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Sample records for vitro antimicrobial effects

  1. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

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    Stephanie de Rapper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29. Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination.

  2. In Vitro Antimicrobial Effect of a Cold Plasma Jet against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms

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    Chunqi Jiang; Christoph Schaudinn; Jaramillo, David E.; Paul Webster; J. William Costerton

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that a cold plasma jet has the antimicrobial effect against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms was tested in vitro. 27 hydroxyapatite discs were incubated with E. faecalis for six days to form a monoculture biofilm on the disc surface. The prepared substrata were divided into three groups: the negative control, the positive control (5.25% NaOCl solution), and the plasma treatment group. Resultant colony-forming unit counts were associated with observations of bacterial cell morphol...

  3. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of Croton zambesicus Muell Arg. was subjected to preliminary Phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial tests. The Phytochemical tests were conducted using standard methods of analysis and the extract revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides and steroids. Antimicrobial effects of ...

  4. An In Vitro Study of the Antimicrobial Effects of Indigo Naturalis Prepared from Strobilanthes formosanus Moore

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    Yin-Ru Chiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigo naturalis is effective in treating nail psoriasis coexisting with microorganism infections. This study examines the antimicrobial effects of indigo naturalis prepared from Strobilanthes formosanus Moore. Eight bacterial and seven fungal strains were assayed using the agar diffusion method to examine the effects of indigo naturalis and its bioactive compounds. The bioactive compounds of indigo naturalis were purified sequentially using GFC, TLC, and HPLC. Their structures were identified using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. UPLC-MS/MS was applied to compare the metabolome profiles of indigo naturalis ethyl-acetate (EA extract and its source plant, Strobilanthes formosanus Moore. The results of in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that indigo naturalis EA-extract significantly (≥1 mg/disc inhibits Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and mildly inhibits non-dermatophytic onychomycosis pathogens (Aspergillus fumigates and Candida albicans, but has little effect on dermatophyes. Isatin and tryptanthrin were identified as the bioactive compounds of indigo naturalis using S. aureus and S. epidermis as the bioassay model. Both bioactive ingredients had no effect on all tested fungi. In summary, indigo naturalis prepared from Strobilanthes formosanus Moore exhibits antimicrobial effects on Staphylococcus and non-dermatophytic onychomycosis pathogens. Tryptanthrin and isatin may be its major bioactive ingredients against Staphylococcus and the inhibitory effect on MRSA may be due to other unidentified ingredients.

  5. Antimicrobial effects of phototherapy and photochemotherapy in vivo and in vitro

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    Yoshimura, M.; Namura, S.; Akamatsu, H.; Horio, T. [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Dermatology

    1996-10-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial effects of phototherapy and photochemotherapy in vivo and in vitro. First, Staphylococcus aureus samples were obtained using stamp agar medium from inflammatory lesions of 29 adult patients with atopic dermatitis before and after a single photochemotherapy. Therapy was oral PUVA (30 mg 8-methoxypsoralen, 8MOP plus 5 J/cm{sup 2}UVA), topical PUVA (0.3% 8MOP plus 200 mJ/cm{sup 2}UVA) or UVB (80 mJ/cm{sup 2}) irradiation. The number of S. aureus on the lesions was significantly reduced, even after a single treatment with all therapies. Reductions (mean {+-} SD) were 69.3 {+-} 26.9%, 76.3 {+-} 31.3% and 83.8 {+-} 18.5%, respectively. Secondly, we investigated the effect of PUVA (0.001% 8MOP plus 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mJ/cm{sup 2} UVA) and UVB (10, 30, 50, or 100 mJ/cm{sup 2}) irradiation on the proliferation of S. aureus in vitro. PUVA and UVB treatment markedly inhibited the proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. These results seem to indicate the possibility that the antimicrobial effect of UV radiation contributes to successful photochemotherapy in patients with atopic dermatitis. (Author).

  6. An In Vitro Assessment of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Effects of Nanosilver

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    Rokhsareh Sadeghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles has been investigated in medical fields in recent years, but there are few studies regarding its effect on oral microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and toxicity properties of nanosilver against two dental plaque microorganisms  and Human Gin- gival Fibroblast (HGF cell line.Methods: Antibacterial effects of nanosilver colloidal solution were de-termined by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bacte- ricidal   concentration   (MBC   using  microdilution   method.   Standard strains of Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus were used. For toxicity assessment,  MTT  and LDH  tests were performed  under  con- trolled conditions. Different concentrations of nanosilver were prepared and their toxic effects  on HGF were determined  after 24, 48 and 72 hours.Results: The MIC of nanosilver solution for S. sanguis and A. viscosuswere 16 and 4 µ g/ml, respectively. The MBC of nanosilver was 64 µ g/ml for S. sanguis and 16 µ g/ml for A. viscosus. MTT results showed that after 24 hours the concentrations of ≥ 0.5 µ g/ml of nanosilver solution affected cell viability when compared with control group. After 48 and 72 hours only the concentration of  ≥ 5 µ g/ml showed significant effect on cultured cell viability. LDH release test demonstrated toxic effect only after 48, 72 hours by 20 and 50 µ g/ml of nanosilver.Conclusion: The results demonstrated that beside its antibacterial activityagainst S. sanguis and A. viscosus, nanosilver mediated a concentration and time dependent cytotoxicity on HGF.

  7. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel decoction on saliva samples

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    Solon José de Oliveira Leite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several products have been developed to eliminate or reduce potential pathogenic microorganisms of the oral microbiome. The continuous use of these synthetic products can result in side effects such as vomiting, diarrhea, darkening of the teeth and the induction of microbial resistance. Pomegranate (Punica granatum peel decoction was tested to assess its antimicrobial activity. In vitro analysis showed the decoction had antimicrobial activity against strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, but none was detected against Enterococcus faecalis. When tested on saliva samples from children, the decoction showed great potential in reducing the load of microorganisms, the inhibition haloes produced with saliva samples being similar to those of the antimicrobial control (0.12% chlorhexidine. The pomegranate peel decoction in water could thus provide a promising source for developing solutions for use against oral diseases.

  8. In vitro model of colonization resistance by the enteric microbiota: effects of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals.

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    Wagner, R Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2008-04-01

    A bioassay was developed to measure the minimum concentration of an antimicrobial drug that disrupts the colonization resistance mediated by model human intestinal microbiota against Salmonella invasion of Caco-2 intestinal cells. The bioassay was used to measure the minimum disruptive concentrations (MDCs) of drugs used in animal agriculture. The MDCs varied from 0.125 microg/ml for some broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs (e.g., streptomycin) to 16 microg/ml for drugs with limited spectra of antimicrobial activity (e.g., lincomycin). The acceptable daily intake (ADI) residue concentration calculated on the basis of the MDCs were higher for erythromycin, lincomycin, and tylosin than the ADI residue concentrations calculated on the basis of the MICs. The MDC-based ADI values for apramycin, bacitracin, neomycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, streptomycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin were lower than the reported MIC-based ADI values. The effects of antimicrobial drugs at their MDCs on the bacterial composition of the microbiota were observed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA sequences amplified by PCR. Changes in the population composition of the model colonization resistance microbiota occurred simultaneously with reduced colonization resistance. The results of this study suggest that direct assessment of the effects of antimicrobial drugs on colonization resistance in an in vitro model can be useful in determining ADI values.

  9. An In Vitro Comparative Study on the Antimicrobial Effects of Bioglass 45S5 vs. Calcium Hydroxide on Enterococcus Faecalis.

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    Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Akhavan, Hengameh; Rastgarian, Hossein; Mohammadzade Akhlagi, Nahid; Soleymanpour, Reza; Ahmadi, Anahid

    2011-01-01

    An ideal intracanal medicament should be able to eliminate any remaining intracanal microorganism. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of Bioglass 45S5 with calcium hydroxide on Enterococcus (E) faecalis in-vitro. Direct exposure test (DET) was used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Bioglass 45S5, calcium hydroxide and normal saline (control group) on 80 paper cones contaminated with E. faecalis suspension. All samples were aseptically transferred into BHI culture medium to quantify microbial concentration in periods of 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Turbidity of the culture medium was measured via optical density (OPD) method with a spectrophotometer (wavelength=540nm). Results were then analysed statistically using student t-test. Mean difference of optical density between Bioglass 45S5 and calcium hydroxide appeared insignificant within 1 hour of the test period (P>0.05); however calcium hydroxide showed significantly greater antimicrobial properties after 24 hours (PBioglass 45S5 and calcium hydroxide exhibited antimicrobial effects against E. faecalis, neither attained complete eradication of bacteria. However, calcium hydroxide seemed to have superior disinfecting effect.

  10. Evaluation of the genetic effects of the in vitro antimicrobial activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The noticed antimicrobial effect was explored at the molecular level, using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the plasmid DNA and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the genomic DNA extracted from the control (untreated) and R. stricta leaf extract-treated bacterial ...

  11. In-vitro antimicrobial activity and synergistic/antagonistic effect of interactions between antibiotics and some spice essential oils.

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    Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-01-01

    Spices and herbs have been used for many years by different cultures. The aim of the present study is (1) to investigate in-vitro antimicrobial effects of different spices and herbs (5 species: Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. Brachycalyx P.H. Davis (White micromeria), Cumium cyminum (cumin), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) against different bacteria and fungi species, and (2) to discuss the in-vitro possible effects between the plants and antibiotics. The microorganisms used were Micrococcus luteus LA 2971, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Bacillus brevis FMC 3, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 15753, Pseudomonas pyocyaneus DC 127, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Escherichia coil DM, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Yersinia enterocolitica AU 19, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74 bacteria, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae WET 136, Kluvyeromyces fragilis DC 98 fungi in this study. The results indicated that essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, Coriandrum sativum L., Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. brachycalyx P.H. Davis, Cumium cyminum L., Mentha piperita L. were shown antimicrobial activity in the range of 7-60 mm 2 microl(-1) inhibition zone to the microorganisms tested, using disc diffusion method. Standard antibiotic such as Gentamicin (10 microg), Cephalothin (30 microg), Ceftriaxone (10 microg), Nystatin (10 U) discs were used for comparison with the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of these plants. In addition, antibacterial activity of essential oils of these plants was researched by effects when it was used together with these standard antibiotics in vitro. However, antibacterial activity changed also by in vitro interactions between these standard antibiotics and essential oils of these plants. Synergic, additive or antagonist effects were observed in antibacterial activity.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants.

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    Shrestha, Binit; Theerathavaj, M L Srithavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

    2012-10-01

    To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora. The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S. aureus. The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants.

  13. Neutralization of the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate by humic acid in vitro.

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    Shehata, Awad A; Kühnert, Manfred; Haufe, Svent; Krüger, Monika

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the neutralization ability of the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate by different humic acids was investigated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of glyphosate for different bacteria such as Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Escherichia coli, E. coli 1917 strain Nissle, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were determined in the presence or absence of different concentrations of humic acid (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg mL(-1)). Our findings indicated that humic acids inhibited the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate on different bacteria. This information can help overcome the negative impact of glyphosate residues in feed and water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation in infected root canals: an in vitro study

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    Sampaio Moura, Marcelo; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Rodrigues de Araujo Estrela, Cyntia; Estrela, Carlos; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial action of Er:YAG laser in infected root canals. A total of 36 human anterior teeth were prepared, sterilized and inoculated with suspensions of S. aureus, E. faecalis, P aeruginosa, B. subtilis and C. albicans. After the contamination period (28 days), the teeth were irrigated with sterile distilled water or 1% sodium hypochlorite and, then, irradiated with an Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2094 nm) with two different evaluation parameters: 52 mJ and 110 mJ laser output at the fiber tip. After the irradiation, the teeth were irrigated with sterile distilled water and the solutions were collected with sterile paper points and incubated in Letheen Broth for 48 hours. After this period 0,1 ml of this solution was transferred to 10 ml of Brain Heart Infusion and incubated for 48 hours. After 72 hours a new collect ion was done and incubated again. Based on the data, it was concluded that the distilled water or 1% sodium hypochlorite irradiated or not with an Er:YAG laser with two different parameters: 10 Hz, 110 mJ input and 52 mJ output, and 10 Hz, 250 mJ input and 110 mJ output had no antimicrobial activity in the root canals contaminated with the following microorganisms: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans.

  15. Antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem (Azadirachta indica and Babool (Acacia nilotica on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

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    R Pandya Sajankumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine because of their natural origin, easy availability, efficacy, and safety. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem and Babool on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% of Neem and Babool aqueous extract with 5%, 10%, and 50% of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on S. mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 7 mm diameter. The plates were left for 1 h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48 h and examined for zone of inhibition. Results: Inhibitory effect of 5% Neem is significantly better than 5% Babool and 5% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. At 10% and 50%, Neem and Babool are significantly better than chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Inhibitory effect of Babool increases as the concentration increases (P < 0.05. The inhibitory effect of 5% and 50% chlorhexidine mouthwash is better than 10% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Neem exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity compared with Babool and chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  16. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meanwhile yeasts were grown in YPD medium. Bacterial cultures were incubated for 24 h at 37. °C except fish pathogenic bacteria were incubated at 25 °C. Yeasts were incubated for 48 hat 30 °C. Determination of antimicrobial effect. The disc diffusion method was employed to determine the in vitro antimicrobial action of.

  17. Effects of DU-6859a, a New Quinolone Antimicrobial, on Theophylline Metabolism in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Yoshihito; Itokawa, Kenichi; Okazaki, Osamu

    1998-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to investigate the drug interaction between a new quinolone antimicrobial, DU-6859a, and theophylline (TP). The effect of DU-6859a on TP metabolism was evaluated in vitro by measuring the rate of TP metabolite formation by using human liver microsomes. DU-6859a inhibited the metabolism of TP, especially the formation of 1-methylxanthine, in vitro, but to a lesser extent than other drugs that are known to interact with TP. TP was administered alone (200 mg twice a day [b.i.d.] for 9 days) or in combination with DU-6859a (50 or 100 mg b.i.d. for 5 days) to six healthy subjects. DU-6859a administered at a dose of 50 mg resulted in no changes in serum TP concentrations, and slight increases in serum TP concentrations were observed at a dose of 100 mg. Moreover, the administration of 100 mg of DU-6859a resulted in decreases in all urinary TP metabolites, with significant differences. It appears that although DU-6859a has a weak inhibitory effect on TP metabolism in vitro, its concomitant use with TP at clinical dosage levels does not cause any adverse effects, showing only a slight increase in blood TP concentrations and a decrease in urinary metabolites. PMID:9661016

  18. In Vitro Synergistic Effects of Antimicrobial Combinations on Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyukmin; Roh, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seong Geun; Shin, Hee Bong; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Song, Wonkeun; Uh, Young; Yong, Dongeun

    2016-01-01

    Background Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are a threat to hospitalized patients. We evaluated the effects of antimicrobial combinations on XDR P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates. Methods P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates, which were resistant to all antibiotics except colistin (CL), were collected from eight hospitals in Korea. Genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and OXA carbapenemases were detected by PCR in eight P. aeruginosa and 30 A. baumannii isolates. In vitro synergy of antimicrobial combinations was tested by using the checkerboard method. Results Minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones were very high, while that of CL was low for majority of XDR P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates. Antimicrobial combinations including Imipenem (IPM)-CL, ceftazidime (CAZ)-CL, and rifampin (RIF)-CL exerted only additive/indifferent effects on majority of XDR P. aeruginosa isolates. Proportions of XDR A. baumannii isolates that showed synergistic and additive/indifferent inhibition after treatment with antimicrobial combinations used are as follows: IPM-ampicillin-sulbactam (AMS), 17% and 80% isolates, respectively; IPM-rifampin (RIF), 13% and 81% isolates, respectively; IPM-CL, 13% and 87% isolates, respectively; and RIF-COL, 20% and 73% isolates, respectively. Significant proportion (19%) of XDR P. aeruginosa isolates produced MBLs, and majority (82%) of A. baumannii isolates produced either MBLs or OXA-23. Conclusions Our results suggest that combinations of IPM-AMS, IPM-RIF, IPM-CL, and RIF-CL are more useful than individual drugs for treating 13-20% of XDR A. baumannii infections. PMID:26709261

  19. Survey of the Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Effects of Zingiber officinale (in Vitro Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Marzieh; Zahedi Bialvaei, Abed; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kabiri, Fahimeh; Saliani, Negar; Yousefi, Mehdi; Eslami, Hosein; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Candidiasis is one of the most prevalent and important opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity caused by Candida yeast species like Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. In addition, several bacteria can cause oral infections. The inhibition of microbial biofilm is the best way to prevent oral infections. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against Candida species and some bacterial pathogens and the extract's effects on biofilm formation. Ginger ethanolic extract as a potential mouthwash was used to evaluate its effect against fungi and bacteria using the microdilution method, and biofilm was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method and dead/alive staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity effects of the extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ginger extract for evaluated strains were 40, 40, 20, 20, 20, 20, 10, and 5 mg/mL for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter baumannii, C. albicans, and C. krusei, respectively. Ginger extract successfully inhibited biofilm formation by A. baumannii, B. cereus, C. krusei, and C. albicans. MTT assay revealed no significant reduction in cell viability after 24 hours. The minimum inhibitory biofilm concentrations (MIBCs) of ginger extract for fungi strains (C. krusei and C. albicans) were greater than those of fluconazole and nystatin (P = 0.000). The findings of the present study indicate that ginger extract has good antifungal and antibiofilm formation by fungi against C. albicans and C. Krusei. Concentrations between 0.625 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL had the highest antibiofilm and antifungal effects. Perhaps, the use of herbal extracts such as ginger represents a new era for antimicrobial therapy after developing antibiotic resistance in microbes.

  20. In vitro and in vivo studies on the antimicrobial effect of lactoferrin against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

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    Rybarczyk, J; Kieckens, E; Vanrompay, D; Cox, E

    2017-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 shed by clinically healthy ruminants has been linked to hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. The bacteria are spread mainly by contaminated food and water, contact with animals carrying the organisms, and person-to-person contact. Although many intervention strategies have been studied to reduce E. coli O157:H7 carriage in ruminants and its spread into the environment, none of the available methods can completely eliminate the infection. Therefore, there is need for new intervention strategies which will effectively reduce E. coli O157:H7 prevalence. Lactoferrin, a member of the transferrin protein family, is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is found in many exocrine secretions, including milk, tears, saliva, and serum. Lactoferrin has a number of biological functions including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects. This review summarizes latest data on the antimicrobial effect of lactoferrin against E. coli O157:H7 in in vitro and in vivo studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw exhibitsin vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities andin vivo hypolipidemic effect in rats

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    J. ESPINOSA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The Casearia sylvestris Sw (Flacourtiaceae is a shrub that occurs in forests of Southern Brazil; its leaves are widely used in folk medicine as a depurative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic agent. The objective of this study was to perform the phytochemical description and to evaluate the pharmacological activities (antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant and toxicity of the ethanolic extract (EE of C. sylvestris Sw. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of the EE ofC. sylvestris Sw on the glucose levels and lipid profile in blood serum of rats submitted to a model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and Methods: In vitro assay: the detection of chemical groups was done through chemical reactions with the development of color or precipitate and by chromatographic profile; the antioxidant activity was measured by the method of reduction of DPPH free radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was evaluated by the broth microdilution method, and the Minimum Bactericide Concentration and the Minimum Fungicide Concentration were performed in Petri dishes; the cytotoxic activity was measured by the Artemia salina test. In vivo assay: diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated with EE of C. sylvestris Sw (300 mg/kg for 45 days, and the glycaemia and lipid profile were analyzed. Results: The EE showed a Lethal Dose50 of 724.76 μg.mL-1 and important antioxidant, fungicide and fungistatic activities. The EE showed better antimicrobial activity regarding the microorganismsStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli andSalmonella setubal. Conclusion: The EE of C. sylvestris Sw produces a significant decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol and VLDL levels without any significant alteration in the glycaemia. The EE of C. sylvestris Sw presents antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and it exhibits a potent hypolipidemic effect.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Geethashri; Ravinanthan, Manikandan; Basaviah, Ravishankar; Shetty, A Veena

    2015-01-01

    Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew) and Mangifera indica (mango) have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC), and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cell lines. Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P extracts significantly (P extracts were less cytotoxic (P extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care

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    Geethashri Anand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew and Mangifera indica (mango have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC, and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cell lines. Results: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05 produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone---iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001 suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001 compared to mouth rinses. Conclusions: Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

  4. Induction of In Vitro Resistance to Penicillin in Viridans Group Streptococci and Its Effect on Susceptibility Pattern of Other Antimicrobial Agents

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    Shree V. Dhotre

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of resistance to penicillin in Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS during therapy has been reported. However, the in vitro development of resistance to penicillin or other antimicrobial agents in VGS is mostly overlooked and rarely reported. Aim & Objectives: To induce in vitro resistance to penicillin in VGS and to study its effect on susceptibility pattern of other structurally related (Beta–lactams and unrelated antimicrobial agents. Material and Methods: Four isolates of VGS susceptible to all antimicrobial agents were manipulated in vitro to induce resistance to penicillin by sequential exposure to increasing concentrations of penicillin. Results: Increase in MIC values of penicillin from 0.06-0.12 µg/ml to 2-32 µg/ml was observed indicating development of resistance to penicillin. A significant increase in Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values of ampicillin and slight increase in MIC values of other antimicrobial agents in some isolates was also noted. Conclusions: Exposure to increasing concentrations of penicillin can promote the development of resistance to penicillin and cross-resistance to other antimicrobial agents suggesting its mutagenic role.

  5. The Effect of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Radachlorin® on Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli: An in Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fekrazad, Reza; Zare, Hadi; Mohammadi Sepahvand, Sara; Morsali, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is the evaluation of the effect of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Radachlorin on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. New windows are open in the antimicrobial field so-call Photodynamic therapy that incorporates a nonpoisonous photosensitizer (PS) with innocuous special wavelength photons to excite the PS.

  6. In vitro analysis of the cytotoxicity and the antimicrobial effect of four endodontic sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willershausen Ines

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties of four different endodontic sealers using human periodontal ligament fibroblast cell proliferation and visual analysis of growth inhibition. Methods A silicone (GuttaFlow, silicate (EndoSequence BC, zinc oxide eugenol (Pulp Canal Sealer EWT and epoxy resin (AH Plus Jet based sealer were incubated with PDL fibroblasts (104 cells/ml, n = 6 up to 96 h. Cell proliferation (RFU was determined by means of the Alamar Blue assay. Cell growth and morphology was visualized by means of fluorescent dyes. Possible antibacterial properties of the different sealers were visualized by means of SEM (Enterococcus faecalis; Parvimonas micra. Results Fibroblast proliferation depended on sealer and cultivation time. After 72 and 96 h GuttaFlow and EndoSequence BC showed relatively non-cytotoxic reactions, while Pulp Canal Sealer EWT and AH Plus Jet caused a significant decrease of cell proliferation (p P. micra was found, whereas GuttaFlow showed a weak, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT and AH Plus Jet extensive growth inhibition. Also, no antibacterial effect of GuttaFlow, EndoSequence BC or AH Plus Jet to E. faecalis could be detected. Conclusions These in vitro findings reveal that GuttaFlow and EndoSequence BC can be considered as biocompatible sealing materials. However, prior to their clinical employment, studies regarding their sealing properties also need to be considered.

  7. Antimicrobial effects of allicin and ketoconazole on trichophyton rubrum under in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Aala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis is caused by a group of pathogenic fungi namely, dermatophytes, is among the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Azole drugs are widely used in the treatment of dermatomycosis, but can cause various side effects and drug resistance to the patients. Hence, for solving this problem can be used from the plant extract as alternative for chemical drugs. Allicin is a pure bioactive compound isolated from garlic was tested for its potential as a treatment of dermatomycosis in this study. This study evaluated the in vitro efficacy of pure allicin against ten isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and the MIC50 and MIC90 ranged from 0.78-12.5 µg/ml for allicin. The results revealed that the order of efficacy based on the MICs values, all isolates showed almost comparable response to allicin and ketoconazole except for some isolates, at 28 ºC for both 7 and 10 days incubation. Mann-Whitney test indicate that MICs at 7 days incubation was not observed a significant difference between the effects of allicin and ketoconazole (p > 0.05, but MICs at 10 days incubation, a significant difference was observed (p < 0.05. On the other side, time kill studies revealed that allicin used its fungicidal activity within 12-24 h of management in vitro as well as ketoconazole. In conclusion, allicin showed very good potential as an antifungal compound against mycoses-causing dermatophytes, almost the same as the synthetic drug ketoconazole. Therefore, this antifungal agent appears to be effective, safe and suitable alternative for the treatment of dermatomycosis.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial effects and mechanism of atmospheric-pressure He/O2 plasma jet on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zimu; Shen, Jie; Cheng, Cheng; Hu, Shuheng; Lan, Yan; Chu, Paul K.

    2017-03-01

    The antimicrobial effects and associated mechanism of inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) NCTC-8325 biofilms induced by a He/O2 atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) are investigated in vitro. According to CFU (colony forming units) counting and the resazurin-based assay, the 10 min He/O2 (0.5%) APPJ treatment produces the optimal inactivation efficacy (>5 log10 ml-1) against the S. aureus biofilm and 5% of the bacteria enter a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. Meanwhile, 94% of the bacteria suffer from membrane damage according to SYTO 9/PI counterstaining. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that plasma exposure erodes the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and then the cellular structure. The H2DCFDA-stained biofilms show larger concentrations of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in membrane-intact bacteria with increasing plasma dose. The admixture of oxygen in the working gas highly contributes to the deactivation efficacy of the APPJ against S. aureus and the plasma-induced endogenous ROS may work together with the discharge-generated ROS to continuously damage the bacterial membrane structure leading to deactivation of the biofilm microbes.

  9. In vitro assessment of antimicrobial effect of methanolic extract of Peganum harmala against some important foodborne bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T zeinali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne bacterial pathogens play an important role in food infections/intoxications in human population. With ever increasing the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, there is an attempt to use the antimicrobial properties of herbs. Peganum harmala is a medicinal plant of Iraniantraditional medicine which was used as an antiseptic in the past. Amongthe foodborne bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes are considered as the most important and hazardous pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of methanolic extract of Peganum harmala against these bacteria in vitro. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC of methanolic extract of Peganum harmala was determined against three foodborne bacterial pathogens by micro-dilution method in Muller-Hinton broth. According to the results, MIC for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium was 1.56 mg/ml. In the case of L. monocytogenes, it was estimated at 0.78 mg/ml. Moreover, results revealed that MBC for these organisms was similar to MIC concentrations. Regarding the results, Peganum harmala can be used as an ingredient in the formula of the disinfectants applied in the food systems.

  10. Bacterial biofilms formed in vitro and in vivo on orthodontic appliances. Effect of antimicrobial agents

    OpenAIRE

    María Cecilia Cortizo; María Elisa Lagares; Mónica Fernández L. de Mele

    2006-01-01

    Los procesos cariogénicos y las infecciones gingivales y en la vecindad de los implantes pueden ocurrir como una consecuencia de la formación de biopelículas. A fin de prevenir estos procesos, se utilizan productos profilácticos tales como fluoruro de sodio (F), clorhexidina (C) y xilitol (X). El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de las mezclas F + X y C + X sobre las biopelículas orales formadas en dispositivos para Ortodoncia. En los experimentos in vitro se utilizó un consorc...

  11. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Blastocystis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Stephen; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis is the most common human enteric protist with controversial clinical significance. Metronidazole is considered a first-line treatment for Blastocystis infection; however, there has been increasing evidence for the lack of efficacy of this treatment. Treatment failure has been reported in several clinical cases, and recent in vitro studies have suggested the occurrence of metronidazole-resistant strains. In this study, we tested 12 Blastocystis isolates from 4 common Blastocystis subtypes (ST1, ST3, ST4, and ST8) against 12 commonly used antimicrobials (metronidazole, paromomycin, ornidazole, albendazole, ivermectin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX], furazolidone, nitazoxanide, secnidazole, fluconazole, nystatin, and itraconazole) at 10 different concentrations in vitro. It was found that each subtype showed little sensitivity to the commonly used metronidazole, paromomycin, and triple therapy (furazolidone, nitazoxanide, and secnidazole). This study highlights the efficacy of other potential drug treatments, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ivermectin, and suggests that current treatment regimens be revised. PMID:25987633

  12. Assessment of in vitro antitumoral and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... Assessment of in vitro antitumoral and antimicrobial activities of marine algae harvested from the eastern. Mediterranean sea. E. Taskin*, Z. Caki, M. Ozturk and E. Taskin ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Mediterranean sea, in vitro cytotoxicity, marine algae. ... marine sponges, bryozoan and mollusca.

  13. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doa’a Anwar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from hospitalized patients’ different sources (pus and wound and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33 mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin 18.00 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective.

  14. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

    2014-01-01

    Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33 mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

  15. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of a range of probiotics against pathogens: evidence for the effects of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero-Sariñena, Sandra; Barlow, Janine; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn R; Rowland, Ian

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of fifteen selected strains belonging to the Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus genera against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. In vitro antibacterial activity was initially investigated by an agar spot method. Results from the agar spot test showed that most of the selected strains were able to produce active compounds on solid media with antagonistic properties against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile. These results were also confirmed when cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) from the putative probiotics were used in an agar well diffusion assay. Neutralization of the culture supernatants with alkali reduced the antagonistic effects. These experiments are able to confirm the capacity of potential probiotics to inhibit selected pathogens. One of the main inhibitory mechanisms may result from the production of organic acids from glucose fermentation and consequent lowering of culture pH. This observation was confirmed when the profile of organic acids was analysed demonstrating that lactic and acetic acid were the principal end products of probiotic metabolism. Furthermore, the assessment of the haemolytic activity and the susceptibility of the strains to the most commonly used antimicrobials, considered as basic safety aspects, were also studied. The observed antimicrobial activity was mainly genus-specific, additionally significant differences could be observed among species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial efficacy of commercially available mouthrinses: An in vitro study

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    Roopavathi Kallahalli Mruthyuenjaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cavity ecosystem represents a dynamic pattern. An effective plaque control measure should target plaque formation before the mature plaque is formed. Various types of chemotherapeutic agents are coming up with different antimicrobial agents in them. Hence, this study has been undertaken to know whether these antimicrobial agents are effective on common microorganisms of oral cavity which directly and indirectly contributes to plaque formation Aim: The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial efficacy of different mouthrinses against the oral pathogens in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of seven mouthrinses were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three oral pathogens, namely, Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 890, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 by well agar diffusion assay. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test. The level of significance used was P< 0.05. Results: Mouthrinse with chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate, triclosan as main ingredients showed maximum zone of inhibition (P = 0.003 against streptococcal mutans and E. coli at 1:16 dilution and mouthrinse with CHX gluconate and zinc chloride showed maximum zone of inhibition at 1:16 dilution against Candida among seven mouthrinses used in the present study. It was also observed that zone of inhibition of all the mouthrinses decreased with the increase in dilution. Conclusion: Among mouthrinses formulations, CHX combined with other active ingredients was found to be more effective.

  17. Use of rosemary, oregano, and a commercial blend of essential oils in broiler chickens: in vitro antimicrobial activities and effects on growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathlouthi, N; Bouzaienne, T; Oueslati, I; Recoquillay, F; Hamdi, M; Urdaci, M; Bergaoui, R

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 3 essential oils [oregano, rosemary, and a commercial blend of essential oils (BEO)] against pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and to evaluate their effects on broiler chicken performances. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined using the gas chromatography interfaced with a mass spectroscopy. The disc diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were applied for the determination of antimicrobial activities of essential oils. In vivo study, a total of seven hundred fifty 1-d-old male broiler chickens were assigned to 6 dietary treatment groups: basal diet (control; CON), CON + 44 mg of avilamycin/kg (A), CON + 100 mg of rosemary essential oil/kg (ROS), CON + 100 mg of oregano essential oil/kg (OR), CON + 50 mg of rosemary and 50 mg of oregano essential oils/kg (RO), and CON + 1,000 mg of BEO/kg (essential oil mixture, EOM). The essential oils isolated from rosemary and oregano were characterized by their greater content of 1,8-cineole (49.99%) and carvacrol (69.55%), respectively. The BEO was mainly represented by the aldehyde (cinnamaldehyde) and the monoterpene (1,8-cineole) chemical groups. The results of the disc diffusion method indicated that the rosemary essential oil had antibacterial activity (P ≤ 0.05) against only 3 pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (8 mm), Salmonella indiana (11 mm), and Listeria innocua (9 mm). The essential oil of oregano had antimicrobial activities (P ≤ 0.05) on the same bacteria as rosemary but also on Staphylococcus aureus (22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 mm). Oregano essential oil had greater (P ≤ 0.05) antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria than rosemary essential oil but they had no synergism between them. The BEO showed an increased antimicrobial activity (P ≤ 0.05) against all studied bacteria (pathogenic and

  18. Antimicrobial activity of different endodontic sealers: An in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbes are considered as the primary etiological agents in endodontic diseases. The ways of reducing these agents are root canal debridement, antimicrobial irrigants, and antibacterial filling materials. But the complexity of the pulp canal system presents a problem for chemomechanical preparation. One of the factors determining the success of endodontic treatment is the sealing material with a potent bactericidal effect. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers of different bases - in vitro. Materials and Method: The antimicrobial activity of three root canal sealers (endomethasone, AH 26, and apexit was evaluated against seven strains of bacteria at various time intervals using the agar diffusion test. The freshly mixed sealers were placed in prepared wells of agar plates inoculated with the test microorganisms. The plates were incubated for 24, 48, 72 hours, and 7 and 15 days. The mean zones of inhibition were measured. Statistical Analysis: All statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 13 statistical software version. The analysis of variance (ANOVA, post-hoc Bonferroni test, and paired t test were performed to reveal the statistical significance. Results: Statistically significant zones of bacterial growth inhibition were observed in descending order of antimicrobial activity: endomethasone, AH 26, and apexit. Conclusion: Zinc oxide eugenol based root canal sealer produced largest inhibitory zones followed in decreasing order by epoxy resin based sealer and least by calcium hydroxide based root canal sealer.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of toothpastes with natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo Smolarek, Priscila; Esmerino, Luis Antonio; Chibinski, Ana Cláudia; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Kozlowski, Vitoldo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of commercial toothpastes containing natural compounds. The study groups were divided based on the natural compound present in the toothpaste composition: Sorbitol (I), tocopherol (II), mint (III), cinnamon/mint (IV), propolis/melaleuca (V), mint/açai (VI), mint/guarana (VII), propolis (VIII), negative control (IX), and the positive control (X). The antimicrobial properties of the toothpastes were tested using the disk diffusion method against oral pathogens: Streptococcus mutans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis. The resulting inhibition halos were measured in millimeters. The data indicated that the bacteria responded differently to the toothpastes (P mint/guarana > mint/açai > sorbitol > tocopherol > cinnamon/mint > propolis > mint (P propolis > sorbitol > mint/açai > tocopherol > cinnamon/mint > mint = propolis/melaleuca = negative control. The product with the highest antimicrobial activity was mint/guarana, which was significantly different than propolis/melaleuca, mint, cinnamon/mint, and tocopherol and negative control (P 0.05) and positive control (P > 0.05). P. aeruginosa was resistant to all dental gels tested including positive control. The toothpastes with natural compounds have therapeutic potential and need more detailed searches for the correct clinic therapeutic application. The results from this study revealed differences in the antimicrobial activities of commercial toothpastes with natural compounds.

  20. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy using a highly pure chlorin e6 against Staphylococcus aureus Xen29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Ahn, Mee-Young; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Soo-A; Moon, Yeon-Hee; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been recommended as an alternative therapy for various diseases including microbial infection. Recently, we developed a new method for the preparation of highly pure chlorin e(6) (Ce(6)), which has been widely used as a second-generation photosensitizer. PDT using Ce(6) was very effective for inhibition of in vitro growth of several bacterial strains. To clarify a possibility for its clinical application, in this study, we examined in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Ce(6)-mediated PDT in mice model of skin infection of Staphylococcus aureus Xen29. Inhibition zone analysis and colony forming unit (CFU) count revealed that Ce(6)-mediated PDT inhibited effectively in vitro bacterial growth. In addition, biofilm formation ability of S. aureus Xen29 was decreased by Ce(6)-mediated PDT. In vivo experiment, mice receiving Ce(6)-mediated PDT exhibited less intensity of bioluminescent signal, showing significant inhibition of bacterial growth. Furthermore, in histopathological examination, marked neutrophilic infiltration and massive bacterial colonies were seen in control mice and mice receiving laser or Ce(6) alone, but not in mice treated with PDT. These results suggest that PDT using Ce(6) extracted by our new method can be clinically useful against bacterial infectious diseases.

  1. Synergistic Effect of Pleuromutilins with Other Antimicrobial Agents against Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro and in an Experimental Galleria mellonella Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Liu; Li, Lin-Xiong; Cui, Ze-Hua; Chen, Shu-Wen; Xiong, Yan Q; Lu, Jia-Qi; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Jian; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Invasive infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus are prevalent and life-threatening. Combinations of antibiotic therapy have been employed in many clinical settings for improving therapeutic efficacy, reducing side effects of drugs, and development of antibiotic resistance. Pleuromutilins have a potential to be developed as a new class of antibiotics for systemic use in humans. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between pleuromutilins, including valnemulin, tiamulin, and retapamulin, and 13 other antibiotics representing different mechanisms of action, against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. aureus both in vitro and in an experimental Galleria mellonella model. In vitro synergistic effects were observed in combination of all three study pleuromutilins with tetracycline (TET) by standard checkerboard and/or time-kill assays. In addition, the combination of pleuromutilins with ciprofloxacin or enrofloxacin showed antagonistic effects, while the rest combinations presented indifferent effects. Importantly, all study pleuromutilins in combination with TET significantly enhanced survival rates as compared to the single drug treatment in the G. mellonella model caused by S. aureus strains. Taken together, these results demonstrated synergy effects between pleuromutilins and TET against S. aureus both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Pleuromutilins with Other Antimicrobial Agents against Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro and in an Experimental Galleria mellonella Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liu Dong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus are prevalent and life-threatening. Combinations of antibiotic therapy have been employed in many clinical settings for improving therapeutic efficacy, reducing side effects of drugs, and development of antibiotic resistance. Pleuromutilins have a potential to be developed as a new class of antibiotics for systemic use in humans. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between pleuromutilins, including valnemulin, tiamulin, and retapamulin, and 13 other antibiotics representing different mechanisms of action, against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. aureus both in vitro and in an experimental Galleria mellonella model. In vitro synergistic effects were observed in combination of all three study pleuromutilins with tetracycline (TET by standard checkerboard and/or time-kill assays. In addition, the combination of pleuromutilins with ciprofloxacin or enrofloxacin showed antagonistic effects, while the rest combinations presented indifferent effects. Importantly, all study pleuromutilins in combination with TET significantly enhanced survival rates as compared to the single drug treatment in the G. mellonella model caused by S. aureus strains. Taken together, these results demonstrated synergy effects between pleuromutilins and TET against S. aureus both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Phytochemical And In Vitro Antimicrobial Assay Of The Leaf Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and In Vitro antimicrobial tests. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, steroidal and cardiac glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was assayed by the agar plate disc ...

  4. Alternative treatment of vaginal infections – in vitro antimicrobial and toxic effects of Coriandrum sativum L. and Thymus vulgaris L. essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogavac, M; Karaman, M; Janjušević, Lj; Sudji, J; Radovanović, B; Novaković, Z; Simeunović, J; Božin, B

    2015-09-01

    The aims of study were to examine the antibacterial potential of two commercial essential oils (EOs) from coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) against vaginal clinical strains of bacteria and yeast and their chemical composition. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils were determined using macro-diffusion (disc, well) and micro-dilution method in 96-well micro plates against twelve clinical strains of bacteria: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus sp., Staph. aureus ATCC 25923, ATCC 6538 and E. coli 25922 and two clinical Candida albicans strains, including ATTC 10231. Spectrophotometric method was used for determination on C. albicans growth. An antimicrobial effect of EOs was strain specific. Bactericidal activity was higher for coriander EO (minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) 0·4-45·4 μl ml(-1)) against almost all tested bacteria, except multiple resistant strains of Eneterococcus sp. and Proteus sp. Thyme EO showed slightly better fungicidal activity reaching MIC at 0·11 mg ml(-1) for all C. albicans strains. The effect of EOs on biofilm-forming ability was tested for two strains of Staph. aureus and E. coli, as well as on C. albicans filamentation ability. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay revealed thymus oil total toxicity and coriander oil intoxicity (LC50 = 2·25 mg ml(-1)). The chemical composition of oils was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry showing oxygenated monoterepenes as dominant constituents. The results provide in-vitro scientific support for the safety possible use of Coriander EO against E. coli, Staph. aureus and C. albicans vaginal infections in alternative gynaecological treatment. To examine EOs as possible constituent of naturally based antimicrobial agents in vaginaletes for safety gynaecological application. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF A DENTAL VARNISH, INVITRO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETERSSON, LG; EDWARDSSON, S; ARENDS, J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a polymer based antimicrobial releasing varnish Cervitec(R) were investigated against different grampositive and gramnegative bacterial strains as well as a yeast using the agar diffusion inhibitory test (ADT-test in vitro). As positive controls a 1 % chlorhexidine gel and 1 % aqueous

  6. The Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Propolis with Chlorhexidine against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eralp Akca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX on planktonic Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and their single-species biofilms by agar dilution and broth microdilution test methods. Both agents inhibited the growth of all planktonic species. On the other hand, CHX exhibited lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than EEP against biofilms of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. aureus, and E. faecalis whereas EEP yielded a better result against Lactobacilli and P. intermedia. The bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of both agents were found to be equal against biofilms of Streptecocci, P. gingivalis, A. israelii, and C. albicans. The results of this study revealed that propolis was more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria in their planktonic state and it was suggested that EEP could be as effective as CHX on oral microorganisms in their biofilm state.

  7. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial features of sugammadex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Volkan; Vural, Ahmet; Hanci, Sevgi Yılmaz; Ali Kiraz, Hasan; Omür, Dilek; Unver, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Drugs administered by intravenous routes may be contaminated during several stages of production or preparation. Sugammadex is a modified gamma cyclodextrin. While research into the antibacterial effects of varieties of cyclodextrin is available, there are no studies focusing on the antibacterial effects of sugammadex. This study investigates the in vitro antimicrobial activity of sugammadex. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of sugammadex was investigated using the broth microdilution method. The pH of the test solution was determined using a pH meter. The test microorganisms included Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus fecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the second phase of the study 100mg/mL sugammadex (50μg) was contaminated with test microorganisms (50μg), including S. aureus ATCC 29213, E. fecalis ATCC 29212, E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, left to incubate for 24h and then the bacterial production in sugammadex was evaluated. The pH of the test solutions ranged between 7.25 and 6.97. Using the microdilution method, sugammadex had no antibacterial effect on S. aureus, E. fecalis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa at any concentration. In the second phase of the study bacterial production was observed after 24h in 100mg/mL sugammadex contaminated with the test microorganisms S. aureus, E. fecalis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Sugammadex had no antimicrobial effect on the test microorganisms, S. aureus, E. fecalis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Care should be taken that sterile conditions are maintained in the preparation of sugammadex; that the same sugammadex preparation not be used for more than one patient; and that storage conditions are adhered to after sugammadex is put into the injector. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluación de la eficacia in vitro e in vivo del tratamiento antimicrobiano combinado por el tablero de damas Effectiveness of a combined antimicrobial treatment by means of the draughtboard. In vitro and in vivo assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Espino Hernández

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo, evaluar la eficacia clínica del tratamiento antimicrobiano combinado mediante pruebas de sinergismo in vitro y determinar la eficacia del procedimiento empleado para orientar la aplicación de estas formas de tratamiento en el paciente con sepsis por bacterias con resistencia variada. Se evaluó el tratamiento aplicado a 163 recién nacidos con sepsis corroborada por hemocultivo positivo en el Hospital Ginecobstétrico Universitario "América Arias", durante el periodo de enero de 1993 a diciembre de 2000, por el método tablero de damas (checkerboard en placas de microtitulación. Las combinaciones de fármacos sinérgicas in vitro presentaron una alta probabilidad de eficacia clínica, independiente del patrón de susceptibilidad del microorganismo aun frente a cepas resistentes a los 2 antimicrobianos utilizados en el tratamiento. Todos los resultados antagónicos in vitro se correspondieron con un fallo clínico terapéutico. El procedimiento utilizado puede constituir una valiosa herramienta para orientar la terapéutica en pacientes con sepsis por microorganismos resistentes.The aim of present paper was to evaluate clinical effectiveness of combined antimicrobial treatment by means of in vitro synergism tests and to determine effectiveness of used procedure to direct applications of these treatment strategies in patient presenting with sepsis from varied resistance bacteria. Treatment applied was assessed in 163 newborn patients presenting with sepsis from positive hemoculture in "America Arias" University Gynecology-Obstetrics Hospital from January 1993 to December 2000, by checkerboard method in microtritate plates. In vitro synergic drug combinations showed a high probability of clinical effectiveness, independently of susceptibility pattern of microorganism event versus resistant strains to both antimicrobials used in treatment. All in vitro antagonistic results correspond both with a

  9. The Effect of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Radachlorin and Toluidine Blue on Streptococcus Mutans: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zangeneh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are caused by infection of teeth and supporting tissues due to complex aggregate of bacteria known as biofilm, firstly colonized by streptococci. The main purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobialeffects of toluidine blue O (TBO and Radachlorin® in combination with a diode laser on the viability of Streptococcus mutans.Materials and Methods: Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans were exposed to either 0.1% TBO associated with (20 mW, 633 nm diode laser, continuous mode, 150 s or 0.1% Radachlorin® and laser irradiation (100 mW, 662 nm diode laser, continuous mode,120 s. Those in control groups were subjected to laser irradiation alone or TBO/Radachlorin® alone or received neither TBO/Radachlorin® nor laser exposure. The suspensions were then spread over specific agar plates and incubated aerobically at 37°C. Finally, the bactericidal effects were evaluated based on colony formation.Results: Potential bacterial cell killing was only observed following photosensitization with TBO and 3 j/cm2 laser exposure (p<0.05, whereas Radachlorin® showed significant reduction in dark condition compared to laser exposure (p<0.05.Conclusion: TBO-mediated photodynamic therapy seems to be more efficient than Radachlorin ® in significantly reducing the viability of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.

  10. In vitro antiplasmodial and antimicrobial potential of Tagetes erecta roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Vasudeva, Neeru

    2010-11-01

    Among strategies to combat malaria, the search for newer antimalarial compounds is a priority. Traditionally, Tagetes erecta Linn. (Compositae) has been used for the treatment of various diseases and ailments including malaria. Five successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous) of the roots of T. erecta and a new bithienyl compound, 2-hydroxymethyl-non-3-ynoic acid 2-[2,2']-bithiophenyl-5-ethyl ester from the roots of the plant, were evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The extracts were also tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity against seven microbial strains. The antiplasmodial screening was carried out using the schizont maturation inhibition assay. Preliminary antimicrobial screening was carried out using the agar well assay followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using two-fold serial dilutions. Among all the extracts tested, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited significant antiplasmodial efficacy with the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 0.02 and 0.07 mg/mL against the chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum respectively. The new bithienyl compound also showed significant schizonticidal activity against both chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with the IC(50) values of 0.01 and 0.02 mg/mL. Additionally, all extracts exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacterial and two fungal strains with MIC values ranging between 12.5-100 µg/mL. The new bithienyl compound was profoundly able to arrest the ring stages of the malarial parasites thereby exerting its antiplasmodial effect. The observations provide support for the ethnobotanical use of the plant.

  11. Effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using a 660 nm laser and methyline blue dye for inactivating Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in compact and cancellous bones: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luciano Pereira; Silva, Francine Cristina da; Nader, Sumaia Alves; Meira, Giselle Andrade; Viana, Magda Souza

    2015-06-01

    New therapeutic modalities such as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has been investigated in order to be a valid alternative to the treatment of infections caused by different microorganisms. This work evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) using 660 nm laser combined with methylene blue dye to inactivate Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilms in compact and cancellous bones specimens. Eighty specimens of compact bone and 80 specimens of cancellous bone were contaminated with a standard suspension of S. aureus and incubated for 14 days at 37°C to induce the formation of biofilms. The specimens were then divided into groups (n = 10) according to the established treatment: PS-L- (control--no treatment), PS+L- (only AM for 5 min in the dark), PS-L+90 (only laser irradiation for 90 s), PS-L+180 (only laser irradiation for 180 s), PS-L+300 (only laser irradiation for 300 s), APDT90 (APDT for 90 s), APDT180 (APDT for 180 s), and APDT300 (APDT for 300 s). The findings were statistically analyzed by ANOVA 5%. All of the experimental treatments showed a significant reduction (log 10 CFU/mL) of S. aureus biofilms in compact and cancellous bones specimens compared with the control group, and the APDT group was the most effective. Compact specimens treated with APDT showed the greatest reduction in biofilms compared with cancellous specimens, regardless of length of treatment. APDT with methylene blue dye and a 660 nm laser proved to be effective in inactivating S. aureus biofilms formed in compact and cancellous bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidative effects of Ugandan medicinal barks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... Despite a rich tradition of medicinal plants use by local communities in Uganda their direct antimicrobial effectives together with potential to protect human health against diseases induced by oxidative stress are still poorly documented. The aim of this study is to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and total ...

  13. Development of an in vitro periodontal biofilm model for assessing antimicrobial and host modulatory effects of bioactive molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millhouse, Emma; Jose, Anto; Sherry, Leighann; Lappin, David F; Patel, Nisha; Middleton, Andrew M; Pratten, Jonathan; Culshaw, Shauna; Ramage, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    .... An in vitro multi-species biofilm containing S. mitis, F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans was created to represent a disease-associated biofilm and the oral epithelial cell in OKF6-TERT2...

  14. Antimicrobial Effect of Leaves of Phyllanthus niruri and Solanum nigrum on Caries Causing Bacteria: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, J; Krishna, Swathy; Ananthalakshmi, R; Jeeva, J Sathiya; Girija, As Smiline; Jeddy, Nadeem

    2017-06-01

    Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri are common herbs which are indigeneous to India. Solanum nigrum commonly called 'manathakkali Keerai' in Tamil, forms an indispensable part of South Indian diet. Phyllanthus niruri (keezhanelli in Tamil) is a widely used medicinal plant, the leaves of which have been used extensively in Ayurveda and native medicine to cure various liver ailments. The herbs Solanumnigrum and Phyllanthus niruri have been found to be effective against numerous enteropathogens in various in vitro studies. To assess and compare the antibacterial efficacy of the crude alcoholic extract of the leaves of Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri against five cariogenic organisms. Standard strains of the micro-organisms were obtained from ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) and MTCC (Microbial Type Culture Collection) which comprised of Streptococcus mutans MTCC no. 890, Streptococcus oralis MTCC no 2696, Lactobacillus acidophillus MTCC no. 10307, Streptococcus sanguis ATCC no. 10556 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC no. 13419. The organisms obtained were revived and lawn cultured on Trypticase Soy Agar-Blood Agar (TSA-BA) and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar media. The antibacterial effect of the dried and powdered leaves of Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri was tested using agar well diffusion method. The zones of inhibition obtained after incubation were measured and tabulated. The antibacterial activity for the two herbs was compared using the Mann-Whitney test. The antibacterial zones of inhibition obtained for the herb Solanum nigrum was in the range of 12.3-14.6 mm and ranged from 9.7-11.6 mm for the herb Phyllanthus niruri. When the zones of inhibition were compared for the herbs, Solanum nigrum showed significantly greater zones of inhibition compared to Phyllanthus niruri for the organisms Streptococcussanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mutans (p-valueantibacterial activity against cariogenic

  15. An in vitro evaluation of the combined antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Checker Board Technique (CBT) was used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of two penicillins; ampicillin and cloxacillin, against ampicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Tubes of liquid medium were arranged in columns and rows, with the concentration of one antibiotic decreasing from left to right in ...

  16. In Vitro Antimicrobial Evaluation of African Nutmeg ( Monodora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vitro Antimicrobial Evaluation of African Nutmeg (Monodora Myristica) Seeds. GI Ogu, RC Ekeanyanwu, EC Madagwu, OJ Eboh, J Okoye. Abstract. The organic (Hexane and ethanol) and aqueous extracts of African nutmeg (Monodora myristica) seeds were studied on isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, ...

  17. Biochemical Properties, In-Vitro Antimicrobial, and Free Radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical Properties, In-Vitro Antimicrobial, and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of the Leaves of Annona muricata. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home ... N-hexane extract of the plant exhibited antioxidant property by scavenging DPPH radicals with IC50 of 342.44 μg/mL.

  18. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Afzelia africana is used in folklore remedies for the treatment of diarrhoea, gastrointestinal disorders and gonorrhoea among other ailments; hence we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial activities of this important medicinal plant. Thirty bacterial isolates as well as four fungal isolates were tested in this study.

  19. 62 original article in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    EXPER. MICROBIOL. 16(1): 62-66. IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS. AUREUS ISOLATES IN UMUAHIA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA. Ekundayo, E. O.1, 2* and Ndubuisi, R. N.1. 1Department of Microbiology , College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, ...

  20. In Vitro Screening of Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Clinacanthus nutans extracts and semi-fractions. Method: The plant was subjected to cold solvent extraction to produce petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol crude extracts, followed by isolation using bioassay-guided fractionation.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial potential of organic solvent extracts of novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    In vitro screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of selected promising actinomycetes strains were studied towards Gram- positive, Gram-negative bacteria, dermatophytes and opportunistic pathogens. Crude antimicrobial metabolites were extracted ...

  2. In vitro antimicrobial potential of organic solvent extracts of novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of selected promising actinomycetes strains were studied towards Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, dermatophytes and opportunistic pathogens. Crude antimicrobial metabolites were extracted ...

  3. In Vitro Antimicrobial Assay Of Plants Used In Traditional Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants used in traditional medicine in Bukoba Rural district in Tanzania were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities. Plant materials from eight plant species (Harungana madagascariensis (Lam) Poir., Jatropha curcas L., Lantana trifolia L., Plectranthus barbatus Andr., Pseudospondias microcarpa Engl., ...

  4. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and octenidine hydrochloride in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, Resmiye E; Bodur, Haluk; Sipahi, Bilge; Sungurtekin, Elif

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) in different concentrations against endodontic pathogens in vitro. Agar diffusion procedure was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the tested materials. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and the mixture of these were used for this study. In the agar diffusion test, 5.25% NaOCl exhibited better antimicrobial effect than the other concentrations of NaOCl for all strains. All concentrations of OCT were effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis. Some 0.2% CHX was ineffective on all microorganisms. Antibacterial effectiveness of all experimental solutions decreased on the mixture of all strains. Decreasing concentrations of NaOCl resulted in significantly reduced antimicrobial effect. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  5. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of a raw bacteriocin extract in combination with chemical preservatives employed in meat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Aguado Bautista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopreservation can be defined as the foods shelf life extension employing antibacterial products like bacteriocins. The objective of this work was to determinate the efficacy of E. faecium MXVK29 bacteriocin in combination with chemical preservatives against spoilage and pathogens microorganisms. Bacteriocin raw extrac antimicrobial activity was 46.34 UA/g of protein. Growth of Pseudomonas putida was not affected by the preservatives employed at the conditions employed. Antimicrobial response was different for other microorganisms since a synergetic effect of the preservatives combination inhibited Brochothrix thermosphacta and Escherichia coli growth. Sodium lactate had additive effect only against Listeria innocua.

  6. The in vitro effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with indocyanine green on Enterococcus faecalis: Influence of a washing vs non-washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiniforush, Nasim; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Parker, Steven; Shahabi, Sima; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of washing and non-washing of indocyanine green (ICG) as photosensitizer (PS) on bacterial count, biofilm formation, development and degradation of Enterococcus faecalis. The anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm formation, anti-biofilm development and biofilm degradation of anti-microbial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against E. faecalis was determined at concentrations of 3 to 2000μg/mL of ICG, subject to 18J/cm(2) dose of diode laser (808nm) in washing and non-washing producers. Bacterial viability measurements and biofilm assays were evaluated by broth microdilution method and crystal violet assays, respectively. ICG-mediated aPDT, using 25 to 2000μg/mL and 50 to 2000μg/mL showed significant reduction in E. faecalis growth when compared to the control in non-washing and washing producers, respectively (Pfaecalis in concentration of 6 to 2000μg/mL and 100 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups (P<0.05). The biofilm development was inhibited by concentrations of 12 to 2000μg/mL and 100 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups. The biofilm degradation increased from concentrations of 12 to 2000μg/mL and 250 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups, respectively. This study shows that the application of ICG should be accompanied by laser irradiation without being washed out to achieve better result for bacterial count reduction and anti-biofilm effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical analysis and in vitro antimicrobial effects and mechanism of action of Trachyspermum copticum essential oil against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Jian-Qing; Song, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Guang-Fa

    2017-07-01

    To find a natural plant essential oil (EO) with excellent antimicrobial effects on food-borne bacteria and to explore the mechanism of its antimicrobial function against Escherichia coli (E. coli). The antimicrobial activity of seven EOs against Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 8739 and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was investigated using agar disk diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each EO was determined using the broth dilution method. The chemical composition of the Trachyspermum copticum (T. copticum) EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In order to explore the mechanism of the antimicrobial action, 1 MIC and 2 MIC of T. copticum EO was added to a suspension of E. coli, the growth curve and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of E. coli, and the release of cell constituents and protein and potassium ions from the bacterial cell were measured. The T. copticum EO had the best antimicrobial activity against the test bacteria, and 10 compounds accounting for 94.57% of the total oil were identified, with the major components being thymol (46.22%), p-cymene (19.03%), and γ-terpinene (22.41%). The addition of 1 MIC that T. copticum EO significantly inhibited the growth of E. coli and increased the release of cell constituents and protein and potassium ions from the bacterial cells. Scanning electron micrographs showed that T. copticum EO caused most of the E. coli cell membranes to collapse and rupture, leading to cell death. These results indicate that T. copticum EO is a good natural antimicrobial agent for food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The in Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of PDT against Periodontopathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Haag, Philippe A.; Steiger-Ronay, Valerie; Schmidlin, Patrick R.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease, is caused by biofilms with a mixed microbial etiology and involves the progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. A rising number of studies investigate the clinical potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjunct during active therapy. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the available literature for the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy focusing on the periodontopathogenic bacteria Aggregatibacter act...

  9. In Vitro Activities of New Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gonzalez, Eva; Choi, Sung H.; Welsh, Oliverio

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro sensitivities of 30 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis to DA-7867, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and BMS-284756 (garenoxacin) were determined using the broth microdilution method. All N. brasiliensis strains were sensitive to these antimicrobials. The most active drug in vitro was DA-7867, with a MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited of 0.03 μg/ml and a MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited of 0.06 μg/ml. PMID:14742215

  10. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirach...

  11. Potential in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of Holigarna arnottiana (Hook F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, Aseer; Idhayadhulla, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    To explore the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Holigarna arnottiana (H. arnottiana) against human and shrimp pathogenic bacteria and use GC-MS analysis to elucidate its antimicrobial principles. In the present study, organic extract of H. arnottiana was examined for in vitro antimicrobial potency against five clinical human pathogens, seven species of human type culture pathogens, six pathogenic Vibrio strains isolated from moribund tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and seven type cultures (Microbial Type Culture Collection, MTCC) of prominent shrimp pathogens. The extraction of H. arnottiana with ethyl acetate yielded bioactive crude extract that efficiently repressed the growth of all tested pathogens. Among the pathogens tested, shrimp pathogens were the most susceptible organisms while clinical pathogens were found to be a little resistant. The chemical constituents of the H. arnottiana were analysed by GC-MS which revealed the presence of major compounds such as 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-o1 (42.1%), 1-lodo-2-methylundecane (34.5%) and squalene (11.1%) which might have a functional role in the chemical defence against microbial invasion. Based on the finding it could be inferred that H. arnottiana would be a reliable source for developing shrimp and human bio-therapeutics in future. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro study on the antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae against oral pathogens - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Augusto Burkert Del Pino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of medicinal plants’ antimicrobial activity. Mentha arvensis of the Lamiaceae family is one of the most frequently traditional plants used in Brazil. Hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis were analyzed for antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans. Three different assays (agar diffusion, broth macro- and micro-dilution methods were used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Although hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis did not show any antibacterial effect, its antifungal activity against C. albicans was revealed. According to the micro-dilution broth assay, MIC of the hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of M. arvensis on Candida albicans strains ranged between 625 and 2500 mg mL-1. Results suggest that M. arvensis hydroalcoholic extract may be considered a potentially antifungal agent against C. albicans, and a possible item for human antibiotic therapy.  However, further biological tests on the plant’s efficacy and side-effects are necessary before its use on humans.  

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of P. guajava was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains by using the paper disc diffusion method. Results: The methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.78 μg/ml, minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antimicrobial action of P. guajava. Conclusion: The extract was found to be bacteriostatic and fungistatic in action.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed; Narasimhan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae). Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of P. guajava was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains by using the paper disc diffusion method. Results: The methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.78 μg/ml, minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antimicrobial action of P. guajava. Conclusion: The extract was found to be bacteriostatic and fungistatic in action. PMID:21687350

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Flores, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Tavarez-Alejandro, Roman Erick; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2004-01-01

    In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antimicrobials have an effect on more than 66% of the strains: linezolid, amikacin, gentamicin, isepamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin, minocycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, nitroxolin, and spiramycin. Drug activity was confirmed quantitatively by the broth microdilution method. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, and amikacin, which have been used to treat patients, were tested in an experimental model of mycetoma in BALB/c mice in order to validate the in vitro results. Linezolid showed the highest activity in vivo, followed by the combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amikacin. PMID:14982772

  16. In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activity of Amphipterygium adstringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodriguez-Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphipterygium adstringens is a plant widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for its known anti-inflammatory and antiulcer properties. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract of A. adstringens against oral pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis, using microdilution (MIC and agar diffusion methods (MBC, and the antiproliferative activity evaluating total growth inhibition (TGI by staining the protein content with sulforhodamine B (SRB, using nine human cancer cell lines. Crude extract (CE of A. adstringens showed some degree of activity against one or more of the strains with a MIC from 0.125 mg/mL to 63 mg/mL and MBC from 1.6 to 6.3 mg/mL and cytotoxic activity, particularly against NCI-ADR/RES, an ovarian cell line expressing multiple resistance drugs phenotype. The CE is a complex mixture of possible multitarget metabolites that could be responsible for both antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities, and further investigation is required to elucidate the identity of active compounds. Nevertheless the CE itself is useful in the development of new antimicrobial treatment based on natural products to prevent oral diseases and as alternative natural source for cancer treatment and prevention.

  17. IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF AQUILARIA AGALLOCHA ROOTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canlı, Kerem; Yetgin, Ali; Akata, Ilgaz; Altuner, Ergin Murat

    2016-01-01

    It was previously shown that some parts of Aquilaria agallocha, which is commonly known as oud or oodh, such as roots have been used as a traditional medical herbal in different countries. In Turkey A. agallocha is one of the ingredients while preparing famous Mesir paste, which was invented as a medicinal paste and used from the Ottoman period to now at least for 500 years. The identification the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of A. agallocha roots is main purpose of this analysis. By using 17 bacteria and 1 fungi, which include Bacillus, Candida, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Listeria, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus genera, the activity of A. agallocha root extracts were analysed by the help of the disk diffusion method, that is one of the methods commonly used to determine antimicrobial activities. As a result of the study it was observed that ethanol extracts of A. agallocha roots have a clear antimicrobial activity against nearly all microorganism used in the study, but only two bacteria namely E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. typhimurium SL 1344. According to the disk diffusion test results it may be possible to propose that A. agallocha roots should have a medicinal uses especially against E. faecium, L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644, B. subtilis DSMZ 1971, C. albicans DSMZ 1386, S. epidermidis DSMZ 20044 and S. aureus ATCC 25923.

  18. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Rajinder K; Gupta Deepika

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabar...

  19. The global health governance of antimicrobial effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to public health the world over. Global health governance strategies need to address the erosion of antimicrobial effectiveness on three levels. Firstly, mechanisms to provide incentives for the pharmaceutical industry to develop antimicrobials for diseases threatening the developing world need to be sought out. Secondly, responsible use of antimicrobials by both clinicians and the animal food growing industry needs to be encouraged and managed globally. And lastly, in-country and international monitoring of changes in antimicrobial effectiveness needs to be stepped up in the context of a global health governance strategy.

  20. Effect of dentin on the antimicrobial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 18% etidronic acid on Candida albicans: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karale, Rupali; Odedra, Kamal Maldebhai; Srirekha, A; Champa, C; Shetty, Ashwija; Pushpalatha, S; Sharma, Rini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentin on the antimicrobial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid against C. albicans. Dentin powder was prepared from mandibular first premolar using electrical grinder and sterilized. 3% NaOCl, 2%CHX, 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid were tested against C. albicans in the presence and absence of dentin, in eppendorf tubes. Group 1 (presence of dentin):- 100ul dentin powder + 100ul C. albicans suspension + 100ul irrigating solution. Group 2 (absence of dentin):- 100ul C. albicans suspension+ 100ul irrigating solution. - 100ul C. albicans suspension.+ 100ul sterile saline Suspension was thoroughly mixed, submitted for serial dilution upto10-5 after 1 min and colony forming units were counted. In group 2 (without dentin powder), 3% NaOCl and 2% CHX showed the lowest bacterial count compared to group 1 (with dentin powder). Dentin had a significant inhibitory effect on 3% NaOCl (P < 0.001) and 2% CHX (P<0.001). 17% EDTA showed lowest bacterial count in group 1 (with dentin powder) compared to group 2 (without dentin powder). 18% Etidronic acid showed similar bacterial counts in the both the groups. No reduction was observed in the control group. NaOCl & EDTA showed measurable antimicrobial effect even in the presence of dentin which can be promising in the reduction of C. albicans in root canal therapy.

  1. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  2. Aqueous Humor Antimicrobial Activity: In Vitro Analysis after Topical 0.5% Chloramphenicol Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagini, Carlo; Dragoni, Annalisa; Orsolini, Giampaolo; Fiore, Tito; Beccasio, Alfredo; Spadea, Leopoldo; Moretti, Amedeo; Mencacci, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    To assess aqueous humor antimicrobial activity in vitro after topical 0.5% chloramphenicol application. This investigation included 63 eyes from 65 cataract surgery patients. The study group of 48 eyes received preoperatively four topical applications of 0.5% chloramphenicol. The control group of 15 eyes was given no topical applications. Aqueous humor samples were collected for in vitro antimicrobial analysis using Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Pasteurella multocida organisms by means of disk diffusion test. No inhibition halo was observed around all aqueous humor samples from all chloramphenicol-treated patients, irrespective of the sample quantity added to the paper disks, with no significant difference from aqueous humor from untreated control patients. Aqueous humor displayed no bactericidal effect against any of the microorganisms evaluated after topical 0.5% chloramphenicol application.

  3. Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic ( Allium sativum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  4. Antimicrobial effect of vancomycin electro-transferred water against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that water samples that are electronically transferred with vibration sustained information of vancomycin are capable of inhibiting growth of axenically cultured methicillin resistant S. aureus. Key words: Antimicrobial effect, electro-transferred water, bio-resonance, vancomycin, ...

  5. Antimicrobial Effects of Acacia nilotica and Vitex doniana on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial Effects of Acacia nilotica and Vitex doniana on the Thermophilic Campylobacter Species. M.A Raji, J.O Adekeye, J.K.P Kwaga, J.O.O Bale. Abstract. This study was carried out to investigate the in vitro activity of the extracts of Acacia nilotica and Vitex doniana against Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. laridis ...

  6. Assessing the Antimicrobial Effect of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis on the Clinical Isolates of Porphyromonas gingivalis: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Azita; Khosropanah, Hengameh; Bazargani, Abdollah; Abed, Molud; Emami, Amir

    2013-11-01

    One of the major diseases affecting the oral health is periodontal disease. Various therapeutic methods have been introduced to eliminate the periodonto-pathic subgingival microflora. Among these, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) has a major role in the pathogenesis of different forms of periodontal diseases. The present study investigated the antimicrobial effect of the essential oil of Myrtus communis on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) as the most destructive periodontal pathogens. The subjects included 27 male and 3 female patients with advanced chronic periodontitis. The mean age of the patients was 47.6 ± 2.0 years old. P. gingivalis was isolated from the samples and identified by various diagnostic tests, including Gram staining, Indol test, and fluorescent test. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil against isolated P. gingivalis was determined by broth micro-dilution method. In this study, 0.12 - 64 μL/mL Myrtus communis essence were used for 30 P. gingivalis isolates and the MIC50 and MIC90 concentration of Myrtus communis essence against the isolates was equal to 1 and 8 μL/mL respectively. The results showed that Myrtus communis has antimicrobial effects against P. gingivalis. Further studies are suggested to include this essence in therapeutic protocols of periodontal disease.

  7. Synergistic antimicrobial effect of nisin and p-cymene on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in vitro and on ready-to-eat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2010-01-01

    Foods contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are a major cause of typhoid fever, leading to public health problems and economic losses worldwide. Nisin and rho-cymene were tested in this study for their antimicrobial activity against S. Typhi at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Nisin and rho-cymene, when used separately, did not inhibit the bacterium at either temperature. A synergistic antimicrobial effect between both compounds was observed when they were used simultaneously. This synergism was greater at 37 degrees C than at 4 degrees C. The lowest concentrations of nisin and rho-cymene required for complete inhibition of S. Typhi at 37 degrees C were 0.3 ppm and 1.5 ppm, respectively, and 0.3 ppm and 2.5 ppm at 4 degrees C. The potential of nisin and rho-cymene to control an S. Typhi population on ready-to-eat Thai-style pork sausage was also examined. The compounds were able to eliminate the contaminating bacterium with concentrations depending on the bacterial cell number on the food.

  8. Antimicrobial effectiveness of 2% glutaraldehyde versus other disinfectants for hospital equipment, in an in vitro test based on germ-carriers with a high microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo-Cabrera, R; Uriarte, M C; Rey-Calero, J

    1999-12-01

    2% glutaraldehyde is the reference disinfectant for hospital instruments. However, its high environmental toxicity makes desirable to search for alternatives. We compare the antimicrobial activity of 2% glutaraldehyde with 0.44% N-duopropenide (NDP), 0.66% NDP in 48 degrees alcoholic solution (NDP-alc), 0.13% glutaraldehyde-phenate, 1% or 3% persulphate (Virkon) and 0.1% or 0.5% chlorhexidine, using a model that mimics non-regular surface instruments contaminated with microbial strains (44 bacteria, 6 of which were Mycobacterium). The contaminated carrier is soaked in the disinfectant solution. After 5 or 20 minutes contact the disinfectant is neutralized. The overall results on all microorganisms in 20 minutes, show similar antibacterial activity for 2% glutaraldehyde and 0.66% NDP-alc, followed by 0.44% NDP and after by the two concentrations of Virkon and 0.5% chlorhexidine. The 0.13% glutaraldehyde-phenate and 0.1% chlorhexidine exhibited significantly less effect than any other disinfectant. 0.66% NDP-alc was faster antimicrobial activity than 2% glutaraldehyde, destroying totally the inoculum in 5 minutes. Activity on Mycobacterium showed great differences between 2% glutaraldehyde and the rest of products (> 5 log versus 5 log in 5 minutes) than 2% glutaraldehyde. With human blood, the survival microorganisms increase 0.3 log (average) in all the disinfectants used. The aggressiveness on metallic devices was greater in Virkon than in the other disinfectants. We conclude that NDP (alone or in alcoholic solution) may be a good alternative to glutaraldehyde in hospital instruments disinfection.

  9. In Vitro Susceptibility of Mycobacterium ulcerans Isolates to Selected Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid Owusu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The current definitive treatment of Buruli ulcer with antibiotics makes the issue of antimicrobial drug resistance an unavoidable one. This is as a result of drug misuse by health personnel and patients’ noncompliance to treatment regimen. Monitoring of these factors and screening for new effective antimicrobials are crucial to effective management of Buruli ulcer disease. This study therefore investigated the inhibitory activity of some antibiotics against isolates of Mycobacterium ulcerans. Methods. Activity of eight antibiotics was tested against twelve M. ulcerans isolates (2 reference strains and 10 clinical isolates. The anti-M. ulcerans activities were determined by the agar dilution method and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined by the agar proportion method. Results. All antimicrobials investigated had activity against M. ulcerans isolates tested. The MICs ranged from 0.16 μg/mL to 2.5 μg/mL. Azithromycin recorded the highest inhibitory activity at a mean MIC of 0.39 μg/mL, whilst clofazimine a second-line antileprosy drug, recorded the lowest at a mean MIC of 2.19 μg/mL. Among the four antituberculosis drugs, rifampicin had the highest activity with a mean MIC of 0.81 μg/mL. Conclusion. Azithromycin could be considered as a lucrative alternative to existing treatment methods for inhibiting M. ulcerans in Ghana.

  10. In Vitro Approach for Identification of the Most Effective Agents for Antimicrobial Lock Therapy in the Treatment of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections Caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, S; Zapotoczna, M; Stevens, N T; Humphreys, H; O'Gara, J P; O'Neill, E

    2016-05-01

    Infection of intravascular catheters by Staphylococcus aureus is a significant risk factor within the health care setting. To treat these infections and attempt salvage of an intravascular catheter, antimicrobial lock solutions (ALSs) are being increasingly used. However, the most effective ALSs against these biofilm-mediated infections have yet to be determined, and clinical practice varies greatly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacies of antibiotics and antiseptics in current clinical use against biofilms produced by reference and clinical isolates of S. aureus Static and flow biofilm assays were developed using newly described in vivo-relevant conditions to examine the effect of each agent on S. aureus within the biofilm matrix. The antibiotics daptomycin, tigecycline, and rifampin and the antiseptics ethanol and Taurolock inactivated established S. aureus biofilms, while other commonly used antistaphylococcal antibiotics and antiseptic agents were less effective. These findings were confirmed by live/dead staining of S. aureus biofilms formed and treated within a flow cell model. The results from this study demonstrate the most effective clinically used agents and their concentrations which should be used within an ALS to treat S. aureus-mediated intravascular catheter-related infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. The in Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of PDT against Periodontopathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Philippe A; Steiger-Ronay, Valerie; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2015-11-13

    Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease, is caused by biofilms with a mixed microbial etiology and involves the progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. A rising number of studies investigate the clinical potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjunct during active therapy. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the available literature for the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy focusing on the periodontopathogenic bacteria Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The focused question was: "Is it possible to decrease (at least 3 log steps or 99.9%) or even eliminate bacterial growth by photodynamic therapy in vitro when compared to untreated control groups or control groups treated by placebo?" In general, PDT resulted in a substantial reduction of surviving bacteria. However, not all studies showed the desired reduction or elimination. The ranges of log10-reduction were 0.38 (58%) to a complete eradication (100%) for P. gingivalis, 0.21 (39%) to 100% for A. actinomycetemcomitans and 0.3 (50%) to 100% for F. nucleatum. In conclusion, further and particularly more comparable studies are needed to evaluate if PDT can be clinically successful as an adjuvant in periodontal therapy.

  12. The in Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of PDT against Periodontopathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Philippe A.; Steiger-Ronay, Valerie; Schmidlin, Patrick R.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease, is caused by biofilms with a mixed microbial etiology and involves the progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. A rising number of studies investigate the clinical potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjunct during active therapy. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the available literature for the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy focusing on the periodontopathogenic bacteria Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The focused question was: “Is it possible to decrease (at least 3 log steps or 99.9%) or even eliminate bacterial growth by photodynamic therapy in vitro when compared to untreated control groups or control groups treated by placebo?” In general, PDT resulted in a substantial reduction of surviving bacteria. However, not all studies showed the desired reduction or elimination. The ranges of log10-reduction were 0.38 (58%) to a complete eradication (100%) for P. gingivalis, 0.21 (39%) to 100% for A. actinomycetemcomitans and 0.3 (50%) to 100% for F. nucleatum. In conclusion, further and particularly more comparable studies are needed to evaluate if PDT can be clinically successful as an adjuvant in periodontal therapy. PMID:26580607

  13. The in Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of PDT against Periodontopathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe A. Haag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease, is caused by biofilms with a mixed microbial etiology and involves the progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. A rising number of studies investigate the clinical potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT as an adjunct during active therapy. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the available literature for the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy focusing on the periodontopathogenic bacteria Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The focused question was: “Is it possible to decrease (at least 3 log steps or 99.9% or even eliminate bacterial growth by photodynamic therapy in vitro when compared to untreated control groups or control groups treated by placebo?” In general, PDT resulted in a substantial reduction of surviving bacteria. However, not all studies showed the desired reduction or elimination. The ranges of log10-reduction were 0.38 (58% to a complete eradication (100% for P. gingivalis, 0.21 (39% to 100% for A. actinomycetemcomitans and 0.3 (50% to 100% for F. nucleatum. In conclusion, further and particularly more comparable studies are needed to evaluate if PDT can be clinically successful as an adjuvant in periodontal therapy.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial assessment of Cuban propolis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resinous mixture of different plant exudates collected by honeybees. Currently, propolis is widely used as a food supplement and in folk medicine. We have evaluated 20 Cuban propolis extracts of different chemical types, brown (BCP, red and yellow (YCP, with respect to their in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal properties. The extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum at low µg/mL concentrations, whereas they were not active against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The major activity of the extracts was found against the protozoa Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, although cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells was also observed. The BCP-3, YCP-39 and YCP-60 extracts showed the highest activity against P. falciparum, with 50% of microbial growth (IC50 values of 0.2 µg/mL. A positive correlation between the biological activity and the chemical composition was observed for YCP extracts. The most promising antimicrobial activity corresponds to YCP subtype B, which contains acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. The present in vitro study highlights the potential of propolis against protozoa, but further research is needed to increase selectivity towards the parasite. The observed chemical composition-activity relationship of propolis can contribute to the identification of the active principles and standardisation of this bee product.

  15. In vitro and in vivo protocols of antimicrobial bioassay of medicinal herbal extracts: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Najeeb Ullah; Abida Parveen; Rahat Bano; Iqra Zulfiqar; Mukharma Maryam; Sadia Jabeen; Amna Liaqat; Sohail Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against pathogenic microorganisms is the most significant task of clinical microbiology laboratory. The present study was therefore designed to review the in vitro and in vivo protocols of antimicrobial bioassays of various medicinal herbal extracts against a diversity of pathogenic microorganisms. Plants have a broad variety of antimicrobial agents which are extensively used as herbal drugs against different microbes. The review covers the ...

  16. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol Extracts of Zanthoxylum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of two Nigerian medicinal plant commonly used as chewing sticks Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides and Pseudocedrela kotschyi antimicrobial activities were investigated against 7clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and ...

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The differentiating activities of these three extracts encourage developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial herbal formulation in future. Keywords: Diospyros peregrina, Coccinia grandis, Swietenia macrophylla, Antimicrobial activity, Ciprofloxacin, Griseofulvin > Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol.

  18. Effect of Plant Derived Antimicrobials on Salmonella Enteritidis Adhesion to and Invasion of Primary Chicken Oviduct Epithelial Cells in vitro and Virulence Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Venkitanarayanan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE is a major foodborne pathogen in the United States and one of the most frequently reported Salmonella serotypes globally. Eggs are the most common food product associated with SE infections in humans. The pathogen colonizes the intestinal tract in layers, and migrates to reproductive organs systemically. Since adhesion to and invasion of chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC is critical for SE colonization in reproductive tract, reducing these virulence factors could potentially decrease egg yolk contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations of three plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs, namely carvacrol, thymol and eugenol in reducing SE adhesion to and invasion of COEC, and survival in chicken macrophages. In addition, the effect of PDAs on SE genes critical for oviduct colonization and macrophage survival was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. All PDAs significantly reduced SE adhesion to and invasion of COEC (p < 0.001. The PDAs, except thymol consistently decreased SE survival in macrophages (p < 0.001. RT-qPCR results revealed down-regulation in the expression of genes involved in SE colonization and macrophage survival (p < 0.001. The results indicate that PDAs could potentially be used to control SE colonization in chicken reproductive tract; however, in vivo studies validating these results are warranted.

  19. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions.

  20. Antitumor and antimicrobial activities and inhibition of in-vitro lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the antitumor and antimicrobial activities as well as the inhibition of in vitro lipid peroxidation evoked by Dendrobium nobile. Antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of flowers and stem of D. nobile against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus, Salmonella typhi and ...

  1. Acute and substantive action of antimicrobial toothpastes and mouthrinses on oral biofilm in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.; Abbas, Frank; Hoogmoed, G.G. van

    The aim of this study was to compare acute action by killing or disrupting oral biofilms through the use of antimicrobial toothpastes and mouthrinses in vitro and to investigate substantive action by absorption of antimicrobials in a biofilm. Biofilms from freshly collected human saliva were grown

  2. In-Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Failure to cure eye infections, and reduced potency in topical antimicrobials had been observed in South Western Nigeria, this study sought to evaluate in vitro, the efficacy of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of ocular infections. A total of 46 ocular bacterial isolates were recovered from the diagnostic laboratory of the ...

  3. Effect of Rabbit Epididymal Antimicrobial Peptide, REHbβP, on LPS-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Human Vaginal Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. R. Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMP’s protect epithelial surfaces including epididymis against pathogens and play a key role in orchestrating various defensive responses. Recently, we have identified one such AMP, rabbit epididymal hemoglobin-β subuit (REHbβP from the epididymal fluid of rabbit, Oryctologus cuniculus. The demonstration of a protective role of REHbβP in epididymal epithelial cells (EPEC’s led us to investigate: (1 the identification of LPS interactive domain in REHbβP, and (2 whether the REHbβP of rabbit origin mediates vaginal cellular immune responses of another species (human. HeLa-S3, human vaginal epithelial cells (hVECs were exposed to LPS or the LPS-stimulated cells treated with REHbβP or neutral peptide, nREHbβP. Effect of LPS and cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1α and chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1 levels was determined in the culture supernatants. In response to the LPS, hVECs synthesized these mediators and the levels were significantly higher than controls. This enhancing effect was ameliorated when the LPS-induced hVECs were treated with REHbβP. Similar results were obtained on NF-κB protein and hBD-1 mRNA expression. Confocal microscopy studies revealed that REHbβP attenuated the LPS-induced internalization of E. coli by macrophages. The chemotaxis studies performed using Boyden chamber Transwell assay, which showed elevated migration of U937 cells when the supernatants of LPS-induced hVECs were used, and the effect was inhibited by REHbβP. REHbβP was found to be localized on the acrosome of rabbit spermatozoa, suggesting its role in sperm protection beside sperm function. In conclusion, REHbβP may have the potential to develop as a therapeutic agent for reproductive tract infections (RTI’s.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Janaina Cândida Rodrigues; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Melo; Lima, Edeltrudes O

    2008-01-01

    Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was obtained from otitis externa samples. Staphylococcus aureus in 10 cultures, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus together in 5 cultures and Candida albicans and Candida krusei in 4 cultures. P. aeruginosa was resistant to all oils and extracts tested; extracts from A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo and R. graveolens were inactive; the essential oil from C. aromaticus and M. chamomila were active against 3 strains of S. aureus and the Candida strains; seven of the S. aureus strains were sensitive to the P. amboinicus extract; however, the oil was inactive against 4 S. aureus strains and the Candida strains were sensitive to the R. graveolens essential oil. depending on the etiological agent, some plants presented satisfactory results, however we still need more detailed studies in order to better use these plants.

  5. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Zied; Ben Chobba, Ines; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Békir, Ahmed; Gharsallah, Néji; Kadri, Adel

    2012-08-13

    The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.

  6. In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Characterization of Peptoids as Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czyzewski, Ann M.; Jenssen, Håvard; Fjell, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is a global threat that has spurred the development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their mimetics as novel anti-infective agents. While the bioavailability of AMPs is often reduced due to protease activity, the non-natural structure of AMP...... potential of peptoids as antimicrobial agents....... report a new QSAR model that we developed based on 27 diverse peptoid sequences, which accurately correlates antimicrobial peptoid structure with antimicrobial activity. We have identified a number of peptoids that have potent, broad-spectrum in vitro activity against multi-drug resistant bacterial...

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity against 10 North American and European Lawsonia intracellularis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanaphansak, Suphot; Singer, Randall S; Gebhart, Connie J

    2009-03-02

    The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobials against 10 isolates of Lawsonia intracellularis, the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE). Antimicrobials tested included carbadox, chlortetracycline, lincomycin, tiamulin, tylosin and valnemulin. The MIC of each antimicrobial against L. intracellularis was determined using a tissue culture system and was identified as the lowest concentration that inhibited 99% of L. intracellularis growth, as compared to the antimicrobial-free control. Each antimicrobial concentration was evaluated for both intracellular and extracellular activity against L. intracellularis, an obligately intracellular bacterium. When tested for intracellular activity, carbadox, tiamulin, and valnemulin were the most active antimicrobials with MICs of 128mIcog/ml) showed the least activity. When tested for extracellular activity, valnemulin (MICs ranging from 0.125 to 4microg/ml) was the most active against most L. intracellularis isolates. Chlortetracycline (MICs ranging from 16 to 64microg/ml), tylosin (MICs ranging from 1 to >128microg/ml), and tiamulin (MICs ranging from 1 to 32microg/ml) showed intermediate activities. Lincomycin (MICs ranging from 32 to >128microg/ml) showed the least activity. Our in vitro results showed that each L. intracellularis isolate had a different antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and these data can be utilized as an in vitro guideline for the further antimicrobial evaluation of field L. intracellularis isolates.

  8. Antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes and mouthrinses: An in vitro study

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    Manupati Prasanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-microbial agents have been used as a chemotherapeutic agent to improve oral health. This in vitro study was carried out to determine antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes and mouthrinses against the oral pathogens. Methods : A total of five toothpastes and five mouthrinses were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three oral pathogens namely, Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 890, Escherichia coli (MTCC 579 and Candida albicans (MTCC 854 by well agar diffusion assay. Statistical Analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using analysis of variance (ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD method(α = 0.05. Results: Toothpaste formulation A showed maximum zones of inhibition against the test organism, Escherichia coli (P<0.001 compared to all other toothpastes formulations. Against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, the zones of inhibition were less in comparison to E.coli but were significantly different at higher dilutions (1:8, 1:16 P<0.05 for toothpaste formulation A. Mouthrinses formulation H showed maximum efficacy against the test organism, Escherichia coli (P<0.001 compared to all other mouthrinse formulations. Against Streptococcus mutans, mouthrinses formulations F, G and J showed significant antimicrobial activity (P<0.05 compared to formulation H and I. Conclusion: In the present study, it has been demonstrated that triclosan containing toothpastes formulations are more effective in control of oral microflora compared to non-triclosan containing synthetic toothpastes. Among mouthrinses formulations, chlorhexidine was found to be more effective than or as effective as triclosan against the organisms tested.

  9. The Antimicrobial efficacy of Elaeis guineensis: characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Zakaria, Zuraini; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-04-26

    The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae) methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that E. guineensis exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the E. guineensis extracts was observed against C. albicans whereby E. guineensis extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited C. albicans growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on C. albicans. Imaging using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. In vivo antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with C. albicans and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial screening of Aquilaria agallocha roots | Canh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agallocha roots should have a medicinal uses especially against E. faecium, L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644, B. subtilis DSMZ 1971, C. albicans DSMZ 1386, S. epidermidis DSMZ 20044 and S. aureus ATCC 25923. Keywords: Aquilaria agallocha, Mesir paste, antimicrobial activity, antimicrobial screening, ethanol extract ...

  11. Time-kill curve analysis and pharmacodynamic modelling for in vitro evaluation of antimicrobials against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Sunniva; Unemo, Magnus; Hathaway, Lucy J; Low, Nicola; Althaus, Christian L

    2016-09-17

    Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Resistance to first-line empirical monotherapy has emerged, so robust methods are needed to evaluate the activity of existing and novel antimicrobials against the bacterium. Pharmacodynamic models describing the relationship between the concentration of antimicrobials and the minimum growth rate of the bacteria provide more detailed information than the MIC only. In this study, a novel standardised in vitro time-kill curve assay was developed. The assay was validated using five World Health Organization N. gonorrhoeae reference strains and a range of ciprofloxacin concentrations below and above the MIC. Then the activity of nine antimicrobials with different target mechanisms was examined against a highly antimicrobial susceptible clinical strain isolated in 1964. The experimental time-kill curves were analysed and quantified with a previously established pharmacodynamic model. First, the bacterial growth rates at each antimicrobial concentration were estimated with linear regression. Second, we fitted the model to the growth rates, resulting in four parameters that describe the pharmacodynamic properties of each antimicrobial. A gradual decrease of bactericidal effects from ciprofloxacin to spectinomycin and gentamicin was found. The beta-lactams ceftriaxone, cefixime and benzylpenicillin showed bactericidal and time-dependent properties. Chloramphenicol and tetracycline were purely bacteriostatic as they fully inhibited the growth but did not kill the bacteria. We also tested ciprofloxacin resistant strains and found higher pharmacodynamic MICs (zMIC) in the resistant strains and attenuated bactericidal effects at concentrations above the zMIC. N. gonorrhoeae time-kill curve experiments analysed with a pharmacodynamic model have potential for in vitro evaluation of new and existing antimicrobials. The pharmacodynamic parameters based on a wide range of

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of natural toxins and animal venoms tested against Burkholderia pseudomallei

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    Chow Vincent TK

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei are the causative agent of melioidosis. Increasing resistance of the disease to antibiotics is a severe problem in treatment regime and has led to intensification of the search for new drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are the most ubiquitous in nature as part of the innate immune system and host defense mechanism. Methods Here, we investigated a group of venoms (snakes, scorpions and honey bee venoms for antimicrobial properties against two strains of Gram-negative bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei by using disc-diffusion assay for in vitro susceptibility testing. The antibacterial activities of the venoms were compared with that of the isolated L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO and phospholipase A2 (PLA2s enzymes. MICs were determined using broth dilution method. Bacterial growth was assessed by measurement of optical density at the lowest dilutions (MIC 0.25 mg/ml. The cell viability was measured using tetrazolium salts (XTT based cytotoxic assay. Results The studied venoms showed high antimicrobial activity. The venoms of C. adamanteus, Daboia russelli russelli, A. halys, P. australis, B. candidus and P. guttata were equally as effective as Chloramphenicol and Ceftazidime (30 μg/disc. Among those tested, phospholipase A2 enzymes (crotoxin B and daboiatoxin showed the most potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (TES bacteria. Naturally occurring venom peptides and phospholipase A2 proved to possess highly potent antimicrobial activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei. The XTT-assay results showed that the cell survival decreased with increasing concentrations (0.05–10 mg/mL of Crotalus adamanteus venom, with no effect on the cell viability evident at 0.5 mg/mL. Conclusion This antibacterial profile of snake venoms reported herein will be useful in the search for potential antibacterial agents against drug resistant microorganisms like B. pseudomallei.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of natural toxins and animal venoms tested against Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, R; Pachiappan, A; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Thwin, Maung M; Hian, Yap E; Chow, Vincent TK; Bow, Ho; Weng, Joseph T

    2006-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei are the causative agent of melioidosis. Increasing resistance of the disease to antibiotics is a severe problem in treatment regime and has led to intensification of the search for new drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are the most ubiquitous in nature as part of the innate immune system and host defense mechanism. Methods Here, we investigated a group of venoms (snakes, scorpions and honey bee venoms) for antimicrobial properties against two strains of Gram-negative bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei by using disc-diffusion assay for in vitro susceptibility testing. The antibacterial activities of the venoms were compared with that of the isolated L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2s) enzymes. MICs were determined using broth dilution method. Bacterial growth was assessed by measurement of optical density at the lowest dilutions (MIC 0.25 mg/ml). The cell viability was measured using tetrazolium salts (XTT) based cytotoxic assay. Results The studied venoms showed high antimicrobial activity. The venoms of C. adamanteus, Daboia russelli russelli, A. halys, P. australis, B. candidus and P. guttata were equally as effective as Chloramphenicol and Ceftazidime (30 μg/disc). Among those tested, phospholipase A2 enzymes (crotoxin B and daboiatoxin) showed the most potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (TES) bacteria. Naturally occurring venom peptides and phospholipase A2 proved to possess highly potent antimicrobial activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei. The XTT-assay results showed that the cell survival decreased with increasing concentrations (0.05–10 mg/mL) of Crotalus adamanteus venom, with no effect on the cell viability evident at 0.5 mg/mL. Conclusion This antibacterial profile of snake venoms reported herein will be useful in the search for potential antibacterial agents against drug resistant microorganisms like B. pseudomallei. PMID:16784542

  14. Bactericidal effects of a high-power, red light-emitting diode on two periodontopathic bacteria in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Makoto; Tsuno, Akiko; Okagami, Yoshihide; Tsuchiya, Fumito; Izumi, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Isao

    2011-11-01

      Light-emitting diodes have been investigated as new light activators for photodynamic therapy. We investigated the bactericidal effects of high-power, red light-emitting diodes on two periodontopathic bacteria in vitro.   A light-emitting diode (intensity: 1100 mW/cm(2) , peak wavelength: 650 nm) was used to irradiate a bacterial solution for either 10 or 20 s. Bacterial solutions (Porphyromonas gingivalis or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) at a concentration of 2.5 × 10(6) c.f.u./mL were mixed with an equal volume of either methylene blue or toluidine blue O (0-20 μg/mL) and added to titer plate wells. The plate wells were irradiated with red light-emitting diode light from a distance of 22 or 40 mm. The contents were diluted, and 50 μL was smeared onto blood agar plates. After 1 week of culturing, bacterial c.f.u. were counted.   The light-emitting diode energy density was estimated to be approximately 4 and 8 J/cm(2) after 10 and 20 s of irradiation, respectively. Red light-emitting diode irradiation for 10 s from a distance of 22 mm, combined with methylene blue at concentrations >10 μg/mL, completely killed Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.   High-power, red light-emitting diode irradiation with a low concentration of dye showed effective bactericidal effects against two periodontopathic bacteria. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of three Porphyromonas spp and in vivo responses in the oral cavity of cats to selected antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J M; Love, D N

    2000-08-01

    To determine in vitro susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis, P salivosa and P circumdentaria to seven antimicrobial agents by agar dilution and Epsilometer test methods and to assess the effectiveness of these antimicrobial agents in reducing the numbers of each Porphyromonas spp in the oral cavity of 16 domestic cats. A two-part prospective study involving in vitro antimicro-bial studies using Porphyromonas spp obtained from naturally occurring feline infections and in vivo antimicrobial response studies using client-owned cats with naturally occurring periodontal disease. Isolates (n = 25) of three feline Porphyromonas spp from the oral cavity and oral-associated disease were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate, benzylpenicillin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin and metronidazole, using agar dilution and Epsilometer test methods. Digoxigenin-labelled whole chromosomal DNA probes directed against P gingivalis VPB 3492, P circumdentaria NCTC 12469T and P salivosa VPB 3313 were used to quantify organisms taken from two sample sites at the gingival margins of these cats prior to, and 5 days after, treatment with one of four commonly used antimicrobial products (amoxycillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, doxycycline or spiramycin-metronidazole). The response to treatment was assessed clinically for each cat. All isolates were susceptible in vitro to all seven antimicrobial agents using both methods. The numbers of P gingivalis were not reduced at the gingival sample sites by administration of amoxycillin-clavulanate for 5 days, although this treatment reduced the numbers of P salivosa and P circumdentaria to below detection levels in six of eight and two of three of sample sites, respectively; clinical improvement was not observed in cats treated with amoxycillin-clavulanate. Treatment with clindamycin, doxycycline or spiramycin-metronidazole resulted in clinical improvement and a marked reduction of all Porphyromonas

  16. Coagulase-negative staphylococci: pathogenesis, occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes and in vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on biofilm-growing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczuka, Ewa; Jabłońska, Lucyna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens that particularly cause infections in patients with implanted medical devices. The present research was performed to study the virulence potential of 53 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus caprae. All clinical strains were clonally unrelated. Isolates carried genes encoding resistance to β-lactam (mecA) (15 %), aminoglycoside [aac(6')/aph(2″)(11 %), aph (3')-IIIa (15 %), ant(4')-Ia (19 %)] and macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) [erm(A) (4 %), erm(B) (13 %), erm(C) (41 %), msr(A) (11 %)] antibiotics. CoNS isolates (64 %) were able to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that these biofilms formed a three-dimensional structure composed mainly of living cells. All biofilm-positive strains carried the ica operon. In vitro studies demonstrated that a combination treatment with tigecycline and rifampicin was more effective against biofilms than one with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. The minimum biofilm eradication concentration values were 0.062-0.5 µg ml-1 for tigecycline/rifampicin and 0.250-2 µg ml-1 for ciprofloxacin/rifampicin. All CoNS strains adhered to the human epithelial cell line HeLa, and more than half of the isolates were able to invade the HeLa cells, although most invaded relatively poorly. The virulence of CoNS is also attributed to their cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. Incubation of HeLa cells with culture supernatant of the CoNS isolates resulted in cell death. The results indicate that the pathogenicity of S. capitis, S. auricularis, S. lugdunensis, S. cohnii and S. caprae is multi-factorial, involving the ability of these bacteria to adhere to human epithelial cells, form biofilms and invade and destroy human cells.

  17. In vitro antimicrobial synergy of colistin with rifampicin and carbapenems against colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Duck Jin; Kim, Jung Ok; Lee, Hyukmin; Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon

    2016-10-01

    Increased use of colistin in a clinical setting had resulted in the emergence of colistin-resistant (CoR) Acinetobacter baumannii. Combination therapy has been studied as a new approach to treat infections caused by A. baumannii. Here, we investigated the in vitro antimicrobial synergistic activities of several antimicrobial agent combinations against CoR A. baumannii. A total of 41 non-duplicate clinical isolates of CoR A. baumannii from a tertiary care hospital in Korea were prospectively collected from April 2012 to December 2014. As a control group, 41 carbapenem-resistant but colistin-susceptible (CoS) A. baumannii strains were also evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents were determined by Etest in triplicate, and in vitro synergy tests were performed by the Etest MIC:MIC ratio method. Synergistic activity was determined as the sum of each antimicrobial agent's fractional inhibitory concentration evaluated (ΣFIC): synergy, ≤0.5; indifference, >0.5-4; and antagonism, >4. Synergistic activities were more frequently observed in the CoR group than the CoS group for combinations of colistin-rifampicin (80.5% vs. 14.6%, Pcolistin-meropenem (85.4% vs. 4.9%, Pcolistin-imipenem (46.3% vs. 2.4%, Pcolistin MICs against CoR A. baumannii clinical isolates to the susceptible range (≤ 2 μg/mL) more frequently (61.0%, 25/41, both) than combination with imipenem (29.3%, 12/41). Clinical trials are needed to prove the in vivo efficacy of those antimicrobial combinations that exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial synergistic effects against CoR A. baumannii. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro antimicrobial activity of linezolid tested against vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals

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    Reis Adriana O.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE has been described recently in Brazil. This is in contrast to the USA and Europe, where the VRE appeared in the late 1980s. The progressive increase in VRE isolation poses important problems in the antimicrobial therapy of nosocomial infections. Treatment options and effective antimicrobial agents for VRE are often limited and the possibility of transfer of vancomycin genes to other Gram-positive microorganisms continues. In the search for antimicrobial agents for multiresistant Gram-positive cocci, compounds such as linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin have been evaluated. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro activity of the oxazolidinone linezolid and 10 other antimicrobial agents, including quinupristin-dalfopristin, against multiresistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals. Thirty-three vancomycin resistant isolates (17 Enterococcus faecium and 16 E. faecalis, were analyzed. Strains were isolated from patients at São Paulo Hospital, Oswaldo Cruz Hospital, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, Santa Marcelina Hospital, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and Hospital de Clínicas do Paraná. The samples were tested by a broth microdilution method following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. All isolates were molecular typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Linezolid was the most active compound against these multiresistant enterococci, showing 100% inhibition at the susceptible breakpoints. Quinupristin/dalfopristin and teicoplanin showed poor activity against both species. The molecular typing results suggest that there has been interhospital spread of vancomycin resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis among Brazilian hospitals. The results of this study indicate that linezolid is an appropriate therapeutic option for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections in Brazil.

  19. Antimicrobial activity Study of triclosan-loaded WBPU on Proteus mirabilis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Jian, Zhongyu; Wang, Jianzhong; He, Wei; Liu, Qinyu; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hong; Tan, Hong

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial activity study of triclosan-loaded waterborne polyurethanes (WBPU) on Proteus mirabilis in vitro. Inhibition zone assays on petri plates with triclosan-loaded WBPU samples were used to test its antimicrobial activity on Proteus mirabilis. Models of the catheterized bladder supplied with artificial urine infected with Proteus mirabilis were employed to confirm the antimicrobial activity of triclosan-loaded WBPU. Bacteria colony counting, pH of the residual urine at each time point and catheter blockage time were recorded. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and encrustation deposits dry weighing were used for evaluating the biofilm formation. Inhibition zones formed in the triclosan-loaded WBPU groups in a dose-response manner (the radius for samples with 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mg triclosan were 9.93 ± 1.08, 6.07 ± 0.54 and 2.47 ± 0.25 mm, P catheter encrustations and markedly postponed the catheter blockage time, as well as suppressed the Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation (33.9 ± 13.9 mg vs. 1.4 ± 1.5 mg, P = 0.016). Triclosan-loaded WBPU significantly inhibited Proteus mirabilis' growth and biofilm formation, indicating the promising antibacterial effects on Proteus mirabilis in vitro. Further efforts are under way that involves coating the material onto the urinary catheters and in vivo studies.

  20. Inducible ASABF-Type Antimicrobial Peptide from the Sponge Suberites domuncula: Microbicidal and Hemolytic Activity in Vitro and Toxic Effect on Molluscs in Vivo

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    Werner E. G. Müller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since sponges, as typical filter-feeders, are exposed to a high load of attacking prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, they are armed with a wide arsenal of antimicrobial/cytostatic low-molecular-weight, non-proteinaceous bioactive compounds. Here we present the first sponge agent belonging to the group of ASABF-type antimicrobial peptides. The ASABF gene was identified and cloned from the demospongeSuberites domuncula. The mature peptide, with a length of 64 aa residues has a predicted pI of 9.24, and comprises the characteristic CSαβ structural motif. Consequently, the S. domuncula ASABF shares high similarity with the nematode ASABFs; it is distantly related to the defensins. The recombinant peptide was found to display besides microbicidal activity, anti-fungal activity. In addition, the peptide lyses human erythrocytes. The expression ofASABF is upregulated after exposure to the apoptosis-inducing agent 2,2'-dipyridyl. During the process of apoptosis of surface tissue of S. domuncula, grazing gastropods (Bittium sp. are attracted by quinolinic acid which is synthesized through the kynurenine pathway by the enzyme 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAD. Finally, the gastropods are repelled from the sponge tissue by the ASABF. It is shown that the effector peptide ASABF is sequentially expressed after the induction of the HAD gene and a caspase, as a central enzyme executing apoptosis.

  1. Antimicrobial effects of Quercus ilex L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllüce, M; Adigüzel, A; Oğütçü, H; Sengül, M; Karaman, I; Sahin, F

    2004-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract of Quercus ilex L. (Pirnal oak) leaves were tested in vitro against a wide range of human and plant-associated microorganisms. A total of 132 microbial organisms belonging to 55 bacteria and five fungi and yeast species were studied using a disc-diffusion method and microdilution assays. The results were evaluated as inhibition zones around the disc impregnated with Q. ilex extract at a concentration of 300 micro L/mL. The results showed that Q. ilex did not have any antifungal activities against Alterneria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillum spp., whereas there were inhibition effects on the growth of all Candida albicans isolates. In total 97 bacterial strains (74%) were found to be resistant to Q. ilex extract. The remaining 35 (27%) strains of seven different bacteria genera including Brucella, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were susceptible to the extract tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract ranged from 125 to 500 micro L/mL. These results suggest that Q. ilex possesses compounds with antibacterial and anticandidal properties. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Phytochemical and in-vitro antimicrobial screening of Sanseviera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Pharmacognosy & Traditional Medicine, Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria,. KEYWORDS: Sanseviera liberica, Antimicrobial activity, Phytochemical screening, Extracts, Clinical isolates. ABSTRACT: Sanseviera liberica is used in Nigerian folk medicine for the treatment of asthma, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds of the foot, ...

  3. In-vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Carex Powerful Antiseptic Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Paterson Zochonis Industries in Lagos, Nigeria recently produced Carex Powerful Antiseptic Liquid, which was investigated for antimicrobial activities against common human skin pathogenic bacteria, yeasts and a dermatophyte including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Malassezia furfur, Candida ...

  4. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bark extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-01

    Jul 1, 2011 ... Antioxidant activity of the bark extracts were evaluated in terms of inhibition of free ... Key words: Bauhinia purpurea, phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant property. .... weakly positive; (+) = indicates presence of secondary metabolites; (-) = indicates absence of secondary metabolites.

  5. Evaluation of persistent antimicrobial effects of an antimicrobial formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michael S; Courson, Ron; Paulson, Daryl S

    2011-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is becoming more prevalent in healthy athletic populations. Various preventive measures have been proposed, but few researchers have evaluated the protective effects of a prophylactic application of a commercially available product. To compare the persistent antimicrobial properties of a commercially available antimicrobial product containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibiclens) with those of a mild, nonmedicated soap (Dr. Bronner's Magic Soap). Cross-sectional study. Microbiology laboratory, contract research organization. Twenty healthy human volunteers. The test and control products were randomly assigned and applied to both forearms of each participant. Each forearm was washed for 2 minutes with the test or control product, rinsed, and dried. At, 1, 2, and 4 hours after application, each forearm was exposed to MRSA for approximately 30 minutes. Differences in numbers of MRSA recovered from each forearm, test and control, at each post-application time point were compared. Fewer MRSA (P soap). The 4% chlorhexidine gluconate product demonstrated persistent bactericidal activity versus MRSA for up to 4 hours after application.

  6. Phytochemical and In Vitro Antimicrobial Assay of the Leaf Extract of Newbouldia Laevis

    OpenAIRE

    H. Usman; Osuji, J C

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and in-vitro antimicrobial tests. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, steroidal and cardiac glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was assayed by the agar plate disc diffusion and nutrient broth dilution techniques. Test microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp. an...

  7. [The antimicrobial activity of ephedrine and admixture of ephedrine and propofol: an in vitro study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgar, Serkan; Alasehir, Elcin Akduman; Selvi, Onur

    Propofol and Ephedrine are commonly used during anesthesia maintenance, the former as a hypnotic agent and the later as a vasopressor. The addition of propofol to ephedrine or administration of ephedrine before propofol injection is useful for decreasing or preventing propofol related hemodynamic changes and vascular pain. This in vitro study evaluated the antibacterial effect on common hospital-acquired infection pathogens of ephedrine alone or combined with propofol. The study was performed in two stages. In the first, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of propofol and ephedrine alone and combined was calculated for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter spp. at 0, 6, 12 and 24h, using the microdilution method. In the second stage, the same drugs and combination were used to determine their effect on bacterial growth. Bacterial solutions were prepared at 0.5MacFarland in sterile 0.9% physiological saline and diluted at 1/100 concentration. Colony numbers were measured as colony forming units.mL -1 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th hours. Ephedrine either alone or combined with propofol did not have an antimicrobial effect on Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium or Pseudomonas aeruginosa and this was similar to propofol. However, ephedrine alone and combined with propofol was found to have an antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species at 512mcg.mL -1 concentration and significantly decreased bacterial growth rate. Ephedrine has an antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species which were frequently encountered pathogens as a cause of nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Iris pseudacorus and Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ramtin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the effects of antibacterial activity of Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus essential oils, native plant northern of Iran, were investigated for some selected bacteria. Material and Methods: The influence of essential oils was tested by the using of disk diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods against standard strains of the picked out bacteria. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS analysis, bioactivity determination, Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of essential oils were utilized for this goal. Results: This study showed that, Inhibition zone diameter varied from 11 to 19 mm and 9 to 17 mm for Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus respectively. In contrast, this figure fluctuated from 19 to 28 mm and 7 to 17 mm for gentamicin and ampicillin separately. By the application of micro-broth dilution technique, MICs for 1% essential oils were 1.8-7.5 μg/ml and 3.75-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria individually. Furthermore, the MBCs of herbal essences were 1.8-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and 15-30 μg/ml for Iris. Conclusion: The application of essential oils for the bio-control of diseases, as a novel emerging alternative to antimicrobial treatments, lead to safer and more environmental management for infective diseases4T.4T

  9. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial activity of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Mohamed Ibrahim; El-Mahdy, Magdy Mohamed; Theiner, Sarah; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Saleh, Mona

    2017-07-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a global issue that threatens public health. The excessive use of antibiotics contributes to this problem as the genes of antibiotic resistance can be transferred between the bacteria in humans, animals and aquatic organisms. Metallic nanoparticles could serve as future substitutes for some conventional antibiotics because of their antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against major fish pathogens and assess their safety in vitro. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction and characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. The concentrations of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Subsequently, silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Edwardsiella tarda, Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, Yersinia ruckeri and Aphanomyces invadans and the minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. MTT assay was performed on eel kidney cell line (EK-1) to determine the cell viability after incubation with nanoparticles. The interaction between silver nanoparticles and A. salmonicida was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The tested nanoparticles exhibited marked antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth of both A. salmonicida and A. invadans at a concentration of 17 µg/mL. Zinc oxide nanoparticles inhibited the growth of A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri and A. invadans at concentrations of 15.75, 31.5 and 3.15 µg/mL respectively. Silver nanoparticles showed higher cell viability when compared to zinc oxide nanoparticles in the MTT assay. Transmission electron microscopy showed the attachment of silver nanoparticles to the bacterial membrane and disruption of its

  10. Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum) extract on periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjun, Sajjanshetty; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infection of the periodontal complex with severe forms of disease associated with specific bacteria colonizing the subgingival area. Widespread use of drugs has resulted in the emergence of side effects, uncommon infections, and resistance. Plant medicine like Tulsi has been used in many clinical conditions, and it appears to be a suitable alternative to manage conditions affecting the oral cavity. Hence, the objective was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tulsi leaves extract (Ocimum sanctum) on periodontal pathogens with doxycycline as standard, as doxycycline has been used as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in periodontitis patients. Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by cold extraction method. Extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain five different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10%). Doxycycline was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide, as a negative control. The extract and controls were subjected to the microbiological investigation against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the concentration at which Tulsi gave an inhibition zone, similar to doxycycline. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test was used for inter- and intra-group comparisons. At 5% and 10% concentrations, Tulsi extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, similar to doxycycline with similar inhibition zones (P > 0.05). P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, however, exhibited resistance to Tulsi extract that showed significantly smaller inhibition zones (P Tulsi demonstrated effective antimicrobial property against A. actinomycetemcomitans, suggesting its possible use as an effective and affordable "adjunct" along with the standard care in the management of periodontal conditions. However, further research assessing the

  11. Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum extract on periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjanshetty Mallikarjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is an infection of the periodontal complex with severe forms of disease associated with specific bacteria colonizing the subgingival area. Widespread use of drugs has resulted in the emergence of side effects, uncommon infections, and resistance. Plant medicine like Tulsi has been used in many clinical conditions, and it appears to be a suitable alternative to manage conditions affecting the oral cavity. Hence, the objective was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tulsi leaves extract (Ocimum sanctum on periodontal pathogens with doxycycline as standard, as doxycycline has been used as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by cold extraction method. Extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain five different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10%. Doxycycline was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide, as a negative control. The extract and controls were subjected to the microbiological investigation against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the concentration at which Tulsi gave an inhibition zone, similar to doxycycline. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test was used for inter- and intra-group comparisons. Results: At 5% and 10% concentrations, Tulsi extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, similar to doxycycline with similar inhibition zones (P > 0.05. P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, however, exhibited resistance to Tulsi extract that showed significantly smaller inhibition zones (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Tulsi demonstrated effective antimicrobial property against A. actinomycetemcomitans, suggesting its possible use as an effective and affordable “adjunct” along with the standard care in

  12. Antimicrobial Effect of Extracts of Cruciferous Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Hu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm or citric acid solution (1% containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Vivek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Methods Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University, Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%, Escherichia coli (15.62%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%, Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%, Proteus mirabilis (3.6%, Proteus vulgaris (4.2% and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%, Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%. Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5% were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Silver-Containing Antimicrobial Dressings on In Vitro and In Vivo Processes of Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiro, Matthew E.; Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Ko, Francis; Wright, Terry E; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the in vitro and in vivo effects of silver products on wound healing. Methods: Eight silver products were compared to determine: fibroblast function using fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs), fibroblast viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, and fibroblast mitochondrial activity using the MTT [yellow tetrazolium salt; 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. In vivo effects of 9 silver products were evaluated utilizing a rat model of contaminated wounds. Serial quantitative bacteriology was performed on tissue biopsies over a 10-day period and serial wound areas were obtained over 12 days. Results: Fibroblast cytotoxicity occurred for all of the silver products evaluated. Remaining viable fibroblasts were insufficient to allow FPCL contraction. Mitochondrial activity of the fibroblasts allowed a separation of the various silver compounds. Actisorb Silver and Silvercel had the greatest viable fibroblast activity, but less than the control. Despite in vitro cytotoxicity, all of the silver products except Contreet Foam and Acticoat Moisture Control accelerated wound healing. Conclusions: Silver-containing dressings appeared to benefit healing of the wounds. Just as in vitro bacterial analyses do not fully predict the effect of an antimicrobial in the in vivo setting, in vitro cytotoxicity tests do not fully predict the effect of an agent on wound healing trajectories. Because of the varied antimicrobial and wound healing responses among products, a careful consideration of the particular effects of individual silver-containing dressings or drugs is warranted. PMID:23150745

  15. Antimicrobial effect of ozonated water on bacteria invading dentinal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Masato; Kitamura, Chiaki; Fukuizumi, Takaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Terashita, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    Ozone is known to act as a strong antimicrobial agent against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. In the present study, we examined the effect of ozonated water against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptcoccus mutans infections in vitro in bovine dentin. After irrigation with ozonated water, the viability of E. faecalis and S. mutans invading dentinal tubules significantly decreased. Notably, when the specimen was irrigated with sonication, ozonated water had nearly the same antimicrobial activity as 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). We also compared the cytotoxicity against L-929 mouse fibroblasts between ozonated water and NaOCl. The metabolic activity of fibroblasts was high when the cells were treated with ozonated water, whereas that of fibroblasts significantly decreased when the cells were treated with 2.5% NaOCl. These results suggest that ozonated water application may be useful for endodontic therapy.

  16. in-vitro antimicrobial properties of aspilla africana (compositae).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    plat of A. africana revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin glycosides and tannins but absence of steroidal nucleus and anthraquinone. Keywords: antimicrobial, Aspilia ... is taken for tuberculosis and in Ghana, the leaves are made into cough medicine for children. In. Uganda, a leaf decoction is taken for treatment of ...

  17. In-vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts of Launaea procumbens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Launaea procumbens Roxb. (Labiateae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) and Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinically important bacteria viz. Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC8750, Bacillus cereus. ATCC11778, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, ...

  18. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of the Extract of Mitracarpus scaber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The extract from the leaves of Mitracarpus scarber “Zucc” can be formulated into a pleasantly tasting oral dosage form despite its bitter taste. Keywords: Antimicrobial, Mitracarpus scaber, syrup, formulation, minimum inhibitory concentration > Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 6 (1) 2007: pp. 679- ...

  19. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude extract of the stem bark of the plant exhibited antimicrobial activities at a concentration of 25 mg/ml against twenty-one of the bacterial isolates, (i.e. 72.41% of the tested isolates) comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative strains. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the extract against the test bacterial ...

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity of fermented spices and Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional organic food preservative, “Datta” is spice mainly made up of Chili Peppers which frequently used in southern and western part of Ethiopia. Datta can be consumed almost with every kind of foods and it is believed as appetizer and antimicrobial agent against food borne pathogen. This study aimed to assess in ...

  1. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni Leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Phamacy

    and their antimicrobial activities were examined against few selected microorganisms including B. ... screening of them may result in the discovery of ... rebaudiana leaves against the selected microorganisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant Material and Microorganisms: Dried stevia leaves were supplied by Growmore.

  2. In-vitro Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of Stevia Rebaudiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the antimicrobial and antitumor activities of Stevia Rebaudiana (Asteraceae) leaf extracts. Methods: Four solvent extracts (ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform and water) of Stevia rebaudiana leaves were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, ...

  3. 62 original article in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This study shows that S. aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens and healthy students in Umuahia are highly resistant to common antibiotics. This may not be ... Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial resistance, disc agar diffusion, antibiotic susceptibility ... healthcare facilities and in the community (4).

  4. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of Mallotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... methanol (MEMO) fractions of leaves were assessed. The screening was performed using colorimetric methods. The antimicrobial activity was carried out using disc diffusion assays. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the dilution methods.

  5. In vitro susceptibilities of zygomycetes to combinations of antimicrobial agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Afeltra, J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    Combinations of antimicrobial agents were tested against 35 strains of zygomycetes. The interaction between amphotericin B and rifampin was synergistic or additive. Flucytosine alone was inactive and, upon combination with amphotericin B, synergy was not achieved. The combination of amphotericin B

  6. In vitro susceptibility of Burkholderia pseudomallei to antimicrobial peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanthawong, S.; Nazmi, K.; Wongratanacheewin, S.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Wuthiekanun, V.; Taweechaisupapong, S.

    2009-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics, resulting in high mortality rates of 19% in Australia and even 50% in Thailand. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) possess potent broad-spectrum bactericidal activities and are regarded as

  7. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial potential of honey on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Honey produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) is one of the ancient traditional medicines used for treatment and prevention of various illnesses. Objective: To assess the antimicrobial potential of honey on some common bacterial pathogen. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in Jimma University ...

  8. Phytochemical Study and in vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Pistacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae) is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance ...

  9. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Crude Extracts From Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe crenata were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Solvents used included water, methanol, and local solvents such as palmwine, local gin (Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink,) and “omi ekan-ogi” (Sour water from 3 days fermented milled maize).

  10. In vitro Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Artocarpus Lakoocha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: A. lakoocha extract possesses compounds with good antimicrobial properties that may be used for oral infectious diseases caused by certain oral pathogens associated with dental caries and/or periodontal diseases. For the application, A. lakoocha extract may be incorporated in mouthwash or toothpaste.

  11. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Homonataloin A/B and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this context, two anthrones (homonataloin A/B and homonataloside) were isolated from the leaf latex of Aloe citrina Carter & Brandham by preparative thin layer chromatography over silica gel. The latex and its two constituents were tested for their antimicrobial activities against 20 bacterial and 4 fungal strains using disc ...

  12. in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Clement Adewunmi

    extraction by squeezing raw juice from the leaves was also employed. All extracts were lyophilized. ... Other parts of the plant especially the root is prescribed for gonorrhoea, vermifuge and abortion .... Both the aqueous extract of the dried leaves and methanol extraction of kalanchoe crenata showed moderate antimicrobial ...

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    Swietenia macrophylla (Family: Meliaceae) is a large evergreen tree native to tropical America distributed almost all over the world. The barks of this plant possess anti-HIV, antimicrobial, antimalarial, and antitumor activities 14. The barks contain triterpenoids, limonoids, flavonoids and tannins 15, 16. The objective of this ...

  14. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cyclotrichium leucotrichum from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, M H; Hadian, J; Aliahmadi, A; Kanani, M R; Sonboli, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro antimicrobial activity and composition of the essential oil of Cyclotrichium leucotrichum growing wild in Iran. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Fifty-nine components representing 98.9% of the total oil were characterised. The essential oil which has 1,8-cineol (14.8%), elemol (12.6%), spathulenol (9.4%), E-caryophyllene (5.7%) and hinesol (5.7%) as its main components, exhibited moderate activity against seven bacteria and a yeast, Candida albicans, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.5 to 64 mg mL(-1) and minimum bactericidal concentration values ranging from 2 to >64 mg mL(-1), respectively. The best inhibitory effects were against three gram-positive bacteria and tested yeast, C. albicans.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of LED irradiation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Morena; Trentini, Paolo; Tripodi, Domenico; Spoto, Giuseppe; D'Ercole, Simonetta

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen responsible of many deaths due to nosocomial pneumonia each year. It is particularly resistant to many different classes of antibiotics and disinfectants. For all these reasons, there is the necessity to find novel approaches of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 880nm light emitting diodes (LED) irradiation on P. aeruginosa, in vitro. Different LED irradiation parameters (time, energy output and the addition of methylene blue and chlorhexidine) have been tested in order to evaluate the effects on this bacterium. After treatment, the colony forming units per milliliter (CFU mL-1) were recorded and the data were submitted to ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests at a level of significance of 5%. A statistical significant reduction of bacterial count has been registered after 5min of LED irradiation. The antibacterial effect was directly proportional to irradiation time and the output energy. The pre-treatment with methylene blue, seems to be not effective against P. aeruginosa, independently from irradiation parameters. On the contrary, the contemporary action of LED and chlorhexidine has shown a great reduction of bacterial count that was statistical significant respect chlorhexidine and LED alone. The effect of LED irradiation was visible also after 24h, when a lower bacterial count characterized all irradiated samples respect controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) using a 660 nm laser and malachite green dye in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms arranged on compact and cancellous bone specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luciano Pereira; da Silva, Francine Cristina; Nader, Sumaia Alves; Meira, Giselle Andrade; Viana, Magda Souza

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) using a 660 nm visible laser combined with malachite green (MG) dye in the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilms formed within compact and cancellous bone specimens. Specimens of 80 compact bones and 80 cancellous bones were contaminated with a standard suspension of S. aureus and incubated for 14 days at 37 °C to allow for the formation of biofilms. The specimens were divided into the following groups (n = 10) according to the treatment conditions: PS-L - (control - no treatment), PS+L - (only MG for 5 min), PS-L + 90 (only laser irradiation for 90 s), PS-L + 180 (only laser irradiation for 180 s), PS-L + 300 (only laser irradiation for 300 s), APDT90 (APDT for 90 s), APDT180 (APDT for 180 s), and APDT300 (APDT for 300 s). The findings were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA 5%. All of the experimental groups were significantly different from the control group for both the compact and cancellous bone specimens. The compact bone specimens that received APDT treatment (for either 90, 180, or 300 s) showed reductions in the log10 CFU/ml of S. aureus by a magnitude of 4 log10. Cancellous bone specimens treated with 300 s of APDT showed the highest efficacy, and these specimens had a reduction in S. aureus CFU/ml by a factor of 3 log10. APDT treatment using these proposed parameters in combination with MG was effective at inactivating S. aureus biofilms in compact and cancellous bone specimens.

  17. Antimicrobial effect of probiotics on bacterial species from dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambori, Csilla; Morvay, Attila Alexandru; Sala, Claudia; Licker, Monica; Gurban, Camelia; Tanasie, Gabriela; Tirziu, Emil

    2016-03-31

    The antimicrobial role of probiotic Lactobacillus casei subspecies casei DG (L. casei DG) and of the mix culture of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 was tested on species of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera from supragingival sites from dogs with dental disease of different breed, age, sex, weight, and diet. The research was conducted on these four genera because of their importance in zoonotic infections after dog bites. Species from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera were isolated and identified. To test the antimicrobial efficacy of L. casei DG and the mixed culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 on the pathogenic species, the agar overlay method was used. L. casei DG had a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera after 24 hours of incubation. The mixed probiotic culture made up of L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 species had no bactericidal effect on the species of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera, which were resistant. However, it had a bacteriostatic effect on several species of Pasteurella and Neisseria genera. This work highlights the antimicrobial potential of probiotics in vitro, demonstrating that the probiotic L. casei DG has a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from dental plaque and that the mix culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 has only a bacteriostatic effect.

  18. Exogenous Pulmonary Surfactant as a Vehicle for Antimicrobials: Assessment of Surfactant-Antibacterial Interactions In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Birkun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its unique surface-active properties, an exogenous pulmonary surfactant may become a promising drug delivery agent, in particular, acting as a vehicle for antibiotics in topical treatment of pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to assess a mutual influence of natural surfactant preparation and three antibiotics (amikacin, cefepime, and colistimethate sodium in vitro and to identify appropriate combination(s for subsequent in vivo investigations of experimental surfactant/antibiotic mixtures. Influence of antibiotics on surface-active properties of exogenous surfactant was assessed using the modified Pattle method. Effects of exogenous surfactant on antibacterial activity of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated using conventional microbiologic procedures. Addition of amikacin or cefepime to surfactant had no significant influence on surface-active properties of the latter. Obvious reduction of surface-active properties was confirmed for surfactant/colistimethate composition. When suspended with antibiotics, surfactant either had no impact on their antimicrobial activity (amikacin or exerted mild to moderate influence (reduction of cefepime bactericidal activity and increase of colistimethate bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Considering favorable compatibility profile, the surfactant/amikacin combination is advisable for subsequent investigation of joint surfactant/antibacterial therapy in animals with bacterial pneumonia.

  19. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the freshwater sponge Ochridaspongia rotunda (Arndt, 1937).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejin, Boris; Talevski, Aleksandra; Ciric, Ana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Nikolic, Milos; Talevski, Trajce; Sokovic, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of five crude extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone and methylene chloride) of the freshwater sponge Ochridaspongia rotunda (Arndt, 1937) was evaluated in vitro by using microdilution method against eight bacterial and eight fungal strains for the first time. The extracts were proven to be active in varying degrees against all the bacteria and fungi tested. O. rotunda methanol extract exhibited the highest antibacterial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 7.5-15.0 μg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration 15-30 μg/mL), while its acetone extract exhibited the most promising antifungal activity (MIC 7.5-45.0 μg/mL and minimum fungicidal concentration 15-60 μg/mL). The extracts were more effective against the bacteria and fungi screened compared with the positive controls (streptomycin and ampicillin for bacteria and bifonazole and ketoconazole for fungi, respectively). According to the experimental data obtained, this deepwater sponge species may be considered as a gold mine of new antimicrobial substances with significant and broad-range activity.

  20. Determination of antimicrobial effect, antioxidant activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activity against four Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast using a micro dilution method. In this study, the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was observed with the acetone extract (MIC, 4.8 ìg/mL) against Candida albicans. Maximum antimicrobial effect was also determined with ...

  1. Nanoparticles for antimicrobial purposes in Endodontics: A systematic review of in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samiei, Mohammad [Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Advanced Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjami, Afsaneh; Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki [Hematology & Oncology Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfipour, Farzaneh, E-mail: lotfipoor@tbzmed.ac.ir [School of Advanced Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hematology & Oncology Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Antimicrobial nanoparticles with enhanced physiochemical properties have attracted attention as modern antimicrobials, especially in the complicated oral cavity environment. The goal of the present article is to review the current state of nanoparticles used for antimicrobial purposes in root canal infections. Methods: A review was conducted in electronic databases using MeSH keywords to identify relevant published literature in English. The analysis and eligibility criteria were documented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA-guidelines). No restrictions on publication date were imposed. Data regarding root canal disinfections, general antimicrobial mechanisms of nanoparticles, type of nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in endodontics were collected and subjected to descriptive data analysis. Results: The literature search in electronic databases according to the inclusion criteria provided 83 titles and abstracts. Among them 15 papers were related to antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in Endodontics. Silver nanoparticles with sustainable activity were the most studied agent for its antimicrobial behavior in root canal infection. Aided polymeric nanoparticles with photo or ultrasound, glass bioactive nanoparticles as well as Calcium derivative based nanoparticles, with improved activity in comparison with the non-nano counterparts, are of importance in infection control of dental root canal. Bioactive Non-organic nanoparticles with structural capabilities present enhanced antimicrobial activity in root canal infections. Discussion: All included studies showed an enhanced or at least equal effect of nanoparticulate systems to combat dental root canal infections compared to conventional antimicrobial procedures. However, it is crucial to understand their shortcomings and their probable cellular effects and toxicity as well as environmental effects

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activities of bark and leaf extracts of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antimicrobial activities of bark and leaf extracts of Moringa stenopetala against mastitis causing bacterial pathogens. ... The study showed significant response variation between the organisms to various concentrations of the test extracts. Growth inhibition of S. aurues was much pronounced at 0.3 g/ml of methanolic ...

  3. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of partially purified enterocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of partially purified enterocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis and its application in wound healing. ... The photomicrograph of the skin tissue of the skin treated with partially purified enterocin for day 7showed epidermis covered by atrophic stratified squamous epithelium.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from in vivo and in vitro propagated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of 18 different extracts from in vivo and in vitro grown L. album L. plants was evaluated against clinical bacteria and yeasts using the well diffusion method. All the used extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity, whereas only the water extracts from leaves (in vivo) possessed antifungal activity ...

  5. Phytochemical investigation and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Richardia scabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathirvel Poonkodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extracts from the mature leaves of Richardia scabra from India. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the zone inhibition of the tested samples for antibacterial and agar plug method was used to determine the antifungal activity, while the microtube-dilution technique was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. Both extracts showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities when tested against 10 bacterial and four fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the methanol extract of R. scabra ranged between 12.5–100 μg/mL for bacterial strains. Alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, fatty acids, terpenoids and simple sugar were detected as phytoconstituents of extracts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report against antimicrobial activity of common weed species R. scabra found in India.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Tachyplesin 1 against Burkholderia pseudomallei: an in vitro and in silico approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn-Fay Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many conventional antibiotics. Therefore, alternative antimicrobial agents such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensively studied to combat this issue. Our study aims to identify and understand the mode of action of the potential AMP(s that are effective against B. pseudomallei in both planktonic and biofilm state as well as to predict the possible binding targets on using in vitro and in silico approaches. In the in vitro study, 11 AMPs were tested against 100 B. pseudomallei isolates for planktonic cell susceptibility, where LL-37, and PG1, demonstrated 100.0% susceptibility and TP1 demonstrated 83% susceptibility. Since the B. pseudomallei activity was reported on LL-37 and PG1, TP1 was selected for further investigation. TP1 inhibited B. pseudomallei cells at 61.69 μM, and membrane blebbing was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, TP1 inhibited B. pseudomallei cell growth, reaching bactericidal endpoint within 2 h post exposure as compared to ceftazidime (CAZ (8 h. Furthermore, TP1 was shown to suppress the growth of B. pseudomallei cells in biofilm state at concentrations above 221 μM. However, TP1 was cytotoxic to the mammalian cell lines tested. In the in silico study, molecular docking revealed that TP1 demonstrated a strong interaction to the common peptide or inhibitor binding targets for lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, as well as autolysin, pneumolysin, and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Homology modelled B. pseudomallei PspA protein (YDP also showed a favourable binding with a strong electrostatic contribution and nine hydrogen bonds. In conclusion, TP1 demonstrated a good potential as an anti-B. pseudomallei agent.

  7. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuo, E-mail: zchen@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Linsen [Department of Biochemistry, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning 110034 (China); Hu, Ping; Chen, Song [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Mingdong, E-mail: mhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5}) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases.

  8. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  9. Membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects of inorganic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malekkhaiat Häffner, Sara; Malmsten, Martin

    2017-01-01

    .g., in theranostics. In addition, there is considerable current interest in the use of nanomaterials as antimicrobial agents, motivated by increasing resistance development against conventional antibiotics. Here, various nanomaterials offer opportunities for triggered functionalites to combat challenging infections...... response. In the present overview, the current understanding of inorganic nanomaterials as antimicrobial agents is outlined, with special focus on the interplay between antimicrobial effects and membrane interactions, and how membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects of such materials depend...

  10. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial property of seaweed ( Halimeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweed (Halimeda tuna) was examined for antibacterial and antifungal activity in vitro using the well diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration. The activity was against 10 bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella ...

  11. Design, synthesis, characterisation and in-vitro antimicrobial activity of some hybridized triazole scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyalu Rajasekaran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, twelve hybridized triazole derivatives were synthesized as Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase inhibitor and evaluated for in-vitro antimicrobial activity. The in-vitro antimicrobial results demonstrated that compound B4b, B4g and B4j possesses potential antibacterial activity against all the tested Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains with percentage zone of inhibition 70–89% and antifungal activity against all the screened fungal strains with 85–105%, displaying minimal inhibitory concentration values of 3.125–6.25 μg/mL against bacteria strains and 3.125–12.5 μg/mL against fungi strains compared with standard Gatifloxacin (for bacteria and Clotrimazole (for fungi. Docking study reviews that the compounds which bind with Ser347, Thr352 and Val399 have significant anti-microbial activity. Comparing antimicrobial activity and docking results, conclude that triazolone derivatives linked through NC with substituted phenyl ring at 4th position seem to be potentially active. The docking study reveals that high affinity of synthesized derivatives (B4b, B4g and B4j within the binding pocket of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase strongly enhances the determined activities of these derivatives as potent antimicrobial agents, particularly as antifungal agents.

  12. Nanoparticles for antimicrobial purposes in Endodontics: A systematic review of in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Mohammad; Farjami, Afsaneh; Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki; Lotfipour, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial nanoparticles with enhanced physiochemical properties have attracted attention as modern antimicrobials, especially in the complicated oral cavity environment. The goal of the present article is to review the current state of nanoparticles used for antimicrobial purposes in root canal infections. A review was conducted in electronic databases using MeSH keywords to identify relevant published literature in English. The analysis and eligibility criteria were documented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA-guidelines). No restrictions on publication date were imposed. Data regarding root canal disinfections, general antimicrobial mechanisms of nanoparticles, type of nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in endodontics were collected and subjected to descriptive data analysis. The literature search in electronic databases according to the inclusion criteria provided 83 titles and abstracts. Among them 15 papers were related to antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in Endodontics. Silver nanoparticles with sustainable activity were the most studied agent for its antimicrobial behavior in root canal infection. Aided polymeric nanoparticles with photo or ultrasound, glass bioactive nanoparticles as well as Calcium derivative based nanoparticles, with improved activity in comparison with the non-nano counterparts, are of importance in infection control of dental root canal. Bioactive Non-organic nanoparticles with structural capabilities present enhanced antimicrobial activity in root canal infections. All included studies showed an enhanced or at least equal effect of nanoparticulate systems to combat dental root canal infections compared to conventional antimicrobial procedures. However, it is crucial to understand their shortcomings and their probable cellular effects and toxicity as well as environmental effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. In vitro and in vivo protocols of antimicrobial bioassay of medicinal herbal extracts: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against pathogenic microorganisms is the most significant task of clinical microbiology laboratory. The present study was therefore designed to review the in vitro and in vivo protocols of antimicrobial bioassays of various medicinal herbal extracts against a diversity of pathogenic microorganisms. Plants have a broad variety of antimicrobial agents which are extensively used as herbal drugs against different microbes. The review covers the antimicrobial techniques and antimicrobial bioassays of medicinal herbal extracts against different bacterial and fungal strains from 2000 onward. Plants have diverse concentrations of bioactive constituents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. These phytochemicals are used against an extensive range of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium pervum, Bordetella pertusis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, viruses (simian-virus, retrovirus and fungi (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani. A variety of antibiotics (tetracycline, terramycin, ampicillin has also been isolated from different medicinal plants. This review was therefore intended to explore the techniques used for antimicrobial activities of herbal medicinal extracts.

  14. In vitro studies of Dermatophilus congolensis antimicrobial susceptibility by determining minimal inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Arenas, A; Rey, J; Alonso, J M; Gil, M C; Naranjo, G; Hermoso de Mendoza, M

    1994-01-01

    The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bacteriocidal Concentration (MBC) of 19 antimicrobials on 16 isolates of D. congolensis were determined. The potential field efficacy of the agents was evaluated by comparing the results with serum levels of drug unbound to proteins and the in vitro and in vivo findings of other authors. A modified standard microtechnique was used for serial dilution-antimicrobial sensitivity and found to be easy and reproducible. Erythromycin, spiramycin, penicillin G, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, the streptomycin, amoxicillin, the tetracyclines and novobiocin had high serum concentrations in comparison with their MBCs and were shown to have potential use for the treatment of dermatophilosis.

  15. In vitro activity of available antimicrobial coated Foley catheters against Escherichia coli, including strains resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian D; Kuskowski, Michael A; Pitout, Johann

    2010-12-01

    We determined the activity, comparative potency and effect durability of commercially available, antimicrobial coated Foley catheters against Escherichia coli isolates, including extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant strains. We used an inhibition zone assay (diffusible inhibition) and an adherence assay (diffusible and contact dependent inhibition) to assess the inhibitory effect of 3 currently marketed antimicrobial coated catheters, including 2 coated with silver and 1 coated with nitrofurazone, and corresponding silicone catheters against 9 E. coli strains, including 7 extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant and 2 extended spectrum cephalosporin susceptible strains, and a Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference strain. In each assay the nitrofurazone coated catheter showed the greatest and most durable (through day 5) inhibitory activity. This was comparable for extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant and extended spectrum cephalosporin susceptible E. coli strains but decreased or absent for the Pseudomonas strain. One of the 2 silver coated catheters showed sparse but measurable inhibition zone activity on day 1 but not thereafter and no statistically significant activity on adherence assay. The other lacked detectable activity using either test system. In the adherence assay the nitrofurazone coated catheter decreased the E. coli count as potently in inoculum broths as in post-sonication suspensions (median decrease more than 8 and more than 6 log(10) cfu/ml, respectively). The nitrofurazone coated catheter showed significantly greater in vitro potency and durability of the antimicrobial effect against 9 E. coli strains than the 2 silver coated catheters, of which 1 appeared completely inert. No difference in antimicrobial effect was apparent between extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant and susceptible E. coli. The clinical relevance of these in vitro findings remains to be defined. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and

  16. Exogenous bacterial osteomyelitis in 52 dogs: a retrospective study of etiology and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility profile (2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, E G M; Rahal, S C; Ribeiro, M G; Paes, A C; Listoni, F P; Vassalo, F G

    2014-01-01

    Most clinical cases of osteomyelitis in dogs involve infectious agents, especially bacteria and fungi. The characterization of these microorganisms may aid in the prevention and treatment of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively microbiological cultures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility profile of isolates from 52 cases of bacterial osteomyelitis in long bones of dogs over 2000-2013. In 78% of the cases injuries were caused by a motor vehicle accident, but there were a few cases of dog bites (17%) and ascending infection due to pododermatitis (5%). The isolated microorganisms were identified based on conventional phenotypic methods. In vitro disk diffusion test was performed using 30 different antimicrobials. The isolates were obtained from femur (28%), humerus (16%), tibia (31%), and radius/ulna (25%). Among 52 cases, culture was positive in 88% of cases. Thirteen genus of different species of microorganisms were isolated. The most common microorganisms isolated were Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli followed by Streptococcus spp., enteric bacteria, Corynebacterium sp. and anaerobic bacteria. In 42% of cases cultures were mixed. The most effective drugs against isolated bacteria were amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium (79%) followed by ceftriaxone (69%). High-resistance rates were documented against azithromycin (80%), penicillin (59%), and clindamycin (59%). The present study highlights diverse etiologic agents in cases of infectious bacterial osteomyelitis, with predominance of Staphylococcus genus, and reinforces the importance of obtaining cultures and susceptibility profiles given the high rates of antimicrobial resistance.

  17. In vitro phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Thymus linearis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiqa Naz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from the whole plant of Thymus linearis were extracted with methanol (crude, chloroform, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol and screened for their phytochemical and antimicrobial potentials. Preliminary phytochemical screening of plant extracts manifests the existence of terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides and reducing sugars. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies were carried out on various phytochemicals extracted from the extracts of T. linearis which results in the presence of different compounds like amides, aldehydes, carboxylic acid, ethers, alcohol and ketones. All the extracts of T. linearis showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities when tested against nine bacterial and four fungal strains. It was concluded from this study that extracts of T. linearis have an array of important phytochemicals and significant activities against some of the multidrug resistant bacterial and medically important fungal strains.

  18. Efeito antimicrobiano in vitro do extrato de jabuticaba [Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg.] sobre Streptococcus da cavidade oral In vitro antimicrobial effect of jabuticaba [Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg] extract on Streptococcus from the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a ação do extrato etanólico das folhas de Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg. sobre três culturas de Streptococcus formadoras do biofilme dental. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em meio sólido. Os dados obtidos foram satisfatórios para todas as espécies ensaiadas (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27609 e Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10557 gerando halos de inibição quando utilizado o extrato puro e diluições 1:2 e 1:4. Os resultados incentivam a realização de novas pesquisas que viabilizem a produção de compostos com finalidade terapêutica que possam ser utilizados clinicamente na odontologia.This study evaluated the action of ethanolic extract of Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg leaves on three Streptococcus cultures from dental plaque. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by agar-well diffusion method. The obtained data were satisfactory for all assayed species (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27609 and Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10557 yielding inhibition halos when the pure extract and 1:2 and 1:4 dilutions were used. These results encourage new studies for the production of therapeutic compounds to be used in clinical dentistry.

  19. Effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on staphylococcus aureus using phenothiazinium dye with red laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; de Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Pires-Santos, Gustavo M.; Sampaio, Fernando José P.; Zanin, Fátima Antônia A.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the bactericidal effect of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy - AmPDT using a phenothiazinium compound (toluidine blue O and methylene blue, 12.5 μg/mL) on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 23529) irradiated or not with the red laser (λ 660 nm, 12J/cm2). All tests were performed in triplicate and samples distributed into the following groups: Negative control, Laser, Photosensitizer, and AmPDT. Bactericidal effect of the Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy was assessed by counting of colony-forming units and analyzed statistically (ANOVA, Tukey test, pAntimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy presented in vitro bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Nisin and its Antimicrobial Effect in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamparsun Hampikyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a bacteriocin which is produced by Lactococcus lactis and takes its place in I. class bacteriocins which are known as lantibiotics. Nisin has antimicrobial and bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of gram positive bacteria and spores of Clostridium spp. and Bacillus spp. According to toxicity studies nisin is considered not toxic to humans. Its first established used was as a preservative in processed cheese products and since than numerous other applications in various foods such as meat and meat products, poultry products, sea products and beverages such as beer, wine have been used safely. In this review, the characteristics of nisin, its usage in food and its antimicrobial effect are considered. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 142-147

  1. Nisin and its Antimicrobial Effect in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamparsun Hampikyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a bacteriocin which is produced by Lactococcus lactis and takes its place in I. class bacteriocins which are known as lantibiotics. Nisin has antimicrobial and bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of gram positive bacteria and spores of Clostridium spp. and Bacillus spp. According to toxicity studies nisin is considered not toxic to humans. Its first established used was as a preservative in processed cheese products and since than numerous other applications in various foods such as meat and meat products, poultry products, sea products and beverages such as beer, wine have been used safely. In this review, the characteristics of nisin, its usage in food and its antimicrobial effect are considered. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 142-147

  2. In vitro and in vivo analysis of antimicrobial agents alone and in combination against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songzhe eHE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of tigecycline and other 13 common antimicrobial agents, alone or in combination, against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.MethodsAn in vitro susceptibility test of 101 Acinetobacter baumannii was used to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs. A mouse lung infection model of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii,established by the ultrasonic atomization method, was used to define in vivo antimicrobial activities.Results Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii showed high sensitivity to tigecycline (98% inhibition, polymyxin B (78.2% inhibition, and minocycline (74.2% inhibition. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents in combination with other antimicrobial agents produced synergistic or additive effects. In vivo data showed that white blood cell (WBC counts in drug combination groups C (minocycline + amikacin and D (minocycline + rifampicin were significantly higher than in groups A (tigecycline and B (polymyxin B (P < 0.05, after administration of the drugs 24h post-infection. Lung tissue inflammation gradually increased in the model group during the first 24h after ultrasonic atomization infection; vasodilation, congestion with hemorrhage were observed 48h post infection. After three days of anti-infective therapy in groups A, B, C and D, lung tissue inflammation in each group gradually recovered with clear structures. The mortality rates in drug combination groups (groups C and D were much lower than in groups A and B.ConclusionThe combination of minocycline with either rifampicin or amikacin is more effective against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii than single-agent tigecycline or polymyxin B. In addition, the mouse lung infection by ultrasonic atomization is a suitable model for drug screening and analysis of infection mechanism.

  3. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2011-02-17

    Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH(2)Cl(2) extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH(2)Cl(2) extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH(2)Cl(2) extract. Our result provide evidence that CH(2)Cl(2) extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH(2)Cl(2) extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative.

  4. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajinder K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. Methods In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Results Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH2Cl2 extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH2Cl2 extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH2Cl2 extract. Conclusions Our result provide evidence that CH2Cl2 extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH2Cl2 extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative.

  5. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. Methods In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Results Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH2Cl2 extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH2Cl2 extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH2Cl2 extract. Conclusions Our result provide evidence that CH2Cl2 extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH2Cl2 extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative. PMID:21329518

  6. Development and antimicrobial susceptibility studies of in vitro monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilm models with Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manavathu, Elias K; Vager, Dora L; Vazquez, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    .... The primary objective of this study was to develop an in vitro model for P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus polymicrobial biofilm to study the efficacy of various antimicrobial drugs alone and in combinations against biofilm-embedded cells...

  7. Zinc ascorbate has superoxide dismutase-like activity and in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iinuma K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Katsuhiro Iinuma, Isami TsuboiBML General Laboratory, Kawagoe, Saitama, JapanBackground: Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disease, and its pathogenesis is multifactorial.Objective: We examined whether the ascorbic acid derivative zinc ascorbate has superoxide dismutase (SOD-like activity. SOD is an enzyme that controls reactive oxygen species production. In addition, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of zinc ascorbate against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli was tested either alone or in combination with a variety of antimicrobial agents; their fractional inhibitory concentration index was determined using checkerboard tests.Methods: The SOD-like activity was measured in comparison with other ascorbic acid derivatives (ascorbic acid, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, and sodium ascorbyl phosphate and zinc. The antimicrobial susceptibility of twelve strains each of S. aureus and E. coli isolated from patients with dermatological infections was tested, in comparison to a type strain of S. aureus and E. coli.Results: Zinc ascorbate had significant (P < 0.001 SOD-like activity compared with other ascorbic acid derivatives and zinc. Moreover, it showed antimicrobial activity against a type strain of S. aureus and E. coli, and its concentration (0.064% and 0.128% for S. aureus and E. coli, respectively was sufficiently lower than the normal dose (5% of other ascorbic acid derivatives. Furthermore, combinations of zinc ascorbate with clindamycin, erythromycin, and imipenem against S. aureus (average fractional inhibitory concentration, 0.59–0.90, and with imipenem against E. coli (average fractional inhibitory concentration, 0.64 isolated from patients with dermatological infections showed an additive effect.Conclusions: Our results provide novel evidence that zinc ascorbate may be effective for acne treatment.Keywords: superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial

  8. Assessment of antimicrobial potential of 10% ginger extract against Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriraju, Anjan; Yunus, G Y

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis are the three oral microorganisms most commonly implicated in the causation of oral infections. All these oral microorganisms have shown resistant to routinely used antimicrobials. There is a need for an antimicrobial agent which is effective, safe, and economical. Zingiber officinale, commonly known as ginger is one such plant product which has been used from ancient time. It has been shown to possess promising inhibitory effect on many of the oral microorganisms. On review of dental literature, there was scarcity of studies which had tried to assess antimicrobial potential of ginger extract against S. mutans, E. faecalis, and C. albicans; hence, the present study was designed. To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of 10% ginger extract against S. mutans, E. faecalis, and C. albicans. Laboratory setting and experimental design. In the first part of the study, 10% ethanolic ginger extract was prepared in the laboratory of Pharmacy College. It was then subjected to microbiological assay to determine its zone of inhibition using Agar disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using serial broth dilution method against S. mutans, C. albicans, and E. faecalis. 10% ethanolic ginger extract showed: (a) Maximum zone of inhibition of 8 mm, 14 mm, and 11 mm against S. mutans, C. albicans, and E. faecalis respectively. (b) MIC of 1.25%, 2.5%, and 2.5% against S. mutans, C. albicans, and E. faecalis respectively. 10% ethanolic ginger extract was found to possess antimicrobial potential against all the three pathogens used in the study.

  9. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Leptospira Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, Kirubakaran; Lall, Chandan; Raj, Ratchagadasse Vimal; Vedhagiri, Kumaresan; Sunish, Ittoop Pulikkottil; Vijayachari, Paluru

    2016-10-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are the causative agent of leptospirosis. Biofilm formation in leptospires is a new area of study, and its role in pathogenesis is not fully explored. As in other biofilm-forming bacteria, Leptospira biofilm may play a significant role in antibiotic resistance. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Leptospira biofilm was investigated by 96-well plate assay using Alamar Blue. Leptospira biofilm showed five to sixfold increase in resistance in all the strains used. The range of minimal bactericidal concentrations for penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was 1,600 U/ml, 800-1,600 μg/ml, 800-1,600 μg/ml, and 800-1,600 μg/ml, respectively. In agar substrate, the biofilm showed six- to sevenfold increase in resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic cell. The present study emphasizes the importance of biofilm formation and its antibiotic susceptibility patterns. This could pave the way for devising appropriate strategy to prevent the occurrence of potential chronic leptospirosis in endemic areas and also during an outbreak situation.

  10. Antimicrobial effect and biocompatibility of novel metallic nanocrystalline implant coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosau, Martin; Haupt, Michael; Thude, Sibylle; Strowitzki, Martin; Schminke, Boris; Buergers, Ralf

    2016-11-01

    The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate the surface characteristics, biocompatibilities and antimicrobial effects of experimental titanium implant surfaces, coated by nanocrystalline silver, copper, and bismuth. Biocompatible and antimicrobial implant modifications could result in reduced biofilm formation on implant surfaces and therefore in less periimplant inflammation. Titanium discs (thickness 1 mm and 12 mm in diameter) were coated by pulsed magnetron-sputtering of nanocrystalline metals (bismuth, copper, and silver). Bismuth coatings revealed higher surface roughness values in comparison to silver and copper coatings via atomic force microscopy. Ion release after 168 h in culture medium was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and showed significant different amounts of released copper (>120 000 µg/L), silver (550 µg/L) or bismuth (80 µg/L). No cytotoxic effect on HaCaT cell proliferation was detected on the uncoated Ti/TiO2 reference surfaces, the bismuth coatings and silver coatings. In contrast, copper-coated discs showed a strong cytotoxic effect. All three coatings exhibited antimicrobial effects by trend in the fluorometric Resazurin testing and significant localized antibacterial effects in live/dead microscopy after incubation of the specimens for 150 min in bacterial solution of S. epidermidis. The tested metallic implant coatings (silver and bismuth) allowed surface modifications that may improve therapeutic approaches to biofilm prevention on dental implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1571-1579, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. In vitro toxicity of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on human keratinocytes proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliario, Mario; Rizzi, Manuela; Rocchetti, Vincenzo; Cannas, Mario; Renò, Filippo

    2013-02-01

    This in vitro experimental study has been designed to assess the effects of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) on human keratinocytes proliferation. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT) monolayers (∼0.5 cm(2)) have been irradiated with 635 nm red laser light with a fluence of 82.5 or 112.5 J/cm(2) in the absence or presence of toluidine (TB). Cell proliferation, monolayer area coverage, cytokeratin 5 (K5) and filaggrin (Fil) expression, and metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity were measured after 72 h from laser irradiation. HaCaT proliferation was reduced by TB staining. Cell exposure to both low- and high-fluence laser irradiation in both presence and absence of TB staining reduced their proliferation and monolayer area extension. Moreover both laser treatments were able to reduce K5 and Fil expression and MMP-9 production in keratinocytes not treated with TB. These data indicate that PACT could exert toxic effects on normal proliferating keratinocytes present around parodontal pockets. The observed reduced cell proliferation along with a reduced production of enzymes involved in wound healing could alter the clinical outcome of the patients treated with PACT.

  12. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy with the novel amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yuan

    Full Text Available Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT, as a novel and effective therapeutic modality to eradicate drug resistant bacteria without provoking multidrug resistance, has attracted increasing attention. This study examined the antimicrobial efficacy of the novel cationic amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I with four lysine groups against two different clinical isolated strains (drug sensitive and multidrug resistant of the Acinetobacter baumannii species and its toxicity on murine dermal fibroblasts in vitro, as well as the therapeutic effect of PACT on acute, potentially lethal multidrug resistant strain excisional wound infections in vivo. The PACT protocol exposed 4I to illumination, exhibiting high antimicrobial efficacy on two different strains due to a high yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS and non-selectivity to microorganisms. The photoinactivation effects of 4I against two different strains were dose-dependent. At 3.9 μM and 7.8 μM, PACT induced 6 log units of inactivation of sensitive and multidrug resistant strains. In contrast, 4I alone and illumination alone treatments had no visibly antimicrobial effect. Moreover, cytotoxicity tests revealed the great safety of the photosensitizer 4I in mice. In the in vivo study, we found 4I-mediated PACT was not only able to kill bacteria but also accelerated wound recovery. Compared with non-treated mice, over 2.89 log reduction of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain was reached in PACT treat mice at 24 h post-treatment. These results imply that 4I-mediated PACT therapy is an effective and safe alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy and has clinical potential for superficial drug-resistant bacterial infections.

  13. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy with the novel amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yao; Liu, Zi-Quan; Jin, Heng; Sun, Shi; Liu, Tian-Jun; Wang, Xue; Fan, Hao-Jun; Hou, Shi-Ke; Ding, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT), as a novel and effective therapeutic modality to eradicate drug resistant bacteria without provoking multidrug resistance, has attracted increasing attention. This study examined the antimicrobial efficacy of the novel cationic amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I with four lysine groups against two different clinical isolated strains (drug sensitive and multidrug resistant) of the Acinetobacter baumannii species and its toxicity on murine dermal fibroblasts in vitro, as well as the therapeutic effect of PACT on acute, potentially lethal multidrug resistant strain excisional wound infections in vivo. The PACT protocol exposed 4I to illumination, exhibiting high antimicrobial efficacy on two different strains due to a high yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and non-selectivity to microorganisms. The photoinactivation effects of 4I against two different strains were dose-dependent. At 3.9 μM and 7.8 μM, PACT induced 6 log units of inactivation of sensitive and multidrug resistant strains. In contrast, 4I alone and illumination alone treatments had no visibly antimicrobial effect. Moreover, cytotoxicity tests revealed the great safety of the photosensitizer 4I in mice. In the in vivo study, we found 4I-mediated PACT was not only able to kill bacteria but also accelerated wound recovery. Compared with non-treated mice, over 2.89 log reduction of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain was reached in PACT treat mice at 24 h post-treatment. These results imply that 4I-mediated PACT therapy is an effective and safe alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy and has clinical potential for superficial drug-resistant bacterial infections.

  14. Cholesterol suppresses antimicrobial effect of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Isoprenoid biosynthesis is a key metabolic pathway to produce a wide variety of biomolecules such as cholesterol and carotenoids, which target cell membranes. On the other hand, it has been reported that statins known as inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis and cholesterol lowering agents, may have a direct antimicrobial effect on the some bacteria. The exact action of statins in microbial metabolism is not clearly understood. It is possible that statins inhibit synthesis or utilization of some sterol precursor necessary for bacterial membrane integrity. Accordingly, this study was designed in order to examine if statins inhibit the production of a compound, which can be used in the membrane, and whether cholesterol would replace it and rescue bacteria from toxic effects of statins. Materials and Methods: To examine the possibility we assessed antibacterial effect of statins with different classes; lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin, alone and in combination with cholesterol on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria using gel diffusion assay. Results: Our results showed that all of the statins except for lovastatin had significant antibacterial property in S. aureus, E. coli, and Enter. faecalis. Surprisingly, cholesterol nullified the antimicrobial action of effective statins in statin-sensitive bacteria. Conclusion: It is concluded that statins may deprive bacteria from a metabolite responsible for membrane stability, which is effectively substituted by cholesterol.

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Nanoscale Hydroxyapatite-Based Bone Reconstructive Materials with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajduković, Zorica R; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Ignjatović, Nenad L; Stojanović, Zoran; Mladenović-Antić, Snezana B; Kocić, Branislava D; Najman, Stevo; Petrović, Nenad D; Uskoković, Dragan P

    2016-02-01

    In the field of oral implantology the loss of bone tissue prevents adequate patient care, and calls for the use of synthetic biomaterials with properties that resemble natural bone. Special attention is paid to the risk of infection after the implantation of these materials. Studies have suggested that some nanocontructs containing metal ions have antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, compared to hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/poly-lactide-co-glycolide. The antibacterial effects of these powders were tested against two pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coi (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), using the disc diffusion method and the quantitative antimicrobial test in a liquid medium. The quantitative antimicrobial test showed that all of the tested biomaterials have some antibacterial properties. The effects of both tests were more prominent in case of S. aureus than in E coli. A higher percentage of cobalt in the crystal structure of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles led to an increased antimicrobial activity. All of the presented biomaterial samples were found to be non-hemolytic. Having in mind that the tested of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite (Ca/Co-HAp) material in given concentrations shows good hemocompatibility and antimicrobial effects, along with its previously studied biological properties, the conclusion can be reached that it is a potential candidate that could substitute calcium hydroxyapatite as the material of choice for use in bone tissue engineering and clinical practices in orthopedic, oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  16. Antimicrobial effectiveness of different trademarks mouthwashes with and without alcohol against different organisms: in vitro study = Efetividade antimicrobiana de diferentes marcas comerciais de enxaguatórios bucais com e sem álcool sobre diversos microrganismos: estudo in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo in vitro foi de avaliar a ação antimicrobiana de enxaguatórios bucais com e sem álcool. Metodologia: Usaram-se no estudo o Periogard®, o CEPACOL®, Plax Classic® e o ORAL-B®, anti-séptico sem álcool. Para a realização desse estudo foram utilizadas 40 placas de Petri com meio de cultura de Ágar Sangue para os seguintes microrganismos: Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Para a mensuração dos halos de inibição, um único examinador treinado utilizou uma lupa estereoscópica e um paquímetro digital. Após a coleta dos dados, as médias foram comparadas utilizando-se do teste estatístico ANOVA (análise de variância com teste corretivo de Bonferroni, para nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: O Periogard® com álcool e o sem álcool apresentaram os melhores resultados. O Plax® sem álcool obteve os piores resultados. O Plax® com álcool foi melhor substância em relação ao S. aureus. Os demais resultados mantiveram-se com melhor efetividade em relação à substância controle. Conclusão: Os enxaguatórios sem álcool não têm a mesma eficácia antimicrobiana comparada aos enxaguatórios com álcool em relação aos microrganismos testados neste estudo

  17. Antimicrobial effect of lactobacillus and bacillus derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus bacteria and their antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infections (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion.

  18. Dual-Functional Polyethylene Glycol-b-polyhexanide Surface Coating with in Vitro and in Vivo Antimicrobial and Antifouling Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Zelun; Su, Yajuan; Xi, Yuewei; Tian, Liang; Xu, Miao; Wang, Qianqian; Padidan, Sara; Li, Peng; Huang, Wei

    2017-03-29

    In recent years, microbial colonization on the surface of biomedical implants/devices has become a severe threat to human health. Herein, surface-immobilized guanidine derivative block copolymers create an antimicrobial and antifouling dual-functional coating. We report the preparation of an antimicrobial and antifouling block copolymer by the conjugation of polyhexanide (PHMB) with either allyl glycidyl ether or allyloxy polyethylene glycol (APEG; MW 1200 and 2400). The allyl glycidyl ether modified PHMB (A-PHMB) and allyloxy polyethylene glycol1200/2400 modified PHMB (APEG1200/2400-PHMB) copolymers were grafted onto a silicone rubber surface as a bottlebrush-like coating, respectively, using a plasma-UV-assisted surface-initiated polymerization. Both A-PHMB and APEG1200/2400-PHMB coatings exhibited excellent broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties against Gram-negative/positive bacteria and fungi. The APEG2400-PHMB coating displayed an improved antibiofilm as well as antifouling properties and a long reusable cycle, compared with two other coatings, due to its abundant PEG blocks among those copolymers. Also, the APEG2400-PHMB-coated silicone coupons were biocompatible toward mammalian cells, as revealed by in vitro hemocompatibile and cytotoxic assays. An in vivo study showed a significant decline of Escherichia coli colonies with a 5-log reduction, indicating the APEG2400-PHMB coating surface worked effectively in the rodent subcutaneous infection model. This PHMB-based block copolymer coating is believed to be an effective strategy to prevent biomaterial-associated infections.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial activity of a gel containing antimicrobial peptide AMP2041, chlorhexidine digluconate and Tris-EDTA on clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from canine otitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Santospirito, Davide; Sala, Andrea; Flisi, Sara; Taddei, Simone; Cavirani, Sandro; Cabassi, Clotilde Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) may cause suppurative otitis externa with severe inflammation and ulceration in dogs. Multidrug resistance is commonly reported for this organism, creating a difficult therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of a gel containing 0.5 μg/mL of antimicrobial peptide AMP2041, 0.07% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX), 0.4% Tris and 0.1% EDTA on 30 clinical isolates of PA from canine otitis externa. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated through minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Standardized bacterial suspensions were incubated with different concentrations of the gel at 37°C for 30 min and plated for colony forming unit (CFU) counts. Time-to-kill kinetics were evaluated with the undiluted product and at MBC for each PA strain at 30 s, 1, 5, 10, 15, 30 min, 24 and 48 h. The MBC was 1:64 for two of 30 strains, 1:128 for 15 of 30 strains and 1:256 for 13 of 30 strains. The geometric mean was 1:165, equivalent to a concentration of 0.003 μg/mL AMP2041 + 0.0004% CLX + 0.0024%Tris + 0.0006% EDTA. Time-to-kill assays with the undiluted product showed complete bactericidal effect within 30 s for all isolates, whereas at the MBC this effect was reached within 5 min for 20 of 30 isolates and within 30 min for all isolates. Bactericidal activity was maintained after 48 h for all isolates. This gel has shown rapid, complete and long-lasting activity against a panel of 30 PA isolates from cases of canine otitis externa. © 2016 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  20. An in vitro antimicrobial activity of ten Iranian-made toothpastes

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    Mostafa Sadeghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial agents have been used as a chemotherapeutic agent to improve oral health. This in vitro study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial activity of ten Iranian-made toothpastes against commonly found bacteria in the oral cavity. Methods: The microorganisms used in this study were Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus and Candida albicans. Sterile discs impregnated with 10 Iranian-made tooth-pastes; Paveh, Saviz, Latifeh II, Bath, Darugar II, Darugar I, Close up, Tage, Pooneh III and Nasim, which were separately used on agar plates. Crest Cavity Protection toothpaste and Sterile pyrogen-free distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The samples were tested in triplicate, at full strength, 1:1 and 1:3 dilutions. Inhibition zones were measured in millimeter after 48 hr. The data were analyzed by the ANOVA and t-test. Results: All tested toothpastes demonstrated an antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of Bath on S. mutans, Paveh on S. sanguis, Paveh, Saviz, Latifeh III and Darugar II on C. albicans were similar to the activity of Crest Cavity Protection. The antimicrobial activity of Pooneh III and Nasim on S. mutans, Bath on S. sanguis and A. viscosus, and Bath and Pooneh III on C. albicans were significantly higher and the others were significantly lower than the positive control. While, the activity of Crest Cavity Protection was the same as Pooneh III, it showed a weaker activity compared with Bath. Conclusion: Apart from Bath and Pooneh III, the other Iranian-made toothpastes tested in this study showed a lower antimicrobial activity compared to Crest Cavity Protection.

  1. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of wound and skin cleansers at nontoxic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Suriani Abdul; Hoon, Russell; Najafi, Ramin Ron; Khosrovi, Behzad; Wang, Lu; Debabov, Dmitri

    2014-02-01

    To determine in vitro antibacterial activity of commercially available skin, wound, and skin/wound cleansers at cell-safe (nontoxic) concentrations. Saline and 19 other commercial wound and skin cleansers were evaluated for cytotoxic effects on mouse dermal fibroblasts. Cells were exposed to serial 10-fold dilutions of each cleanser until treatment-induced cytotoxicity was comparable to the baseline cytotoxicity of unexposed control fibroblasts. Antimicrobial "time-kill" kinetics of these test concentrations of cleansers was tested against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The experimental design allowed calculation of relative cytotoxicity indexes ranging from 0 to 100,000. Shur-Clens Restore Wound Cleanser (ConvaTec, Skillman, New Jersey) and saline were found to be the least toxic (toxicity index: 0); Hibiclens (Mölnlycke Health Care, Norcross, Georgia), Restore Skin Cleanser (Hollister Inc, Libertyville, Illinois), and Betadine Surgical Scrub (Pursue Products LP, Stamford, Connecticut) were found to be the most toxic (toxicity index: 10,000). At noncytotoxic concentrations, NeutroPhase (NovaBay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Emeryville, California) was the most rapidly bactericidal, achieving a 4-log reduction in colony-forming units in less than 1 minute. Puracyn (Innovacyn Inc, Rialto, California) was next at 30 minutes, whereas most of the agents tested required more than 24 hours. Wound healing depends on controlling bacterial balance while maintaining the viability of the healing tissues. In vitro toxicity indexes provide helpful guidelines subsequent to in vivo evaluations and clinical applications. The study findings suggest that NeutroPhase, in contrast with many commercially available wound cleansers, has rapid bactericidal activity at concentrations that are safe for human cells.

  2. In vitro determination of the antimicrobial potential of homemade preparations based on medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases

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    GISELE MEDEIROS BASTOS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the population in developing countries uses plants or plant preparations in their basic health care. Many plant species used nowadays in folk medicine have been proved to have antimicrobial properties. However, several factors, such as incorrect preparation of the plants, can interfere with the effectiveness of the treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of homemade preparations of medicinal plants in the treatment of infectious diseases, by in vitro determination of their antimicrobial potential. Based on recipes elicited by questionnaires that were previously applied to a participant population, the samples were prepared in a similar manner and analyzed by the agar diffusion method. Members of 41 families, whose children attend a center of education that serves several needy communities in the city of Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil, were interviewed; of these, 97.6% said they had used herbal therapy as a means to treat infectious diseases. In replies to a total of 39 questionnaires, 97 different homemade preparations of medicinal plants were cited. Out of 45 samples subjected to an in vitro assessment of antimicrobial activity, 25 (55.6% had some inhibitory effect on the growth of at least one of the microorganisms used. Most of the plants with known antimicrobial properties and cited by respondents showed variations in their in vitro activity, according to the manner in which they were prepared. Keywords: Medicinal plants. Products with Antimicrobial Action. Traditional Medicine. Homemade preparation. RESUMO Determinação in vitro do potencial antimicrobiano de preparações caseiras de plantas medicinais utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças infecciosas Grande parte da população de países em desenvolvimento utiliza plantas ou preparações vegetais nos cuidados básicos à saúde. Muitas das espécies vegetais utilizadas na medicina popular apresentam propriedades antimicrobianas comprovadas; no entanto

  3. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mouth washes and herbal products against dental biofilm-forming bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Naiana B; Alexandria, Adílis K F; De Lima, Aline L; Claudino, Lígia V; De Oliveira Carneiro, Thiago F; Da Costa, Adalberto C; Valença, Ana M G; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate in vitro, the antimicrobial effect of Cymbopogon citrates (lemon grass), Plectranthusamboinicus (Mexican mint) and Conyzabonariensis (hairy fleabane) tinctures as well as pure and diluted commercial mouth washes (Malvatricin(®), Periogard(®) and Listerine(®)) on wild isolates of Streptococcusmutans and reference strains of S. mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei by determination of minimum inhibitory dilution (MID). 0.12% chlorhexidine and 70% corn alcohol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Saliva samples were collected from 3 volunteers and seeded in MSB broth to obtain Streptococcus isolates after 72-hour incubation. Using the agar diffusion method, susceptibility tests were performed with overnight incubation in microaerophilia at 37°C. All tests were performed in duplicate. The bacterial species were resistant to the tinctures and Listerine(®), but were susceptible to 0.12% chlorhexidine, Malvatricin(®) and Periogard(®), with MIDs ranging from 12.5% to 1.56%. Plectrantusamboinicus, Conyzabonariensis and Cymbopongoncitratus tinctures and Listerine(®) did not show inhibitory action against the tested biofilm-forming bacteria.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mouth washes and herbal products against dental biofilm-forming bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiana B Da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate in vitro, the antimicrobial effect of Cymbopogon citrates (lemon grass, Plectranthusamboinicus (Mexican mint and Conyzabonariensis (hairy fleabane tinctures as well as pure and diluted commercial mouth washes (Malvatricin® , Periogard® and Listerine® on wild isolates of Streptococcusmutans and reference strains of S. mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei by determination of minimum inhibitory dilution (MID. Materials and Methods: 0.12% chlorhexidine and 70% corn alcohol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Saliva samples were collected from 3 volunteers and seeded in MSB broth to obtain Streptococcus isolates after 72-hour incubation. Using the agar diffusion method, susceptibility tests were performed with overnight incubation in microaerophilia at 37°C. All tests were performed in duplicate. Results: The bacterial species were resistant to the tinctures and Listerine® , but were susceptible to 0.12% chlorhexidine, Malvatricin® and Periogard® , with MIDs ranging from 12.5% to 1.56%. Conclusions: Plectrantusamboinicus, Conyzabonariensis and Cymbopongoncitratus tinctures and Listerine® did not show inhibitory action against the tested biofilm-forming bacteria.

  5. In vitro study of the antimicrobial activity of Brazilian propolis against Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Esther Margarida A F; Simone, Michael; Jorge, Daniela Macedo; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Spivak, Marla

    2008-03-01

    The honey bee disease American foulbrood (AFB) is a serious problem since its causative agent (Paenibacillus larvae) has become increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotics. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of propolis collected from various states of Brazil against P. larvae. Propolis is derived from plant resins collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) and is globally known for its antimicrobial properties and particularly valued in tropical regions. Tests on the activity of propolis against P. larvae were conducted both in Brazil and Minnesota, USA using two resistance assay methods that measured zones of growth inhibition due to treatment exposure. The propolis extracts from the various states of Brazil showed significant inhibition of P. larvae. Clear dose responses were found for individual propolis extracts, particularly between the concentrations of 1.7 and 0.12 mg propolis/treatment disk, but the source of the propolis, rather than the concentration, may be more influential in determining overall activity. Two of the three tested antibiotics (tylosin and terramycin) exhibited a greater level of inhibition compared to most of the Brazilian samples, which could be due to the low concentrations of active compounds present in the propolis extracts. Additionally, the majority of the Brazilian propolis samples were more effective than the few collected in MN, USA. Due to the evolution of resistance of P. larvae to conventional antibiotic treatments, this research is an important first step in identifying possible new active compounds to treat AFB in honey bee colonies.

  6. [In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria isolated from pleuropulmonary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler V, Tamara; Salamanca F, Lucía; Molina, Eliana

    2006-04-01

    Aspirative pleuropulmonary infections are usually caused by anaerobic flora of the mouth, mainly Prevotella, Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus spp. Penicillin in high doses is the traditional treatment for this type of infections but the rising resistance developed in recent years has induced the empiric use of clindamycin, increasing treatment costs. To study antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria isolated from pleuropulmonary infections. Thirty two strains obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage and 15 strains isolated from pleural effusions between 2000 and 2002, were studied. The phenotype of strains was identified using the semiautomated API 20 A method and their susceptibility to penicillin (PNC), clindamycin (CM) and chloramphenicol (CAF) was tested using the E test methods. All the strains were susceptible to CAF, 95% to CM and 74.4% to PNC. The predominant genus was Prevotella, which also exhibited the higher resistance. As CM and CAF are active "in vitro", high rates of clinical response should be expected. In contrast, PNC is less effective, especially against pigmented Prevotella.

  7. In vitro activity of tigecycline alone and antimicrobial combinations against clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Seo, Young Hee; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Younsop

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we determined the in vitro activity of various combinations of antimicrobial agents against 54 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates. The combined activity of ceftriaxone (CRO) and azithromycin (AZM), CRO and doxycycline (DOX), CRO and spectinomycin (SPT), cefixime (CFX) and AZM, CFX and DOX, and CFX and SPT was determined using a checkerboard method. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) values for all combinations were either additive or indifferent, and no synergistic or antagonistic effects were found. The FICI comparison in each combination did not show any difference according to the N.gonorrhoeae-resistant phenotypes and genotypic characteristics, including penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae, tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, stratified MIC of all antibiotics, and N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. MIC50 and MIC90 of tigecycline by agar dilution were 0.5 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L, respectively, which were lower than that of tetracycline and DOX. Additive/indifference results could suggest that combinations that include CRO may be used safely without a significant likelihood of generating resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pardaxin, a Fish Antimicrobial Peptide, Exhibits Antitumor Activity toward Murine Fibrosarcoma in Vitro and in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Ping; Huang, Tsui-Chin; Lin, Ching-Chun; Hui, Cho-Fat; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2012-01-01

    The antitumor activity of pardaxin, a fish antimicrobial peptide, has not been previously examined in in vitro and in vivo systems for treating murine fibrosarcoma. In this study, the antitumor activity of synthetic pardaxin was tested using murine MN-11 tumor cells as the study model. We show that pardaxin inhibits the proliferation of MN-11 cells and reduces colony formation in a soft agar assay. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that pardaxin altered the membrane structure similar to what a lytic peptide does, and also produced apoptotic features, such as hollow mitochondria, nuclear condensation, and disrupted cell membranes. A qRT-PCR and ELISA showed that pardaxin induced apoptosis, activated caspase-7 and interleukin (IL)-7r, and downregulated caspase-9, ATF 3, SOCS3, STAT3, cathelicidin, p65, and interferon (IFN)-γ suggesting that pardaxin induces apoptosis through the death receptor/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway after 14 days of treatment in tumor-bearing mice. An antitumor effect was observed when pardaxin (25 mg/kg; 0.5 mg/day) was used to treat mice for 14 days, which caused significant inhibition of MN-11 cell growth in mice. Overall, these results indicate that pardaxin has the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent to treat fibrosarcomas. PMID:23015777

  9. Antimicrobial peptide KSL-W promotes gingival fibroblast healing properties in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Jin; Salem, Mabrouka; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Leung, Kai P; Rouabhia, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the effect of synthetic antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W (KKVVFWVKFK) on normal human gingival fibroblast growth, migration, collagen gel contraction, and α-smooth muscle actin protein expression. Results show that in addition to promoting fibroblast adhesion by increasing F-actin production, peptide KSL-W promoted cell growth by increasing the S and G2/M cell cycle phases, and enhanced the secretion of metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-2 by upregulating MMP inhibitors, such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in fibroblasts. An in vitro wound healing assay confirmed that peptide KSL-W promoted fibroblast migration and contraction of a collagen gel matrix. We also demonstrated a high expression of α-smooth muscle actin by gingival fibroblasts being exposed to KSL-W. This work shows that peptide KSL-W enhances gingival fibroblast growth, migration, and metalloproteinase secretion, and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin, thus promoting wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial Effects of Dental Luting Glass Ionomer Cements on Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Markus; Spitzmüller, Bettina; Anderson, Annette; Hellwig, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To reduce secondary caries, glass ionomer luting cements are often used for cementing of indirect restorations. This is because of their well-known antimicrobial potential through the release of fluoride ions. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of five dental luting cements which were based on glass ionomer cement technology. Methods. Five different glass ionomer based luting cements were tested for their antimicrobial effects on Streptococcus mutans in two different experimental setups: (i) determination of colony-forming units (CFUs) in a plate-counting assay; (ii) live/dead staining (LDS) and fluorescence microscopy. All experiments were conducted with or without prior treatment of the materials using sterilized human saliva. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated for adherent and planktonic bacteria. Bovine enamel slabs (BES) were used as negative control. BES covered with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) served as positive control. Results. Each of the tested materials significantly reduced the number of initially adhered CFUs; this reduction was even more pronounced after prior incubation in saliva. Antimicrobial effects on adherent bacteria were confirmed by live-dead staining. Conclusion. All five luting cements showed an antimicrobial potential which was increased by prior incubation with human saliva, suggesting an enhanced effect in vivo. PMID:24795539

  11. Biofilm formation on stainless steel and gold wires for bonded retainers in vitro and in vivo and their susceptibility to oral antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Marije A; Pelser, Floris D H; van der Mei, Henny C; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Busscher, Henk J; Ren, Yijin

    2013-05-01

    Bonded retainers are used in orthodontics to maintain treatment result. Retention wires are prone to biofilm formation and cause gingival recession, bleeding on probing and increased pocket depths near bonded retainers. In this study, we compare in vitro and in vivo biofilm formation on different wires used for bonded retainers and the susceptibility of in vitro biofilms to oral antimicrobials. Orthodontic wires were exposed to saliva, and in vitro biofilm formation was evaluated using plate counting and live/dead staining, together with effects of exposure to toothpaste slurry alone or followed by antimicrobial mouthrinse application. Wires were also placed intra-orally for 72 h in human volunteers and undisturbed biofilm formation was compared by plate counting and live/dead staining, as well as by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for compositional differences in biofilms. Single-strand wires attracted only slightly less biofilm in vitro than multi-strand wires. Biofilms on stainless steel single-strand wires however, were much more susceptible to antimicrobials from toothpaste slurries and mouthrinses than on single-strand gold wires and biofilms on multi-strand wires. Also, in vivo significantly less biofilm was found on single-strand than on multi-strand wires. Microbial composition of biofilms was more dependent on the volunteer involved than on wire type. Biofilms on single-strand stainless steel wires attract less biofilm in vitro and are more susceptible to antimicrobials than on multi-strand wires. Also in vivo, single-strand wires attract less biofilm than multi-strand ones. Use of single-strand wires is preferred over multi-strand wires, not because they attract less biofilm, but because biofilms on single-strand wires are not protected against antimicrobials as in crevices and niches as on multi-strand wires.

  12. In vitro evaluation of the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts and their antimicrobial action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated both the antimicrobial activity and the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts used in irrigation solutions. The antimicrobial activities of the aroeira-da-praia (Schinus terebintifolius Raddi and the quixabeira (Syderoxylum obtusifolium Roem & Schult hydroalcoholic extracts, of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and of 0.12% chlorhexidine (positive control against Enterococcus faecalis were tested with the agar well diffusion method. The level of root canal cleanliness was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Twenty one single-rooted human teeth were divided into three groups according to the irrigation solution applied: 1 50% aroeira-da-praia; 2 50% quixabeira and 3 a combination of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA. All solutions tested demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. The SEM analysis revealed that higher and lower degrees of surface cleaning were observed, in the three groups, respectively for the coronal and apical thirds, in that quixabeira showed the greatest efficiency in removing the smear layer in the apical third. All the agents tested presented antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis. None, however, was able to completely remove the smear layer of the dentinal surface in the different thirds of the root canal. The results suggest that the analyzed plant extracts may represent a new therapeutic option in the list of alternative agents available for endodontic treatment.

  13. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial potentials of Lactobacillus helveticus strains isolated from traditional cheese in Sinkiang China against food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xin; Evivie, Smith Etareri; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Luo, Guang-Wen; Liang, Hong-Zhang; Wang, Na-Na; Huo, Gui-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus, an obligatory hetero-fermentative LAB, is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) and is gaining popularity for application in dairy products. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a remarkable role in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria in food products, without disturbing the sensory attributes of the food. In this study, the screening of the antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus helveticus KLDS 1.8701 against four food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43889 in vitro was inspected using the Oxford cup method and mixed culture inhibition assays. The organic acid production and antimicrobial potential of the cell-free supernatants (CFS) have been evaluated via different treatments and analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis results revealed that KLDS 1.8701 exhibited the highest antimicrobial potential compared to other antimicrobial strains. The antimicrobial activity of KLDS 1.8701 resulted from the organic acids in the culture and CFS. From the study, it was found that carbon sources, as well as organic acid production, accelerate the antimicrobial activity of KLDS 1.8701 and the fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were considered the best for improving the proliferation of KLDS 1.8701 and supporting its antimicrobial action. Results of the mixed culture inhibition assays showed that part of the antimicrobial activity resulted from the inhibitory action of the bacteria itself in culture, and this action required cellular contact between the food-borne pathogens and KLDS 1.8701. Conversely, the results of the antimicrobial spectrum assay revealed that some Lactobacilli remained unaffected by KLDS 1.8701. KLDS 1.8701 might also be favorable for use as a supplementary starter in fermented dairy productions. Furthermore, KLDS 1.8701 could survive well under GI tract conditions

  14. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncagul, Gulsen; Ayaz, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants like pumpkin seed, thyme, onion, Nigella sativa, lemon balm, and stinging nettle are used extensively today. One of these plants used most intensively and widespread is garlic. In this context, fresh shape, powder state and oil of garlic have been used all around the world, especially in Far East for centuries. It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections. It's also known that garlic is a wonderful plant having the properties of empowering immune system, anti-tumour and antioxidant effects. In this article, the summary of properties of garlic and its use against bacterial diseases is given. This article is a short review of recent patents on antimicrobial effect of garlic.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Halyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to determine in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of various Ficus species against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated locally from infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum with the aim of providing scientific rationale for the use of the plant in the treatment of bacterial infections induced by Aeromonas spp. in fish. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Muller-Hinton agar with the disc diffusion method. In the present study, most ethanolic extracts proved effective against the A. hydrophila tested, with 10-12 mm inhibition zones observed. A. hydrophila demonstrated the highest susceptibility to F. pumila. Among various species of Ficus with moderate activity against A. hydrophila, the highest antibacterial activities were noted for F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea, F. hispida, and F. lyrata. Thus, Ficus can be used as a natural antiseptic and antimicrobial agent in veterinary practice. Further investigations need to be conducted to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds that can then be subjected to detailed pharmacological studies and the development of clinical applications. The alarming rate of increasing resistance in bacterial pathogens in aquaculture environments means that medicinal plants with antibacterial properties are very important as natural resources of new active compounds.

  16. Enhancing antibiofilm efficacy in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: effect of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishen, Anil; George, Saji

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a microbubble containing photosensitizer when activated with light would enable comprehensive disinfection of bacterial biofilms in infected root dentin by antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). Experiments were conducted in two stages. In the stage-1, microbubble containing photosensitizing formulation was tested for its photochemical properties. In the stage-2, the efficacy of microbubble containing photosensitizing formulation was tested on in vitro infected root canal model, developed with monospecies biofilm models of Enterococcus faecalis on root dentin substrate. The findings from this study showed that the microbubble containing photosensitizing formulation was overall the most effective formulation for photooxidation, generation of singlet oxygen, and in disinfecting the biofilm bacteria in the infected root canal model. This modified photosensitizing formulation will have potential advantages in eliminating bacterial biofilms from infected root dentin.

  17. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in chronic osteomyelitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus: An in vitro and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis Júnior, João Alves; de Assis, Patrícia Nascimento; Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; de Vieira de Castro, Isabele Cardoso; Trindade, Renan Ferreira; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa

    2012-09-01

    Osteomyelitis it is an acute or chronic inflammation in the marrow spaces in the superficial or cortical bone, and associated to bacterial infection. Chronic osteomyelitis represents a major health problem due to its difficult treatment and increased morbidity. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APT) by laser is a treatment based on a cytotoxic photochemical reaction in which, a bright light produced by a laser system and an active photosensitizer absorbed by cells leads an activation that induces a series of metabolic reactions that culminates a bacterial killing. The aim of this study was to assess, both in vitro and in vivo, the effect of lethal laser photosensitization on osteomyelitis. On the in vitro study a diode laser (λ660nm; 40mW; o/ = 0.4 cm2; 5 or 10 J/cm2) and 5, 10 and 15μg/mL toluidine blue (TB) were tested and the best parameter chosen for the in vivo study. The concentration of 5μg/mL was selected to perform the decontamination of infected by Staphylococcus aureus tibial bone defects in rats. The results were performed by ANOVA test. On the in vitro studies all PDTs groups in the different concentrations reduced significantly (pphotodynamic therapy using toluidine blue was effective in reducing the staphiloccocus aureus in both in vitro and in vivo studies.

  18. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles: are they effective antimicrobials?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudara K Peiris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are increasingly being used in medical applications. Therefore, cost effective and green methods for generating AgNPs are required. OBJECTIVES This study aimed towards the biosynthesis, characterisation, and determination of antimicrobial activity of AgNPs produced using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. METHODS Culture conditions (AgNO3 concentration, pH, and incubation temperature and time were optimized to achieve maximum AgNP production. The characterisation of AgNPs and their stability were evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy. FINDINGS The characteristic UV-visible absorbance peak was observed in the 420–430 nm range. Most of the particles were spherical in shape within a size range of 33–300 nm. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited higher stability than that exhibited by chemically synthesized AgNPs in the presence of electrolytes. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Candida albicans. MAIN CONCLUSION As compared to the tested Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria required higher contact time to achieve 100% reduction of colony forming units when treated with biosynthesized AgNPs produced using P. aeruginosa.

  19. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acetone extract suppressed the elevation of serum ALT (p <0.05) and AST (p <0.001) activities induced by CCl4. Animals given stevia extract showed prevention against deleterious effects of CCl4 by lowering lipid peroxidation and enhancement of antioxidant activities as SOD and CAT. The protection trial is better than ...

  20. Bioequivalence and in vitro antimicrobial activity between generic and brand-name levofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hsin-Yun; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Sheng, Meng-Huei; Tai, Hui-Min; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Sheng, Wang-Huei

    2016-07-01

    Generic agents play a crucial role in reducing the cost of medical care in many countries. However, the therapeutic equivalence remains a great concern. Our study aims to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity and bioequivalence between generic and brand-name levofloxacin. Enantiomeric purity test, dissolution test, and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility against seven clinically important pathogens by the agar dilution method were employed to assess the similarity between four generic products and brand-name levofloxacin (Daiichi Sankyo). All the generic and brand-name levofloxacin passed enantiomeric purity test. The results of dissolution tests were not similar among the generic products and the brand-name levofloxacin. Compared with the generic products, the brand-name levofloxacin had the smallest mean variations (-25% to 13%) with reference standard (United States Pharmacopeia levofloxacin Reference Standards). Variations were observed particularly in dissolution profiles and in vitro activity between generic products and brand-name levofloxacin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro and in vivo Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Some Indigenous Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheeha Naveed, Iftikhar Hussain, M Shahid Mahmood and Masood Akhtar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activity of some indigenous essential oils (EOs extracted by hydrodistillation from spices such as Cuminum cyminum, Amomum subulatum, Cinnamomum verum and Syzygium aromaticum against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans by performing the disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC in-vitro, and in vivo antibacterial effect of EOs was studied in rabbits infected with S. aureus and treatment was done at infected site immediately with EOs. Among all treated groups, C. verum EO treated group showed significant decrease in viable bacterial counts at infected site after 24h and 48h of infection to 7.4×106 and 7.6×105 cfu, respectively, from 4.3×107 cfu before treatment. C. verum EO was found to be the most effective against S. aureus and C. albicans, showing zone of inhibition diameters 34±2.0mm and 50.3±8.6mm, respectively. The EOs, applied at different concentrations, showed variable inhibitory effects to all the microorganisms tested and more effective than control, both in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of the present study screened out the antibacterial and antifungal potential of the EOs, however further dose dependent studies, both in-vitro and in-vivo are required to find out their maximum safe levels against bacteria and fungi.

  2. In Vitro Activity of PNU-100766 (Linezolid), a New Oxazolidinone Antimicrobial, against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gómez-Flores, Alejandra; Escalante-Fuentes, Wendy G.; Welsh, Oliverio

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of a novel oxazolidinone, linezolid, was studied by comparing the activity of linezolid with those of amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against 25 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis isolated from patients with mycetoma. All N. brasiliensis strains tested were sensitive to linezolid (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 2 μg/ml; MIC50, 1 μg/ml). This antimicrobial might constitute a good alternative for treatment of actinomycetoma. PMID:11709356

  3. Antimicrobial activity of three different endodontic sealers on the enterococcus faecalis and lactobacillus (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ehsani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growth and proliferation of the remaining microorganisms within the root canals may destroy the surrounding tissue of the root and leads to periapical lesion. Consequently, the complete elimination of microorganisms from the root canal is an important goal of endodontic therapy. Endodontic sealers do not provide complete seal in root canal system, and micro spaces have always remained between the material and canal walls that lead to penetration of these spaces, so, an antibacterial activity is essential for sealers. The aim of the present study was the in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the three endodontic sealers on two microorganisms. Methods: To study the effect of each sealer; AH26, MTA Fillapex and ADseal on Enterococcus Faecalis and Lactobacillus bacteria 10 samples were considered. In this experimental study, 60 plates were exposed to bacteria and 10 plates were considered for control group. Sealer antibacterial effect on bacterial growth was studied after 48 hours. Firstly, the freshly prepared sealers were poured inside the micro tube and diffused in the wall of the micro tube. Then solution of nutrient broth was poured into a micro tube and the determined volume of solution of bacterial suspension was added into a microtube and was kept 24 hours in the incubator to grow the bacteria. Then, it was poured in the plates of blood agar and cultured after 24 hours and then the colonies grown on the plates were counted in sufficient light. The data were analyzed with MANOVA statistical test and SPSS Version 18. Results: Most bacteria grew in the plates of ADseal sealer and MTA fillapex sealer with means of 5113.00CFU and 3077.00CFU respectively, while the lowest number of bacteria grew in the plates of AH26 sealer with a mean of 1345.15CFU. Conclusions: Most antibacterial activities of each enterococcus faecalis and lactobacillus bacteria sample was for AH26 sealer and MTA fillapex sealer. The lowest

  4. Antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite and castor oil solutions for denture cleaning – in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Moreira SALLES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50% and 10% castor oil solutions against specific microorganisms, by counting Colony Forming Units (CFU of clinically important bacteria and Candida species. Acrylic resin specimens (n = 320; Lucitone 550 were obtained from square metal matrices (10 x 10 x 2 mm, sterilized by microwave (650W, for 6 minutes and contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalisand Candida glabrata. The specimens were immersed for 20 minutes in one of the following hygiene solutions (n = 10/each: A – 0.25% Sodium hypochlorite; B – 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite; C – 10% Castor oil solution; and D (Control – saline. Adhered cells were suspended and inoculated into a selective solid medium (37ºC for 24 h. The Student’s t-test (α = 0.05 was performed to compare log10(CFU+1/mL between Groups C and D. The results showed that sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.5% completely eliminated all detectable microorganisms. The castor oil solution eliminatedB. subtilisand reduced counts for other strains. Differences between C and D were significant (p E. faecalis. Both sodium hypochlorite solutions (0.25% and 0.5% were effective in eliminating all microorganisms evaluated, and may be useful as cleaning solutions for complete dentures. The castor oil solution provided moderate efficacy and performed differently on the tested species, with the strongest effect on B. subtilis and with non-significant action on E. faecalis.

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis, BioPure MTAD, sodium hypochlorite, and chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Soley; Ozbilge, Hatice; Kaya, Esma G; Er, Ozgur

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial effect by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration MBC of propolis, BioPure MTAD, 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and 2% chlorhexidine CHX on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) in vitro. This study was performed in the Faculty of Dentistry and Pharmacy at Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey from February to April 2010. Ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) was prepared from propolis collected from Kayseri, Turkey, and proper media for microorganisms were prepared using sterile broth medium to give final concentrations between 0.002-2.4 mg/ml for propolis, 0.000125-0.512 mg/ml for CHX, and 1:2-1:4096 dilutions for NaOCl and BioPure MTAD. Using the macrobroth dilution method, MIC, and MBC values of irrigants on the growth of E. faecalis and C. albicans were determined. Propolis and other irrigants were found to be effective on C. albicans and E. faecalis. Propolis and NaOCl were more effective in lower concentrations on C. albicans than on E. faecalis. In contrast, CHX and MTAD were more effective in lower concentrations on E. faecalis than on C. albicans. Propolis showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis and C. albicans. It appears that propolis is an effective intracanal irrigant in eradicating E. faecalis and C. albicans.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains from dairy herds in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T

    2011-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is 1 of the most important causes of bovine mastitis and is responsible for significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. One of the principal approaches used in treating intramammary infections is the administration of antimicrobials. Due to the propensity of S. aureus to develop resistance, antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring is necessary to ensure that treatment regimens are effective. As part of this investigation, 90 S. aureus strains isolated from mastitis cases submitted to Allerton Provincial Veterinary Laboratory during 2008 and 2009 were evaluated for their susceptibility to a panel of 10 antimicrobials. Only 8 of the 90 S. aureus isolates tested (8.9%) were found to be susceptible to all of the antimicrobials evaluated. A very high level of resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics was noted: 47.8% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and 65.6% were resistant to ampicillin. Minimal resistance to oxacillin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.1%) was found. Seventeen (18.9%) of the isolates tested were found to be resistant to 3 or more antimicrobials. The need for vigilant monitoring of bacterial resistance trends in the dairy industry is warranted as the potential public health implications are significant.

  7. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: photodynamic antimicrobial effects of malachite green on Staphylococcus, enterobacteriaceae, and Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, J C; Ribeiro, M A; Rossoni, R D; Barbosa, J O; Querido, S M R; Jorge, A O C

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated in vitro the photodynamic antimicrobial effects of the photosensitizer malachite green on clinical strains of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, and Candida. Thirty-six microbial strains isolated from the oral cavity of patients undergoing prolonged antibiotic therapy, including 12 Staphylococcus, 12 Enterobacteriaceae, and 12 Candida strains, were studied. The number of cells of each microorganism was standardized to 10(6) cells/mL. Twenty-four assays were carried out for each strain according to the following experimental conditions: gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser and photosensitizer (n = 6, L+P+), laser and physiologic solution (n = 6, L+P-), photosensitizer (n = 6, L-P+), and physiologic solution (n = 6, L-P-). Next, cultures were prepared on brain-heart infusion agar for the growth of Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriaceae, and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the growth of Candida, and incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C. The results are reported as the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL) and were analyzed with analysis of variance and the Tukey test. The Staphylococcus, enterobacterial, and Candida strains were sensitive to photodynamic therapy with malachite green (L+P+). A reduction of approximately 7 log(10) for Staphylococcus, 6 log(10) for enterobacteria, and 0.5 log(10) for the genus Candida. Significant statistical differences were observed between the L+P+ groups and the control groups (L-P-). The Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, and Candida strains studied were sensitive to photodynamic therapy with malachite green.

  8. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Selected Vranac Wines Against Six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess potential antimicrobial effectiveness of selected red wines from Balkan region, made from autochthonic Vranac V. vinifera L. grape variety. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of Vranac wines against Gram-positive: C. perfringens, B. subtillis, S. aureus, L. inocua, S. Lutea, and M.

  9. Membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malekkhaiat Häffner, S; Nyström, L; Nordström, R

    2017-01-01

    Membrane interactions are critical for the successful use of inorganic nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents and as carriers of, or co-actives with, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In order to contribute to an increased understanding of these, we here investigate effects of particle size (42-208 nm...

  10. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities of various commercial essential oils, oleoresin and pure compounds against food pathogens and application in ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the application of commercially available essential oils (EOs) and oleoresins to control bacterial pathogens for ready to eat food. In this study, sixty seven commercial EOs, oleoresins (ORs) and pure compounds were used to evaluate in vitro their antimicrobial activity against six food pathogens. These products were first screened for their antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion assay. Forty one products were then chosen for further analysis to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration against 6 different bacteria. There were 5 different products (allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon Chinese cassia, cinnamon OR, oregano and red thyme) that showed high antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Further analysis examined the effect of four selected EOs on controlling the growth rate of mixed cultures of Listeria monocytogenes in ham. A reduction of the growth rate by 19 and 10% was observed when oregano and cinnamon cassia EOs were respectively added in ham at a concentration of 500 ppm. © 2013.

  11. Antimicrobial Effect of Phyllanthus amarus and Parquetina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phyllanthus amarus and Paraquetina nigrescens are economic plants grown in West Africa for antimicrobial properties. Crude aqueous (hot and cold water) and ethanolic extracts of the plants were investigated for antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi. The organism was collected from the University College ...

  12. A novel nitric oxide producing probiotic patch and its antimicrobial efficacy: preparation and in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mitchell Lawrence; Ganopolsky, Jorge G; Labbé, Alain; Prakash, Satya

    2010-06-01

    Microbial and fungal infections are a significant consideration in the etiology of all wounds. Numerous antimicrobial and antifungal formulations have been developed with varying degrees of efficacy and stability. Here, we report a nitric oxide producing probiotic adhesive patch device and investigate its antimicrobial and antifungal efficacy in vitro. This probiotic patch utilizes the metabolic activity of immobilized lactic acid bacteria, glucose, and nitrite salts for the production of gaseous nitric oxide (gNO), which is used as an antimicrobial agent against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Results show that application of gNO-producing probiotic patches to cultures of E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, MRSA, T. mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum resulted in complete cell death at between 4 and 8 h, and application to cultures of A. baumannii, resulted in fewer than ten colonies detected per milliliter at 6 h. These results demonstrate that a gNO-producing probiotic patch device containing bacteria, glucose, and nitrite salts can produce sufficient levels of gNO over a therapeutically relevant duration to kill common bacterial and fungal wound pathogens in humans.

  13. [In vitro comparative activity of moxifloxacin and other antimicrobials against respiratory pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, V; Giangrieco, M; Durán, C; Ojeda, A; van Flaskamp, R

    2000-12-01

    Respiratory pathogens are becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobials. A new group of drugs, called respiratory quinolones have been synthesized to overcome this problem. To study the in vitro susceptibility of respiratory pathogens to old and new antimicrobials. Forty five strains of S pneumoniae, 44 strains of H influenzae, 21 strains of M catarrhalis, 10 strains of methicillin susceptible S aureus and 20 strains of methicillin resistant S aureus were studied. All were isolated from community acquired respiratory infections during 1999. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of moxifloxacin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, clarithromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were determined using the Etest method. Beta-lactamase production by H influenzae and M catarrhalis was also studied. S pneumoniae strains were 100% susceptible to quinolones and cotrimoxazole, 2% were resistant to macrolides, 11% were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 47% were resistant to cefuroxime. H influenzae was 100% susceptible to quinolones, azithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. There was a 53% resistance to cotrimoxazole, 21% to amoxicillin, 9% to clarithromycin and 7% to cefuroxime. M catarrahalis was 100% susceptible to quinolones and 100% resistant to amoxicillin, 5% resistant to macrolides, 14% resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 20% to cefuroxime and 30% to cotrimoxazole. Methicillin susceptible S aureus was susceptible to all antimicrobials and methicillin resistant S aureus was resistant to all. Maxifloxacin and the new respiratory quinolones can be useful in the treatment of respiratory infections.

  14. In vitro activity of antimicrobial combinations against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denissani Aparecida Ferrari dos Santos Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates related to nosocomial infections are often resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. In this study, antimicrobial combinations were evaluated to detect in vitro synergy against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. Methods Four clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were selected at random among other isolates from inpatients treated at the public University hospital in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Two isolates were susceptible to imipenem (IPM-S and several other antimicrobials, while the other two isolates were imipenem and multidrug resistant (IPM-R. The checkerboard method was used to assess the interactions between antimicrobials. Results Combinations of imipenem or other anti-Pseudomonas drugs with complementary antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, fosfomycin and rifampin, reached synergy rates of 20.8%, 50%, 62.5% and 50% for the two IPM-S and two IPM-R Pseudomonas isolates, respectively. Imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and ceftazidime yielded a greater synergy rate than cefepime or ciprofloxacin. Synergist combinations were more commonly observed when the complementary drug was tobramycin (65% or fosfomycin (57%. Conclusions Some antibacterial combinations led to significant reductions of the minimum inhibitory concentrations of both drugs, suggesting that they could be clinically applied to control infections caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality of Allophylus cobbe L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Torequl; Noor, Md. Abdun; Karon, Bijoy; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Plants are rich source of pharmacologically active agents, which could be explored in disease management. Methanol, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the whole plant of Allophylus cobbe L. were evaluated for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity by disk diffusion method was conducted against four Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and seven fungi. In the antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity tests, growth inhibition was found to be within the range of 10.0–17.67 mm. Strong zone of inhibition by the ethanol extract of A. cobbe (EEAC) was found against Trichophyton spp. With some exceptions, a mild to strong antimicrobial activity was observed in this study. Significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; 15.625 μg/ml) was found against Trichophyton spp. Other detected MICs were within the range of 31.25–125 μg/ml. The petroleum ether extract of the plant exhibited strong cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay test. PMID:23559808

  16. In Vitro Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes Using New Methylene Blue as the Photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Chicón, P; Gulías, Ò; Nonell, S; Agut, M

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combines the use of a photosensitizing drug with light and oxygen to eradicate pathogens. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a dermatophytic fungus able to invade the skin and keratinized tissues. We have investigated the use of new methylene blue as the photosensitizing agent for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to produce the in vitro inactivation of T mentagrophytes. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the parameters for photoinactivation of the dermatophyte. The parameters studied were new methylene blue concentration, contact time between the photosensitizing agent and the fungus prior to light treatment, and the fluence of red light (wavelength, 620-645nm) applied. The minimum concentration of new methylene blue necessary to induce the death of all T. mentagrophytes cells in the initial suspension (approximate concentration, 10(6) colony forming units per milliliter) was 50μM for a fluence of 81J/cm(2) after a contact time of 10minutes with the photosensitizing-agent. Increasing the concentration to 100μM allowed the fluence to be decreased to 9J/cm(2). Comparison of our data with other published data shows that the susceptibility of T. mentagrophytes to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with new methylene blue is strain-dependent. New methylene blue is a photosensitizing agent that should be considered for the treatment of fungal skin infections caused by this dermatophyte. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The in vitro fitness cost of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli varies with the growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of stressful growth conditions on the fitness cost of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli BJ4 caused by chromosomal mutations and plasmid acquisition. The fitness cost of chromosomal streptomycin resistance increased significan......The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of stressful growth conditions on the fitness cost of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli BJ4 caused by chromosomal mutations and plasmid acquisition. The fitness cost of chromosomal streptomycin resistance increased...... significantly when the bacteria were grown under all stress conditions tested, while the cost in 1/3 Luria–Bertani was not significantly changed in a streptomycin+rifampicin mutant. The increase in the fitness cost depended in a nonregular manner on the strain/stress combination. The fitness cost of plasmid....... However, the growth potential of bacteria with antimicrobial resistances did not increase in a straightforward manner in these in vitro experiments and is therefore probably even more difficult to predict in vivo....

  18. The in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoué-Piéboji, J; Pegnyemb, D E; Niyitegeka, D; Nsangou, A; Eze, N; Minyem, C; Mbing, J Ngo; Ngassam, P; Tih, R Ghogomu; Sodengam, B L; Bodo, B

    2006-04-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 10 plant species (Voacanga africana, Crepis cameroonica, Plagiostyles africana, Crotalaria retusa, Mammea africana, Lophira lanceolata, Ochna afzelii, Ouratea elongata, Ou. flava and Ou. sulcata), each of which is currently used in the traditional medicine of Cameroon, were investigated in vitro. The activities of a methanol extract of each plant were tested, in disc-diffusion assays, against 37 reference or laboratory strains of seven species of microorganism (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of each extract were then estimated, against each of the more susceptible microorganisms (i.e. those giving an inhibition zone measuring at least 9 mm in diameter in the disc-diffusion assays), by agar dilution. Although, in the disc-diffusion assays, each of the 10 methanol extracts investigated displayed some degree of antimicrobial activity against at least one species of microorganism, no activity against the Gram-negative bacteria (Es. coli, K. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa) was observed. The extract with the greatest antimicrobial activity was that of Pl. africana (Euphorbiaceae).

  19. Anti-microbial Efficacy of Soursop Leaf Extract (Annona muricata) on Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Bh Mithun; Rajesh, Gururagavendra; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Ashwini

    2016-11-01

    Annona muricata also called as Soursop is a, flowering evergreen tree native to Mexico, Cuba, Central America and parts of India. The miracle tree as it is widely known as a natural cancer killer that is 10,000 times stronger than chemotherapy. Based on these miraculous claims, the leaves of these plants were used as an extract at varying concentrations as an antibacterial agent against oral pathogens. The aim of the study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Soursop leaf extarct ( Annona muricata ) on Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus mitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method. Extracts of Annona muricata leaves of concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared. The anti-microbial efficacy was evaluated using disc diffusion method against Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus mitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans on agar plates. All concentrations of extracts were effective on the microbiota except for the P. Intermedia . The Soursop extract was highly effective on Candida species, with all concentrations exhibiting bactericidal and fungicidal property. The extracts at different concentration were effective when compared to the gold standard controls and the effect was statistically significant (p<0.05). Data obtained was analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test. The Soursop extracts were efficient for all test organisms expect P. intermedia . The present study demonstrated the in-vitro efficacy of Soursop was highest against S. mutans followed by C. albicans and least on P. intermedia . Hence, this study proves to an extent that the Soursop extract when used against oral microbiota has sufficient anti-microbial and fungicidal property.

  20. In Vitro Synergistic Activity of Antimicrobial Agents in Combination against Clinical Isolates of Colistin-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seongman; Kim, Min-Chul; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Hee Sueng; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Yang Soo; Chong, Yong Pil

    2016-11-01

    Emerging resistance to colistin in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates is of growing concern. Since current treatment options for these strains are extremely limited, we investigated the in vitro activities of various antimicrobial combinations against colistin-resistant A. baumannii Nine clinical isolates (8 from bacteremia cases and 1 from a pneumonia case) of colistin-resistant A. baumannii were collected in Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea, between January 2010 and December 2012. To screen for potential synergistic effects, multiple combinations of two antimicrobials among 12 commercially available agents were tested using the multiple-combination bactericidal test (MCBT). Checkerboard tests were performed to validate these results. Among the 9 colistin-resistant strains, 6 were pandrug resistant and 3 were extensively drug resistant. With MCBT, the most effective combinations were colistin-rifampin and colistin-teicoplanin; both combinations showed synergistic effect against 8 of 9 strains. Colistin-aztreonam, colistin-meropenem, and colistin-vancomycin combinations showed synergy against seven strains. Colistin was the most common constituent of antimicrobial combinations that were active against colistin-resistant A. baumannii Checkerboard tests were then conducted in colistin-based combinations. Notably, colistin-rifampin showed synergism against all nine strains (100%). Both colistin-vancomycin and colistin-teicoplanin showed either synergy or partial synergy. Colistin combined with another β-lactam agent (aztreonam, ceftazidime, or meropenem) showed a relatively moderate effect. Colistin combined with ampicillin-sulbactam, tigecycline, amikacin, azithromycin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole demonstrated limited synergism. Using MCBT and checkerboard tests, we found that only colistin-based combinations, particularly those with rifampin, glycopeptides, or β-lactams, may confer therapeutic benefits against colistin-resistant A. baumannii

  1. In vitro evaluation of wound healing and antimicrobial potential of ozone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gabriel Álvares; Elias, Silvia Taveira; da Silva, Sandra Márcia Mazutti; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira; Macedo, Sergio Bruzadelli; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2017-03-01

    Although ozone therapy is extensively applied when wound repair and antimicrobial effect are necessary, little is known about cellular mechanisms regarding this process. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate ozone cytotoxicity in fibroblasts (L929) and keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell lines, its effects on cell migration and its antimicrobial activity. Cells were treated with ozonated phosphate-buffered saline (8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 μg/mL ozone), chlorhexidine 0.2% or buffered-solution, and cell viability was determined through MTT assay. The effect of ozone on cell migration was evaluated through scratch wound healing and transwell migration assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. Ozone showed no cytotoxicity for the cell lines, while chlorhexidine markedly reduced cell viability. Although no significant difference between control and ozone-treated cells was observed in the scratch assay, a considerable increase in fibroblasts migration was noticed on cells treated with 8 μg/mL ozonated solution. Ozone alone did not inhibit growth of microorganisms; however, its association with chlorhexidine resulted in antimicrobial activity. This study confirms the wound healing and antimicrobial potential of ozone therapy and presents the need for studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which it exerts such biological effects. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial and larvicidal properties of wild Ricinus communis L. in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sillma Rampadarath

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Ricinus communis (castor plant extracts possess larvicidal properties providing an effective eco-friendly control for fruit flies. The antimicrobial results justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and the practice of supplementing decoctions/concoctions with conventional antibiotics.

  3. In vitro evaluation of topical biocide and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Becky K; Dew, Walter; Yu, Anthony; Weese, J Scott

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important canine pathogen, and the emergence and widespread dissemination of meticillin-resistant strains (MRSP) is of significant concern. Multidrug-resistant infections may require alternative approaches, such as the use of topical therapy. There is minimal information about the in vitro susceptibility of meticillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) and MRSP to biocides and topical antimicrobials. The hypothesis was that clinical isolates of MSSP and MRSP would not have universal susceptibility to topical biocides and antimicrobials. The goal of this study was to assess the susceptibility of a collection of S. pseudintermedius isolates to selected antimicrobials and biocides. The study was performed on clinical isolates of MSSP and MRSP from dogs with skin and soft tissue infections collected throughout North America between 2006 and 2008. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chlorhexidine digluconate, benzalkonium chloride, triclosan, accelerated hydrogen peroxide, geranium oil, tea tree oil and grapefruit seed extract were tested for 25 MRSP and 25 MSSP isolates from dogs using the agar dilution method. The MICs of fusidic acid, bacitracin and mupirocin were determined using Etests. Triclosan demonstrated excellent activity against all bacterial isolates, with no growth at the lowest concentration evaluated (MIC ≤ 0.5 μg/mL). Conversely, grapefruit seed extract did not inhibit growth at the highest concentration tested (MIC > 3.84 μg/mL). All isolates were susceptible to mupirocin, fusidic acid and bacitracin. There were no significant differences noted in the range, MIC(50) or MIC(90) between MSSP and MRSP isolates. While isolates were susceptible to most of the tested compounds, universal susceptibility to all compounds with potential antimicrobial activity cannot be assumed, and specific testing is required. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Comparison of continuous versus pulsed photodynamic antimicrobial therapy for inhibition of fungal keratitis isolates in vitro (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Nicholas; Durkee, Heather A.; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Arboleda, Alejandro; Relhan, Nidhi; Martinez, Anna; Rowaan, Cornelis; Gonzalez, Alex; Alawa, Karam A.; Amescua, Guillermo; Flynn, Harry W.; Miller, Darlene; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2017-02-01

    Fungal keratitis can lead to pain and impaired vision. Current treatment options include antifungal agents and therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. An emerging option for the management of keratitis is photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PDAT) which uses a photosensitizer rose bengal activated with green light. Utilizing a pulsed irradiation, rather than the standard continuous irradiation may have a similar antimicrobial effect with less total energy. This study is to compare pulsed and continuous rose bengal mediated PDAT for inhibition of six fungal isolates on agar plates: Fusarium solani, Fusarium keratoplasticum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Paecilomyces variotti, and Pseudoallescheria boydii. Isolates were mixed with 0.1% rose bengal and exposed to three irradiation conditions: (1) 30-minute continuous (10.8J/cm2), (2) 15-minute continuous (5.4J/cm2), (3) 30-minute pulsed (5.4J/cm2). Plates were photographed at 72 hours and analyzed with custom software. At 72 hours, 30-minute continuous rose bengal mediated PDAT inhibited all six fungal species. Fungal inhibition was analogous between 30-minute continuous and 30-minute pulsed test groups, with the exception of A. fumigatus. The 15-minute continuous irradiation was less effective when compared to both 30-minute continuous and 30-minute pulsed groups. These in vitro results demonstrate the potential strength of pulsed rose bengal mediated PDAT as an adjunct treatment modality for fungal keratitis.

  5. Improved micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae) and antimicrobial activity of in vitro and ex vitro raised plants against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of urinary tract infecting (UTI) and respiratory tract infecting (RTI) bacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haque, Sk Moquammel; Chakraborty, Avijit; Dey, Diganta; Mukherjee, Swapna; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2017-01-01

    .... Second aim is to evaluate the antimicrobial potency of in vitro cultured and ex vitro field grown micropropagated plants against different MDR clinical isolates of human urinary tract infecting (UTI...

  6. Chitosan nanoparticles enhance the efficiency of methylene blue-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation of bacterial biofilms: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabpour, Esmaeil; Kashef, Nasim; Mashayekhan, Shohreh

    2016-06-01

    Biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) with an intrinsic antimicrobial activity may be a good choice to improve the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CSNPs on the efficiency of methylene blue (MB)-mediated APDI of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We also assessed the phototoxicity of MB+CSNPs towards human fibroblasts. CSNPs were prepared using ionic gelation method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Biofilms were developed in a 96-well polystyrene plate for 24h. In vitro phototoxic effect of MB+CSNPs (at final concentrations of 50μM MB) at fluence of 22.93J/cm(2)) on biofilms were studied. Appropriate controls were included. Also, in vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity of the above mixture was assessed on human dermal fibroblasts. DLS and FESEM measurements confirmed the nanometric size of the prepared CSNPs. APDI mediated by the mixture of MB and CSNPs showed significant anti-biofilm photoinactivation (P3 and >2 log10 CFU reduction in S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms, respectively) while MB-induced APDI led to approximately <1 log10 CFU reduction. At the same experimental conditions, only 25.1% of the fibroblasts were photoinactivated by MB+CSNPs. Our findings showed that CSNPs enhanced the efficacy of MB-APDI; it may be due to the disruption of biofilm structure by polycationic CSNPs and subsequently deeper and higher penetration of MB into the biofilms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Pithecellobium jiringa as antimicrobial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzilawati Abu Bakar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pithecellobium jiringa is Malay traditional local delicacy. There is no local data on antimicrobial nature of P. jiringa is available. The objective of our study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of P. jiringa. Leaves, pods and seeds of P. jiringa were extracted using methanol. Ten test microorganisms were used in the study. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, while the liquid dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. Chloramphenicol was used as a reference standard. The results revealed that all extracts of P. jiringa showed the antimicrobial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. Amongst the active extracts, the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC determination showed that the extract of P. jiringa leaf was the most active against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and M. gypsum (100 mg/mL. The results provided evidence that the studied plants extract might be potential sources of new antimicrobial drug.

  8. Effect of Pithecellobium jiringa as antimicrobial agent

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzilawati Abu Bakar; Imran Ahmad; Shaida Fariza Sulaiman

    2012-01-01

    Pithecellobium jiringa is Malay traditional local delicacy. There is no local data on antimicrobial nature of P. jiringa is available. The objective of our study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of P. jiringa. Leaves, pods and seeds of P. jiringa were extracted using methanol. Ten test microorganisms were used in the study. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, while the liquid dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal in...

  9. In Vitro and In Silico Antidiabetic and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Constituents from Kickxia ramosissima (Nanorrhinum ramosissimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Pieters

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Kickxia ramosissima (Wall. Janch (or Nanorrhinum ramosissimum (Wall. Betsche is a well-known medicinal plant in Pakistan that is traditionally used in diabetic and inflammatory conditions. Because little information is available on its phytochemical composition, a range of constituents were isolated and evaluated in vitro in assays related to the traditional use.Methods: Dried whole plant material was extracted and chromatographically fractionated. Isolated constituents were evaluated in silico and in vitro in assays related to the traditional use against diabetes (inhibition of α-glucosidase activity; inhibition of advanced glycation endproducts and in inflammatory conditions (inhibition of AAPH induced linoleic acid peroxidation, inhibition of 15-LOX, antimicrobial activity.Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extracts and fractions led to isolation of 7 compounds, including the iridoids kickxiasine (being a new compound, mussaenosidic acid, mussaenoside and linarioside; the flavonoids pectolinarigenin and pectolinarin; and 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid methyl ester. The iridoids showed weak antiglycation activity. The flavonoids, however, showed interesting results as pectolinarigenin was highly active compared to pectolinarin. In the α-glucosidase inhibition assay, only weak activity was observed for the iridoids. However, the flavonoid pectolinarigenin showed good activity, followed by pectolinarin. In the 15-LOX experiment, moderate inhibition was recorded for most compounds, the iridoids mussaenosidic acid and mussaenoside being the most active. In the AAPH assay, weak or no inhibition was recorded for all compounds. The in silico assays for the α-glucosidase and 15-LOX assays confirmed the results of respective in vitro assays. Pectolinarigenin showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Plasmodium falciparum K1, and Trypanosoma cruzi, but it was not cytotoxic on a human MRC-5 cell line

  10. Preparation, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Maria Sapateiro Torres

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism with the ability to respond to a wide variety of environmental changes, exhibiting a high intrinsic resistance to a number of antimicrobial agents. This low susceptibility to antimicrobial substances is primarily due to the low permeability of its outer membrane, efflux mechanisms and the synthesis of enzymes that promote the degradation of these drugs. Cephalosporins, particularty ceftazidime and cefepime are effective against P. aeruginosa, however, its increasing resistance has limited the usage of these antibiotics. Encapsulating antimicrobial drugs into unilamellar liposomes is an approach that has been investigated in order to overcome microorganism resistance. In this study, antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa SPM-1 was compared to that of the free drugs. Liposomal characterization included diameter, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined for free and liposomal forms of both drugs. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC was determined at concentrations 1, 2 and 4 times MIC. Average diameter of liposomes was 131.88 nm and encapsulation efficiency for cefepime and ceftazidime were 2.29% end 5.77%, respectively. Improved stability was obtained when liposome formulations were prepared with a 50% molar ratio for cholesterol in relation to the phospholipid. MIC for liposomal antibiotics for both drugs were 50% lower than that of the free drug, demonstrating that liposomal drug delivery systems may contribute to increase the antibacterial activity of these drugs.

  11. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial susceptibility of caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, A; Tatay-Dualde, J; Amores, J; Prats-van der Ham, M; Sánchez, A; de la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C; Gómez-Martín, Á

    2016-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC) of 17 antimicrobials against 41 Spanish caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) obtained from different specimens (milk, external auricular canal and semen) were determined using a liquid microdilution method. For half of the isolates, the MIC was also estimated for seven of the antimicrobials using an epsilometric test (ET), in order to compare both methods and assess the validity of ET. Mutations in genes gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE conferring fluoroquinolone resistance, which have been recently described in Mmc, were investigated using PCR. The anatomical origin of the isolate had no effect on its antimicrobial susceptibility. Moxifloxacin and doxycycline had the lowest MIC values. The rest of the fluoroquinolones studied (except norfloxacin), together with tylosin and clindamycin, also had low MIC values, although the MMC obtained for clindamycin was higher than for the other antimicrobials. For all the aminoglycosides, spiramycin and erythromycin, a notable level of resistance was observed. The ET was in close agreement with broth microdilution at low MICs, but not at intermediate or high MICs. The analysis of the genomic sequences revealed the presence of an amino acid substitution in codon 83 of the gene gyrA, which has not been described previously in Mmc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Cytoprotective, and Antimicrobial Properties of Essential Oil from Pistacia vera L. Variety Bronte Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Smeriglio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the chemical composition and biological properties of some species of the genus Pistacia has been investigated, studies on hull essential oil of Pistacia vera L. variety Bronte (HEO are currently lacking. In this work, we have carried out an in-depth phytochemical profile elucidation by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis, and an evaluation of antioxidant scavenging properties of HEO, using several different in vitro methods, checking also its cytoprotective potential on lymphocytes treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, both American Type Culture Collection (ATCC and clinical isolates, was also investigated. GC-MS analysis highlighted the richness of this complex matrix, with the identification of 40 derivatives. The major components identified were 4-Carene (31.743%, α-Pinene (23.584%, d-Limonene (8.002%, and 3-Carene (7.731%. The HEO showed a strong iron chelating activity and was found to be markedly active against hydroxyl radical, while scarce effects were found against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. Moreover, pre-treatment with HEO was observed to significantly increase the cell viability, decreasing the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release. HEO was bactericidal against all the tested strains at the concentration of 7.11 mg/mL, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The obtained results demonstrate the strong free-radical scavenging activity of HEO along with remarkable cytoprotective and antimicrobial properties.

  13. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of covalently coupled quaternary ammonium silane coatings on silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottenbos, B; van der Mei, HC; Klatter, F; Nieuwenhuis, P; Busscher, HJ

    Biomaterial-centered infection is a dreaded complication associated with the use of biomedical implants. In this paper, the antimicrobial activity of silicone rubber with a covalently coupled 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride (QAS) coating was studied in vitro and in vivo.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated compound from Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bhat, Tahir Ahmad; Singh, Rattan Deep

    2017-07-01

    The study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of extracts and isolated compound of Dalbergia stipulacea. Combined extracts (chloroform and methanol) of plant leaves fractionated with n-butanol loaded with column afforded a flavonoid glycoside compound identified as luteolin 4'-rutinoside. Different extracts and isolated compound exhibited pronounced antibacterial and antifungal varied activities against four bacteria (Clostridium acetobutylinium, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans, and Pseudomonas sp.) and one fungus (Candida albicans) susceptibility were determined using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts and isolated compounds was determined by broth dilution method. The maximum activity was shown by chloroform extract against C. albicans with a zone of inhibition of 17 mm and minimum activity was displayed by methanolic extract against Pseudomonas sp. with 5 mm. However, isolated compound has shown maximum activity against Pseudomonas sp. with 15 mm. The MIC values higher in methanol extract against Pseudomonas sp. and isolated compound shows good against Pseudomonas sp. and B. subtilis. Our findings indicate that plant could be used as a good antimicrobial agent in food, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide industries.

  15. Phytochemical and in vitro antimicrobial assay of the leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, H; Osuji, J C

    2007-06-10

    The methanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and in-vitro antimicrobial tests. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, steroidal and cardiac glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was assayed by the agar plate disc diffusion and nutrient broth dilution techniques. Test microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp. and Candida albicans; all the organisms were laboratory isolates. The extract inhibited the growth of all the test organisms especially against Klebsiella spp. and S. aureus which had mean inhibition zone of 42.3+/-1.5 and 32.3+/-1.5 mm respectively. The results showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.563 mg/ml against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. and 3.125 mg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was 0.39 mg/ml. This study has justified the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of stomach discomfort, diarrhea, dysentery and as a remedy for wound healing whose causative agents are some of the organisms used in this study.

  16. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Morgana Eli; Gomes, Brenda P F A; Berber, Vanessa Bellocchio; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 0.2%, 1%, and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX gel and CHX liquid), against endodontic pathogens and compare the results with the ones achieved by 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 4%, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). A broth dilution test was performed, and the timing for irrigants to kill microbial cells was recorded and statistically analyzed. Both 2.0% gel and liquid formulations eliminated Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans in 15 seconds, whereas the gel formulation killed Enterococcus faecalis in 1 minute. All tested irrigants eliminated Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia in 15 seconds. The timing required for 1.0% and 2.0% CHX liquid to eliminate all microorganisms was the same required for 5.25% NaOCl. The antimicrobial action is related to type, concentration, and presentation form of the irrigants as well as the microbial susceptibility.

  17. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of coumarin derivatives metal complexes: An in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik B Vyas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of 3-[ {-(3’,4’-di methoxy phenyl }-prop-2-enoyl]-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-chromene-2-one with Cu(II, Ni(II, Fe(II, Co(II and Mn(II have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, IR spectra and conductivity measurements. These studies revealed that they are having octahedral geometry of the type [ML2(H2O2]. In vitro antimicrobial activity of all synthesized compounds and standard drugs have been evaluated against four strains of bacterial culture and one fungus, which includes two gram +ve bacterial culture and two gram -ve bacterial culture. The compounds show net enhancement in activity on coordination of metals with ligand but moderate activity as compared to standard drugs.

  18. In vitro antimicrobial activity of an experimental dentifrice based on Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Pinheiro, Juliana Barchelli; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Watanabe, Evandro; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Lovato-Silva, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a Ricinus communis-based experimental dentifrice for denture hygiene against the following standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was performed with R. communis in pure oil at 2.5%. Only E. coli was not inhibited by R. communis, but the MIC (0.0781%) was effective against the other microorganisms. From these results it was determined the R. communis concentrations for experimental dentifrices, 1, 2, 5 and 10%, which were evaluated by the test-well diffusion in agar. The commercial dentifrices Colgate, Trihydral and Corega Brite were tested for comparative purposes. The diameter of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm) with a rule under reflected light. Data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05). Neither the commercial nor the experimental dentifrices were effective against E. coli. The experimental dentifrices containing R. communis at 2, 5 and 10% presented action against S. mutans, S. aureaus and E. faecallis. The experimental dentifrices showed no antimicrobial activity against Candida spp. and E. coli in any of the tested concentrations. Trihydral was the most effective. Comparing the experimental dentifrices, the product with 10% R. communis produced the largest zones of bacterial growth inhibition and had similar antimicrobial activity to the commercial dentifrices, except against S. aureus.

  19. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown.

  20. Effectiveness of different antimicrobial agents in disinfection of guttapercha cones

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos-Meléndez, Alexander; Escuela de Pregrado de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Ramos-Perfecto, Donald; Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents in disinfection of gutta-percha, was the aim of the study. Methodology: 40 cones were cultivated in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) culture medium at 37 ° C for 24 hours to see if there was bacterial growth. These same cones were divided into five groups to be introduced in the antimicrobial solutions: 2% chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide 3% sodium hypochlorite 2.5% ethyl alcohol 70% and 10% povidone iodine for a time immersi...

  1. Antimicrobial and modulation effects of selected Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The alarming rise in the incidences of multidrug-resistant microorganisms and the decline innew antibiotic discovery make the search for new antimicrobial agents or efforts at restoring the activity of older antibiotics to which the microbes have developed resistance very necessary. The aim of the present study is to ...

  2. Antimicrobial Effects of Trachyspermum ammi and Cymbopogon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of semisolid formulations of Trachyspermum ammi and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against five common strains of pathogenic fungi was carried out using the agar well diffusion method. The results indicated that 1 % v/w of T. ammi and C. citratus oils prepared in some bases ...

  3. In Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial extracts against the atypical ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjoon Amanda V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial plant extracts are currently unknown. Methods Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Results Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. Conclusions The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species.

  4. Determination of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial Activity on Salivary Streptococci and Lactobacilli and Chemical Characterisation of the Phenolic Content of a Plantago lanceolata Infusion

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    Gianmaria Fabrizio Ferrazzano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plant extracts may be suitable alternative treatments for caries. Aims. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Plantago lanceolata herbal tea (from flowers and leaves on cariogenic bacteria and to identify the major constituents of P. lanceolata plant. Materials and Methods. The MIC and MBC against cariogenic bacteria were determined for P. lanceolata tea. Subsequently, a controlled random clinical study was conducted. Group A was instructed to rinse with a P. lanceolata mouth rinse, and Group B received a placebo mouth rinse for seven days. The salivary colonisation by streptococci and lactobacilli was investigated prior to treatment and on the fourth and seventh days. Finally, the P. lanceolata tea was analysed for its polyphenolic content, and major phenolics were identified. Results and Discussion. P. lanceolata teas demonstrate good in vitro antimicrobial activity. The in vivo test showed that Group A subjects presented a significant decrease in streptococci compared to Group B. The phytochemical analysis revealed that flavonoids, coumarins, lipids, cinnamic acids, lignans, and phenolic compounds are present in P. lanceolata infusions. Conclusions. P. lanceolata extract could represent a natural anticariogenic agent via an antimicrobial effect and might be useful as an ancillary measure to control the proliferation of cariogenic flora.

  5. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Joseph W; Clegg, Simon R; Sullivan, Leigh E; Duncan, Jennifer S; Grove-White, Dai H; Carter, Stuart D; Evans, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the treponemes cultured from CODD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro the miniumum inhibitory concentration/ minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) of antimicrobials used in the sheep industry for isolates of the three CODD associated treponeme phylogroups T. medium/T. vincentii-like, T. phagedenis-like and T. pedis. Twenty treponeme isolates; from 19 sheep with clinical CODD lesions. A microdilution method was used to determine in vitro the MIC/MBC of 10 antimicrobial agents for 20 treponeme isolates (five T. medium/T. vincentii-like, 10 T. phagedenis-like and five T. pedis). The antimicrobials tested were penicillin G, amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, tylosin, tildipirosin, tulathromycin and gamithromycin. The treponeme isolates tested showed low MICs and MBCs to all 10 antimicrobials tested. They were most susceptible to gamithromycin and tildipirosin (MIC90: 0.0469 mg/L), and were least susceptible to lincomycin, spectinomycin and oxytetracycline (MIC90: 48 mg/L, 24 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively). These data are comparable to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data for treponemes cultured from bovine digital dermatitis lesions. Dependent on local licensing, penicillin and tilmicosin appear to be the best candidates for future in vivo studies. © 2015 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Mehmet; Ergene, Emel; Unlu, Gulhan Vardar; Zeytinoglu, Hulya Sivas; Vural, Nilufer

    2010-11-01

    The essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Nine constituents representing 99.24% of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The major compounds in the oil were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (68.95%), benzaldehyde (9.94%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (7.44%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against 21 bacteria and 4 Candida species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on ras active (5RP7) and normal (F2408) fibroblasts were examined by MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC(50) values less than 20 μg/mL for both cell lines. 5RP7 cells were affected stronger than normal cells. Morphological observation of apoptotic cells indicated the induction of apoptosis at the high level of the oil, especially in 5RP7 cells. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of cinnamon bark, indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections and neoplasms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. GC/MS profiling, in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of Smilax macrophylla leaves

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    Muhammad Zubair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study has been designed to appraise the antioxidant, antimicrobial and haemolytic potential of Smilax macrophylla leaves. The n-hexane fraction was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer which revealed the presence of 38 compounds. All examined extracts and fractions of plant leaves showed significant antimicrobial activity. The haemolytic effect of the plant was found to be in a range of 3.41–8.48%. S. macrophylla leaves contained substantial level of total phenolic contents (2.2–6.2 Gallic acid equivalent mg/g and total flavonoid contents (1.2–4.5 Catechin, mg/g of dry plant matter. Leaf extract and fractions also exhibited a good antioxidant potential when measured by DPPH radical scavenging assay (Inhibitory concentration 50% = 33.4–72.3 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of plant extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. Significant (p < 0.05 variations were observed in the results. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaf extracts and fractions, exhibit considerable total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and scavenging power, along with more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. Considering these results, S. macrophylla could be used as a source for the exploration of new antimicrobial, antioxidant agents, functional food and nutraceutical applications.

  8. [Antimicrobial spectrum of dalbavancin. Mechanism of action and in vitro activity against Gram-positive microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercenado, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Because of the increase in bacterial resistance, there is a need for new antimicrobial agents. Dalbavancin is a semisynthetic glycopeptide that inhibits the late stages of bacterial cell wall synthesis in the same way as vancomycin, but in addition, its lipophilic side chain anchors dalbavancin to the cellular membrane and allows enhanced activity compared with that of vancomycin. Dalbavancin possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, being 4-8 times more potent than vancomycin. The spectrum of dalbavancin includes staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, and anaerobic Gram-positive cocci and bacilli. It is active against different species of multiresistant microorganisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant viridans streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although it shows in vitro activity against Enterococcus spp., it is inactive against isolates expressing the VanA phenotype of vancomycin resistance. It also shows slow bactericidal activity against S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus pyogenes. In general, the MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration 90%) against the majority of the microorganisms is 0.06mg/L and, more than 98% of the isolates that have been tested are inhibited at concentrations of ≤ 0.12mg/L. Dalbavancin is an interesting addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms, including multidrug-resistant isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with fulleropyrrolidine: photoinactivation mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinholc, Mariusz; Nakonieczna, Joanna; Fila, Grzegorz; Taraszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kawiak, Anna; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Sarna, Tadeusz; Lilge, Lothar; Bielawski, Krzysztof P

    2015-05-01

    A family of N-methylpyrrolidinium fullerene iodide salts has been intensively studied to determine their applicability in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). This study examined in vitro the efficacy of a C60 fullerene functionalized with one methylpyrrolidinium group to kill upon irradiation with white light gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as fungal cells, and the corresponding mechanism of the fullerene bactericidal action. The in vitro studies revealed that the high antistaphylococcal efficacy of functionalized fullerene could be linked to their ability to photogenerate singlet oxygen and superoxide anion. Following Staphylococcus aureus photoinactivation, no modifications of its genomic DNA were detected. In contrast, photodamage of the cell envelope seemed to be a dominant mechanism of bactericidal action. In in vivo studies, a 2 log10 reduction in the average bioluminescent radiance between treated and non-treated mice was reached. One day post APDT treatment, moist and abundant growth of bacteria could be observed on wounds of non-fulleropyrrolidine and dark control mice. APDT-treated wounds stayed visibly clear up to the third day. Moreover, cytotoxicity test on human dermal keratinocytes revealed great safety of using the sensitizer toward eukaryotic cells. These data indicate potential application of functionalized fullerene as antistaphylococcal sensitizer for superficial infections.

  10. Standardised in vitro susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi against well-known and newly developed antimicrobial agents--possible implications for new therapeutic approaches to Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter; Kraiczy, Peter; Kekoukh, Elena; Schäfer, Volker; Brade, Volker

    2002-06-01

    Lyme disease represents a disorder of potentially chronic proportions, and relatively little is known about the in vivo pharmacodynamic interactions of antimicrobial agents with borreliae. So far, evidence-based drug regimens for the effective treatment of Lyme disease have not been definitively established. Moreover, therapeutic failures have been reported for almost every suitable antimicrobial agent currently available. Resistance to treatment and a protracted course of the disease, therefore, continue to pose problems for clinicians in the management of patients suffering from chronic Lyme disease. Further characterisation of the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and a better understanding of the interactions of B. burgdorferi with antimicrobial agents are urgently needed and continue to be crucial owing to considerable differences in the experimental conditions and test methods applied. The development of easily performed, new techniques for the sensitivity testing of B. burgdorferi provides the opportunity to study factors affecting the bacteriostatic and bactericidal action of recently introduced chemotherapeutic agents under more standardised conditions. For the first time, these studies provide direct evidence that, in addition to beta-lactams, macrolides, and tetracyclines which are recommended for stage-dependent treatment of Lyme borreliosis, other recently introduced substances, such as fluoroquinolones, everninomycins, and the ketolide family of antimicrobial agents, also show enhanced in vitro activity against borreliae. Some of these compounds, if effective in vivo as well, may prove to be useful agents in the treatment of certain manifestations of Lyme disease. As such, their potential role should be evaluated further by in vivo experiments and clinical trials. Finally, these antimicrobial agents may turn out to be very effective therapeutic alternatives on account of their oral availability, favourable pharmacodynamic profiles, and high tissue

  11. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from clinical cases of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in Dorper sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kidanemariam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activities of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were determined against field isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC by means of the broth microdilution technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these antimicrobial drugs were determined for a representative number of 10 isolates and 1 type strain. The susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by means of an agar disk diffusion test. The MICs of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were within the ranges of 0.125-0.5, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 and 4.0-8.0 µg / m , respectively. This study has shown that resistance of MmmLC against enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin was negligible. All the field strains of A. pyogenes that were tested were susceptible to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin with mean inhibition zones of 30.6, 42.3 and 35.8mm, respectively. Although there is lack of data on in vivo efficacy and in vitro MIC or inhibition zone diameter breakpoints of these antimicrobial drugs for MmmLC, the MIC results indicate that these 4 classes of antimicrobial drugs should be effective in the treatment of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep in South Africa.

  12. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of propolis on the microbiota from gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Rovná, Katarína; Arpášová, Henrieta; Cuboň, Juraj; Hleba, Lukáš; Pochop, Jaroslav; Kunová, Simona; Haščík, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of propolis extracts on the microbial colonization of chicken gastrointestinal tract in vivo. The propolis was administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts except of the control group. The addition of 150 mg propolis to 1 kg of feed was included in the first experimental group, the addition of 450 mg.kg(-1) in the second experimental group, the addition of 600 mg.kg(-1) the third experimental group and 800 mg kg(-1) in the fourth one. The highest count of faecal enterococci was found in the third group (8.6 cfu.g(-1)) where 600 mg of propolis to 1 kg was added to the feed mixture. The highest count of lactobacilli was detected in the fourth experimental group (8.83 cfu.g(-1)) where was 800 mg of propolis added to 1 kg of feed mixture and number of Enterobacteriaceae genera count was found in control group (8.73 cfu.g(-1)). With RTQ PCR detected species from the genus Enterococcus were: E. avium, E. casseliflavus, E cecorum, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. gallinarum, E. hirae and E. malodoratus and from genus Lactobacillus were: Lactobacillus crispatus, L. acidophilus and L. salivarius. With MALDI TOF MS Biotyper from Enterobacteriaceae genera were identified Citrobacter braakii, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia fonticola, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Antimicrobial activities In vitro of six species of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract of chickens were also tested. The best antimicrobial effect of Citrobacter braakii on ethanolic propolis extract in all concentrations were found.

  13. Biomimetic synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles using in vitro-propagated plantlets of a medicinally important endangered species: Phlomis bracteosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Sumaira; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2016-01-01

    In vitro-derived cultures of plants offer a great potential for rapid biosynthesis of chemical-free antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by enhancing their phytochemical reducing potential. Here, we developed an efficient protocol for in vitro micropropagation of a high-value endangered medicinal plant species, Phlomis bracteosa, in order to explore its biogenic potential in biomimetic synthesis of antimicrobial AgNPs. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L thidiazuron was found to be more efficient in inducing optimum in vitro shoot regeneration (78%±4.09%), and 2.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid was used for maximum root induction (86%±4.457%). Antimicrobial AgNPs were successfully synthesized by using aqueous extract (rich in total phenolics and flavonoids content) of in vitro derived plantlets of P. bracteosa. Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy of synthesized AgNPs showed characteristic surface plasmon band in the range of 420–429 nm. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Face-centered cubic AgNPs of almost uniform spherical size (22.41 nm) were synthesized within a short time (1 hour) at room temperature. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the polyphenols were mainly responsible for reduction and capping of synthesized AgNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further endorsed the presence of elemental silver in synthesized AgNPs. These biosynthesized AgNPs displayed significantly higher bactericidal activity against multiple drug-resistant human pathogens. The present work highlighted the potent role of in vitro-derived plantlets of P. bracteosa for feasible biosynthesis of antimicrobial AgNPs, which can be used as nanomedicines in many biomedical applications. PMID:27217745

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of hetero- and homodimers of ribosome-targeting antibiotics: antimicrobial activity, in vitro inhibition of translation, and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkov-Zrihen, Yifat; Green, Keith D; Labby, Kristin J; Feldman, Mark; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Fridman, Micha

    2013-07-11

    In this study, we describe the synthesis of a full set of homo- and heterodimers of three intact structures of different ribosome-targeting antibiotics: tobramycin, clindamycin, and chloramphenicol. Several aspects of the biological activity of the dimeric structures were evaluated including antimicrobial activity, inhibition of in vitro bacterial protein translation, and the effect of dimerization on the action of several bacterial resistance mechanisms that deactivate tobramycin and chloramphenicol. This study demonstrates that covalently linking two identical or different ribosome-targeting antibiotics may lead to (i) a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity, (ii) improved inhibition of bacterial translation properties compared to that of the parent antibiotics, and (iii) reduction in the efficacy of some drug-modifying enzymes that confer high levels of resistance to the parent antibiotics from which the dimers were derived.

  15. Efficacy of natural antimicrobials in toothpaste formulations against oral biofilms in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, M.J.; Busscher, H.J.; Jager, D.; Slomp, A.M.; Abbas, F.; Mei, H.C. van der

    Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacies of two toothpaste formulations containing natural antimicrobials (herbal extracts and chitosan) against oral biofilms of different composition and maturational status. Methods: Bacteria from a buffer suspension or fresh saliva were adhered for 2 h

  16. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strains isolated in Japan from 1985 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Tatsuo; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2010-12-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 72 Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates collected from clinical cases of swine dysentery (SD) in 11 prefectures in Japan between 1985 and 2009 were investigated by an agar dilution method using five antimicrobial agents. There is a tendency of Japanese field isolates of B. hyodysenteriae to acquire resistance to the main antimicrobials used in SD treatment such as tiamulin, valnemulin, and efrotomycin. A responsible approach for selection and use of antimicrobial agents is required for SD treatment.

  17. Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemet Nevena T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

  18. Benzylidene/2-aminobenzylidene hydrazides: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manav Malhotra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study a series of new mannich bases were synthesized and characterized by elemental and spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR studies. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity by broth dilution method against two Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and fungal strain (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation revealed that the compounds (3f, 3i, 3j, and 3k showed good activity against these strains. The result demonstrates the potential and importance of developing new mannich bases which would be effective against resistant bacterial and fungal strain.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of Cladonia substellata Vainio and usnic acid against Staphylococcus spp. obtained from cats and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusciêne B. Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cladonia substellata Vainio is a lichen found in different regions of the world, including the Northeast of Brazil. It contains several secondary metabolites with biological activity, including usnic acid, which has exhibited a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of C. substellata and purified usnic acid. Initially, Staphylococcus spp., derived from samples of skin and ears of dogs and cats with suspected pyoderma and otitis, were isolated and analyzed. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing against Staphylococcus spp., 77% (105/136 of the isolates were resistant to the antimicrobials tested. In the assessment of biofilm production, 83% (113/136 were classified as producing biofilm. In genetic characterization, 32% (44/136 were positive for blaZ, no isolate (0/136 was positive for the mecA gene, and 2% (3/136 were positive for the icaD gene. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of C. substellata and purified usnic acid against Staphylococcus spp. ranged from 0.25mg/mL to 0.0019mg/mL, inhibiting bacterial growth at low concentrations. The substances were more effective against biofilm-producing bacteria (0.65mg/mL-0.42mg/mL when compared to non-biofilm producing bacteria (2.52mg/mL-2.71mg/mL. Usnic acid and the organic extract of C. substellata can be effective in the treatment of pyoderma and otitis in dogs and cats caused by Staphylococcus spp.

  20. Synthesis and antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S kheybari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study:The most prominent nanoparticles for medical uses are nanosilver particles which are famous for their high anti-microbial activity. Silver ion has been known as a metal ion that exhibit anti-mold, anti-microbial and anti-algal properties for a long time. In particular, it is widely used as silver nitrate aqueous solution which has disinfecting and sterilizing actions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity as well as physical properties of the silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction method. "nMethods:Silver nanoparticles (NPs were prepared by reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a reducing agent and also poly [N-vinylpyrolidone] (PVP as a stabilizer. Two kinds of NPs were synthesized by ethylene glycol (EG and glucose as reducing agent. The nanostructure and particle size of silver NPs were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and laser particle analyzer (LPA. The formations of the silver NPs were monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The anti-bacterial activity of silver NPs were assessed by determination of their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC against the Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. "nResults and Conclusion:The silver nanoparticles were spherical with particle size between 10 to 250 nm. Analysis of the theoretical (Mie light scattering theory and experimental results showed that the silver NPs in colloidal solution had a diameter of approximately 50 nm. "nBoth colloidal silver NPs showed high anti-bacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Glucose nanosilver colloids showed a shorter killing time against most of the tested bacteria which could be due to their nanostructures and uniform size distribution patterns.

  1. Bifunctional ethyl 2-amino-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylate derivatives: synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation as antimicrobial and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostom, Sherif A F; Faidallah, Hassan M; Radwan, Mohammed F; Badr, Mona H

    2014-04-09

    Thirty thiazole compounds bearing chemotherapeutically-active pharmacophores were synthesized and evaluated for their preliminary in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Nineteen compounds displayed obvious antibacterial potential, with special bactericidal activity against Gram positive bacteria, whereas, nine analogs showed moderate to weak antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The analog 12f proved to be the most active antimicrobial member identified in this study being comparable to ampicillin and gentamicin sulfate against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, together with a moderate antifungal activity. Additionally, nine derivatives were tested for their preliminary in vitro anticancer activity according to the current one-dose protocol of the NCI. Compound 9b revealed a broad spectrum of anticancer activity against 29 out of the tested 60 subpanel tumor cell lines. Collectively, compounds 4, 9b, 10b and 12f could be considered as promising dual anticancer antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative Analyses of the Antimicrobial Effect of Ozonated Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ozone is an unstable gas, capable of oxidizing any biological entity. It is an effective bactericide in its gaseous as well as aqueous form. Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the in‑situ antimicrobial effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated water on plaque and salivary microorganisms. Subjects and Methods: 24 ...

  3. Nanoemulsions: Preparation, Structure, Functional Properties and their Antimicrobial Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Shams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Recently, due to the interest of healthy lifestyle demand for research on novel methods of increasing the shelf-life of food products without the necessity of using preservatives has extended rapidly in the world. Ability of nanoemulsions to improve global food quality has attracted great attention in food preservation. This is as a result of a number ofattributes peculiar to nanoemulsions such as optical clarity, ease ofpreparation, thermodynamic stability and increased surface area. This review discusses the potential food applications of nanoemulsions as vehicles for the delivery of antimicrobial compounds. Moreover, the preparation, structure, and functional properties of nanoemulsions and their antimicrobial effects on foodborne pathogens and biofilms will be reviewed in detail. Antimicrobial nanoemulsions are formulated from the antimicrobial compounds that are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for use in foods.Results and Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of nanoemulsions is nonspecific, unlike that of antibiotics, thus they have a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus, enveloped viruses (e.g., HIV, and herpes simplex, fungi (e.g., Candida, Dermatophytes, and spores (e.g., anthrax at concentrations that are nontoxic in animals (while limiting the capacity for the generation of resistance and kill pathogens by interacting with their membranes. This physical kill-on-contact mechanism significantly reduces the possibility of the emergence of resistant strains. In general, more research is needed to improve the application processes of antimicrobial nanoemulsion, especially sensory aspects, to be appropriate for each product.Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  4. In-vitro assessment of antimicrobial properties and lymphocytotoxicity assay of benzoisochromanequinones polyketide from Streptomyces sp JRG-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Ganesan; Kamaraj, Raju; Balakrishnan, Karuppiah; Santhi, Velayudhan Satheeja; Jebakumar, Solomon Robinson David

    2017-09-01

    The chromanequinone (BIQ) compound produced by the mangrove estuary derived strain, Streptomyces sp. JRG-04 was effective even at low MIC level concentration against Methicillin resistant S. aureus and other clinical pathogens. In this study, we have investigated the antimicrobial potential of chromanequinone compound by using various microscopy and imaging techniques. The flow cytometry (FACS) analysis suggested the BIQ aromatic polyketide compound produced by the Streptomyces sp. JRG-04 has toxic effect on MRSA cell membrane by increased up take of propidium iodide dye. The bacterial imaging analysis by high content screening experiment (HCS) revealed the increased number of dead MRSA cells than the live MRSA populations with chromanequinone treatment. Furthermore, atomic force microscopic study proved the MRSA cell surface ultra-structure changes when the cells exposed to chromanequinone compound at 3 h and 6 h. Further, in-vitro lymphocytotoxicity effect of chromanequinone compound at different concentrations with the combination of complement was performed on human lymphocytes by cell lysis assay. Interestingly, we have found that the higher concentration of BIQ chromanequinone (10 mg/mL) compound without complement induced apoptosis of human lymphocytes. The present investigation reveals that the toxic potential of chromanequinone on human lymphocytes might be associated with the complement dependent. This study strongly suggests that the chromanequinone compound produced by the Streptomyces strain with bioactive property can be developed as a therapeutic leads for various pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The antimicrobial activity of the three commercially available intense sweeteners against common periodontal pathogens: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashant, G M; Patil, Ravi B; Nagaraj, Tejavathi; Patel, Vinit B

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of three commercially available intense sweeteners against two common periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Three commercially available intense sweeteners namely saccharin, aspartame and sucralose were obtained and powdered. Necessary concentrations of the sweeteners were prepared by mixing them with an inert solvent. The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed using agar well diffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. p-value sweeteners showed significant antimicrobial activity against the periodontal pathogens tested. Sucralose containing sucralose showed maximum zone of inhibition, against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Saccharin and aspartame containing saccharin and aspartame respectively, showed maximum zone of inhibition, against Porphyromonas gingivalis. All the sweeteners used in this study have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity. Therefore, these sweeteners could be recommended as an ideal alternative to sucrose. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are ubiquitous diseases of mankind caused by microorganisms. Dental caries is caused by sucrose. By altering the source like intense sweetener we can combat caries as well as with its antimicrobial properties against periodontopathic bacteria, we can reduce prevalence of periodontal diseases.

  6. Safe and Effective Ag Nanoparticles Immobilized Antimicrobial NanoNonwovens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Jie; Chen, Menglin; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with large surface-to-volume ratio have been widely studied as a valuable material for their strong antimicrobial effect. However, the practical applications of AgNPs in health care and water purification are often hampered by the concern of their toxicity and possibi......Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with large surface-to-volume ratio have been widely studied as a valuable material for their strong antimicrobial effect. However, the practical applications of AgNPs in health care and water purification are often hampered by the concern of their toxicity...... was thus employed to degrade the polymer coating without loosening the AgNPs, resulting in an active antimicrobial nonwoven against Gram-positive Staphylococcus xylosus. The mechanism based on cellular uptake of silver ions via close contact to the surface of AgNPs is proposed. The novel nanononwoven...

  7. In Vitro Synergistic Activity of Antimicrobial Agents in Combination against Clinical Isolates of Colistin-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Seongman; Kim, Min-Chul; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Hee Sueng; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Yang Soo; Chong, Yong Pil

    2016-01-01

    Emerging resistance to colistin in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates is of growing concern. Since current treatment options for these strains are extremely limited, we investigated the in vitro activities of various antimicrobial combinations against colistin-resistant A. baumannii. Nine clinical isolates (8 from bacteremia cases and 1 from a pneumonia case) of colistin-resistant A. baumannii were collected in Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea, between January 2010 and December ...

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of total extracts of the leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. (Anamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Ochoa Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of 13 total extracts was evaluated, 10 soft extracts (B and 3 blended extracts (E prepared from dry and fresh leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. Various solvents were used for their preparation: hydroalcoholic solution at 30%, 80% and isopropyl alcohol. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was tested by means of the method of Kirby-Bauer, using four bacterial strains from the ATCC collection (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a leveduriform fungus (Candida albicans. The following quality control parameters were determined for most active extracts: physical, physical-chemical and chemical parameters. The results were: nine extracts showed antibacterial activity, being the most concentrated (B8 and E3, the ones with the highest activity in the presence of the bacteria tested; the effect of blended extracts (E1, E2 and E3 was greater in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Blended extracts are considered more potent and active than soft extracts. No antifungal activity was obtained for both types of extracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined for both extracts, with the following results: MIC-soft extracts (>100 mg/mL, blended extracts (>50 mg/mL; MBC-soft extracts (≥400 mg/mL, blended extracts (≥200 mg/mL based on fresh leaves.

  9. Evaluation of Emdogain® antimicrobial effectiveness against biofilms containing the keystone pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Jérôme; Toma, Selena; Dos Santos-Gonçalvez, Ana-Maria; Leprince, Julian; Leloup, Gaëtane; Brecx, Michel

    2018-01-09

    This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Emdogain® (EMD) against biofilms containing the periopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. A brain-Heart infusion broth inoculated with S. gordonii and P. gingivalis was perfused (7-d, anaerobiosis) through a closed circuit containing two Robbins devices as to form biofilms. The latter were then treated for 2 min with various antimicrobials (Chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.2%, Povidone iodine (PVI) 5%, PVI 10%, essential oils (EO), EO Zero™ or EMD)(n=8) and cell densities were calculated and compared. In the present in vitro model, Emdogain® was not statistically effective (p>0.05) in killing biofilm bacteria unlike the other tested molecules.

  10. The in vitro antimicrobial capacity of human colostrum against Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, K H; Poulsen, C E; Motiu, P P

    1998-07-01

    We sought to assess the antimicrobial capacity of human colostrum against Chlamydia trachomatis. a common agent of ophthalmia neonatorum. Colostrum was collected from 13 post-partum females and tested in an in vitro assay of chlamydial growth inhibition using HeLa 229 cells as the host cell line. All samples significantly inhibited chlamydial growth in a dose-response manner. The percent inhibition ranged from 45.3 to 99.0 (mean=88.1+/-4.1). The chlamydial growth inhibition activity of colostrum was found to be: heat- and freezing-resistant: more concentrated in colostrum than breast milk; was not attributable to interferon or antibody activity; and, could not be attributed to host cell cytotoxicity. Additionally, chlamydial growth inhibition occurred in colostrum was incubated with chlamydiae prior to addition to HeLa 229 monolayers. Lastly, centrifugal fractionation of the colostrum yielded similar activity in the lipid pellicle and in the lipid-free supernatant. These results indicate that topically applied colostrum may have efficacy in the prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum of chlamydial etiology in the absence of conventional modalities.

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial study in in vitro application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potency of ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae and to explore a scientific data as this plant was randomly use in traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems, etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out by using disc diffusion, micro broth dilution and serial dilution techniques against clinically important life threatening organisms. Results: All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity over the bacteria and fungus comparable to the standard drug tetracycline and fluconazole. The maximum average diameter zone of inhibition was recorded to bacterial strains against Bacillus megaterium, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae and to fungi against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of ethanol leaf extract were determined 64 µg/mL to Bacillus megaterium, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae; 128 µg/mL to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus-β–haemolyticus and Escherichia coli. Conclusions: The findings evidently appear promising antibacterial and antifungal properties of Clerodendrum infortunatum against antagonistic pathogens. Leaf possesses quite potent activity than root and stem specially leaf extract>root extract>stem extract. This study serves as basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  12. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  13. Antimicrobial Effects of Several Essential Oil from Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia TUŢULESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs have been long recognized for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. The present research aimed to study the antimicrobial effects of some volatile oils from aromatic plants (sweet basil and dill against several microorganisms, namely Bacillus subtilis, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum. The oils have been extracted through distillation procedures and the antimicrobial action of the oils was assessed through the disc diffusion method. The best effect against the Bacillus subtilis strain has occurred when the essential oil of dill was undiluted. Regarding the the Alternaria species, it was noted that dill volatile oil has acted in an efficient way only undiluted. As the oil's concentration decreased, the strain becomed resistant. The sweet basil oil has proven to be highly effective when acting against the Bacillus strain. By volatilization, the sweet basil oil produced a strong antimicrobial effect, even in control disc, in which it was noticed a small development of colonies comparing with the dill oil. The results indicated that the sweet basil essential oil exerted an antimicrobial effect both against the tested bacteria and moulds, while the dill oil had a great inhibitory action on Bacillus subtilis and Alternaria alternata, but was less efficient against Penicillium expansum.

  14. "In vitro" comparative experimental study of antimicrobial action of mouth washing products

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Martínez, Lidia; Escribano Patón, César; Veiga Crespo, Patricia; Tomás G. Villa; Vinuesa Aumedes, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Regular use of mouth rinses modifies the oral habitat, since bacterial populations are submitted to a high selective pressure during the treatment exercised by the active presence of the disinfectant. Mostly mouth rinses are based on the antibacterial effect of Chlorhexidine, Triclosan, essential oils and other antibacterials although other pharmaceutical characteristics can also affect their effectiveness. In this paper we compare"in vitro" the antibacterial effect of different oral rinsing ...

  15. Topical application of probiotics in skin: adhesion, antimicrobial and antibiofilm in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, E G; Moreira, D A; Gullón, P; Gullón, B; Cardelle-Cobas, A; Tavaria, F K

    2017-02-01

    When skin dysbiosis occurs as a result of skin disorders, probiotics can act as modulators, restoring microbial balance. Several properties of selected probiotics were evaluated so that their topical application could be considered. Adhesion, antimicrobial, quorum sensing and antibiofilm assays were carried out with several probiotic strains and tested against selected skin pathogens. All tested strains displayed significant adhesion to keratin. All lactobacilli with the exception of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, showed antimicrobial activity against skin pathogens, mainly due to organic acid production. Most of them also prevented biofilm formation, but only Propioniferax innocua was able to break down mature biofilms. This study demonstrates that although all tested probiotics adhered to human keratin, they showed limited ability to prevent adhesion of some potential skin pathogens. Most of the tested probiotics successfully prevented biofilm formation, suggesting that they may be successfully used in the future as a complement to conventional therapies in the treatment of a range of skin disorders. The topically used probiotics may be a natural, targeted treatment approach to several skin disorders and a complement to conventional therapies which present many undesirable side effects. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Chitosan nanoparticles for antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation: characterization and in vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chueh-Pin; Chen, Chin-Tin; Tsai, Tsuimin

    2012-01-01

    The growing resistance to antibiotics has rendered antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) an attractive alternative treatment modality for infectious diseases. Chitosan (CS) was shown to further potentiate the PDI effect of photosensitizers and was therefore used in this study to investigate its ability to potentiate the activity of erythrosine (ER) against bacteria and yeast. CS nanoparticles loaded with ER were prepared by ionic gelation method and tested for their PDI efficacy on planktonic cells and biofilms of Streptococcus mutans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The nanoparticles were characterized for their size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. No toxicity was observed when planktonic cells and biofilms were treated with the nanoparticles in the dark. However, when the cells were exposed to light irradiation after treatment with free ER or ER/CS nanoparticles, a significant phototoxicity was observed. The antimicrobial activity of ER/CS nanoparticles was significantly higher than ER in free form. The particle size and incubation time of the nanoparticles also appeared to be important factors affecting their PDI activity against S. mutans and C. albicans. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. In vitro efficacy of an anti-microbial solution in prevention of micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... anaerobic than aerobic organisms. Lack of optimization of the absorption coefficient of the polymeric resin and the determination of effective concentration of AMS may have led to inconsistent inhibition patterns. Keywords: In vitro , Prevention, Micro-flora Colonization, Denture-base Materials Tanzania Dental Journal Vol.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Certain Antimicrobial Agents in Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetics and topical products need not be sterile but may contain low levels of microbial load during use. This study was conducted to determine effectiveness of antimicrobial preservation during storage life of preparations and particularly the suitability of such preservative in terms of safety and broad spectrum activity.

  19. Antimicrobial synergic effect of Allicin and silver nanoparticles on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate antimicrobial properties of allicin, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and their combination again skin infection caused by methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in an animal model. Materials and Methods: In vivo, the effects of allicin, Ag NPs and their combination ...

  20. Antimicrobial Synergic Effect of Allicin and Silver Nanoparticles on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disorders.[7-9] It also showed antimicrobial effects again many viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites.[10,11] Some medicinal properties of garlic have been attributed to organosulfur compounds, that is, organic compounds that contain sulfur. Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) is the most‑important organosulfur compound in garlic.

  1. Antimicrobial Synergic Effect of Allicin and Silver Nanoparticles on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silver Nanoparticles on Skin Infection Caused by. Methicillin‑Resistant Staphylococcus ... the effects of allicin, Ag NPs and their combination were investigated on mice in which the skin infection was caused by MRSA strains ..... antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of. Allium sativum. Asian Pac J Trop Med ...

  2. Efficacy of Natural and Allopathic Antimicrobial Agents Incorporated onto Guided Tissue Regeneration Membrane Against Periodontal Pathogens: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Neha; Reddy Palle, Ajay; Kumar Gedela, Rajani; Vasudevan, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent afflictions worldwide. It is an infection of the periodontium as a result of subgingival colonization of the specific microbiota, leading to loss of attachment, which requires optimal care for regeneration to its pre-disease state. Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) is one of the successful treatment modalities in Periodontal Regenerative Therapy, but is vulnerable to bacterial colonization. The conflict between usage of classical antibiotics and plant origin antimicrobial agents has recently been in the limelight. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin, metronidazole and green coffee extract loaded onto GTR membrane against periodonto-pathogens. Pure form of amoxicillin, metronidazole and green coffee extract were obtained. One percent concentration of each antimicrobial agent was prepared by appropriate dilution with distilled water. GTR membrane was cut into a size of 1x0.5 cm under sterile conditions and was coated with the antimicrobial agents respectively and with distilled water as the negative control. Antimicrobial activity was checked against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) using agar disc diffusion method. The statistical analysis was done using Kruskal Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test. One percent amoxicillin showed level of significance (p>0.05) against both A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. Green coffee extract showed no zone of inhibition against both the bacterial species. Loading of commercially available antimicrobial agents onto GTR membrane can prevent its bacterial colonization leading to better treatment outcomes for periodontal regeneration.

  3. Ethanolic Walnut Kernel Phenolic Compounds and its Antimicrobial Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ashrafi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food-borne pathogens are causes of poisoning and gastrointestinal infections. In recent years, it is recommended to use natural materials like plant extracts and essences instead of chemical preservatives in food industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the phenolic compounds of ethanolic walnut kernel and its antimicrobial effect on some food-borne pathogens. Methods: In this experimental study, after collection of walnut kernel, its ethanolic extract was prepared. Then its antimicrobial activity on salmonella typhimurium, shigella disentriae, listeria monocytogenes was examined as Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC using microdilution method. Chloramphenicol (30µg was used as the reference antimicrobial agent. Total phenols, flavonoids and flavonols were also determined by colorimetric method. Results: The results showed that MIC was between 0.625 and 1.25 mg/ml and MBC was between 1.25 and 2.5mg/ml for ethanolic extract. Total phenols were 365±14.71mg/g gallic acid equivalent, and total flavonoids and flavonols were 285±12.25 and 132± 1.63mg/g rutin equivalent, respectively. Conclusion: These findings showed that walnut kernel has antibacterial effects on three aforementioned bacteria and can substitute for chemical preservatives. More studies, such as examinations in food models are needed to unravel the antimicrobial effects of this plant.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activities of metabolites from vaginal Lactobacillus strains against Clostridium perfringens isolated from a woman's vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mansour; Moradi Choghakabodi, Parastoo; Alhassan Hamidi, Mohammad; Najafian, Mahin; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    More than 50 different species of bacteria may live in a woman's vagina, with lactobacilli being the predominant microorganism found in healthy adult females. Lactobacilli are relevant as a barrier to infection and are important in the impairment of colonization by pathogens, owing to competitive adherence to adhesion sites in the vaginal epithelium and their capacity to produce antimicrobial compounds. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the inhibitory capability of Lactobacillus metabolites against Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium. These bacteria were isolated from vaginal swabs by using culture-dependent approaches, and the bacteriostatic effect of Lactobacillus metabolites, extracted from different isolates, was assessed using a modified E test. Among the 100 vaginal swabs, 59 (59%) samples showed the presence of Lactobacillus strains and only one sample contained C. perfringens. Lactobacillus metabolites demonstrated the significant potency of in vitro activity against C. perfringens, with minimal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 15.6 μg/mL to 31.2 μg/mL. This study suggests that women without vaginal Lactobacillus strains may be susceptible to nonindigenous and potentially harmful microorganisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  5. An in vitro dynamic microcosm biofilm model for caries lesion development and antimicrobial dose-response studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, T T; Brauner, K V; Nakanishi, L; Arthur, R A; van de Sande, F H; Cenci, M S

    2016-01-01

    Some dynamic biofilm models for dental caries development are limited as they require multiple experiments and do not allow independent biofilm growth units, making them expensive and time-consuming. This study aimed to develop and test an in vitro dynamic microcosm biofilm model for caries lesion development and for dose-response to chlorhexidine. Microcosm biofilms were grown under two different protocols from saliva on bovine enamel discs for up to 21 days. The study outcomes were as follows: the percentage of enamel surface hardness change, integrated hardness loss, and the CFU counts from the biofilms formed. The measured outcomes, mineral loss and CFU counts showed dose-response effects as a result of the treatment with chlorhexidine. Overall, the findings suggest that biofilm growth for seven days with 0.06 ml min(-1) salivary flow under exposure to 5% sucrose (3 × daily, 0.25 ml min(-1), 6 min) was suitable as a pre-clinical model for enamel demineralization and antimicrobial studies.

  6. In Vitro Potential of Equine DEFA1 and eCATH1 as Alternative Antimicrobial Drugs in Rhodococcosis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sascha; Bruhn, Oliver; Goux, Didier; Leippe, Matthias; Leclercq, Roland; Laugier, Claire; Grötzinger, Joachim; Cauchard, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, the causal agent of rhodococcosis, is a severe pathogen of foals but also of immunodeficient humans, causing bronchopneumonia. The pathogen is often found together with Klebsiella pneumoniae or Streptococcus zooepidemicus in foals. Of great concern is the fact that some R. equi strains are already resistant to commonly used antibiotics. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro potential of two equine antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), eCATH1 and DEFA1, as new drugs against R. equi and its associated pathogens. The peptides led to growth inhibition and death of R. equi and S. zooepidemicus at low micromolar concentrations. Moreover, eCATH1 was able to inhibit growth of K. pneumoniae. Both peptides caused rapid disruption of the R. equi membrane, leading to cell lysis. Interestingly, eCATH1 had a synergic effect together with rifampin. Furthermore, eCATH1 was not cytotoxic against mammalian cells at bacteriolytic concentrations and maintained its high killing activity even at physiological salt concentrations. Our data suggest that equine AMPs, especially eCATH1, may be promising candidates for alternative drugs to control R. equi in mono- and coinfections. PMID:22232283

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and their fractions from three Eryngium L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikowska Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to increasing resistance against antibiotics and antifungal agents, crude plant extracts, fractions, and isolated pure compounds became a new interest as antimicrobial agents.

  8. The in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants from Cameroon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gangoue-Pieboji, J; Pegnyemb, D.E; Niyitegeka, D; Nsangou, A; Eze, N; Minyem, C; Mbing, J. Ngo; Ngassam, P; Tih, R. Ghogomu; Sodengam, B.L; Bodo, B

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 10 plant species ( Voacanga africana, Crepis cameroonica, Plagiostyles africana, Crotalaria retusa, Mammea africana, Lophira lanceolata, Ochna afzelii, Ouratea elongata, Ou. flava and Ou. sulcata...

  9. Antimicrobial effect of Malaysian vegetables against enteric bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanain Al-Talib

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Garlic had excellent antimicrobial effects against enteric bacteria and was recommended to be given to patients with gastroenteritis. The other vegetables (pennywort, mint, parsley and celery showed no inhibitory effects on enteric bacteria but still can be used for its richness in vitamins and fibers. The performance of the well diffusion method was better than that of the disc diffusion method in detecting the antibacterial effects of green vegetables.

  10. In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic potential of gold and silver nanoparticles prepared using Embelia ribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, Manikandan; Denison, Michael Immanuel Jesse; L, Anitha Jegadeeshwari; Krishnan, Kathiravan; N, Nagendra Gandhi

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the green synthesis of gold (GNPs) and silver (SNPs) nanoparticles has gained great interest among chemists and researchers. The present study reports an eco-friendly, cost-effective, rapid and easy method for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using the seed extract of Embelia ribes (SEEr) as capping and reducing agent. The synthesised GNPs and SNPs were characterised using the following techniques: UV-vis spectroscopy, DLS, HR-TEM, FT-IR and XRD. The free radical scavenging potential of GNPs and SNPs was measured by DPPH assay and Phosphomolybdenum assay. Further, the antimicrobial activity against two micro-organisms were tested using disc diffusion method and cytotoxicity of GNPs and SNPs was determined against MCF-7 cell lines at different concentrations by MTT assay. Both the GNPs and SNPs prepared from E. ribes comparatively showed promising results thereby proving their clinical importance.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial properties of caprylic acid, monocaprylin, and sodium caprylate against Dermatophilus congolensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipe, Satyender Rao; Nadeau, Jenifer Ann; Annamali, Thirunavukkarasu; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Hoagland, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    To determine antimicrobial effects of caprylic acid and its derivatives, monocaprylin and sodium caprylate, on Dermatophilus congolensis and to determine effects of caprylic acid on the ultrastructure of D congolensis by use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). 3 strains of D congolensis (33411, 33413, and 14639). Strains of D congolensis were incubated separately under anaerobic conditions at 37°C for up to 48 hours in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth that was supplemented with various concentrations of caprylic acid (7.5, 12.5, 15, 17.5, or 20mM), monocaprylin (2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10mM), or sodium caprylate (15, 50, 60, 70, 100, or 120mM) or contained no antimicrobial treatment. After incubation, bacterial counts were determined by means of plating in triplicate on BHI-agar plates. Caprylic acid-treated or untreated D congolensis samples were embedded in epoxide resin for TEM; cross sections were examined for structural damage. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of caprylic acid, monocaprylin, and sodium caprylate against D congolensis were 7.5, 2.5, and 15 mM, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentrations of caprylic acid, monocaprylin, and sodium caprylate against D congolensis were 15, 5, and 70 mM, respectively. Examination via TEM revealed that a 15-mM concentration of caprylic acid disintegrated the plasma membrane of D congolensis. Results indicated that caprylic acid, monocaprylin, and sodium caprylate could potentially be used to treat D congolensis infections. However, in vivo studies should be undertaken to determine whether these compounds can be considered as treatment options.

  12. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) phenolics, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and inhibition of lipid and protein oxidation in porcine patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Andrade, María-Jesús; Kylli, Petri; Estévez, Mario

    2011-05-25

    The first aim of the present work (study 1) was to analyze ethyl acetate, 70% acetone, and 70% methanol extracts of the peel, pulp, and seed from two avocado (Persea americana Mill.) varieties, namely, 'Hass' and 'Fuerte', for their phenolic composition and their in vitro antioxidant activity using the CUPRAC, DPPH, and ABTS assays. Their antimicrobial potential was also studied. Peels and seeds had higher amounts of phenolics and a more intense in vitro antioxidant potential than the pulp. Peels and seeds were rich in catechins, procyanidins, and hydroxycinnamic acids, whereas the pulp was particularly rich in hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and procyanidins. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of avocado phenolics was affected by the extracting solvent and avocado variety. The avocado materials also displayed moderate antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive bacteria. Taking a step forward (study 2), extracts (70% acetone) from avocado peels and seeds were tested as inhibitors of oxidative reactions in meat patties. Avocado extracts protected meat lipids and proteins against oxidation with the effect on lipids being dependent on the avocado variety.

  13. Antimicrobial effects of GL13K peptide coatings on S. mutans and L. casei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitt, Rebecca Ann

    Background: Enamel breakdown around orthodontic brackets, so-called "white spot lesions", is the most common complication of orthodontic treatment. White spot lesions are caused by bacteria such as Streptococci and Lactobacilli, whose acidic byproducts cause demineralization of enamel crystals. Aims: The aim of this project was to develop an antimicrobial peptide coating for titanium alloy that is capable of killing acidogenic bacteria, specifically Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. The long-term goal is to create an antimicrobial-coated orthodontic bracket with the ability to reduce or prevent the formation of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients thereby improving clinical outcomes. Methods: First, an alkaline etching method with NaOH was established to allow effective coating of titanium discs with GL13K, an antimicrobial peptide derived from human saliva. Coatings were verified by contact angle measures, and treated discs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Secondly, GL13K coatings were tested against hydrolytic, proteolytic and mechanical challenges to ensure robust coatings. Third, a series of qualitative and quantitative microbiology experiments were performed to determine the effects of GL13K--L and GL13K--D on S. mutans and L. casei, both in solution and coated on titanium. Results: GL13K-coated discs were stable after two weeks of challenges. GL13K--D was effective at killing S. mutans in vitro at low doses. GL13K--D also demonstrated a bactericidal effect on L. casei, however, in contrast to S. mutans, the effect on L. casei was not statistically significant. Conclusion: GL13K--D is a promising candidate for antimicrobial therapy with possible applications for prevention of white spot lesions in orthodontics.

  14. Antimicrobial photodynamic effect of phenothiazinic photosensitizers in formulations with ethanol on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, Emilia Pithan; Martins, Maritieli Righi; Campagnolo, Cibele Bruno; Santos, Roberto Christ; Villetti, Marcos Antonio; Kantorski, Karla Zanini

    2016-03-01

    Methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB) are recognized as safe photosensitizers (Ps) for use in humans. The clinical effectiveness of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with MB and TB needs to be optimized, and ethanol can increase their antimicrobial effect. Formulations of MB and TB containing ethanol were evaluated for their ability to produce singlet oxygen and their antibacterial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Photoactivated formulations were prepared by diluting the Ps (250 μM) in buffered water (pH 5.6, sodium acetate/acetic acid), 10% ethanol (buffer: ethanol, 90:10), or 20% ethanol (buffer: ethanol, 80:20). Biofilms also were exposed to the buffer, 10% ethanol, or 20% ethanol without photoactivation. Untreated biofilm was considered the control group. The production of singlet oxygen in the formulations was measured based on the photo-oxidation of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran. The photo-oxidation and CFU (log10) data were evaluated by two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's tests. In all the formulations, compared to TB, MB showed higher production of singlet oxygen. In the absence of photoactivation, neither the buffer nor the 10% ethanol solution showed any antimicrobial effect, while the 20% ethanol solution significantly reduced bacterial viability (P=0.009). With photoactivation, only the formulations containing MB and both 10% and 20% ethanol solutions significantly reduced the viability of P. aeruginosa biofilms when compared with the control. MB formulations containing ethanol enhanced the antimicrobial effect of the photodynamic therapy against P. aeruginosa biofilms in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of novel structured phosphatidylcholines with phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, Marrapu; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Karuna, Mallampalli S L; Sarada, Sripada; Kumar, C Ganesh; Prasad, R B N

    2017-04-15

    Novel phenoylated phosphatidylcholines were synthesized from 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine/egg 1,2-diacyl phosphatidylcholine and phenolic acids such as ferulic, sinapic, vanillic and syringic acids. The structures of phenoylated phosphatidylcholines were confirmed by spectral analysis. 2-acyl-1-lyso phosphatidylcholine was synthesized from phosphatidylcholine via regioselective enzymatic hydrolysis and was reacted with hydroxyl protected phenolic acids to produce corresponding phenoylated phosphatidylcholines in 48-56% yields. Deprotection of protected phenoylated phosphatidylcholines resulted in phenoylated phosphatidylcholines in 87-94% yields. The prepared compounds were evaluated for their preliminary in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Among the active derivatives, compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy) cinnamoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 16.43μg/mL. Compounds 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) cinnamoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy) cinnamoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 36.05 and 33.35μg/mL respectively. Compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) cinnamoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antibacterial activity against Klebsiella planticola with MIC of 15.6μg/mL and compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) benzoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antifungal activity against Candida albicans with MIC of 15.6μg/mL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [In vitro study of the antimicrobial properties of a silver ion-releasing polyurethane foam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, José Miguel Sahuquillo; Tatay, Agustín Iranzo; Luna, Martín Llácer; Boix, Yovana Sanchis; Deltell, Jorge Guitán; Barberá, Eva González; Heras, Joycelyna Beltrán; Serrano, Miguel Gobernado

    2011-10-01

    The antimicrobial properties of a silver ion (Ag+)-releasing polyurethane foam were evaluated using different microorganisms. The diffusion of Ag+ from the medium, as well as any possible cytotoxicity on human cells, was also studied. Silver release from V.A.C. GranuFoam Silver(®) was assessed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). An in vitro experimental study was designed to evaluate the bactericide capacity using lethal dose curves on A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia, K. pneumoniae, E. coli, P. mirabilis, methicillin resistant S. aureus, E. faecium, S. pyogenes and C. minutissimum. A cytotoxicity study was also performed on human fibroblasts. The silver release showed an exponential curve with a stable meseta phase after 3 hours, with levels of 0.22-0.24 mg/l. A reduction of 99.9% of all the gram-negatives was achieved at 3 hours. The reduction was greater than 99% at 2 hours in S. pyogenes and C. minutissimum, at 6h in S. aureus and at 14 h in E. faecium. In an in vivo simulation model, these reductions were achieved in 6 hours in the gram negatives and 24h in the gram positives. The silver concentrations were no cytotoxic to human fibroblasts, with no differences being observed between the cells exposed to Ag+ and the controls (p=.7) V.A.C. Granufoam Silver(®) releases bactericide concentrations of Ag+ that did not damage human fibroblasts. It appears to be a good alternative for the control and prevention of local infections. Copyright © 2010 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of three Miconia species

    OpenAIRE

    Celotto,Andréa Carla; Nazario,Daniela Zaupa; Spessoto,Marcela de Almeida; Martins,Carlos Henrique Gomes; Cunha,Wilson Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of nine crude extracts of three Miconia species (M. albicans, M. rubiginosa and M. stenostachya) was tested against eleven selected microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans. The results of the test showed that three extracts had some antimicrobial activit...

  18. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts from Ruta graveolens and Annona muricata

    OpenAIRE

    Portilla, Y.; Carro Travieso, Mª Dolores; Milian, G.; Camacho, C.; Valdivia, A.; Díaz, A.; Saro, C.; Mateos, I.; Ranilla, María José

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of microorganisms to commercial drugs is increasing worldwide, and therefore the search for new antimicrobial agents is a key issue. The aim of this study was to identify the potential of plant extracts from Ruta graveolens and Annona muricata as candidates for the development of new antimicrobials.

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Biofilm Dispersal as a Therapeutic Strategy To Restore Antimicrobial Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roizman, Dan; Vidaillac, Celine; Givskov, Michael

    2017-01-01

    engineered strain PAO1/pBAD-yhjH resulted in increased antimicrobial efficacy and synergy of the imipenem-tobramycin combination. These results support the use of biofilm dispersal to enhance antimicrobial efficacy in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections, representing a promising therapeutic...

  20. Phytochemical investigation GC-MS analysis and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Coleus forskohlii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Rajkumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity of Coleus forskohlii. The different solvents such as ethanol, chloroform, acetone and aqueous extracts were identified pharmacologically as important bioactive compounds and their antimicrobial properties were studied. In the phytochemical investigation almost all the ethanol extract of leaf, stem and root having secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and steroids. The active constituents of the ethanol extract of C. forskohlii root was studied by GC-MS analysis. According to the antimicrobial results ethanol extract of C. froshkolii root showed highest antibacterial activity compared with stem and leaf. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed against Klebsiella pneumonia (19 mm and Candida albicans (16 mm in ethanol extract of root. Among the above extracts of leaf, stem and root, ethanol extract of root having antimicrobial activities due to the presence of phytoconstituents.

  1. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sadeghi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the harmful effects of chemical foods preservatives on human body, it is crucial to find out safe antimicrobials among essential oils and herbs. This study aimed to address the effects of different essential oils on various bacterial species through a systematic review. A wide range of published papers in national and international data bases have been searched for the relevant articles. For this reason, the keywords used in searching were: "essential oils in food", "antimicrobial effect" and "vegetable oils". Among 462 retrieved articles, 76 papers were selected for further reviewing based on their title and abstracts. Based on results, the antimicrobial effects of different essential oils on pathogenic and spoilage organisms were compared. Moreover, the most effective as well as the least effective essential oils on microbial growth were identified. It was concluded that essential oils are more effective on gram positive bacteria rather than gram negatives. Besides, it was evident that some essential oils negatively affected the useful organisms such as lactobacilli.

  2. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of combined therapy of silver nanoparticles and visible blue light against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour El Din, Suzanne; El-Tayeb, Tarek A; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; El-Azizi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as potential antimicrobial agents against resistant pathogens. We investigated the possible therapeutic use of AgNPs in combination with visible blue light against a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs against P. aeruginosa (1×10(5) colony forming unit/mL) was investigated at its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and sub-MIC, alone and in combination with blue light at 460 nm and 250 mW for 2 hours. The effect of this combined therapy on the treated bacteria was then visualized using transmission electron microscope. The therapy was also assessed in the prevention of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa on AgNP-impregnated gelatin biopolymer discs. Further, in vivo investigations were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the combined therapy to prevent burn-wound colonization and sepsis in mice and, finally, to treat a real infected horse with antibiotic-unresponsive chronic wound. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs and visible blue light was significantly enhanced (P<0.001) when both agents were combined compared to each agent alone when AgNPs were tested at MIC, 1/2, or 1/4 MIC. Transmission electron microscope showed significant damage to the cells that were treated with the combined therapy compared to other cells that received either the AgNPs or blue light. In addition, the combined treatment significantly (P<0.001) inhibited biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa on gelatin discs compared to each agent individually. Finally, the combined therapy effectively treated a horse suffering from a chronic wound caused by mixed infection, where signs of improvement were observed after 1 week, and the wound completely healed after 4 weeks. To our knowledge, this combinatorial therapy has not been investigated before. It was proved efficient and promising in managing infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria and could be used as an

  3. Synthesis, in vitro antimicrobial, anticancer evaluation and QSAR studies of N′-(substituted-4-(butan-2-lideneaminobenzohydrazides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahak Saini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of N′-(substituted-4-(butan-2-ylideneaminobenzohydrazides (1–21 was synthesized and characterized by physicochemical as well as spectral means. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer potentials. The synthesized compounds displayed higher antifungal potential as compared to antibacterial potential. Besides having good antifungal potential, the synthesized compounds were having appreciable anticancer potential and a number of compounds displayed higher anticancer potential than the standard drug, carboplatin. The results of QSAR studies demonstrated the importance of steric parameter, molar refractivity (MR, topological parameters, third order molecular connectivity index (3χ, Kier’s first order shape index (κ1 in describing the antimicrobial activity of N′-(substituted-4-(butan-2-ylideneaminobenzohydrazides.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rico Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi

  5. Detecção de genes toxigênicos, susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e antagonismo in vitro de Staphylococcus spp. isolados de queijos artesanais | Evaluation of toxicity genes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and in vitro antagonism of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from artisanal cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Lapinha Silva Oliveira Rosa

    2015-02-01

    antimicrobials sulfonamide, penicillin, ceftzadime, and oxacillin showed higher resistance rates in the antibiogram (100%, 80%, 60%, and 40%, respectively, whereas other antimicrobials were effective in percentages above 70%. Lactobacillus spp. were able to inhibit Staphylococcus spp. in vitro. Thus, our results indicated that the isolated Staphylococcus spp. were sensitive to the most common antimicrobials tested and were inhibited by Lactobacillus spp.

  6. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Zanthoxylum monogynum St. Hill (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda B. da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Zanthoxylum monogynum species belongs to the family Rutaceae and is found in Southeast, Midwest, and Northeast Brazil. For this genus several biological activities have been described. Methods: The essential oil (EO was obtained from the leaves of Zanthoxylum monogynum by hydro-distillation and was analyzed by gas chromatograph and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS. Also the EO of Z. monogynum was evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against six tumor cell lines and for antimicrobial activity, performing disk diffusion and MIC assays with yeast and bacterial strains. Results: The chemical analysis afforded the identification of 18 components (99.0% of the EO. The major components were found to be citronellol (43.0% and farnesol (32.0%. The in vitro cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines, resulted in IC50 values ranging from 11–65 µg/mL against all tested cell lines. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was also tested and oil was effective, especially against Cryptococcus sp. yeast. All the tested yeast strains showed at least 90% growth inhibition. Conclusions: the essential oil from leaves of Z. monogynum has a different qualitative and quantitative composition when compared to the composition previously described. Also this EO has significant cytotoxic activity and moderate activity against Cryptococcus sp. and Saccharomyces cereviseae yeasts.

  7. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Zanthoxylum monogynum St. Hill (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda B da; Santos, Nara O Dos; Pascon, Renata C; Vallim, Marcelo A; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Martins, Roberto C Campos; Sartorelli, Patricia

    2017-05-19

    Background: The Zanthoxylum monogynum species belongs to the family Rutaceae and is found in Southeast, Midwest, and Northeast Brazil. For this genus several biological activities have been described. Methods: The essential oil (EO) was obtained from the leaves of Zanthoxylum monogynum by hydro-distillation and was analyzed by gas chromatograph and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS). Also the EO of Z. monogynum was evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against six tumor cell lines and for antimicrobial activity, performing disk diffusion and MIC assays with yeast and bacterial strains. Results: The chemical analysis afforded the identification of 18 components (99.0% of the EO). The major components were found to be citronellol (43.0%) and farnesol (32.0%). The in vitro cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines, resulted in IC50 values ranging from 11-65 µg/mL against all tested cell lines. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was also tested and oil was effective, especially against Cryptococcus sp. yeast. All the tested yeast strains showed at least 90% growth inhibition. Conclusions: the essential oil from leaves of Z. monogynum has a different qualitative and quantitative composition when compared to the composition previously described. Also this EO has significant cytotoxic activity and moderate activity against Cryptococcus sp. and Saccharomyces cereviseae yeasts.

  8. The effect of negative pressure wound therapy with antibacterial dressings or antiseptics on an in vitro wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiasek, J; Domig, K J; Djedovic, G; Babeluk, R; Assadian, O

    2017-05-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial bioburden in experimental in vitro wounds during the application of conventional negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), with and without antimicrobial dressings (polyhexanide, silver), against NPWT instillation of octenidine. Experimental wounds produced in an in vitro porcine wound model were homogenously contaminated with bacterial suspension and treated with NPWT and different options. Group A: non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing; group B: antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing containing silver; group C: antimicrobial gauze dressing containing polyhexanide; group D: non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing intermittently irrigated with octenidine; group E: negative control (non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing without NPWT). Standard biopsies were harvested after 24 and 28 hours. This study demonstrated that the use of NPWT with intermitted instillation of octenidine (group D) or application of silver-based polyurethane foam dressings (group B) is significantly superior against Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in experimental wounds compared with non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing (group A) after 48 hours. Surprisingly, the polyhexanide-based dressing (group C) used in this model showed no statistical significant effect compared with the control group (group E) after 24 or 48 hours of treatment. Both intermitted instillation of octenidine and silver-based dressings in standard NPWT were significantly superior compared with non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressings or PHMB coated gauze dressing after 48 hours.

  9. In vitro activity of an engineered honey, medical-grade honeys, and antimicrobial wound dressings against biofilm-producing clinical bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, F D; Webber, M A; Rauf, M; Burt, R; Dryden, M; Oppenheim, B A

    2016-02-01

    Honey is recognised to be a good topical wound care agent owing to a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity combined with healing properties. Surgihoney RO (SH1) is a product based on honey that is engineered to produce enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has been reported to be highly antimicrobial. The objective was to investigate the ability of the engineered honey and its comparators to prevent biofilm formation in vitro. We tested the ability of three medical-grade honeys SH1, Activon manuka honey (MH) and Medihoney manuka honey (Med), alongside five antimicrobial dressings (AMDs) to prevent the formation of biofilms by 16 isolates. Honeys were serially double diluted from 1:3 down to 1:6144 and the lowest dilution achieving a statistically significant reduction in biomass of at least 50%, compared with untreated controls, was recorded. Although all the honeys were antibacterial and were able to prevent the formation of biofilms, SH1 was the most potent, with efficacy at lower dilutions than the medical honeys for five isolates, and equivalent dilutions for a further six. Additionally, SH1 was superior in antibacterial potency to three commercially available AMDs that contain honey. SH1 is effective at preventing bioflms from forming and is superior to medical honeys and AMDs in in vitro tests. Surgihoney RO was provided free of charge for testing by Matoke Holdings, UK and the hospital pharmacy provided the other honeys and dressings. This paper presents independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddanna, Sunitha Jagalur; Patel, Shilpa; Sundarrao, Madhusudan Astekar; Veerabhadrappa, Ravindra Setru

    2013-01-01

    Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additional objective was to identify an alternative, inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling Candida albicans. Fine texture powder or paste form of leaves was soaked in sterile distilled water and 100% ethyl alcohol, which were kept in refrigerator at 4°C for 24 h. Then filtrates were prepared and kept in a hot air oven to get a black shining crystal powder/paste form. Stock solutions of plant extracts were inoculated on petri plates containing species of Candida albicans and incubated at 25 ± 2°C for 72 h. Alcoholic curry leaves showed the maximum zone of inhibition on Candida albicans followed by aqueous tea leaves. The other plant extracts like alcoholic onion leaves, alcoholic tea leaves, alcoholic onion bulb, alcoholic aloe vera, and alcoholic mint leaves also inhibited the growth of Candida albicans but lesser extent. The present study renders few medicinal plants as an alternative medicines to the field of dentistry which can be used adjunct to conventional therapy of oral candidasis.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additional objective was to identify an alternative, inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Fine texture powder or paste form of leaves was soaked in sterile distilled water and 100% ethyl alcohol, which were kept in refrigerator at 4°C for 24 h. Then filtrates were prepared and kept in a hot air oven to get a black shining crystal powder/paste form. Stock solutions of plant extracts were inoculated on petri plates containing species of Candida albicans and incubated at 25 ± 2°C for 72 h. Results: Alcoholic curry leaves showed the maximum zone of inhibition on Candida albicans followed by aqueous tea leaves. The other plant extracts like alcoholic onion leaves, alcoholic tea leaves, alcoholic onion bulb, alcoholic aloe vera, and alcoholic mint leaves also inhibited the growth of Candida albicans but lesser extent. Conclusion: The present study renders few medicinal plants as an alternative medicines to the field of dentistry which can be used adjunct to conventional therapy of oral candidasis.

  12. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperce, C C; Amachawadi, R; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Nagaraja, T G; Scott, H M; Vinasco-Torre, J; Drouillard, J S

    2016-01-01

    The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria.

  13. Antimicrobial effect of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Maysaa Kadhim Al-Malkey; Munira Ch. Ismeeal; Fahema Jabbar Abo Al-Hur; Sinaa W. Mohammed; Hanan J. Nayyef

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Study the antimicrobial effect of probiotics produced from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn and wound infection and their ability of protease production. Methods Swab samples were collected from 70 patients admitted at Burns Center/Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital. Primary bacterial identification cultured on differential selective media and biochemical tests were done. The Vitek2 compact system (Biomerieux, France...

  14. In Vitro Activities of Tigecycline and Eight Other Antimicrobials against Different Nocardia Species Identified by Molecular Methods▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cercenado, Emilia; Marín, Mercedes; Sánchez-Martínez, Mónica; Cuevas, Oscar; Martínez-Alarcón, José; Bouza, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro activities of tigecycline and other antimicrobials against 51 isolates of Nocardia spp. were evaluated. MIC90s and MIC ranges were as follows: tigecycline, 4 and ≤0.06 to 8 mg/liter, respectively; minocycline, 2 and ≤0.06 to 2 mg/liter, respectively; linezolid, 1 and ≤0.06 to 2 mg/liter, respectively; moxifloxacin, 2 and ≤0.06 to >64 mg/liter, respectively; ertapenem, 32 and ≤0.06->64 mg/liter, respectively; imipenem, 2 and ≤0.06 to >64 mg/liter, respectively; meropenem, 8 and ≤0...

  15. In vitro susceptibility of 21 antimicrobial agents to 37 isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from pigs in Okinawa Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezato, Kayo; Kinjo, Eiki; Adachi, Yoshikazu

    2004-03-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities to 21 antimicrobial agents, of 37 isolates of Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae isolated from pigs in Okinawa meat center and a pig farm in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were determined by the agar dilution method. Carbadox was the most active of all the agents tested against the isolates (MIC: valnemulin with MICs ranging from

  16. In vitro influence of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on staphylococcus aureus by using phenothiazines derivatives associated with laser/LED light

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Pires-Santos, Gustavo M.; Sampaio, Fernando J. P.; Gomes Júnior, Rafael Araújo; Gesteira, Maria F. M.; Brugnera, Aldo; Zanin, Fátima A. A.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) using phenothiazinium dyes - PTZ irradiated with red laser (λ660nm) or red-orange LED (λ632+/-2nm) on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. triplicate tests were performed in 10 groups: control, Laser (L1+P- and L2+P-) bacterial suspensions were irradiated only with laser energy 2.4 and 4.8 J/cm2 respectively, (Led1+P- and Led2+P-) irradiated only with LED energy 2.4 and 4.8 J/cm2 respectively, (L1+P+ and L2+P+) irradiated with laser in the presence of 1μg/ml of photosensitizer, (Led1+P+ and Led2+P+) irradiated with LED in the presence of 1μg/ml of photosensitizer and finally (L-P+) only in the presence of PTZ dye. Bactericidal effect of the PACT was assessed by counting colony-forming units. The results showed no significant difference on regards different energy densities on group PACT for both lights. PACT groups (L2+P+ and Led2+P+) compared to the Control showed significant reduction of CFUs. LED/Laser groups (L2+P- and Led2+P-) compared to control and PTZ groups showed also significant differences as groups LED/Laser (4.8J/cm2) increased the average of CFUs. Although the results of this study have shown a reduction in average number of colonyforming units by the appropriate Laser or LED-dye treatment combination, it this topic requires further investigation.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Elephant Garlic Oil against Vibrio cholerae in Vitro and in a Food Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RATTANACHAIKUNSOPON, Pongsak; PHUMKHACHORN, Parichat

    2009-01-01

    .... Natural products inhibiting it can be used to improve the safety of foods. In this study, elephant garlic oil was studied for its major diallyl sulfide content and its antimicrobial activity against V. cholerae...

  18. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of New Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Asım Kaplancıklı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop potent antimicrobial agents, new thiosemicarbazone derivatives were synthesized via the reaction of 4-[4-(trifluoromethylphenyl]thiosemicarbazide with aromatic aldehydes. The compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on pathogenic bacteria and yeasts using the CLSI broth microdilution method. Microplate Alamar Blue Assay was also carried out to determine the antimycobacterial activities of the compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Among these derivatives, compounds 5 and 11 were more effective against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 than chloramphenicol, whereas compounds 1, 2, and 12 and chloramphenicol showed the same level of antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. Moreover, compound 2 and chloramphenicol exhibited the same level of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, the most potent anticandidal derivatives were found as compounds 2 and 5. These derivatives and ketoconazole exhibited the same level of antifungal activity against Candida glabrata. According to the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay, the tested compounds showed weak to moderate antitubercular activity.

  19. In vitro potency and combination testing of antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Amrita; Martin, Irene; Zhanel, George G; Mulvey, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern to public health due to decreased susceptibility to frontline antimicrobials. To find agents that are active against N. gonorrhoeae, we tested antimicrobials alone or in combination by Etest gradient strips. The potencies (as assessed by minimum inhibitory concentrations) of twenty-five antimicrobials were evaluated against nine reference strains of N. gonorrhoeae (WHO F, G, K, L, M, N, O, P and ATCC 49226). Potency was greatest for netilmicin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. Combinations of azithromycin, moxifloxacin, or gentamicin with ceftriaxone, doripenem, or aztreonam were tested against reference isolates and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated. All nine combinations resulted in indifference (>0.5 FICI ≤ 4). Combinations with FICI gonorrhoeae. These data on antimicrobials with higher potency and combinations that did not show antagonism can help to guide larger scale susceptibility studies for antimicrobial resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the flora of northern Mexico for in vitro antimicrobial and antituberculosis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Salinas, G M; Pérez-López, A; Becerril-Montes, P; Salazar-Aranda, R; Said-Fernández, S; de Torres, N Waksman

    2007-02-12

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential antimicrobial activity of 14 plants used in northeast México for the treatment of respiratory diseases, against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Forty-eight organic and aqueous extracts were tested against these bacterial strains using a broth microdilution test. No aqueous extracts showed antimicrobial activity, whereas most of the organic extracts presented antimicrobial activity against at least one of the drug-resistant microorganisms tested. Methanol-based extracts from the roots and leaves of Leucophyllum frutescens and ethyl ether extract from the roots of Chrysanctinia mexicana showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against the drug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were 62.5, 125 and 62.5 microg/mL, respectively; methanol-based extract from the leaves of Cordia boissieri showed the best antimicrobial activity against the drug-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 250 microg/mL); the hexane-based extract from the fruits of Schinus molle showed considerable antimicrobial activity against the drug-resistant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC 62.5 microg/mL). This study supports that selecting plants by ethnobotanical criteria enhances the possibility of finding species with activity against resistant microorganisms.

  1. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of natural infant fluoride-free toothpastes on oral micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fabíola G; Negrini, Thais De Cássia; Sacramento, Luis Victor S; Hebling, Josimeri; Spolidorio, Denise M P; Duque, Cristiane

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six toothpastes for infants: 3 fluoride-free experimental toothpastes--cashew-based, mango-based and without plant extract and fluoride compared with 2 commercially fluoride-free toothpastes and 1 fluoridated toothpastes. Six toothpastes for infants were evaluated in this study: (1) experimental cashew-based toothpaste; (2) experimental mango-based toothpaste; (3) experimental toothpaste without plant extract and fluoride (negative control); (4) First Teeth brand toothpaste; (5) Weleda brand toothpaste; and (6) Tandy brand toothpaste (positive control). The antimicrobial activity was recorded against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans using the agar plate diffusion test. First Teeth, Weleda, mango-based toothpaste, and toothpaste without plant extract presented no antimicrobial effect against any of the tested micro-organisms. Cashew toothpaste had antimicrobial activity against S mutans, S sobrinus, and L acidophilus, but it showed no antimicrobial activity against C albicans. There was no statistical difference between the inhibition halo of cashew and Tandy toothpastes against S mutans and L acidophilus. Cashew fluoride-free toothpaste had inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and these results were similar to those obtained for fluoridated toothpaste.

  2. A Study on Antimicrobial Effects of Plantago Psyllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2011-06-01

    The antimicrobial effect of Plantago psyllium extract with commercial antimicrobial agents were compared. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using one-way ANOVA and chi-square test. Results: Findings of the present study revealed that in l0 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml concentrations of the extract, all bacteria were resistant to Plantago psyllium. In 40 mg/ml concentration, only Staphylococcus areus and staphylococcus epidemidis showed zone of inhibition (ZOI of 10 mm and 13 mm respectively while in 80 mg/ml concentration, the maximum ZOI was 20 mm in Staphylococcus areus and 18 mm in staphylococcus epidemidis. The acceptable MIC and MLC were 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml in Staphylococcus areus and staphylococcus epidemidis respectively. Conclusion: Our data clearly indicated that the extract displayed equivalent compatibility with standard antibiotics on Staphylococcus areus and staphylococcus epidemidis bacteria.

  3. Comparison of the effectiveness of different antimicrobial surface technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of infection via microbiologically contaminated surfaces has already been demonstrated by other publications. In this work two different antibacterial surface technologies transition metalloacids (AMiSTec and TiO2/AgNO3 (Health Complete were compared regarding feasibility as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The examination of the antimicrobial activity was assessed according to the JIS Z 2801. We could demonstrate that all of our tested samples showed a strong antimicrobial activity (>log 3 germ reduction in the JIS experiments. Furthermore this strong antibacterial effect could be shown already after <30min incubation and at low light intensity (approx. 300 Lux for the TiO2/AgNO3 samples. Both technologies provide a high potential for an improved infection control for example in a high risk environment like operation rooms or intensive care units.

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Ability and Cytotoxicity on Two Melanoma Cell Lines of a Benzylamide Derivative of Maslinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Zinuca Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maslinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from olives that has been systematically reported to exert several therapeutic effects, such as antitumoral, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, and antiviral properties. Recently, new derivatives of maslinic acid have been obtained and expanded the spectrum of biological activities and improved the existing ones. The present study was meant to perform the in vitro assessment of the (i cytotoxic effects of a benzylamide derivative of maslinic acid (“EM2” (benzyl (2α, 3β 2,3-diacetoxy-olean-12-en-28-amide on B164A5 murine melanoma and A375 human malignant melanoma cell lines and the (ii antimicrobial activity of the compound on several bacterial strains, respectively. We obtained a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of EM2 that was particularly relevant to the murine cell line. As on the antibacterial activity, EM2 was tested on 10 bacterial strains Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one fungus Candida albicans. A significant antimicrobial effect was recorded for Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.

  5. Composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Dorema ammoniacum D. Don. fruit from Iran

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    MORTEZA YOUSEFZADI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Dorema (Apiaceae is represented in the flora of Iran with seven species of which two, D. ammoniacum D. Don. and D. aucheri Boiss. are endemic. Ripe fruits of D. ammoniacum collected just in the deciduous time were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield the essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Twenty-nine compounds were identified and quantified, representing 95.1 % of the total oil. (Z-Ocimenone (22.3 % and (E-ocimenone (18.1 % were the main components of the oil. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. The results of the antimicrobial assay of the oil by the disc diffusion method and the MIC values indicated that the oil exhibited moderate to high antimicrobial activity, especially against B. subtilis and S. epidermidis with MIC value of 3.75 mg ml-1.

  6. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract against Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pooja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract has an antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and to determine which concentration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract among the 15 concentrations investigated has the maximum antimicrobial activity. Setting and Design: Experimental design, in vitro study, Lab setting. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was then diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain 15 different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 6%, 7% 8%, 9%, 10% of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 15 different concentrations of the extract gave a wider inhibition zone against Streptococcus mutans. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters using a vernier caliper. Results: At the 4% concentration of Tulsi extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 15 different concentrations of Tulsi that were investigated. Conclusion: Tulsi extract demonstrated an antimicrobial property against Streptococcus mutans.

  7. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) extract against Streptococcus mutans: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pooja; Nagesh, L

    2010-01-01

    To determine if Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) extract has an antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and to determine which concentration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) extract among the 15 concentrations investigated has the maximum antimicrobial activity. Experimental design, in vitro study, Lab setting. Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was then diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain 15 different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 6%, 7% 8%, 9%, 10%) of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 15 different concentrations of the extract gave a wider inhibition zone against Streptococcus mutans. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters using a vernier caliper. At the 4% concentration of Tulsi extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 15 different concentrations of Tulsi that were investigated. Tulsi extract demonstrated an antimicrobial property against Streptococcus mutans.

  8. Enrichment of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater and In Vitro Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Abu-Lafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil generates massive quantities of by-product called olive mill wastewater (OMWW. The uncontrolled disposal of OMWW poses serious environmental problems. The OMWW effluent is rich in several polyphenolic compounds. Liquid-liquid extraction of OMWW using ethyl acetate solvent was used to enrich phenolic compounds under investigation. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the extract were determined. HPLC coupled to photodiode array (PDA detector was used to analyze the main three phenolic compounds of OMWW, namely, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was also investigated. Additionally, the OMWW extract was used as natural preservative and antioxidants for olive oil. Results showed that OMWW is very rich in phenolic compounds and has strong antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis showed that the extract contains mainly hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol but no oleuropein. The OMWW extract showed also positive activities as antibacterial (gram positive and gram negative and antifungal as well as activities against yeast. The addition of OMWW extract to olive oil samples has an effect on the stability of olive oil as reflected by its acid value, peroxide value, K232 and K270, and total phenolic content.

  9. In vitro assessment of antimicrobial activity of Pothomorphe umbellata extracts against Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Emilio C; Pereira, Juliana V; Marques, André A F; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; França, Suzelei C

    2014-01-01

    Due to the complex anatomy of the root canal system, biomechanical preparation is not able to completely eliminate all microorganisms present in the endodontic infections, making it necessary the use of an intracanal medication. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of an intracanal medication containing the ethyl-acetate fraction of Pothomorphe umbellata against Enterococcus faecalis. Fifty seven human maxillary canine teeth were used, of which 54 were infected with E. faecalis every 72 h, for 28 days, and cultured for 24 h. Contaminated teeth were randomly separated into three groups (n = 18) and treated as follows: Group I - calcium hydroxide-based medication; Group II - P. umbellata-based medication; Group III - contaminated teeth without medication. Three teeth were used as negative control. After 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment, six teeth from each group were assessed for the level of microbial growth after each period of treatment. The intracanal medication containing P. umbellata was effective against E. faecalis after 7, 14, and 28 days of treatment without statistically significant difference in comparison to calcium hydroxide treatment (Kruskal-Wallis test, P > 0.05). Ethyl-acetate fraction of P. umbellate was efficient against E. faecalis, making this phytotherapy a viable option for endodontic treatment.

  10. In Vitro Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity and GC-MS Analysis of Mazus goodenifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Mazus goodenifolius (Hornem. Pennell essential oil, methanol extract and some solvent-extracted subfractions of the latter were appraised. A qualitative, quantitative analysis of the classes of phytochemicals in the various fractions and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil was carried out. The activity of the plant extract and various subfractions against selected bacterial (Pasturella multocida, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus solani was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assayed using the DPPH radical scavenging and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation tests. In the DPPH radical scavenging test the IC50 values ranged from 7.21 to 91.79 µg/mL, and in the latter the range of % peroxidation inhibition was 35.42–93.48%. Protective effects of the absolute methanol extract, which had the highest content of phenolics and flavonoids, against H2O2 induced oxidative damage in plasmid pBR322 DNA was also evaluated, and it was found to offer some protection at the highest tested dose (1,000 µg/mL. Finally the cytotoxicity of the plant extract, fractions and essential oil was analyzed by examining haemolytic activity against human blood erythrocytes (RBCs, whereby the % lysis of RBCs was found to be in the range of 1.65 to 4.01%.

  11. Self-assembled arginine-rich peptides as effective antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Gujie; Shi, Di; Herchek, Whitney; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-04-01

    Bacteria can adapt to their ever-changing environment to develop a resistance to commonly used antibiotics. This escalating evolution of bacteria coupled with a diminished number of effective antibiotics has caused a global healthcare crisis. New antimicrobials and novel approaches to tackle this problem are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides are of particular interest in this endeavor due to their broad spectrum antimicrobial properties as well as ability to combat multi-drug resistant bacteria. Most peptides have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions that enable them to be soluble in an aqueous solution, yet can insert into and subsequently disintegrate lipid rich membranes through diverse mechanisms. In this study, a novel class of cationic nanoparticles (formed by the self-assembly of an amphiphilic peptide) were shown to have strong antimicrobial properties against gram-positive bacteria, specifically Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with minimal toxicity to human dermal fibroblasts. The particular self-assembled structure tested here included an arginine rich nanoparticle (C17 H35 GR7RGDS or amphiphilic peptide nanoparticles, APNPs) which incorporated seven arginine residues (imparting a positive charge to improve membrane interactions), a hydrophobic block which drove the self-assembly process, and the presence of an amino acid quadruplet arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine (RGDS) which may render these nanoparticles capable of attracting healthy cells while competing bacterial adherence to fibronectin, an adhesive protein found on cell surfaces. As such, this in vitro study demonstrated that the presently formulated APNPs should be further studied for a wide range of antibacterial applications where antibiotics are no longer useful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1046-1054, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, B; Thomé, S; Martins, R; Martins, G; Lilenbaum, W

    2011-10-01

    Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (167) were obtained from 528 samples of canine otitis externa, identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials. The most effective drug was ciprofloxacin. The study reports alarming resistance among P. aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa in Rio de Janeiro , Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, B.; S. Thomé; Martins, R.; G. Martins; Lilenbaum, W.

    2011-01-01

    Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (167) were obtained from 528 samples of canine otitis externa, identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials. The most effective drug was ciprofloxacin. The study reports alarming resistance among P. aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa in Rio de Janeiro , Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Penna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (167 were obtained from 528 samples of canine otitis externa, identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials. The most effective drug was ciprofloxacin. The study reports alarming resistance among P. aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic resistance determinants of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from mastitic cows in Brazilian dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rosa da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis and is associated with several economic losses for producers. Few studies have evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility and the prevalence of genetic resistance determinants among isolates of this bacterium from Brazilian dairy cattle. This work aimed to evaluate the frequency of the antimicrobial resistance genes ermA, ermB, mefA, tetO, tetM, aphA3, and aad-6, and in vitro susceptibility to the antimicrobials amikacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, penicillin, ceftiofur, and cefalotin, and the associations between resistance genotypes and phenotypes among 118 S. agalactiae isolates obtained from mastitic cows in Brazilian dairy herds. Of the resistance genes examined, ermB was found in 19 isolates (16.1%, tetO in 23 (19.5%, and tetM in 24 (20.3%. The genes ermA, mefA, aphA3, and aad-6 were not identified. There was an association between the presence of genes ermB, tetM, and tetO and phenotypic resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. Rates of resistance to the tested antibiotics varied, as follows: erythromycin (19.5%, tetracycline (35.6%, gentamicin (9.3%, clindamycin (20.3%, penicillin (3.4%, and amikacin (38.1%; conversely, all isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur and cefalotin. Antimicrobial resistance testing facilitates the treatment decision process, allowing the most judicious choice of antibiotics. Moreover, it enables regional and temporal monitoring of the resistance dynamics of this pathogen of high importance to human and animal health.

  16. Antimicrobial And Antiplasmodial Effects Of Momordica balsamina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... MeOH extracts of whole M. balsamina was active against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi and not effective against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Malarial curative test with Plasmodium- berghei berghei parasitized albino mice exhibited survival ...

  17. Preparation and in vitro antimicrobial activity of silver-bearing degradable polymeric nanoparticles of polyphosphoester-block-poly(L-lactide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young H; Tiemann, Kristin M; Heo, Gyu Seong; Wagers, Patrick O; Rezenom, Yohannes H; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Youngs, Wiley J; Hunstad, David A; Wooley, Karen L

    2015-02-24

    The development of well-defined polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) as delivery carriers for antimicrobials targeting human infectious diseases requires rational design of the polymer template, an efficient synthetic approach, and fundamental understanding of the developed NPs, e.g., drug loading/release, particle stability, and other characteristics. Herein, we developed and evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of silver-bearing, fully biodegradable and functional polymeric NPs. A series of degradable polymeric nanoparticles (dNPs), composed of phosphoester and L-lactide and designed specifically for silver loading into the hydrophilic shell and/or the hydrophobic core, were prepared as potential delivery carriers for three different types of silver-based antimicrobials-silver acetate or one of two silver carbene complexes (SCCs). Silver-loading capacities of the dNPs were not influenced by the hydrophilic block chain length, loading site (i.e., core or shell), or type of silver compound, but optimization of the silver feed ratio was crucial to maximize the silver loading capacity of dNPs, up to ca. 12% (w/w). The release kinetics of silver-bearing dNPs revealed 50% release at ca. 2.5-5.5 h depending on the type of silver compound. In addition, we undertook a comprehensive evaluation of the rates of hydrolytic or enzymatic degradability and performed structural characterization of the degradation products. Interestingly, packaging of the SCCs in the dNP-based delivery system improved minimum inhibitory concentrations up to 70%, compared with the SCCs alone, as measured in vitro against 10 contemporary epidemic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and eight uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. We conclude that these dNP-based delivery systems may be beneficial for direct epithelial treatment and/or prevention of ubiquitous bacterial infections, including those of the skin and urinary tract.

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bendifallah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and one pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in leucoanthocyanins, in glucosids, alcaloids, flavonoïds and in saponosids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against some species.

  19. In vitro evaluation of novel antimicrobial coatings for surgical sutures using octenidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, A; Schneider, J; Föhr, P; Wehner, S; Kühn, K-D; Stemberger, A; Schieker, M; Burgkart, R

    2015-09-24

    Sutures colonized by bacteria represent a challenge in surgery due to their potential to cause surgical site infections. In order to reduce these type of infections antimicrobially coated surgical sutures are currently under development. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial drug octenidine as a coating agent for surgical sutures. To achieve high antimicrobial efficacy and required biocompatibility for medical devices, we focused on optimizing octenidine coatings based on fatty acids. For this purpose, antimicrobial sutures were prepared with either octenidine-laurate or octenidine-palmitate at 11, 22, and 33 μg/cm drug concentration normalized per length of sutures. Octenidine containing sutures were compared to the commercial triclosan-coated suture Vicryl® Plus. The release of octenidine into aqueous solution was analyzed and long-term antimicrobial efficacy was assessed via agar diffusion tests using Staphylococcus aureus. For determining biocompatibility, cytotoxicity assays (WST-1) were performed using L-929 mouse fibroblasts. In a 7 days elution experiment, octenidine-palmitate coated sutures demonstrated much slower drug release (11 μg/cm: 7%; 22 μg/cm: 5%; 33 μg/cm: 33%) than octenidine-laurate sutures (11 μg/cm: 82%; 22 μg/cm: 88%; 33 μg/cm: 87%). Furthermore sutures at 11 μg/cm drug content were associated with acceptable cytotoxicity according to ISO 10993-5 standard and showed, similar to Vicryl® Plus, relevant efficacy to inhibit surrounding bacterial growth for up to 9 days. Octenidine coated sutures with a concentration of 11 μg/cm revealed high antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility. Due to their delayed release, palmitate carriers should be preferred. Such coatings are candidates for clinical testing in regard to their safety and efficacy.

  20. [Recommendations for selecting antimicrobial agents for in vitro susceptibility studies using automatic and semiautomatic systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Alós, Juan Ignacio; Baquero, Fernando; Calvo, Jorge; Campos, José; Castillo, Javier; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, M Angeles; Liñares, Josefina; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Marco, Francesc; Mirelis, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Torres, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The number of clinical microbiology laboratories that have incorporated automatic susceptibility testing devices has increased in recent years. The majority of these systems determine MIC values using microdilution panels or specific cards, with grouping into clinical categories (susceptible, intermediate or resistant) and incorporate expert systems to infer resistance mechanisms. This document presents the recommendations of a group of experts designated by Grupo de Estudio de los Mecanismos de Acción y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (GEMARA, Study group on mechanisms of action and resistance to antimicrobial agents) and Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (MENSURA, Spanish Group for Normalizing Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance), with the aim of including antimicrobial agents and selecting concentrations for the susceptibility testing panels of automatic systems. The following have been defined: various antimicrobial categories (A: must be included in the study panel; B: inclusion is recommended; and C: inclusion is secondary, but may facilitate interpretative reading of the antibiogram) and groups (0: not used in therapeutics but may facilitate the detection of resistance mechanisms; 1: must be studied and always reported; 2: must be studied and selectively reported; 3: must be studied and reported at a second level; and 4: should be studied in urinary tract pathogens isolated in urine and other specimens). Recommended antimicrobial concentrations are adapted from the breakpoints established by EUCAST, CLSI and MENSURA. This approach will lead to more accurate susceptibility testing results with better detection of resistance mechanisms, and allowing to reach the clinical goal of the antibiogram.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of Rhynchostegium vagans A. Jaeger (moss against commonly occurring pathogenic microbes of Indian sub-tropics

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    Kavita Negi*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antimicrobial effect of organic extracts with a standard dose of Rhynchostegium vagans (R. vagans on pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: R. vagans was extracted in solvents (ethanol and acetone and the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by using disc diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was observed by employing micro broth dilution method. Mode of inhibition of ethanolic extract against Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris (A. flavus var. columnaris was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: It was found that the ethanolic extract of R. vagans was the most potent with lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (3.91 to 61.25 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (3.91 to 500 µg/mL, respectively. Significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations were seen in A. flavus var. columnaris. Among microorganisms, Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Erwinia chrysanthemi and Salmonella enterica and fungi (A. flavus var. columnaris and Aspergillus parasiticus var. globosus were found more sensitive. Ethanolic extract was found superior over the antibiotics (chloramphenicol and fluconazole. Conclusions: R. vagans exhibited effective antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms. The moss can be used as a broad spectrum herbal antimicrobial agent in pharmaceutics.

  2. Synthesis of Some Polysubstituted Nicotinonitriles and Derived Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines as In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Candidates

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    Hassan M. Faidallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of polysubstituted pyridines, in addition to some derived pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine ring systems supported with chemotherapeutically active functionalities, is described. They were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic effects against three different human tumor cell lines (human colon carcinoma HT29, hepatocellular carcinoma Hep-G2, and Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma MCF7. Nine compounds displayed variable cytotoxic potential, among which alkylthio analogs 33, 34, and 37 emerged as the most active members, being almost twice as active as doxorubicin against the colon carcinoma HT29 cell line. In addition, the same three analogs showed a clear differential cytotoxic profile as they exhibited a marginal inhibitory effect on the growth of the normal nontransformed human foreskin fibroblast Hs27 cell line. Meanwhile, nineteen compounds were able to exhibit significant antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, together with moderate antifungal activities. The pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2(1H-thione 30 together with its alkylthio derivatives 33 and 34 stemmed as the most active antimicrobial members being equipotent to ampicillin against S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa, together with a noticeable antifungal activity against C. albicans. Compounds 33 and 34 could be considered as a promising template for possible dual antimicrobial-anticancer candidates.

  3. In vitro study of the photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) against promastigotes form of the leishmania (viannia) braziliensis: in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Sangiorgi, Bruno B.; Galdino, Suely L.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2013-03-01

    Leishmaniasis, a protozoan parasitic disease that remains a major worldwide health problem with high endemicity in developing countries. Treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) should be decided by the clinical lesions, etiological species and its potential to develop into mucosal Leishmaniasis. High cost, systemic toxicity, and diminished efficacy due to development of parasite resistance are the serious drawbacks of current treatment options. Thus, identifying new, effective, and safer anti-leishmanial drug(s) is of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of PACT in vitro, as a new technique for the treatment of Leishmaniasis. For this, semiconductor laser (λ = 660nm, 40mW, 8.4J/cm2, CW) associated to phenothiazine's derivatives (5 and 10 μg/ml, TBO, Methylene Blue or Phenothiazine) on the promastigotes form of Leishmania braziliensis in a single session was used. Viability of the parasites was assessed in quadruplicates of each group. The samples were removed and analyzed in a hemocytometer 72h after PACT. We found an important decrease in the number of viable parasites on all treated groups in comparison to their controls. The results of present study showed significant percentage of lethality (above 92%) of the protocol. The 98.33% of lethality was achieved with 10 μg/ml of FTZ. No lethality was seen on groups treated neither with laser nor with each compounds separately. The results are promising and indicative that the use of PACT may be a powerful treatment of Leishmaniasis when compared to already available ones.

  4. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with two photosensitizers on two oral streptococci: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, S.; Fekrazad, R.; Ayremlou, S.; Taheri, S.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Kalhori, K. A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Periodontal diseases are caused by infection of tissues supporting the teeth due to complex aggregate of bacteria known as biofilm and firstly colonized by streptococci. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of Radachlorin® and Toluidine Blue O (TBO)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the viability of two oral streptococci. Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis were subjected to either TBO or Radachlorin®, Then exposed to two different diode laser light at energy densities of 3, 6 J/cm2 at 633 nm and 6, 12 J/cm2 at 662 nm, respectively. The control groups were subjected to laser light alone, photosensitizer alone or received neither photosensitizer nor light exposure. The suspensions were then spread over specific agar mediums and viable microorganisms were counted after overnight incubation aerobically at 37°C, 5% CO2 and then reported as colony forming unit. The results indicated that photosensitization by the energy density of 6 J/cm2 with Radachlorin® and both 3 and 6 J/cm2 with TBO caused significant reduction in bacterial colony formation ( p photodynamic therapy seem to show excellent potential in significantly killing of two oral streptococci in vitro.

  5. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Ferula gummosa plant essential oil compared to NaOCl and CHX: a preliminary in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Gholami, Ahmad; Saliminasab, Mina; Kazemi, Aboozar; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The usage of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents has grown in many fields including dental medicine. The aim of this in vitro study was three-fold: (i) to determine the chemical compositions of the Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO), (ii) to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of the oil with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX), (iii) to assess the toxic behavior of FGEO in different concentrations compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Materials and Methods Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine the chemical compositions of the oil. The disk diffusion method and a broth micro-dilution susceptibility assay were exploited to assess the antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, and Candida albicans. The cytocompatibility of the FGEO was assessed on L929 fibroblasts, and compared to that of NaOCl and CHX. Results Twenty-seven constituents were recognized in FGEO. The major component of the oil was β-pinene (51.83%). All three irrigants significantly inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms compared to the negative control group. FGEO at 50 µg/mL was effective in lower concentration against Enterococcus faecalis than 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX, and was also more potent than 0.2% CHX against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. FGEO was a cytocompatible solution, and had significantly lower toxicity compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Conclusions FGEO showed a promising biological potency as a root canal disinfectant. More investigations are required on the effectiveness of this oil on intracanal bacterial biofilms. PMID:25671213

  6. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Ferula gummosa plant essential oil compared to NaOCl and CHX: a preliminary in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abbaszadegan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The usage of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents has grown in many fields including dental medicine. The aim of this in vitro study was three-fold: (i to determine the chemical compositions of the Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO, (ii to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of the oil with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and chlorhexidine (CHX, (iii to assess the toxic behavior of FGEO in different concentrations compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Materials and Methods Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used to determine the chemical compositions of the oil. The disk diffusion method and a broth micro-dilution susceptibility assay were exploited to assess the antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, and Candida albicans. The cytocompatibility of the FGEO was assessed on L929 fibroblasts, and compared to that of NaOCl and CHX. Results Twenty-seven constituents were recognized in FGEO. The major component of the oil was β-pinene (51.83%. All three irrigants significantly inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms compared to the negative control group. FGEO at 50 µg/mL was effective in lower concentration against Enterococcus faecalis than 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX, and was also more potent than 0.2% CHX against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. FGEO was a cytocompatible solution, and had significantly lower toxicity compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Conclusions FGEO showed a promising biological potency as a root canal disinfectant. More investigations are required on the effectiveness of this oil on intracanal bacterial biofilms.

  7. Cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Llanerón extracts: In vitro study

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    Rosa Raybaudi-Massilia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic and aqueous extracts were obtained from red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. by different methodologies to evaluate their cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Alcoholic extracts (MFP, MSd, SFP, SDP, SSd from fresh red sweet pepper (FP and dry pulp (DP and seed (Sd were obtained by maceration (M and Soxhlet (S equipment using methanol as extraction solvent; whereas aqueous extracts (LFP, LSd were obtained by decoction followed by lyophilization (L. Human tumoral cell lines from breast (MCF-7 and SKBr3, prostate (PC3 and cervix (HeLa, and fibroblasts (as control were used to determine the cytotoxic properties by the MTT assay. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were determined by DPPH and disc diffusion method, respectively. The extracts SDP and SFP showed the higher cytotoxic activity. The SDP extract had a significant (P < 0.05 in-vitro effect on HeLa (1.9 ± 1.4 µg/mL and PC3 (< 1 µg/mL cells with a moderated impact on fibroblasts (26.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL; whereas, SFP had a significant (p < 0.05 effect on MCF-7 cell line (2.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL with a moderated impact on fibroblasts (25.9 ± 1.0 µg/mL. The higher antioxidant activity was found for MFP (80.3 ± 0.2% and SFP extracts (75.5 ± 0.5%. Mild antimicrobial activity was only observed for alcoholic extracts. The results showed the potential of red sweet pepper (C. annuum L. as a source of antioxidant and cytotoxic compounds, and suggest the need of further studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds that impart those properties.

  8. Anti-folates potentiate bactericidal effects of other antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Xu-de; Yang, Shan-Shan; Gu, Jing; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2017-03-01

    Synergies between sulfonamides and other antimicrobial agents have long been reported, but the reason still remains unclear. Previously, Vilchèze et al. found that, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) could potentiate the bacterialcidal activity of isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To test if this was also the case in other bacteria, the ability to potentiate bactericidal effect of RIF by SMX was evaluated in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium smegmatis. And the ability to potentiate bactericidal effect of streptomycin (SM) by SMX was also evaluated in E. coli and M. Smegmatis. Susceptibility tests and drug exposure experiments were performed for RIF and SM in the presence of sub-ICs of SMX. In drug exposure experiments, 10 mg l-1 of 7,8-dihydropteroic acid (DHP) was used to reverse the effect of SMX. In the presence of sub-ICs of SMX, MIC of RIF for E. coli and M. smegmatis decreased 2 and 16 fold, respectively. In the drug exposure experiments, addition of sub-ICs of SMX suppressed the growth of RIF and SM resistant population in a pool of susceptible bacteria, and the effects of SMX could be reversed by DHP. Besides, we also found that, sub-ICs of para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) could bactericidal effects of INH, RIF and SM in M. tuberculosis. Taken together, our data suggest that, sub-ICs of anti-folates can potentiate bactericidal effects of other antimicrobial agents in various bacteria.

  9. Atividade in vitro de cinco drogas antimicrobianas contra Neisseria gonorrhoeae Activity of five antimicrobial agents in vitro against Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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    Walter Belda Júnior

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A utilização de antimicrobianos no tratamento da gonorréia iniciou-se em 1930 com a utilização das sulfonamidas. No decorrer dos anos outras drogas passaram a ser utilizadas em seu tratamento, como a penicilina, a espectinomicina, as tetraciclinas e outras. Embora altamente eficazes no início, essas drogas, ao longo do tempo, passaram a não mais apresentar o resultado terapêutico esperado em virtude do aparecimento de quadros de resistência cromossômica e plasmidial. Assim sendo, para se estabelecer um programa de combate e controle de determinada morbidade bacteriana, é necessária a realização de um programa de vigilância epidemiológica estadiando o comportamento de sensibilidade dos agentes etiológicos aos diferentes agentes terapêuticos. OBJETIVOS E MÉTODOS: Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a sensibilidade das cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae às cinco drogas mais utilizadas no tratamento da gonorréia no Brasil (penicilina; cefoxitina; tetraciclina; tianfenicol e espectinomicina, através da concentração inibitória mínima. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que drogas como a cefoxitina, o tianfenicol e a espectinomicina ainda constituem excelentes fármacos para o tratamento da gonorréia. A penicilina, embora ainda eficaz, enseja maiores cuidados na sua utilização, frente ao surgimento de cepas resistentes, e a tetraciclina deve ser sobremaneira contra-indicada no tratamento da gonorréia.BACKGROUND: The use of antimicrobial drugs in the treatment of gonorrhea began in 1930 with the use of sulfonamides. Through the years, other drugs such as penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline among others, came into use. Although highly efficient at first, with the passing of time these drugs began to present untoward therapeutic results, because of the appearance of cases with chromosomic and plasmidial resistance. Because of this, in order to establish a program to combat and control a determined bacterial

  10. Ginseng-berry-mediated gold and silver nanoparticle synthesis and evaluation of their in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity effects on human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Pérez, Zuly Elizabeth; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kang, Hyun Mi; Abbai, Ragavendran; Seo, Kwang Hoon; Wang, Dandan; Soshnikova, Veronika; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in the design of environmentally affable and biocompatible nanoparticles among scientists to find novel and safe biomaterials. Panax ginseng Meyer berries have unique phytochemical profile and exhibit beneficial pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, antiaging, and antioxidant properties. A comprehensive study of the biologically active compounds in ginseng berry extract (GBE) and the ability of ginseng berry (GB) as novel material for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GBAuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (GBAgNPs) was conducted. In addition, the effects of GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs on skin cell lines for further potential biological applications are highlighted. GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs were synthesized using aqueous GBE as a reducing and capping agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized for their size, morphology, and crystallinity. The nanoparticles were evaluated for antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity activities and for morphological changes in human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cell lines. The phytochemicals contained in GBE effectively reduced and capped gold and silver ions to form GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs. The optimal synthesis conditions (ie, temperature and v/v % of GBE) and kinetics were investigated. Polysaccharides and phenolic compounds present in GBE were suggested to be responsible for stabilization and functionalization of nanoparticles. GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs showed increased scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals compared to GBE. GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase, while GBAgNPs showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, GBAuNPs were nontoxic to human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma cell lines, and GBAgNPs showed cytotoxic effect on murine melanoma cell lines. The current results evidently suggest that GBAgNPs can act as potential

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elizete Maria; Gomes, Rafael Tomaz; Freire, Natália Ribeiro; Aguiar, Evandro Guimarães; Brandão, Maria das Graças Lins; Santos, Vagner Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the susceptibility of oral pathogenic microorganisms Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to Brazilian medicinal plant extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (aroeira), Croton campestris (velame), Lafoensia pacari (pacari), Centaurium erythraea (centáurea), Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimão), and Anacardium humile (cajuzinho-docerrado), as compared to standardized antimicrobial agents (nystatin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline hydrochloride). Ethanol, hexane and butane fractions from stem barks, rinds, leaves, and/or roots were extracted and tested. Antimicrobial diffusion agar test and MIC were performed according to CLSI. After 24 h of incubation at 37 °C, the diameter of inhibition zones and spectrophotometer readings were measured and compared. The results were reported as means ± standard deviation (M ± SD). With the exception of five extracts that showed no antimicrobial activity, all the extracts tested showed antimicrobial activity, in different levels. This study suggests that extracts from the plants tested could be an alternative therapeutic option for infectious conditions of the oral cavity, such as denture stomatitis, dental caries, and periodontitis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of flowering and non-flowering ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained from the flowering O. graveolens plant can justify its traditional use for treatment of common disease conditions. However, further studies should be conducted to buttress these findings and isolation of active antimicrobial components. Key words: Flowering and non-flowering parts of Ocimum graveolen, ...

  13. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of human Brucella melitensis isolates from Qatar between 2014 - 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, A.; Hagen, F.; Sharabasi, O.A.; Abraham, M.; Wilson, G.; Doiphode, S.; Maslamani, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals and is endemic in many parts of the world including the Gulf Cooperation Council region (GCC). The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of

  14. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of fruit and leaf crude extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Petroleum ether and methanolic crude extracts of fruits and leaves of the plant were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method on four reference microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus; and four clinical strains of Klebsiella ...

  15. In vitro growth of growth of campylobacter spp. inhibited by selected antimicrobial peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics are urgently needed for food-animal production. A goal of our laboratory is to develop and evaluate antimicrobial peptides (AMP) to control and reduce foodborne pathogens in poultry. AMP have been found in most every class of living organism...

  16. Efficacy of natural antimicrobials in toothpaste formulations against oral biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik, Martinus J; Busscher, Henk J; Jager, Debbie; Slomp, Anje M; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacies of two toothpaste formulations containing natural antimicrobials (herbal extracts and chitosan) against oral biofilms of different composition and maturational status. Bacteria from a buffer suspension or fresh saliva were adhered for 2h to a salivary conditioning film and subsequently grown for 16h. Dual-species biofilms were prepared from Actinomyces naeslundii T14V-J1 and Streptococcus oralis J22, whilst multi-species biofilms were grown from freshly collected human saliva. Biofilms were exposed to 25wt% toothpaste supernatants. A chlorhexidine-containing mouthrinse and a buffer were used as positive- and negative-controls, respectively. Antibacterial efficacy was concluded from acute killing, bacterial removal, prevention of bacterial re-deposition and continued killing during re-deposition. The herbal- and chitosan-based supernatants showed immediate killing of oral biofilm bacteria, comparable with chlorhexidine. Moreover, exposure of a biofilm to these supernatants or chlorhexidine, yielded ongoing killing of biofilm bacteria after exposure during re-deposition of bacteria to a matured 16h biofilm, but not to a much thinner initial biofilm formed by 2h adhesion only. This suggests that thicker, more matured biofilms can absorb and release oral antimicrobials. Supernatants based on herbal- and chitosan-based toothpastes have comparable immediate and ongoing antibacterial efficacies as chlorhexidine. Natural antimicrobials and chlorhexidine absorb in oral biofilms which contributes to their substantive action. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening of antimicrobial potential of in vitro calli and adult leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... methods could lead to maintain bioactive potential of plants and to formulate antimicrobial drugs of ... not much branched. Leaves are elliptic, oblong and acute at the top. Flowers are in umbel shape, peduncle arises between the petiole (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1998). The ... w: 220 v; light intensity 36 µ mol.

  18. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

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    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  19. Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of essential oil from Cladanthus arabicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Cladanthus arabicus (L.) Cass was studied for its chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. The essential oil (EO) was analyzed by GC-MS. Sixty seven compounds representing 94.2% of the oil were identified. The m...

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity of AH Plus, EndoREZ and Epiphany against microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Eiko Maekawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers against microorganisms. Materials and Methods : The agar diffusion method was used. A double base layer of Mueller Hinton agar was done. The microorganisms used were: Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The wells were obtained by removing a standardized portion of the agar. After the distribution of the sealers, Petri plates were incubated for 24 h. Inhibition halos formed around the wells were measured. Results : Epiphany did not show any antimicrobial activity on the tested microorganisms (without inhibition halo. The AH Plus showed the greatest inhibition halo on C. albicans followed by EndoREZ on S. aureus. EndoREZ also showed greater inhibition halo in comparison to AH Plus on E. faecalis and E. coli. Conclusion : It could be concluded that AH Plus and EndoREZ showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. No antimicrobial activity was observed for Epiphany.

  1. Immune-modifying and antimicrobial effects of Eucalyptus oil and simple inhalation devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadlon, Angela E; Lamson, Davis W

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus oil (EO) and its major component, 1,8-cineole, have antimicrobial effects against many bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA...

  2. Temporal trends in in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from foals with sepsis: 1979-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M. J P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412404648; Wilson, W. D.; Edman, J. M.; Magdesian, K. G.; Kass, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Reasons for performing the study: Monitoring the development of antimicrobial resistance is important for the rational selection of appropriate antimicrobial drugs to initiate treatment of foals with sepsis. Objectives: To identify temporal trends in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of

  3. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial efficacy of Lactobacilli against enteropathogenic infection of Salmonella typhi: In-vitro and in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaya, Basem; Hamzawy, Mohamed A; Khalil, Mahmoud A F; Tawkol, Wael M; Sabit, Hussein

    2015-12-01

    Salmonellosis-induced diarrhea, is one of the commonest cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. Using of probiotics is viewed as a promising means for reducing the pathogenic loads of bacterial infection. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy of isolated lactobacillus strains against the enteropathogenic effect of S. Typhi. Different Lactobacillus strains were isolated from 13 dairy products. Their antimicrobial activities were tested against different bacterial strains. Six groups of CD1 mice were treated for 8 days as follows: group (1) untreated control; group (2) was challenged with single inoculation S. typhi, and groups (3) and (4) were treated with Lactobacillus plantarum (LA5) or Lactobacillus paracsi (LA7) for 7 days, respectively. Groups (5) and (6) were challenged with S. typhi, and then treated with either LA5 or LA 7 for 7 days, respectively. Isolated Lactobacillus showed antimicrobial activity against wide range of bacterial strains. Salmonellosis showed high widal titer, induced significant disturbance of TNF and IL-1β, while sever changes of the histological patterns of the intestinal villi and hepatocytes have been illustrated. LA5 or LA7 succeeded to eradicate typhoid infection, restore the values of inflammatory cytokines to typical levels of control group, and improve histological pictures of intestinal and hepatic tissues. It can be concluded that lactobacilli are promising candidate in protection and eradication against bacterial infection induced by S. Typhi due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. In vitro and ex vivo antimicrobial efficacy of nano-MgO in the elimination of endodontic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzavi, Abbas; Eshraghi, Saeed; Hashemian, Roxana; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    The use of metal oxide nanoparticles has attracted lots of attention, mostly because of their promising antimicrobial activity along with their biocompatibility with mammalian cells. This study aims to investigate the in vitro and ex vivo antimicrobial efficiency of nano-magnesium oxide (MgO) aqueous solution against endodontic pathogens. The cytotoxicity of different concentrations of nano-MgO was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assay (LDH assay). A comparison of the antimicrobial efficiency of several concentrations of nano-MgO solution, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans was made using the direct contact method. An ex vivo model of decoronated and experimentally infected human teeth was employed to compare the efficiency of nano-MgO (5 mg/L) solution with NaOCl (5.25 %) in the elimination of E. faecalis. There was no statistically significant difference between nano-MgO solutions (10 and 5 mg/L), 5.25 % NaOCl, and 2 % CHX gluconate in terms of the required time to inhibit the growth of the tested pathogens (p > 0.05). The LDH assay showed no cytotoxicity of different concentrations of nano-MgO used in this study (p MgO (5 mg/L) and NaOCl (5.25 %)-treated teeth (5-6 log scale reduction). However, the nano-MgO group showed a significant decrease in colony-forming units per milliliter (7 log scale), 24 h post-irrigation (p MgO group (2-3 log scale difference) compared to the NaOCl group, indicating long-term antibacterial activity of nano-MgO (p MgO group. The detection limit was 10 CFU/mL. Nano-MgO aqueous solutions represent promising antimicrobial activities, both in vitro and ex vivo with minimal toxicity. Compared to NaOCl (5.25 %), nano-MgO (5 mg/L) exhibits statistically significant long-term efficiency in the elimination of E. faecalis in the root canal system. After further investigations, nano-MgO could be considered as a new

  5. Design of novel antimicrobial peptide dimer analogues with enhanced antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo by intermolecular triazole bridge strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beijun; Huang, Haifeng; Yang, Zhibin; Liu, Beiyin; Gou, Sanhu; Zhong, Chao; Han, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yun; Ni, Jingman; Wang, Rui

    2017-02-01

    Currently, antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerable attention because of their broad-sprectum activity and low prognostic to induce antibiotic resistance. In our study, for the first time, a series of side-chain hybrid dimer peptides J-AA (Anoplin-Anoplin), J-RR (RW-RW), and J-AR (Anoplin-RW) based on the wasp peptide Anoplin and the arginine- and tryptophan-rich hexapeptide RW were designed and synthesized by click chemistry, with the intent to improve the antimicrobial efficacy of peptides against bacterial pathogens. The results showed that all dimer analogues exhibited up to a 4-16 fold increase in antimicrobial activity compared to the parental peptides against bacterial strains. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity was confirmed by time-killing kinetics assay with two strains which showed that these dimer analogues at 1, 2×MIC were rapidly bactericidal and reduced the initial inoculum significantly during the first 2-6h. Notably, dimer peptides showed synergy and additivity effects when used in combination with conventional antibiotics rifampin or penicillin respectively against the multidrug-resistant strains. In the Escherichia coli-infected mouse model, all of hybrid dimer analogues had significantly lower degree of bacterial load than the untreated control group when injected once i.p. at 5mg/kg. In addition, the infected mice by methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strain could be effectively treated with J-RR. All of dimer analogues had membrane-active action mode. And the membrane-dependent mode of action signifies that peptides functions freely and without regard to conventional resistant mechanisms. Circular dichroism analyses of all dimer analogues showed a general predominance of α-helix conformation in 50% trifluoroethanol (TFE). Additionally, the acute toxicities study indicated that J-RR or J-AR did not show the signs of toxicity when adult mice exposed to concentration up to 120mg/kg. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of J-AA was 53.6mg/kg. In

  6. Antioxidative and antimicrobial effects of garlic in ground camel meat

    OpenAIRE

    GHEISARI, Hamid R.; RANJBAR, Vahid R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidative and antimicrobial effects of equivalent concentrations of garlic derivatives in ground camel meat during storage at 4 ± 1 °C. The addition of either garlic or butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (0.1 g/kg) significantly delayed lipid oxidation when compared with the control. The antioxidant activities of the various ingredients added followed the order of fresh garlic (FG), garlic powder (GP), BHA, and garlic oil (GO). After 14 days&ap...

  7. Synthesis, spectral studies and in vitro antimicrobial activity of some new di/tri-organotin (IV complexes of Schiff bases derived from 2-benzoylpyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatkar Priyanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a series of twenty-four organotin (IV complexes of the type [R2SnLCl, R3SnL] have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-benzoylpyridine Schiff bases with R2SnCl2, R3SnCl (R= Me, n-Bu, Ph in 1:1 molar ratio. These complexes were well characterized by IR, 1H, and 13C, 119Sn NMR, XRD and mass spectral techniques. In the search for biologically more effective antimicrobial agents, all the synthesized ligands and organotin complexes were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and two fungal strains by serial dilution method. The results of spectral data revealed that the complexes formed were hexacoordinated with tridentate ligands which coordinated through azomethine N, pyridine N and carboxylate O ligation sites. The ligands on co-ordination with tin metal showed a discernible augmentation in biocidal activity, however, the Ph and Bu complexes were found to be more intoxicating. The results revealed that the synthesized complexes were more noxious towards Gram positive strains as compared to Gram negative strains which may be attributed to the presence of an outer lipid membrane of lipopolysaccharides.

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss endemic in Khorasan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avaei Aida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the composition and antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil in "in vitro" condition. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was examined by GC/MS and the antimicrobial effect was studied on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Saccharomyces cereviciae, Candida utilis, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger using micro-dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration were determined. Results: Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 43 compounds in which the main components were thymol (42.46%, carvacrol (16.85%, р-cymene (10.62%, γ-terpinene (7.26% and α-pinene (3.00% representing 80.19% of the total oil. Other separated components accounted for less than 19.81% of the oil. Results of antimicrobial analysis showed that Bacillus cereus (MIC=50 and minimum bactericidal concentration=200 µg/mL was more resistant than two other bacterial species. Among the tested yeasts, Saccharomyces cereviciae (MIC=200 and minimum fungicidal concentration=1 600 µg/mL was more resistant than Candida utilis, while among the fungal species, growth of Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger inhibited at the same concentration of oil. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil had significant (P<0.05 antimicrobial activity.

  9. LED antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with phenothiazinium dye against Staphylococcus aureus: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Susana C P S; Monteiro, Juliana S C; Pires-Santos, Gustavo M; Sampaio, Fernando José Pires; Soares, Amanda P; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P; Pinheiro, Antônio L B

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the bactericidal effect of AmPDT on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) using different concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25μg/mL) of phenothiazine compound combined with LED light (λ632±2nm) using varied energy densities (12, 9.6, 7.2, 4.8 and 2.4J/cm 2 ). The experiments were carried out in triplicate and the samples were divided into groups: Control, Irradiated (treated only with light at different energy densities), Photosensitizer (treated only in the presence of the dye), AmPDT (treatment with light associated with dye). Counts of the colony forming units and the data obtained were statistically analyzed (ANOVA, Tukey's test, p<0.05). The results showed no difference between irradiated and Control groups. However, using the photosensitizer alone caused significant increased cytotoxicity and consequent reduction on the CFU counts (12.5μg/mL (p<0.001), 25μg/mL, 50μg/mL and 100μg/mL (p<0.0001). When AmPDT was used significant inhibition above 70% were detected for all concentrations of the photosensitize (p<0.0001) except for 6.25μg/mL. The results indicate a dose-response dependent when the photosensitizer is used alone but not for the sole use of the light is used. It is concluded that, a single application of AmPDT, using energy density of 12J/cm 2 associated either to 12.5 (81.52%) or 25μg/mL (91.57%) resulted in higher in vitro inhibition of S. aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRESERVATIVES TESTING OF THE MEDICINE "EFIAL"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borshchevskiy GI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dosage form - spray is one of the most advanced and modern methods of medicines administration in the human body. The advantage of airborne mode of medicines delivery (inhalation than injection and enterable methods is the ability to direct and rapid impact on the area of inflammation of the mucous membranes or when fine evaporation - on the bronchi and lungs. When finished medicinal product itself has not a sufficient antimicrobial activity, in its composition can be administered antimicrobial preservatives, which is especially important for medicines as aqueous solutions. Because microbial contamination can cause infection of the patient or damage to the finished product, antimicrobial preservatives are designed to prevent microbial contamination of the finished medicinal product during storage and use, especially in the case of multi-container packaging. Rationale of composition and technology of spray “Efial” was conducted by us using physical, chemical and technological methods. An important task in creating new medicines is the study of preservatives choice. The aim of this work is to test the effectiveness of antimicrobial preservatives of spray “Efial”. Material & methods The object of the test – “Efial”containing preservatives on the lower: series 10814 (holding inoculated samples at a temperature of 20-25 º C and series 10914 (holding inoculated samples at 2-8 º C. Materials: 1. Nutrient medium: soy-casein agar, sabourodextrose agar. 2. Solutions: buffer solution of sodium chloride and peptone pH =7.0, containing 50 g/l of polysorbate-80, 5 g/l of lecithin, 1 g/l of histidine hydrochloride. Test-microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027; Candida albicans ATCC 10231; Aspergillus brasiliensis АТСС 16404. Preparation of inoculums was carried by State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, p. 5.1.3. Results & discussion The checks of methods for determining total viable microorganisms

  11. Antimicrobial effect of MTAD, Tetraclean, Cloreximid, and sodium hypochlorite on three common endodontic pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giardino Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of BioPure MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, Tetraclean, Cloreximid (a mixture of Chlorhexidine (CHX digluconate and Cetrimide, and 5.25% NaOCl (Ogna Laboratori Farmaceutici, Milano, Italy against selected endodontic pathogens (Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia. Materials and Methods: The agar plate diffusion procedure was used to observe the antimibrobial activity of irrigants. Results: Statistical analysis revealed significant effects of the different irrigants on the bacteria colonies. Treatment with 5.25% NaOCl induced a larger zone of microbial inhibition in Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Tukey HSD post-test, P = 0.0001 when compare to MTAD, Tetraclean and CHX. Anyway, MTAD and Tetraclean were more effective to inhibit bacterial growth compared to CHX (P < 0.0001, Tukey HSD post-test. Furthermore, post hoc analysis revealed that MTAD and Tetraclean induced the largest zone of microbial inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis cultured under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, when compared with 2% CHX and NaOCl (P < 0.0001, Tukey HSD post-test. The control group showed no microbial inhibition. Conclusion: 5.25% NaOCl showed a high antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria. MTAD and Tetraclean showed a high action against both, strictly anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Chlorexidine + Cetrimide (Cloreximid showed the lowest antibacterial activity against both, facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria tested.

  12. Antimicrobial effect of MTAD, Tetraclean, Cloreximid, and sodium hypochlorite on three common endodontic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Luciano; Savoldi, Enrico; Ambu, Emanuele; Rimondini, Roberto; Palezona, Alberto; Debbia, Eugenio A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of BioPure MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN), Tetraclean, Cloreximid (a mixture of Chlorhexidine (CHX) digluconate and Cetrimide), and 5.25% NaOCl (Ogna Laboratori Farmaceutici, Milano, Italy) against selected endodontic pathogens (Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia). The agar plate diffusion procedure was used to observe the antimibrobial activity of irrigants. Statistical analysis revealed significant effects of the different irrigants on the bacteria colonies. Treatment with 5.25% NaOCl induced a larger zone of microbial inhibition in Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Tukey HSD post-test, P = 0.0001) when compare to MTAD, Tetraclean and CHX. Anyway, MTAD and Tetraclean were more effective to inhibit bacterial growth compared to CHX (P < 0.0001, Tukey HSD post-test). Furthermore, post hoc analysis revealed that MTAD and Tetraclean induced the largest zone of microbial inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis cultured under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, when compared with 2% CHX and NaOCl (P < 0.0001, Tukey HSD post-test). The control group showed no microbial inhibition. 5.25% NaOCl showed a high antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria. MTAD and Tetraclean showed a high action against both, strictly anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Chlorexidine + Cetrimide (Cloreximid) showed the lowest antibacterial activity against both, facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria tested.

  13. Antimicrobial effect of protein(s) isolated from a marine mollusc Telescopium telescopium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrashi, A; Roy, P; Datta, U

    2001-04-01

    Ammonium sulfate precipitated protein (SF-50) isolated from the spermatheca gland of Telescopium telescopium, an invertebrate marine snail, showed antimicrobial effect on Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial effect varied with the concentration of "SF-50" used and the effect was found to be comparable to antibiotics like amikacin, contrimoxazole and gentamycin in disc diffusion test. The "SF-50" was devoid of erythrocyte haemolysis property.

  14. In vitro susceptibilities of recent field isolates of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae to valnemulin (Econor), tiamulin and enrofloxacin and the in vitro development of resistance to certain antimicrobial agents in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, P C; Windsor, H M; Ripley, P H

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro activities of valnemulin (Econor) and two other antimicrobial agents were determined against recent field strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae using a broth microdilution method. Valnemulin showed exceptional activity against M hyopneumoniae (MIC90 0.0005 microgram ml-1) and M hyosynoviae (MIC range 0.0001 microgram ml-1 to 0.00025 microgram ml-1) field strains. Tiamulin was 100-fold less active (MIC90 0.05 microgram ml-1) and enrofloxacin 20-fold less active (MIC90 0.01 microgram ml-1) than valnemulin against M hyopneumoniae field isolates and 20-fold to 25-fold less active (MIC range 0.0025 microgram ml-1 to 0.005 microgram ml-1) and 400-fold to 500-fold less active (MIC range 0.05 microgram ml-1 to 0.1 microgram ml-1) respectively against M hyosynoviae field isolates. No significant resistance developed to valnemulin or tiamulin in the type strain of M hyopneumoniae (strain J) or in a recent field isolate (MEVT G23) exposed to 10 in vitro passages in broths containing these antibiotics. Only slight resistance to oxytetracycline was observed. High resistance to tylosin developed in both M hyopneumoniae strains within five to seven in vitro passages in tylosin-containing broth. Providing that similar results are obtained in vivo under field conditions, valnemulin may well prove to be effective in the treatment of enzootic pneumonia and acute polyarthritis in pigs.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus L. edible oil and phenolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezni, F; Aouadhi, C; Khouja, M L; Khaldi, A; Maaroufi, A

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. is known in some Tunisian forest area by its fixed oil used in traditional medicine as an antiseptic product. This investigation is the first to study the antimicrobial activity of P.lentiscus edible oil and its phenolic extract. Oil was extracted from fruits harvested from six provenances located in Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity was tested using disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Kbouch and Sidi Zid oils were most efficient (p < 0.003) against, respectively, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger with an inhibition zone of 9.33 mm. The phenolic extract had the largest spectrum of sensitive microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration results showed that all strains were inhibited by both oil and extract.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Triphala on Lactobacilli and Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Chainani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether Triphala (Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula, Emblica officinalis extract has an antimicrobial activity against Lactobacilli and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Triphala was prepared by using the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethylformamide, to obtain 15 different concentrations of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethylformamide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 15 different concentrations of the extract gave a wider inhibition zone against Lactobacilli and C. albicans. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters using a Vernier caliper. Results and Conclusions: Triphala extract demonstrated antimicrobial property against Lactobacilli and C. albicans with maximum zone of inhibition of 22 mm at 6% and 20 mm at 9%.

  17. Qualitative phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test micro organisms were: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi (Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. (Grampositive). The extracts inhibited the growth of all the test organisms at different concentrations especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

  18. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Contemporary Obturating Materials used in Primary Teeth- An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navit, Saumya; Jaiswal, Neha; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Malhotra, Seema; Sharma, Anshul; Mukesh; Jabeen, Seema; Agarwal, Gaurav

    2016-09-01

    Preservation of primary tooth with non-vital pulp has been a major problem for pediatric dentist. In such cases, the preferred treatment modality is pulpectomy. The objective of pulpectomy is complete removal of necrotic and irreversibly infected pulp of an affected tooth but, in spite of chemomechanical preparation and copious irrigation of canal, there are chances of failure of pulp therapy due to the entrapped micro organisms in the canal space owing to the tortuous and complex nature of the root canal system and change in their morphology with root resorption. Thus, for optimal success of endodontic treatment, obturating material with antimicrobial properties is advocated in deciduous teeth. The aim of the study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of different obturating materials used in pediatric dentistry. In the present study, antimicrobial efficacy of endoflas, Zinc Oxide Eugenol (ZOE), calcium hydroxide with chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide with iodoform and distilled water, metapex and saline as control were assessed and compared with each other. The antimicrobial efficacy of obturating materials was evaluated against E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) by agar diffusion method. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 15.0. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Post-Hoc Tests (Tukey-HSD) were performed to reveal the statistical significance. Intergroup comparison at 24 hours (Tukey's test) revealed significant difference amongst all the groups. Endoflas had significantly higher zone of inhibition as compared to all the other groups except group treated with ZOE (p-value ZOE >Calcium hydroxide + Chlorhexidine > Calcium hydroxide + Iodoform +Distilled water ~ Metapex > Saline.

  19. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Contemporary Obturating Materials used in Primary Teeth- An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Neha; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Malhotra, Seema; Sharma, Anshul; Mukesh; Jabeen, Seema; Agarwal, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preservation of primary tooth with non-vital pulp has been a major problem for pediatric dentist. In such cases, the preferred treatment modality is pulpectomy. The objective of pulpectomy is complete removal of necrotic and irreversibly infected pulp of an affected tooth but, in spite of chemomechanical preparation and copious irrigation of canal, there are chances of failure of pulp therapy due to the entrapped micro organisms in the canal space owing to the tortuous and complex nature of the root canal system and change in their morphology with root resorption. Thus, for optimal success of endodontic treatment, obturating material with antimicrobial properties is advocated in deciduous teeth. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of different obturating materials used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and Methods In the present study, antimicrobial efficacy of endoflas, Zinc Oxide Eugenol (ZOE), calcium hydroxide with chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide with iodoform and distilled water, metapex and saline as control were assessed and compared with each other. The antimicrobial efficacy of obturating materials was evaluated against E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) by agar diffusion method. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 15.0. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Post-Hoc Tests (Tukey-HSD) were performed to reveal the statistical significance. Results Intergroup comparison at 24 hours (Tukey’s test) revealed significant difference amongst all the groups. Endoflas had significantly higher zone of inhibition as compared to all the other groups except group treated with ZOE (p-value ZOE >Calcium hydroxide + Chlorhexidine > Calcium hydroxide + Iodoform +Distilled water ~ Metapex > Saline. PMID:27790570

  20. In vitro susceptibility of the Streptococcus milleri group to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartie, K L; Devine, D A; Wilson, M J; Lewis, M A O

    2008-07-01

    To determine the susceptibility of strains of the Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) to commercially available antimicrobial peptides. Thirty strains of SMG from a range of sources were assessed for their susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial peptides of either human, animal or insect origin, using a double layer diffusion assay. The majority of the test strains were sensitive to the amidated peptides, mastoparan (100%; n = 30), magainin 2 amide (95%; n = 21) and indolicin (91%; n = 23). Some strains were susceptible to cecropin B (30%; n = 30) and histatin (10%; n = 30), whilst no activity was observed for the defensins HNP-1 and HNP-2, histatin 8, cecropin P1 and magainin 2. The majority of strains were resistant to the human derived peptides. The ability to resist such peptides may be a factor in the colonisation of the oral cavity and the survival and initiation of infection in the pulp and root canal environment. Interestingly, the present study indicated that amidated and alpha helical peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity against SMG. Structural modification of these peptides may allow a targeted approach for the development of these substances as preventative or therapeutic agents.

  1. In Vitro Antimicrobial Bioassays, DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity, and FTIR Spectroscopy Analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and functional group analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum extracts. Disc diffusion susceptibility method was followed for antimicrobial assessment. Noteworthy antimicrobial activities were recorded by various plant extracts against antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Plant flower extracts antioxidant activity was investigated against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical by ultraviolet spectrophotometer (517 nm. Plant extracts displayed noteworthy radical scavenging activities at all concentrations (25–225 μg/mL. Notable activities were recorded by crude, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts up to 88.27% at 225 μg/mL concentration. Compounds functional groups were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies. Alkanes, alkenes, alkyl halides, amines, carboxylic acids, amides, esters, alcohols, phenols, nitrocompounds, and aromatic compounds were identified by FTIR analysis. Thin layer chromatography bioautography was carried out for all plant extracts. Different bands were separated by various solvent systems. The results of the current study justify the use of Heliotropium bacciferum in traditional remedial herbal medicines.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs. PMID:23171441

  3. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahameethunisa Abdul R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs.

  4. Synergistic in vitro photodynamic antimicrobial activity of methylene blue and chitosan against Helicobacter pylori 26695.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Chae, Hiun Suk

    2014-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a method for killing cells (bacterial, fungal and cancer cells) or virus using photosensitizers (PS) and light of various wavelengths. In vitro PDT using endoscopic light against H. pylori was effective at a concentration of 0.2mg/mL of MB. The purpose of this study was to increase the effect of photodynamic modality against H. pylori by addition of chitosan to MB. The bactericidal effect was measured by counting viable cells after PDT. The degree of damage to DNA was confirmed using alkaline gel electrophoresis. Cellular DNA damage was demonstrated by ethidium bromide monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR). In the groups treated with either 0.04 mg/mL MB alone or 0.02 mg/mL MB with endoscopic light for 15 min, viable cells were decreased approximately tenfold. The group treated with 0.04 mg/mL of MB with light, showed more effective bactericidal activity than 0.02 mg/mL of MB treatment. By 0.05% chitosan pre-treatment followed with 0.04 mg/mL of MB and light irradiation, viable cells were decreased 10(7)-fold. The DNA damage caused by PDT as demonstrated by alkaline gel electrophoresis was greater in the MB plus chitosan-treated group than in control and MB-treated groups. Cellular DNA damage demonstrated by EMA-qPCR was also greater in the group treated with MB plus chitosan than in the MB-treated group. The bactericidal effects with PDT using MB were increased with the concentration of photosensitizer and chitosan treatment, peculiarly before endoscopic light irradiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

  6. Evaluation of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of an ethanol extract of Brazilian classified propolis on strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Coelho Pamplona-Zomenhan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the most frequent causes of hospital acquired infections. With the increase in multiple drug resistant strains, natural products such as propolis are a stratagem for new product discovery. The aims of this study were: to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of an ethanol extract of propolis; to define the MIC50 and MIC90 (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration - MIC against 210 strains of S. aureus; to characterize a crude sample of propolis and the respective ethanol extract as to the presence of predetermined chemical markers. The agar dilution method was used to define the MIC and the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used to characterize the samples of propolis. MIC results ranged from 710 to 2,850 µg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 for the 210 strains as well as the individual analysis of American Type Culture Collection (ATCC strains of Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA were both 1,420 µg/mL. Based on the chromatographic analysis of the crude sample and ethanol extracted propolis, it was concluded that propolis was a mixture of the BRP (SP/MG and BRP (PR types. The results obtained confirm an antimicrobial activity in relation to the strains of the S. aureus tested.

  7. In vitro activity of ketolides HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 and seven other antimicrobial agents against Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, K H; Warner, M; George, R C

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activities of two ketolides, HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 (telithromycin), and the comparator agents erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin and penicillin G were determined by an agar dilution method against 410 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Test isolates originated from diverse geographical locations, including the former USSR, where epidemic diphtheria has re-emerged during the 1990s. All isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin G, ofloxacin and levofloxacin. The two ketolides and four macrolides were highly active against 405 of the 410 isolates. HMR 3004 was the most active of the drugs, followed by HMR 3647, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, roxithromycin and azithromycin. Five isolates showed reduced susceptibility to all macrolides and ketolides tested; three were non-toxigenic isolates from Australia and the remaining two were from cases of diphtheria in Vietnam. Inducible (MLS(B)) resistance was detected in the isolates from Vietnam, but not in the isolates originating from Australia. Significant antimicrobial resistance remains rare amongst C. diphtheriae; nevertheless, new ketolide antimicrobials may have a role to play in the treatment and control of this re-emergent pathogen.

  8. Antibiotic-free nanotherapeutics: hypericin nanoparticles thereof for improved in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial photodynamic therapy and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafee, Noha; Youssef, Alaa; El-Gowelli, Hanan; Asem, Heba; Kandil, Sherif

    2013-09-15

    Hypericin (HY) is a naturally-occurring, potent photosensitizer. However, its lipophilicity limits its therapeutic applications. Our attempt is, thus, to develop a biodegradable nanocarrier for hypericin capable of preserving its antibacterial photoactivity. Amphiphilic block copolymers were synthesized to prepare hypericin-laden nanoparticles (HY-NPs). The antimicrobial photoactivity of HY-NPs was assessed; in vitro against biofilm and planktonic cells of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates and in vivo on infected wounds in rats. Nanoparticles of 45 nm in diameter ensured higher amounts of reactive oxygen species upon irradiation. HY-NPs demonstrated superior inhibition of biofilm over planktonic cells. In vivo wound healing studies in rats revealed faster healing, better epithelialization, keratinization and development of collagen fibers when HY-NPs were applied. Determination of growth factors and inflammatory mediators in the wound area confirmed superior healing potential of nanoencapsulated hypericin suggesting that hypericin can join the era of antibiotic-free antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the antimicrobial activities of gallium nitrate and gallium maltolate against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Aceto, Helen W; Bernstein, Lawrence R; Sweeney, Raymond W

    2014-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is an enteric infection of cattle and other ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study compared the antimicrobial activities of gallium nitrate (GaN) and gallium maltolate (GaM) against two field MAP isolates by use of broth culture. The concentrations that resulted in 99% growth inhibition of isolates 1 and 2 were, respectively, 636 µM and 183 µM for GaN, and 251 µM and 142 µM for GaM. For both isolates, time to detection was significantly higher for GaM than GaN. These results suggest that GaM is more efficient than GaN in inhibiting MAP growth in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial activities of widely consumed herbal teas, alone or in combination with antibiotics: an in vitro study

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    Mayram Hacioglu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Because of increasing antibiotic resistance, herbal teas are the most popular natural alternatives for the treatment of infectious diseases, and are currently gaining more importance. We examined the antimicrobial activities of 31 herbal teas both alone and in combination with antibiotics or antifungals against some standard and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin susceptible/resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Methods The antimicrobial activities of the teas were determined by using the disk diffusion and microbroth dilution methods, and the combination studies were examined by using the microbroth checkerboard and the time killing curve methods. Results Rosehip, rosehip bag, pomegranate blossom, thyme, wormwood, mint, echinacea bag, cinnamon, black, and green teas were active against most of the studied microorganisms. In the combination studies, we characterized all the expected effects (synergistic, additive, and antagonistic between the teas and the antimicrobials. While synergy was observed more frequently between ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, or nystatine, and the various tea combinations, most of the effects between the ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, cefuroxime, or amikacin and various tea combinations, particularly rosehip, rosehip bag, and pomegranate blossom teas, were antagonistic. The results of the time kill curve analyses showed that none of the herbal teas were bactericidal in their usage concentrations; however, in combination with antibiotics they showed some bactericidal effect. Discussion Some herbal teas, particularly rosehip and pomegranate blossom should be avoided because of their antagonistic interactions with some antibiotics during the course of antibiotic treatment or they should be consumed alone for their antimicrobial activities.

  11. Evaluation physical characteristics and comparison antimicrobial and anti-inflammation potentials of dental root canal sealers containing hinokitiol in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hua Shih

    Full Text Available Hinokitiol displays potent antimicrobial activity. It has been used in toothpaste and oral-care gel to improve the oral lichen planus and reduce halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 3 different dental root canal sealers with hinokitiol (sealers+H and their physical and biological effects. AH Plus (epoxy amine resin-based, AH, Apexit Plus (calcium-hydroxide-based, AP, and Canals (zinc-oxide-eugenol-based, CA, were used in this study. The original AH and CA exhibited strong anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA activity, but AP did not. The setting time, working time, flowability, film thickness, and solubility of each sealer+0.2%H complied with ISO 6876:2001. CA+0.2%H exhibited high cytotoxicity, but the others sealers+0.2%H did not. Because hinokitiol combined with Zn2+ in CA creates a synergistic effect. The physical tests of AP+0.5%-1%H complied with ISO 6876:2001, improved antimicrobial activity, inhibited inflammation genes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α mRNA in MG-63 cells and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF, and down-regulated lysyl oxidase (LOX mRNA of HGF. In summary, AH and CA demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity, but AP did not. Application of hinokitiol increases AH anti-MRSA activity should less than 0.2% for keep well flowability. AP+0.5%-1% hinokitiol exhibited strong physical, antibacterial, and anti-inflammation potentials, and inhibited S. aureus abscess formation. Applying an appreciable proportion of hinokitiol to epoxy-amine-resin-based and calcium-hydroxide-based root canal sealers is warranted, but the enhanced cytotoxicity and synergistic effect must be considered.

  12. Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Effects of Human Amniotic/Chorionic Membrane Extract on Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh K. Yadav

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Streptococcus pneumoniae colonize the human nasopharynx in the form of biofilms. The biofilms act as bacterial reservoirs and planktonic bacteria from these biofilms can migrate to other sterile anatomical sites to cause pneumonia, otitis media (OM, bacteremia and meningitis. Human amniotic membrane contains numerous growth factors and antimicrobial activity; however, these have not been studied in detail. In this study, we prepared amniotic membrane extract and chorionic membrane extract (AME/CME and evaluated their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. pneumoniae using an in vitro biofilm model and in vivo OM rat model.Materials and Methods: The AME/CME were prepared and protein was quantified using DCTM (detergent compatible method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using broth dilution method, and the synergistic effect of AME/CME with Penicillin-streptomycin was detected checkerboard. The in vitro biofilm and in vivo colonization of S. pneumoniae were studied using microtiter plate assay and OM rat model, respectively. The AME/CME-treated biofilms were examined using scanning electron microscope and confocal microscopy. To examine the constituents of AME/CME, we determined the proteins and peptides of AME/CME using tandem mass tag-based quantitative mass spectrometry.Results: AME/CME treatment significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited S. pneumoniae growth in planktonic form and in biofilms. Combined application of AME/CME and Penicillin-streptomycin solution had a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. Biofilms grown with AME/CME were thin, scattered, and unorganized. AME/CME effectively eradicated pre-established pneumococci biofilms and has a bactericidal effect. AME treatment significantly (p < 0.05 reduced bacterial colonization in the rat middle ear. The proteomics analysis revealed that the AME/CME contains hydrolase, ribonuclease, protease, and other antimicrobial proteins and peptides

  13. Studies on the antimicrobial effect of corn steep liquor on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) was investigated over a five day period. The pH and titrable acidity of the liquor were determined, while the antimicrobial effect on some diarrhoea causing organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteriditis, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was ...

  14. Update on Acinetobacter species: mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and contemporary in vitro activity of minocycline and other treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-12-01

    Among Acinetobacter species, A. baumannii and other closely related species are commonly implicated in nosocomial infections. These organisms are usually multidrug resistant (MDR), and therapeutic options to treat A. baumannii infections are very limited. Clinicians have been resorting to older antimicrobial agents to treat infections caused by MDR A. baumannii, and some of these agents have documented toxicity and/or are not optimized for the infection type to be treated. Recent clinical experience supported by antimicrobial susceptibility data suggests that minocycline has greater activity than other tetracyclines and glycylcyclines against various MDR pathogens that have limited therapeutic options available, including Acinetobacter species. An intravenous formulation of minocycline has recently become available for clinical use, and in contrast to most older tetracyclines, minocycline has high activity against Acinetobacter species. In this report, we summarized some of the characteristics of the tetracycline class, and quantified the minocycline activity against contemporary (2007-2011) isolates and its potential therapeutic role against a collection of 5477 A. baumannii and other relevant gram-negative organisms when compared directly with tetracycline, doxycycline, and other broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. Acinetobacter baumannii strains were highly resistant to all agents tested, with the exception of minocycline (79.1% susceptible) and colistin (98.8% susceptible). Minocycline (minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits 50% and 90% of the isolates [MIC(50/90)]: 1/8 µg/mL) displayed greater activity than doxycycline (MIC(50/90): 2/>8 µg/mL) and tetracycline hydrochloride (HCL) (only 30.2% susceptible) against A. baumannii isolates, and was significantly more active than other tetracyclines against Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates. In vitro susceptibility testing using

  15. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarski Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7 by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 μg/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values ≤ 250 μg/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential

  16. In vitro antiviral activity of antimicrobial peptides against herpes simplex virus 1, adenovirus, and rotavirus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carriel-Gomes, Márcia Cristina; Kratz, Jadel Müller; Barracco, Margherita Anna; Bachére, Evelyne; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper describes the in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of nine peptides with different structures and origins against herpes simplex virus type 1, human adenovirus...

  17. Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana in vitro dos Staphylococcus coagulase negativa oculares In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococcal ocular isolates

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    Maria de Fátima Azevedo Gayoso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a suscetibilidade, in vitro, de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCoN, isolados da conjuntiva e córnea, à meticilina, às fluoroquinolonas e aos aminoglicosídeos. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas retrospectivamente 707 amostras oculares de SCoN quanto à suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos pelo teste de disco difusão, durante o período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2003. RESULTADOS: Houve um aumento do número de SCoN em isolados da conjuntiva (n=57, ano de 2000 e n=153, ano de 2003 e da córnea (n=28, ano de 2000 e n=78, ano de 2003. A freqüência de SCoN resistentes à meticilina isolados da conjuntiva e da córnea, aumentou (1,8 a 19,6% e 14,3 a 29,3% respectivamente durante o período avaliado. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nos anos estudados, nos percentuais de SCoN resistentes às fluoroquinolonas, nas conjuntivas (ofloxacina: 1,8 a 7,8% e ciprofloxacina: 3,5 a 9,2% e nas córneas (ofloxacina: 14,3 a 9,0% e ciprofloxacina:14,3 a 10,3%. Avaliando-se os resultados das amostras isoladas da conjuntiva, observou-se um aumento na resistência à tobramicina: 15,8 a 34,6%; e à gentamicina: 10,5 a 25,5%; mas não houve mudança no perfil de resistência das amostras da córnea à tobramicina: 28,6 a 26,9% e à gentamicina: 21,4 a 23,1%. CONCLUSÃO: Houve diminuição na suscetibilidade in vitro dos SCoN para meticilina, tobramicina e gentamicina. As fluoroquinolonas, representadas pela ofloxacina e ciprofloxacina, demonstraram ter um padrão estável de suscetibilidade in vitro.PURPOSE: To assess the in vitro susceptibility of conjunctival and corneal coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS to methicillin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. METHODS: A total of 707 conjunctival and corneal CoNS disk diffusion test results were retrospectively analyzed, from January 2000 through December 2003. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2003, there was an increase in number of CoNS isolated from conjunctiva (n=57 to n=153

  18. In vitro antimicrobial activity of solution blow spun poly(lactic acid)/polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers loaded with Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonan, Roberta F. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais (DEMAT), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Cidade Universitária, 58.051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Cidade Universitária, 58.051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Bonan, Paulo R.F.; Batista, André U.D.; Sampaio, Fábio C.; Albuquerque, Allan J.R. [Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Cidade Universitária, 58.051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Moraes, Maria C.B. [Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Parque Estação Ecológica, W/5 Norte (Final) Cenargen (Laboratório de Semioquímicos) ASA NORTE, 70770900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Mattoso, Luiz H.C. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegócio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentação Agropecuária (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Glenn, Gregory M. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Bioproduct Chemistry and Engineering - BCE, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); and others

    2015-03-01

    In this study poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) micro- and nanofiber mats loaded with Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil were produced by solution blow spinning (SBS). The Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil was characterized by gas chromatography (GC). Neat PLA and four PLA/PVP blends containing 20% (wt.%) oil were spun and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by studying the surface contact angle, in vitro release rate, and antimicrobial activity. All compositions evaluated were able to produce continuous and smooth fibers by SBS. The addition of PVP increased fiber diameter, and decreased the surface contact angle. GC analysis demonstrated that the main component of the Copaiba oil was β-caryophyllene, a known antimicrobial agent. In vitro release tests of Copaiba oil volatiles demonstrated a higher release rate in fibers containing PVP. Fiber mats made from blends containing higher amounts of PVP had greater antimicrobial action against Staphylococcus aureus. The results confirm the potential of the fiber mats for use in controlled drug release and could lead to promising applications in the biomedical field. - Highlights: • An efficient method for production of antimicrobial nanofiber mats using solution blow spinning was reported. • Nanofiber mats containing Copaiba oil were efficient against Staphylococcus aureus. • Nanofiber composition changed morphological properties and antimicrobial action.

  19. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and the Major Polyphenol in Leaf Extract of Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masibo, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of plant extracts as antimicrobials has recently gained wide attention over the continued use of synthetic antibiotics. In this work, Chinese mango leaves were subjected to different extraction regimes namely decoction (50 °C for 48 h and boiling for 3 h and solvent extraction (50% ethanolic solution at 62 °C for 1 h. The extract solutions were lyophilized yielding 24–26% powdered extracts that were used for the antimicrobial tests against four pathogenic (Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and two generally regarded as safe (Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus microbial strains. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by inhibition diameters which were found to range from 9–15.5 mm for the three extracts against all the bacterial strains tested and inhibition growth curves which showed the extracts as first acting within the first 20 min after which a steady state (bacteriostatic was attained and maintained throughout the testing time (360 min with a significant difference (p<0.05 from the negative control. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for the extracts were later determined by two fold serial dilutions method and they ranged from 36.2–18.2 mg/mL against all the strains. The extracts were then subjected to reversed-phase HPLC to identify and quantify the polyphenol mangiferin which was found to be the abundant compound in the extracts at 100 μg/mL with no significant difference (p<0.05 in quantity among the three extracts.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against selected single-species biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, N T; Gomes, B P F A; Vianna, M E; Berber, V B; Zaia, A A; Ferraz, C C R; Souza-Filho, F J

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the antimicrobial activity of 2.5% and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2.0% chlorhexidine gel and liquid as endodontic-irrigating substances against selected single-species biofilms. Single-species biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were generated on a cellulose nitrate membrane placed on agar medium. The biofilms were then immersed in the endodontic-irrigating substances for 30 s and also for 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min, with and without mechanical agitation. Sterile saline was used as control. After each time period, the membrane filters were then transferred to tubes containing 2 mL of fresh broth medium plus neutralizers (in order to prevent the residual action of the tested substances). The micro-organisms were suspended using a vortex, and the inoculum was serially diluted 10-fold. Aliquots of the dilutions were plated on 5% sheep blood agar medium, and incubated under adequate gaseous conditions. Colony-forming units were calculated. The samples were compared using the Friedman and Tukey test, when necessary, at a significance level of P chlorhexidine, killed the tested micro-organisms more rapidly. Saline did not inhibit the growth of any of the tested micro-organisms, with or without agitation, being statistically different (P chlorhexidine. P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, P. endodontalis and F. nucleatum were eliminated in 30 s by all antimicrobial agents, with our without agitation, in contrast with the facultative and aerobe strains. Mechanical agitation improved the antimicrobial properties of the chemical substances tested using a biofilm model, favouring the agents in liquid presentation, especially 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to nine antibiotics currently used in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Mara; Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Cataldi, Valentina; Marzio, Leonardo; Grossi, Laurino; Ciccaglione, Antonio Francesco; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori expresses an increased resistance in respect to antimicrobials currently used in therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial profiles of H. pylori isolates to nine conventional antibiotics used in a Central Region (Abruzzo) of Italy. Biopsies were taken from antrum and fundus of 112 adult and 3 children with Urea Breath Test positive with dyspeptic symptoms and analyzed for H. pylori culture and antibacterial activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, and rifabutin by a modified agar dilution susceptibility test. Bacterial culture was successful in 100 out of 115 patients. Helicobacter pylori strains were isolated from 98 antrum and 83 fundus samples. The rate of recovery of H. pylori strains was 90.50% (181/200). The percentages of resistance were as follows: clarithromycin 72.44% antrum, 72.28% fundus; metronidazole 34.69% antrum, 42.16% fundus; levofloxacin 42.85% antrum, 53.01% fundus; moxifloxacin 37.35% antrum, 46.57% fundus; ciprofloxacin 39.47% antrum, 44.28% fundus; tetracycline 2.63% antrum, 2.85% fundus; amoxicillin 1.02% antrum, 1.20% fundus; ampicillin 0% antrum and fundus and rifabutin 0% antrum, 1.20% fundus. A total of 35 subjects harbored multi-resistant strains. This study underlines the high rate of resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolones, which may reflect an overuse of them. Culture and susceptibility test, should be performed to prevent the emergence of multi-resistance and to assess an efficacious regimen.

  2. In vitro photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in dentine contaminated by cariogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, M. A. S.; de-Paula, D. M.; Lima, J. P. M.; Borges, F. M. C.; Steiner-Oliveira, C.; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M.; Zanin, I. C. J.; Barros, E. B.; Rodrigues, L. K. A.

    2010-06-01

    The development of a method to ensure bacterial-free substrates without extensive cavity preparation would be highly useful to dentistry, since there is no currently available effective method for killing residual bacteria in dentinal tissue. This randomized in vitro study determined parameters for using toluidine blue O (TBO) with a light-emitting diode (LED) for dentine caries disinfection and monitored intrapulpal/periodontal temperatures during irradiation. Occlusal human dentine slabs were immersed in Streptococcus mutans culture for demineralization induction. Slabs were allocated to 10 groups ( n = 15), which were treated with 0.1 mg ml-1 TBO with 5 min of incubation time or 0.9% NaCl solution for 5, 10 or 15 min, and submitted or not to irradiation for 5, 10 or 15 min (47, 94, and 144 J/cm2). Before and after treatments, dentine samples were analyzed with regard to S. mutans counts. In whole teeth, temperature in pulp and periodontium was measured by thermocouples during irradiation. Kruskal-Wallis/Student-Newman-Keuls, and ANOVA/Tukey test were respectively utilized to compare log reductions and temperature rises between groups. Bacterial reduction was observed when dentine was exposed to both TBO and LED at all irradiation times, as well as to LED alone for 10 and 15 min. Temperature increases lower than 2°C were observed for either pulp or periodontium. Concluding, LED combined with TBO is a safe and effective approach for dentine caries disinfection. Nevertheless, additional studies should be conducted to determine the influence of the irradiation in S. mutans viability in dentinal surface/tubules.

  3. Immunobiological Effects of Glucosamine In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, L; Thorn, M; Met, O

    2003-01-01

    Glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) were assayed in vitro for their effects on proliferation, cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion in primary and secondary mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLCs). In addition, we studied the effect of GlcN and GlcNAc on the proliferation of purified CD4...

  4. Effect of Fatty Acid Conjugation on Antimicrobial Peptide Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu-Kung, Alexander F; Bozzelli, Kristen N; Nguyen, Rose; Tirrell, Matthew V

    2004-01-01

    ... or the conjugate of the nonamphipathic peptide, KAK. The induction of helicity corresponds to a significant improvement in antimicrobial activity as measured by a minimum bactericidal concentration test...

  5. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: a literature review - Part II. in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohyun Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this study reviewed the characteristics of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 and summarized the results of in vitro studies related to its antimicrobial effects. The second part of this review covers in vivo studies including human clinical studies and animal studies. The use of Ca(OH2 as an intracanal medicament represented better histological results in animal studies. However, human clinical studies showed limited antimicrobial effects that microorganisms were reduced but not eliminated through the treatment, and that some species had resistance to Ca(OH2. Most of clinical outcome studies supported that there is no improvement in healing of periapical lesions when Ca(OH2 was applied between appointments. Further studies are required for the antimicrobial effects of Ca(OH2, and search for the ideal material and technique to completely clean infected root canals should be continued.

  6. [Antimicrobial activities of ant Ponericin W1 against plant pathogens in vitro and the disease resistance in its transgenic Arabidopsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Fang; Sun, Peng-Wei; Tang, Ding-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a broad antimicrobial spectrum. The application of AMPs from non-plant organisms attracts considerable attention in plant disease resistance engineering. Ponericin W1, isolated from the venom of ant (Pachycondyla goeldii), shows antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); however, it is not clear whether Ponericin W1 is effective against plant pathogens. The results of this study indicated synthesized Ponericin W1 inhibited mycelial growth of Magnaporthe oryzae and Botrytis cinerea, as well as hyphal growth and spore production of Fusarium graminearum. Besides, Ponericin W1 exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. After codon optimization, Ponericin W1 gene was constructed into plant expression vector, and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana by floral dip method. The Ponericin W1 was located in intercellular space of the transgenic plants as expected. Compared with the wild-type plants, there were ungerminated spores and less hyphal, conidia on the leaves of transgenic plants after innoculation with the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum. After innoculation with the pathogenic bac-terium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the baceria in the leaves of transgenic plants was significantly less than the wild-type plants, indicating that the transgenic plants displayed enhanced disease resistance to pathogens. These results demonstrate a potential use of Ponericin W1 in genetic engineering for broad-spectrum plant disease resistance.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSUS L. MERR EXTRACT AGAINST MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Sayyid Zharfan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main cause of nosocomial infection which is responsible for 10% of hospital-acquired infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa tends to mutate and displays potential for development of antibiotic resistance. Approximately, 10% of global bacterial isolates are found as Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa have a quite tremendous severity index, especially on pneumonia and urinary tract infections, even sepsis, which 50% mortality rate. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr has antimicrobial properties. The active antimicrobial compounds in Ananas comosus L. Merr include saponin and bromelain. This research aims to find the potency of antimicrobial effect of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr extract towards Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa specimen is obtained from patient’s pus in orthopaedic department, Dr Soetomo Public Hospital, Surabaya. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa specimen is resistant to all antibiotic agents except cefoperazone-sulbactam. This research is conducted by measuring the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC through dilution test with Mueller-Hinton broth medium. Pineapple extract (Ananas comosus L. Merr. is dissolved in aquadest, then poured into test tube at varying concentrations (6 g/ml; 3 g/ml; 1.5 g/ml; 0.75 g/ml, 0.375 g/ml; and 0.1875 g/ml. After 24 hours’ incubation, samples are plated onto nutrient agar plate, to determine the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC. The extract of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr has antimicrobial activities against Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC could not be determined, because turbidity changes were not seen. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of pineapple extract (Ananas comosus L. Merr to Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is 0.75 g/ml. Further study of in vivo is needed.

  8. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity ofCitrus aurantifolia and its Phytochemical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi khan Pathan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Citrus aurantifolia Linn (CA against some microorganisms - bacteria and fungus were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas spp, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates, Mucor spp and Pencillium. Methods: 100 毺 l of 10 mg CA were assessed against eight test microorganisms by agar well Diffusion Method. Gentamicin and Ketoconazole 10 mg/ml were used as standards. A different solvent was used to obtain CA leaf extract by using maceration technique. Results: %yield obtained for dried leaf extract of CA with chloroform, ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether and aqueous ethanol was approximately 15%, 18%, 09%, 11% and 24% respectively. Due to its high yield value hydroalcoholic extract of CA was used for estimating the antimicrobial activity and its phytochemical screening. Phytochemical screening of CA plant reveals the presence of Alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and tannins. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that the hydroalcoholic extract of CA leaf exhibit antibacterial activity on Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity among Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates, Mucor species. These recognized a good support to the use of this plant in herbal medicine and as base for the development of new drugs and phytomedicine.

  9. A new preclinical approach for treating chronic osteomyelitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus: in vitro and in vivo study on photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PAmT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, João Alves; de Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos; Trindade, Renan Ferreira; de Assis, Patrícia Nascimento; de Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa

    2014-03-01

    Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammation in the marrow spaces in the superficial or cortical bone, and can be associated with bacterial or fungal infections. Chronic osteomyelitis represents a major health problem due to its difficult treatment and increased morbidity. Photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PAmT) is a treatment based on a cytotoxic photochemical reaction in which a bright light produced by a laser system and an active photosensitizer absorbed by cells leads to a process of activation that induces a series of metabolic reactions that culminates a bacterial killing. The aim of the present randomized study was to evaluate, by in vitro and in vivo microbiological analysis, the effects of PAmT on tibial surgical bone defects in rats infected by Staphylococcus aureus using bacterial counts carried out immediately and after 30 days after treatment as outcome measure. In the preliminary in vitro study, a diode laser (λ660 nm; 40 mW; ϕ = 0.4 cm(2); 5 or 10 J/cm(2)) and 5, 10, and 15 μg/mL toluidine blue were tested, and the best parameter was chosen for the in vivo study. The concentration of 5 μg/mL was selected to perform the decontamination of S. aureus-infected tibial bone defects in rats. The findings were subjected to statistical analysis. For all PAmTs groups, with the different concentrations, treatment showed significant reductions (p < 0.001) in the amount of bacteria. The in vivo study PAmT group presented a bacterial reduction of 97.4% (p < 0.001). The PAmT using toluidine blue was effective in reducing the number of S. aureus in both in vitro and in vivo studies.

  10. 78 FR 76443 - Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... seven different intended uses for these products: (1) Antimicrobial soap; (2) health care personnel... care personnel hand antiseptics, surgical hand scrubs, and patient preoperative skin preparations. In... Parts 310 and 333 Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products...

  11. In vitro and in situ antimicrobial action and mechanism of glycinin and its basic subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitohy, Mahmoud Z; Mahgoub, Samir A; Osman, Ali O

    2012-03-01

    Glycinin, basic subunit and β-conglycinin were isolated from soybean protein isolate and tested for their antimicrobial action against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria as compared to penicillin. The three fractions exhibited antibacterial activities equivalent to or higher than penicillin in the next order; basic subunit>glycinin>β-conglycinin with MIC of 50, 100 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively. The IC(50%) values of the basic subunit, glycinin and β-conglycinin against Listeria\\monocytogenes were 15, 16 and 695 μg/mL, against Bacillussubtilis were 17, 20, and 612 μg/mL, and against S. Enteritidis were 18, 21 and 526 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy images of L. monocytogenes and S. Enteritidis exhibited bigger sizes and separation of cell wall from cell membrane when treated with glycinin or basic subunit. Scanning electron microscopy of B. subtilis indicated signs of irregular wrinkled outer surface, fragmentation, adhesion and aggregation of damaged cells or cellular debris when treated with glycinin or the basic subunits but not with penicillin. All tested substances particularly the basic subunit showed increased concentration-dependent cell permeation assessed by crystal violet uptake. The antimicrobial action of glycinin and basic subunit was swifter than that of penicillin. The cell killing efficiency was in the following descending order; basic subunit>glycinin>penicillin>β-conglycinin and the susceptibility of the bacteria to the antimicrobial agents was in the next order: L. monocytogenes>B. Subtilis>S. Enteritidis. Adding glycinin and the basic subunit to pasteurized milk inoculated with the three bacteria; L. monocytogenes, B. Subtilis and S. Enteritidis (ca. 5 log CFU/mL) could inhibit their propagation after 16-20 days storage at 4 °C by 2.42-2.98, 4.25-4.77 and 2.57-3.01 log and by 3.22-3.78, 5.65-6.27 and 3.35-3.72 log CFU/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of carbon source on the antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to screen out new potent antimicrobial substances producing bacteria, Corynebacterium kutscheri NB-1 and Corynebacterium xerosis NB-2 were isolated and were found antagonistic to bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial substances production of the bacterial strains was greatly influenced by variation of carbon ...

  13. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro evaluation of silver-containing arabinoxylan foams as antimicrobial wound dressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aduba, Donald C.; An, Seon-Sook; Selders, Gretchen S.; Wang, Juan; Yeudall, W. Andrew; Bowlin, Gary L.; Kitten, Todd; Yang, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Arabinoxylan ferulate (AXF) foams were fabricated via enzymatic peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide crosslinking reaction followed by freeze-drying and studied as a potential wound dressing material. The AXF foam’s rheological, morphological, porous and swelling properties were examined. AXF foams were found to be a viscoelastic material that proved to be highly porous and water absorbent. AXF foams possessed low endotoxin levels and were cytocompatible with fibroblasts. Silver was successfully integrated into AXF foams and slowly released over 48 hours. AXF foams impregnated with silver demonstrated efficacy inhibiting bacterial growth according to a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test. Overall, AXF foams possess appropriate material properties and the silver-loaded AXF foams showed antimicrobial activity, necessary to be a candidate material in wound dressing development. PMID:27199211

  14. In vitro activity of 10 antimicrobial agents against bacteria isolated from cows with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin-Faublée, V; Carret, G; Houffschmitt, P

    2003-04-12

    The susceptibility of 495 strains of bacteria, recently isolated in France from cows with clinical mastitis, to 10 antimicrobial agents--penicillin G, cloxacillin, oxacillin, cephalexin, cefazolin, cephapirin, cefquinome, neomycin, ampicillin and colistin--was determined by measuring their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICS). Overall, the levels of resistance were very low except for staphylococci and penicillin G. The 167 streptococcal strains were susceptible to all of the beta-lactams tested, but six (3-6 per cent) were highly resistant to neomycin. Of the 171 staphylococcal isolates, 36.2 per cent were resistant to penicillin G, one strain of Staphylococcus sciuri was classified as methicillin-resistant, but they were all susceptible to neomycin. None of the 122 strains of Escherichia coli was resistant to colistin, but 12 had high MIC values for one or more of the cephalosporins.

  15. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of selected honeys on clinical isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium incriminated in gastroduodenal ulcers, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma imposing a major burden on health care systems worldwide. Honeys have been shown to have in vitro activity against microaorganisms and suitable for use in ulcers, ...

  16. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of acetone and methanol extracts from Thymus leucotrichius (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Z; Cigremis, Y; Ilcim, A

    2011-06-01

    Thymus species has been used as tonic and herbal tea, antiseptic, antitussive, carminative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. The acetone and methanol extracts of Thymus (T.) leucotrichius (Labiatae/Lamiaceae) was examined for antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant properties of acetone and methanol extracts of Thymus leucotrichius were investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total phenolic substance analysis. Antibacterial, antiyeast and antifungal activity of the plant extracts were tested using the disc diffusion method. Results showed that IC50 of Thymus leucotrichius acetone and methanol extracts that scavenged 50% of the DPPH radical in the medium was found to be 109.72 microg/ml, 43.53 microg/ml, respectively. It was found that IC50 of Thymus leucotrichius acetone and methanol extracts which scavenged 50% of the NO radical in the medium was 180.56 microg/ml, and 67.34 microg/ml, respectively. In the Thymus leucotrichius acetone and methanol extracts (1 mg), 35.64 microg and 51.78 microg pyrocatechol equivalents of phenols were detected, respectively. Neither acetone nor methanol extract possessed activity towards Proteus vulgaris, Rhodotorula rubra, Candida albicans, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus niger. Acetone extract was the most active on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium. The sentivity was also observed against towards Escherichia coli H7:O157, Kluvyeromyces fragilis and Fusarium proliferatum when acetone extract used. The methanol extract also displayed more or less similar inhibitory activity towards the test microorganisms. Kluvyeromyces fragilis was resistant to methanol extract of the species unlike acetone extracts of the species. However, the fungus Fusarium proliferatum was markedly inhibited by the methanol extract of test species at 1000 microg and above. Significant inhibitory activities of the two

  17. The antimicrobial effect of Octenidine-dihydrochloride coated polymer tracheotomy tubes on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The surface of polymeric tracheotomy tubes is a favourable environment for biofilm formation and therefore represents a potential risk factor for the development of pneumonia after tracheotomy. The aim of this in-vitro study was to develop octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) coated polymer tracheotomy tubes and investigate any effects on Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa colonization. Additionally the resistance of the OCT coating was tested using reprocessing procedures like brushing, rinsing and disinfection with glutaraldehyde Results Contamination with S. aureus: Before any reprocessing, OCT coated tracheotomy tubes were colonized with 103 cfu/ml and uncoated tracheotomy tubes with 105 cfu/ml (P = 0.045). After reprocessing, no differences in bacterial concentration between modified and conventional tubes were observed. Contamination with P. aeruginosa: Before reprocessing, OCT coated tubes were colonized with 106 cfu/ml and uncoated tubes with 107 cfu/ml (P = 0.006). After reprocessing, no significant differences were observed. Conclusion OCT coating initially inhibits S. aureus and P. aeruginosa colonisation on tracheotomy tubes. This effect, however, vanishes quickly after reprocessing of the tubes due to poor adhesive properties of the antimicrobial compound. Despite the known antimicrobial effect of OCT, its use for antimicrobial coating of tracheotomy tubes is limited unless methods are developed to allow sustained attachment to the tube. PMID:19630994

  18. The antimicrobial effect of Octenidine-dihydrochloride coated polymer tracheotomy tubes on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhard Matthias

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surface of polymeric tracheotomy tubes is a favourable environment for biofilm formation and therefore represents a potential risk factor for the development of pneumonia after tracheotomy. The aim of this in-vitro study was to develop octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT coated polymer tracheotomy tubes and investigate any effects on Staphylococcus (S. aureus and Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa colonization. Additionally the resistance of the OCT coating was tested using reprocessing procedures like brushing, rinsing and disinfection with glutaraldehyde Results Contamination with S. aureus: Before any reprocessing, OCT coated tracheotomy tubes were colonized with 103 cfu/ml and uncoated tracheotomy tubes with 105 cfu/ml (P = 0.045. After reprocessing, no differences in bacterial concentration between modified and conventional tubes were observed. Contamination with P. aeruginosa: Before reprocessing, OCT coated tubes were colonized with 106 cfu/ml and uncoated tubes with 107 cfu/ml (P = 0.006. After reprocessing, no significant differences were observed. Conclusion OCT coating initially inhibits S. aureus and P. aeruginosa colonisation on tracheotomy tubes. This effect, however, vanishes quickly after reprocessing of the tubes due to poor adhesive properties of the antimicrobial compound. Despite the known antimicrobial effect of OCT, its use for antimicrobial coating of tracheotomy tubes is limited unless methods are developed to allow sustained attachment to the tube.

  19. Antimicrobial effect of different types of honey on Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad B. Almasaudi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Honey exhibits antimicrobial activities against a wide range of bacteria in different milieu. This study aims to compare the effects of five types of honey (both imported and local Saudi honey against Staphylococcus aureus. The five types of honey (Manuka Honey UMF +20, Manuka Honey UMF +16, Active +10 Manuka Honey, Sidr honey and Nigella sativa honey were evaluated for their bactericidal/bacteriostatic activities against both methicillin resistant and sensitive S. aureus. The inhibitory effect of honey on bacterial growth was evident at concentrations of 20% and 10% (v/v. Manuka Honey showed the best results. Manuka Honey UMF +20 had a bactericidal effect on both methicillin resistant and sensitive S. aureus. However, Sidr and N. sativa honey exerted only a bacteriostatic effect. The efficacy of different types of honey against S. aureus was dependent on the type of honey and the concentration at which it was administered. Manuka Honey had the best bactericidal activity. Future experiments should be conducted to evaluate the effects of honey on bacterial resistance.

  20. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Insaf A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML

  1. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans) were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I) has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML-IV have demonstrated

  2. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon essential oil (lemon grass) and its interaction with silver ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aijaz; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that Cymbopogon (lemon grass) essential oil exhibits antimicrobial activity while the efficacy of silver ions as a disinfectant is equally well reported. The antimicrobial activity of CEO and Ag(+) and their synergistic combinations will be useful in improving the current treatment strategies for various infections. In the present study, we determined the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of six different Cymbopogon essential oils (CEO's) alone and in combination with silver ions (Ag(+)) against two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Moraxella catarrhalis) and two yeast species (Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis). The nature of potential interactions was determined by fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) for CEO's and Ag(+) calculated from microdilution assays and time-kill curves. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results confirmed the presence of nerol, geranial and geraniol as major volatile compounds. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values confirmed that all the tested pathogens are variably susceptible to both CEO's as well as Ag(+). The MIC of CEO's and Ag(+) against all the tested pathogens ranged from 0.032 mg/ml to 1 mg/ml and 0.004 and 0.064 mg/ml respectively, whereas when assayed in combination the FICI values were drastically reduced to range between 0.258 and 2.186, indicating synergy, additive and indifferent interactions. The most prominent interaction was observed between Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil and Ag(+) against C. albicans with ∑FIC = 0.254. The synergistic interactions were further confirmed through the construction of isobolograms and time-kill plots. Transmission electron microscopy showed disturbance in the cell envelope upon the concomitant treatment of CEO's and Ag(+), which ultimately leads to cell death. Results suggest that CEO's and Ag(+) when used in combination offers an opportunity

  3. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with decacationic monoadducts and bisadducts of [70]fullerene: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liyi; Wang, Min; Dai, Tianhong; Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Xuan, Yi; Chiang, Long Y; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy uses photosensitizers designed to bind to microorganisms and generate reactive oxygen species when illuminated with visible light. We synthesized a highly water-soluble [70]fullerene monoadduct, C70[>M(C3N6(+)C3)2]-(I(-))10 (LC17), and bisadduct, C70[>M(C3N6(+)C3)2][>M(C3N6C3)2] (LC18), both with a well-defined decacationic quaternary ammonium iodide moiety with ten positive charges per C70 to give water solubility and bacterial binding. We determined the antimicrobial effects against human pathogens, Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative species (Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii) when activated by UVA or white light. White light was more effective with LC17, while UVA light was more effective with LC18. Both compounds were effective in a mouse model of Gram-negative third-degree burn infections determined by bioluminescence imaging. We propose that the attachment of an additional deca(tertiary-ethylenylamino)malonate arm to C70 allowed the moiety to act as a potent electron donor and increased the generation yield of hydroxyl radicals under UVA illumination.

  4. Evaluation of the Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm-Associated Virulence Factors AhrC and Eep in Rat Foreign Body Osteomyelitis and In Vitro Biofilm-Associated Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Frank

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis can cause healthcare-associated biofilm infections, including those of orthopedic devices. Treatment of enterococcal prosthetic joint infection is difficult, in part, due to biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. We previously showed that the E. faecalis OG1RF genes ahrC and eep are in vitro biofilm determinants and virulence factors in animal models of endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection. In this study, we evaluated the role of these genes in a rat acute foreign body osteomyelitis model and in in vitro biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Osteomyelitis was established for one week following the implantation of stainless steel orthopedic wires inoculated with E. faecalis strains OG1RF, ΩahrC, and ∆eep into the proximal tibiae of rats. The median bacterial loads recovered from bones and wires did not differ significantly between the strains at multiple inoculum concentrations. We hypothesize that factors present at the infection site that affect biofilm formation, such as the presence or absence of shear force, may account for the differences in attenuation in the various animal models we have used to study the ΩahrC and ∆eep strains. No differences among the three strains were observed in the planktonic and biofilm antimicrobial susceptibilities to ampicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tetracycline. These findings suggest that neither ahrC nor eep directly contribute to E. faecalis biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Notably, the experimental evidence that the biofilm attachment mutant ΩahrC displays biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance suggests that surface colonization alone is sufficient for E. faecalis cells to acquire the biofilm antimicrobial resistance phenotype.

  5. Evaluation of the Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm-Associated Virulence Factors AhrC and Eep in Rat Foreign Body Osteomyelitis and In Vitro Biofilm-Associated Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Kristi L; Vergidis, Paschalis; Brinkman, Cassandra L; Greenwood Quaintance, Kerryl E; Barnes, Aaron M T; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Schlievert, Patrick M; Dunny, Gary M; Patel, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis can cause healthcare-associated biofilm infections, including those of orthopedic devices. Treatment of enterococcal prosthetic joint infection is difficult, in part, due to biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. We previously showed that the E. faecalis OG1RF genes ahrC and eep are in vitro biofilm determinants and virulence factors in animal models of endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection. In this study, we evaluated the role of these genes in a rat acute foreign body osteomyelitis model and in in vitro biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Osteomyelitis was established for one week following the implantation of stainless steel orthopedic wires inoculated with E. faecalis strains OG1RF, ΩahrC, and ∆eep into the proximal tibiae of rats. The median bacterial loads recovered from bones and wires did not differ significantly between the strains at multiple inoculum concentrations. We hypothesize that factors present at the infection site that affect biofilm formation, such as the presence or absence of shear force, may account for the differences in attenuation in the various animal models we have used to study the ΩahrC and ∆eep strains. No differences among the three strains were observed in the planktonic and biofilm antimicrobial susceptibilities to ampicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tetracycline. These findings suggest that neither ahrC nor eep directly contribute to E. faecalis biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Notably, the experimental evidence that the biofilm attachment mutant ΩahrC displays biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance suggests that surface colonization alone is sufficient for E. faecalis cells to acquire the biofilm antimicrobial resistance phenotype.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in dentin caries: a pilot in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, F. M. C.; de-Melo, M. A. S.; Lima, J. M. P.; Zanin, I. C. J.; Rodrigues, L. K. A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.

    2010-02-01

    In vitro and in situ studies have demonstrated that the photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) is effective in reducing Streptococcus mutans population in artificially carious dentin. This pilot in vivo study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of PACT using toluidine blue O (TBO) and a light-emitting diode (LED) in carious dentin lesions. Five healthy adult volunteers (19-36 yr), with at least 4 active carious cavities each, participated in this study. Teeth of each volunteer were randomly divided into four groups: (1) without TBO and without light (Control); (2) with TBO alone (TBO); (3) with LED at 94/J cm2 alone (LED); and (4) with TBO plus LED at 94 J/cm2 (PACT). Each cavity was divided into two halves. The baseline carious dentin sample was collected from half of each cavity. Following, the treatments were performed using a random distribution of tooth into treatments. Then, the second collection of carious dentin samples was performed. Before and after treatments, dentin samples were analyzed with regard to the counts of total viable microorganisms, total streptococci, mutans streptococci, and lactobacilli. The data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (α=5%). Log reductions ranged from -0.12 to 2.68 and significant reductions were observed for PACT (group 4) when compared to the other groups (1, 2, and 3) for total streptococci and mutans streptococci. Concluding, PACT was effective in killing oral microorganisms present in in vivo carious dentin lesions and may be a promising technique for eliminating bacteria from dentin before restoration.

  7. Review article: the antimicrobial effects of rifaximin on the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, H L

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of the gut microbiota through use of systemic antimicrobials or activation of the mucosal inflammatory response by pathogens can cause dysregulation of the intestinal mucosa. To explore the mechanisms of action of rifaximin that may underlie its clinical benefits in travellers' diarrhoea (TD). A literature search was performed using the terms 'rifaximin' and 'L/105' in combination with the terms 'in vitro activity', 'diarrhea', 'microbiota' and 'gut flora'. Rifaximin has been traditionally identified as a nonsystemic, broad-spectrum, bactericidal antibiotic. Evidence shows that the activity of rifaximin against enteropathogens in this setting is likely enhanced by its increased solubility in the presence of bile acids in the small intestine. Results of clinical studies show that although rifaximin is efficacious in TD, a clinical cure often occurs without apparent bacterial eradication and with minimal effect on the gut microbiota, suggesting an effect of rifaximin other than direct antibiotic activity. Although definitive studies on the effect of rifaximin on the gut microbiota in large cohorts of healthy volunteers or patients have not been published, pre-clinical studies provide some insight. These studies have shown that rifaximin may have effects on both the pathogen and host, including direct effects on pathogenic bacteria (such as reducing the expression of bacterial virulence factors) and indirect effects on the host (such as inhibiting bacterial attachment and internalisation at the intestinal mucosa and reducing mucosal inflammation). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of a traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of crushed garlic (Allium sativum) and black cumin seeds (Nigelia sativum) has been used as a traditional remedy for urinary tract infections. In-vitro antimicrobial testing suggested that the mixture of two spices in the ratio of 1:1 has antimicrobial effects on both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli ...

  9. Investigation of the antimicrobial effect of natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) as solvents in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikene, Kristine Opsvik; Rukke, Håkon Valen; Bruzell, Ellen; Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth

    2017-06-01

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are a third class of liquids, separate from water and lipids. Some NADES, especially those containing organic acids, have been suggested to possess antimicrobial properties. Such properties may be advantageous when NADES are used as solvents in e.g. antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. However, to control the toxicity of acid-containing NADES, they must retain their specific qualities upon dilution. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate the effect of dilution on the acid-containing NADES network, their antimicrobial activity on different planktonic microorganisms, and their influence on phototoxicity when used as solvents for a photosensitiser. Four bacteria and one fungus were exposed to the NADES, CS (citric acid:sucrose) and MFG (malic acid:fructose:glucose) (molar ratios 1:1 and 1:1:1, respectively), at ≤1:200 dilution. Additionally, the antimicrobial properties of the NADES were studied in Escherichia coli in terms of pH and chelating effects. In investigations of phototoxicity, the microorganisms were exposed to the photosensitiser meso-tetra(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphine (THPP; 1nM) dissolved in diluted NADES combined with blue light (27J/cm 2 ). The eutectic network appeared to remain upon dilution ≤1:200. CS (1:200) was less toxic than an equal concentration of citric acid in the Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli (p<0.05). A higher degree of phototoxicity was induced in E. coli (~1% survival) when THPP was dissolved in CS or MFG than in phosphate buffer (~61% survival; p<0.05). No conclusion could be drawn as to whether the observed toxicity in E. coli exposed to NADES was due to the pH of the solutions or chelation of outer membrane-bound cations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine dihydrochloride in elimination of microorganisms within dentinal tubules of primary and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, Resmiye-Ebru; Bodur, Haluk; Ece, Gülden

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation solutions at different time intervals for the elimination of E. faecalis and C. albicans penetrated into the dentine tubules of primary and permanent teeth in vitro. The 4 mm primary and permanent teeth sections were sterilized and contaminated with a mixture of E. faecalis and C. albicans strains. After the application of different irrigation solutions (Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, saline) to the contaminated tooth sections according to study groups, neutralizers were applied for inactivation of the solutions after 30 sec, 1 min and 5 min. Dentine shavings were placed into TSB and 10 µL from each tube was inoculated on agar plates, followed by an incubation period of 24 h at 37°C. The colonies were counted macroscopically. The results were compared by using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests, with a significance level at p<0.05. Among the irrigation solutions that were tested against E. faecalis on primary and permanent teeth, the most effective one was found as 5-minute application of 0.1% Octenidine Dihydrochloride. The antibacterial effects of the tested solutions on the same time periods against C. albicans revealed no significant difference. There were no statistically significant differences between primary and permanent teeth with respect to the antimicrobial activity of the tested solutions. Moreover, Octenidine Dihydrochloride may be used as an alternative endodontic irrigant.

  11. Ciprofloxacin HCl-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticles: preparation, solid state characterization, and evaluation of antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Zarrintan, Mohammad-Hossein; Adibkia, Khosro

    2017-05-01

    Ciprofloxacin HCl-loaded calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles were prepared via a w/o microemulsion method and characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro drug release profiles as well as antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were also evaluated. The antibacterial effect was studied using serial dilution technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the nanoparticles and was confirmed by streak cultures. The mean particle size, drug loading and entrapment efficiency were calculated to be 116.09 nm, 20.49% and 44.05%, respectively. PXRD and FTIR studies confirmed that both vaterite and calcite polymorphs of CaCO3 were formed during the preparation process. In vitro release profiles of the nanoparticles showed slow release pattern for 12 h. The drug-loaded nanoparticles showed similar MICs against S. aureus compared to untreated drug. However, a preserved antimicrobial effect was observed for drug-loaded nanoparticles compared to untreated drug after 2 days of incubation.

  12. Eight Habits of Highly Effective Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs to Meet the Joint Commission Standards for Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Debra A; Kullar, Ravina; Bauer, Karri A; File, Thomas M

    2017-04-15

    In an effort to decrease antimicrobial resistance and inappropriate antibiotic use, The Joint Commission (TJC) recently issued new antimicrobial stewardship standards, consisting of 8 elements of performance, applicable to hospitals effective January 1, 2017. These standards coincide with those recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA) guidelines. Little guidance exists on the "how" from these guidance documents. We review the 8 standards and provide real-world experience from established antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) on how institutions can comply with these guidelines to reduce inappropriate antibiotic usage, decrease antimicrobial resistance, and optimize patient outcomes. TJC antimicrobial stewardship standards demonstrate actions being taken at the national level to make quality and patient safety a priority. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Antimicrobial spectrum of ceftaroline. In vitro activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercenado, Emilia; Morosini, María Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Because of the increase in bacterial resistance, there is a need for new antimicrobial agents. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of severe infections and has an extraordinary capacity to develop antibiotic multiresistance, including resistance to glycopeptides, linezolid, and daptomycin. Although the incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) seems to have stabilized in the last few years, its wide dissemination in healthcare settings and in the community is a cause of concern. Ceftaroline is a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In addition, this drug is active against staphylococci showing resistance to glycopeptides, linezolid, and daptomycin. The ceftaroline MIC90 against MRSA ranges from 0.5-2mg/L and that against methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci is 0.5mg/L. Ceftaroline has also good activity against respiratory pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Although this drug is active against Enterobacteriaceae, it does not retain activity when these isolates produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, carbapenemases or hyperproduce AmpC. Ceftaroline is not active against nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Ceftaroline is an interesting addition to the therapeutic armamentarium against MRSA and constitutes an important option for the treatment of polymicrobial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  15. In vitro antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of plant extracts from Spathodea campanulata, Ficus bubu, and Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbosso Teinkela, Jean Emmanuel; Assob Nguedia, Jules Clément; Meyer, Franck; Vouffo Donfack, Erik; Lenta Ndjakou, Bruno; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Guy Blaise Azebaze, Anatole; Wintjens, René

    2016-01-01

    African medicinal plants represent a prominent source of new active substances. In this context, three plants were selected for biological investigations based on their traditional uses. The antimicrobial and anti-proliferative features of three plants used for medicinal purpose were evaluated. The antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of Ficus bubu Warb. (Moraceae) stem bark and leaves, of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) flowers, as well as those of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) latex, were determined using the microbroth dilution method against a set of bacteria and fungi pathogens including: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermididis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans, and Trichophyton rubrum. The tested concentrations of extracts ranged from 2500.0 to 2.4 μg/mL and MIC values were evaluated after 24 h incubation at 37 °C. Subsequently, MTT assay was used to estimate anti-proliferative activity of these methanol extracts and of F. bubu latex on three human cancer cell lines (U373 glioblastoma, A549 NSCLC, and SKMEL-28 melanoma). The methanol extract of F. bubu stem bark exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against C. albicans with a MIC value of 9.8 μg/mL, while the F. bubu latex and the methanol extract of F. bubu leaves induced significant anti-proliferative activity against lung (IC50 values of 10 and 14 μg/mL, respectively) and glioma (IC50 values of 13 and 16 μg/mL, respectively) cancer cells. These results indicate that effective drugs could be derived from the three studied plants.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Extracts Obtained from Raw and Fermented Wild Macrofungus, Lenzites quercina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Clement Ogidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent time, there is a major concern about antibiotic resistance displayed by some pathogenic microorganisms and this had involved a continuous search for natural antimicrobial products. The phytochemistry as well as antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Lenzites quercina was investigated. The extracts and purified fractions were, respectively, tested against indicator organisms using agar well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. The quantity of phytochemicals found in the extracts of L. quercina ranged from 14.4 to 20.7 mg/g for alkaloids, 6.1 to 12.8 mg/g for steroids, 4.5 to 10.6 mg/g for saponins, 2.8 to 17.2 mg/g for terpenoids, and 0.41 to 17.1 mg/g for flavonoids. The gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GCMS analysis of the extract reveals the presence of caprylic acid, stearic acid, tetradecanoic acid, methyl-11-octadecenoate, oleic acid, and 4-methyl-2-propyl-1-pentanol. Extracts of L. quercina and its purified fractions exhibited wider range of inhibition (4 mm to 26 mm on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. The antimicrobial effects of L. quercina extracts indicate that this wild macrofungus contains significant amount of pharmacological agents, which could be extracted to curb the menace of antibiotic resistances by pathogenic organisms.

  17. Biosynthesis, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Using a Novel Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost effective environmental friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications, research interest in nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. In the present study, an ecofriendly process for the synthesis of nanoparticles using a novel Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 has been attempted. We used culture supernatant of Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 for the simple and cost effective green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The reduction of silver ions occurred when silver nitrate solution was treated with the Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 culture supernatant at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, TEM, FE-SEM, EDX, FTIR, and XRD spectroscopy. The nanoparticles exhibited an absorption peak around 420 nm, a characteristic surface plasmon resonance band of silver nanoparticles. They were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 45 ± 0.15 nm. The EDX analysis showed the presence of elemental silver signal in the synthesized nanoparticles. The FTIR analysis revealed that the protein component in the form of enzyme nitrate reductase produced by the isolate in the culture supernatant may be responsible for reduction and as capping agents. The XRD spectrum showed the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 2 3, 2 0 4, 0 4 3, 1 4 4, and 3 1 1 facets of the face centered cubic silver nanoparticles and confirms that these nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. The prepared silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Cytotoxicity of biosynthesized AgNPs against in vitro human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) showed a dose-response activity. IC50 value was found to be 200 μg/mL of AgNPs against HeLa cancer cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the toxicity and the mechanism involved with antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the synthesized Ag

  18. Biosynthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles using a novel Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost effective environmental friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications, research interest in nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. In the present study, an ecofriendly process for the synthesis of nanoparticles using a novel Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 has been attempted. We used culture supernatant of Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 for the simple and cost effective green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The reduction of silver ions occurred when silver nitrate solution was treated with the Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 culture supernatant at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, TEM, FE-SEM, EDX, FTIR, and XRD spectroscopy. The nanoparticles exhibited an absorption peak around 420 nm, a characteristic surface plasmon resonance band of silver nanoparticles. They were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 45 ± 0.15 nm. The EDX analysis showed the presence of elemental silver signal in the synthesized nanoparticles. The FTIR analysis revealed that the protein component in the form of enzyme nitrate reductase produced by the isolate in the culture supernatant may be responsible for reduction and as capping agents. The XRD spectrum showed the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 2 3, 2 0 4, 0 4 3, 1 4 4, and 3 1 1 facets of the face centered cubic silver nanoparticles and confirms that these nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. The prepared silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Cytotoxicity of biosynthesized AgNPs against in vitro human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) showed a dose-response activity. IC50 value was found to be 200 μg/mL of AgNPs against HeLa cancer cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the toxicity and the mechanism involved with antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the synthesized AgNPs as

  19. Cationic Fullerenes Are Effective and Selective Antimicrobial Photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegos, George P.; Demidova, Tatiana N.; Arcila-Lopez, Dennisse; Lee, Haeryeon; Wharton, Tim; Gali, Hariprasad; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Fullerenes are soccer ball-shaped molecules composed of carbon atoms, and, when derivatized with functional groups, they become soluble and can act as photosensitizers. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combines a nontoxic photosensitizer with harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species that kill microbial cells. We have compared the antimicrobial activity of six functionalized C60 compounds with one, two, or three hydrophilic or cationic groups in combination with white light against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. After a 10 min incubation, the bis- and tris-cationic fullerenes were highly active in killing all tested microbes (4–6 logs) under conditions in which mammalian cells were comparatively unharmed. These compounds performed significantly better than a widely used antimicrobial photosensitizer, toluidine blue O. The high selectivity and efficacy exhibited by these photosensitizers encourage further testing for antimicrobial applications. PMID:16242655

  20. Effect of Encapsulation on Antimicrobial Activity of Herbal Extracts with Lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Matouskova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics has increased. The use of natural components with antimicrobial properties can be of great significance to reduce this problem. The presented work is focused on the study of the effect of encapsulation of selected plant and animal antimicrobial substances (herbs, spices, lysozyme and nisin on their activity and stability. Antimicrobial components were packaged into liposomes and polysaccharide particles (alginate, chitosan and starch. Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens bacteria. Encapsulation was successful in all types of polysaccharide particles and liposomes. The prepared particles exhibited very good long-term stability, especially in aqueous conditions. Antimicrobial activity was retained in all types of particles. Liposomes with encapsulated herb and spice extracts exhibited very good inhibitory effect against all tested bacterial strains. Most of herbal extracts had very good antimicrobial effect against the tested Gram-negative bacterial strains, while Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to lysozyme particles. Thus, particles with co-encapsulated herbs and lysozyme are more active against different types of bacteria, and more stable and more effective during long-term storage. Particles with encapsulated mixture of selected plant extracts and lysozyme could be used as complex antimicrobial preparation with controlled release in the production of food and food supplements, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  1. Exploring New Mechanisms for Effective Antimicrobial Materials: Electric Contact-Killing Based on Multiple Schottky Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas-Gil, Eva; Reinosa, Julián J; Neuhaus, Kerstin; Vera-Londono, Liliana; Martín-González, Marisol; Fernández, José F; Rubio-Marcos, Fernando

    2017-08-09

    The increasing threat of multidrug-resistance organisms is a cause for worldwide concern. Progressively microorganisms become resistant to commonly used antibiotics, which are a healthcare challenge. Thus, the discovery of new antimicrobial agents or new mechanisms different from those used is necessary. Here, we report an effective and selective antimicrobial activity of microstructured ZnO (Ms-ZnO) agent through the design of a novel star-shaped morphology, resulting in modulation of surface charge orientation. Specifically, we find that Ms-ZnO particles are composed of platelet stacked structure, which generates multiple Schottky barriers due to the misalignment of crystallographic orientations. We also demonstrated that this effect allows negative charge accumulation in localized regions of the structure to act as "charged domain walls", thereby improving the antimicrobial effectiveness by electric discharging effect. We use a combination of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging, and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to determine that the antimicrobial activity is a result of microbial membrane physical damage caused by direct contact with the Ms-ZnO agent. It is important to point out that Ms-ZnO does not use the photocatalysis or the Zn 2+ released as the main antimicrobial mechanism, so consequently this material would show low toxicity and robust stability. This approach opens new possibilities to understand both the physical interactions role as main antimicrobial mechanisms and insight into the coupled role of hierarchical morphologies and surface functionality on the antimicrobial activity.

  2. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%, additive (48.9%, non-interactive (23.7%, and antagonistic (0.7% interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender.

  3. Comparison of the in vitro activity of five antimicrobial drugs on Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude A Ferran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance in canine pathogenic staphylococci is necessitating re-evaluation of the current antimicrobial treatments especially for biofilm-associated infections. Long, repeated treatments are often required to control such infections due to the tolerance of bacteria within the biofilm. To comply with the goal of better antibiotic stewardship in veterinary medicine, the efficacies of the available drugs need to be directly assessed on bacterial biofilms.We compared the activities of amoxicillin, cefalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline and marbofloxacin on in vitro biofilms of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus aureus. Exposure of biofilms for 15 hours to maximum concentrations of the antibiotics achievable in canine plasma only reduced biofilm bacteria by 0.5 to 2.0 log10 CFU, compared to the control, except for marbofloxacin which reduced S. aureus biofilms by 5.4 log10 CFU. Two-antibiotic combinations did not improve, and even decreased, bacterial killing. In comparison, 5 min-exposure to 2 % chlorhexidine reduced biofilms of the 2 tested strains by 4 log10 CFU. Our results showed that S. pseudintermedius biofilm, unlike S. aureus biofilm, was highly tolerant to all the drugs tested, consistent with the treatment failures observed in practice. Under our conditions, the use of topical chlorhexidine would probably be the best currently available strategy to reduce S. pseudintermedius biofilm.

  4. In vitro Antimicrobial Assay of Actinomycetes in Rice AgainstXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as Potential Plant Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erneeza Mohd Hata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to invitro assay the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes in rice against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as potential plant growth promoter. A total of 92 actinomycete strains were isolated from different rice plant components and field locations. Of these, only 21.74% showed antagonistic activity against the Xoc pathogen. Molecular identification via 16s rRNA amplification revealed that 60% of the active antagonistic strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Isolates that demonstrated the highest antagonistic activity were also able to produce hydrolytic enzymes and plant growth-promoting hormones. Combination of preliminary screening based on in vitro antagonistic, hydrolytic enzyme and plant growth hormone activity facilitated the best selection of actinomycete candidates as evidenced by strains classification using cluster analysis (Ward's Method. Results from the preliminary screening showed that actinomycetes, especially Streptomycetes, could offer a promising source for both biocontrol and plant growth-promotion agents against BLS disease in rice.

  5. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial potential and GC–MS analysis of Camellia sinensis and Terminalia arjuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Camellia sinensis and Terminalia arjuna are being used widely to cure various diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In the present study, extracts of these plants were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogenic bacteria viz. E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and fungus C. albicans. In-vitro inhibition of these pathogenic microorganisms produced inhibition zone ranging from 9 to 18 mm. MIC values of these plant extracts ranged from 6.25 to 12.5 mg/ml. MBC of C. sinensis for E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was found to be 50 and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In case of T. arjuna, the MBC of all the tested microorganisms was found to be 25 mg/ml. The MFC of C. sinensis and T. arjuna against C. albicans was observed to be 50 and 25 mg/ml, respectively. GC–MS analysis of C. sinensis and T. arjuna extract identified 13 and 21 compounds, respectively.

  6. In vitro reconstitution of antimicrobial pathogen activity by expressed recombinant bovine lactoferrin N-terminal peptide in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongxia; Chen, Shangwu; Ren, Fazheng; Guo, Huiyuan; Lin, Shaohua; Xu, Wentao

    2007-05-01

    Recombinant bovine lactoferrin N-terminal polypeptide (rbLF-N) Escherichia coli expression system was constructed and the rbLF-N antimicrobial activity was displayed by enzymatic proteolysis in this study. A 162 bp 5'-terminal fragment of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) gene from bovine liver gDNA was amplified by PCR. The DNA fragment containing exon-2 of the bLF gene was cloned into the expression vector pGEX-4T1 and the glutathione-S-transferase-rbLF-N (GST-rbLF-N) fusion protein was obtained by over-expression in Esch. coli BL21(DE3). After thrombin/pepsin digestion, the rbLF-N was released from the fusion protein. The recombinant peptide was separated and identified by SDS-PAGE, HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis. A very strong anti-food-born microbial pathogen activity of the rbLF-N peptides was displayed through bio- and kinetic-assays in vitro. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the rbLF-N peptide for bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Esch. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 11.7, 11.7, 11.7, 23.4 microg and 23.4, 11.7, 11.7, 46.4 microg, respectively. This study created a new route for exploring lactoferrin peptide application in food science.

  7. Antimicrobial Effect of Ozone Made by KP Syringe of High-Frequency Ozone Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebeg, Domagoj; Katunarić, Marina; Budimir, Ana; Pavelić, Božidar; Šegović, Sanja; Anić, Ivica

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antibacterial effect of ozone on suspension of three different bacteria inoculated in prepared canals of extracted human teeth. Ozone was produced by special KP syringe of high frequency ozone generator Ozonytron (Biozonix, München, Germany) from aspirated atmospheric air by dielectric barrier discharge and applied through the tip of the syringe to the prepared root canal. The microorganisms used were Enterococcus faecalis , Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis . However, none of the methods was 100% effective against the three bacterial types in suspension. Application of ozone significantly decreased the absolute count of microorganisms (89.3%), as well as the count of each type of bacteria separately ( Staphylococcus aureus 94.0%; Staphylococcus epidermidis 88.6% and Enterococcus faecalis 79.7%). Ozone generated by KP syringe was statistically more effective compared to NaOCl as positive control, for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis . The absolute count of Enterococcus faecalis was statistically decreased without a statistically significant difference between the tested group and positive control, respectively. Among the three types of bacteria in suspension, KP probe had the lowest antimicrobial effect against Enterococcus faecalis .

  8. Antimicrobial effect of bee collected pollen extract to Enterobacteriaceae genera after application of bee collected pollen in their feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we researched antimicrobial activity of bee pollen extracts to Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from chicken intestinal tract after application of bee collected pollen in their feeding. We used well plate agar diffusion method for antimicrobial testing of bee pollen extract and disc diffusion method for antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria by EUCAST. Identification of bacteria was done by test kit Enterotest 24. We identified tree bacterial strains: E. coli, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca. We determined that K. oxytoca was resistant to ampicillin only and others identified strain were sensitive to used antibiotics. Also we determined antimicrobial effect of bee pollen extract to all tested strains of Enterobacteriaceae genera which were isolated from intestinal tract of chicken after application of bee collected pollen extract in their feeding. From obtained results we could be conclude that bacteria isolated from chicken after application of bee pollen extract had more resistance to bee collected pollen extract in in vitro experiment as E. coli CCM 3988, which did not be in contact with bee pollen extract.

  9. Synthesis and crystal structures of novel copper(II) complexes with glycine and substituted phenanthrolines: reactivity towards DNA/BSA and in vitro cytotoxic and antimicrobial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnci, Duygu; Aydın, Rahmiye; Vatan, Özgür; Sevgi, Tuba; Yılmaz, Dilek; Zorlu, Yunus; Yerli, Yusuf; Çoşut, Bünyemin; Demirkan, Elif; Çinkılıç, Nilüfer

    2017-01-01

    New copper(II) complexes-dimeric-[Cu(nphen)(gly)(H 2 O)] + (1) and [Cu(dmphen)(gly)(NO 3 )(H 2 O)] (2) (nphen = 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline, dmphen = 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, and gly = glycine)-have been synthesized and characterized by CHN analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques, FTIR, EPR spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The CT-DNA-binding properties of these complexes have been investigated by thermal denaturation measurements and both absorption and emission spectroscopy. The DNA cleavage activity of these complexes has been studied on supercoiled pUC19 plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis experiments in the absence and presence of H 2 O 2 . Furthermore, the interaction of these complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated using absorption and emission spectroscopy. The thermodynamic parameters, free-energy change (ΔG), enthalpy change (ΔH), and entropy change (ΔS) for BSA + complexes 1 and 2 systems have been calculated by the van't Hoff equation at three different temperatures (293.2, 303.2, and 310.2 K). The distance between the BSA and these complexes has been determined using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Conformational changes of BSA have been observed using the synchronous fluorescence technique. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicities of these complexes on tumor cell lines (Caco-2, A549, and MCF-7) and healthy cells (BEAS-2B) have been examined. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has also been tested on certain bacteria cells. The effect of mono and dimeric in the above complexes is presented and discussed. New copper(II) complexes-dimeric-[Cu(nphen)(gly)(H 2 O)] + (1) and [Cu(dmphen)(gly) (NO 3 )(H 2 O)] (2) (nphen = 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline, dmphen = 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline and gly = glycine)-have been synthesized and characterized by CHN analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques, FTIR and EPR spectroscopy. They have been tested for their in vitro

  10. The effect of hospital effluent on antimicrobial resistant E. coli within a municipal wastewater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S; Morris, C; Morris, D; Cormican, M; Cummins, E

    2013-03-01

    There is a concern that hospital effluent potentially containing antimicrobial compounds, antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria and genetic determinants of resistance may contribute to the emergence, dissemination and persistence of AMR bacteria in municipal wastewaters. Hence, it is of interest to investigate the effect, if any, hospital effluent has on the percentage of AMR bacteria within wastewater. Water from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (one receives and treats hospital effluent (WWTPhe) and the second does not (WWTPc)) were examined for E. coli expressing resistance to seven antimicrobials (ampicillin, streptomycin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulphonamide and ciprofloxacin). A two-sample t-test showed that AMR E. coli are present in WWTP influent and effluent, irrespective of receiving hospital effluent, and are being released into the environment (no statistical difference in count between the two WWTPs). The effect of hospital effluent on resistance varies for each AMR bacteria. Excluding tetracycline, sulphonamide and ciprofloxacin, the results suggest that the release of hospital effluent does not significantly affect the frequency with which AMR E. coli are detected in effluent. For some hospital specific antimicrobial agents, such as ciprofloxacin, the release of hospital effluent is associated with an increased proportion of antimicrobial resistance. The results suggest resistance to AMR E. coli may already be well developed in the community, making the effect of hospital effluent on AMR E. coli indistinguishable. However, for hospital specific antimicrobials, there may be a selective effect and hence limiting the release of hospital effluent containing such antimicrobials may impact the proportion of antimicrobial resistance. This research has provided statistical evidence to support necessary mitigation and remediation of antimicrobial residue release and subsequent resistance in the environment.

  11. In-vitro bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticle using Adhathoda vasica leaf extract and its anti-microbial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeruddin, G. M.; Prasad, N. R.; Prasad, S. R.; Garadkar, K. M.; Nayak, Arpan Kumar

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that on treating the metallic salt solution with some plant extracts, a rapid reduction occurs leading to the formation of highly stable metal nanoparticles. Extracellular synthesis of metal nanoparticles using extracts of plants like Azadirachta indica (Neem), and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) has been reported to be successfully carried out. In this study we have developed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles by mixing silver salt solution with leaf extract of Adhathoda vasica (Adulsa) without using any surfactant or external energy. By this method physiologically stable, bio-compatible Ag nanoparticles were formed which could be used for a variety of applications such as targeted drug delivery which ensures enhanced therapeutic efficacy and minimal side effects. With this method rapid synthesis of nanoparticles was observed to occur; i.e. reaction time was 1-2 h as compared to 2-4 days required by microorganisms. These nanoparticles were analyzed by various characterization techniques to reveal their morphology, chemical composition, and antimicrobial activity. TEM image of these NPs indicated the formation of spherical, non-uniform, poly-dispersed nanoparticles. A detailed study of anti-microbial activity of nanoparticles was carried out.

  12. The antimicrobial effect of boric acid on Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Andrew; Wilson, Wayne A

    2014-12-01

    The treatment options for trichomoniasis are largely limited to nitroimidazole compounds (metronidazole and tinidazole). Few alternatives exist in cases of recalcitrant infections or in cases of nitroimidazole hypersensitivity. Recently, the intravaginal administration of boric acid has been advocated as an alternative treatment of trichomoniasis. However, no in vitro studies are available that directly assess the sensitivity of Trichomonas vaginalis to boric acid. We examined the sensitivity of common laboratory strains and recent clinical isolates of T. vaginalis to boric acid. The effect of increasing concentrations of boric acid on parasite growth and viability was determined, and a minimal lethal concentration was reported. The effect of pH on boric acid toxicity was assessed and compared with that of lactic and acetic acid. Boric acid is microbicidal to T. vaginalis, and its antitrichomonal activity is independent of environmental acidification. Unlike acetic acid and lactic acid, boric acid exposure results in growth suppression and lethality over a wide range of pH (5-7) and under conditions that are normally permissible for growth in vitro. The microbicidal effect of boric acid on T. vaginalis, coupled with its previous clinical use in treating vaginal candidiasis, supports the continued inclusion of boric acid in the therapeutic arsenal for treating trichomoniasis.

  13. The effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on human ciliated respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Merrill A; Jones, John W; Pedigo, Lisa; Gibbs, Aaron; Loebel, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Chronic recurrent sinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common chronic conditions in the United States. There is a significant subpopulation of CRS patients who remain resistant to cure despite rigorous treatment regimens including surgery, allergy therapy, and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a noninvasive nonantibiotic broad spectrum antimicrobial treatment. Our previous in vitro studies demonstrated that aPDT reduced CRS polymicrobial biofilm and planktonic bacteria and fungi by > 99.9% after a single treatment. Prior to human treatment however, aPDT treatment must be demonstrated to not result in histologic damage to the sinus ciliated respiratory epithelium. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety of aPDT treatment on a living human ciliated respiratory mucosal model (EpiAirway). A study of aPDT treatment of EpiAirway was performed. Treatment groups included a nontreatment control, laser light alone, photosensitizer alone, and therapeutic photosensitizer and light combination (aPDT). At completion of treatment, the EpiAirway tissue was fixed in 10% formalin, paraffin-embedded, sectioned, H&E stained and mounted. All samples were blinded and microscopically examined by a human pathologist to assess any effect of aPDT on the tissue, cilia, or mucosal glands. The results were correlated with the treatment parameters. The EpiAirway histologic study demonstrated no histologic alteration of the respiratory cilia or mucosal epithelium in any of the treatment groups. aPDT is a safe treatment for CRS resulting in no histologic alteration of human ciliated respiratory mucosa as is found in the human sinuses. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Guanidylation and tail effects in cationic antimicrobial lipopeptoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Findlay

    Full Text Available Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs are attractive scaffolds for the next generation of antimicrobial compounds, due to their broad spectrum of activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria and the reduced fitness of CAMP-insensitive mutants. Unfortunately, they are limited by poor in vivo performance, including ready cleavage by endogenous serum proteases.To explore the potential for peptoid residues to replace well studied CAMP scaffolds we have produced a series of antimicrobial lipopeptoids, with sequences similar to previously reported lipopeptides. The activity of the peptoids was assessed against a panel of clinically relevant and laboratory reference bacteria, and the potential for non-specific binding was determined through hemolytic testing and repeating the antimicrobial testing in the presence of added bovine serum albumin (BSA. The most active peptoids displayed good to moderate activity against most of the gram positive strains tested and moderate to limited activity against the gram negatives. Antimicrobial activity was positively correlated with toxicity towards eukaryotic cells, but was almost completely eliminated by adding BSA.The lipopeptoids had similar activities to the previously reported lipopeptides, confirming their potential to act as replacement, proteolytically stable scaffolds for CAMPs.

  15. Effect of addition of 2% chlorhexidine or 10% doxycycline on antimicrobial activity of biodentine

    OpenAIRE

    Vineeta Nikhil; Molly Madan; Charu Agarwal; Navleen Suri

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether the addition of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate or 10% doxycycline would enhance the antimicrobial activity of Biodentine against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC-29212), Candida albicans (ATCC-90028), and Streptococcus mutans (MTCC-497). Materials and Methods: Three wells of 4 mm diameter and 4 mm depth on each plate were prepared on the agar medium with standardized suspensions of each microorgan...

  16. Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial ocular in situ gels containing a disappearing preservative for topical treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Osama; Ghorab, Dalia M; Mursi, Nadia M

    2016-08-01

    The study aimed to formulate and evaluate levofloxacin hemihydrate ocular in situ gels along with freshly prepared disappearing preservative reported to be safer to human eyes. Formulae were prepared using thermosensitive (PF127 and PF68) or ion-activated (Gelrite) polymers. They were evaluated for gelation temperature (GT), capacity, content uniformity, pH, rheological behavior, in vitro drug release with kinetic analysis. Best formulae were exposed to storage effect to select the optimum formula that was subjected to different sterilization methods and in vivo evaluation. The prepared disappearing preservative (sodium perborate monohydrate) proved to be active oxidative preservative and compatible with our formulae. F9 (24% PF127, 15% PF 68, 0.5% levofloxacin hemihydrate, and 0.0025% sodium perborate monohydrate) showed prolonged drug release (12 h), acceptable GT, viscosity, and pH. It remained stable over 3 months at two temperatures and was best sterilized by filtration. It showed longer residence time (12 h) in rabbits' eye fluids compared with the Levoxin® eye drops (4 h). This successful attempt of using thermo-gelling system along with a disappearing type of preservatives would allow the use of these systems to achieve sustained release of antimicrobial drugs with minimum risk of eye damage improving patient compliance and treatment efficacy.

  17. Effect of Storage in Distilled Water for Three Months on the Antimicrobial Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate Denture Base Material Doped with Inorganic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA denture base materials by pathogenic microorganisms is a major problem associated with the use of prostheses, and the incorporation of antimicrobial fillers is a method of improving the antimicrobial properties of these materials. Numerous studies have demonstrated the initial in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of this type of material; however, reports demonstrating the stability of these fillers over longer periods are not available. In this study, silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate was introduced into the powder component of a PMMA denture base material at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8% (w/w. The survival rates of the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast-type fungus Candida albicans were established after fungal or bacterial suspensions were incubated with samples that had been previously stored in distilled water. Storage over a three-month period led to the progressive reduction of the initial antimicrobial properties. The results of this study suggest that additional microbiological tests should be conducted for materials that are treated with antimicrobial fillers and intended for long-term use. Future long-term studies of the migration of silver ions from the polymer matrix and the influence of different media on this ion emission are required.

  18. In vitro antifungal effect of mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine and thymol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Shrestha

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Antimicrobial agents used in the study had good in vitro activity against the two Candida species. Mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine showed superior antifungal and fungicidal activities compared to the thymol-containing mouth rinse. Both antimicrobial agents may be suggested for use as topical antifungal agents.

  19. Effect of BMAP-28 antimicrobial peptides on Leishmania major promastigote and amastigote growth: role of leishmanolysin in parasite survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Lynn

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, still pose an enormous public health problem in many countries throughout the world. Current measures are outdated and have some associated drug resistance, prompting the search into novel therapies. Several innovative approaches are under investigation, including the utilization of host defence peptides (HDPs as emerging anti-parasitic therapies. HDPs are characterised by their small size, amphipathic nature and cationicity, which induce permeabilization of cell membranes, whilst modulating the immune response of the host. Recently, members of the cathelicidin family of HDPs have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activities against various parasites including Leishmania. The cathelicidin bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (BMAP-28 has broad antimicrobial activities and confers protection in animal models of bacterial infection or sepsis. We tested the effectiveness of the use of BMAP-28 and two of its isomers the D-amino acid form (D-BMAP-28 and the retro-inverso form (RI-BMAP-28, as anti-leishmanial agents against the promastigote and amastigote intracellular Leishmania major lifecycle stages.An MTS viability assay was utilized to show the potent antiparasitic activity of BMAP-28 and its protease resistant isomers against L. major promastigotes in vitro. Cell membrane permeability assays, caspase 3/7, Tunel assays and morphologic studies suggested that this was a late stage apoptotic cell death with early osmotic cell lysis caused by the antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, BMAP-28 and its isomers demonstrated anti-leishmanial activities against intracellular amastigotes within a macrophage infection model.Interestingly, D-BMAP-28 appears to be the most potent antiparasitic of the three isomers against wild type L. major promastigotes and amastigotes. These exciting results suggest that BMAP-28 and its protease resistant isomers have significant therapeutic potential as novel anti-leishmanials.

  20. Antimicrobial compounds targeting Gram-negative bacteria in food: Their mode of action and combinational effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are a major cause of food spoilage and foodborne illnesses. However, finding effective solutions against Gram-negative bacteria are complicated because of increasing consumer demands for more natural, minimally processed, and fresh high quality food products without...... they interact with bacterial cells to exert their mechanism of inhibition or killing. Furthermore, natural antimicrobials are often not potent enough as single compounds, and may cause unwanted sensory side-effects, which limit the quantities that can be applied to food. These problems might be circumvented...... by combining antimicrobials to decrease the concentrations needed without compromising their antimicrobial activity. The work described in this dissertation presents two projects concerning the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobial compounds primarily against Gram-negative bacteria, and two...

  1. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as endo intracanal dressing on Streptococcus viridans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Zubaidah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide had been used as the intra-canal dressing in endodontic treatment due to its high alkaline and antimicrobial capacity. It can also dissolve the necrotic tissue, prevent dental root resorbtion and regenerate a new hard tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of calcium hydroxide which had the highest antimicrobial effect on Streptococcus viridans. Samples were divided into 5 groups; each group consisted of 8 samples with different concentration of calcium hydroxide. Group I: 50%, group II: 55, Group III: 60%, Group IV: 65%, Group V: 70%. The antimicrobial testing was performed using diffusion method against Streptococcus viridans. The result of susceptibility test was showed by the inhibition zone diameter which measured with caliper (in millimeter. We analyzed the data using One-Way ANOVA test with significant difference 0.05 and subsequently LSD test. The study showed that calcium hydroxide with concentration 60% has the highest antimicrobial effect.

  2. Antimicrobial effectiveness of silver nanoparticles co-stabilized by the bioactive copolymer pluronic F68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dos Santos Carolina Alves

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNps have attracted much interest in biomedical engineering, since they have excellent antimicrobial properties. Therefore, AgNps have often been considered for incorporation into medical products for skin pathologies to reduce the risk of contamination. This study aims at evaluating the antimicrobial effectiveness of AgNps stabilized by pluronic™ F68 associated with other polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. Methods AgNps antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC method. The action spectrum was evaluated for different polymers associated with pluronic™ F68 against the gram negative bacteria P. aeuroginosa and E. coli and the gram positive bacteria S. Aureus. Results AgNps stabilized with PVP or PVA and co-stabilized with pluronic™ F68 are effective against E. coli and P. aeruginosa microorganisms, with MIC values as low as 0.78% of the concentration of the original AgNps dispersion. The antimicrobial action against S. aureus is poor, with MIC values not lower than 25%. Conclusions AgNps stabilized by different polymeric systems have shown improved antimicrobial activity against gram-negative microorganisms in comparison to unstabilized AgNps. Co-stabilization with the bioactive copolymer pluronic™ F68 has further enhanced the antimicrobial effectiveness against both microorganisms. A poor effectiveness has been found against the gram-positive S. aureus microorganism. Future assays are being delineated targeting possible therapeutic applications.

  3. Ferrocene-based guanidine derivatives: in vitro antimicrobial, DNA binding and docking supported urease inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Rukhsana; Rauf, Muhammad Khawar; Badshah, Amin; Azam, Syed Sikander; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Khan, Azim

    2014-10-06

    Some novel ferrocenyl guanidines 1-8 were synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and single crystal X-rays diffraction techniques. The crystallographic studies revealed that the existence of the strong non-bonding interactions facilitate these molecules to interact with biological macro-molecules like DNA that described to inherit good biological activities. The DNA interaction studies carried out by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-visible spectroscopy are in close agreement with the binding constants (K) (0.79-5.4) × 10(5) (CV) and (0.72-5.1) × 10(5) (UV-vis). The shift in peak potential, current and absorption maxima of the studied ferrocenyl guanidines in the presence of DNA revealed that CV coupled with UV-vis spectroscopy could provide an opportune to characterize metal-based compounds-DNA interaction mechanism, a prerequisite for the design of new anticancer agents and understanding the molecular basis of their action. The compounds 1-8 have been screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and urease inhibition potency. A concurrent in silico study has also been applied on ferrocene moiety impregnated guanidines 1-8 to identify most active compounds having for inhibiting the activity of urease (pdb id 3LA4). Most of the compounds were found as potent inhibitors of urease and the compound 1 was found to be the most active with an IC50 of 16.83 ± 0.03 μM. The docking scores are in close agreement with the in vitro obtained IC50 values of inhibitors 1-8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of diallyl sulfides and dipropyl sulfides in the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Sergio; Leonardi, Michele; Melai, Bernardo; Fratini, Filippo; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) obtained from fresh bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L. ( Alliaceae), was studied. A. sativum (garlic) EO showed a good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone 14.8 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 21.1 mm), and Escherichia coli (inhibition zone 11.0 mm), whereas the EO of A. porrum (leek) had no antimicrobial activity. The main constituents of the garlic EO were diallyl monosulfide, diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide, and diallyl tetrasulfide. The EO of A. porrum was characterized by the presence of dipropyl disulfide (DPDS), dipropyl trisulfide, and dipropyl tetrasulfide. The antimicrobial activities of the DADS and DPDS were also studied. The results obtained suggest that the presence of the allyl group is fundamental for the antimicrobial activity of these sulfide derivatives when they are present in Allium or in other species (DADS inhibition zone on S. aureus 15.9 mm, P. aeruginosa 21.9 mm, E. coli 11.4 mm). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. D-BMAP18 antimicrobial peptide is active in vitro, resists to pulmonary proteases but loses its activity in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirossian, Mario; Pompilio, Arianna; Degasperi, Margherita; Runti, Giulia; Pacor, Sabrina; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Scocchi, Marco

    2017-06-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant-pathogens is driving the search for new antimicrobial compounds. Pulmonary infections experienced by cystic fibrosis patients are a dramatic example of this health-care emergency. Antimicrobial peptides could answer the need for new antibiotics but translating them from basic research to the clinic is a challenge. We have previously evaluated the potential of the small membranolytic peptide BMAP-18 to treat CF-related infections, discovering that while this molecule had a good activity in vitro it was not active in vivo because of its rapid degradation by pulmonary proteases. In this study, we synthesized and tested the proteases-resistant all-D enantiomer. In spite of a good antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical isolates and of a tolerable cytotoxicity in vitro, D-BMAP18 was ineffective to treat P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection in mice, in comparison to tobramycin. We observed that different factors other than peptide degradation hampered its efficacy for pulmonary application. These results indicate that D-BMAP18 needs further optimization before being suitable for clinical application and this approach may represent a guide for optimization of other anti-infective peptides eligible for the treatment of pulmonary infections.

  6. Chemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from red chilli seeds (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Gurnani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of present study were to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Capsicum frutescens L. seeds and to characterize the chemical constituents of the crude extracts. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS, which showed the presence of many biologically important volatile constituents, including heterocyclic compounds, β-diketones, hydrocarbons, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, and their derivatives, such as esters, hydroxy ester, and aromatic compounds. The amounts of the total phenolic content and the total flavonoid content in same the extracts were in the ranges of 7.95–26.15 gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg/g and 4.64–12.84 rutin equivalents (RU mg/g of dry weight of extract, respectively. In the determination of the in vitro antimicrobial activity, seed extracts prevented the growth of most of the tested pathogens by forming significant inhibition zones. The inhibitory activity was especially remarkable (inhibition zone ≥ 13 mm against Pesudomaonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumonae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. During the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity via DPPH assay, n-hexane and chloroform extracts showed 26.9% and 30.9% free radical scavenging abilities, respectively, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Considering these results, C. frutescens seeds can be used as a source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds.

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of solution blow spun poly(lactic acid)/polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers loaded with Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, Roberta F; Bonan, Paulo R F; Batista, André U D; Sampaio, Fábio C; Albuquerque, Allan J R; Moraes, Maria C B; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Glenn, Gregory M; Medeiros, Eliton S; Oliveira, Juliano E

    2015-03-01

    In this study poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) micro- and nanofiber mats loaded with Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil were produced by solution blow spinning (SBS). The Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil was characterized by gas chromatography (GC). Neat PLA and four PLA/PVP blends containing 20% (wt.%) oil were spun and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by studying the surface contact angle, in vitro release rate, and antimicrobial activity