vitro cultures represent a promising alternative for the production of active metabolites with antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of scutellarin against hypoxic-ischemic-induced cerebral injury via augmentation of antioxidant defense capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Hu, Li-Min; Wang, Shao-Xia; Wang, Yu-Lin; Shi, Fang; Li, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Li-Yuan; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2011-12-31

    An increasing number of studies has indicated that hypoxic-ischemic-induced cerebral injury is partly mediated via oxidative stress. Recent researches have focused on searching for drug and herbal manipulations to protect against hypoxic-ischemic-induced oxidative cell damage. Scutellarin is a flavonoid derived from the Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) and has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, its precise mechanism, particularly its antioxidation mechanism, remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of scutellarin on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain damage in rats, and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced toxicity in primary culture of rat cortical neurons. In vivo, intraperitoneal injections of scutellarin (20 and 60 mg/kg) improved the neurological score and diminished the percentage of brain infarct volume. At the same time, scutellarin significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) level in ischemic brain tissues, enhancing endogenous antioxidant activity. Moreover, pretreatment of scutellarin (25, 50 and 100 μM) protected neurons against lethal stimuli, decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in OGD-induced primary cortical neurons in vitro. These results suggest that the preventive and therapeutic potential of scutellarin in cerebral injury patients is, at least in part, ascribed to augmentation of cellular antioxidant defense capacity.

  14. Evaluation of total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of different verity lupin seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Sulaiman Dalaram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes, including lupins, beans, lentil and chickpea, are one of the most important crops in the world because of their nutritional quality. Lupin seeds have been used as human food and animal feed since ancient times. It was known that antioxidant photochemical in foods have many health benefits including prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuro-degeneration and diabetes. Lupin grains are rich sources of complex carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals. Antioxidants can be found naturally in foods. Total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity were measured in four varieties of lupin, namely in white lupin, blue lupin, yellow lupin and Mutabilis lupin species. A majority of antioxidants naturally present in foods occur in phenolic structures and especially in flavonoid structures. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured by using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. In the present experiment according to the average contents of total polyphenols (TPC in dry matter of lupin seeds there was the following line: L. Angustifolius (blue lupin (696.212 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Albus (white lupin (614.13 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Luteus (yellow lupin (467.78 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Mutabilis (pearl lupin (367.36 mg GAE.100g-1. Based on the measured values of total antioxidant capacity (TAC of lupin samples can be classified as follows: L. Albus (white lupin (43.44% >L. Angustifolius (blue lupin (38.27% >L. Luteus (yellow lupin (22.29% >L. Mutabilis (Pearl lupin (20.80%. The relationship of antioxidant capacity with total polyphenolic was discussed. According to used statistical analyzes. Correlation between the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity was significantly positive (r = 0.88. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition

  15. In vitro antioxidant assay of selected aqueous plant extracts and their polyherbal formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga Raju M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To support the use of selected plant extracts in Ayurveda, naturopathy, the antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vincarosea (VR, Gymnemasylvestre (GS, Tinosporacordifolia (TC and Emblicaofficinalis (EO and their mixture (PHF of Indian origin was investigated for in vitro antioxidant activity by using in vitro models like superoxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxide inhibition assay. The results were compared with standard (ascorbic acid, a known antioxidant. The various phytoconstituents identified in the above selected plants extracts were poly phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids. The terpenoids were reported to protect lipids, blood and body fluids against the attack of free radicals, some types of reactive oxygen, hydroxylic groups, peroxides and superoxide radicals. The presence of these phytoconstituents in selected plants might be responsible for antioxidant activity with that of known antioxidant ascorbic acid.

  16. In vitro growth, phytochemical content, and antioxidant activity of gamma irradiated Tacca (Tacca leontopetaloides) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betalini Widhi Hapsari; Andri Fadillah Martin; Tri Muji Ermayanti

    2016-01-01

    Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze is tuberous plant belongs to family Taccaceae. Tacca plant has a potential as the source of natural antioxidant. Radiation with Gamma radiation done either by in vitro or ex vitro plants is often used to increase chemical content of plants including antioxidant. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and phytochemical content and as well as the antioxidant activity of gamma irradiated tacca plant. Phytochemical analysis was done to detect alkaloids, flavonoids, steroid, tannin and saponin compounds, meanwhile, antioxidant activity was carried by DPPH analysis. The results showed that gamma irradiated tacca plant had lower growth compared to the control. Phytochemical analysis showed that tacca plant contains an alkaloid, flavonoid, and steroid. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from tacca clone number 30 Gy 3.1.3.1 with an IC_5_0 value of 50.85 μg/mL. (author)

  17. Combined HPLC-CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay of parsley, celery leaves, and nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Leyla; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2008-10-19

    This study aims to identify the essential antioxidant compounds present in parsley (Petroselinum sativum) and celery (Apium graveolens) leaves belonging to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, and in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) belonging to Urticaceae family, to measure the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of these compounds with CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) and ABTS spectrophotometric methods, and to correlate the TAC with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) findings. The CUPRAC spectrophotometric method of TAC assay using copper(II)-neocuproine (2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) as the chromogenic oxidant was developed in our laboratories. The individual antioxidant constituents of plant extracts were identified and quantified by HPLC on a C18 column using a modified mobile phase of gradient elution comprised of MeOH-0.2% o-phosphoric acid and UV detection for polyphenols at 280 nm. The TAC values of HPLC-quantified antioxidant constituents were found, and compared for the first time with those found by CUPRAC. The TAC of HPLC-quantified compounds accounted for a relatively high percentage of the observed CUPRAC capacities of plant extracts, namely 81% of nettle, 60-77% of parsley (in different hydrolyzates of extract and solid sample), and 41-57% of celery leaves (in different hydrolyzates). The CUPRAC total capacities of the 70% MeOH extracts of studied plants (in the units of mmol trolox g(-1)plant) were in the order: celery leaves>nettle>parsley. The TAC calculated with the aid of HPLC-spectrophotometry did not compensate for 100% of the CUPRAC total capacities, because all flavonoid glycosides subjected to hydrolysis were either not detectable with HPLC, or not converted to the corresponding aglycons (i.e., easily detectable and quantifiable with HPLC) during the hydrolysis step.

  18. Supplementation of xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Yun; Xie, Qing-Mei; Ma, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Xiang-Bin; Zhu, Ji-Mei; Shu, Ding-Ming; Sun, Bao-Li; Jin, Ling; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2013-03-28

    The present study investigated the effects of xanthophyll supplementation on production performance, antioxidant capacity (measured by glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and reduced glutathione:oxidised glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG)) and lipid peroxidation (measured by malondialdehyde (MDA)) in breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, 432 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Blood samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d of the trial. Liver and jejunal mucosa were sampled at 35 d. Both xanthophyll groups improved serum SOD at 21 and 28 d, serum T-AOC at 21 d and liver T-AOC, and serum GSH:GSSG at 21, 28 and 35 d and liver GSH:GSSG. Xanthophylls also decreased serum MDA at 21 d in hens. Expt 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg in ovo xanthophyll/kg diet of hens were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Liver samples were collected at 0, 7, 14 and 21 d after hatching. Blood samples were also collected at 21 d. In ovo-deposited xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver mainly within 1 week after hatching. Maternal effects gradually vanished during 1-2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver and serum mainly from 2 weeks onwards. Data suggested that xanthophyll supplementation enhanced antioxidant capacity and reduced lipid peroxidation in different tissues of hens and chicks.

  19. Total phenolic content and in-vitro antioxidant activities from methanolic extract of alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanaye, S.V.; Pise, N.M.; Pawar, A.P.; Parab, P.P.; Sreepada, R.A.; Pawar, H.B.; Murugan, A.

    -vitro antioxidant activities in terms of reducing power (RP), metal chelating activity (MCA), 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPX) and hydroxyl radical...

  20. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V.; Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Dang, Trung Thanh; Nguyen, Van Tang; Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Bowyer, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf. PMID:26785074

  1. The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables significantly reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease. This beneficial effect on the human organism is ascribed to the antioxidant compounds these foods contain. Unfortunately, many products, particularly vegetables, need to be subjected to thermal processing before consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of such thermal treatment on the antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated fractions of violet pigments (betacyanins) and yellow pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins). Fractions of violet and yellow pigments were obtained by separation of betalain pigments from fresh roots of 3 red beet cultivars using column chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE). The betalain pigment content was determined in all samples before and after thermal treatment (90°C/30 min) by spectrophotometry, according to Nilsson's method [1970] and antioxidant capacity was assessed based on ABTS. Betalain pigments in the separated fractions were identified using HPLC-MS. After thermal treatment of betacyanin fractions a slight, but statistically significant degradation of pigments was observed, while the antioxidant capacity of these fractions did not change markedly. Losses of betacyanin content amounted to 13-15% depending on the cultivar, while losses of antioxidant capacity were approx. 7%. HPLC/MS analyses showed that before heating, betanin was the dominant pigment in the betacyanin fraction, while after heating it was additionally 15-decarboxy-betanin. Isolated fractions of yellow pigments in red beets are three times less heat-resistant than betacyanin fractions. At losses of yellow pigment contents in the course of thermal treatment reaching 47%, antioxidant capacity did not change markedly (a decrease by approx. 5%). In the yellow pigment fractions neobetanin was the dominant peak in the HPLC chromatogram, while vulgaxanthin was found in a much smaller area, whereas after heating

  2. An Investigation of the Antioxidant Capacity in Extracts from Moringa oleifera Plants Grown in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Racquel J.; Lee, Ken S.; Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Hibbert, Jacqueline M.; Reid, Marvin E.; Wheatley, Andrew O.

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera trees grow well in Jamaica and their parts are popularly used locally for various purposes and ailments. Antioxidant activities in Moringa oleifera samples from different parts of the world have different ranges. This study was initiated to determine the antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera grown in Jamaica. Dried and milled Moringa oleifera leaves were extracted with ethanol/water (4:1) followed by a series of liquid–liquid extractions. The antioxidant capacities of all fractions were tested using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. IC50 values (the amount of antioxidant needed to reduce 50% of DPPH) were then determined and values for the extracts ranged from 177 to 4458 μg/mL. Extracts prepared using polar solvents had significantly higher antioxidant capacities than others and may have clinical applications in any disease characterized by a chronic state of oxidative stress, such as sickle cell anemia. Further work will involve the assessment of these extracts in a sickle cell model of oxidative stress. PMID:29065510

  3. Development and Validation of a Kit to Measure Drink Antioxidant Capacity Using a Novel Colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Alexandros; Stagos, Dimitrios; Tzioumakis, Nikolaos; Konstantinopoulos, Konstantinos; Patouna, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Georgios E; Tsatsakis, Aristides; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2016-08-30

    Measuring the antioxidant capacity of foods is essential, as a means of quality control to ensure that the final product reaching the consumer will be of high standards. Despite the already existing assays with which the antioxidant activity is estimated, new, faster and low cost methods are always sought. Therefore, we have developed a novel colorimeter and combined it with a slightly modified DPPH assay, thus creating a kit that can assess the antioxidant capacity of liquids (e.g., different types of coffee, beer, wine, juices) in a quite fast and low cost manner. The accuracy of the colorimeter was ensured by comparing it to a fully validated Hitachi U-1900 spectrophotometer, and a coefficient was calculated to eliminate the observed differences. In addition, a new, user friendly software was developed, in order to render the procedure as easy as possible, while allowing a central monitoring of the obtained results. Overall, a novel kit was developed, with which the antioxidant activity of liquids can be measured, firstly to ensure their quality and secondly to assess the amount of antioxidants consumed with the respective food.

  4. Development and Validation of a Kit to Measure Drink Antioxidant Capacity Using a Novel Colorimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Priftis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the antioxidant capacity of foods is essential, as a means of quality control to ensure that the final product reaching the consumer will be of high standards. Despite the already existing assays with which the antioxidant activity is estimated, new, faster and low cost methods are always sought. Therefore, we have developed a novel colorimeter and combined it with a slightly modified DPPH assay, thus creating a kit that can assess the antioxidant capacity of liquids (e.g., different types of coffee, beer, wine, juices in a quite fast and low cost manner. The accuracy of the colorimeter was ensured by comparing it to a fully validated Hitachi U-1900 spectrophotometer, and a coefficient was calculated to eliminate the observed differences. In addition, a new, user friendly software was developed, in order to render the procedure as easy as possible, while allowing a central monitoring of the obtained results. Overall, a novel kit was developed, with which the antioxidant activity of liquids can be measured, firstly to ensure their quality and secondly to assess the amount of antioxidants consumed with the respective food.

  5. A theoretical assessment of antioxidant capacity of flavonoids by means of local hyper–softness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sandoval-Yañez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical reactivity descriptor to estimate local reactivity on molecules was tested to assess the antioxidant capability of some flavonoids. It was validated by comparison with experimental precedents published already by Firuzi et al. (2005. The aforementioned reactivity index is called local hyper-softness (LHS. This parameter was applied on HO- substituent groups on the same set of flavonoids within each subclassification: flavones (apigenin and baicalein, flavonols (fisetin, galangin, 3–OH flavone, kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin, flavanones (hesperetin, naringenin, taxifolin and isoflavones (daidzein and genistein. Experimental values of both techniques, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and anodic oxidation potential (Eap were retrieved from Firuzi et al. (2005 with the purpose of validating the calculated LHS values. Excepting myricetin, the LHS values of all these compounds matched in a similar order relationship experimentally obtained by means of Eap and FRAP from Firuzi et al. (2005. Our results revealed that LHS is a suitable theoretical parameter to get an insight concerning to the antioxidant capacity of these compounds, in particular, LHS allows explaining experimentally obtained values of FRAP along with Eap values in terms of reactivity of HO- substituent groups belonging these molecules theoretically computed without including experimental parametes. Keywords: Flavonoids, Antioxidant capacity, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, Anodic oxidation potential, Local hypersoftness

  6. An Investigation of the Antioxidant Capacity in Extracts from Moringa oleifera Plants Grown in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Racquel J; Lee, Ken S; Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Hibbert, Jacqueline M; Reid, Marvin E; Wheatley, Andrew O; Asemota, Helen N

    2017-10-23

    Moringa oleifera trees grow well in Jamaica and their parts are popularly used locally for various purposes and ailments. Antioxidant activities in Moringa oleifera samples from different parts of the world have different ranges. This study was initiated to determine the antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera grown in Jamaica. Dried and milled Moringa oleifera leaves were extracted with ethanol/water (4:1) followed by a series of liquid-liquid extractions. The antioxidant capacities of all fractions were tested using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. IC 50 values (the amount of antioxidant needed to reduce 50% of DPPH) were then determined and values for the extracts ranged from 177 to 4458 μg/mL. Extracts prepared using polar solvents had significantly higher antioxidant capacities than others and may have clinical applications in any disease characterized by a chronic state of oxidative stress, such as sickle cell anemia. Further work will involve the assessment of these extracts in a sickle cell model of oxidative stress.

  7. Antioxidant and Nitrite-Scavenging Capacities of Phenolic Compounds from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Tops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant.

  8. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the results were compared to the reference BHT (butyl hydroxy toluene). In the three earlier mentioned assays, the essential oil demonstrated a potential antioxidant which may be considered as potent agent in food preservation and drug discovery. Key words: Thymelaea hirsuta, essential oil, antioxidant activities.

  9. [Change of blood antioxidant capacity of experimental animals during nutritional correction under oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basov, A A; Bykov, I M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of nutritional correction (a diet high in foods with antioxidant content) on blood parameters in laboratory animals with metabolic disorders associated with oxidative stress has been studied. In experimental models of laboratory animals (male rabbits weighing 3.5-4.0 kg, n = 40) with purulent septic diseases it has been demonstrated that the use of nutritive correction (replacement of 100 g of the cereal mixture through day on a mixture of cabbage 50 g, carrots 50 g, beet 25 g, apple 25 g, kiwi 10 g and garnet 10 g per 1 rabbit) is not inferior to its efficiency of glutathione use (2 g per day). The use of these antioxidants in laboratory animals significantly reduced the phenomenon of oxidative stress on the 5th day: blood antioxidant capacity significantly increased by 14.9 and 26.6%, and the area of the flash of luminol-dependent H2O2-induced chemiluminescence of blood plasma reduced by 44.2 and 48.6% in the experimental groups receiving respectively nutritive correction and glutathione. The low-molecula level of blood antioxidant capacity was restored and the balance of the activity of superoxide dismutase (decrease) and catalase (increase) was achieved on the 10th day of the experiment. These figures significantly (p < 0.05) differed from than in the group of animals receiving no antioxidant correction. The latter studied parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant system reached values comparable with those in intact animals (n = 10) only on the 30th day, confirming the advisability of appointing a complex antioxidant therapy.

  10. Content of insoluble bound phenolics in millets and their contribution to antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2010-06-09

    Soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts of several varieties of millet (kodo, finger, foxtail, proso, pearl, and little millets) whole grains were evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidative efficacy using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), reducing power (RP), and beta-carotene-linoleate model system as well as ferrous chelating activity. In addition, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were present in soluble and bound phenolic fractions of millets, and their contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). Kodo millet had the highest total phenolic content, whereas proso millet possessed the least. All millet varieties showed high antioxidant activities, although the order of their efficacy was assay dependent. HPLC analysis of millet phenolic extracts demonstrated that the bound fractions contained more ferulic and p-coumaric acids compared to their soluble counterparts. The results of this study showed that soluble as well as bound fractions of millet grains are rich sources of phenolic compounds with antioxidant, metal chelating, and reducing power. The potential of whole millets as natural sources of antioxidants depends on the variety used. The importance of the insoluble bound fraction of millet as a source of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid was established, and their contribution to the total phenolic content must be taken into account in the assessment of the antioxidant activity of millets.

  11. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  12. Effect of Iranian Propolis on Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity in Gamma-irradiated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aghel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of propolis were studied. Since saliva contains antioxidants and radiotherapy of the head and neck mainly affects the saliva, salivary antioxidant defensive mechanism is compromised with oxidative stress produced by radiation therapy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of propolis on salivary total antioxidant capacity in irradiated rats. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on 28 rats, 7‒11 weeks of age (160±20 g, divided into four groups: saline with no radiation (S, saline and radiation (SR, propolis with no radiation (P [400 mg/kg IP], propolis and radiation (PR [400 mg/kg IP]. SP and PR were exposed to 15 Gy of gamma irradiation for 7 minutes and 39 seconds. The rats received intraperitoneal injections each day for 10 days, and their tongues and lips were daily examined for mucositis; saliva sample were also taken three times on days 0, 6, and 10. Results. Mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the PR compared to the SR, and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the PR. No significant alterations were observed in salivary antioxidant levels during the experiment, except the SR group in which a significant reduction was found. Conclusion. Propolis might reduce and delay radiation-induced mucositis in animal models; it might be able to prevent the reduction in salivary antioxidant levels in irradiated rats as well.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  14. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity.

  15. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality.

  16. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gawron-Skarbek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax. Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37±0.28 versus 1.27±0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P<0.05 but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA. Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations.

  17. Development of a new free radical absorption capacity assay method for antioxidants: aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Nagai, Kanae; Fujii, Yuko; Ouchi, Aya; Mukai, Kazuo

    2013-10-23

    A new free radical absorption capacity assay method is proposed with use of an aroxyl radical (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)phenoxyl radical) and stopped-flow spectroscopy and is named the aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC) assay method. The free radical absorption capacity (ARAC value) of each tocopherol was determined through measurement of the radical-scavenging rate constant in ethanol. The ARAC value could also be evaluated through measurement of the half-life of the aroxyl radical during the scavenging reaction. For the estimation of the free radical absorption capacity, the aroxyl radical was more suitable than the DPPH radical, galvinoxyl, and p-nitrophenyl nitronyl nitroxide. The ARAC value in tocopherols showed the same tendency as the free radical absorption capacities reported previously, and the tendency was independent of an oxygen radical participating in the scavenging reaction and of a medium surrounding the tocopherol and oxygen radical. The ARAC value can be directly connected to the free radical-scavenging rate constant, and the ARAC method has the advantage of treating a stable and isolable radical (aroxyl radical) in a user-friendly organic solvent (ethanol). The ARAC method was also successfully applied to a palm oil extract. Accordingly, the ARAC method would be useful in free radical absorption capacity assay of antioxidative reagents and foods.

  18. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD) aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax). Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37 ± 0.28 versus 1.27 ± 0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P < 0.05) but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA). Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass) and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations. PMID:26451234

  19. Quality Evaluation of the Traditional Medicine Majun Mupakhi ELA via Chromatographic Fingerprinting Coupled with UHPLC-DAD-Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS and the Antioxidant Activity In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheman, Ayinuer; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ma, Qing Ling; Nijat, Dilaram; Abdulla, Rahima

    2018-01-01

    By merging a high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method with high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), an assay was developed for chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of traditional medicine Majun Mupakhi ELA (MME), and constituent compounds were identified using HPLC coupled with UHPLC-DAD-Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS method. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of MME was assessed based on the ability of components to scavenge radicals using in vitro method. Using a HPLC-DAD method with HPTLC easily validated the chemical fingerprinting results and quantified three characteristic components, namely, gallic acid (1), daidzein (2), and icariin (3), in commercial MMEs. The three compounds presented excellent regression values ( R 2 = 0.9999) in the ranges of the test and the method recovery was in the range from 100.49% to 100.68%. The fingerprints had 27 common characteristic peaks, of which 13 were verified by rapid UHPLC-DAD-Q-Orbitrap-MS analysis. In vitro antioxidant assays rapidly assessed and contrasted antioxidant activity or the free radical scavenging activity of the main polyphenolic classes in MMEs, and the antioxidant capacity was mostly affected by the presence of gallic acid. Thus, this study establishes a powerful and meaningful approach for MME quality control and for assessing in vitro antioxidant activity.

  20. Relationship between vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity in elderly adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda Arredondo, Myriam Lucia; Pinilla Betancourt, Magda Catalina; Borrero Yoshida, Martha Lucia; Castro Herrera, Vivian Maritza; García Vega, Ángela Sofía; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Juanita Carolina; Sequeda, Gonzalo; Diez, Ofelia; Lucci, Paolo; Salcedo-Reyes, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The consumption of foods high in natural antioxidants, like fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasma antioxidant capacity in adults over fifty and their intake of vitamin A, C, and E. We evaluated 118 24-hour recalls of intake of foods. The intake of vitamin A, C, and E was quantified using food composition tables. We quantified plasma phenols using the Folin...

  1. Impact of reactive oxygen species on antioxidant capacity of male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Mahmood, Zahed; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, M Usman Qamar; Tahir, Imtiaz Mahmood; Shah, Sm Ali; Munir, Naveed; El-Ghorab, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    The present research work was aimed to study the mutual interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and basal cells antioxidant capacity in the male reproductive system and to further establish the association between selected heavy metals and stress markers. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) of serum and seminal plasma were determined by automated photometric methods. The concentrations of Selenium (Se), Lead (Pb), and Cadmium (Cd) were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The TOS was increased significantly (P male infertility. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of polyphenol rich fruit juices using disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes: towards a rapid sensor for antioxidant capacity and individual antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaba, Jordi Giné; Terry, Leon A

    2012-02-15

    The analysis of antioxidants in different foodstuffs and especially fruits has become an active area of research which has lead to numerous antioxidant-assays being recently developed. Many antioxidants exhibit inherent electroactivity, and hence employing electrochemical methods could be a viable approach for evaluating the overall antioxidant capacity of a fresh produce matrix without the need for added reactive species. This work shows the possibility of using square wave voltammetry (SWV) and other electrochemical methods with disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes, to quantify and assess antioxidant activity and abundance of specific antioxidants, mainly polyphenols in selected soft fruit juices. Freshly squeezed black currant and strawberry juices of different cultivars and maturity stages were chosen according to known differences in their antioxidant profile. As a result of the increasing applied potential (0-1000 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) the electroactive compounds present in the juices were oxidised leading to a characteristic voltammetric profile for each of the samples analysed. Generally, black currant juices had greater oxidation peaks at lower potentials (<400 mV) which were indicators of higher antioxidant capacities. The relationship between sensor cumulative responses at different applied potentials and total or individual antioxidants, as determined by conventional spectrophotometric methods (FRAP, Folin-Ciocalteu) and HPLC (individual anthocyanins and ascorbate), respectively, are discussed in the context of the development of a rapid sensor for antioxidants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of Some Medicinal Plants in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Free radicals are highly reactive molecules may cause great damage to cell membranes and DNA and Result in inducing oxidation DNA mutations leading to cancer, degenerative, and other diseases. Plant antioxidant derived may be preventive of free radical damages. Methods & Materials: The Stems and flower sample of plants air-dried, finely ground and were extracted by ethanol: water (70:30 for 48 h. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum. The antioxidant activity of five ethanolic extract of medicinal plants (Descurainia Sophia, Plantago major, Trachyspermum copticum L, Coriandrum sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum from Iran were analysed by five different methods [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,2,azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power (RP]. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components total phenolic content was also analyzed. Results: The total phenolic content of medicinal plant ranges from 74 to 154.3 mg Gallic acid/g extract as measured by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. Values of DPPH varied from 15.5 to 19.6 µmol trolex/g. FRAP ranged from 124.2 to 753 µmol of Fe(II/g extract. Antioxidant activity of the Plantago major was always higher compared to the other plants extracts values of total phenols content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, (154.33 mg GAE/g, 1856 µmol trolox, 750 µmol trolox and 1169 µmol of Fe(II/g, extract respectively. The range of total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method was 513.3 to 870 µmol trolox/g. The reducing ability of the tested extracts was between 0.31-1.26. Plantago majorwas also highest activity in both tests. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrated that Plantago major crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  4. An in vitro model to test relative antioxidant potential: Ultraviolet-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelle, E.; Maes, D.; Padulo, G.A.; Kim, E.K.; Smith, W.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since antioxidants have been shown to play a major role in preventing some of the effects of aging and photoaging in skin, it is important to study this phenomenon in a controlled manner. This was accomplished by developing a simple and reliable in vitro technique to assay antioxidant efficacy. Inhibition of peroxidation by antioxidants was used as a measure of relative antioxidant potential. Liposomes, high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were dispersed in buffer and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Irradiated liposomes exhibited a significantly higher amount of hydroperoxides than liposomes containing antioxidants in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. Lipid peroxidation was determined spectrophotometrically by an increase in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. To further substantiate the production of lipid peroxides, gas chromatography was used to measure a decrease in PUFA substrate. In order of decreasing antioxidant effectiveness, the following results were found among lipophilic antioxidants: BHA greater than catechin greater than BHT greater than alpha-tocopherol greater than chlorogenic acid. Among hydrophilic antioxidants, ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol were effective while glutathione was ineffective. In addition, ascorbic acid was observed to act synergistically with alpha-tocopherol, which is in agreement with other published reports on the interaction of these two antioxidants. Although peroxyl radical scavengers seem to be at a selective advantage in this liposomal/UV system, these results demonstrate the validity of this technique as an assay for measuring an antioxidant's potential to inhibit UV-induced peroxidation

  5. Antioxidant Capacity Comparison of Ethanolic Extract of Soursop (Annona muricata Linn. Leaves and Seeds as Cancer Prevention Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widyastuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata Linn. (soursop is one of  tropical plants which have relatively complete chemical compounds. It has flavonoid, tannin, phytosterol, alkaloid, etc. The high antioxidant compound in soursop is believed as cancer prevention so the cancer threat in the world can be minimized. The antioxidant compound in soursop can be found not only in its fruit, but also in other parts like leaves, seeds, etc. Based on that potency, this study aimed to compare antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds, also to study about the utilization of soursop parts which is usually not used. This research began with maceration to extract leaves and seeds with 96% ethanol. Ethanolic extract of soursop leaves and seeds were then tested for antioxidant capacity with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The result showed that antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds are 85,66875% and 39,0166, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of leaves is higher than seeds due to seed’s extraction difficulty so its antioxidant compound could not be extracted optimally. However, either leaves or seeds extract in this study are potential as antioxidant resources because there are no significant differences between antioxidant capacity of both extract.

  6. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and antiproliferative potential of 10 common edible flowers from China assessed using a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis process combined with cellular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weisu; Mao, Shuqin; Zhang, Liuquan; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Zhou, Fei; Zhao, Yajing; Li, Maiquan

    2017-11-01

    Phenolic compounds could be sensitive to digestive conditions, thus a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis process and cellular assays was used to determine phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials of 10 common edible flowers from China and their functional components. Gallic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin were widely present in these flowers, which demonstrated various antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CAA values) and antiproliferative potentials measured by the MTT method. Rosa rugosa, Paeonia suffruticosa and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited the best antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials against HepG2, A549 and SGC-7901 cell lines, except that Osmanthus fragrans was not the best against SGC-7901 cells. The in vitro digestion-dialysis process decreased the antioxidant potential by 33.95-90.72% and the antiproliferative potential by 13.22-87.15%. Following the in vitro digestion-dialysis process, phenolics were probably responsible for antioxidant (R 2 = 0.794-0.924, P digestion and dialysis along with the reduction of phenolics. Nevertheless, they still had considerable antioxidant and antiproliferative potential, which merited further investigation in in vivo studies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a "living fossil" species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae, which is well known as a “living fossil” species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  9. Cellular antioxidant effects of atorvastatin in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Sven; Laufs, Ulrich; Müller, Kirsten; Konkol, Christian; Ahlbory, Katja; Bäumer, Anselm T; Linz, Wolfgang; Böhm, Michael; Nickenig, Georg

    2002-02-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) may exert direct effects on vascular cells and beneficially influence endothelial dysfunction. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to vascular damage and dysfunction, we investigated the effect of atorvastatin on ROS production and the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells were incubated with 10 micromol/L atorvastatin. Angiotensin II-induced and epidermal growth factor-induced ROS production were significantly reduced by atorvastatin (dichlorofluorescein fluorescence laser microscopy). Atorvastatin downregulated mRNA expression of the NAD(P)H oxidase subunit nox1, whereas p22phox mRNA expression was not significantly altered (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Northern analysis). Membrane translocation of rac1 GTPase, which is required for the activation of NAD(P)H oxidase, was inhibited by atorvastatin (Western blot). mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase isoforms and glutathione peroxidase was not modified by atorvastatin, whereas catalase expression was upregulated at mRNA and protein levels, resulting in an increased enzymatic activity. Effects of atorvastatin on ROS production and nox1, rac1, and catalase expression were inhibited by L-mevalonate but not by 25-hydroxycholesterol. In addition, spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with atorvastatin for 30 days. ROS production in aortic segments was significantly reduced in statin-treated rats (lucigenin chemiluminescence). Treatment with atorvastatin reduced vascular mRNA expression of p22phox and nox1 and increased aortic catalase expression. mRNA expression of superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase, and NAD(P)H oxidase subunits gp91phox, p40phox, p47phox, and p67phox remained unchanged. Translocation of rac1 from the cytosol to the cell membrane was also reduced in vivo. Thus, atorvastatin exerts cellular antioxidant effects in cultured rat

  10. Interspecific variation in anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity among genotypes of highbush and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium section cyanococcus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalt, W; Ryan, D A; Duy, J C; Prior, R L; Ehlenfeldt, M K; Vander Kloet, S P

    2001-10-01

    Recent interest in the possible protective effects of dietary antioxidant compounds against human degenerative disease has prompted investigation of foods such as blueberries (Vaccinium sp.), which have a high antioxidant capacity. Fruit obtained from genotypes of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) were analyzed for their antioxidant capacity, their content of anthocyanins, and total phenolic compounds, to evaluate the intraspecific and interspecific variation in these parameters. The method of extraction influenced the composition of fruit extracts; the highest anthocyanin and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity were found in extracts obtained using a solvent of acidified aqueous methanol. Regardless of the method, lowbush blueberries were consistently higher in anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity, compared with highbush blueberries. There was no relationship between fruit size and anthocyanin content in either species.

  11. Antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of Myrciaria floribunda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS A.C. TIETBOHL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd. O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell. Antioxidant activity was determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC assays and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Ethyl acetate extract of M. floribunda exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI between 69.70 and 172.10 µg/mL. For HaCat cell, TGI value was 213.60 µg/mL. M. floribunda showed a strong antioxidant potential: EC50 of 45.89±0.42 µg/mL and 0.55±0.05 mmol TE/g for DPPH and ORAC, respectively. Total phenolic content was 0.23±0.013g gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g extract and exhibited 13.10±1.60% of tannins content. The content of flavonoid was 24.08±0.44% expressed as rutin equivalents. These results provide a direction for further researches about the antitumoral potential of M. floribunda.

  12. In vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plant were tested for cytotoxicity against four cancer cells, viz, MCF-7 (oestrogen ... Results: The methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH, half maximal inhibitory .... Total flavonoid content was determined using the.

  13. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Department of ... Summary: Various methods employed in evaluating antioxidant activities of various samples ... Assay methods were subjected to regression analysis and their correlation coefficients calculated. ... human diet (Gonzalez et al., 2011), first identified as.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bark extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-01

    Jul 1, 2011 ... Key words: Bauhinia purpurea, phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant property. INTRODUCTION. The use of ..... Supplement to glossary of ... Turkish flora Bektas Tepe and Atalay Sokmen, (2): 22-25. Cao G ...

  15. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and mineral extractability of Sudanese date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Rania M A; Fageer, Aisha S M; Eltayeb, Mohamed M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical composition, mineral extractability, and antioxidant capacity of six date palm varieties grown in Sudan. The results showed that Sudanese date varieties contained significantly different (P varieties contained significantly varied (P varieties were as follows: ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was within the range of 2.82–27.5 mmol/100 g, chelation of Fe2+ ion ranged from 54.31% to 94.98%, and scavenging of H2O2 ranged from 38.48% to 49.13%. There were many correlations (positive, negative, and weak) between antioxidant and mineral extractability of Sudanese date fruits. PMID:25473506

  16. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  17. Camel milk protein hydrolysates with improved technofunctional properties and enhanced antioxidant potential in in vitro and in food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamsi, Kholoud Awad; Mudgil, Priti; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPH) were generated using proteolytic enzymes, such as alcalase, bromelain, and papain, to explore the effect on the technofunctional properties and antioxidant potential under in vitro and in real food model systems. Characterization of the CMPH via degree of hydrolysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and HPLC revealed that different proteins in camel milk underwent degradation at different degrees after enzymatic hydrolysis using 3 different enzymes for 2, 4, and 6 h, with papain displaying the highest degradation. Technofunctional properties, such as emulsifying activity index, surface hydrophobicity, and protein solubility, were higher in CMPH than unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. However, the water and fat absorption capacity were lower in CMPH compared with unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. Antioxidant properties as assessed by 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and metal-chelating activity were enhanced after hydrolysis, in contrast to ferric-reducing antioxidant power which showed a decrease after hydrolysis. The CMPH were also tested in real food model systems for their potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in fish mince and grape seed oil-in-water emulsion, and we found that papain-produced hydrolysate displayed higher inhibition than alcalase- and bromelain-produced hydrolysates. Therefore, the CMPH demonstrated effective antioxidant potential in vitro as well as in real food systems and showed enhanced functional properties, which guarantees their potential applications in functional foods. The present study is one of few reports available on CMPH being explored in vitro as well as in real food model systems. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal Difference in Antioxidant Capacity and Active Compounds Contents of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (EU is a Traditional Chinese Medicine and a functional food in China. Antioxidant contents of EU leaves, which were collected monthly during the period of May–October in three years, were determined. Samples’ antioxidant capacity was characterized by DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, ferrous chelating ability, and antioxidant capacity in linoleic acid emulsion and in rapeseed oil assays. The results showed that contents of some active compounds and antioxidant activity were related to a certain time of the year. Samples collected in August showed high content of phenolics, and the samples collected in May contained higher amount of flavonoids than other samples. Leaves collected in May or June exhibited high contents of rutin, quercetin, geniposidic acid and aucubin. The August leaves showed stable and high DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ferrous chelating ability. May samples showed strong inhibitory effects on oxidation of rapeseed oil and linoleic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was related to the total phenolics content. Flavonoids played an important role in the inhibitory effects on rapeseed oil and linoleic acid oxidation. Therefore, August and May were indicated as the best months to harvest EU leaves for industry.

  19. Determination of the antioxidant capacity of two seagrass species according to the extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethia L. González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a wide variety of methods for obtaining of plant extracts that enable a good yield of bioactive metabolites. For several years, extractive techniques have been perfected for obtaining natural extracts with powerful pharmacological properties. Aims: To determine the influence of various extraction methods (infusion, decoction, microwave, maceration with heat and agitation, and constant heat and agitation on the content of solids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König (Hyrocharitacea and Syringodium filiforme kützing (Cymodoceaceae. Methods: The soluble solids content was determined by the gravimetric method; total phenolic content, using Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Results: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as the extraction solvent. In the case those that use the hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species. Conclusions: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as extraction solvent. In the case those that use hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species.

  20. [Effect of occupational stress on oxidation/antioxidant capacity in nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lili; Tian, Honger; Zhang, Qingdong; Zhu, Xinyun; Zhan, Yongguo; Su, Jingguo; Xu, Tian; Zhu, Huabin; Liu, Ling

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effect of occupational stress on the oxidation/antioxidant capacity in nurses. A total of 131 nurses were included as study subjects. The occupational health information collection system (based on the Internet of things) was used for measurement of occupational stress. Levels of hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidant enzymes were determined. The serum level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was the highest in nurses under the age of 30 and the lowest in those over 45 (P occupational stress factors for SOD. Job hazards were negative occupational stress factors for POD. Psychological satisfaction was negative occupational stress reaction for hydroxyl free radicals. Calmness was positive occupational stress reaction for SOD, and daily stress was a negative one. The positive occupational stress reactions for GSH-Px were psychological satisfaction and job satisfaction, and daily stress was negative reaction. Nurses with higher occupational stress have stronger oxidation and weaker antioxidant capacity, which intensifies oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and leads to oxidative stress damage.

  1. Chronocoulometry of wine on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode: Antioxidant capacity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Budnikov, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic antioxidants of wine were electrochemically oxidized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT/GCE) in phosphate buffer solution. Three oxidation peaks were observed at 0.39, 0.61 and 0.83V for red dry wine and 0.39, 0.80 and 1.18 V for white dry wine, respectively, using differential pulse voltammetry at pH 4.0. The oxidation potentials for individual phenolic antioxidants confirmed the integral nature of the analytical signals for the wines examined. A one-step chronocoulometric method at 0.83 and 1.18 V for red and white wines, respectively, has been developed for the evaluation of wine antioxidant capacity (AOC). The AOC is expressed in gallic acid equivalents per 1L of wine. The AOC of white wine was significantly less than red wine (386 ± 112 vs. 1224 ± 184, pwine and total antioxidant capacity, based on coulometric titration with electrogenerated bromine (r=0.8957 at n=5 and r=0.8986 at n=4 for red and white wines, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, Vinay J; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl-2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.

  3. Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.

  4. Soluble Antioxidant Compounds Regenerate the Antioxidants Bound to Insoluble Parts of Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, E.E.; Gökmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of

  5. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pbeans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2015-05-01

    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL CAPACITY OF LOLOH SEMBUNG (Blumea balsamifera BASED ON EXTRACTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGA. Wita Kusumawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Loloh sembung (Blumea balsamifera is a traditional herbal drink which of the extraction methods can be done by boiling and brewing. Loloh sembung was prepared from fresh and dried leaves. Loloh sembung extracted by different methods producing phenolic content, tannin content, antioxidant capacity, are different. Dried leaves were extracted by brewing have high content of total phenolic was at 13.15±0.11 mg GAE/g sample, while dried leaves were extracted by boiling have high content of tannin and antioxidant capacity were at 1.65±0.01 mg TAE/g sample and 5.55±0.01 mg GAE/g sample respectiveliy. Both of fresh and dried leaves were extracted by boiling and brewing were not show inhibition against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  8. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also......-120 min. This corresponded to a 30% increase in vitamin C and a small but significant increase in total phenols in plasma. Consumption of blueberry juice had no such effects. CONCLUSION: The increase in plasma antioxidant capacity following consumption of cranberry juice could mainly be accounted...

  9. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Ion; Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena

    2013-03-01

    In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were previously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  10. Changes in the GABA and polyphenols contents of foxtail millet on germination and their relationship with in vitro antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Seema; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S

    2018-04-15

    Germination along with ultrasonic assisted extraction induced a significant beneficial effect on the characteristics of polyphenolic components profile, GABA contents and in vitro antioxidant capacity of the foxtail millet flour extracts. The total antioxidant activity (29.0-45.23 mgAAE/g) and reducing power (0.53-0.76 µg/ml) increase during germination were due to quantitative increase in phthalicacid; hex-3yl-ester; hexadecanoicacid methylester etc. whereas, increase in DPPH (48.32-59.62%) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities (35.44-63.07 mM-Trolox/g) were attributed to increase in hexadecanoic acid methylester; 9,12-Octadecadienoicacid ethylester and synthesis of new compounds like pentadecanoicacid; 14-methyl-methylester etc. The metal chelating abilities (34.92-57.38 mgEDTA/g) and in vitro antioxidant activity increase due to overall increase in phenolics, flavonoids along with GABA contents. Synthesis of additional polyphenolic components viz. astaxanthin, propanoicacid, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilylether, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoicacid etc. as a result of germinated explored the possible potential utilization of germinated foxtail millet grains in various functional and convenience food formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of common beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-processing methods caused significant (pbean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal processing. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different processing methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal processing caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Insights into the HyPer biosensor as molecular tool for monitoring cellular antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hernández

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic metabolism brings inexorably the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are counterbalanced by intrinsic antioxidant defenses avoiding deleterious intracellular effects. Redox balance is the resultant of metabolic functioning under environmental inputs (i.e. diet, pollution and the activity of intrinsic antioxidant machinery. Monitoring of intracellular hydrogen peroxide has been successfully achieved by redox biosensor advent; however, to track the intrinsic disulfide bond reduction capacity represents a fundamental piece to understand better how redox homeostasis is maintained in living cells.In the present work, we compared the informative value of steady-state measurements and the kinetics of HyPer, a H2O2-sensitive fluorescent biosensor, targeted at the cytosol, mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum. From this set of data, biosensor signal recovery from an oxidized state raised as a suitable parameter to discriminate reducing capacity of a close environment. Biosensor recovery was pH-independent, condition demonstrated by experiments on pH-clamped cells, and sensitive to pharmacological perturbations of enzymatic disulfide reduction. Also, ten human cell lines were characterized according their H2O2-pulse responses, including their capacity to reduce disulfide bonds evaluated in terms of their migratory capacity.Finally, cellular migration experiments were conducted to study whether migratory efficiency was associated with the disulfide reduction activity. The migration efficiency of each cell type correlates with the rate of signal recovery measured from the oxidized biosensor. In addition, HyPer-expressing cells treated with N-acetyl-cysteine had accelerated recovery rates and major migratory capacities, both reversible effects upon treatment removal. Our data demonstrate that the HyPer signal recovery offers a novel methodological tool to track the cellular impact of redox active biomolecules. Keywords: Antioxidant

  13. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a “living fossil” species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboid...

  14. Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity of Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga) Samples Collected in Different Uruguayan Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migues, Ignacio; Baenas, Nieves; Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Moreno, Diego A

    2018-04-24

    The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is an example of a native fruit from Uruguay, consumed as a jelly or an alcoholic beverage. Pitanga has a red-violet pigmentation, which is a common trait for foods that are a good source of antioxidants. Hence, fruits from different Uruguayan regions were analyzed via miniaturized sample preparation method, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n and RP-HPLC-DAD techniques to identify and quantify phenolic compounds, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated via DPPH and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assays. A multivariate linear regression was applied to correlate the observed antioxidant capacity with the phenolic content. Furthermore, Principal Components Analysis was performed to highlight characteristics between the various samples studied. The main results indicated differences between northern and southern Uruguayan samples. Delphinidin-3-hexoside was present in southern samples (mean of 293.16 µmol/100 g dry weight (DW)) and absent in the sample collected in the north (sample 3). All the samples contain high levels of cyanidin-3-hexoside, but a noticeable difference was found between the northern sample (150.45 µmol/100 g DW) and the southern sample (1121.98 µmol/100 g DW). The antioxidant capacity (mean ORAC of 56370 µmol Trolox ® /100 g DW) were high in all the samples compared to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of similar berry-fruits. The results of this study highlight the nutraceutical value of a native fruit that has not been exploited until now.

  15. Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity of Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga Samples Collected in Different Uruguayan Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Migues

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is an example of a native fruit from Uruguay, consumed as a jelly or an alcoholic beverage. Pitanga has a red-violet pigmentation, which is a common trait for foods that are a good source of antioxidants. Hence, fruits from different Uruguayan regions were analyzed via miniaturized sample preparation method, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn and RP-HPLC-DAD techniques to identify and quantify phenolic compounds, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated via DPPH and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assays. A multivariate linear regression was applied to correlate the observed antioxidant capacity with the phenolic content. Furthermore, Principal Components Analysis was performed to highlight characteristics between the various samples studied. The main results indicated differences between northern and southern Uruguayan samples. Delphinidin-3-hexoside was present in southern samples (mean of 293.16 µmol/100 g dry weight (DW and absent in the sample collected in the north (sample 3. All the samples contain high levels of cyanidin-3-hexoside, but a noticeable difference was found between the northern sample (150.45 µmol/100 g DW and the southern sample (1121.98 µmol/100 g DW. The antioxidant capacity (mean ORAC of 56370 µmol Trolox®/100 g DW were high in all the samples compared to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA database of similar berry-fruits. The results of this study highlight the nutraceutical value of a native fruit that has not been exploited until now.

  16. Nanomaterial-Based Sensing and Biosensing of Phenolic Compounds and Related Antioxidant Capacity in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Della Pelle; Dario Compagnone

    2018-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds (PCs) have received exceptional attention at the end of the past millennium and as much at the beginning of the new one. Undoubtedly, these compounds in foodstuffs provide added value for their well-known health benefits, for their technological role and also marketing. Many efforts have been made to provide simple, effective and user friendly analytical methods for the determination and antioxidant capacity (AOC) evaluation of food polyphenols. In a parallel track, ove...

  17. Food Ingredient Extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush): Variation in Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Dalene de; Schulze, Alexandra; Joubert, Elizabeth; Villiers, André de; Malherbe, Christiaan; Stander, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent) are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlin...

  18. Investigation of Gelatin Polypeptides of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum for Their Antioxidant Activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Liang Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish gelatin was hydrolyzed by different proteases to obtain antioxidative polypeptides. The gelatin hydrolysate obtained by progressive hydrolysis using trypsin and Properase E exhibited the highest hydrolysis degree and antioxidant activity. Three series of gelatin polypeptides (SCP1, SCP2 and SCP3 were obtained by ultrafiltrating the gelatin hydrolysate through molecular mass cut-off membranes of 10, 6 and 2 kDa, respectively. Amino acid composition analysis showed that SCP3 had the highest total hydrophobic amino acid content. The in vitro antioxidant tests demonstrated that SCP2 had the strongest hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and metal chelating ability, while SCP3 showed the highest reducing power, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion system and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The results support the feasibility of jellyfish gelatin as a natural antioxidant polypeptide provider, and enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration could be potent future processing technologies to utilize the abundant jellyfish resource.

  19. Effect of Indian herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant capacity and trace elements content in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anu; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Raj Kumar; Mahdi, Farzana; Chander, Ramesh

    2008-09-01

    In the present investigation we report the protective potential of some herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant status and levels of metal ions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity of the herbs was also evaluated. Induction of diabetes mellitus in rats caused an increase in blood lipid peroxide levels that was associated with the reduced activity of red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant enzymes--namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase--along with depletion of plasma reduced glutathione (GSH) and copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, and selenium levels. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia, and Ocimum sanctum extracts (500 mg/kg of body weight) not only lowered the blood glucose level but also inhibited the formation of lipid peroxides, reactivated the antioxidant enzymes, and restored levels of GSH and metals in the above-mentioned model. The herbal extracts (50-500 microg) inhibited the generation of superoxide anions (O(2)(-.)) in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic in vitro systems. These preparations also inhibited the ferrous-sodium ascorbate-induced formation of lipid peroxides in RBCs. The in vivo and in vitro protective effects of the above-mentioned herbal drugs were also compared with that of glibenclamide. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the above-mentioned herbal plants not only possess hypoglycemic properties, but they also decrease oxidative load in diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we propose that long-term use of such agents might help in the prevention of diabetes-associated complications. However, the extrapolation of these results to humans needs further in-depth study.

  20. Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Two Aloe greatheadii var. davyana Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Toit Loots

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae is used among rural South African communities to treat arthritis, skin cancer, burns, eczema, psoriasis, digestive problems, high blood pressure and diabetes, despite very little supporting scientific evidence. Due to increased interest by both the scientific community and industry regarding the medicinal uses of this plant species, we identified, quantified and compared the phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two extracts of A. greatheadii; a leaf gel extract (LGE and a 95 % aqueous ethanol leaf gel extract (ELGE, using various modified extraction procedures, GC-MS and spectrophotometry. Apart from extensively characterizing this medicinal plant with regards to its organic acid, polyphenols/phenolic acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, alkane, pyrimidine, indole, alkaloid, phytosterol, fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid contents and antioxidant capacities, we describe a modified extraction procedure for the purpose of general phytochemical characterization, and compare this to a 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction technique. From the results it is clear that A. greatheadii contains a variety of compounds with confirmed antioxidant capacity and other putative health benefits (such as blood glucose, cholesterol and cortisol lowering properties relating to the prevention or treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and hypertension. The results also indicate that separate ethyl acetate/diethyl ether and hexane extractions of the LGE, better serve for general phytochemical characterization purposes, and 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction for concentrating selective groups of health related compounds, hence justifying its use for biological in vivo efficacy studies.

  1. Effect of the microfiltration process on antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation protection capacity of blackberry juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Azofeifa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are highly concentrated in berries, especially polyphenols as anthocyanins and ellagitannins. These compounds have been associated with antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation protection, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, obesity prevention and others. Blackberries are commonly grown and consumed as juice in Latin-American countries. However, blackberry juice is easily fermented and different industrial techniques are being applied to enable the juice to be stored for longer periods. One important issue required for these techniques is to preserve the health-promoting capacities of blackberries. This study compared the antioxidant activity and the lipid peroxidation protector effect between a fresh blackberry juice (FJ and a microfiltrated blackberry juice (MJ. Chemical analysis of both juices show less polyphenols concentration in the MJ. Despite this difference, values for biological activities, such as protection of lipid peroxidation, was not significantly different between FJ and MJ. These results suggest that the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity are maintained even after microfiltration and the free radical scavenging capacity of these compounds could protect the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Microfiltration could be used as an industrial technique to produce blackberry juice that maintains biological activities of polyphenols.

  2. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  3. Interference of germination time on chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of white sesame (Sesamum Indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Fernandes de Menezes MARES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The consumption of white sesame has become a healthy option for those who are concerned about health and wish to reduce oxidative stress. The germination has been used an effective method to increase the nutrients availability and thus provide a better nutritional quality of these seeds. Due to the lack of researches about sesame germination the objective of this study was to evaluate the different times of germination on the chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein and ashes, the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic compounds of white sesame. The germination occurred inside a greenhouse with controlled temperature at 30 °C and the variables were analyzed in the times 0, 24, 36 and 48 hours of germination. The process increased the levels of moisture and reduced the levels of fat, protein and ashes. On the other hand, it also increased the antioxidant capacity by two methods and raised the quantity of total phenolic compounds. Based in the present study and in others similar works, it is possible to affirm that the germination process increase the white sesames’ antioxidant capacity, however further studies are needed to evaluate a better environmental condition of germination and others factors that may affect the composition.

  4. Microcystin accumulation and potential effects on antioxidant capacity of leaves and fruits of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Kiprovski, Biljana; Malenčić, Djordje; Važić, Tamara; Nybom, Sonja; Meriluoto, Jussi; Svirčev, Zorica

    2017-01-01

    Surface water, often used for irrigation purposes, may sometimes be contaminated with blooming cyanobacteria and thereby may contain their potent and harmful toxins. Cyanotoxins adversely affect many terrestrial plants, and accumulate in plant tissues that are subsequently ingested by humans. Studies were undertaken to (1) examine the bioaccumulation of microcystins (MCs) in leaves and fruits of pepper Capsicum annuum and (2) examine the potential effects of MCs on antioxidant capacity of these organs. Plants were irrigated with water containing MCs for a period of 3 mo. Data showed that MCs did not accumulate in leaves; however, in fruits the presence of the MC-LR (0.118 ng/mg dry weight) and dmMC-LR (0.077 ng/mg dry weight) was detected. The concentrations of MC-LR in fruit approached the acceptable guideline values and tolerable daily intake for this toxin. Lipid peroxidation levels and flavonoids content were significantly enhanced in both organs of treated plants, while total phenolic concentrations were not markedly variable between control and treated plants. Significant decrease in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was noted for both organs. The levels of superoxide anion in fruits and hydroxyl radical in leaves were markedly reduced. Data suggest that exposure to MCs significantly reduced antioxidant capacity of experimental plants, indicating that MCs affected antioxidant systems in C. annuum.

  5. Plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity in healthy controls compared with aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Ulku; Gamsiz-Isik, Hikmet; Cifcibasi, Emine; Ademoglu, Evin; Yalcin, Funda

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (CP), generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and periodontally healthy controls. This cross-sectional study includes of 88 individuals seeking dental treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between January 2011 and March 2012. Fifteen AgP patients were compared with 21 healthy controls (C1), while 36 CP patients were compared with 16 healthy controls (C2). Clinical periodontal measurements were recorded, and plasma and saliva samples were collected. The TAOC of the plasma and saliva samples were determined using a commercially available colorimetric kit. The plasma TAOC of both AgP and CP patients was significantly lower for C1 and C2. The salivary TAOC of CP patients was significantly lower for C2, but there was no significant difference between AgP patients and C1. Our results demonstrate that severe periodontitis may be associated with a lower plasma antioxidant capacity. The reduced antioxidant capacity in patients with severe periodontitis, especially with aggressive forms may be an important contributing factor to severe tissue destruction.

  6. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P antioxidant activity. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. The aqueous humour antioxidative capacity in different types and color of the age-related cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žorić Lepša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oxidative stress results from increased oxidative processes, decreased antioxidative protection, or both processes simultaneously. Photooxidative stress, as a form of oxidative stress, induced by the energy of solar radiation, today is considered as crucial in the age-related cataractogenesis. Other known and unknown, endogenous and egsogenous factors that contribute to the oxidative stress intensity, can influence the cataract type and brunescence. Thus the oxidative stress intensity and its form might determine the cataract type and brunescence, and also make the efforts in cataract prevention more complex. Hence, the objective of the present paper was to investigate the current amount of antioxidative capacity in aqueous humour during the cataract genesis of different types and pigmentation of cataract. Methods. Transversal review of 80 samples of humour aqueous obtained during extracapsular cataract extraction. Aqueouses were analyzed by tiobarbituric acid (TBA method for the total antioxidant activity estimation, expressed as %iMDA, and by using 0.1 ml of aqueous. Results. The mixed type of cataract showed the statistically significantly lower values of the intensities of antioxidative protection in aqueous humour compared to cortical and nuclear cataracts (p < 0.001, respectively. Between pure nuclear and cortical cataracts we found the small differences of the investigated parameter, but they pointed to the decreased level of antioxidative protection, i.e. the increased intensity of the aqueous humour oxidative stress in the cortical cataract type. A significant correlation between the cortical cataract maturation and the %iMDA (p < 0.05 was found. Conclusions. The role of the oxidative stress, here expressed as the antioxidative capacity of aqueous humour, could not be the same for all the cataract types. The lower level of antioxidative protection of aqueous in brunescent and mixed cataracts may point to the higher

  8. Antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk: is -80°C optimal temperature for freeze storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Fatma Nur; Akdag, Arzu; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Erel, Ozcan; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-06-01

    To determine total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status in fresh and freeze stored (at -80°C) breast milk during the stages of lactation. Samples of colostrum, transitional and mature milk were collected from 44 healthy women at 3, 8 and 30 days after birth. The total milk volume collected (6 ml) was divided in two aliquot parts: 3 ml for the fresh analysis which was done immediately after the extraction and 3 ml for storage under freezing conditions at -80°C for two months. The antioxidant status and oxidative stress of the fresh and stored breast milk were assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status. Antioxidant capacity of transitional and mature milk decreased (p = 0.0001, p = 0.028, respectively); however, antioxidant capacity of colostrum did not change by storage at -80°C (p > 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk significantly decreased during the stages of lactation (p Total oxidation status showed no significant difference in fresh and stored breast milk during the stages of lactation (p > 0.05). Freeze storage of breast milk at -80°C for two months seems not to be the optimal condition to preserve the antioxidant capacity of breast milk.

  9. A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ozcan

    2004-04-01

    To develop a novel colorimetric and automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A new generation, more stable, colored 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS(*+)) was employed. The ABTS(*+) is decolorized by antioxidants according to their concentrations and antioxidant capacities. This change in color is measured as a change in absorbance at 660 nm. This process is applied to an automated analyzer and the assay is calibrated with Trolox. The novel assay is linear up to 6 mmol Trolox equivalent/l, its precision values are lower than 3%, and there is no interference from hemoglobin, bilirubin, EDTA, or citrate. The method developed is significantly correlated with the Randox- total antioxidant status (TAS) assay (r = 0.897, P total antioxidant capacity.

  10. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacities of Chinese Local Pummelo Cultivars' Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefang Lü

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the main production areas of pummelo [Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck.] in the world and has lots of distinctive local cultivars. Systematic research on the detection of phenolics and antioxidant capacity of peels of mature local cultivars pummelo  fruits is rare. In the current study, phenolic composition and content in peels (flavedo and albedo of ten Chinese local pummelo cultivars were determined using Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods in the current study. The research not only provides data that support making full use of the resources of Chinese local pummelo cultivars, but also lays the theoretical basis for research of pummelo fruit nutrition and health values. The results showed that the total phenolic (TP content in albedo was significantly higher than that in flavedo; on the contrary, the total flavonoid (TF content was lower in the albedo than in the flavedo. C. grandis ‘Hongxinyou’ flavedo contained the highest TP contents, C. grandis ‘Liangpingyou 78-8’ flavedo contained the highest TF contents, and C. grandis ‘Guanxi Miyou’ albedo contained the highest TP and TF contents. Naringenin, hesperetin, diosmin, and gallic acid were the predominant phenolics in the flavedo, whereas hesperetin, diosmin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were the primary phenolics in the albedo. The flavedo of C. grandis ‘Yubei Shatianyou’ and the albedo of C. grandis ‘Dianjiang Baiyou’ had the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC indexes. Overall, the ‘Yubei Shatianyou’ flavedo and the ‘Dianjiang Baiyou’ albedo are excellent sources of antioxidants and have the greatest potential value for exploitation and utilization.

  11. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Unal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of ethanol extracts of some organically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables. Methods: The ethanol extracts of kailan (Brassica alboglabra, bayam (Amaranthus spp. and sawi (Brassica parachinensis were tested for total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and total anthocyanin content (TAC and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results: In TPC test, sawi extract showed the highest phenolic content while bayam contained the least phenolic content for both organically and conventionally grown types. In TFC test, organically grown sawi extract showed the highest flavonoid content, while organically grown kailan extract showed the least flavonoid content among all types of vegetables. The flavonoid content of the conventionally grown types of vegetable extracts was the highest in kalian and the least in sawi. For 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, the activity increased with the increasing concentration of each extract. All conventionally grown vegetable extracts showed higher antioxidant activity compared to their organically grown counterparts. Extracts of conventionally grown sawi showed the highest percentage inhibition followed by conventionally grown kailan and organically grown sawi. There were no correlation between TPC, TFC, TAC and IC25 of both organically and conventionally grown vegetables. However, there was a correlation between TAC and IC25 of conventionally grown vegetable extracts. The results showed relatively similar polyphenol content between organically and conventionally grown vegetable extracts. However, the conventionally grown vegetables extracts generally have higher antioxidant activity compared to the organically grown extracts. Conclusions: These results suggested that the different types of agricultural practice had a significant contribution to the

  12. Cytotoxic and antioxidant capacity of camel milk peptides: Effects of isolated peptide on superoxide dismutase and catalase gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Homayouni-Tabrizi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peptides from natural sources such as milk are shown to have a wide spectrum of biological activities. In this study, three peptides with antioxidant capacity were identified from camel milk protein hydrolysate. Pepsin and pancreatin were used for hydrolysis of milk proteins. Ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used for the concentration and purification of the hydrolysate, respectively. Sequences of the three peptides, which were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectrophotometry, were LEEQQQTEDEQQDQL [molecular weight (MW: 1860.85 Da, LL-15], YLEELHRLNAGY (MW: 1477.63 Da, YY-11, and RGLHPVPQ (MW: 903.04 Da, RQ-8. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these chemically synthesized peptides against HepG2 cells. In vitro analysis showed antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activities of these peptides on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid+, O2–, and OH– free radicals. HepG2 cells were treated with YY-11 peptide for 48 hours, and the expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase genes was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed a significant increase in the expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase genes in treated HepG2 cells.

  13. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Leonurus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total phenolic compounds in the extracts were determined as gallic acid equivalents, and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Fe2+ chelating, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phenol, Leonurus cardiaca, Grammosciadium ...

  14. Phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant potentials of defatted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acid and vitamin C were 195.57 and 519.28 g/mg of extract respectively and total phenol content equivalent of gallic acid was 1427.87 ìg/mg. The reductive potential increased with increasing concentration of extract. The results obtained from this study reveal that the extract is rich in antioxidant components with several ...

  15. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a ...

  16. Procyanidin and catechin contents and antioxidant capacity of cocoa and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liwei; House, Suzanne E; Wu, Xianli; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2006-05-31

    Cocoa and chocolate products from major brands were analyzed blind for total antioxidant capacity (AOC) (lipophilic and hydrophilic ORAC(FL)), catechins, and procyanidins (monomer through polymers). Accuracy of analyses was ascertained by comparing analyses on a NIST standard reference chocolate with NIST certified values. Procyanidin (PC) content was related to the nonfat cocoa solid (NFCS) content. The natural cocoa powders (average 87% of NFCS) contained the highest levels of AOC (826 +/- 103 micromol of TE/g) and PCs (40.8 +/- 8.3 mg/g). Alkalized cocoa (Dutched powders, average 80% NFCS) contained lower AOC (402 +/- 6 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (8.9 +/- 2.7 mg/g). Unsweetened chocolates or chocolate liquor (50% NFCS) contained 496 +/- 40 micromol of TE /g of AOC and 22.3 +/- 2.9 mg/g of PCs. Milk chocolates, which contain the least amount of NFCS (7.1%), had the lowest concentrations of AOC (80 +/- 10 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (2.7 +/- 0.5 mg/g). One serving of cocoa (5 g) or chocolate (15 or 40 g, depending upon the type of chocolate) provides 2000-9100 micromol of TE of AOC and 45-517 mg of PCs, amounts that exceed the amount in a serving of the majority of foods consumed in America. The monomers through trimers, which are thought to be directly bioavailable, contributed 30% of the total PCs in chocolates. Hydrophilic antioxidant capacity contributed >90% of AOC in all products. The correlation coefficient between AOC and PCs in chocolates was 0.92, suggesting that PCs are the dominant antioxidants in cocoa and chocolates. These results indicate that NFCS is correlated with AOC and PC in cocoa and chocolate products. Alkalizing dramatically decreased both the procyanidin content and antioxidant capacity, although not to the same extent.

  17. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber ethanolic extract: antioxidant capacity and electrochemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Monika Bezerra dos Santos; Valentim, Iara Barros; de Vasconcelos, Camila Calado; Omena, Cristhiane Maria Bazílio; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; da Costa, João Gomes; Freitas, Mikael de Lima; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-02-01

    The present study aims to determine the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of husk fiber of four coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties (yellow dwarf, green dwarf, giant and hybrid) and to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of these extracts on a glassy carbon electrode and on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The highest values of total phenolic content were obtained for the hybrid (531 ± 24 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) and yellow dwarf (501 ± 29 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) varieties and the lowest was for the green dwarf variety with 58 ± 9 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract. The ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH˙ radicals was in the order of giant > yellow dwarf > hybrid > green dwarf and the IC50 values varied from 8.6 to 55.9 μg mL(-1). All varieties showed reducing potential by the use of FRAP and CUPRAC methods, with the lowest performance obtained for the green dwarf variety. Additionally, through the use of mimetic biomembranes, ethanolic extracts of coconut husk were shown to protect lipids against oxidative damage independent of the variety. The main antioxidants identified in the extract of yellow dwarf variety by UPLC-MS were quercetin and catechin. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the ethanolic extracts on glassy carbon electrode confirmed the presence of easily oxidized compounds, and the high antioxidant capacity of the varieties. This capacity was expressed as mg quercetin equivalents g(-1) dry extract and ranged from 25.9 up to 53.5 mg QE g(-1). A poly-xanthurenic acid (poly-Xa)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) / glassy carbon modified electrode (poly-Xa/MWCNT/GCE) was used for this purpose. Our findings suggest that these extracts are potentially important antioxidant supplements for the everyday human diet, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, thereby aggregating value to the enormous amount of waste from the coconut industry, mostly used for burning purposes.

  18. The validity and reproducibility of food-frequency questionnaire–based total antioxidant capacity estimates in Swedish women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) provides an assessment of antioxidant activity and synergistic interactions of redox molecules in foods and plasma. We investigated the validity and reproducibility of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)–based TAC estimates assessed by oxygen radical absorbance capaci...

  19. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structurally modified pectin for targeted lipid antioxidant capacity in linseed/sunflower oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celus, Miete; Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Kyomugasho, Clare; Maes, Ine; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-02-15

    The present work explored the lipid antioxidant capacity of citrus pectin addition to 5%(w/v) linseed/sunflower oil emulsions stabilized with 0.5%(w/v) Tween 80, as affected by pectin molecular characteristics. The peroxide formation in the emulsions, containing tailored pectin structures, was studied during two weeks of storage at 35°C. Low demethylesterified pectin (≤33%) exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than high demethylesterified pectin (≥58%), probably due to its higher chelating capacity of pro-oxidative metal ions (Fe 2+ ), whereas the distribution pattern of methylesters along the pectin chain only slightly affected the antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, pectin addition to the emulsions caused emulsion destabilization probably due to depletion or bridging effect, independent of the pectin structural characteristics. These results evidence the potential of structurally modified citrus pectin as a natural antioxidant in emulsions. However, optimal conditions for emulsion stability should be carefully selected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro antioxidant activity of thiazolidinone derivatives of 1,3-thiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Mirjana; Fesatidou, Mara; Xenikakis, Iakovos; Geronikaki, Athina; Angelova, Violina T; Savic, Vladimir; Pasic, Marta; Krilovic, Branislav; Djukic, Dusan; Gobeljic, Borko; Pavlica, Marina; Djuric, Ana; Stanojevic, Ivan; Vojvodic, Danilo; Saso, Luciano

    2018-04-25

    The initial steps in preclinical drug developing research concern the synthesis of new compounds for specific therapeutic use which needs to be confirmed by in vitro and then in vivo testing. Nine thiazolidinone derivatives (numerically labeled 1-9) classified as follows: 1,3-thiazole-based compounds (1 and 2); 1,3,4-thiadiazole based compounds (3 and 4); substituted 5-benzylideno-2-adamantylthiazol[3,2-b][1,2,4]triazol-6(5H)ones (5-8); and an ethylaminothiazole-based chalcone (9), were tested for antioxidant activity (AOA) by using three in vitro assays: DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging capacity test); FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power test); and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test). Compounds 1-4 and 9 in particular are newly synthesized compounds. Also, traditional antioxidants Vitamins E and C and α-lipoic acid (α-LA) were tested. The results of DPPH testing: Vitamin C 94.35%, Vitamin E 2.99% and α-LA 1.57%; compounds: 4 33.98%; 2 18.73%; 1 15.62%; 5 6.59%; 3 4.99%; 6-9 demonstrated almost no AOA. The results of TBARS testing (% of LPO inhibition): Vitamin C 62.32%; Vitamin E 36.29%; α-LA 51.36%; compounds: 1 62.11%; 5 66.71%; 9 60.93%; 4, 6 and 7 demonstrated ∼50%; 3 and 8 displayed ∼38%; 2 23.51%. By FRAP method, Vitamins E and C showed equal AOA, ∼100%, unlike α-LA (no AOA), and AOA of the tested compounds (expressed as a fraction of the AOA of Vitamin C) were: 2 and 4-75%; 8, 3 and 1-45%; 5-7 and 9-27%. Different red-ox reaction principles between these assays dictate different AOA outcomes for a single compound. Vitamin C appeared to be the superior antioxidant out of the traditional antioxidants; and compound 4 was superior to other tested thiazolidinone derivatives. Vitamin C appeared to be the superior antioxidant out of the traditional antioxidants; and compound 4 was superior to other tested thiazolidinone derivatives. Phenyl-functionalized benzylidene, amino-carbonyl functional domains and chelating

  2. Effects of tai chi training on antioxidant capacity in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-04-11

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity-an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme-and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  3. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin; Özdem, Sebahat; Uzun, Gülbahar; İşlek, Ali; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an oxidative stress marker, as well as other oxidant and antioxidant markers that have not been evaluated in children with celiac disease. A total of 37 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) and 29 healthy children were enrolled in this prospective study. We evaluated the IMA, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, and advanced oxidation protein products in all of the subjects. We also compared the levels at the time of the diagnosis, and following a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the children with CD. While the IMA and the other oxidant marker levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, the antioxidant marker levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group. We also determined that the tissue transglutaminase IgA showed a highly positive correlation, and that the IMA showed a moderately positive correlation with the Marsh-Oberhuber histopathological stage. Additionally, the IMA and other oxidant marker levels were significantly lower, while the antioxidant marker levels were significantly higher after the GFD, compared to the pre-diet period. We detected that oxidative stress played a role in the pathogenesis of CD, and that this could be evaluated using oxidative stress markers, which would regress after the GFD. We also detected that IMA is a marker that shows a correlation with the histopathological stage, and may be used in the diagnosis.

  4. Free radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity of root extracts of Anchomanes difformis Engl. (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar B; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Musa, Aliyu M; Musa, Aisha O; Kiplimo, Joyce J; Oyewale, Adebayo O

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants activities from plants sources have attracted a wide range of interest across the world in recent times. This is due to growing concern for safe and alternative sources of antioxidants. The free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity of the phosphomolybdenum method and the total phenolics content using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent were carried out on the acetone, n-butanol and methanol root extracts of Anchomanes difformis. The results of the total phenolics content expressed in mg/100 g of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) showed that the n-butanol extract has significantly (p extracts. All the extracts displayed strong concentration dependent radical scavenging activity. It was also observed that the n-butanol extract showed higher activity of 70.87% and 78.59% at low concentrations of 31.25 microg/mL and 62.5 microg/mL, respectively, than methanol and acetone extracts. The results also showed that the n-butanol extract has strongest reducing ability which is comparable to that of gallic acid at all the concentrations tested. Phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. The results suggest that n-butanol extract of the plant is very rich in antioxidant compounds worthy of further investigations.

  5. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attakorn Palasuwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n=8 and postmenopausal (n=7 sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1 increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2 decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  6. Relationships between Age, Daily Physical Activity, Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stress among Middle-aged and Elderly People

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Kai; Masuda, Kazumi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Hirayama, Aki; Nagase, Shoji; Kono, Ichiro; Kuno, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    The effects of age and daily physical activity (PA) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress remains unclear, especially among advanced age population. Thus the present study evaluated antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress status, taking into account age and PA in healthy middle-aged and elderly people (45-92 years, n=436; 166 males and 270 females). The advanced age subjects were classified in groups according to their age. Data collected from young male subjects (18-26 years, n=36) ...

  7. In vitro propagation of the medicinal plant Ziziphora tenuior L. and evaluation of its antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dakah, Abdulkarim; Zaid, Salim; Suleiman, Mohamad; Abbas, Sami; Wink, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ziziphora tenuior L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic herb used for its medicinal values against fungi, bacteria. Micropropagation can be used for large-scale multiplication of essential oil producing plants thus avoiding an overexploitation of natural resources. This work aims to develop a reliable protocol for the in vitro propagation of Z. tenuior, and to compare the antioxidant activity between in vitro propagated and wild plants.

  8. Prolonged jaundice in newborns is associated with low antioxidant capacity in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uras, Nurdan; Tonbul, Alpaslan; Karadag, Ahmet; Dogan, Derya G; Erel, Ozcan; Tatli, Mustafa M

    2010-10-01

    In breastfeeding newborns who are otherwise healthy, the mechanism of prolonged jaundice remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between prolonged jaundice and oxidative parameters in breast milk. Full-term, otherwise healthy newborns with jaundice lasting more than 2 weeks were enrolled prospectively in the study. As a control group, newborns in the same age group but without prolonged jaundice were selected. All newborns in the study were exclusively breastfed. In the newborns with prolonged jaundice, investigations of the etiology of the jaundice included complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood typing, direct Coombs test, measurement of serum levels of total and direct bilirubin, tests for liver and thyroid function (TSH, free T4, total T4), urine culture and measurement of urine reducing substances, and determination of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme levels. Breast milk was collected from the mothers of the newborns in both groups. The antioxidant status of the breast milk was assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Oxidative stress was also assessed in breast milk by measurement of total oxidation status (TOS) and calculation of the oxidative stress index (OSI). The prolonged jaundice group differed significantly from the control group in terms of mean TAC and OSI (p antioxidant capacity was found to be decreased.

  9. Evaluation of oxidative stress status and antioxidant capacity in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Mustafa; Karaguzel, Ersagun; Okulu, Emrah; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Ener, Kemal; Ozayar, Asim; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the serum oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the control group. The prospective study consisted of 97 patients with RCC (Group 1) and 80 age and sex matched healthy volunteers (Group 2). Group 1 and 2 were compared concerning serum mean total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), arylesterase, total thiol, catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ceruloplasmin. Patients' mean age was 58.5 ±12.3 and 56.9 ±15.8 years, respectively, in Group 1 and 2. No statistically significant differences were detected between the groups in terms of oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant capacity measured in the serum of patients including, TOS, TAC, PON1, arylesterase, total thiol, CAT, MPO, and ceruloplasmin levels (p >0.05 for all parameters). The PON-1 value was significantly higher in patients with pT1 stage than pT3 stage (p = 0.007). The arylesterase value was significantly higher in patients with Fuhrman's nuclear grade 3 than grade 2 (p = 0.035). There was no correlation between these parameters level and Fuhrman's nuclear grade, stage, or histopathological tumor type. Our results demonstrated that evaluation of these parameters in the serum of patients with localized RCC may not be used as a marker to discriminate between patients with RCC and healthy people.

  10. Storage at -80°C preserves the antioxidant capacity of preterm human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, Arzu; Sari, Fatma Nur; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Isikoglu, Semra; Erel, Ozcan; Dilmen, Ugur

    2014-09-01

    It is essential to establish optimum parameters for maintaining the quality of stored milk until the moment of consumption with minimal deterioration of its properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidation status (TOS) of fresh and freeze-stored samples (at -80°C) of preterm human milk (HM). Samples of colostrum were collected from 98 healthy women within the first 4 days after delivery. The total milk volume collected (6 ml) was divided in two aliquot parts: 3 ml for the fresh analysis which was done immediately after the extraction and 3 ml for storage under freezing conditions at -80°C for three months. The antioxidant status and oxidative stress of the fresh and stored breast milk were assessed via determination of TAC and TOS levels. The mean gestational age and the birth weight of the infants were 31.26 ± 2.93 weeks and 1620 ± 581.91 g; respectively. There were no significant correlations between maternal age, route of delivery and milk oxidative stress. There was no significant difference between the levels of TAC, TOS and the oxidative stress index in fresh and freeze-stored samples of colostrum in preterm HM (p > 0.05). Freeze storage of preterm HM at -80°C for three months preserves the antioxidant capacity without changing oxidative status of HM, which could be noteworthy for the preterm infant nutrition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Antioxidant defense parameters as predictive biomarkers for fermentative capacity of active dried wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    The production of active dried yeast (ADY) is a common practice in industry for the maintenance of yeast starters and as a means of long term storage. The process, however, causes multiple cell injuries, with oxidative damage being one of the most important stresses. Consequentially, dehydration tolerance is a highly appreciated property in yeast for ADY production. In this study we analyzed the cellular redox environment in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, which show markedly different fermentative capacities after dehydration. To measure/quantify the effect of dehydration on the S. cerevisiae strains, we used: (i) fluorescent probes; (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities; (ii) intracellular damage; (iii) antioxidant metabolites; and (iv) gene expression, to select a minimal set of biochemical parameters capable of predicting desiccation tolerance in wine yeasts. Our results show that naturally enhanced antioxidant defenses prevent oxidative damage after wine yeast biomass dehydration and improve fermentative capacity. Based on these results we chose four easily assayable parameters/biomarkers for the selection of industrial yeast strains of interest for ADY production: trehalose and glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase and catalase enzymatic activities. Yeast strains selected in accordance with this process display high levels of trehalose, low levels of oxidized glutathione, a high induction of glutathione reductase activity, as well as a high basal level and sufficient induction of catalase activity, which are properties inherent in superior ADY strains. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Manipulating the antioxidant capacity of halophytes to increase their cultural and economic value through saline cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boestfleisch, Christian; Wagenseil, Niko B; Buhmann, Anne K; Seal, Charlotte E; Wade, Ellie Merrett; Muscolo, Adele; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-08-13

    Halophytes, salt-tolerant plants, are a source of valuable secondary metabolites with potential economic value. The steady-state pools of many stress-related metabolites are already enhanced in halophytes when compared with glycophytes, but growth under conditions away from the optimum can induce stress and consequently result in changes to secondary metabolites such as antioxidants. However, direct evidence for increasing the concentration of valuable secondary metabolites as a consequence of altering the salinity of the growing environment still remains equivocal. To address this, we analysed a range of metabolites with antioxidant capacity (including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate, reduced/oxidized glutathione and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes) in seedlings and plants from different families (Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rhizophoraceae) and habitats grown under different salt concentrations. We show that it is possible to manipulate the antioxidant capacity of plants and seedlings by altering the saline growing environment, the length of time under saline cultivation and the developmental stage. Among the species studied, the halophytes Tripolium pannonicum, Plantago coronopus, Lepidium latifolium and Salicornia europaea demonstrated the most potential as functional foods or nutraceuticals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  13. Measurement of total antioxidant capacity in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in dogs with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Nemec, Alenka; Erzen, Damjan; Skaleric, Uros

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum total antioxidant capacities (TACs) correlate with the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. 41 Toy and Miniature Poodles. After assessment of the degree of severity of naturally occurring periodontitis, GCF samples from both maxillary fourth premolars and a blood sample were collected from each dog. The condition of the periodontium of the entire dentition and at each site of GCF collection was recorded. Clinical parameters assessed included plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. Radiographic analysis of alveolar bone level was also performed. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in GCF and serum samples by use of a commercial kit. Dogs with gingivitis and minimal periodontitis had significantly higher TAC in GCF than dogs with advanced periodontitis. Bivariate regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations between TAC in GCF and clinical parameters and age. The TAC in serum was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of gingival inflammation but was not significantly correlated with age. TAC in GCF is related to the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. This is likely the result of release of reactive oxygen species by activated phagocytes and fibroblasts in the inflamed periodontal tissues. The results of our study suggest that the local delivery of antioxidants may be a useful adjunctive treatment for periodontitis in dogs.

  14. Age-related oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in heat-stressed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vesco, A P; Khatlab, A S; Goes, E S R; Utsunomiya, K S; Vieira, J S; Oliveira Neto, A R; Gasparino, E

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of acute heat stress (HS) and age on the redox state in broilers aged 21 and 42 days. We evaluated the expression of genes related to antioxidant capacity, the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver, as well as oxidative stress markers in the liver and plasma. The experiment had a completely randomized factorial design with two thermal environments (thermoneutral and HS, 38°C for 24 h) and two ages (21 and 42 days). Twenty-one-day-old animals exposed to HS showed the highest thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) (PAge influenced the expression of the thioredoxin (Trx) (P=0.0090), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P=0.0194), glutathione reductase (GSR) (Page and environment on the liver content of Glutathione (GSH) (Page had higher plasma creatinine content (0.05 v. 0.01 mg/dl) and higher aspartate aminotransferase activity (546.50 v. 230.67 U/l) than chickens at 21 days of age. Our results suggest that under HS conditions, in which there is higher H2O2 production, 21-day-old broilers have greater antioxidant capacity than 42-day-old animals.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of Pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz Lima dos; Arthur, Valter

    2007-01-01

    Full text: This research evaluated the effects of gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 on pequi fruits antioxidant properties. The capacity of some foods in neutralizing free radicals have taking been importance due its relationship with decrease of chronic degenerative diseases as the cancer. It becomes important the study of the conservation processes effects on these properties. Pequi fruits come from Ceres-GO (Brazil) were wrapped in polyethylene sacks, sealed at vacuous and storage at -18 deg C until irradiation process. Fruits were irradiated at 0.0 (control) kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.6 kGy and 1.0 kGy doses in Gammacell irradiator with Cobalt-60 source (IPEN/USP), in agreement with ANVISA recommendations. After irradiated, fruits were maintained at refrigerator until the analysis. Samples were analyzed to total carotenoids (TC) described by Rodrigues and Penteado (1989), antioxidant capacity (AC) by reduction of DPPH method and Vitamin C (VC) by Tillmans method agreement to Adolfo Lutz Institute recommendations (IAL, 1985). Was observed a decrease on CT content of the order of 42,56% to 0.4 kGy dose, 53,42% to 0.6 kGy dose and 65,97% to 1.0 kGy dose compared to control, demonstrating a proportional effect to used doses, this is due the carotenoids be sensitive to the gamma radiation. This effect have been related in other foods as carrots, oranges etc, due susceptibility of carotenoids to the gamma radiation. Total carotenoids content presented in the control (167.4 mg/100g) is comparable with another fruits as carrots, palm and other rich ones in carotenes. There was a decrease in the Vitamin C content proportional to applied doses, with losses of the order of 49.37% for 0.4 kGy dose, 82,30 % for 0.6 kGy dose and 85,25% for 1.0 kGy dose. The antioxidant activity, evaluated in the capacity of food to reduce DPPH, it presented similar behavior to indicate for total carotenoids and Vitamin C analyses. This show the narrow relationship between the content of these nutritious

  16. Starch and antioxidant compound release during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of gluten-free pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Rosell, Cristina M; de J Perea-Flores, Maria; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2018-10-15

    The microstructure of cooked gluten-free pasta depends on the ingredients used, and this microstructure affects the starch hydrolysis (SH), the release of phenolic compounds (PC) and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the SD and bioaccessibility of PC during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of gluten-free pasta and its relationship with the microstructure. The highest SH was during the intestinal phase (≈60%), but pasta with the highest content of unripe plantain and chickpea presented the lowest release of PC (≈60%). The insoluble dietary fibre could be responsible (≈12.5%) for these effects. The cooked pasta showed high AC in the intestinal phase. Regions with gelatinized starch granules in a less dense protein network and other regions with intact or swollen granules surrounded by a protein network were observed. The starch digestion and bioaccessibility of PC were related to the structure of the matrix. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An In Vitro Study of the Antioxidant and Antihemolytic Properties of Buddleja globosa (Matico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Duguet, José; Speisky, Hernán

    2017-06-01

    The antioxidant and antihemolytic properties contained in the leaves of Buddleja globosa (B. globosa), also known as "Matico," were determined. Aqueous extracts of leaves were assayed in human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane. The latter were bilayers built-up of lipids located in the outer and inner leaflets of the erythrocyte membrane. Observations by scanning electron microscopy showed that the extract altered the morphology of erythrocytes inducing the formation of crenated echinocytes. This result implied that the extract components were inserted into the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. This conclusion was confirmed by experiments carried out by fluorescence spectroscopy of red cell membranes and vesicles (LUV) of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and by X-ray diffraction of DMPC and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayers. Human erythrocytes were in vitro exposed to HClO, which is a natural powerful oxidant. Results demonstrated that low concentrations of B. globosa aqueous extract neutralized the harmful capacity of HClO. Hemolysis experiments also showed that the extract in very low concentrations reduced hemolysis induced by HClO.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.

  19. The ability of in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of a cod protein hydrolysate and brown seaweed extract to prevent oxidation in marine food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Geirsdóttir, Margrét; Hamaguchi, Patricia Y; Jamnik, Polona; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    The ability of different in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) and Fucus vesiculosus ethyl acetate extract (EA) towards lipid oxidation in haemoglobin-fortified washed cod mince and iron-containing cod liver oil emulsion was evaluated. The progression of oxidation was followed by sensory analysis, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in both systems, as well as loss of redness and protein carbonyls in the cod system. The in vitro tests revealed high reducing capacity, high DPPH radical scavenging properties and a high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of the EA which also inhibited lipid and protein oxidation in the cod model system. The CPH had a high metal chelating capacity and was efficient against oxidation in the cod liver oil emulsion. The results indicate that the F. vesiculosus extract has a potential as an excellent natural antioxidant against lipid oxidation in fish muscle foods while protein hydrolysates are more promising for fish oil emulsions. The usefulness of in vitro assays to predict the antioxidative properties of new natural ingredients in foods thus depends on the knowledge about the food systems, particularly the main pro-oxidants present. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Antioxidant activities of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L peel in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistriyani,

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan, Nephelium lappaceum L, peel due to consumption of fresh rambutan fruit is taken into account as waste, therefore the exploration of rambutan peel as a natural antioxidant is highly needed. The aim of this study is to investigate the antioxidant activity of rambutan peel from two cultivars (Aceh and Binjai using ABTS radical assay of and ferric reducing activity power (FRAP and to correlate with total phenolics and flavonoids. The powdered rambutan peel is extracted using maceration technique using methanol as extracting solvent. The methanolic extract is added with warm water and fractionated using petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate to get corresponding fractions. Rambutan cultivar Binjai revealed the higher ABTS antiradical activity than that of cultivar Aceh. Furthermore, among methanolic extract and its fraction, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antiradical activity using ABTS radical with IC50 values of 3.10 μg/mL and 0.77 μg/mL for Aceh and Binjai, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction also revealed the highest FRAP values of 1424.897 ± 28.56 μg/mg fraction sample (Aceh and 968.57± 7.48 μg/mg fraction sample (Binjai. These activities were correlated with phenolics and flavonoid contents. Rambutan peel exhibited strong antioxidant activities, contained high amounts of phenolics and flavonoid and is potential to be developed as a functional food.

  1. Effect of dietary resveratrol supplementation on meat quality, muscle antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chen, Xingyong; Wang, Li; Geng, Zhaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol has been acknowledged with many beneficial biological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary resveratrol supplementation on meat quality, muscle antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis of broilers. One hundred and eighty 21-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to two groups and fed on a 0 mg kg -1 or 400 mg kg -1 resveratrol-supplemented diet for 21 days. Then, chickens were slaughtered and pectoralis major muscle (PM) samples were collected for analysis. The results showed that resveratrol not only tended to increase (P resveratrol, while malondialdehyde content was decreased (P resveratrol significantly increased (P Resveratrol can be used as a feed additive to improve meat quality of broilers, which may be associated with improved muscle antioxidative status and mitochondrial biogenesis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, β-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  3. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, β-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation

  4. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)], E-mail: markovic57@info-net.co.yu

    2008-01-15

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, {beta}-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  5. The antioxidant system of seminal fluid during in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Dzyuba, Borys; Yamaner, Gunes; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2016-04-01

    The role of the seminal fluid antioxidant system in protection against damage to spermatozoa during in vitro sperm storage is unclear. This study investigated the effect of in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus spermatozoa together with seminal fluid for 36 h at 4 °C on spermatozoon motility rate and curvilinear velocity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level, and components of enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and uric acid concentration) in seminal fluid. Spermatozoon motility parameters after sperm storage were significantly decreased, while the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and uric acid concentration did not change. Our findings suggest that the antioxidant system of sterlet seminal fluid is effective in preventing oxidative stress during short-term sperm storage and prompt future investigations of changes in spermatozoon homeostasis and in spermatozoon plasma membrane structure which are other possible reasons of spermatozoon motility deterioration upon sperm storage.

  6. In vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total flavonoids from Elsholtzia densa Benth of Sichuan Province, China. Methods: The total flavonoids of Elsholtzia densa Bent were extracted utilizing the ultrasonic extraction method, and purified by D101 macroporous adsorption resin ...

  7. Additional information to the in vitro antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugasi, A; Horvahovich, P; Dworschák, E

    The in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extract from Ginkgo biloba L. was examined in different systems. The extract showed hydrogen-donating ability, reducing power, copper-binding property, free radical scavenging activity in a H2O2/.OH-luminol system and it

  8. In Vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from the leaves of Abies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, the leaves of Abies pindrow Royle are employed as an ayurvedic remedy for fever, hypoglycaemic, respiratory and inflammatory conditions. In this study, dichloromethane, methanol and acetone extracts of A. pindrow leaves were analysed for their phytochemical content and in vitro antioxidant activities.

  9. In vitro antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activities of spiced red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spiced chili paste (green or red), locally known as Datta, is a traditional popular spicy paste consumed in Ethiopia. This study investigated the total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), in vitro antioxidant, and α-amylase inhibition activities of water, acetone, petroleum ether, methanol, and 80% methanol ...

  10. Antioxidant activity influenced by in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant potential (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPHº)-scavenging activity) of in vitro regenerated and induced mutant sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) was investigated. Efficient callus induction and shoot regeneration were induced in bud explants when incubated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium ...

  11. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of selected Irish Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Rajauria, Gaurav; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Gupta, Shilpi

    2011-09-01

    Vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates, and their hydrolysis products, which may have antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. In the present study, phenolic composition, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of selected Brassica vegetables, including York cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and white cabbage were evaluated after extraction with aqueous methanol. Results obtained showed that York cabbage extract had the highest total phenolic content, which was 33.5, followed by 23.6, 20.4 and 18.4 mg GAE/g of dried weight (dw) of the extracts for broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. All the vegetable extracts had high flavonoid contents in the order of 21.7, 17.5, 15.4 and 8.75 mg QE/g of extract (dw) for York cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that different vegetables contain a mixture of distinct groups of phenolic compounds. All the extracts studied showed a rapid and concentration dependent antioxidant capacity in diverse antioxidant systems. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. York cabbage extract exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (100%) and Salmonella abony (94.3%), being the most susceptible at a concentration of 2.8%, whereas broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage had moderate to weak activity against all the test organisms. Good correlation (r2 0.97) was found between total phenolic content obtained by spectrophotometric analysis and the sum of the individual polyphenols monitored by HPLC-DAD.

  12. Is the protection against ischemia induced by red wine linked to its antioxidant capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Susana M; Schinella, Guillermo R; Tournier, Horacio A; Cingolani, Horacio E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish whether the total antioxidant capacity of nonalcoholic extracts of three Argentine red wines (RWE) is correlated with their protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. ANIMALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant properties of three RWE were determined using different free radical-generating systems. To examine the effects of these RWE during a 20 min global ischemic period followed by 30 min of reperfusion, isolated rat hearts received 50 μg/mL of RWE 1 (cabernet-sauvignon), RWE 2 (malbec) or RWE 3 (a commercial mixture of cabernet-sauvignon, malbec and merlot) 10 min before and after ischemia. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), maximal velocity of rise of left ventricular pressure (+dP/dtmax) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were used to assess contractility and diastolic function. RESULTS: All RWE inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by the Cl4C/NADPH system in a similar proportion (42±4%, 47±9% and 43±14% for RWE 1, RWE 2 and RWE 3, respectively). The scavenging activity of superoxide anion and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical was about the same with the three RWE. In hearts without RWE treatment, LVDP and +dP/dtmax were 61±4% and 62±5%, respectively, at the end of the reperfusion period. Infusion of RWE 1 and RWE 2 significantly improved postischemic recovery (LVDP and +dP/dtmax were 102±4% and 101±4% for RWE 1 and 92±5% and 91±5% for RWE 2, respectively) and attenuated the increase of LVEDP. RWE 3 did not improve either systolic or diastolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: These data show that although the three non-alcoholic RWE exhibit a similar total antioxidant capacity, only two of them protect the heart against myocardial stunning, suggesting that the protective effect is not primarily linked to the anti-oxidant properties of the extracts. PMID:20428256

  13. Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Vincent P; de Souza Junior, Tacito P; Behrens, Christian; Barros, Marcelo P; Bueno, Carlos Alves; Utter, Alan C; McAnulty, Lisa S; McAnulty, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    Dehydration is a common event associated with exercise. However, few studies have examined the effects of dehydration on plasma redox status in humans. Eighty-two athletes were recruited and baseline anthropometrics and blood samples were obtained. Athletes then engaged in a dehydration protocol, training until 3% of preweight body mass was lost. Athletes returned to the lab and had postdehydration blood collected. Athletes then consumed an isotonic drink until pre-exercise body weight was reestablished. Blood was then recollected (1 h post full rehydration (PFR)). Samples were centrifuged and the plasma snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Lipid and protein oxidative stress was determined by measuring F 2 -isoprostanes and protein carbonyls (PC), respectively. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Plasma osmolality was determined using an osmometer. Statistical analysis utilized a 1-way ANOVA with posthoc testing. Values are reported as mean ± SD. Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) but decreased to baseline at PFR. Plasma TEAC increased immediately postdehydration and at PFR (p ≤ 0.001). FRAP increased immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) and decreased to below baseline at PFR (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, F 2 -isoprostanes declined significantly from baseline to immediately postdehydration and then significantly rose at PFR (p ≤ 0.001), whereas PC declined at PFR (p ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that dehydration and exercise cause a significant increase in plasma osmolality and antioxidant potential immediately postexercise. We propose dehydration significantly elevates antioxidant concentration which suppresses F 2 -isoprostanes and PC.

  14. Antioxidant Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Vitro and in Food Emulsion Systems Enriched With Fish Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. Bioactive components like polyphenols have been identified in marine algae. In this presentation we will discuss results from our...... ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains a wide range of polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity. Thus, in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts have been found to be related to the total polyphenolic content. It has been suggested that the primary...... antioxidant activity comes from secondary metabolites such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different...

  15. Phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity of selected species of seaweeds from Danish coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Water and ethanolic extracts of 16 species of seaweeds collected along the Danish coasts were screened for antioxidant activities using four in vitro antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power, ferrous ion-chelating and liposome model system......). Furthermore their effectiveness in retarding lipid peroxidation in fish oil was evaluated by an accelerated stability test. Significant differences were observed in total and individual phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of seaweed species evaluated. Ethanol was more efficient for polyphenol...... extraction than water. Polysiphonia fucoides and all the Fucus species tested showed highest radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system and in fish oil and were high in phenolic content. These seaweeds could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants...

  16. In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Amzad; Shah, Muhammad Dawood; Gnanaraj, Charles; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah. The dry powder leaves of Tetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin - Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α, α-diphenyl- β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89 mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil. The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves of Tetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-06-18

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control), the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity), pineapple (for reducing power), blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition), blackberry "antioxidant" (for tocopherols) and cherry (for sugars). The mention of "antioxidant" in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress.

  18. Improvement of the antioxidant and hypolipidaemic effects of cowpea flours (Vigna unguiculata) by fermentation: results of in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Andrade, Ana M; López Chaves, Carlos; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cañizares, Francisco J; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesús M

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant capacity and hypolipidaemic effects of Vigna unguiculata, as well as their potential improvement by different fermentation and thermal processes were studied using in vitro and in vivo methods. Phenolic content and reducing capacity of legume acetone extract were significantly increased by different fermentation processes, and by the thermal treatment of fermented legume flours. TBARS inhibiting capacity was increased by fermentation but not by thermal treatment. A higher ability to decrease Cu(2+)/H2O2-induced electrophoretic mobility of LDL was found in fermented when compared to raw legume extracts, and a higher protective effect on short term metabolic status of HT-29 cells was found for raw and lactobacillus-fermented Vigna followed by naturally fermented Vigna extracts. Significant improvements in plasma antioxidant capacity and hepatic activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in rats that consumed fermented legume flours when compared to the untreated legume or a casein-methionine control diet. In addition, liver weight and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were also positively affected by untreated or naturally fermented Vigna. V. unguiculata has demonstrated its potential as a functional food with interesting antioxidant and lipid lowering properties, which can be further augmented by fermentation processes associated or not to thermal processing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effect of brewing time and temperature on antioxidant capacity and phenols of white tea: Relationship with sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Burillo, S; Giménez, R; Rufián-Henares, J A; Pastoriza, S

    2018-05-15

    White tea is highly consumed due to its sensory properties and health benefits, although most scientific reports don't include the analysis of both properties. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to unravel the best brewing conditions for optimal extraction of the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity, while realising the best sensory properties. Infusions of eighty commercial teas (sold in bags or leaves) were obtained at different time-temperature ratios, studying bioactive compounds (caffeine and individual catechins), antioxidant capacity and sensory analysis. Brewing at 98 °C for 7 min was the best condition to obtain a high content of antioxidant polyphenols and pleasant sensory properties. Those teas sold in bags give rise to tea brews with almost double antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, it is very important to link sensory and chemical data to obtain optimal sensorial quality and the highest healthy properties in white tea infusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of milk by CUPRAC and ABTS methods with separate characterisation of milk protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Demir, Aslı; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2015-05-01

    Most milk-applied antioxidant assays in literature are based on the isolation and quantification of individual antioxidative compounds, whereas total antioxidant capacity (TAC) gives a more holistic picture due to cooperative action of antioxidants. Recently, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method has been modified to measure the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins, where the classical ammonium acetate buffer - that may otherwise precipitate proteins- was replaced with concentrated urea buffer (able to expose embedded thiol groups of proteins to oxidative attack) adjusted to pH 7.0. Thus, antioxidant capacity of milk was investigated with two competing TAC assays, namely CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid))/persulphate, because only these assays were capable of evaluating protein contribution to the observed TAC value. As milk fat caused turbidity, experiments were carried out with skim milk or defatted milk samples. To determine TAC, modified CUPRAC method was applied to whole milk, separated and redissolved protein fractions, and the remaining liquid phase after necessary operations. Both TAC methods were investigated for their dilution sensitivity and antioxidant power assessment of separate milk fractions such as casein and whey. Proteins like β-lactoglobulin and casein (but not simple thiols) exhibited enhanced CUPRAC reactivity with surfactant (SDS) addition. Addition of milk protein fractions to whole skim milk produced significant 'negative-biased' deviations (up to -26% relative standard error) from TAC absorbance additivity in the application of the ABTS method, as opposed to that of the CUPRAC method less affected by chemical deviations from Beer's law thereby producing much smaller deviations from additivity (i.e. the property of additivity is valid when the measured TAC of a mixture is equal to the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of its constituents).

  1. Highlights Regarding Host Predisposing Factors to Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Chronic Stress and Reduced Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto-Gunther, Luciene; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza; Takahachi, Gisele; Irie, Mary Mayumi T; Miyamoto, Sônia; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Svidzinsk, Terezinha I Estivalet

    2016-01-01

    We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively. Fasting-blood samples were collected by standard venipuncture for biochemical analyses. Flow cytometry was employed to obtain the T helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio, and insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA index (HI). Yeasts were isolated from 71 (26%) women: 23 (32.4%) with a positive culture but without symptoms (COL), 22 (31%) in an acute episode (VVC), and 26 (36.6%) with RVVC. C. albicans was the main yeast isolated in all clinical profiles. The control group (negative culture) comprised 206 women. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance were more associated with the positive-culture groups (COL, VVC and RVVC) than with negative ones. The RVVC group showed lower mean levels of cortisol than the control group and lower antioxidant capacity than all other groups. The T Helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio was similar in all groups. The RVVC group showed a similar level of vaginal inflammation to the control group, and lower than in the COL and VVC groups. Only the CVV group showed a reduction in vaginal lactobacillus microbiota. Our data suggest that both chronic stress (decreased early-morning cortisol levels) and reduced antioxidant capacity can be host predisposing factors to RVVC.

  2. Highlights Regarding Host Predisposing Factors to Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Chronic Stress and Reduced Antioxidant Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Akimoto-Gunther

    Full Text Available We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC, including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively. Fasting-blood samples were collected by standard venipuncture for biochemical analyses. Flow cytometry was employed to obtain the T helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio, and insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA index (HI. Yeasts were isolated from 71 (26% women: 23 (32.4% with a positive culture but without symptoms (COL, 22 (31% in an acute episode (VVC, and 26 (36.6% with RVVC. C. albicans was the main yeast isolated in all clinical profiles. The control group (negative culture comprised 206 women. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance were more associated with the positive-culture groups (COL, VVC and RVVC than with negative ones. The RVVC group showed lower mean levels of cortisol than the control group and lower antioxidant capacity than all other groups. The T Helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio was similar in all groups. The RVVC group showed a similar level of vaginal inflammation to the control group, and lower than in the COL and VVC groups. Only the CVV group showed a reduction in vaginal lactobacillus microbiota. Our data suggest that both chronic stress (decreased early-morning cortisol levels and reduced antioxidant capacity can be host predisposing factors to RVVC.

  3. Antioxidant and immunostimulatory activities in vitro of polysaccharides from pomegrante peels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, C.L.; Wang, D.; Yao, X.; Xu, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the crude polysaccharides from pomegranate peels(CPP) were prepared by water-extraction technology. In vitro antioxidant assay, CPP showed strong inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing ability, moderate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The immunostimulatory activity of CPP was also evaluated by using in vitro cell models. The results demonstrated that CPP could promote the splenocyte proliferation, increase the activity of acid phosphatase in peritoneal macrophages and strengthen peritoneal macrophages to devour neutral red in vitro. (author)

  4. Insights into the HyPer biosensor as molecular tool for monitoring cellular antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Helen; Parra, Alejandra; Tobar, Nicolas; Molina, Jessica; Kallens, Violeta; Hidalgo, Miltha; Varela, Diego; Martínez, Jorge; Porras, Omar

    2018-06-01

    Aerobic metabolism brings inexorably the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are counterbalanced by intrinsic antioxidant defenses avoiding deleterious intracellular effects. Redox balance is the resultant of metabolic functioning under environmental inputs (i.e. diet, pollution) and the activity of intrinsic antioxidant machinery. Monitoring of intracellular hydrogen peroxide has been successfully achieved by redox biosensor advent; however, to track the intrinsic disulfide bond reduction capacity represents a fundamental piece to understand better how redox homeostasis is maintained in living cells. In the present work, we compared the informative value of steady-state measurements and the kinetics of HyPer, a H 2 O 2 -sensitive fluorescent biosensor, targeted at the cytosol, mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum. From this set of data, biosensor signal recovery from an oxidized state raised as a suitable parameter to discriminate reducing capacity of a close environment. Biosensor recovery was pH-independent, condition demonstrated by experiments on pH-clamped cells, and sensitive to pharmacological perturbations of enzymatic disulfide reduction. Also, ten human cell lines were characterized according their H 2 O 2 -pulse responses, including their capacity to reduce disulfide bonds evaluated in terms of their migratory capacity. Finally, cellular migration experiments were conducted to study whether migratory efficiency was associated with the disulfide reduction activity. The migration efficiency of each cell type correlates with the rate of signal recovery measured from the oxidized biosensor. In addition, HyPer-expressing cells treated with N-acetyl-cysteine had accelerated recovery rates and major migratory capacities, both reversible effects upon treatment removal. Our data demonstrate that the HyPer signal recovery offers a novel methodological tool to track the cellular impact of redox active biomolecules. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  5. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml ...... for by an increase in vitamin C rather than phenolics. This also accounted for the lack of an effect of the phenolic-rich but vitamin C-low blueberry juice. Sponsorship: Funded by the Scottish Executive Rural Affairs Department and the Danish Government....

  6. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio...

  7. Role of secondary metabolites/antioxidants in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    In literature, secondary metabolites are described as natural products, waste, phytopharmaceuticals, bioactive constituents or by-products of the primary metabolism. They occur in many plant genera and microorganisms in vivo and in vitro, and have complex chemical structures specific to the plants w...

  8. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Chitosan Aqueous Solution: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (CS-TPP) and chitosan ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CS-EDTA) solution were determined employing various established in vitro system such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging, metal ion chelating and reducing power. Their chemical structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ...

  9. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r 2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content (P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants (P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content (P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull. - Highlights: → we investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on pistachio hull. → We examine changes in phenolics, antioxidant and digestion of pistachio hull. → Computerized radial diffusion method gives precise regression for standard curve. → Gamma irradiation will decrease tannin and antioxidants of pistachio hull extracts.

  10. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behgar, M [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, S; Naserian, A [Faculty of Agriculture, Excellence Center in Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 917751163, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borzoie, A; Fatollahi, H [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r{sup 2} (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content (P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants (P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content (P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull. - Highlights: > we investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on pistachio hull. > We examine changes in phenolics, antioxidant and digestion of pistachio hull. > Computerized radial diffusion method gives precise regression for standard curve. > Gamma irradiation will decrease tannin and antioxidants of pistachio hull extracts.

  11. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion, the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic, Allium porrum L. (leek and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi. The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

  12. The in vitro antioxidant activity of different types of palm dates (Phoenix dactylifera syrups

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    Mohammed Al-Mamary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm date fruits have been used for nutritional and medicinal purposes in Middle Eastern countries. They are used in folk medicine for treatment of liver diseases and highly recommended to be consumed by pregnant women before and after delivery. Therefore, the present work aimed to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoids in three syrups obtained from palm dates extracted with aqueous ethanol (80% and to evaluate in vitro their antioxidative properties. The new findings showed that the three tested syrups contained significantly different amounts of both total phenolic content and total flavonoids. Syrups can be arranged according to the increase of total phenolic contents and total flavonoids as follows: Yemeni-Rotab > Saudi-Tamr > Iraqi-Tamr. The results of antioxidant activities of palm dates syrups obtained by using different in vitro methods were varied depending on the method used. According to the TBARS method, H2O2 scavenging ability and DPPH methods, all syrups showed to have high to very high antioxidant activities. On the other hand, syrups showed low to intermediate antioxidant activities when other methods were used, such as the scavenging ability of ·−OH and NO and the ability to chelate Fe2+ ions. Generally, the values of antioxidant activities of Rotab-syrup have been shown to be always the highest.

  13. Antioxidant potential of bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze seeds in in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidu Kamatham A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze, is a medicinally important plant. Earlier, we have reported phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic, antimicrobial activity of bitter cumin. In this study we have further characterized the antioxidative activity of bitter cumin extracts in various in vitro models. Methods Bitter cumin seeds were extracted with a combination of acetone, methanol and water. The antioxidant activity of bitter cumin extracts were characterized in various in vitro model systems such as DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging, reducing power, oxidation of liposomes and oxidative damage to DNA. Results The phenolic extracts of bitter cumin at microgram concentration showed significant scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals, reduced phosphomolybdenum (Mo(VI to Mo(V, ferricyanide Fe(III to Fe(II, inhibited liposomes oxidation and hydroxyl radical induced damage to prokaryotic genomic DNA. The results showed a direct correlation between phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity. Conclusion Bitter cumin is a good source of natural antioxidants.

  14. Evaluation of Both Free Radical Scavenging Capacity and Antioxidative Damage Effect of Polydatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ju; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiuli; Chen, Tongsheng; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Zhiping

    Cellular damage such as oxidation and lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species, has been implicated in several diseases. Radicals generated by 2,2-azobis (2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) are similar to physiologically active ones. In this study we found that polydatin, a resveratrol natural precursor derived from many sources, has the capacity of free radical scavenging and antioxidative damage. Using free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 values of polydatin were 19.25 and 5.29 μg/ml with the DPPH and the ABTS assay, respectively, and 0.125 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg polydatin with the FRAP assay. With the AAPH-induced oxidative injury cell model assay, polydatin showed a strong protective effect against the human liver tumor HepG2 cell oxidative stress damage. These results indicate that the antioxidant properties of polydatin have great potential for use as an alternative to more toxic synthetic antioxidants as an additive in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of oxidative diseases.

  15. Anthocyanins and antioxidant capacities of six Chilean berries by HPLC-HR-ESI-ToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Kennelly, Edward J; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2015-06-01

    The HPLC profiles of six fruits endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis (HR-ToF-ESI-MS). The anthocyanin fingerprints generated for the fruits were compared and the antioxidant capacities measured by the scavenging of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and correlated with the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (LP) and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Several anthocyanins were identified, including 3-O-glycosides derivatives of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloyl-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid) and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin) were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity. However, the highest LP activity was found for Chilean blueberries (>95%) followed by calafate fruits (91.27%) and luma (83.4%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and light-aging study of HPMC films functionalized with natural plant extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Javeed; Jacquot, Muriel; Jasniewski, Jordane; Jacquot, Charlotte; Imran, Muhammad; Jamshidian, Majid; Paris, Cédric; Desobry, Stéphane

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this work were to functionalize edible hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films with natural coloring biomolecules having antioxidant capacity and to study their photo-aging stability in the films. HPMC films containing a natural red color compound (NRC) at the level of 1, 2, 3 or 4% (v/v) were prepared by a casting method. A slight degradation of films color was observed after 20 days of continuous light exposure. The antioxidant activity of NRC incorporated films was stable during different steps of film formation and 20 days of dark storage. On the other hand, antioxidant activity of samples stored under light was significantly affected after 20 days. FTIR (Fourier Transformed Infrared) spectroscopy was used to characterize the new phenolic polymeric structures and to study the photo-degradation of films. The results showed a good polymerization phenomenon between NRC and HPMC in polymer matrix giving a natural color to the films. NRC showed an ability to protect pure HPMC films against photo-degradation. This phenomenon was directly proportional to the concentration of NRC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stevia rebaudiana Leaves: Effect of Drying Process Temperature on Bioactive Components, Antioxidant Capacity and Natural Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Ah-Hen, Kong; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Honores, Carolina; Moraga, Nelson O

    2016-03-01

    Stevia leaves are usually used in dried state and undergo the inevitable effect of drying process that changes the quality characteristics of the final product. The aim of this study was to assess temperature effect on Stevia leaves through analysis of relevant bioactive components, antioxidant capacity and content of natural sweeteners and minerals. The drying process was performed in a convective dryer at constant temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C. Vitamin C was determined in the leaves and as expected showed a decrease during drying proportional to temperature. Phenolics and flavonoids were also determined and were found to increase during drying below 50 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, and the latter showed the highest value at 40 °C, with a better correlation with the phenolics and flavonoids content. The content of eight natural sweeteners found in Stevia leaves was also determined and an increase in the content of seven of the sweeteners, excluding steviol bioside, was found at drying temperature up to 50 °C. At temperatures between 60 and 80 °C the increase in sweeteners content was not significant. Stevia leaves proved to be an excellent source of antioxidants and natural sweeteners.

  19. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of dietary constituents and antioxidant capacity of Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bona, Gicele S; Boschetti, Wiliam; Bortolin, Rafael C; Vale, Maria G R; Moreira, José C F; de Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional content and antioxidant capacity of the tubers, leaves and, flowers of the species Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. The three parts of the plant were analyzed by physicochemical methods, atomic absorption spectrometry, spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques. The tubers, leaves, and flowers exhibited significant differences in all parameters evaluated. The leaves showed significantly higher values of protein (16.28 ± 0.02 g/100 g), total dietary fiber (27.78 ± 0.15 g/100 g) and quercetin (3798.61 ± 37.57 µg/g) when compared to the tubers and flowers. The study revealed a potential content of the protein, dietary fiber, and flavonoids the species Tropaeolum pentaphyllum , when compared with the sweet potatoes leaves ( Ipomoea batatas L.). In addition, the antioxidant activities of leaves and flowers were also higher measured by ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and TRAP (total radical-trapping antioxidant potential) methods. Tropaeolum pentaphyllum have high nutritional potential that can be exploited to improve nutritional value of various food products.

  1. Electrochemical methods as a tool for determining the antioxidant capacity of food and beverages: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Arbeláez, Jorge; Vázquez, Mario; Contreras-Calderón, José

    2017-04-15

    The growing interest in functional foods had led to the use of analytical techniques to quantify some properties, among which is the antioxidant capacity (AC). In order to identify and quantify this capacity, some techniques are used, based on synthetic radicals capture; and they are monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometry. Electrochemical techniques are emerging as alternatives, given some of the disadvantages faced by spectrophotometric methods such as the use of expensive reagent not environmentally friendly, undefined reaction time, long sample pretreatment, and low precision and sensitivity. This review focuses on the four most commonly used electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and chronoamperometry). Some of the applications to determine AC in foods and beverages are presented, as well as the correlation between both spectrophotometric and electrochemical techniques that have been reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid profile of millet bran wine and the synergistic interaction between major polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoXuan; Sha, XiaoHong; Rahman, Ebeydulla; Wang, Yong; Ji, BaoPing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Millet bran, the by-product of millet processing industry, contains an abundance of phytochemicals, especially polyphenols. The main objective of this study was brewing antioxidant wine from millet bran, as well as the nutritional evaluation. The total polyphenol content of wine samples was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Results showed that millet bran wine (MBW) contained as much as six times of total polyphenols compared with millet wine (MW), and performed considerably stronger antioxidant activity in DPPH, TEAC and FRAP assays. More than sixfold of total amino acids (AA) were found in MBW than in MW. Moreover, the indispensable AA and functional AA were also abundant in MBW. The major polyphenol compounds in MBW were identified using HPLC, including vanillic acid, syringic acid (SA), p -coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA). They exhibited synergism in the antioxidant assays, especially the combinations of SA and CA, SA and FA. This study not only provides evidence for MBW as a nutraceutical with antioxidant activity, but also opens new avenues in the area of making comprehensive utilization of agricultural by-products.

  4. Total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant capacity of selected traditional Ethiopian alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Debebe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the total contents of phenolics, tannins and flavonoids and antioxidant capacity and their relationships in traditional Ethiopian alcoholic beverages. They have been determined utilizing Folin–Ciocalteu assay, aluminum chloride precipitating agent and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, respectively. The most widely consumed beverages and which have many varieties were selected for this study. These are gesho fermented and non-gesho beverages tella, tej, borde, keribo, birz, korefe and areke. The total phenolic content obtained in gallic acid equivalent (GAE μg mL-1 was: areke (0.2–0.62, tella (10.1–19.1, tej (5.8–9.5, keribo (10.4–14.9, birz (10.5–12.2, korefe (9.2–10.7 and borde (8.4–10.6. The majority of phenolic compounds in the alcoholic beverages are non-tannic and non-flavonoid compounds. The antioxidant capacity obtained in ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE μg mL-1 was: areke (-0.28–284, tella (31.6–201, tej (1.73–73.7, keribo (39.21–90.11, birz (41.95–63.08, korefe (58.25–96.45 and borde (180–217. The variation in the antioxidant activity among the beverages is due to the types and amount of ingredients used, disparity in the preparation process and the types of phenolic compounds found. The relationship between total phenolics and antioxidant activities was investigated using Pearson correlation at 95% confidence level. The results obtained indicate that the non-gesho fermented beverages such as keribo (-0.714, birz (-0.686 and borde (-0.212 have negative antioxidant correlation with the total phenolic, whereas, fermented beverages with gesho such as tella (0.539, tej (0.385 and korefe (0.557 have positive correlations. Areke has an overall positive correlation (0.609, but, the cereal areke which does not have medicinal plants has negative correlation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v30i1.3

  5. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of fruit and vegetable beverages processed by different technology methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mlček

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the natural drinks production is the preservation of biologically active compounds in maximal amount in prepared drinks. The issue is the loss of these substances due to conventional conservation methods, such as pasteurization. Pascalization, a conservation method using high pressure, performs a new trend in conservation. According to available research, it causes only a minimal loss of bioactive compounds. Influence of conservation technology of fruit and vegetable beverages on the content of bioactive substances - polyphenols, flavonoids and on their antioxidative activity has been investigated. Their content has been compared in fresh juice samples, in samples conserved by pasteurization and after the appliance of high pressure treatment - pascalization (HPP. HPP has a positive effect on total antioxidative capacity of juices - broccoli with apple (increase of the amount from 189.12 mg.100 mL-1 to 217.12 mg.100 mL-1 and beetroot and on total polyphenol content within all samples of beverages except from carrot juice. Decrease of the amounts of flavonoids has been observed within all beverages. For drinks after pasteurization treatment there is evident the decrease of total polyphenols content and total antioxidant activity, besides carrot juice, where the antioxidant capacity value had increased from 37.24 to 43.14 mg.100 mL-1. The flavonoid content of fruit and vegetable juices after heat treatment had increased only in the juice prepared from broccoli with apple (from 40.71 mg.100 mL-1 to 45.14 mg.100 mL-1, the content in other juices had decreased. However, the decrease of the flavonoid content is lower after heat treatment in comparison to HPP, except the samples of cabbage juice with apple. With the exception of flavonoids, HPP has been proved as a gentle conservation technology enabling preserving higher amounts of bioactive substances with antioxidative properties if compared with the heat treatment. For the samples

  6. Structural characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of kojic dipalmitate loaded w/o/w multiple emulsions intended for skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalez, Maíra Lima; Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-01-01

    Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of -13 mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ''shear thinning" flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders.

  7. Structural Characterization and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Kojic Dipalmitate Loaded W/O/W Multiple Emulsions Intended for Skin Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Lima Gonçalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple emulsions (MEs are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP. The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm and zeta potential (ZP, performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of −13 mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ‘‘shear thinning’’ flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders.

  8. Antioxidative and antitumor properties of in vitro-cultivated broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Jasmina; Parić, Adisa; Maksimović, Milka; Bajrović, Kasim

    2012-02-01

    Broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. (Brassicaceae)] contains substantial quantities of bioactive compounds, which are good free radical scavengers and thus might have strong antitumor properties. Enhancing production of plant secondary metabolites could be obtained with phytohormones that have significant effects on the metabolism of secondary metabolites. In that manner, in vitro culture presents good model for manipulation with plant tissues in order to affect secondary metabolite production and thus enhance bioactive properties of plants. Estimation of the antioxidative and antitumor properties of broccoli cultivated in different in vitro conditions. In vitro germinated and cultivated broccoli seedlings, as well as spontaneously developed calli, were subjected to Soxhlet extraction. Antioxidative activity of the herbal extracts was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical method. Antitumor properties of the extracts were determined using crown-gall tumor inhibition (potato disc) assay. Three, 10, 20, and 30 days old broccoli seedlings, cultivated in vitro on three different Murashige-Skoog media, two types of callus, and seedlings from sterile filter paper were used for extraction. In total, 15 aqueous extracts were tested for antioxidative and antitumor potential. Three day-old seedlings showed the highest antioxidative activity. Eleven out of 15 aqueous extracts demonstrated above 50% of crown-gall tumor inhibition in comparison with the control. Tumor inhibition was in association with types and concentrations of phytohormones presented in growing media. It is demonstrated that phytohormones in plant-growing media could affect the bioactive properties of broccoli either through increasing or decreasing their antioxidative and antitumor potential.

  9. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from dendrobium denneanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A.; Ge, Z.; Fan, Y.; Chun, Z.; Jin, He X.

    2011-01-01

    The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP) obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw) of about 484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant. ?? 2011.

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Dendrobium denneanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XingJin He

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw of about  484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant.

  11. Microbial Biotransformation of a Polyphenol-Rich Potato Extract Affects Antioxidant Capacity in a Simulated Gastrointestinal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Khairallah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A multistage human gastrointestinal model was used to digest a polyphenol-rich potato extract containing chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin as the primary polyphenols, to assess for their microbial biotransformation and to measure changes in antioxidant capacity in up to 24 h of digestion. The biotransformation of polyphenols was assessed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Among the colonic reactors, parent (polyphenols were detected in the ascending (AC, but not the transverse (TC or descending (DC colons. The most abundant microbial phenolic metabolites in all colonic reactors included derivatives of propionic acid, acetic acid, and benzoic acid. As compared to the baseline, an earlier increase in antioxidant capacity (T = 8 h was seen in the stomach and small intestine vessels as compared to the AC (T = 16 h and TC and DC (T = 24 h. The increase in antioxidant capacity observed in the DC and TC can be linked to the accumulation of microbial smaller-molecular-weight phenolic catabolites, as the parent polyphenolics had completely degraded in those vessels. The colonic microbial digestion of potato-based polyphenols could lead to improved colonic health, as this generates phenolic metabolites with significant antioxidant potential.

  12. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla D. Di Mattia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation. The aim of this mini-review is to revise the literature on the impact of full processing on the in vitro antioxidant activity of chocolate, providing a critical analysis of the implications of processing on the evaluation of the antioxidant effect of chocolate in in vivo studies in humans.

  13. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattia, Carla D; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation. The aim of this mini-review is to revise the literature on the impact of full processing on the in vitro antioxidant activity of chocolate, providing a critical analysis of the implications of processing on the evaluation of the antioxidant effect of chocolate in in vivo studies in humans.

  14. Effect of Thymol on Serum Antioxidant Capacity of Rats Following Myocardial Hypertrophy

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    Mohabbat Jamhiri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension- induced cardiac hypertrophy. Plants are a rich source of antioxidant compounds. Thymol is a natural monoterpen phenol which is plentiful in some plants and shows many biological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of thymol on activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA level and the activity of the inhibition of free radical DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl, following left ventricular hypertrophy in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, rats were divided into hypertrophied group without any treatment (H group and rats pretreated with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of thymol (Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups, respectively. Intact animals were served as control (Ctl. Animal model of left ventricular hypertrophy was induced by abdominal aortic banding. Serum catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level and the activity of inhibition of free radicals DPPH were determined by the biochemical methods. Results: In Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups, the CAT activity was increased significantly in serum (p<0.01, vs. Ctl. Also, serum level of MDA was decreased significantly compared to the group H in Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively. The effect of inhibiting DPPH free radicals was increased significantly in Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups compared to the group H (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that thymol as an antioxidant causes cardioprotective effects and as well as prevents left ventricular hypertrophy via augmentation of serum antioxidant capacity.

  15. Evaluation of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidative damage effect of resveratrol-nanostructured lipid carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ju; Shi, Fan; Li, Qiu-wen; Li, Pei-shan; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2016-03-01

    Cellular damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases. 2, 2-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride(AAPH) generates two potent ROS capable of inducing lipid peroxidation: alkoxy radical(RO-) and peroxy radical(ROO-). These radicals are similar to those that are physiologically active and thus might initiate a cascade of intracellular toxic events leading to oxidation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and subsequent cell death. Hence naturally anti-oxidant play a vital role in combating these conditions. In this study, resveratrol loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Res-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The effects of Res-NLC on free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidative damage is investigated. The particle size and zeta potential of Res-NLC were 139.3 ± 1.7 nm and -11.21 ± 0.41 mV, respectively. By free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 value of Res-NLC were 19.25, 5.29 μg/mL with DPPH, ABTS assay respectively, and 0.161 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg Res-NLC with FRAP assay; and by AAPH-induced oxidative injury cell model assay, Res-NLC showed the strong protective effect against the human liver tumor HepG2 cell oxidative stress damage. These results indicated that the antioxidant properties of Res-NLC hold great potential used as an alternative to more toxic synthetic antioxidants as an additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for the oxidative diseases treatment.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and larvicidal activity of essential oil and extracts from Lippia grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Ivana T. Damasceno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves and thin branches of Lippia grandis Schauer, Verbenaceae, are used for flavoring of food in the Brazilian Amazon, as substitute for oregano. In this study the constituents of the essential oil were identified and the antioxidant capacity and larvicidal activity of the oil and methanol extract and its sub-fractions were evaluated. A sensory evaluation was determined in view of absence of toxicity. The oil showed a yield of 2.1% and its main constituents were thymol (45.8%, p-cymene (14.3%, γ-terpinene (10.5%, carvacrol (9.9% and thymol methyl ether (4.8%, totalizing 85%. The DPPH radical scavenging activity showed values for the EC50 between 9.0 and 130.5 µg mL-1 and the TEAC/ABTS values varied from 131.1 to 336.0 mg TE/g, indicating significant antioxidant activity for the plant. The total phenolic content ranged from 223.0 to 761.4 mg GAE/g, contributing to the antioxidant activity observed. The crude extracts inhibited the bleaching of β-carotene and the oil showed the greatest inhibition (42.5%. The oil (LgO, 7.6±2.4 µg mL-1 showed strong larvicidal activity against the brine shrimp bioassay. The sensory evaluation was highly satisfactory in comparison to oregano. The results are very promising for the use of L. grandis in seasoning and antioxidant products.

  17. Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Shirzad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group, referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student’s ttest. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43±183.95 μM; P < 0.0001, and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA (0.49 ± 0.30 μM was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM (P < 0.0001. TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P < 0.0001, r = −0.48. Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

  18. Salivary total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in patients with erosive oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Atena; Pouramir, Mahdi; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Jenabian, Niloofar; Bijani, Ali; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group) and 30 age-and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group), referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student' t-test. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM) was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43 ± 183.95 μM; P & 0.0001), and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA) (0.49 ± 0.30 μM) was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM) (P & 0.0001). TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P & 0.0001, r = -0.48). Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

  19. In vitro antioxidant activity and inhibitory hepatic steatosis effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    induced (OA-induced) fatty liver in vitro was also the EA fraction. Further, it was ... dyspepsia, nursing the blood, anti-aging and anti-fatigue. Recently .... 540 nm. Glucose was used to calculate the standard curve. (y=0.9615x-0.1011; R2 = 0.9981). Fatty acid. Fat was extracted by soxhlet extraction. RDF (10 g) was accurately ...

  20. Food Stabilizing Antioxidants Increase Nutrient Bioavailability in the in Vitro Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Magdalena; Wikiera, Agnieszka; Antończyk, Anna; Grabacka, Maja

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether antioxidants may enhance bioavailability of lipids and carbohydrates and therefore increase the risk of obesity development. We tested how supplementation with antioxidants (0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT], α-tocopherol, and green tea catechins) of a diet containing butter and wheat bread affects bioavailability of fats and carbohydrates. The absorption of the in vitro digested diet was estimated in the intestinal epithelia model of the Caco-2 cells cultured in Transwell chambers. In the case of the antioxidant-supplemented diets, we observed increased bioavailability of glucose, cholesterol, and lipids, as well as elevated secretion of the main chylomicron protein apoB-48 to the basal compartment. Importantly, we did not detect any rise in the concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde, MDA) in the control samples prepared without antioxidants. Addition of antioxidants (in particular BHT) to the diet increases bioavailability of lipids and carbohydrates, which consequently may increase the risk of obesity development. The dose of antioxidants is a factor of fundamental importance, particularly for catechins: low doses increase absorption of lipids, whereas high doses exert the opposite effect.

  1. Effect of dental restorative materials on total antioxidant capacity and calcium concentration of unstimulated saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholam H; Moghadam, Mona-Momeni; Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Scarbecz, Mark; Sheibani, Nader

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dental amalgam and composite restorations on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and calcium (Ca) ion concentration of unstimulated saliva. Forty-eight children aged 6-10 years selected and divided into three groups of sixteen (8 males, 8 females). In group A and B, samples consisted of two class II dental composite or amalgam restorations, while in group C samples were caries-free (control group). Unstimulated saliva from all samples was collected and TAC was measured by spectrophotometry using an adaptation of 2, 2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assay. The Ca ion level was estimated by an auto- analyzer. Data were analyzed with one- and two-way ANOVA test, at a p difference between groups ( p differences within and between groups ( p Gender is an effective factor in changes induced in oral cavity as females showed more emphatic reaction to dental filling materials than males. Patients who have dental restorations, especially dental composites, should pay more attention to their dental hygiene, because dental restorations can increase oxidative stress and decrease Ca ion level in saliva, which might jeopardize remineralization process of tooth structures after demineralization. Key words: Amalgam, caries, composite, saliva, total antioxidant capacity.

  2. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  3. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Schwieterman, Michael L; Abrahan, Carolina E; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv "Ceasar") grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  4. Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolic Constituents and Toxicity of Hot Water Extract from Red Maple Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Naamwin R; Poubelle, Patrice E; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2017-06-01

    The present study reports, for the first time, the results of the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic composition of a hot water extract from red maple buds (RMB), as well as its safety. In this regard and comparatively to antioxidant standards, this extract exhibits a significant antiradical capacity when tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH · ) and anion superoxide trapping assays. High-resolution mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses permitted to determine for the first time, in red maple species, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside, and quercetin. Also, the quantification of individual phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography method revealed that ginnalin A at 117.0 mg/g is the major compound of RMB hot water extract. Finally, using flow cytometry evaluation, the extract of RMB was determined to have no toxicity neither to cause significant modification of apoptosis process, up to concentration of 100 μg/ml, on human peripheral blood neutrophils. These results allow anticipating various fields of application of RMB water extract. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Effect of water cooking on antioxidant capacity of carotenoid-rich vegetables in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Juin Kao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid-rich green leafy vegetables including cilantro, Thai basil leaves, sweet potato leaves, and choy sum were selected to evaluate the effects of water cooking or boiling on their total carotenoid content (TCC, total phenolic content (TPC, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. The percentage inhibition of peroxidation (%IP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and metal-chelating effect were used to evaluate TAC. The results indicated that TCC reached the maximum after boiling cilantro, Thai basil leaves, and sweet potato leaves for 10 minutes, 5 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively, and choy sum remained almost unchanged after 30 minutes of boiling. Boiling cilantro and choy sum had a negative effect on their TPC, whereas there was a significant increase in TPC of Thai basil leaf and sweet potato leaf at 1 minute and 5 minutes of boiling, respectively. During water cooking, TAC of the vegetables did not demonstrate a consistent trend. However, TCC was a vital contributor to %IP, whereas TPC showed a strong association with TEAC. Our findings suggest that a boiling time of ≤5 minutes would be better for preserving or enhancing TCC and TPC as well as revealing a higher %IP, TEAC, or metal-chelating effect for the four vegetables investigated in this study.

  6. HPLC Analysis of Phenolics Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Leaves of Vitex megapotamica (Sprengel Moldenke

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    Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitex megapotamica (Sprengel Moldenke belongs to the Verbenaceae family and is popularly known as “tarumã”. The antioxidant capacity of fractions and crude extract from the leaves of V. megapotamica were determined in this study through the capacity to remove reactive species and phenolic compounds were quantified in the various fractions. The IC50 (DPPH ranged from 14.17 ± 0.76 to 37.63 ± 0.98 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction might contain the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory compounds with an IC50 of 16.36 ± 5.09 µg/mL, being also the one with the highest content of polyphenols (522.4 ± 1.12 mg/g, flavonoids (220.48 ± 0.30 mg/g and condensed tannins (3.86 ± 0.53 mg/g. Compounds quantified by HPLC/DAD in the crude extract and fractions were chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Higher dosages of the extracts were more effective in reducing levels of plasma protein carbonyls and were also shown to be able to remove reactive species by a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, reducing oxidative stress in all tested fractions. Results obtained indicated that V. megapotamica exhibits good potential to prevent diseases caused by the overproduction of free radicals and it might also be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant agents.

  7. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

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    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  8. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, colour and drying characteristics of date fruit dried with different methods

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    Gökçen İZLİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Date slices were dried with the three drying methods convective (60, 70 and 80 °C, microwave (120 W and freeze drying to determine drying characteristics and to compare the dried fruit quality. All colour parameters changed depending on the drying method and colours closest to the fresh sample were obtained with freeze drying. It is interesting to note that the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in each sample rose when looked at in relation to the fresh sample. In particular, microwave-dried samples were recorded as having the highest total phenolic content and the highest antioxidant capacity. To explain the drying kinetics of the date slices, nine thin-layer drying models were also attempted. Based on statistical tests, the model developed by Midilli et al. model was found to be the best model for convective and microwave drying, but the Two Term model was the best for freeze drying. This study shows that microwave drying can produce high quality date slices with the additional advantage of reduced drying times compared to convective and freeze drying.

  10. Phenolic acids and flavonoids of peanut by-products: Antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Rasera, Gabriela Boscariol; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; do Prado-Silva, Leonardo; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-12-15

    Peanut skin (PS) and meal from dry-blanched peanuts (MDBP) were evaluated as sources of phenolic compounds. PS rendered the highest total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity towards ABTS radical cation, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as reducing power. Phenolic acids were present in PS and MDBP whereas proanthocyanidins and monomeric flavonoids were found only in PS as identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n . Procyanidin-rich extracts prevented oxidation in non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated fish model system. Both extracts inhibited the growth of gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Geobacillus stearothermophilus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli). Regardless of the strain, phenolic acid-rich extracts showed the lowest minimum inhibitory capacity (MIC); therefore presenting higher antibacterial effect. The MIC of phenolic acid-rich extracts (24-49μgphenolics/mL) was higher but comparable to Ampicillin (10μg/mL). Thus, phenolics in PS and MDBP may serve as antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Food Ingredient Extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush: Variation in Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

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    Maria A. Stander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin, flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin, a flavone (scolymoside, a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside. Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  12. Food ingredient extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush): variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Dalene; Schulze, Alexandra E; Joubert, Elizabeth; de Villiers, André; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Stander, Maria A

    2012-12-07

    Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent) are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP) content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin), flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin), a flavone (scolymoside), a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside) and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside). Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  13. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M D; Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Bhagwat, Shalini S; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2'-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS(+) antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  14. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

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    M D Subramanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g, total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA; Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM. Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity, 2, 2Ͳ-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid ABTS + antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM. It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  15. Effect of dry salting on flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of Algerian olive cultivars

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    Soufi, O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the changes in the flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of five olive cultivars after dry salting. The antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing ability power (FRAP, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that the effects of dry salting on the analyzed parameters were significant (P En este estudio se investigó los cambios en el perfil de flavonoides y la capacidad antioxidante de cinco cultivares de olivo después de una salazón en seco. La actividad antioxidante se determinó mediante los métodos FRAP (Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power, ORAC (capacidad de absorción de radicales de oxígeno y ensayos de blanqueo de β-caroteno. Los resultados mostraron que los efectos de la salazón en seco en los parámetros analizados fueron significativos (P < 0,05. Esto causó una disminución en los flavonoides totales con una tasa de pérdida del 55%. El análisis por HPLC de los extractos reveló la presencia de cuatro flavonoides: rutina, luteolina-7-glucósido, cianidina-3-glucósido y cianidina-3-rutinósido. Entre los cultivares estudiados, Azeradj se caracteriza por altos niveles de flavonoides. En cuanto a la actividad antioxidante, se obtuvieron resultados divergentes utilizando diferentes ensayos antioxidantes. En general, la salazón en seco indujo una reducción en la actividad.

  16. Influence of ultra-high pressure homogenisation on antioxidant capacity, polyphenol and vitamin content of clear apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Jacobo, Angela; Rüfer, Corinna E; Gervilla, Ramón; Guamis, Buenaventura; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Saldo, Jordi

    2011-07-15

    Ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) is a recently developed technology and is still under study to evaluate its effect on different aspects of its application to food products. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the effect of UHPH treatments on quality characteristics of apple juice such as antioxidant capacity, polyphenol composition, vitamin C and provitamin A contents, in comparison with raw (R) and pasteurised (PA) apple juice. Several UHPH treatments that include combinations of pressure (100, 200 and 300MPa) and inlet temperatures (4 and 20°C) were assayed. Apple juice was pasteurised at 90°C for 4min. Antioxidant capacity was analysed using the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay while total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. According to the FRAP and DPPH assays, UHPH processing did not change apple juice antioxidant capacity. However, significant differences were detected between samples analysed by TEAC and ORAC assays. In spite of these differences, high correlation values were found between the four antioxidant capacity assays, and also with total polyphenol content. The analysis and quantification of individual phenols by HPLC/DAD analytical technique reflects that UHPH-treatment prevented degradation of these compounds. Vitamin C concentrations did not change in UHPH treated samples, retaining the same value as in raw juice. However, significant losses were observed for provitamin A content, but lower than in PA samples. UHPH-treatments at 300MPa can be an alternative to thermal treatment in order to preserve apple juice quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela-Leonor; Maldonado-Vega, María; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Hernández, Gerardo; Arévalo-Rivas, Bertha-Isabel; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The molecular response of the antioxidant system and the effects of antioxidant supplementation against oxidative insult in lead-exposed workers has not been sufficiently studied. In this work, antioxidants (vitamin E 400 IU+vitamin C 1g/daily) were supplemented for one year to 15 workers exposed to lead (73 μg of lead/dl of blood) and the results were compared with those on 19 non-lead exposed workers (6.7 μg of lead/dl). Lead intoxication was accompanied by a high oxidative damage and an increment in the erythrocyte antioxidant response due to increased activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant supplementations decreased significantly the oxidative damage as well as the total antioxidant capacity induced by lead intoxication with reduction of the antioxidant enzyme activities. We conclude that antioxidant supplementation is effective in reducing oxidative damage and induces modifications in the physiopathological status of the antioxidant response in lead-exposed workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF PEQUI (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. PULP IS PRESERVED BY FREEZE-DRYING AND LIGHT-RESISTANT PACKAGING

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    NARA RÚBIA RODRIGUES DO NASCIMENTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. pulp is rich in bioactive compounds. However, seasonality and perishability limit its availability in the market. This work aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics, including phenolic compounds and carotenoid concentrations, as well as the antioxidant capacity of lyophilized pequi pulp during storage in various packaging materials for 180 days. Pequi fruits were pulped, ground, freeze-dried and then vacuum packaged in transparent polyethylene (TP, polyethylene coated by aluminum foil (PA and laminated foil (LA, respectively. The samples were stored under controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity. Proximate composition, phenolic compounds and carotenoids concentrations, and antioxidant capacity (DPPH• assay were determined at the beginning of the study and the end of each month, during 180 days. Lyophilized pequi pulp had 48.87, 6.17, and 4.20 g.100 g-1 lipids, proteins, and total dietary fiber, respectively, and 556.79 kcal.100 g-1 energy. PA and LA had similar effects against light-induced carotenoid oxidation. Negative correlations between the phenolic compound concentration and storage period, and antioxidant capacity and storage period; and a positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and phenolic compound content were observed. Light-resistant packaging decreased the carotenoid loss. Among the packaging, LA preserved the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity most effectively.

  19. Exogenously applied abscisic acid to Yan73 (V. vinifera) grapes enhances phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Huo, Shan-Shan; Luan, Li-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2013-06-01

    Yan73 is a 'teinturier' red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.

  20. [THE POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF COLORIMETRY TECHNIQUE OF DETECTION OF LEVELS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF SERUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapojnikova, M A; Strakhova, L A; Blinova, T V; Makarov, I A; Rakhmanov, R S; Umniagina, I A

    2015-11-01

    The analysis was implemented concerning indicators of oxidative status and antioxidant capacity of serum. The indicators were received by colorimetry technique based on detection of peroxides in blood serum in examined patients of different categories: healthy persons aged from 17 to 20 years and from 30 to 60 years and patients with bronchopulmonary pathology. The low level of oxidative stress and high antioxidant capacity of serum were established in individuals ofyounger age. With increasing of age, degree of expression of oxidative stress augmented and level of antioxidant defense lowered. Almost all patients with bronchopulmonary pathology had high level of oxidative stress and low level of antioxidant defense. The analysis of quantitative data of examined indicators their conformity with health condition was established

  1. Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide overproduction, and in vitro antiproliferative effect of maple sap and syrup from Acer saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Grenon, Carole; Dussault, Catherine; Pichette, André

    2010-04-01

    Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and antiproliferative effect of ethyl acetate extracts of maple sap and syrup from 30 producers were evaluated in regard to the period of harvest in three different regions of Québec, Canada. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of maple sap and syrup extracts are, respectively, 12 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 5 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed by a cell-based assay. The period of harvest has no statistically significant incidence on the antioxidant activity of both extracts. The antioxidant activity of pure maple syrup was also determined using the ORAC assay. Results indicate that the ORAC value of pure maple syrup (8 +/- 2 micromol of TE/mL) is lower than the ORAC value of blueberry juice (24 +/- 1 micromol of TE/mL) but comparable to the ORAC values of strawberry (10.7 +/- 0.4 micromol of TE/mL) and orange (10.8 +/- 0.5 micromol of TE/mL) juices. Maple sap and syrup extracts showed to significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced NO overproduction in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Maple syrup extract was significantly more active than maple sap extract, suggesting that the transformation of maple sap into syrup increases NO inhibition activity. The highest NO inhibition induced by the maple syrup extracts was observed at the end of the season. Moreover, darker maple syrup was found to be more active than clear maple syrup, suggesting that some colored oxidized compounds could be responsible in part for the activity. Finally, maple syrup extracts (50% inhibitory concentration = 42 +/- 6 microg/mL) and pure maple syrup possess a selective in vitro antiproliferative activity against cancer cells.

  2. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and In Vitro Availability of Four Different Berries

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    Javier Marhuenda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols from berries have proved healthy effects after “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies, such as preventing tumor growing and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. We compared four different kinds of berries—strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and blueberry—with the aim to distinguish their phenolic composition, concerning their antioxidant capacity along with their “in vitro” availability. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant capacity was measured by ORAC method. Moreover, the determination of anthocyanins was accomplished with an HPLC-DAD. Finally, we carried out an “in vitro” digestion to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion. All berries showed good antioxidant capacity with significant differences, besides high total phenolic compounds. Content of anthocyanins measured by HPLC-DAD varied between the different berries, namely, blackberries and strawberries which showed higher anthocyanin concentration. After “in vitro” digestion, berries showed poor bioavailability of the analysis of anthocyanins (9.9%–31.7%. Availability of total phenolic compounds was higher than anthocyanins (33%–73%. Moreover, strawberries and blackberries presented the less availability grade. Decrease in antioxidant activity measured by ORAC method was about 90% in all berries studied. Therefore, bioavailability of phenolic compounds remains unclear and more correlation between “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies seems to be necessary.

  3. Examining the Genomic Influence of Skin Antioxidants In Vitro

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    James V. Gruber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of well-known, purified antioxidants including: Resveratrol, Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG, Genistein, Rosavin, Puerarin, Chlorogenic Acid, Propolis and two newer unexplored isoflavonoids isolated from Maclura pomifera (Osage Orange including Pomiferin and Osajin, were applied to Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts (NHDF and Normal Human Dermal Keratinocytes (NHEK for 24 hours. The resulting treated cells were then examined using human gene microarrays supplied by Agilent. These chips typically have somewhere on the order of 30,000 individual genes which are expressed in the human genome. For our study, this large list of genes was reduced to 205 principal genes thought to be important for skin and each individual ingredient was examined for its influence on the culled list of genes. Working on a hypothesis that there may be some common genes which are either upregulated or downregulated by all or most of these ingredients, a short list of genes for each cell line was developed. What appears to emerge from these studies is that several genes in the gene pool that was screened are influenced by most or all of the molecules of interest. Genes that appear to be upregulated in both cell lines by all the ingredients include: ACLY, AQP3, COX1, NOS3, and PLOD3. Genes that appear to be downregulated in both cell lines by all ingredients include only PGR.

  4. Immunomodulatory activities and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from Monascus-fermented products in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Chuan; Fang, Tony J; Chiang, Shen-Shih; Liu, Chin-Feng; Wu, Cheng-Lun; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2012-05-01

    Monascus-fermented products have featured in Chinese cuisine for thousands of years and are widely used as food colourants and dietary materials in many Asian countries. Rice and dioscorea fermented with Monascus purpureus NTU 568 have health-promoting attributes in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects of polysaccharides from red mould rice (RMRP) and red mould dioscorea (RMDP) in Raw 264.7 cells. The results showed the antioxidant capabilities (including scavenging, chelating, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and reducing power) of RMRP and RMDP at a concentration of 10 mg mL(-1). RMRP and RMDP also stimulated cell proliferation, nitric oxide production, phagocytosis and cytokine production (including IL1-β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in Raw 264.7 cells. These findings demonstrate that RMRP and RMDP have antioxidant and immunomodulation potential to be developed as novel dietary supplements. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Toxicity of isoproturon on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing in mineral medium depends on glutathione-mediated antioxidant capacity.

    OpenAIRE

    Candeias, M; Alves-Pereira, I; Ferreira, Rui

    2011-01-01

    The results revealed an increase of viable cells, after 72 h of culture and an increase of antioxidant power mediated by GSH and GR activity in S. cerevisiae UE-ME3. The adaptive response of UE-ME3 strain to isoproturon, determined in MB, was clearly higher than observed in IGC-3507 strain. So, we presume that the extent of the toxic effect of isoproturon in both yeast strains depends on glutathione-mediated antioxidant capacity.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Grown on Germinated Brown Rice

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    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  7. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Adnan; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Sanda, Murad Aydin; Uysal, Tuna

    2014-03-01

    Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials). The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20 degrees C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g) was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g). The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (microg/mL) (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%). The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061 microg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5). Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing

  8. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Yoon Taek; Kim, Eun-A; Lee, Seung-Hong; Ko, Seok-Chun; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Kim, Young-Sun; Cho, Jin Hun; Jang, Hyeang-Su; Jeon, You-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of a polysaccharide isolated from aloe vera gel were investigated. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from aloe vera gel by using ten digestive enzymes including five carbohydrases and five proteases. Among them, the highest yield was obtained with the Viscozyme extract and the same extract showed the best radical scavenging activity. An active polysaccharide was purified from the Viscozyme extract using ethanol-added separation and anion exchange chromatography. Purified aloe vera polysaccharide (APS) strongly scavenged radicals including DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. In addition, APS showed a protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative stress and cell death in Vero cells as well as in the in vivo zebrafish model. In this study, it is proved that both the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of APS could be further utilized in relevant industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of catechins in the antioxidant capacity of an active film containing green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, M; Nerin, C

    2012-10-03

    The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of natural extracts of green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit. These natural extracts were incorporated into a plastic film layer, which was subsequently subjected to a free radical gas stream in order to determine the antioxidant capacity directly in the active film. The green tea extract (GTE) afforded the strongest antioxidant activity. To identify the active compounds in the extract, concentration of the diverse catechins in samples were determined by HPLC-UV analysis. The results showed that the content of catechins in the GTE is around 77% (w/w), the major components being (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin. A variation in the concentration profile of catechins was detected during the oxidation process. The chromatographic study demonstrated that (-)-gallocatechin, (-)- epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-catechin gallate exhibited the most radical scavenging.

  10. Evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, G; Delgado, R; Pérez, G; Garrido, G; Núñez Sellés, A J; León, O S

    2000-09-01

    An extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) was tested in vitro for its antioxidant activity using commonly accepted assays. It showed a powerful scavenger activity of hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and acted as an iron chelator. The extract also showed a significant inhibitory effect on the peroxidation of rat-brain phospholipid and inhibited DNA damage by bleomycin or copper-phenanthroline systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. An apple plus a Brazil nut a day keeps the doctors away: antioxidant capacity of foods and their health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases.

  12. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown eggplant (Solanum melongena fruits following thermal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Leonor Zambrano-Moreno

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThermal processing and production practices used in vegetables can cause changes in their phytochemical contents. Eggplant is characterized by its high antioxidant content. The objective of this work was to determine levels of anthocyanins, polyphenols, and flavonoids and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown eggplant prepared fresh or subjected to one of three thermal preparation methods: boiling, baking or steaming. The soluble and hydrolyzable polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Anthocyanins were quantified according to the pH differential method. Antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH and ORAC methods. The results showed differences between organic and conventional eggplant for some variables although cultivation method did not have a consistent effect. Hydrolysable polyphenol content was greater, and soluble and hydrolysable antioxidant capacities were higher in organically grown eggplant, while anthocyanin content was greater in conventionally grown eggplant. Fresh eggplant produced under conventional cultivation had a much greater content of anthocyanins compared to that of other cultivation method-thermal treatment combination. In general, steamed eggplant contained higher total polyphenol and flavonoid levels as well as greater antioxidant capacity. Steamed eggplant from both conventional and organic systems also had high amounts of anthocyanins compared to other thermal treatments.

  13. Dietary Probiotic Bacillus subtilis Strain fmbj Increases Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen Kai; Zhang, Fei Jing; He, Tian Jin; Su, Peng Wei; Ying, Xiong Zhi; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to measure the dietary effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain fmbj (BS fmbj) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat during storage. Treatment groups were fed the basal diet with BS fmbj at 0 g/kg (CON), 0.2 g/kg (BS-1), 0.3 g/kg (BS-2), or 0.4 g/kg (BS-3) doses without antibiotics. During 8 days of storage at 4°C, BS-2 group showed a significant improvement (P Cooking loss, Shear force, color L*, a*, b*), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS+, H2O2), tissues antioxidant enzyme capacity (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH, T-SH), mitochondria antioxidant enzyme capacity (MnSOD, GPx, GSH), mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, HO-1, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and mitochondrial function genes (avUCP, NRF1, NRF2, TFAM, PGC-1α), oxidative damage index (MDA, ROS, PC, 8-OHdG), and MMP level in chicken breast meat as compared to the CON group. These results indicate that dietary BS fmbj in broiler diets can protect breast meat against the storage-induced oxidative stress by improving their free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity during 8 days of storage at 4°C. PMID:27907152

  14. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  15. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Okwudili Onoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400 μg/mL concentration produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400 mg/kg showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400 mg/kg showed a significant (P<0.05 decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement.

  16. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2010-05-14

    Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of crude aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. The flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract was 0.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the plant were 0.705 and 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder respectively. The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to those of BHT (84.6%) and gallic acid (96%). Also, the percentage inhibition of malondialdehyde by the extract showed percentage inhibition of 78% comparable to those of BHT (72.24%) and Gallic (94.82%). Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of H. longifolium is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  17. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control, the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, pineapple (for reducing power, blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition, blackberry “antioxidant” (for tocopherols and cherry (for sugars. The mention of “antioxidant” in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress.

  18. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of inflorescence of Ormenis Africana in vitro and in cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The antioxidant potency of the hydroethanolic extract of Ormenis Africana (HEOA), Asteraceae was evaluated with regards to total polyphenol, flavonoid and anthocyanins content. Antioxidant activity has been assessed chemically and biologically. First, the free radical scavenging ability of HEOA was evaluated using two commonly in vitro tests: ABTS and DPPH radicals. Then, the protection effect of this extract against oxidative stress was conducted in HeLa cells treated with Fe2+ or H2O2. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the lipid peroxidation levels (TBARs and DC) and the antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase and Superoxide dismutase). Cytotoxic effect of HEOA was prealably determined against HeLa cell line by MTT assay. Results HEOA contain considerable levels of antioxidant compound as evidenced by high amount of polyphenols (312.07 mg GAE/g dray matter), flavonoids (73.72 ± 1.98 mg QE/g dray matterl) and anthocyanins (0.28 ± 0.09 mg Cy-3-glu E/g dray matter). DPPH and ABTS assays showed a high antioxidant activity (IC50 = 24 μg/ml; TEAC = 2.137 mM) which was comparable to BHT. In biological system, HEOA exhibited a 50% cytotoxic concentration evaluated as 16.52 μg/ml. Incubation of HeLa cell line with no cytotoxic concentrations resulted in a remarkable protection from oxidative stress induced by Fe2+ or H2O2 which was evidenced by a decrease of MDA and CD levels as well as a diminution of antioxidant enzymes activities (Catalase and SOD) as compared to cells treated with Fe2+ or H2O2 alone. Conclusion The hydroethanolic extract of O. Africana could thus be considered as a source of potential antioxidants. The results of this study will promote the reasonable usage of this plant in food and pharmacy industries as well as in alternative medicine and natural therapy. PMID:21575256

  19. Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. METHODS: 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5 mg kg-1 propofol, 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine and 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4 L min-1, 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4 L min-1 6 mg kg h-1 propofol and 1 µg kg h-1 fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. RESULTS: It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. CONCLUSION: According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system.

  20. A sulfated galactan with antioxidant capacity from the green variant of tetrasporic Gigartina skottsbergii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Tamara; Encinas, María V; Mansilla, Andrés; Matsuhiro, Betty; Zúñiga, Elisa A

    2012-01-10

    The water soluble polysaccharide produced by the green variant of tetrasporic Gigartina skottsbergii was found to be composed of D-galactose and sulfate groups in a molar ratio of 1.0:0.65. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy studies of the desulfated polysaccharide showed a major backbone structure of alternating 3-linked β-D-galactopyranosyl and 4-linked α-D-galactopyranosyl units, and minor signals ascribed to 3-O-methyl-substitution on the latter unit. Ethylation analysis of the polysaccharide indicated that the sulfate groups are mainly located at position O-2 of 4-linked α-D-galactopyranosyl residue and partially located at positions O-6 of the same unit and at position O-2 of 3-linked β-D-galactopyranosyl residue, and confirmed the presence of 3-O-methyl-galactose in minor amounts (4.4%). The sulfated d-galactan presents a similar structure to λ carrageenan but with much lower sulfation at position O-6 of the α-residue and at position O-2 of β-residue. The antioxidant capacity of the sulfated d-galactan was evaluated by the peroxyl radicals (ORAC method), hydroxyl radicals, chelating activity, and ABTS(+) assays. Kinetic results obtained in these assays were compared with those obtained for the commercial λ carrageenan. The antioxidant activity toward peroxyl radicals was higher for commercial λ carrageenan, this agrees with its higher content of sulfate group. The kinetics of the reaction of both polysaccharides with hydroxyl and ABTS(+) radicals showed a complex mechanism, but the antioxidant activity was higher for the polysaccharide from the green variant of tetrasporic Gigartina skottsbergii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... antioxidant capacity, The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a lignan complex, providing 500 mg/d of SDG, on serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL, plasma lipids, serum lipoprotein oxidation resistance, and markers of antioxidant capacity. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=22...

  2. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity in four Italian traditional maize (Zea mays L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocchi, Antonella; Bottega, Stefania; Spanò, Carmelina; Fontanini, Debora

    2017-08-01

    Flours of four pigmented (from orange to red and dark red) local Italian corns, studied for their soluble, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenols and flavonoids, showed a prevalence of the insoluble-bound fraction (70-80%). Correlations were found between the flours antioxidant capacity, measured with CUPRAC, FRAP, and DPPH methods, and soluble phenols and flavonoids content. A correlation was also found between ascorbic acid content and flours antioxidant power. Anthocyanins were present in small amounts in the red/dark red seeds; however, acid-alcohol assays and spectral analyses of pericarp extracts indicated the presence of red-brick phlobaphenes in these varieties. Spectrophotometrically quantified total carotenoids were significantly higher in one of the local varieties (Nano); RP-HPLC analyses indicated that the local varieties contained significantly higher amounts of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, and lower amounts of lutein, than a commercial line. Among local varieties, Nano expressed the highest levels of zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin.

  3. Metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway enhances the antioxidant capacity of Saussurea involucrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qiu

    Full Text Available The rare wild species of snow lotus Saussurea involucrata is a commonly used medicinal herb with great pharmacological value for human health, resulting from its uniquely high level of phenylpropanoid compound production. To gain information on the phenylpropanid biosynthetic pathway genes in this critically important medicinal plant, global transcriptome sequencing was performed. It revealed that the phenylpropanoid pathway genes were well represented in S. involucrata. In addition, we introduced two key phenylpropanoid pathway inducing transcription factors (PAP1 and Lc into this medicinal plant. Transgenic S. involucrata co-expressing PAP1 and Lc exhibited purple pigments due to a massive accumulation of anthocyanins. The over-expression of PAP1 and Lc largely activated most of the phenylpropanoid pathway genes, and increased accumulation of several phenylpropanoid compounds significantly, including chlorogenic acid, syringin, cyanrine and rutin. Both ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid and FRAP (ferric reducing anti-oxidant power assays revealed that the antioxidant capacity of transgenic S. involucrata lines was greatly enhanced over controls. In addition to providing a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, our results potentially enable an alternation of bioactive compound production in S. involucrata through metabolic engineering.

  4. A novel procedure for the assessment of the antioxidant capacity of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Harashima, Mai; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Sakakibara, Yoichi

    2016-08-15

    Carbonylation, an oxidative modification of the amino group of arginine and lysine residues caused by reactive oxygen species, has emerged as a new type of oxidative damage. Protein carbonylation has been shown to exert adverse effects on various protein functions. Recently, the role of food components in the attenuation of oxidative stress has been the focus of many studies. Most of these studies focused on the chemical properties of food components. However, it is also important to determine their effects on protein functions via post-translational modifications. In this study, we developed a novel procedure for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food components. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced protein carbonylation in HL-60 cells was quantitatively analyzed by using fluorescent dyes (Cy5-hydrazide dye and IC3-OSu dye), followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence determination. Among a panel of food components tested, quinic acid, kaempferol, saponin, squalene, trigonelline, and mangiferin were shown to be capable of suppressing protein carbonylation in HL-60 cells. Our results demonstrated that this fluorescence labeling/SDS-PAGE procedure allows for the detection of oxidative stress-induced protein carbonylation with high sensitivity and quantitative accuracy. This method should be useful for the screening of new antioxidant food components as well as the analysis of their suppression mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of lipid emulsions on antioxidant capacity in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Nilgün; Kavurt, Ahmet V; Cetinkaya, Merih; Ozarda, Yesim; Ozkan, Hilal

    2011-08-01

    Although a variety of different lipid emulsions with varying fatty acid contents have been developed, there are some concerns about the administration of these lipid emulsions because of potential adverse effects, including oxidative stress-related morbidity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the standard soybean oil-based and olive oil-based i.v. lipid emulsions (ILE) on oxidative stress, determined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and to investigate the safety of the use of these two emulsions in terms of biochemical indices. In this prospective study, premature infants were randomly assigned to two groups, each group consisting of 32 patients who received parenteral ILE of either 20% olive oil or 20% soybean oil. They were given ILE for 7 days and then were evaluated with regard to TAC. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of routine biochemical parameters. TAC for both groups on day 7 was significantly lower compared with that on day 0. Although the decrease in TAC within 7 days of ILE administration was greater in the soybean group compared with that in the olive oil group, it was not statistically significant. Olive oil-based ILE exhibit similar antioxidant activity and can be used as an alternative to soybean oil-based ILE. TAC significantly decreased in infants following administration of either lipid emulsion, and premature infants tolerated either ILE well, both biochemically and clinically. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of Ugni molinae Turcz. leaves of different genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Cerda, Marcelo; Arancibia-Radich, Jorge; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Paula; Pérez-Arancibia, Rodrigo; Barriga, Andrés; Seguel, Ivette; García, Lorena; Delporte, Carla

    2017-01-15

    Ugni molinae Turcz. is a native shrub of Chile, known for its edible berries and its leaves, which have been the focus of recent attention, as a good source of phenolic compounds to be used in cosmetics and food products. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts from the leaves of 10 genotypes of U. molinae, that were cultivated under the same soil, climate and agronomical management. Antioxidant activity was assessed by complementary methods (ORAC-Fl, FRAP and DPPH assay), phenolic composition of each extract was analyzed by LC-MS. Phenolic and flavonoid total contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods. Significative differences were found by these methods, and ellagitannins, gallic acid derivatives and flavonols were identified as responsible for these differences, showing the influence of the genotype on the phenolic composition of U. molinae leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, MINERAL CONTENT AND ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION FROM SELECT ALGERIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjira Guenane1

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the total antioxidant capacity, minerals contents of four plants (Juniperus oxycedrus, Thymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis and Eruca vesicaria and chemical composition of the essential oils of the aerial parts of T. capitatus. Their antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAPS assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were also determined. The results showed that the L. nobilis extract had the highest total phenolic an